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  1. Teens with ADHD Face a Higher Crash Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166507.html Teens With ADHD Face a Higher Crash Risk Study found they ... family car, new research shows that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are even more likely than their peers ...

  2. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  3. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  4. Tax Reform 1975: Issues Facing Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Sheldon Elliot

    Voluntary support has been a major factor in the financing of American higher education since colonial times. Yet several recent proposals intended as tax reform measures threaten to reduce voluntary donations at a time when the nation's postsecondary institutions are in the throes of financial distress. The income tax proposals that would have an…

  5. Emotional Expression and Heart Rate in High-Risk Infants during the Face-To-Face/Still-Face

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Whitney I.; Ekas, Naomi V.; Lambert, Brittany; Tronick, Ed; Lester, Barry M.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    In infants, eye constriction—the Duchenne marker—and mouth opening appear to index the intensity of both positive and negative facial expressions. We combined eye constriction and mouth opening that co-occurred with smiles and cry-faces (respectively, the prototypic expressions of infant joy and distress) to measure emotional expression intensity. Expression intensity and heart rate were measured throughout the Face-to-Face/Still Face (FFSF) in a sample of infants with prenatal cocaine exposure who were at risk for developmental difficulties. Smiles declined and cry-faces increased in the still-face episode, but the distribution of eye constriction and mouth opening in smiles and cry-faces did not differ across episodes of the FFSF. As time elapsed in the still face episode potential indices of intensity increased, cry-faces were more likely to be accompanied by eye constriction and mouth opening. During cry-faces there were also moderately stable individual differences in the quantity of eye constriction and mouth opening. Infant heart rate was higher during cry-faces and lower during smiles, but did not vary with intensity of expression or by episode. In sum, infants express more intense negative affect as the still-face progresses, but do not show clear differences in expressive intensity between episodes of the FFSF. PMID:24095807

  6. Emotional expression and heart rate in high-risk infants during the face-to-face/still-face.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Whitney I; Ekas, Naomi V; Lambert, Brittany; Tronick, Ed; Lester, Barry M; Messinger, Daniel S

    2013-12-01

    In infants, eye constriction-the Duchenne marker-and mouth opening appear to index the intensity of both positive and negative facial expressions. We combined eye constriction and mouth opening that co-occurred with smiles and cry-faces (respectively, the prototypic expressions of infant joy and distress) to measure emotional expression intensity. Expression intensity and heart rate were measured throughout the face-to-face/still-face (FFSF) in a sample of infants with prenatal cocaine exposure who were at risk for developmental difficulties. Smiles declined and cry-faces increased in the still-face episode, but the distribution of eye constriction and mouth opening in smiles and cry-faces did not differ across episodes of the FFSF. As time elapsed in the still face episode potential indices of intensity increased, cry-faces were more likely to be accompanied by eye constriction and mouth opening. During cry-faces there were also moderately stable individual differences in the quantity of eye constriction and mouth opening. Infant heart rate was higher during cry-faces and lower during smiles, but did not vary with intensity of expression or by episode. In sum, infants express more intense negative affect as the still-face progresses, but do not show clear differences in expressive intensity between episodes of the FFSF.

  7. Risks and Risk-Based Regulation in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based regulation is a relatively new mode of governance. Not only does it offer a way of controlling institutions from the outside but it also provides the possibility of making an organisation's achievements visible/visualisable. This paper comments on a list of possible risks that higher education institutions have to face. In a second…

  8. Female family caregivers face a higher risk of hypertension and lowered estimated glomerular filtration rates: a cross-sectional, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Torimoto-Sasai, Yasuko; Igarashi, Ayumi; Wada, Takashi; Ogata, Yasuko; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko

    2015-02-22

    Despite societal efforts to alleviate the challenges, caregiving seems to constitute a substantial burden and source of stress for many families of older adults in Japan. However, precise information on the physical health of caregivers, based on objective data, is not available. The purpose of this study was to improve the understanding of the physical health of Japanese family caregivers using objective indicators and a comparative research design. A cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted among family caregivers and their non-caregiver counterparts. Surveyors visited caregivers in their homes to administer a questionnaire survey, measure their blood pressure, and collect blood samples using a kit. Blood samples were tested for LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, AST, ALT, γ-GTP, uric acid, creatinine and HbA1c. Non-caregiver data were collected at a university-based health checkup center. We compared 149 caregivers with 149 sex- and age-matched non-caregivers using conditional logistic regression analyses to examine the impact of caregiving, adjusting for multiple control variables. Analyses were conducted separately for men and female. The prevalence of high blood pressure was significantly higher among caregivers than non-caregivers (male: 72.7% among caregivers vs. 40.9% among non-caregivers, female: 57.1% vs. 27.6%, respectively). After adjusting for related sociodemographic and health factors, high blood pressure remained significantly more prevalent among caregivers than non-caregivers, only among female (adjusted OR=2.16, 95% CI [1.14, 4.08]). Female caregivers showed lower eGFR than their non-caregiver counterparts (adjusted OR=6.54, 95% CI [2.38, 17.91]). No significant differences were observed between the two groups on any other indicators. Results suggest that female caregivers are at a higher risk of conditions such as cerebral, cardiovascular or kidney diseases than non-caregivers. Steps must be taken to identify caregivers with high blood

  9. A Variety of Diversity: Facing Higher Education's Educational Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Eric L.

    2008-10-01

    First among the many important challenges facing American higher education is the need to improve the effectiveness of our educational programs. Public concern has heightened the sense of urgency for colleges and universities to make progress on improving and measuring educational outcomes, which is made more challenging by the varieties of diversity facing us. Diversity is not just an issue related to student recruitment or experience, but rather it is one that also relates to institutions and their faculties. New educational methods must address such diversity to be effective, and one possible example can be found in ongoing research at the University of Michigan that explores the educational implications of implementing a web-based lecture capture system in large lecture courses. Student use of and reactions to such systems is important, as is the potential to influence course performance for students in general, but also for underrepresented and at-risk student subpopulations. In addition to helping bring our current landscape into focus, this paper will identify effective practices as well as continuing challenges to improving educational practice for undergraduate students.

  10. The timecourse of higher-level face aftereffects.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Clifford, Colin W G; Leopold, David A

    2007-08-01

    Perceptual aftereffects for simple visual attributes processed early in the cortical hierarchy increase logarithmically with adapting duration and decay exponentially with test duration. This classic timecourse has been reported recently for a face identity aftereffect [Leopold, D. A., Rhodes, G., Müller, K.-M., & Jeffery, L. (2005). The dynamics of visual adaptation to faces. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 272, 897-904], suggesting that the dynamics of visual adaptation may be similar throughout the visual system. An alternative interpretation, however, is that the classic timecourse is a flow-on effect of adaptation of a low-level, retinotopic component of the face identity aftereffect. Here, we examined the timecourse of the higher-level (size-invariant) components of two face aftereffects, the face identity aftereffect and the figural face aftereffect. Both showed the classic pattern of logarithmic build-up and exponential decay. These results indicate that the classic timecourse of face aftereffects is not a flow-on effect of low-level retinotopic adaptation, and support the hypothesis that dynamics of visual adaptation are similar at higher and lower levels of the cortical visual hierarchy. They also reinforce the perceptual nature of face aftereffects, ruling out demand characteristics and other post-perceptual factors as plausible accounts.

  11. A higher-order-statistics-based approach to face detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunming; Li, Yushan; Wu, Ruihong; Li, Qiuming; Zhuang, Qingde; Zhang, Zhan

    2005-02-01

    A face detection method based on higher order statistics is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the object model and noise model are established to extract moving object from the background according to the fact that higher order statistics is nonsense to Gaussian noise. Secondly, the improved Sobel operator is used to extract the edge image of moving object. And a projection function is used to detect the face in the edge image. Lastly, PCA(Principle Component Analysis) method is used to do face recognition. The performance of the system is evaluated on the real video sequences. It is shown that the proposed method is simple and robust to the detection of human faces in the video sequences.

  12. Strategies for the Challenges Facing Women in Higher Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehnke, Mary Ann

    Women administrators in higher education must deal not only with the usual challenges facing administrators (decision-making, resolving conflict, and advancing professionally), but also with the effects of sex stereotyping. Women are not seen as decision-makers, nor as conflict-resolvers, and are often viewed as supporting personnel rather than…

  13. Compulsive exercise: links, risks and challenges faced

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hinze, Cecilie Juul; Emborg, Bolette; Thomsen, Freja; Hemmingsen, Simone Daugaard

    2017-01-01

    Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder in either International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The aim of this literature review was to critically examine the research on links (comorbidity), risks (negative consequences), and challenges faced (problems in a treatment context). This review found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy. This review summarizes and discusses findings on links/comorbidity, risks/negative consequences, and treatment challenges. We suggest that future studies should pay attention to both prevention and counseling in sports settings, where compulsive exercise appears, as the condition may be associated with harmful consequences. PMID:28435339

  14. Constructivist Education and Epistemological Development in Online and Face-to-Face Higher Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study examined two sections of a course in child development, one online and one face-to-face, to determine similarities and differences between the two related to constructivist education and constructivist processes. Course documents, instructor reflections, online discussion forum text, student-instructor…

  15. Constructivist Education and Epistemological Development in Online and Face-to-Face Higher Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study examined two sections of a course in child development, one online and one face-to-face, to determine similarities and differences between the two related to constructivist education and constructivist processes. Course documents, instructor reflections, online discussion forum text, student-instructor…

  16. Exploring Presentation Styles in Higher Education Teaching and Research Situations: Distance and Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry; Knightbridge, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Universities are increasingly using advanced video-conferencing environments to interact for teaching and research purposes at a distance and in situations that combine distant participants with those face-to-face. Those who use these technologies expect professional development support to do so but we do not yet have a comprehensive research…

  17. A Comparison of Student Views on Web-Based and Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sad, Suleyman Nihat; Goktas, Ozlem; Bayrak, Ilhami

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to describe and compare the perceptions of web-based distance education students and campus-based face-to-face students about the quality of education provided in their programs with regard to variables including gender, marital status, and employment status. A baseline descriptive survey design and complementary "ex post…

  18. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  19. Increasing Anonymity in Peer Assessment by Using Classroom Response Technology within Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Annelies; Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Peer assessment is becoming more popular in higher education, however it often goes together with undesirable social effects like peer pressure and favoritism, especially when students need to evaluate peers in a face-to-face setting. The present study was set up to investigate increased anonymity in peer assessment to counter these undesirable…

  20. Higher Education in Hungary: Facing the Political Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Tamas

    1990-01-01

    This article stresses the importance of the integration of Hungary's higher education system into Europe's, in a discussion which covers the Hungarian system's structure and functions; participation in higher education; organization and management; and finance. (DB)

  1. The Hierarchical Face: Higher Rankings Lead to Less Cooperative Looks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Patricia; Myers, Christopher G.; Kopelman, Shirli; Garcia, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 studies, we tested the hypothesis that the higher ranked an individual's group is, the less cooperative the facial expression of that person is judged to be. Study 1 established this effect among business school deans, with observers rating individuals from higher ranked schools as appearing less cooperative, despite lacking prior knowledge…

  2. Voices of Leadership: Essays on Challenges Facing Public Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swygert, H. Patrick, Ed.

    This book presents speeches given and articles written by State University of New York presidents concerning issues confronting public higher education in the State of New York today. Essays and speeches are categorized under the following topics: (1) the development of the State University of New York; (2) public higher education in society; (3)…

  3. Understanding the Many Faces of the Culture of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, James J., Ed.

    This collection of 12 essays focuses on the philosophy, organization, goals, and administration of higher education institutions. The essays include: (1) "Reframing Leadership: The Study of Educational Philosophy as Preparation for Administrative Practice" (James Wagener); (2) "Community, Collegiality, & Diversity: Professors, Priorities, and…

  4. Considering the changing face of social media in higher education.

    PubMed

    Legaree, Blaine A

    2015-08-01

    There is currently much ongoing consideration as to how educators can make use of new technologies to engage students. The prevalence of social media use within both private and professional circles has made these technologies increasingly important for educators. This commentary briefly outlines some of the ways social media has been used in higher education and also some of the primary concerns. Current and future trends are also addressed.

  5. AIDS and behavioural risk factors in women in inner city Baltimore: a comparison of telephone and face to face surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Nebot, M; Celentano, D D; Burwell, L; Davis, A; Davis, M; Polacsek, M; Santelli, J

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to investigate the influence the mode of administration of a questionnaire (telephone or face to face) on reports of sexual behaviour and attitudes of HIV risk among woman of reproductive age. DESIGN--Two cross sectional surveys--one, a modified random digit dialing telephone survey, the second, a face to face street sample--were carried out by the same interviewers using similar questionnaires in the same neighbourhoods. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Two socially deprived, inner city neighbourhoods of Baltimore City were assessed in early 1990 before a community health intervention was carried out in one of them. Women between 17 and 35 years were surveyed. MAIN RESULTS--Altogether 775 and 416 women in the target age group were interviewed by telephone and face to face methods: the response rates were 66.4% and 77% respectively. Telephone respondents tended to be older, had more education, were more often married, were less likely to live in subsidised housing, and were more likely to report HIV testing. The proportions of respondents who reported a previous abortion and had had a surgical sterilisation were higher among the telephone respondents (34.7% v 24.1% and 26.4% v 20.6%, respectively). With regard to sexual risk behaviour, the only statistically significant differences were found in the proportion who reported having used drugs (10.6% of the face to face v 2.4% of the telephone sample) or alcohol (30.5% v 16.3%) at last sexual intercourse. The observed method effect on these variables remained unchanged after adjusting for age, education, employment, and marital status. This effect was even stronger for a subgroup of face to face respondents who reported not having a telephone at home. The adjusted odds ratios for reporting alcohol consumption and use of drugs at the last sexual encounter in this group compared with the telephone respondents were 3.7 (2.1, 6.6) and 14.1 (5.7, 34.5) respectively. CONCLUSIONS--Despite the

  6. The Use of Face-to-Face and Out-of-Classroom Technology in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Meghan Yancy

    2010-01-01

    National standards and funds have helped ensure that technology access is no longer as problematic as it once was in education, but some questions remain about how effectively educational technologies are being utilized prepare students with 21st century skills that include higher-order thinking skills. For this reason, scholars have emphasized…

  7. Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Werner Z., Ed.; Weber, Luc E., Ed.

    This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber);…

  8. Chemical antipredator defence is linked to higher extinction risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many attributes of species may be linked to contemporary extinction risk, though some such traits remain untested despite suggestions that they may be important. Here, I test whether a trait associated with higher background extinction rates, chemical antipredator defence, is also associated with current extinction risk, using amphibians as a model system—a group facing global population declines. I find that chemically defended species are approximately 60% more likely to be threatened than species without chemical defence, although the severity of the contemporary extinction risk may not relate to chemical defence. The results confirm that background and contemporary extinction rates can be predicted from the same traits, at least in certain cases. This suggests that associations between extinction risk and phenotypic traits can be temporally stable over long periods. The results also provide novel insights into the relevance of antipredator defences for species subject to conservation concerns. PMID:28018657

  9. The Challenges Faced by Chinese Higher Education as It Expands in Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaohao, Ding

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the challenges faced by Chinese higher education as it expands in scale. The scale of China's higher education has seen unprecedented expansion in recent years. This article explores the new opportunities and challenges that such expansion brings to China's higher education. The author states that, aside from the many…

  10. The Challenges Faced by Chinese Higher Education as It Expands in Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaohao, Ding

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the challenges faced by Chinese higher education as it expands in scale. The scale of China's higher education has seen unprecedented expansion in recent years. This article explores the new opportunities and challenges that such expansion brings to China's higher education. The author states that, aside from the many…

  11. Mobile phones: are children at higher risk?

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile phones by children has in recent years been increasing, the onset starting earlier and earlier. This has led to concern about whether children might be at higher risk and whether mobile phone use should even be forbidden. Advice from highly reputed committees on both national and international levels is contradictory and on the whole more confusing than helpful to worried parents and physicians, but this can be explained. It is shown here that different opinions derived from the same database reflect the different way in which uncertainty of knowledge is dealt with. Based on the assessments of the international committee and established knowledge on children's development it can be concluded that existing exposure limits do in fact provide reasonable safety. Compared to adults, however, children do in fact need to be considered at a relatively higher potential risk, depending on their phase of development. If adults are advised to minimise their exposure, this is even more justified for children. However, circular reasoning must be avoided: the uncertainty-triggered application of precaution must not be misinterpreted as evidence for definite risk.

  12. The Internationalisation of Portuguese Higher Education: How Are Higher Education Institutions Facing this New Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amelia; Rosa, Maria Joao; Amara, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Portuguese internationalisation policies essentially intend to promote an attitude favouring participation in internationalisation activities. However, as higher education institutions are autonomous, those policies aim at creating opportunities for development and management of these activities instead of imposing them. In this article we attempt…

  13. Challenges Faced by Institutions of Higher Education in Migrating to Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broskoske, Stephen L.; Harvey, Francis A.

    This paper presents the results of a research study conducted in fall 1999 to examine the challenges facing higher educational institutions in migrating to distance learning. The study consisted of five case studies conducted at higher educational institutions in Pennsylvania. At each institution the researchers interviewed the president and other…

  14. Higher cancer risk continues after Chernobyl

    Cancer.gov

    Nearly 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine, exposure to radioactive iodine-131(I-131, a radioactive isotope) from fallout may be responsible for thyroid cancers that are still occurring among people who lived in the Chernobyl area and were children or adolescents at the time of the accident, researchers say. An international team of researchers led by the NCI found a clear dose-response relationship, in which higher absorption of radiation from I-131 led to an increased risk for thyroid cancer that has not seemed to diminish over time.

  15. Facing Price Risks in Internet-of-Services Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matros, Raimund; Streitberger, Werner; Koenig, Stefan; Eymann, Torsten

    Internet-of-Services markets allow companies to procure computational resources and application services externally and thus to save both internal capital expenditures and operational costs. Despite the advantages of this new paradigm only few work has been done in the field of risk management concerning Internet-of-Services markets. We simulate such a market using a Grid simulator. The results show that market participants are exposed to price risk. Based on our results we identify and assess technical failures which could lead to loss on service consumer's side. We also show that technical failures influence service prices which lead to volatile prices. Both, service provider and service consumer are exposed to this uncertainty and need a way to face it. Therefore we apply a financial option model to overcome price risk.

  16. Discrimination, vulnerability, and justice in the face of risk.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, Terre A; Mertz, C K; Slovic, Paul

    2004-02-01

    Recent research finds that perceived risk is closely associated with race and gender. In surveys of the American public a subset of white males stand out for their uniformly low perceptions of environmental health risks, while most nonwhite and nonmale respondents reveal higher perceived risk. Such findings have been attributed to the advantageous position of white males in American social life. This article explores the linked possibility that this demographic pattern is driven not simply by the social advantages or disadvantages embodied in race or gender, but by the subjective experience of vulnerability and by sociopolitical evaluations pertaining to environmental injustice. Indices of environmental injustice and social vulnerability were developed as part of a U.S. National Risk Survey (n= 1,192) in order to examine their effect on perceived risk. It was found that those who regarded themselves as vulnerable and supported belief statements consistent with the environmental justice thesis offered higher risk ratings across a range of hazards. Multivariate analysis indicates that our measures of vulnerability and environmental injustice predict perceived risk but do not account for all of the effects of race and gender. The article closes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for further work on vulnerability and risk, risk communication, and risk management practices generally.

  17. Young Cancer Survivors Can Face Higher Risk of Pregnancy Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mootabar is chair of obstetrics and gynecology at Northern Westchester Hospital in Mt Kisco, NY. He agreed ... at large, Institute of Robotic & Minimally Invasive Surgery, Northern Westchester Hospital, Mt. Kisco, NY; JAMA Oncology , University ...

  18. 'Couch Potatoes' May Face Higher Risk of Kidney, Bladder Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... She is a professor of oncology at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, N.Y. "You don' ... Cannioto, an assistant professor of oncology at Roswell Park, said. "The Department of Health and Human Services ...

  19. Stent Patients Face Higher Risk of Death After Bleeding, Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... patients who receive a stent usually take both aspirin and other anti-clotting drugs for a year ... involved more than 25,600 patients who received aspirin and an anti-platelet drug for one year ...

  20. Occupational hazards and risks faced by Chinese immigrant restaurant workers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Salazar, Mary K

    2007-01-01

    Historically, Chinese immigrants to the United States have worked in restaurants to support their families. Hazards and risks associated with this population's work in restaurants are underrepresented in the literature. This ethnographic study used interviews, participant-observations, and follow-up focus sessions with 18 immigrants from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan to identify potential physical, biological, enviromechanical, chemical, and psychosocial hazards that they face. Psychosocial hazards were most often mentioned by the participants; biological hazards were not identified in the data. Practice and research implications for addressing health disparities in this population are discussed.

  1. Oxytocin enhances attentional bias for neutral and positive expression faces in individuals with higher autistic traits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Ma, Xiaole; Zhao, Weihua; Luo, Lizhu; Yao, Shuxia; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential therapeutic role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in altering attentional bias towards emotional social stimuli in psychiatric disorders. However, it is still unclear whether oxytocin primarily influences attention towards positive or negative valence social stimuli. Here in a double-blind, placebo controlled, between subject design experiment in 60 healthy male subjects we have used the highly sensitive dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to investigate whether intranasal oxytocin (40IU) treatment alters attentional bias for emotional faces. Results show that oxytocin improved recognition accuracy of neutral and happy expression faces presented in the second target position (T2) during the period of reduced attentional capacity following prior presentation of a first neutral face target (T1), but had no effect on recognition of negative expression faces (angry, fearful, sad). Oxytocin also had no effect on recognition of non-social stimuli (digits) in this task. Recognition accuracy for neutral faces at T2 was negatively associated with autism spectrum quotient (ASQ) scores in the placebo group, and oxytocin's facilitatory effects were restricted to a sub-group of subjects with higher ASQ scores. Our results therefore indicate that oxytocin primarily enhances the allocation of attentional resources towards faces expressing neutral or positive emotion and does not influence that towards negative emotion ones or non-social stimuli. This effect of oxytocin is strongest in healthy individuals with higher autistic trait scores, thereby providing further support for its potential therapeutic use in autism spectrum disorder.

  2. Risk factors for overactive bladder in the elderly population: a community-based study with face-to-face interview.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Haruo; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Hozawa, Atsushi; Masamune, Yayoi; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Ohnuma, Tetsutaro; Tsuji, Ichiro; Arai, Yoichi

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of and risk factors for overactive bladder (OAB) in the elderly. A cross-sectional study of elderly subjects was conducted by analyzing data from a community-based Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment on people aged 70 years or older. Trained interviewers performed face-to-face interviews for the assessment of urological symptoms. OAB definition was based on urgency and eight or more episodes of urination per day. The subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire including lifestyle evaluation, Geriatric Depression Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination and medical history. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was recorded to assess atherosclerotic disease. The analysis included 833 subjects, after the exclusion of 115 subjects who provided insufficient information. Based on the definition of OAB, 153 subjects (18.4%) were identified as having OAB. Univariate analysis showed a significant association between OAB and depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of having OAB was significantly higher in subjects with depressive symptoms, current drinkers, and overweight subjects with odds ratios of 2.37 (1.60-3.52, 95% confidence interval), 1.65 (1.04-2.62), and 1.51 (1.02-2.24), respectively. This is the first report to show an association between OAB and depressive symptoms and alcohol intake in an epidemiological study of elderly people. The reasons for these correlations remain unclear, but should be the foci of future OAB studies. © 2010 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Risk for Bipolar Disorder is Associated with Face-Processing Deficits across Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Melissa A.; Skup, Martha; Rich, Brendan A.; Blair, Karina S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James R.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the risks for face-emotion labeling deficits and bipolar disorder (BD) among youths is examined. Findings show that youths at risk for BD did not show specific face-emotion recognition deficits. The need to provide more intense emotional information for face-emotion labeling of patients and at-risk youths is also discussed.

  4. Risk for Bipolar Disorder is Associated with Face-Processing Deficits across Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Melissa A.; Skup, Martha; Rich, Brendan A.; Blair, Karina S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James R.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the risks for face-emotion labeling deficits and bipolar disorder (BD) among youths is examined. Findings show that youths at risk for BD did not show specific face-emotion recognition deficits. The need to provide more intense emotional information for face-emotion labeling of patients and at-risk youths is also discussed.

  5. Holistic Face Categorization in Higher Order Visual Areas of the Normal and Prosopagnosic Brain: Toward a Non-Hierarchical View of Face Perception

    PubMed Central

    Rossion, Bruno; Dricot, Laurence; Goebel, Rainer; Busigny, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    How a visual stimulus is initially categorized as a face in a network of human brain areas remains largely unclear. Hierarchical neuro-computational models of face perception assume that the visual stimulus is first decomposed in local parts in lower order visual areas. These parts would then be combined into a global representation in higher order face-sensitive areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. Here we tested this view in fMRI with visual stimuli that are categorized as faces based on their global configuration rather than their local parts (two-tones Mooney figures and Arcimboldo's facelike paintings). Compared to the same inverted visual stimuli that are not categorized as faces, these stimuli activated the right middle fusiform gyrus (“Fusiform face area”) and superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), with no significant activation in the posteriorly located inferior occipital gyrus (i.e., no “occipital face area”). This observation is strengthened by behavioral and neural evidence for normal face categorization of these stimuli in a brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient whose intact right middle fusiform gyrus and superior temporal sulcus are devoid of any potential face-sensitive inputs from the lesioned right inferior occipital cortex. Together, these observations indicate that face-preferential activation may emerge in higher order visual areas of the right hemisphere without any face-preferential inputs from lower order visual areas, supporting a non-hierarchical view of face perception in the visual cortex. PMID:21267432

  6. Single mothers have a higher risk of mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Prasad, Rohini Omkar; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown single mothers to be at greater risk for both physical and mental health disorders as compared to married mothers. Psychiatric disorders, in particular depression, have been shown to be more prevalent in single mothers than married mothers. This study was aimed at comparing the prevalence of depression, other mood, and anxiety disorders in single and married mothers in a multiethnic Asian society. The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) was a cross-sectional survey of the representative population of Singapore. The survey targeted Singapore residents aged 18 years and above. Trained interviewers established the diagnoses of mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0). Physical illnesses, social support and sociodemographic correlates were established using structured interviews. For the purpose of this study, single mothers were defined as unmarried, divorced/separated/widowed mothers who had children aged 21 years and below. Face-to-face interviews were completed with 6616 respondents from December 2009 to December 2010. After controlling for sociodemographic correlates in multiple logistic regression model, single mothers had significantly higher odds of having mood disorders (OR = 5.28) as compared to married mothers. Our study found that single mothers in Singapore across ethnicities, experienced a higher risk for mood disorders as elsewhere in the world. Single motherhood was also associated with lower age and education. Our study identifies young, single mothers as a vulnerable group associated with mental illnesses that must be targeted with specific interventions to improve mental health and well-being.

  7. Blending Face-to-Face Higher Education with Web-Based Lectures: Comparing Different Didactical Application Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrieux, Hannelore; Vangestel, Sandra; Raes, Annelies; Matthys, Paul; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning as an instructional approach is getting more attention in the educational landscape and has been researched thoroughly. Yet, this study reports the results of an innovation project aiming to gain insight into three different scenarios of applying web-based lectures: as preparation for face-to-face practical exercises, as a…

  8. Blending Face-to-Face Higher Education with Web-Based Lectures: Comparing Different Didactical Application Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrieux, Hannelore; Vangestel, Sandra; Raes, Annelies; Matthys, Paul; Schellens, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning as an instructional approach is getting more attention in the educational landscape and has been researched thoroughly. Yet, this study reports the results of an innovation project aiming to gain insight into three different scenarios of applying web-based lectures: as preparation for face-to-face practical exercises, as a…

  9. An Exploration of the Characteristics of Public Relations in Regards to Face-to-Face versus Distance Learning in Two Private Liberal Arts Higher Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Cessna Catherine Smith

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of Public Relations (PR) among graduate higher education publics regarding distance learning as contrasted with face-to-face learning contexts. The research questions assessed student, faculty and administrator perceptions of characteristics of PR: trust, communication, quality, respect and rigor. Participants…

  10. Graduate Student Attitudes toward Different Instructional Approaches within Face-to-Face, Online, and Blended Learning Environments in a Public Four-Year Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotich, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This study compared graduate student attitudes toward different instructional approaches within online, blended, and face-to-face courses in a public institution of higher learning. The participants completed an online survey questionnaire that was designed by the researcher using 4 learning theories in education: behavioral, cognitive,…

  11. Graduate Student Attitudes toward Different Instructional Approaches within Face-to-Face, Online, and Blended Learning Environments in a Public Four-Year Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotich, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This study compared graduate student attitudes toward different instructional approaches within online, blended, and face-to-face courses in a public institution of higher learning. The participants completed an online survey questionnaire that was designed by the researcher using 4 learning theories in education: behavioral, cognitive,…

  12. An Exploration of the Characteristics of Public Relations in Regards to Face-to-Face versus Distance Learning in Two Private Liberal Arts Higher Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Cessna Catherine Smith

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of Public Relations (PR) among graduate higher education publics regarding distance learning as contrasted with face-to-face learning contexts. The research questions assessed student, faculty and administrator perceptions of characteristics of PR: trust, communication, quality, respect and rigor. Participants…

  13. The Risks of Privatisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation looks at the latest statistics on participation in Higher Education, to question whether privatisation of systems has significant effects on participation, affordability and equity of Higher Education. It further looks into questions of autonomy and governance of Higher Education systems in private and public systems, and finally…

  14. Self-esteem, interpersonal risk, and preference for e-mail to face-to-face communication.

    PubMed

    Joinson, Adam N

    2004-08-01

    The media choices made by high and low self-esteem Internet users were studied using web-based methodology (n = 265). Participants were asked to rank four media (face-to-face, e-mail, letter, and telephone) in order of preference across four different communication scenarios designed to pose an interpersonal risk. The level of interpersonal risk posed by two of the scenarios (asking for a pay rise and asking for a date) were also experimentally manipulated by randomly allocating participants to a 25%, 50%, or 75% chance of rejection. Low self-esteem users (LSE) showed a significant preference toward e-mail communication compared to high self-esteem users (HSE). This pattern was reversed for face-to-face preferences. Similarly, a greater chance of rejection in a scenario led to e-mail being preferred to face-to-face communication. The results are discussed in light of both the strategic use of different media and the motivated Internet user.

  15. The Role of Higher Level Adaptive Coding Mechanisms in the Development of Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimperton, Hannah; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Jeffery, Linda; Rhodes, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    DevDevelopmental improvements in face identity recognition ability are widely documented, but the source of children's immaturity in face recognition remains unclear. Differences in the way in which children and adults visually represent faces might underlie immaturities in face recognition. Recent evidence of a face identity aftereffect (FIAE),…

  16. Marketing Higher Education: Benefits and Risks for the American Academic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litten, Larry M.

    1980-01-01

    The peculiar nature of the academic market is examined in the face of a bleak demographic situation in higher education. The benefits and risks that the marketing movement may carry for the system, the intellectual tradition, and the students, are discussed. (Author/PHR)

  17. Health Risks Faced by Public School Band Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolery, Danielle N.; Woolery, Jesse A.

    2013-01-01

    Public school band directors face many work-related hazards in their grueling, yet rewarding job. As a school year progresses, directors are expected to work long hours, while trying to balance professional and personal responsibilities. A band director whose career spans multiple decades can potentially face a number of serious medical problems.…

  18. Children at Risk: Global Views on Challenges Facing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Members of the World Forum community were invited to respond to the question: "What is the most urgent challenge facing young children in your country?" Here are some of their responses. Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh mentions that in Cameroon, young children face lots of insecurity, both from health hazards and poor parenting practices. There…

  19. Children at Risk: Global Views on Challenges Facing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Members of the World Forum community were invited to respond to the question: "What is the most urgent challenge facing young children in your country?" Here are some of their responses. Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh mentions that in Cameroon, young children face lots of insecurity, both from health hazards and poor parenting practices. There…

  20. Linking infant-directed speech and face preferences to language outcomes in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Droucker, Danielle; Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to examine whether biases for infant-directed (ID) speech and faces differ between infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (SIBS-A) and infant siblings of typically developing children (SIBS-TD), and whether speech and face biases predict language outcomes and risk group membership. Thirty-six infants were tested at ages 6, 8, 12, and 18 months. Infants heard 2 ID and 2 adult-directed (AD) speech passages paired with either a checkerboard or a face. The authors assessed expressive language at 12 and 18 months and general functioning at 12 months using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (Mullen, 1995). Both infant groups preferred ID to AD speech and preferred faces to checkerboards. SIBS-TD demonstrated higher expressive language at 18 months than did SIBS-A, a finding that correlated with preferences for ID speech at 12 months. Although both groups looked longer to face stimuli than to the checkerboard, the magnitude of the preference was smaller in SIBS-A and predicted expressive vocabulary at 18 months in this group. Infants' preference for faces contributed to risk-group membership in a logistic regression analysis. Infants at heightened risk of ASD differ from typically developing infants in their preferences for ID speech and faces, which may underlie deficits in later language development and social communication.

  1. Migraine Linked to Higher Stroke Risk After Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162999.html Migraine Linked to Higher Stroke Risk After Surgery The risk ... said. For the study, Eikermann and colleagues collected data on nearly 125,000 surgical patients at Massachusetts ...

  2. Face and/or neck burns: a risk factor for respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Costa Santos, D; Barros, F; Gomes, N; Guedes, T; Maia, M

    2016-06-30

    Infections are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in burn patients, and almost 50% of infection-related deaths in burn patients are caused by pneumonia. The proportion of facial and/or neck burns (FNB) in burn centre admissions is high, and these patients have a well known respiratory risk. However, it is not well established in the literature if the occurrence of a FNB is a risk factor for respiratory infection during hospitalization. A retrospective, single-centre trial at the burn unit of the Prelada Hospital was conducted, including patients admitted between January 2011 and December 2014. The primary objective was to investigate the existence of a relation between face and/or neck burns and occurrence of respiratory infection. A total of 229 patients were included in the study, 126 with FNB and 103 without FNB. Higher total body surface area (TBSA) burned, inhalation injury and early endotracheal intubation were statistically more frequent in the FNB group. These variables were also more prevalent in the group that developed respiratory infection during the burn unit stay. Concerning FNB patients, the most frequent microbiological strains isolated in respiratory secretion cultures were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumonia, while in nFNB patients it was Klebsiella pneumoniae. In our population, only early ETI, inhalation injury and higher TBSA appear to be independent risk factors for respiratory infection in FNB patients, although age, male sex and co-morbidities are also known risk factors for respiratory infection in burn patients.

  3. Face and/or neck burns: a risk factor for respiratory infection?

    PubMed Central

    Costa Santos, D.; Barros, F.; Gomes, N.; Guedes, T.; Maia, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Infections are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in burn patients, and almost 50% of infection-related deaths in burn patients are caused by pneumonia. The proportion of facial and/or neck burns (FNB) in burn centre admissions is high, and these patients have a well known respiratory risk. However, it is not well established in the literature if the occurrence of a FNB is a risk factor for respiratory infection during hospitalization. A retrospective, single-centre trial at the burn unit of the Prelada Hospital was conducted, including patients admitted between January 2011 and December 2014. The primary objective was to investigate the existence of a relation between face and/or neck burns and occurrence of respiratory infection. A total of 229 patients were included in the study, 126 with FNB and 103 without FNB. Higher total body surface area (TBSA) burned, inhalation injury and early endotracheal intubation were statistically more frequent in the FNB group. These variables were also more prevalent in the group that developed respiratory infection during the burn unit stay. Concerning FNB patients, the most frequent microbiological strains isolated in respiratory secretion cultures were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumonia, while in nFNB patients it was Klebsiella pneumoniae. In our population, only early ETI, inhalation injury and higher TBSA appear to be independent risk factors for respiratory infection in FNB patients, although age, male sex and co-morbidities are also known risk factors for respiratory infection in burn patients. PMID:28149229

  4. Collective strategy for facing occupational risks of a nursing team.

    PubMed

    Loro, Marli Maria; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner

    2017-03-09

    To socialize an educational action through the process of group discussion and reflection, with the aim to increase the care of nursing workers in facing occupational risks. A qualitative descriptive study using the Convergent Care Research modality with nursing staff working in an emergency department of a hospital in the northwest region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data collection was carried out through educational workshops and information was processed using content analysis, resulting in two thematic categories: A look at the knowledge and practices about occupational risks in nursing; and adherence to protective measures by the nursing team against occupational risks. Twenty-four (24) workers participated in the study. When challenged to critically look at their actions, the subjects found that they relate the use of safety devices to situations in which they are aware of the patient's serological status. Subjects' interaction, involvement and co-responsibility in the health education process were determinant for their reflection on risky practices. They also had the potential to modify unsafe behaviors. Socializar uma ação educativa, por meio de um processo de discussão e reflexão em grupo, com vistas a ampliar o cuidado dos trabalhadores de enfermagem frente aos riscos ocupacionais. Estudo qualitativo, descritivo na modalidade Pesquisa Convergente Assistencial, com trabalhadores da equipe de enfermagem que atuavam no pronto atendimento de um hospital da região noroeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de oficinas educativas, e o tratamento das informações, por análise de conteúdo, resultando em duas categorias temáticas: Um olhar direcionado a saberes e práticas sobre riscos ocupacionais na enfermagem e Adesão às medidas de proteção pela equipe de enfermagem frente aos riscos ocupacionais. Integraram o estudo 24 trabalhadores. Ao serem desafiados a olhar criticamente sobre seu fazer, os

  5. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    PubMed

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.

  6. One to One and Face to Face: A Community Based Higher Education Support Strategy Retaining Indigenous Australian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Peta; Lockyer, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Literature relating to Indigenous Australian students in higher education highlights the need for improving the retention rates of Indigenous students in Australian universities. A cause for concern has been the increasing numbers of Indigenous Australian people experiencing lower progress and completion rates in comparison to non-Indigenous…

  7. New Teen Drivers Face Triple the Risk of a Fatal Crash

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166147.html New Teen Drivers Face Triple the Risk of a ... involved in a deadly crash than adults, a new study finds. The study looked at national data, ...

  8. Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors Face Risk of Second Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk to Hodgkin lymphoma survivors, to improve early diagnosis of second cancers," he concluded. The study was published March 13 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology . SOURCE: The Institute of Cancer ...

  9. Early Onset Hot Flashes May Signal Higher Heart Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164627.html Early Onset Hot Flashes May Signal Higher Heart Risks Study found ... 13, 2017 THURSDAY, April 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Hot flashes may be more than a troublesome nuisance ...

  10. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with AGB Prez Richard Legon on Challenges Facing Higher Ed Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In April, the "New England Journal of Higher Education ("NEJHE") launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, Philip DiSalvio interviews Richard Legon, president of the…

  11. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with AGB Prez Richard Legon on Challenges Facing Higher Ed Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In April, the "New England Journal of Higher Education ("NEJHE") launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, Philip DiSalvio interviews Richard Legon, president of the…

  12. Higher Education IT Compliance through the Prism of Risk Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feehan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, compliance issues march, unceasingly, through every aspect of higher education. Yet the intricacies of privacy, information security, data governance, and IT policy as compliance and risk areas within the IT organization can reverberate and impact every other department within the higher education institution. The primary focus is always…

  13. Higher Education IT Compliance through the Prism of Risk Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feehan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, compliance issues march, unceasingly, through every aspect of higher education. Yet the intricacies of privacy, information security, data governance, and IT policy as compliance and risk areas within the IT organization can reverberate and impact every other department within the higher education institution. The primary focus is always…

  14. Parents of Kids with Heart Defects Face PTSD Risk: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feb. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Parents of children born with serious heart defects may be at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems, a new study suggests. PTSD refers to anxiety and fear ...

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction. The Problems Facing the School Age Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, James H.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive health education program stressing the development of sound health habits should be offered to all students from kindergarten through twelfth grade. Such programs could help to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease by educating students of current practices that add to the risk of disease. (CJ)

  16. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction. The Problems Facing the School Age Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, James H.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive health education program stressing the development of sound health habits should be offered to all students from kindergarten through twelfth grade. Such programs could help to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease by educating students of current practices that add to the risk of disease. (CJ)

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction. The Problems Facing Our Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Donald C.; Winston, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Continued and expanded efforts to educate people as to what factors contribute to coronary heart disease will help to decrease its occurrence. Risk factors include: cholesterol, smoking, hypertension, obesity, heredity, psychological influences, and the taking of oral contraceptives or alcohol. (CJ)

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction. The Problems Facing Our Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Donald C.; Winston, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Continued and expanded efforts to educate people as to what factors contribute to coronary heart disease will help to decrease its occurrence. Risk factors include: cholesterol, smoking, hypertension, obesity, heredity, psychological influences, and the taking of oral contraceptives or alcohol. (CJ)

  19. Higher risk of reoperation for bipolar and uncemented hemiarthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Hemiarthroplasty as treatment for femoral neck fractures has increased markedly in Sweden during the last decade. In this prospective observational study, we wanted to identify risk factors for reoperation in modular hemiarthroplasties and to evaluate mortality in this patient group. Patients and methods We assessed 23,509 procedures from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register using the most common surgical approaches with modular uni- or bipolar hemiarthroplasties related to fractures in the period 2005–2010. Completeness of registration (individual procedures) was 89–96%. The median age was 85 years and the median follow-up time was 18 months. Results 3.8% underwent reoperation (any further hip surgery), most often because of implant dislocation or infection. The risk of reoperation (Cox regression) was higher for uncemented stems (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.5), mainly because of periprosthetic femoral fractures. Bipolar implants had a higher risk of reoperation irrespective of cause (HR = 1.3), because of dislocation (1.4), because of infection (1.3), and because of periprosthetic fracture (1.7). The risk of reoperation due to acetabular erosion was lower (0.30) than for unipolar implants, but reoperation for this complication was rare (1.7 per thousand). Procedures resulting from failed internal fixation had a more than doubled risk; the risk was also higher for males and for younger patients. The surgical approach had no influence on the risk of reoperation generally, but the anterolateral transgluteal approach was associated with a lower risk of reoperation due to dislocation (HR = 0.7). At 1 year, the mortality was 24%. Men had a higher risk of death than women (1.8). Interpretation We recommend cemented hemiarthroplasties and the anterolateral transgluteal approach. We also suggest that unipolar implants should be used, at least for the oldest and frailest patients. PMID:22998529

  20. Higher risk of reoperation for bipolar and uncemented hemiarthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Leonardsson, Olof; Kärrholm, Johan; Åkesson, Kristina; Garellick, Göran; Rogmark, Cecilia

    2012-10-01

    Hemiarthroplasty as treatment for femoral neck fractures has increased markedly in Sweden during the last decade. In this prospective observational study, we wanted to identify risk factors for reoperation in modular hemiarthroplasties and to evaluate mortality in this patient group. We assessed 23,509 procedures from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register using the most common surgical approaches with modular uni- or bipolar hemiarthroplasties related to fractures in the period 2005-2010. Completeness of registration (individual procedures) was 89-96%. The median age was 85 years and the median follow-up time was 18 months. 3.8% underwent reoperation (any further hip surgery), most often because of implant dislocation or infection. The risk of reoperation (Cox regression) was higher for uncemented stems (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.5), mainly because of periprosthetic femoral fractures. Bipolar implants had a higher risk of reoperation irrespective of cause (HR = 1.3), because of dislocation (1.4), because of infection (1.3), and because of periprosthetic fracture (1.7). The risk of reoperation due to acetabular erosion was lower (0.30) than for unipolar implants, but reoperation for this complication was rare (1.7 per thousand). Procedures resulting from failed internal fixation had a more than doubled risk; the risk was also higher for males and for younger patients. The surgical approach had no influence on the risk of reoperation generally, but the anterolateral transgluteal approach was associated with a lower risk of reoperation due to dislocation (HR = 0.7). At 1 year, the mortality was 24%. Men had a higher risk of death than women (1.8). We recommend cemented hemiarthroplasties and the anterolateral transgluteal approach. We also suggest that unipolar implants should be used, at least for the oldest and frailest patients.

  1. Amygdala Hyperactivation During Face Emotion Processing in Unaffected Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparison (HC) subjects, both BD subjects and youth at risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD…

  2. Children at Risk of Neglect: Challenges Faced by Child Protection Practitioners in Guatemala City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coope, Caroline M.; Theobald, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to (1) delineate the definition, common forms, and perceived risk factors contributing to child neglect in Guatemala from the perspective of different stakeholders and (2) identify the challenges faced by child protection practitioners in identifying children at risk of neglect within the context of Guatemala.…

  3. Amygdala Hyperactivation During Face Emotion Processing in Unaffected Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparison (HC) subjects, both BD subjects and youth at risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD…

  4. Children at Risk of Neglect: Challenges Faced by Child Protection Practitioners in Guatemala City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coope, Caroline M.; Theobald, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to (1) delineate the definition, common forms, and perceived risk factors contributing to child neglect in Guatemala from the perspective of different stakeholders and (2) identify the challenges faced by child protection practitioners in identifying children at risk of neglect within the context of Guatemala.…

  5. Face lift.

    PubMed

    Warren, Richard J; Aston, Sherrell J; Mendelson, Bryan C

    2011-12-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Identify and describe the anatomy of and changes to the aging face, including changes in bone mass and structure and changes to the skin, tissue, and muscles. 2. Assess each individual's unique anatomy before embarking on face-lift surgery and incorporate various surgical techniques, including fat grafting and other corrective procedures in addition to shifting existing fat to a higher position on the face, into discussions with patients. 3. Identify risk factors and potential complications in prospective patients. 4. Describe the benefits and risks of various techniques. The ability to surgically rejuvenate the aging face has progressed in parallel with plastic surgeons' understanding of facial anatomy. In turn, a more clear explanation now exists for the visible changes seen in the aging face. This article and its associated video content review the current understanding of facial anatomy as it relates to facial aging. The standard face-lift techniques are explained and their various features, both good and bad, are reviewed. The objective is for surgeons to make a better aesthetic diagnosis before embarking on face-lift surgery, and to have the ability to use the appropriate technique depending on the clinical situation.

  6. DACA-Lamented? Spared Deportation, Immigrant Students Still Face Higher Ed Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lauren A.

    2014-01-01

    In this brief article, immigration lawyer and executive director of Atlas: DIY Lauren Burke describes the challenges faced by "DACA-mented" students--those who have received deportation reprieve through President Obama's 2012 memorandum. Atlas: DIY (www.atlasdiy.org) is a cooperative center for undocumented youth and their allies in…

  7. DACA-Lamented? Spared Deportation, Immigrant Students Still Face Higher Ed Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lauren A.

    2014-01-01

    In this brief article, immigration lawyer and executive director of Atlas: DIY Lauren Burke describes the challenges faced by "DACA-mented" students--those who have received deportation reprieve through President Obama's 2012 memorandum. Atlas: DIY (www.atlasdiy.org) is a cooperative center for undocumented youth and their allies in…

  8. Do Asian American Faculty Face a Glass Ceiling in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sharon M.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the glass ceiling hypothesis in relation to Asian American faculty using data from the 1993 National Study of Post-Secondary Faculty for 1,019 Asian American faculty members. Data limitations prevent concluding that such faculty do or do not face a glass ceiling; however, baseline findings for future research are established. (SLD)

  9. Higher risk for cervical herniated intervertebral disc in physicians

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cheng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Su, Shih-Bin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Weng, Shih-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is no study about cervical herniated intervertebral disc (cervical HIVD) in physicians in the literature; therefore, we conceived a retrospective nationwide, population-based cohort study to elucidate the topic. We identified 26,038 physicians, 33,057 non-physician healthcare providers (HCPs), and identical numbers of non-HCP references (i.e., general population). All cohorts matched a 1:1 ratio with age and gender, and each were chosen from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We compared cervical HIVD risk among physicians, nonphysician HCPs, and non-HCP references and performed a follow-up between 2007 and 2011. We also made comparisons among physician specialists. Both physicians and nonphysician HCPs had higher cervical HIVD risk than non-HCP references (odds ratio [OR]: 1.356; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.162–1.582; OR: 1.383; 95% CI: 1.191–1.605, respectively). There was no significant difference of cervical HIVD risk between physicians and nonphysician HCPs. In the comparison among physician specialists, orthopedists had a higher cervical HIVD risk than other specialists, but the difference was not statistically significant (adjusted OR: 1.547; 95% CI: 0.782–3.061). Physicians are at higher cervical HIVD risk than the general population. Because unknown confounders could exist, further prospective studies are needed to identify possible causation. PMID:27741118

  10. Individual Choice and Risk: The Case of Higher Education.

    PubMed

    Brynin, Malcolm

    2013-04-01

    The expansion of higher education raises the risk environment for school-leavers as more occupations become partially graduate with the result that occupational signals are fuzzy. This makes the educational decision more difficult and more risky, especially with more of the cost of higher education being transferred to the individual. After a discussion of the nature of risk, derived from Beck, and of the role of government policy and of economics in obscuring this, the analysis uses simple quantitative techniques, based on British Labour Force Survey data, to demonstrate the increased fuzziness of graduate work. It is also shown that a rising proportion of graduates receive only average pay, thus raising the risks associated with educational investments even further.

  11. Silent katydid females are at higher risk of bat predation than acoustically signalling katydid males.

    PubMed

    Raghuram, Hanumanthan; Deb, Rittik; Nandi, Diptarup; Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2015-01-07

    Males that produce conspicuous mate attraction signals are often at high risk of predation from eavesdropping predators. Females of such species typically search for signalling males and their higher motility may also place them at risk. The relative predation risk faced by males and females in the context of mate-finding using long-distance signals has rarely been investigated. In this study, we show, using a combination of diet analysis and behavioural experiments, that katydid females, who do not produce acoustic signals, are at higher risk of predation from a major bat predator, Megaderma spasma, than calling males. Female katydids were represented in much higher numbers than males in the culled remains beneath roosts of M. spasma. Playback experiments using katydid calls revealed that male calls were approached in only about one-third of the trials overall, whereas tethered, flying katydids were always approached and attacked. Our results question the idea that necessary costs of mate-finding, including risk of predation, are higher in signalling males than in searching females.

  12. Silent katydid females are at higher risk of bat predation than acoustically signalling katydid males

    PubMed Central

    Raghuram, Hanumanthan; Deb, Rittik; Nandi, Diptarup; Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2015-01-01

    Males that produce conspicuous mate attraction signals are often at high risk of predation from eavesdropping predators. Females of such species typically search for signalling males and their higher motility may also place them at risk. The relative predation risk faced by males and females in the context of mate-finding using long-distance signals has rarely been investigated. In this study, we show, using a combination of diet analysis and behavioural experiments, that katydid females, who do not produce acoustic signals, are at higher risk of predation from a major bat predator, Megaderma spasma, than calling males. Female katydids were represented in much higher numbers than males in the culled remains beneath roosts of M. spasma. Playback experiments using katydid calls revealed that male calls were approached in only about one-third of the trials overall, whereas tethered, flying katydids were always approached and attacked. Our results question the idea that necessary costs of mate-finding, including risk of predation, are higher in signalling males than in searching females. PMID:25429019

  13. Altered Neural Function to Happy Faces in Adolescents with and at Risk for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kerestes, Rebecca; Segreti, Anna Maria; Pan, Lisa A.; Phillips, Mary L.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is accumulating evidence of alterations in neural circuitry underlying the processing of social-affective information in adolescent Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However the extent to which such alterations are present in youth at risk for mood disorders remains unclear. Method Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent task responses and functional connectivity using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI) analyses to mild and intense happy face stimuli was examined in 29 adolescents with MDD (MDD; M age, 16.0, SD 1.2 years), 38 healthy adolescents at risk of a mood disorder, by virtue of having a parent diagnosed with either Bipolar Disorder (BD) or MDD (Mood-risk; M age 13.4, SD 2.5 years) and 43 healthy control adolescents, having parents with no psychiatric disorder (HC; M age 14.6, SD 2.2 years). Results Relative to HC adolescents, Mood-risk adolescents showed elevated right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to 100% intensity happy (vs. neutral) faces and concomitant lowered ventral putamen activity to 50% intensity happy (vs. neutral) faces. gPPI analyses revealed that MDD adolescents showed significantly lower right DLPFC functional connectivity with the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) compared to HC to all happy faces. Limitations The current study is limited by the smaller number of healthy offspring at risk for MDD compared to BD. Conclusions Because Mood-risk adolescents were healthy at the time of the scan, elevated DLPFC and lowered ventral striatal activity in Mood-risk adolescents may be associated with risk or resiliency. In contrast, altered DLPFC-VLPFC functional connectivity in MDD adolescents may be associated with depressed mood state. Such alterations may affect social-affective development and progression to a mood disorder in Mood-risk adolescents. Future longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to directly answer this research question. PMID:26724693

  14. School House Hype: School Shootings and the Real Risks Kids Face in America. Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Elizabeth; Schiraldi, Vincent; Ziedenberg, Jason

    This report examines risks that children and youth face in America's schools to determine whether there is a trend toward increasing violent school deaths in America and noting the overall incidence of crime, particularly homicides, inside versus outside of the schools. Data come from the Department of Education, Department of Justice, FBI,…

  15. Which college students are at higher health risk?

    PubMed

    Magnus, Marcia H

    2010-03-01

    An electronic health risk appraisal was used to determine which demographic factors were associated with higher health risk among college students at an urban state university. Students' real age was assessed as the primary indicator of health risk and it was associated to demographic characteristics. Real age represents the physiological age of the body based on lifestyle choices, and this is often different to chronological age. Approximately 26.0% of 576 students were more than 5 years older than their chronological age, 29.8% were 0 to 5 years older, 29.8% were 0 to 5 years younger, and 14.1% were more than 5 years younger than their chronological age. Students who were male, Black, and nonnutrition majors had significantly higher positive real age differentials: their bodies were more likely to be more than 5 years older than their chronological age. Students with significantly lower negative real age differential--those whose real age was lower than their chronological age--were female and nutrition majors. Students were significantly more likely to report that they were "very motivated" if they were female (88.6%), compared with male (66.7%). These data suggest that when health disparities are assessed at the level of real age differential and motivation to make lifestyle changes, male Black college students are at highest health risk and they are less likely to be "very motivated" to make lifestyle changes than their peers.

  16. Who's on the Line? Gauging the Most Pressing Issues Facing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Change, 2005

    2005-01-01

    d the Knight Collaborative. Drawing on the experience garnered by those organizations over the last two decades, The Learning Alliance is becoming higher education's decisionmaking hot line for higher education executives--a number they can call to work through their most pressing problems. This issue of The Landscape draws upon the substance of…

  17. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  18. "Faces" and Complexities of Continuing Higher Education Units: A Postmodern Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Sandria S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the dynamics of continuing higher education units within the sociopolitical context of higher education institutions. A qualitative approach to data collection and analysis was the study's design, while the theoretical frame was a postmodern, symbolic, theoretical approach to organizational studies. Results show that continuing…

  19. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  20. Association between low education and higher global cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Scaglione, Alessandra; Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Pinto, Antonio; Scaglione, Rosario

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of educational status on global cardiovascular risk in a southern Italian urban population. The study population consisted of 488 consecutive outpatients aged 18 years and older. Educational status was categorized according to the number of years of formal education as follows: (1) low education group (<10 years) and (2) medium-high education group (10-15 years). In both groups, cardiometabolic comorbidities (obesity, visceral obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, microalbuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy) and global cardiovascular risk, according to international guidelines, were analyzed. Left ventricular mass index and ejection fraction by echocardiography and E/A ratio, by pulsed-wave Doppler, were calculated. The low education group was characterized by a significantly higher prevalence of patients with visceral obesity (P=.021), hypertension (P=.010), metabolic syndrome (P=.000), and microalbuminuria (P=.000) and greater global cardiovascular risk (P=.000). Significantly increased levels of microalbuminuria (P=.000) and significantly decreased values of E/A ratio (P=.000) were also detected in the low education group. Global cardiovascular risk correlated directly with waist-to-hip ratio (P=.010), microalbuminuria (P=.015), and the metabolic syndrome (P>.012) and inversely with educational status (P=.000). Education was independently (P=.000) associated with global cardiovascular risk. These data indicate a strong association between low education and cardiometabolic comorbidities suitable to influence the evolution of chronic degenerative diseases. Preventive strategies need to be more efficient and more effective in this patient population.

  1. Higher Educational Attainment but not Higher Income is Protective for Cardiovascular Risk in Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) Users

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Michael M.; McKee, Kimberly; Winters, Paul; Sutter, Erika; Pearson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Higher educational attainment and income provide cardiovascular protection in the general population. It is unknown if the same effect is seen among Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users who face communication barriers in healthcare settings. Objective We sought to examine whether educational attainment and/or annual household income were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk in a sample of Deaf ASL users. Methods This cross-sectional study included 302 Deaf respondents aged 18-88 years from the Deaf Health Survey (2008), an adapted and translated Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) administered in sign language. Associations between the self-reported cardiovascular disease equivalents (CVDE; any of the following: diabetes, myocardial infarction (MI), cerebral vascular attack (CVA), and angina) with educational attainment (≤high school [low education], some college, and ≥4 year college degree [referent]), and annual household income (<$25,000, $25,000-<$50,000, or ≥$50,000 [referent]) were assessed using a multivariate logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking history. Results Deaf respondents who reported ≤high school education were more likely to report the presence of a CVDE (OR 5.92; 95% CI 2.12-16.57) compared to Deaf respondents who reported having ≥4 year college degree after adjustment. However, low-income Deaf individuals (i.e. household incomes <$25,000) were not more likely to report the presence of a CVDE (OR=2.24; 95% CI 0.76-6.68) compared to high-income Deaf respondents after adjustment. Conclusion Low educational attainment was associated with higher likelihood of reported cardiovascular equivalents among Deaf individuals. Higher income did not appear to provide a cardiovascular protective effect for Deaf respondents. PMID:24411507

  2. Higher educational attainment but not higher income is protective for cardiovascular risk in Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael M; McKee, Kimberly; Winters, Paul; Sutter, Erika; Pearson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Higher educational attainment and income provide cardiovascular protection in the general population. It is unknown if the same effect is seen among Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users who face communication barriers in health care settings. We sought to examine whether educational attainment and/or annual household income were inversely associated with cardiovascular risk in a sample of Deaf ASL users. This cross-sectional study included 302 Deaf respondents aged 18-88 years from the Deaf Health Survey (2008), an adapted and translated Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) administered in sign language. Associations between the self-reported cardiovascular disease equivalents (CVDE; any of the following: diabetes, myocardial infarction (MI), cerebral vascular attack (CVA), and angina) with educational attainment (≤high school [low education], some college, and ≥4 year college degree [referent]), and annual household income (<$25,000, $25,000-<$50,000, or ≥$50,000 [referent]) were assessed using a multivariate logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking history. Deaf respondents who reported ≤high school education were more likely to report the presence of a CVDE (OR = 5.76; 95% CI = 2.04-16.31) compared to Deaf respondents who reported having ≥4 year college degree after adjustment. However, low-income Deaf individuals (i.e., household incomes <$25,000) were not more likely to report the presence of a CVDE (OR = 2.24; 95% CI = 0.76-6.68) compared to high-income Deaf respondents after adjustment. Low educational attainment was associated with higher likelihood of reported cardiovascular equivalents among Deaf individuals. Higher income did not appear to provide a cardiovascular protective effect for Deaf respondents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A family at risk: congenital prosopagnosia, poor face recognition and visuoperceptual deficits within one family.

    PubMed

    Johnen, Andreas; Schmukle, Stefan C; Hüttenbrink, Judith; Kischka, Claudia; Kennerknecht, Ingo; Dobel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) describes a severe face processing impairment despite intact early vision and in the absence of overt brain damage. CP is assumed to be present from birth and often transmitted within families. Previous studies reported conflicting findings regarding associated deficits in nonface visuoperceptual tasks. However, diagnostic criteria for CP significantly differed between studies, impeding conclusions on the heterogeneity of the impairment. Following current suggestions for clinical diagnoses of CP, we administered standardized tests for face processing, a self-report questionnaire and general visual processing tests to an extended family (N=28), in which many members reported difficulties with face recognition. This allowed us to assess the degree of heterogeneity of the deficit within a large sample of suspected CPs of similar genetic and environmental background. (a) We found evidence for a severe face processing deficit but intact nonface visuoperceptual skills in three family members - a father and his two sons - who fulfilled conservative criteria for a CP diagnosis on standardized tests and a self-report questionnaire, thus corroborating findings of familial transmissions of CP. (b) Face processing performance of the remaining family members was also significantly below the mean of the general population, suggesting that face processing impairments are transmitted as a continuous trait rather than in a dichotomous all-or-nothing fashion. (c) Self-rating scores of face recognition showed acceptable correlations with standardized tests, suggesting this method as a viable screening procedure for CP diagnoses. (d) Finally, some family members revealed severe impairments in general visual processing and nonface visual memory tasks either in conjunction with face perception deficits or as an isolated impairment. This finding may indicate an elevated risk for more general visuoperceptual deficits in families with prosopagnosic members.

  4. Sudden infant death syndrome: risk factors for infants found face down differ from other SIDS cases.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John M D; Thach, Bradley T; Becroft, David M O; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2006-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that infants with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) found face down (FD) would have SIDS risk factors different from those found in other positions (non-face-down position, NFD). We used the New Zealand Cot Death Study data, a 3-year, nationwide (1987 to 1990), case-control study. Odds ratios (univariate and multivariate) for FD (n = 154) and NFD SIDS (n = 239) were estimated separately, and statistical differences between the two groups were assessed. Of 12 risk factors for SIDS, there were 8 with a statistically significant difference between FD and NFD infants. After adjustment for the potential confounders, younger infant age, Maori ethnicity, low birth weight, prone sleep position, use of a sheepskin, and pillow use were all associated with a greater risk of SIDS in the FD than the NFD group. Sleeping during the nighttime, maternal smoking, and bed-sharing were associated with a risk of SIDS only in the NFD group. Pacifier use was associated with a decreased risk for SIDS only in the NFD group, whereas being found with the head covered was associated with a decreased risk for SIDS for the FD group. Infants with SIDS in the FD position appear to be a distinct subgroup of SIDS. These differences in risk factors provide clues to mechanisms of death in both SIDS subtypes.

  5. Risk of chipping or facings failure of metal ceramic fixed partial prostheses--a retrospective data record analysis.

    PubMed

    Behr, Michael; Winklhofer, Christina; Schreier, Maria; Zeman, Florian; Kobeck, Carola; Bräuer, Isabel; Rosentritt, Martin

    2012-04-01

    This retrospective study investigated the frequency and time history of chipping or facings failure of three-unit and four-unit tooth-supported metal ceramic (MC) fixed partial prostheses (FPDs). Six hundred fifty-four MC FPDs were inserted according to a standardized treatment protocol at the Department of Prosthodontics of the Regensburg University Medical Center between 1984 and 2009. Frequency and time history of chipping or facings failure as well as possible risk factors were evaluated on the basis of historical clinical data. We estimated the survival times of FPDs by means of the Kaplan-Meier analysis. The 5-year survival rate (time to renewal of a FPD) of all MC FPDs was 94%; the 10-year survival rate was 87%. Twenty-eight (4.3%) MC FPDs showed chipping; the 5-year free-of-event rate of chipping was 95%, the 10-year rate was 94%. Possible risk factors had no statistically significant influence on chipping or facings failure. The annual hazard rate of MC chipping in the first year was 0.03, i.e., 3 out of 100 person-years of exposure showed chipping. The annual hazard rates for the next 6 years dropped to 0.009, 0.003, 0.007, 0.004, 0.005, and 0.007. Thus, about 3-9 out of 1,000 person-years of exposure showed chipping. Patients with MC FPD may expect a long survival rate of their restoration. During the first year, the risk of chipping may be higher than during the following years. Despite the long period of experience with MC FPDs, chipping of the facing will still occur.

  6. Challenges and Opportunities Facing Australian Universities Caused by the Internationalisation of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Mingxuan; Yu, Ping

    2006-01-01

    China opened its market to the world after it entered The World Trade Organisation (WTO) at the turn of the last century. The Chinese Ministry of Education recently reviewed a series of policies about international cooperation in higher education with foreign countries in an effort to standardise their practice through centralised control. The…

  7. Reconstructing Careers, Shifting Realities: Understanding the Difficulties Facing Trailing Spouses in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Careless, Erin J.

    2015-01-01

    Faculty members in higher education who move to new cities or provinces often bring their families with them, and this can have both a positive and negative effect on the retention and job satisfaction of faculty. Educational policy makers can play a role in supporting faculty by supporting their trailing spouses, through policies informing…

  8. Faces in Tertiary Places and Spaces: Experiences of Learning in Both Higher Education and VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The development in today's society of knowledge workers for tomorrow is of critical importance. Worldwide, there is considerable interest in the respective roles of higher education (HE) and vocational education and training (VET) in building human capability. This paper is designed to provoke such questions as: what kinds of learning places and…

  9. The "Virtual Face" of Planning: How to Use Higher Education Web Sites to Assess Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.; Wilson, Jeffery L.

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this article demonstrates how to investigate the competitive position of an institution's academic programs or services through an analysis of the Web sites of other higher education institutions. By using information from research/doctoral, master's, baccalaureate, and community colleges across 40 states, this study…

  10. Facing the Giant: Higher Education Access and Financial Assistance for Undocumented Students in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibarra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the experiences of a Hispanic undocumented high school graduate in Texas (USA) that did not attend a higher education institution in spite of her desire to do. Using qualitative research and narrative analysis, the researcher conducted three interview levels with the participant and developed an emplotted…

  11. The "Virtual Face" of Planning: How to Use Higher Education Web Sites to Assess Competitive Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.; Wilson, Jeffery L.

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this article demonstrates how to investigate the competitive position of an institution's academic programs or services through an analysis of the Web sites of other higher education institutions. By using information from research/doctoral, master's, baccalaureate, and community colleges across 40 states, this study…

  12. The Changing Face of Higher Education: Why More Administrators Are Wearing Lipstick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Barbara R.; Credille, Ronda O.

    2004-01-01

    During the 150 years women have participated in higher education, they have made tremendous strides. At many postsecondary institutions, women were not accepted as students until the second half of the 20th century. In 2004, women serve in the upper echelons of power at some of the nation's oldest and most prestigious universities. This inquiry…

  13. American Higher Education: A Special Tradition Faces a Special Challenge. Occasional Paper Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Harold T.

    Traditions that have affected the evolution of U.S. higher education, along with a challenge for the future, are considered by the president of the University of Michigan. Attention is directed to ideas that over time have produced the original colonial colleges, followed by the land-grant universities, the great polytechnic schools, the…

  14. Facing the Giant: Higher Education Access and Financial Assistance for Undocumented Students in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibarra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the experiences of a Hispanic undocumented high school graduate in Texas (USA) that did not attend a higher education institution in spite of her desire to do. Using qualitative research and narrative analysis, the researcher conducted three interview levels with the participant and developed an emplotted…

  15. E-Learning Challenges Faced by Academics in Higher Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Nurul; Beer, Martin; Slack, Frances

    2015-01-01

    E-learning has become a necessity in higher education institutions and is being deployed in educational establishments throughout the world. Researchers have made much emphasis on its benefits but not much is discussed on the disadvantages of e-learning technology. This paper references some of the research work on the limitations of e-learning…

  16. Neural Correlates of Familiar and Unfamiliar Face Processing in Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Jennifer B.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Examining the neural correlates associated with processing social stimuli offers a viable option to the challenge of studying early social processing in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The present investigation included 32 12-month olds at high risk for ASD and 24 low-risk control infants, defined on the basis of family history. Infants were presented with familiar and unfamiliar faces, and three components of interest were explored for amplitude and latency differences. The anticipated developmental effects of emerging hemispheric asymmetry for face-sensitive components (the N290 and P400) were observed, as were familiarity effects for a component related to attention (the Nc). Although there were no striking group differences in the neural response to faces, there was some evidence for a developmental lag in an attentional component for the high-risk group. The infant ASD endophenotype, though elusive, may be better defined through expanding the age of study and addressing change over time in response to varied stimuli. PMID:21442325

  17. Atypical face versus object processing and hemispheric asymmetries in 10-month-old infants at risk for autism.

    PubMed

    McCleery, Joseph P; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Dobkins, Karen R; Carver, Leslie J

    2009-11-15

    Previous studies have documented atypicalities in face/object processing in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To investigate whether such atypicalities may reflect a genetically mediated risk factor present early in development, we measured face/object processing in 10-month-old high-risk infants who carry some of the genes associated with ASD because they have an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder. We employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to measure cortical responses to pictures of faces and objects, the objects being toys. Latencies and amplitudes of four ERP components (P100, N290, P400, and Nc) were compared between 20 high-risk infants and 20 low-risk control subjects (infants with no family history of ASD). Responses to faces versus objects differed between high- and low-risk infants for the latencies of the N290 and P400. Differences were driven by faster responses to faces than objects in low-risk, but not high-risk, infants (P400) and, conversely, faster responses to objects than faces in high-risk, but not low-risk, infants (N290). Object responses were also faster in high-risk than low-risk infants (both N290 and P400). Left versus right hemisphere responses also differed between high- and low-risk infants for the amplitudes of the P100, N290, and P400; collapsed across faces/objects, low-risk, but not high-risk, infants exhibited hemisphere asymmetries. Genetic risk for ASD is associated with atypical face versus object processing and an atypical lack of hemispheric asymmetry early in life. These atypicalities might contribute to development of the disorder.

  18. Atypical Faces vs. Object Processing and Hemispheric Asymmetries in 10-Month-Old Infants at Risk for Autism

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Joseph P.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Dobkins, Karen R.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have documented atypicalities in face/object processing in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To investigate whether such atypicalities may reflect a genetically-mediated risk factor present early in development, we measured face/object processing in 10-month-old “High-Risk” infants, who carry some of the genes associated with ASD because they have an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder. Methods We employed event related potentials (ERPs) to measure cortical responses to pictures of faces and objects, the objects being pictures of toys. Latencies and amplitudes of four ERP components (P100, N290, P400 and Nc) were compared between 20 High-Risk infants and 20 Low-Risk controls (infants with no family history of ASD). Results Responses to faces vs. objects differed between High- and Low-Risk infants, for the latencies of the N290 and P400. Differences were driven by faster responses to faces than objects in Low-Risk, but not High-Risk, infants (P400), and conversely, faster responses to objects than faces in High-Risk, but not Low-Risk, infants (N290). And, object responses were faster in High-Risk than Low-Risk infants (both N290 and P400). Left vs. right hemisphere responses also differed between High- and Low-Risk infants, for the amplitudes of the P100, N290 and P400; collapsed across faces/objects, Low-Risk, but not High-Risk, infants exhibited hemisphere asymmetries. Conclusions Genetic risk for ASD is associated with atypical face vs. object processing, and an atypical lack of hemispheric asymmetry, early in life. These atypicalities might contribute to development of the disorder. PMID:19765688

  19. 'Can you look me in the face?' Short-term SSRI administration reverts avoidant ocular face exploration in subjects at risk for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Di Simplicio, Martina; Doallo, Sonia; Costoloni, Giulia; Rohenkohl, Gustavo; Nobre, Anna C; Harmer, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Anxiety and depression are associated with altered ocular exploration of facial stimuli, which could have a role in the misinterpretation of ambiguous emotional stimuli. However, it is unknown whether a similar pattern is seen in individuals at risk for psychopathology and whether this can be modified by pharmacological interventions used in these disorders. In Study 1, eye gaze movement during face discrimination was compared in volunteers with high vs low neuroticism scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Facial stimuli either displayed a neutral, happy, or fearful expression. In Study 2, volunteers with high neuroticism were randomized in a double-blind design to receive the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (20 mg) or placebo for 7 days. On the last day of treatment, eye gaze movement during face presentation and the recognition of different emotional expressions was assessed. In Study 1, highly neurotic volunteers showed reduced eye gaze towards the eyes vs mouth region of the face compared with low neurotic volunteers. In Study 2, citalopram increased gaze maintenance over the face stimuli compared with placebo and enhanced recognition of positive vs negative facial expressions. Longer ocular exploration of happy faces correlated positively with recognition of positive emotions. Individuals at risk for psychopathology presented an avoidant pattern of ocular exploration of faces. Short-term SSRI administration reversed this bias before any mood or anxiety changes. This treatment effect may improve the capacity to scan social stimuli and contribute to the remediation of clinical symptoms related to interpersonal difficulties.

  20. ‘Can you look me in the face?' Short-term SSRI Administration Reverts Avoidant Ocular Face Exploration in Subjects at Risk for Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Di Simplicio, Martina; Doallo, Sonia; Costoloni, Giulia; Rohenkohl, Gustavo; Nobre, Anna C; Harmer, Catherine J

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are associated with altered ocular exploration of facial stimuli, which could have a role in the misinterpretation of ambiguous emotional stimuli. However, it is unknown whether a similar pattern is seen in individuals at risk for psychopathology and whether this can be modified by pharmacological interventions used in these disorders. In Study 1, eye gaze movement during face discrimination was compared in volunteers with high vs low neuroticism scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Facial stimuli either displayed a neutral, happy, or fearful expression. In Study 2, volunteers with high neuroticism were randomized in a double-blind design to receive the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (20 mg) or placebo for 7 days. On the last day of treatment, eye gaze movement during face presentation and the recognition of different emotional expressions was assessed. In Study 1, highly neurotic volunteers showed reduced eye gaze towards the eyes vs mouth region of the face compared with low neurotic volunteers. In Study 2, citalopram increased gaze maintenance over the face stimuli compared with placebo and enhanced recognition of positive vs negative facial expressions. Longer ocular exploration of happy faces correlated positively with recognition of positive emotions. Individuals at risk for psychopathology presented an avoidant pattern of ocular exploration of faces. Short-term SSRI administration reversed this bias before any mood or anxiety changes. This treatment effect may improve the capacity to scan social stimuli and contribute to the remediation of clinical symptoms related to interpersonal difficulties. PMID:25035080

  1. Integrating Web 2.0 Technologies into Face-to-Face PBL to Support Producing, Storing, and Sharing Content in a Higher Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Jaana; Rasi, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present and discuss the process of developing and implementing a PBL-based course entitled Moving Images in Teaching and Learning that was held at the University of Lapland, Finland. In the course of the project, this fairly traditional face-to-face course was redesigned into a blended PBL course by integrating Web 2.0…

  2. Integrating Web 2.0 Technologies into Face-to-Face PBL to Support Producing, Storing, and Sharing Content in a Higher Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Jaana; Rasi, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present and discuss the process of developing and implementing a PBL-based course entitled Moving Images in Teaching and Learning that was held at the University of Lapland, Finland. In the course of the project, this fairly traditional face-to-face course was redesigned into a blended PBL course by integrating Web 2.0…

  3. Development and validation of risk profiles of West African rural communities facing multiple natural hazards

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Fabrice G.; Kloos, Julia; Walz, Yvonne; Rhyner, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    West Africa has been described as a hotspot of climate change. The reliance on rain-fed agriculture by over 65% of the population means that vulnerability to climatic hazards such as droughts, rainstorms and floods will continue. Yet, the vulnerability and risk levels faced by different rural social-ecological systems (SES) affected by multiple hazards are poorly understood. To fill this gap, this study quantifies risk and vulnerability of rural communities to drought and floods. Risk is assessed using an indicator-based approach. A stepwise methodology is followed that combines participatory approaches with statistical, remote sensing and Geographic Information System techniques to develop community level vulnerability indices in three watersheds (Dano, Burkina Faso; Dassari, Benin; Vea, Ghana). The results show varying levels of risk profiles across the three watersheds. Statistically significant high levels of mean risk in the Dano area of Burkina Faso are found whilst communities in the Dassari area of Benin show low mean risk. The high risk in the Dano area results from, among other factors, underlying high exposure to droughts and rainstorms, longer dry season duration, low caloric intake per capita, and poor local institutions. The study introduces the concept of community impact score (CIS) to validate the indicator-based risk and vulnerability modelling. The CIS measures the cumulative impact of the occurrence of multiple hazards over five years. 65.3% of the variance in observed impact of hazards/CIS was explained by the risk models and communities with high simulated disaster risk generally follow areas with high observed disaster impacts. Results from this study will help disaster managers to better understand disaster risk and develop appropriate, inclusive and well integrated mitigation and adaptation plans at the local level. It fulfills the increasing need to balance global/regional assessments with community level assessments where major decisions

  4. Development and validation of risk profiles of West African rural communities facing multiple natural hazards.

    PubMed

    Asare-Kyei, Daniel; Renaud, Fabrice G; Kloos, Julia; Walz, Yvonne; Rhyner, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    West Africa has been described as a hotspot of climate change. The reliance on rain-fed agriculture by over 65% of the population means that vulnerability to climatic hazards such as droughts, rainstorms and floods will continue. Yet, the vulnerability and risk levels faced by different rural social-ecological systems (SES) affected by multiple hazards are poorly understood. To fill this gap, this study quantifies risk and vulnerability of rural communities to drought and floods. Risk is assessed using an indicator-based approach. A stepwise methodology is followed that combines participatory approaches with statistical, remote sensing and Geographic Information System techniques to develop community level vulnerability indices in three watersheds (Dano, Burkina Faso; Dassari, Benin; Vea, Ghana). The results show varying levels of risk profiles across the three watersheds. Statistically significant high levels of mean risk in the Dano area of Burkina Faso are found whilst communities in the Dassari area of Benin show low mean risk. The high risk in the Dano area results from, among other factors, underlying high exposure to droughts and rainstorms, longer dry season duration, low caloric intake per capita, and poor local institutions. The study introduces the concept of community impact score (CIS) to validate the indicator-based risk and vulnerability modelling. The CIS measures the cumulative impact of the occurrence of multiple hazards over five years. 65.3% of the variance in observed impact of hazards/CIS was explained by the risk models and communities with high simulated disaster risk generally follow areas with high observed disaster impacts. Results from this study will help disaster managers to better understand disaster risk and develop appropriate, inclusive and well integrated mitigation and adaptation plans at the local level. It fulfills the increasing need to balance global/regional assessments with community level assessments where major decisions

  5. Risk environments facing potential users of a supervised injection site in Ottawa, Canada.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Ashley; Lazarus, Lisa; Pantalone, Tyler; LeBlanc, Sean; Lin, Dolly; Stanley, Daina; Chepesiuk, Caleb; Patel, Sheetal; Tyndall, Mark

    2015-10-22

    Supervised injection sites (SISs) have been effective in reducing health risks among people who inject drugs (PWID), including those who face issues of homelessness, mental health illness, interactions with local policing practices, and HIV infection. We investigate the risk behaviours and risk environments currently faced by potential users of an SIS in Ottawa to establish the need for such a service and to contribute to the design of an SIS that can address current health risks and reduce harm. The PROUD cohort is a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project that examines the HIV risk environment among people who use drugs in Ottawa. From March to October 2013, 593 people who reported using injection drugs or smoking crack cocaine were enrolled through street-based recruitment in the ByWard Market neighbourhood, an area of the city with a high concentration of public drug use and homelessness. Participants completed a demographic, behavioural, and risk environment questionnaire and were offered HIV point-of-care testing. We undertook descriptive and univariate analyses to estimate potential use of an SIS by PWID in Ottawa and to explore risk behaviours and features of the risk environment faced by potential users of the service. Of those participants who reported injecting drugs in the previous 12 months (n = 270), 75.2 % (203) reported a willingness to use an SIS in Ottawa. Among potential SIS users, 24.6 % had recently injected with a used needle, 19.0 % had trouble accessing new needles, 60.6 % were unstably housed, 49.8 % had been redzoned by the police, and 12.8 % were HIV positive. Participants willing to use an SIS more frequently injected in public (OR = 1.98, 95 % CI = 1.06-3.70), required assistance to inject (OR = 1.84, 95 % CI = 1.00-3.38), were hepatitis C positive (OR = 2.13, 95 % CI = 1.16-3.91), had overdosed in the previous year (OR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.02-3.92), and identified as LGBTQ

  6. Why does society accept a higher risk for alcohol than for other voluntary or involuntary risks?

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Room, Robin

    2014-10-21

    Societies tend to accept much higher risks for voluntary behaviours, those based on individual decisions (for example, to smoke, to consume alcohol, or to ski), than for involuntary exposure such as exposure to risks in soil, drinking water or air. In high-income societies, an acceptable risk to those voluntarily engaging in a risky behaviour seems to be about one death in 1,000 on a lifetime basis. However, drinking more than 20 g pure alcohol per day over an adult lifetime exceeds a threshold of one in 100 deaths, based on a calculation from World Health Organization data of the odds in six European countries of dying from alcohol-attributable causes at different levels of drinking. The voluntary mortality risk of alcohol consumption exceeds the risks of other lifestyle risk factors. In addition, evidence shows that the involuntary risks resulting from customary alcohol consumption far exceed the acceptable threshold for other involuntary risks (such as those established by the World Health Organization or national environmental agencies), and would be judged as not acceptable. Alcohol's exceptional status reflects vagaries of history, which have so far resulted in alcohol being exempted from key food legislation (no labelling of ingredients and nutritional information) and from international conventions governing all other psychoactive substances (both legal and illegal). This is along with special treatment of alcohol in the public health field, in part reflecting overestimation of its beneficial effect on ischaemic disease when consumed in moderation. A much higher mortality risk from alcohol than from other risk factors is currently accepted by high income countries.

  7. Education Innovation: Case Studies in e-Learning and Face-to-Face Teaching in Higher Education: What is the Best?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, J. A.

    Education innovation is here to stay. This chapter gives the results of a study of the application of information and communication technology to advanced teaching and learning activities. It is strategically important that the technology opens up new ways of teaching and learning. The purpose of this chapter is firstly to identify the typical advanced teaching and learning activities/functions that can be applied in e-Learning and face-to-face teaching and learning. Case studies were selected from a group of teachers who have already been involved in both teaching modes for some years and thus have experience in blended teaching and learning. A number of teaching activities/functions were seen as positive in their application in the e-Learning situation. Those that stand out are peer review and collaboration, promotion of reflection and stimulation of critical and creative thinking, team teaching, promotion of discovery/extension of knowledge, and problematization of the curriculum. In face-to-face teaching and learning, inviting engagement, how to come to know, involving metaphors and analogies, teaching that connects to learning, inspire change, promote understanding, and others stand out. As seen by the teachers in the case studies, both e-Learning and face-to-face teaching and learning are seen as complementary to each other. We define this view as blended teaching and learning.

  8. Randomized trial comparing computer-delivered and face-to-face personalized feedback interventions for high-risk drinking among college students.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Theodore L; Leffingwell, Thad R; Mignogna, Joe; Mignogna, Melissa R; Weaver, Cameron C; Cooney, Nathaniel J; Claborn, Kasey R

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of two brief personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) using identical feedback and motivational interviewing strategies aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems to two control conditions among a sample of high-risk drinking college students. Students (N = 152) were randomly assigned to a computer-delivered PFI with a video interviewer, a face-to-face PFI with a live interviewer, a comprehensive assessment condition, or a minimal assessment-only condition. At 10 weeks posttreatment, the face-to-face PFI significantly reduced weekly drinking quantity and peak and typical blood alcohol concentration compared with the comprehensive assessment and minimal assessment-only conditions (d values ranged from 0.32 to 0.61). No significant between-group differences were evidenced for the computer-delivered PFI condition, although effect sizes were comparable to other college drinking studies using computer-delivered interventions (d values ranged from 0.20 to 0.27). Results provide further support for the use of a face-to-face PFI to help reduce college students' alcohol consumption and suggest that a video interviewer in the context of a computer-delivered PFI is likely a helpful but not necessarily a complete substitute for a live interviewer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Linking Infant-Directed Speech and Face Preferences to Language Outcomes in Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droucker, Danielle; Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to examine whether biases for infant-directed (ID) speech and faces differ between infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (SIBS-A) and infant siblings of typically developing children (SIBS-TD), and whether speech and face biases predict language outcomes and risk group membership.…

  10. Risk in the Clouds?: Security Issues Facing Government Use of Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyld, David C.

    Cloud computing is poised to become one of the most important and fundamental shifts in how computing is consumed and used. Forecasts show that government will play a lead role in adopting cloud computing - for data storage, applications, and processing power, as IT executives seek to maximize their returns on limited procurement budgets in these challenging economic times. After an overview of the cloud computing concept, this article explores the security issues facing public sector use of cloud computing and looks to the risk and benefits of shifting to cloud-based models. It concludes with an analysis of the challenges that lie ahead for government use of cloud resources.

  11. Tropical amphibian populations experience higher disease risk in natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Becker, C Guilherme; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2011-06-14

    Habitat loss and disease are main drivers of global amphibian declines, yet the interaction between them remains largely unexplored. Here we show that paradoxically, habitat loss is negatively associated with occurrence, prevalence, and infection intensity of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in amphibian populations in the tropics. At a large spatial scale, increased habitat loss predicted lower disease risk in amphibian populations across Costa Rica and eastern Australia, even after jointly considering the effect of potential biotic and abiotic correlates. Lower host-species richness and suboptimal microclimates for Bd in disturbed habitats are potential mechanisms underlying this pattern. Furthermore, we found that anthropogenic deforestation practices biased to lowlands and natural vegetation remaining in inaccessible highlands explain increased Bd occurrence at higher elevations. At a smaller spatial scale, holding constant elevation, latitude, and macroclimate, we also found a negative relationship between habitat loss, and both Bd prevalence and infection intensity in frog populations in two landscapes of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Our results indicate that amphibians will be disproportionately affected by emerging diseases in pristine environments, and that, paradoxically, disturbed habitats may act as shelters from disease, but only for the very few species that can tolerate deforestation. Thus, tropical amphibian faunas are threatened both by destruction of natural habitats as well as increased disease in pristine forests. To curb further extinctions and develop effective mitigation and restoration programs we must look to interactions between habitat loss and disease, the two main factors at the root of global amphibian declines.

  12. Tropical amphibian populations experience higher disease risk in natural habitats

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C. Guilherme; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat loss and disease are main drivers of global amphibian declines, yet the interaction between them remains largely unexplored. Here we show that paradoxically, habitat loss is negatively associated with occurrence, prevalence, and infection intensity of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in amphibian populations in the tropics. At a large spatial scale, increased habitat loss predicted lower disease risk in amphibian populations across Costa Rica and eastern Australia, even after jointly considering the effect of potential biotic and abiotic correlates. Lower host-species richness and suboptimal microclimates for Bd in disturbed habitats are potential mechanisms underlying this pattern. Furthermore, we found that anthropogenic deforestation practices biased to lowlands and natural vegetation remaining in inaccessible highlands explain increased Bd occurrence at higher elevations. At a smaller spatial scale, holding constant elevation, latitude, and macroclimate, we also found a negative relationship between habitat loss, and both Bd prevalence and infection intensity in frog populations in two landscapes of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Our results indicate that amphibians will be disproportionately affected by emerging diseases in pristine environments, and that, paradoxically, disturbed habitats may act as shelters from disease, but only for the very few species that can tolerate deforestation. Thus, tropical amphibian faunas are threatened both by destruction of natural habitats as well as increased disease in pristine forests. To curb further extinctions and develop effective mitigation and restoration programs we must look to interactions between habitat loss and disease, the two main factors at the root of global amphibian declines. PMID:21628560

  13. College 101: Introducing At-Risk Students to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Before graduate school, before his undergraduate degree, before community college, all throughout K-12, this author was considered an "at-risk" student--at risk of dropping out of school. During those early years, he took note of the things that seemed unjust and now he directs his academic work toward engaging at-risk students and…

  14. College 101: Introducing At-Risk Students to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Before graduate school, before his undergraduate degree, before community college, all throughout K-12, this author was considered an "at-risk" student--at risk of dropping out of school. During those early years, he took note of the things that seemed unjust and now he directs his academic work toward engaging at-risk students and…

  15. Head, face and neck injury in youth rugby: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P; Finch, C F; Wolfe, R

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the incidence of head, neck and facial injuries in youth rugby was determined, and the associated risk factors were assessed. Data were extracted from a cluster randomised controlled trial of headgear with the football teams as the unit of randomisation. No effect was observed for headgear use on injury rates, and the data were pooled. General school and club-based community competitive youth rugby in the 2002 and 2003 seasons. Young male rugby union football players participating in under-13, under 15, under 18 and under 21 years competitions. Eighty-two teams participated in year 1 and 87 in year 2. Injury rates for all body regions combined, head, neck and face calculated for game and missed game injuries. 554 head, face and neck injuries were recorded within a total of 28 902 h of rugby game exposure. Level of play and player position were related to injury risk. Younger players had the lowest rates of injury; forwards, especially the front row had the highest rate of neck injury; and inside backs had the highest rate of injuries causing the player to miss a game. Contact events, including the scrum and tackle, were the main events leading to injury. Injury prevention must focus on the tackle and scrum elements of a youth rugby game.

  16. [Histologic risk factors of basal cell carcinoma of the face, about 184 cases].

    PubMed

    Wavreille, O; Martin De Lassalle, E; Wavreille, G; Mortier, L; Martinot Duquennoy, V

    2012-12-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer in humans. The aim of our study was to determine the histologic risk factors involved in recurrence of basal cell carcinomas of the face. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with primary basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the face treated between March 2003 and December 2005. We analyzed the size of lateral and deep margins of tumor, histologic subtype, perineural invasion, and ulcerations. Clinical follow-up was observed until June 2011. We note that 184 cases of BCC were included. Eleven recurrences occurred during the follow-up, i.e. 6%. The population was divided into two groups according to histologic safety margins (1 mm for all basal cell carcinomas, 0.8 mm for nodular and 2 mm for aggressive-growth (AG-BCC) subtypes). There was a significant difference between groups in regards to cancer recurrence. Tumor size above 2 cm and presence of perineural invasion increased the risk of recurrence. Low histological safety margins appear to be critical on tumor recurrence. Depending on the tumor characteristics, and the patient, we advocate a re-excision in cases of histological safety margins inferior to 0.8 mm for the nodular subtypes and 2 mm for aggressive subtypes. Tumor size, and perineural invasion should be taken into consideration so as to make a well-informed decision between re-excision and a watching strategy in critical cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk Assessment of Face Skin Exposure to UV Irradiance from Different Rotation Angle Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Gao, Qian; Deng, Yan; Chen, Rentong; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) is one of the environmental pathogenic factors causing skin damage. Aiming to assess the risk of face skin exposure to UV irradiance from different rotation angles, a rotating model was used to monitor the exposure of the skin on the face to UV irradiance, with skin damage action spectra used to determine the biologically effective UV irradiance (UVBEskin) and UVBEskin radiant exposure (HBEskin) causing skin damage. The results indicate that the UVBEskin is directly influenced by variations in rotation angles. A significant decrease of approximately 52.70% and 52.10% in UVBEskin was found when the cheek and nose measurement sites was rotated from 0° to 90°, while a decrease of approximately 62.70% was shown when the forehead measurement sites was rotated from an angle of 0° to 108°. When HBEskin was compared to the exposure limits (ELs; 30 J·m−2), the maximum relative risk ratios (RR) for cheek, nose, and forehead were found to be approximately 2.01, 2.40, and 2.90, respectively, which were all measured at a rotation angle of 0°. The maximal increase in the percentage of the average HBEskin for rotation angles of 60°, 120°, 180°, and 360° facing the sun to ELs were found to be approximately 62.10%, 52.72%, 43.43%, and 26.27% for the cheek; approximately 130.61%, 109.68%, 86.43%, and 50.06% for the nose; and approximately 178.61%, 159.19%, 134.38%, and 83.41% for the forehead, respectively. PMID:28587318

  18. Risk Management and Insurance. Guidelines for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John F.

    Insurance companies, following the campus unrest of the late 1960's and early 1970's, became rather wary of insuring college and university campuses because of the great amount of risk involved. As a study committee found, however, the risk of insuring educational facilities had been overestimated due to widespread newspaper and television…

  19. Transracial Mothering and Maltreatment: Are Black/White Biracial Children at Higher Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusco, Rachel A.; Rautkis, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The number of people identifying as biracial is rapidly growing, though little is known about the experiences of interracial families. Previous work indicates that biracial children may be at elevated risk of entering the child welfare system. This could underscore additional risks faced by these families. This document includes data from the…

  20. Casualization of Academics in the Australian Higher Education: Is Teaching Quality at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lama, Tek; Joullié, Jean-Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the issues casual academics face in Australia and whether these pose risks to teaching quality. The logic of the rampant casualisation in Australian universities is exposed first (i.e., mainly flexibility and cost saving to offset drops in government funding), followed by a discussion on the theoretical risks casualisation…

  1. The Evidence for a Risk-Based Approach to Australian Higher Education Regulation and Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Fleur

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the nascent field of risk management in higher education, which is of particular relevance in Australia currently, as the Commonwealth Government implements its plans for a risk-based approach to higher education regulation and quality assurance. The literature outlines the concept of risk management and risk-based approaches…

  2. The Evidence for a Risk-Based Approach to Australian Higher Education Regulation and Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Fleur

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the nascent field of risk management in higher education, which is of particular relevance in Australia currently, as the Commonwealth Government implements its plans for a risk-based approach to higher education regulation and quality assurance. The literature outlines the concept of risk management and risk-based approaches…

  3. Diabetes Risk May Be Higher for HIV-Positive Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... people to live longer with HIV, which may increase their risk for other chronic health issues, such as diabetes. The study was published online Jan. 30 in BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care . " ...

  4. Early Puberty Linked to Higher Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated with early menarche was still apparent after accounting for adiposity. Around half of the increased risk ... About Us Who We Are Careers Contact Us Policies Corporate Support Newsroom Press Releases For Professionals En ...

  5. Disabled Kids At Higher Risk of Abuse, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overall, the researchers found that children with autism, Down syndrome or certain birth defects, such as spina bifida, ... were, the findings showed. Similarly, children with autism, Down syndrome and birth defects were not at heightened risk, ...

  6. Meeting the Challenges of Enterprise Risk Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattie, John

    2007-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) and the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) held a summit on enterprise risk management (ERM) in Washington DC with senior officers and trustees from several leading colleges and universities. Approximately 40…

  7. After Cancer, Higher Risk of Severe Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... this type of heart attack, called ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). One in 10 had a history of ... that cancer survivors had a higher rate of heart attack, not all of those attacks proved fatal. In ...

  8. Water Planning in Phoenix: Managing Risk in the Face of Climatic Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gober, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Decision Center for a Desert City (DCDC) was founded in 2004 to develop scientifically-credible support tools to improve water management decisions in the face of growing climatic uncertainty and rapid urbanization in metropolitan Phoenix. At the center of DCDC's effort is WaterSim, a model that integrates information about water supply from groundwater, the Colorado River, and upstream watersheds and water demand from land use change and population growth. Decision levers enable users to manipulate model outcomes in response to climate change scenarios, drought conditions, population growth rates, technology innovations, lifestyle changes, and policy decisions. WaterSim allows users to examine the risks of water shortage from global climate change, the tradeoffs between groundwater sustainability and lifestyle choices, the effects of various policy decisions, and the consequences of delaying policy for the exposure to risk. WaterSim is an important point of contact for DCDC’s relationships with local decision makers. Knowledge, tools, and visualizations are co-produced—by scientists and policy makers, and the Center’s social scientists mine this co-production process for new insights about model development and application. WaterSim is less a static scientific product and more a dynamic process of engagement between decision makers and scientists.

  9. [To face up the disease strategy as a risk factor for the life style in type 2 diabetics].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Rocha, Santiago Aritio; Galicia-Rodríguez, Liliana; Vargas-Daza, Emma Rosa; Martínez-González, Lidia; Villarreal-Ríos, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    To identify to the life style as a risk factor after the strategy of facing the disease in type 2 diabetic patients. A study of cases and controls was made in patients with type 2 diabetes of five primary care units in the metropolitan area of Queretaro city. The sample size was of 48 patients by group. They were chosen by quota in the waiting room. Sociodemographic variables and health aspects were included in the questionnaire. The life style was investigated by the Instrument to Measure the Style of Life in Diabetics (IMEVID). For the evaluation of type of facing the scale of Strategy of Facing was used as opposed to extreme risks. Measures of central tendency, χ² and odds ratio were included. The type of active facing was a risk factor for the style of life with a p = 0.0001. The strategy of active facing disease is a risk factor for the style of life in the type 2 diabetic patient.

  10. Quantification, Risk, and the Rhetoric of Higher Education Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This essay is a contribution to the literature of critique of higher education policy and management. It offers a general discussion of problems arising from the proliferation of mechanisms of audit and quality assurance within the context of concerns about dependence on quantitative measures of values. It argues that uncritical dependence on…

  11. Quantification, Risk, and the Rhetoric of Higher Education Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This essay is a contribution to the literature of critique of higher education policy and management. It offers a general discussion of problems arising from the proliferation of mechanisms of audit and quality assurance within the context of concerns about dependence on quantitative measures of values. It argues that uncritical dependence on…

  12. Alternative Providers of Higher Education: What Are the Risks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    The part of the higher education sector in the United Kingdom in which providers are not publicly-funded (including for-profit, not-for-profit and charitable) has been expanding considerably under Government encouragement. This paper aims to clarify the practical and public policy issues now emerging, by tracing the history of the emergence of…

  13. The Internet at Risk: The Need for Higher Education Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, James X.

    2007-01-01

    The higher education community has long appreciated the potential of the Internet to expand access to information, facilitate communication, and promote human development. From the inception of the Internet, colleges and universities have worked to advance the realization of that potential. Today, advocacy in support of the open, innovative, and…

  14. Meta-analysis shows that infants who have suffered neonatal sepsis face an increased risk of mortality and severe complications.

    PubMed

    Bakhuizen, Sabine E; de Haan, Timo R; Teune, Margreet J; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; van der Heyden, Jantien L; van der Ham, David P; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2014-12-01

    Infants suffering from neonatal sepsis face an increased risk of early death and long-term neurodevelopmental delay. This paper analyses and summarises the existing data on short-term and long-term outcomes of neonatal sepsis, based on 12 studies published between January 2000 and 1 April 2012 and covering 3669 neonates with sepsis. Infants who have suffered neonatal sepsis face an increased risk of mortality and severe complications such as brain damage and, or, neurodevelopmental delay. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effectiveness of personalized face-to-face and telephone nursing counseling interventions for cardiovascular risk factors: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vílchez Barboza, Vivian; Klijn, Tatiana Paravic; Salazar Molina, Alide; Sáez Carrillo, Katia Lorena

    2016-08-08

    to evaluate the effect and gender differences of an innovative intervention involving in-person and telephone nursing counseling to control cardiovascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight), improve health-related quality of life and strengthen self-efficacy and social support in persons using the municipal health centers' cardiovascular health program. a randomized controlled clinical trial involving participants randomized into the intervention group who received traditional consultation plus personalized and telephone nursing counseling for 7 months (n = 53) and the control group (n = 56). The study followed the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement. women in the intervention group presented a significant increase in the physical and mental health components compared to the control group, with decreases in weight, abdominal circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the atherogenic index. The effects attributable to the intervention in the men in the intervention group were increased physical and emotional roles and decreased systolic and diastolic pressure, waist circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, cardiovascular risk factor, and 10-year coronary risk. this intervention is an effective strategy for the control of three cardiovascular risk factors and the improvement of health-related quality of life. evaluar efecto y diferencias por sexo de una intervención innovadora "Consejería de Enfermería Personalizada y Telefónica", dirigida al control de factores de riesgo cardiovascular (hipertensión arterial, dislipidemia y sobrepeso) y al mejoramiento de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, fortaleciendo la autoeficacia y el apoyo social en personas usuarias del programa de salud cardiovascular de los Centros de Salud Municipales de Concepción. ensayo clínico controlado aleatoriamente y selección aleatoria de

  16. Higher Maternal Dietary Protein Intake Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Asian Cohort.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei Wei; Colega, Marjorelee; Cai, Shirong; Chan, Yiong Huak; Padmapriya, Natarajan; Chen, Ling-Wei; Soh, Shu-E; Han, Wee Meng; Tan, Kok Hian; Lee, Yung Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Ff

    2017-04-01

    Background: Dietary protein may affect glucose metabolism through several mechanisms, but results from studies on dietary protein intake and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been inconsistent.Objective: We examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary protein intake from different food sources during pregnancy with the risk of GDM in a multiethnic Asian population.Methods: We included 980 participants with singleton pregnancies from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort. Protein intake was ascertained from 24-h dietary recall and 3-d food diaries at 26-28 wk gestation. GDM was defined as fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L and/or 2-h postload glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L at 26-28 wk gestation. We evaluated the association of dietary protein intake with GDM risk by substituting carbohydrate with protein in an isocaloric model with the use of multivariable logistic regression analysis.Results: The prevalence of GDM was 17.9% among our participants. After adjustment for potential confounders, a higher total dietary protein intake was associated with a higher risk of GDM; the OR comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of intake was 2.15 (95% CI: 1.27, 3.62; P-trend = 0.016). Higher intake levels of both animal protein (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.58, 5.20; P-trend = 0.001) and vegetable protein (OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 0.99, 3.20; P-trend = 0.009) were associated with a higher risk of GDM. Among the animal protein sources, higher intake levels of seafood protein (OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.26, 3.72; P-trend = 0.023) and dairy protein (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.15; P-trend = 0.017) were significantly associated with a higher GDM risk.Conclusion: Higher intake levels of both animal and vegetable protein were associated with a higher risk of GDM in Asian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. [Comparison between methods as polling booth survey and face-to-face interview in understanding the high-risk behavior among HIV-positive clients of female sex workers].

    PubMed

    Wu, Peili; Zhou, Chu; Zhou, Yang; Ren, Xianlong; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Junshi; Deng, Xiaojun; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou

    2015-04-01

    Face-to-face interview (FTFI) and polling booth survey (PBS) were applied to compare the high risk behavior among HIV-positive clients of female sex workers (CFSWs). This study was conducted in antiretroviral therapy (ART) out-patients centers in Hengyang city, where clients who had been informed on their HIV-positive status for 6 months or longer were recruited. FTFI was first used to tackle on 8 sensitive questions related to sexual behavior, followed by PBS to poke on the same questions. Results from FTFI and PBS were then compared. Compared with FIFI, results in the PBS showed higher proportion of participants who reported "having had history of sexually transmitted diseases before knowing that they were infected with HIV" (40.6% vs. 24.2%) but lower proportions on "frequency of having sex with regular sexual partner less than 4 times per month" and "using condoms consistently with regular sexual partners in past 6 months (44.4% vs. 63.0%)". There were no significant differences in the remaining 5 questions shown in the results from the two methods. HIV-positive CFSWs continued to practice unsafe sexual behaviors after knowing their HIV related status. Compared with FTFI, PBS seemed to have revealed higher proportion of unsafe sex behaviors, so as to generated more reliable data. While comparing with PBS, the traditional FTFI might have underestimated the risk behaviors among those HIV-positive CFSWs.

  18. Maternal depressive history, teen 5HTTLPR genotype, and the processing of emotional faces: Exploring mechanisms of risk.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Rachel H; Pine, Daniel S; Schoeny, Michael E; Henry, David B; Gollan, Jackie K; Moy, Gregory; Cook, Edwin H; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2011-01-01

    Variations in the serotonin transporter gene (5HTTLPR) and biased processing of face-emotion displays both have been implicated in the transmission of depression risk, but little is known about developmental influences on these relationships. Within a community sample of adolescents, we examine whether 5HTTLPR genotype moderates the link between maternal depressive history and errors in face-emotion labeling. When controlling for current levels of depression and anxiety among youth, a two-way interaction between maternal depressive history and 5HTTLPR genotype was detected. Specifically, adolescents whose mothers reported a depressive history and who had a low expressing genotype made more errors in classifying emotional faces when compared with adolescents with an intermediate or high expressing genotype, with or without maternal depression history. These findings highlight the complex manner in which maternal depression and genetic risk may interact to predict individual differences in social information processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal depressive history, teen 5HTTLPR genotype, and the processing of emotional faces: Exploring mechanisms of risk

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Pine, Daniel S.; Schoeny, Michael E.; Henry, David B.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Moy, Gregory; Cook, Edwin H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2010-01-01

    Variations in the serotonin transporter gene (5HTTLPR) and biased processing of face-emotion displays both have been implicated in the transmission of depression risk, but little is known about developmental influences on these relationships. Within a community sample of adolescents, we examine whether 5HTTLPR genotype moderates the link between maternal depressive history and errors in face-emotion labeling. When controlling for current levels of depression and anxiety among youth, a two-way interaction between maternal depressive history and 5HTTLPR genotype was detected. Specifically, adolescents whose mothers reported a depressive history and who had a low expressing genotype made more errors in classifying emotional faces when compared with adolescents with an intermediate or high expressing genotype, with or without maternal depression history. These findings highlight the complex manner in which maternal depression and genetic risk may interact to predict individual differences in social information processing, as it is moderated by the 5HTTLPR genotype. PMID:21092937

  20. Could Low Vitamin D Levels at Birth Mean Higher MS Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162317.html Could Low Vitamin D Levels at Birth Mean Higher MS Risk? Perhaps, ... HealthDay News) -- Newborns with low levels of vitamin D may have higher odds of developing multiple sclerosis ( ...

  1. When Worlds Collide--Examining the Challenges Faced by Teacher Education Programmes Combining Professional Vocational Competence with Academic Study, Lessons from Further Education to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges faced by higher education institutions in designing, teaching and quality assuring programmes of study which, of necessity, must combine the gaining of professional vocational competence with academic study. The paper gives recognition to the policy framework in which these programmes fit--with particular…

  2. Life Course Challenges Faced by Siblings of Individuals with Schizophrenia May Increase Risk for Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew J; Greenberg, Jan S; Sciortino, Sarah A; Sandoval, Gisela M; Lukens, Ellen P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests siblings of individuals with schizophrenia are at a heightened risk for depressive symptomatology. Research has not yet examined whether the strains of growing up with a brother or sister with schizophrenia contribute to this risk. This study examined whether early life course burdens associated with an emerging mental illness, and current objective and subjective caregiver burden predicted depressive symptoms in siblings of individuals with schizophrenia. Method Forty-one siblings of individuals with schizophrenia were recruited from a large study of schizophrenia neurobiology to complete a self-administered questionnaire and a neuropsychological test battery. Results Early life course burdens and current objective and subjective burdens explained incremental variance in depressive symptoms of siblings of individuals with schizophrenia after accounting for gender and global neurocognitive function. Higher levels of depressive symptoms among siblings were associated with perceptions of being stigmatized by the community (β=.37, p<.01), and perceiving that the brother or sister’s emerging illness negatively impacted the sibling’s social life during childhood and adolescence (β=.39, p<.01). Taking on adult responsibilities while the sibling was growing up was found to be protective against depressive symptoms in adulthood (β= −.36, p<.01). Conclusions Early life course burdens associated with having a sibling with schizophrenia and current subjective burden provide insight into psychosocial factors that may contribute to the risk for depression in this sibling group. Mental health service providers and psychoeducation programs would benefit by considering these factors when developing family-based interventions. PMID:27175217

  3. Impact of acute psychological stress on cardiovascular risk factors in face of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kristian T; Shelton, Richard C; Wan, Jun; Li, Li

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR, although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test. The Trier social stress test, a standardized experimental stress paradigm, was performed on each participant, and emotional and physiological responses were examined. Blood was collected from each subject for insulin, cytokines, and cortisol measurements. Compared with the insulin-sensitive group, individuals with IR had significantly lower ratings of energy and calm, but higher fatigue levels in response to acute stressors. Individuals with IR also showed blunted heart rate reactivity following stress. In addition, the IR status was worsened by acute psychological stress as demonstrated by further increased insulin secretion. Furthermore, individuals with IR showed significantly increased levels of leptin and interleukin-6, but decreased levels of adiponectin, at baseline, stress test, and post-stress period. Our findings in individuals with IR under acute stress would allow a better understanding of the risks for developing CVD and to tailor the interventions for better outcomes.

  4. Rural Americans at Higher Risk of 5 Preventable Causes of Death: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... at Higher Risk of 5 Preventable Causes of Death: CDC More smoking, obesity and less use of seatbelts are some ... a higher risk of these preventable causes of death, the researchers ... rates of cigarette smoking, high blood pressure and obesity. They also get ...

  5. Risk Management: A Guide to Good Practice for Higher Education Institutions. Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This document draws on good practice in the higher education sector and elsewhere to provide practical guidance to higher education institutions in England on risk management. The guide is aimed at those involved in planning and implementing a risk management program. It contains case studies designed to be used as training materials, a sample…

  6. The Governing Board's Role in Risk Management and Insurance for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, John F.

    1973-01-01

    This document addresses questions recognized as of great importance in the realm of college and university administration, questions of the governing boards responsibilities, and liabilities with respect to the management of risk within its educational community. Emphasis is placed on insurance and risk management, higher education and risk,…

  7. Selective Attention toward Angry Faces and Risk for Major Depressive Disorder in Women: Converging Evidence from Retrospective and Prospective Analyses.

    PubMed

    Woody, Mary L; Owens, Max; Burkhouse, Katie L; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-03-01

    The current study examined selective attention toward emotional images as a risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD). Using multiple indices of attention in a dot-probe task (i.e., reaction time [RT] and eye-tracking-based measures) in a retrospective, high-risk design, we found that women with remitted MDD, compared to controls, exhibited greater selective attention toward angry faces across RT and eye-tracking indices and greater attention toward sad faces for RT measures. Second, we followed women with remitted MDD prospectively to determine if the attentional biases retrospectively associated with MDD history would predict MDD recurrence across a two-year follow-up. We found that women who spent a greater proportion of time looking at angry faces during the dot-probe task at the baseline assessment had a significantly shorter time to MDD onset. Taken together, these findings provide converging retrospective and prospective evidence that selective attention toward angry faces may increase risk for MDD recurrence.

  8. Association of higher saturated fat intake with higher risk of hypertension in an urban population of Trivandrum in south India.

    PubMed

    Beegom, R; Singh, R B

    1997-01-03

    Saturated fat intake appears to be a risk factor of insulin resistance which is important in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study aims to demonstrate whether saturated fat intake may be a risk factor of hypertension. Cross-sectional survey in six randomly selected streets in Trivandrum city in south India was conducted to study 1497 randomly selected subjects (737 males and 760 females) of 25-64 years of age. The prevalence of hypertension by Joint National Committee V criteria (> 140/90 were 34.6% (n = 255) in males and 30.7% (n = 234) in females. The consumption of food groups showed that they were within desirable limits. However, the intake of fruit, vegetable, legume and coconuts was lower and saturated fat intake higher (> 10% kcal/day), although total fat intake was within desirable limits. Total and saturated fat intake, and the consumption of coconut oil and butter, flesh foods, milk and yogurt as well as sugar and jaggery were significantly associated with hypertension. Total visible fat (> 20 g/day) intake was positively associated whereas fruit, vegetable, legume and coconut intake (< 400 g/day) was inversely associated with hypertension. Salt intake (> 8 g/day), smoking and illiteracy were not associated with hypertension. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that saturated fat intake, age and body mass index were independently and strongly associated with hypertension whereas fruits, vegetable, legume and coconuts, coconut oil and butter and alcohol (males) intakes were weakly associated with hypertension. The odds ratio indicate higher risk of hypertension due to higher intake of saturated fat in both sexes (mean: odds ratio, 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.09; women, 1.08, 1.06-1.12, P < 0.01). Significant determinants of hypertension were higher saturated fat, particularly coconut oil, and lower fruit, vegetable, legume and coconuts, particularly legumes and coconuts in the diet, apart from

  9. Face engagement during infancy predicts later face recognition ability in younger siblings of children with autism.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, Carina C J M; Gliga, Teodora; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H

    2014-07-01

    Face recognition difficulties are frequently documented in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It has been hypothesized that these difficulties result from a reduced interest in faces early in life, leading to decreased cortical specialization and atypical development of the neural circuitry for face processing. However, a recent study by our lab demonstrated that infants at increased familial risk for ASD, irrespective of their diagnostic status at 3 years, exhibit a clear orienting response to faces. The present study was conducted as a follow-up on the same cohort to investigate how measures of early engagement with faces relate to face-processing abilities later in life. We also investigated whether face recognition difficulties are specifically related to an ASD diagnosis, or whether they are present at a higher rate in all those at familial risk. At 3 years we found a reduced ability to recognize unfamiliar faces in the high-risk group that was not specific to those children who received an ASD diagnosis, consistent with face recognition difficulties being an endophenotype of the disorder. Furthermore, we found that longer looking at faces at 7 months was associated with poorer performance on the face recognition task at 3 years in the high-risk group. These findings suggest that longer looking at faces in infants at risk for ASD might reflect early face-processing difficulties and predicts difficulties with recognizing faces later in life. © 2013 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Predicting high risk of exacerbations in bronchiectasis: the E-FACED score.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Garcia, M A; Athanazio, R A; Girón, R; Máiz-Carro, L; de la Rosa, D; Olveira, C; de Gracia, J; Vendrell, M; Prados-Sánchez, C; Gramblicka, G; Corso Pereira, M; Lundgren, F L; Fernandes De Figueiredo, M; Arancibia, F; Rached, S Z

    2017-01-01

    Although the FACED score has demonstrated a great prognostic capacity in bronchiectasis, it does not include the number or severity of exacerbations as a separate variable, which is important in the natural history of these patients. Construction and external validation of a new index, the E-FACED, to evaluate the predictive capacity of exacerbations and mortality. The new score was constructed on the basis of the complete cohort for the construction of the original FACED score, while the external validation was undertaken with six cohorts from three countries (Brazil, Argentina, and Chile). The main outcome was the number of annual exacerbations/hospitalizations, with all-cause and respiratory-related deaths as the secondary outcomes. A statistical evaluation comprised the relative weight and ideal cut-off point for the number or severity of the exacerbations and was incorporated into the FACED score (E-FACED). The results obtained after the application of FACED and E-FACED were compared in both the cohorts. A total of 1,470 patients with bronchiectasis (819 from the construction cohorts and 651 from the external validation cohorts) were followed up for 5 years after diagnosis. The best cut-off point was at least two exacerbations in the previous year (two additional points), meaning that the E-FACED has nine points of growing severity. E-FACED presented an excellent prognostic capacity for exacerbations (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.82 for at least two exacerbations in 1 year and 0.87 for at least one hospitalization in 1 year) that was statistically better than that of the FACED score (0.72 and 0.78, P<0.05, respectively). The predictive capacities for all-cause and respiratory mortality were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively, with both being similar to those of the FACED. E-FACED score significantly increases the FACED capacity to predict future yearly exacerbations while maintaining the score's simplicity and prognostic capacity for

  11. Predicting high risk of exacerbations in bronchiectasis: the E-FACED score

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Garcia, MA; Athanazio, RA; Girón, R; Máiz-Carro, L; de la Rosa, D; Olveira, C; de Gracia, J; Vendrell, M; Prados-Sánchez, C; Gramblicka, G; Corso Pereira, M; Lundgren, FL; Fernandes De Figueiredo, M; Arancibia, F; Rached, SZ

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the FACED score has demonstrated a great prognostic capacity in bronchiectasis, it does not include the number or severity of exacerbations as a separate variable, which is important in the natural history of these patients. Objective Construction and external validation of a new index, the E-FACED, to evaluate the predictive capacity of exacerbations and mortality. Methods The new score was constructed on the basis of the complete cohort for the construction of the original FACED score, while the external validation was undertaken with six cohorts from three countries (Brazil, Argentina, and Chile). The main outcome was the number of annual exacerbations/hospitalizations, with all-cause and respiratory-related deaths as the secondary outcomes. A statistical evaluation comprised the relative weight and ideal cut-off point for the number or severity of the exacerbations and was incorporated into the FACED score (E-FACED). The results obtained after the application of FACED and E-FACED were compared in both the cohorts. Results A total of 1,470 patients with bronchiectasis (819 from the construction cohorts and 651 from the external validation cohorts) were followed up for 5 years after diagnosis. The best cut-off point was at least two exacerbations in the previous year (two additional points), meaning that the E-FACED has nine points of growing severity. E-FACED presented an excellent prognostic capacity for exacerbations (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.82 for at least two exacerbations in 1 year and 0.87 for at least one hospitalization in 1 year) that was statistically better than that of the FACED score (0.72 and 0.78, P<0.05, respectively). The predictive capacities for all-cause and respiratory mortality were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively, with both being similar to those of the FACED. Conclusion E-FACED score significantly increases the FACED capacity to predict future yearly exacerbations while maintaining the

  12. Exploring Perceived Risk and Risk Reduction Strategies in the Pursuit of Higher Education Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Jason M. S.; Tong, David Yoon Kin; Ariffin, Ahmad Azmi M.

    2017-01-01

    While past studies have merely focused on perceived risks that influence how students select the destination of international education best suited to their needs, research on perceived risk regarding post-purchase behavior remains limited. This study attempts to extend and redefine the perceived risk paradigm by uncovering the underlying elements…

  13. The Long Road--How Evolving Institutional Governance Mechanisms Are Changing the Face of Quality in Portuguese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarrico, Cláudia S.; Veiga, Amélia; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    While a lot has been written regarding the changing management and governance arrangements in higher education, less is known about how this progression relates to quality in higher education. The purpose of this article is to describe the context of governance in Portuguese higher education institutions and how institutional governance…

  14. The Long Road--How Evolving Institutional Governance Mechanisms Are Changing the Face of Quality in Portuguese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarrico, Cláudia S.; Veiga, Amélia; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    While a lot has been written regarding the changing management and governance arrangements in higher education, less is known about how this progression relates to quality in higher education. The purpose of this article is to describe the context of governance in Portuguese higher education institutions and how institutional governance…

  15. Association of higher-risk alcohol consumption with injecting paraphernalia sharing behaviours in intravenous drug users.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Shen, Jiucheng; Deng, Yuan; Liu, Xianling; Li, Jianhua; Wolff, Kim; Finch, Emily

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol use is common among injecting drug users. The coexistence of alcohol consumption and injecting risk behaviour has the potential to increase harms among intravenous drug users (IDUs). This study aimed to determine whether the level of alcohol use is a risk factor for injecting paraphernalia sharing behaviours. A total of 637 treatment-seeking IDUs were assessed for injecting paraphernalia sharing behaviours and drinking risk level as defined by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Multivariate analyses were performed to identify alcohol risk factors associated with injecting paraphernalia sharing behaviours. After adjusting for the effects of ethnicity, employment and drug used, the odds ratio of higher risk drinking for injecting paraphernalia sharing behaviours was 1.92 (95% CI 1.31-2.83). Higher-risk drinking in IDUs is associated with higher rates of injecting paraphernalia sharing behaviours. It is important to take alcohol use into account when evaluating these patients for treatment and designing intervention strategies.

  16. Pushed or pulled? Girls and boys facing early school leaving risk in Italy.

    PubMed

    Borgna, Camilla; Struffolino, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Compared to girls, boys are more at risk of early school leaving. However, it is unclear whether gender differences are driven by push factors, which alienate students from the school system, or pull factors, which attract them out of it. This paper examines gender differences in early school leaving, assessing the role of previous scholastic performance, parental education, and differential employment opportunities. By analyzing two nationally representative datasets, we focus on Italy, a country with high rates of early school leaving and pronounced gender inequalities in the labor market. Our results show that gender effects are partially mediated by scholastic performance, a crucial push factor, and are stronger among low-achieving students, pointing to a higher resilience of girls to academic failure; parental education is highly protective, especially for boys. Yet, boys' higher propensity to drop out is also, at least partly, explained by better employment opportunities in the formal and informal labor market. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Kazemisaleh, Davood; Moshkani-Farahani, Maryam; Shafiee, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20–80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane. PMID:25802829

  18. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Richard Ekman on Challenges, Misconceptions Facing Independent Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education series" to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Richard Ekman, president of the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC), an association of…

  19. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Richard Ekman on Challenges, Misconceptions Facing Independent Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education series" to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Richard Ekman, president of the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC), an association of…

  20. Women Who Gain Weight Between Babies At Higher Risk for Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167528.html Women Who Gain Weight Between Babies at Higher Risk for Diabetes Danger is greatest for women whose weight was normal before they got pregnant, ...

  1. Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher if Baby Covered by Medicaid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163268.html Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher If Baby Covered ... defects cause about one in every five infant deaths in the United States. Now, new research finds ...

  2. Risk of Birth Defects 20 Times Higher for Zika Moms: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk of Birth Defects 20 Times Higher for Zika Moms: CDC Finding highlights importance of preventing infection ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women infected with the Zika virus are 20 times more likely to have ...

  3. Young Adults with Head Trauma May Have Higher Risk of Jail Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... THURSDAY, Dec. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A traumatic brain injury may be linked to a young adult's higher ... These findings contribute to emerging research suggesting traumatic brain injury is an important risk factor for involvement with ...

  4. Six Increasingly Higher Levels of Wellness Based on Holistic Principles and Risk Factor Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1987-01-01

    Describes program for achievement of higher wellness levels based on holistic principles and risk factor science. Levels focus on (1) heart disease risk factors and how to reverse them; (2) unconscious needs at conflict with one's conscious goals; (3) identity status, meaning to love and to be loved; (4) autogenics; and (5) full ego development…

  5. Six Increasingly Higher Levels of Wellness Based on Holistic Principles and Risk Factor Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1987-01-01

    Describes program for achievement of higher wellness levels based on holistic principles and risk factor science. Levels focus on (1) heart disease risk factors and how to reverse them; (2) unconscious needs at conflict with one's conscious goals; (3) identity status, meaning to love and to be loved; (4) autogenics; and (5) full ego development…

  6. Neural correlates of face processing in etiologically-distinct 12-month-old infants at high-risk of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Guy, Maggie W; Richards, John E; Tonnsen, Bridgette L; Roberts, Jane E

    2017-03-16

    Neural correlates of face processing were examined in 12-month-olds at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including 21 siblings of children with ASD (ASIBs) and 15 infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS), as well as 21 low-risk (LR) controls. Event-related potentials were recorded to familiar and novel face and toy stimuli. All infants demonstrated greater N290 amplitude to faces than toys. At the Nc component, LR infants showed greater amplitude to novel stimuli than to their mother's face and own toy, whereas infants with FXS showed the opposite pattern of responses and ASIBs did not differentiate based on familiarity. These results reflect developing face specialization across high- and low-risk infants and reveal neural patterns that distinguish between groups at high-risk for ASD.

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced.

    PubMed

    Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B; Weissenberger, Simon; Akotia, Devang; Raboch, Jiri; Papezova, Hana; Domkarova, Lucie; Stepankova, Tereza; Goetz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs). In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1) impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2) other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3) poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4) other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from both a historical perspective and the one based on the revealing nature of its comorbidities.

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    PubMed Central

    Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B; Weissenberger, Simon; Akotia, Devang; Raboch, Jiri; Papezova, Hana; Domkarova, Lucie; Stepankova, Tereza; Goetz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs). In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1) impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2) other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3) poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4) other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from both a historical perspective and the one based on the revealing nature of its comorbidities. PMID:27042070

  9. Patterns, aetiology and risk factors of intimate partner violence-related injuries to head, neck and face in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) related injuries have been recognized among health care professionals. However, few studies have provided detailed information on injuries to the head, neck and face regions in Chinese women. As abused Chinese women are generally unwilling to disclose IPV and there are differences in socio-demographic characteristics, societal norms and behaviours, the women may exhibit different patterns, aetiology and risk factors of IPV-related HNF injuries. This study aims to examine the patterns of head, neck and face injuries presenting to Accident and Emergency departments, including the anatomical regions, types, severity, aetiology and demographic and non-demographic risk factors of injuries inflicted by intimate partners in Chinese context. Methods Medical charts of 223 women presented to the Accident and Emergency departments of two regional hospitals in Hong Kong between January 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Results Head, neck and face injuries remained the most common injuries found in abused Chinese women (77.6%), and punching with a fist was the most common aetiology (60.2%). In particular, punching with a fist was significantly associated on the upper third of the maxillofacial region (p = .01) and the back part of the head (p = .03). Moreover, cohabiting and separated women were more likely to have multiple injuries than those who were married (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.4, 7.8; OR = 2.1, 95% CI = .4, 11.9). Conclusions The findings enhance the understanding of head, neck and face injuries and inform clinicians about the linkage among injuries and risks in abused Chinese women. PMID:24410868

  10. Toward a Typology of Implementation Challenges Facing English-Medium Instruction in Higher Education: Evidence from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is becoming increasingly internationalized, and the use of English as a medium of instruction for academic content has become commonplace in countries where English is not the native language. However, concerns are growing that the trend toward English-medium instruction (EMI) has accelerated without sufficient thought to the…

  11. Less Developed Countries (LDCs) Facing Higher Education Curricula Reform Challenges in a "New World (Dis)Order"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In a previous article for "EJHE," I detailed Curricula Reform (CR) efforts in Higher Education (HE) in four (relatively) well developed regional and national settings (The EU, the USA, Hong Kong SAR China, and Singapore). I detailed the backdrop motivating the moves by policymakers to reform the curricula in such "world class"…

  12. Preparing for Asia in the New Age of Globalisation: University Language Centres in Face of Changes in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, George X.

    2014-01-01

    British higher education is becoming more and more market-driven following the increase in tuition fees in 2012. As a result, universities need to respond more readily to the market, and student demand and the high employability of graduates are now a priority for most universities. With the growing importance of Asian economies in the new age of…

  13. Toward a Typology of Implementation Challenges Facing English-Medium Instruction in Higher Education: Evidence from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is becoming increasingly internationalized, and the use of English as a medium of instruction for academic content has become commonplace in countries where English is not the native language. However, concerns are growing that the trend toward English-medium instruction (EMI) has accelerated without sufficient thought to the…

  14. Less Developed Countries (LDCs) Facing Higher Education Curricula Reform Challenges in a "New World (Dis)Order"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In a previous article for "EJHE," I detailed Curricula Reform (CR) efforts in Higher Education (HE) in four (relatively) well developed regional and national settings (The EU, the USA, Hong Kong SAR China, and Singapore). I detailed the backdrop motivating the moves by policymakers to reform the curricula in such "world class"…

  15. Preparing for Asia in the New Age of Globalisation: University Language Centres in Face of Changes in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, George X.

    2014-01-01

    British higher education is becoming more and more market-driven following the increase in tuition fees in 2012. As a result, universities need to respond more readily to the market, and student demand and the high employability of graduates are now a priority for most universities. With the growing importance of Asian economies in the new age of…

  16. Committed, Face-Value, Hybrid or Mutual Adaptation? The Experiences of International Students in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Ly Thi

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the adaptation patterns of international Chinese and Vietnamese students in relation to academic writing practices in a higher education context. The study utilises a trans-disciplinary framework for interpreting students' and lecturers' practices within institutional structures. This framework has been developed by infusing a…

  17. Leading at the Coal-Face: The World as Experienced by Subject Coordinators in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Dale; Cohen, Lynne; Campbell-Evans, Glenda; Chang, Paul; Macdonald, Ian; McDonald, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on nationally funded research into the role, capabilities, challenges and professional development needs of subject coordinators in Australian higher education. The second of three data collection phases involved a multi-institutional survey of staff in the role of subject coordinator with the aim of understanding the role…

  18. Committed, Face-Value, Hybrid or Mutual Adaptation? The Experiences of International Students in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Ly Thi

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the adaptation patterns of international Chinese and Vietnamese students in relation to academic writing practices in a higher education context. The study utilises a trans-disciplinary framework for interpreting students' and lecturers' practices within institutional structures. This framework has been developed by infusing a…

  19. Leading at the Coal-Face: The World as Experienced by Subject Coordinators in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Dale; Cohen, Lynne; Campbell-Evans, Glenda; Chang, Paul; Macdonald, Ian; McDonald, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on nationally funded research into the role, capabilities, challenges and professional development needs of subject coordinators in Australian higher education. The second of three data collection phases involved a multi-institutional survey of staff in the role of subject coordinator with the aim of understanding the role…

  20. Do Parents of Girls Have a Higher Risk of Divorce an Eighteen-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diekmann, Andreas; Schmidheiny, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the June 1980 Current Population Survey, Morgan, Lye, and Condran 1988 reported that families with a daughter have a higher divorce risk than families with a son. They attribute this finding to the higher involvement of fathers in raising a son, which in turn promotes marital stability. We investigate the relation between gender…

  1. Do Parents of Girls Have a Higher Risk of Divorce an Eighteen-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diekmann, Andreas; Schmidheiny, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the June 1980 Current Population Survey, Morgan, Lye, and Condran 1988 reported that families with a daughter have a higher divorce risk than families with a son. They attribute this finding to the higher involvement of fathers in raising a son, which in turn promotes marital stability. We investigate the relation between gender…

  2. A Risk and Standards Based Approach to Quality Assurance in Australia's Diverse Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency's (TEQSA's) role is to assure that quality standards are being met by all registered higher education providers. This paper explains how TEQSA's risk-based approach to assuring higher education standards is applied in broad terms to a diverse sector. This explanation is…

  3. Performance of traditional risk factors in identifying a higher than expected coronary atherosclerotic burden.

    PubMed

    Dores, Hélder; de Araújo Gonçalves, Pedro; Ferreira, António Miguel; Carvalho, Maria Salomé; Sousa, Pedro Jerónimo; Cardim, Nuno; Marques, Hugo; Pereira Machado, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in identifying a higher than expected coronary atherosclerotic burden. We assessed 2069 patients undergoing coronary CT angiography, with assessment of calcium score (CS), for suspected coronary artery disease. A higher than expected atherosclerotic burden was defined as CS >75th percentile (CS >P75) according to age and gender-adjusted monograms. The ability of traditional CV risk factors to predict a CS >P75 was assessed in a customized logistic regression model ("Clinical Score") and by the calculation of SCORE (Systemic Coronary Risk Evaluation). The population attributable risk (PAR) of risk factors for CS >P75 was calculated. The median CS was 3.0 (IQR 0.0-98.0); 362 patients had CS >P75. The median SCORE was 3.0 (IQR 1.0-4.0). With the exception of hypertension, all traditional CV risk factors were independent predictors of CS >P75: diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking and family history (OR 1.3-2.2, p≤0.026). The areas under the ROC curves for CS >P75 were 0.64 for the Clinical Score (95% CI 0.61-0.67, p<0.001) and 0.53 for SCORE (95% CI 0.50-0.56, p=0.088). About a quarter of patients with CS >P75 were in the two lower quartiles of the Clinical Score. Altogether, the traditional risk factors explain 56% of the prevalence of CS >P75 (adjusted PAR 0.56). Despite the association of CV risk factors with a higher than expected atherosclerotic burden, they appear to explain only half of its prevalence. Even when integrated in scores, the predictive power of these risk factors was modest, exposing the limitations of risk stratification based solely on demographic and clinical risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. An Exploratory Study to Determine Whether BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers Have Higher Risk of Cardiac Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sajjad, Monique; Fradley, Michael; Sun, Weihong; Kim, Jongphil; Zhao, Xiuhua; Pal, Tuya; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2017-01-01

    Anthracycline-based cardiotoxicity is concerning for women with breast cancer and portends a dose-dependent risk of developing left ventricular dysfunction. Overall, the prevalence of heart failure (HF) is ≈2% of the total US population; however, BRCA-deficient mice have shown increased HF. We evaluated for the inherent risk of HF in women with BRCA mutations to determine whether treatment with anthracycline-based therapy increased this risk. We obtained results on BRCA mutation carriers regarding cancer treatment and HF, identified through the BRCA patient advocacy organization Facing Our Risk for Cancer Empowered (FORCE) and the Moffitt-based Inherited Cancer Registry. In our patient group (232 BRCA1 and 159 BRCA2 patients; 10 with both mutations), 7.7% reported HF, with similar proportions in BRCA1 versus BRCA2 carriers (7.4% and 8.2%, respectively). These proportions are significantly higher than published rates (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in HF rates comparing anthracycline-treated versus anthracycline-naïve patients however (7.1% vs. 8.3%; p = 0.67). In addition, 9.1% of BRCA1 carriers and 8.2% of BRCA2 carriers reported arrhythmias. BRCA mutation carriers showed increased risk of cardiotoxicity versus the general population and an overall increased risk of cardiotoxicity from anthracycline-based therapy. Our study supports data that BRCA carriers have increased non-cancer mortality from cardiotoxicity. A prospective trial to determine HF and conduction abnormalities in this population is warranted. PMID:28157161

  5. Higher serum asymmetric dimethylarginine is related to higher risk of heart failure in the EPIC-Potsdam study.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Janine; Atzler, Dorothee; di Giuseppe, Romina; Cordts, Kathrin; Menzel, Juliane; Böger, Rainer H; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Schwedhelm, Edzard

    2017-01-01

    L-Arginine is the substrate of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase forming NO which inherits various biological cardio-protective functions. The dimethylarginines asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) can impair the synthesis of NO and are elevated in patients with cardiovascular disease, including heart failure (HF). We investigated the association between dimethylarginines and HF risk in a case-cohort study of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (n = 27,548), comprising a random subcohort (n = 2224 including 19 HF cases), and all remaining HF cases (n = 176) that occurred within 8.3 years of follow-up. Serum concentrations of dimethylarginines were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated across quartiles and per doubling of ADMA and SDMA concentrations using Cox's proportional hazards regression. After multivariable adjustment, each doubling of ADMA was associated with a 60% higher HF risk (HR [95% CI] 1.60 [1.10-2.31]). Between SDMA and HF risk a U-shaped association was observed (HR [95% CI] for the second, third and fourth quartile compared to the first: 0.52 [0.33-0.82], 0.63 [0.40-0.99], and 0.71 [0.46-1.10], p for nonlinearity <0.01). We provide substantiated evidence for a relationship between ADMA and cardiovascular endpoints. In addition to the established relation between ADMA and myocardial infarction, our findings indicate a positive association between ADMA and HF incidence in persons without apparent myocardial infarction. Targeting the ADMA metabolism might open up new therapeutic perspective for HF prevention and treatment. Further investigations are needed to shed more light on mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of HF related to elevated ADMA levels.

  6. The influence of risk perception on biosafety level-2 laboratory workers' hand-to-face contact behaviors.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Eggett, Dennis; Johnson, Michele J; Reading, James C

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen transmission in the laboratory is thought to occur primarily through inhalation of infectious aerosols or by direct contact with mucous membranes on the face. While significant research has focused on controlling inhalation exposures, little has been written about hand contamination and subsequent hand-to-face contact (HFC) transmission. HFC may present a significant risk to workers in biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratories where there is typically no barrier between the workers' hands and face. The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency and location of HFC among BSL-2 workers, and to identify psychosocial factors that influence the behavior. Research workers (N = 93) from 21 BSL-2 laboratories consented to participate in the study. Two study personnel measured workers' HFC behaviors by direct observation during activities related to cell culture maintenance, cell infection, virus harvesting, reagent and media preparation, and tissue processing. Following observations, a survey measuring 11 psychosocial predictors of HFC was administered to participants. Study personnel recorded 396 touches to the face over the course of the study (mean = 2.6 HFCs/hr). Of the 93 subjects, 67 (72%) touched their face at least once, ranging from 0.2-16.0 HFCs/hr. Among those who touched their face, contact with the nose was most common (44.9%), followed by contact with the forehead (36.9%), cheek/chin (12.5%), mouth (4.0%), and eye (1.7%). HFC rates were significantly different across laboratories F(20, 72) = 1.85, p = 0.03. Perceived severity of infection predicted lower rates of HFC (p = 0.03). For every one-point increase in the severity scale, workers had 0.41 fewer HFCs/hr (r = -.27, P < 0.05). This study suggests HFC is common among BSL-2 laboratory workers, but largely overlooked as a major route of exposure. Workers' risk perceptions had a modest impact on their HFC behaviors, but other factors not considered in this study, including social modeling and

  7. Women with alopecia exhibit a higher risk for thyroid cancer: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Ming-Chia; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Ji-An; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between alopecia and prostate cancer. However, little information is available regarding the relationship between alopecia and the risk of cancers in women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible association between alopecia and thyroid cancer among Taiwanese women. We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan. The alopecia cohort comprised 4534 women, and each woman was randomly frequency matched by age, index month, and index year with 4 women from the general population without alopecia. A Cox proportional hazard regression analysis with Bonferroni correction was conducted to estimate the effects of alopecia on the risk of thyroid cancer. In women with alopecia, the overall risk for developing cancer was 22% higher than for subjects without alopecia, but the difference was not significant [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.22, 97.5% confidence interval (97.5% CI) = 0.87-1.70]. However, the risk for developing thyroid cancer among women with alopecia was significantly higher (HR = 2.39, 97.5% CI = 1.05-5.42). Further analyses determined that the alopecia group had a higher incidence of Graves' disease, but not Hashimoto thyroiditis. Although alopecia did not significantly increase cancer risks in women, we found that Taiwanese women with alopecia had a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer that is unlikely to be related to underlying thyroid diseases. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the P<0.05). Our data indicate that genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure is an independent risk factor for blood pressure increase and incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. To Take Risk is to Face Loss: A Tonic Pupillometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Yechiam, Eldad; Telpaz, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    The construct of risk taking is studied through the prism of the relation between tonic arousal and risk taking behavior. Several theories have proposed that high aroused individuals tend to exhibit risk aversion. We posit that this arousal–behavior association is activated much more strongly in risks with losses, as losses increase arousal and trigger relevant traits associated with the sensitivity to risk. In three studies we examined risk taking in experience-based decision tasks, with either token losses or relative-losses (in the gain domain). In Study 1 we found a negative correlation between pre-task pupil diameter and risk taking in the loss domain but not in the gain domain. In Study 2 we re-analyzed a previous pupillometry dataset involving symmetric mixed gains and losses. We found that the negative correlation in this mixed condition emerged even while the participants did not show loss aversion. This finding was replicated in Study 3. Thus, the effect of losses on arousal provides sufficient conditions for the moderation of the tonic arousal–behavior association. The findings suggest an important role for losses in the psychological and physiological experience of risk. PMID:22125546

  10. Through the Eyes of Higher Education Attorneys: How Department Chairs Are Navigating the Waters of Legal Issues and Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Carol L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Legal and risk management issues substantially impact the operations of colleges and universities, which face escalating compliance requirements in an increasingly litigious environment. Failing to assess legal liability issues and to constructively address them with risk management processes create vulnerability to claims and litigation,…

  11. Through the Eyes of Higher Education Attorneys: How Department Chairs Are Navigating the Waters of Legal Issues and Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Carol L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Legal and risk management issues substantially impact the operations of colleges and universities, which face escalating compliance requirements in an increasingly litigious environment. Failing to assess legal liability issues and to constructively address them with risk management processes create vulnerability to claims and litigation,…

  12. Ecological risk analysis and genetically modified salmon: management in the face of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Darek T R

    2014-02-01

    The commercialization of growth hormone transgenic Atlantic salmon for aquaculture has become a controversial public policy issue. Concerns exist over the potential ecological effects of this biotechnology should animals escape captivity. From within an ecological risk-analysis framework, science has been sought to provide decision makers with evidence upon which to base regulatory decisions pertaining to genetically modified salmon. Here I review the available empirical information on the potential ecological and genetic effects of transgenic salmon and discuss the underlying eco-evolutionary science behind the topic. I conclude that data gaps and irreducible epistemic uncertainties limit the role of scientific inference in support of ecological risk management for transgenic salmon. I argue that predictive uncertainties are pervasive in complex eco-evolutionary systems and that it behooves those involved in the risk-analysis process to accept and communicate these limitations in the interest of timely, clear, and cautious risk-management options.

  13. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?

    PubMed

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap.

  14. Splenectomy is associated with a higher risk for venous thromboembolism: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Debora H; Barmparas, Galinos; Fierro, Nicole; Sun, Beatrice J; Ashrafian, Sogol; Li, Tong; Ley, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Thrombocytosis following splenectomy is a common occurrence. Whether this thrombocytosis leads to a higher risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains unclear. This investigation aimed to determine if splenectomy increases the risk for VTE. This was a prospective study conducted in the SICU between 1/2011 and 11/2013 investigating the VTE risk in patients undergoing a splenectomy compared with those undergoing any other abdominal procedure. In total 2503 patients were admitted to the SICU: 37 (2%) after a splenectomy and 638 (26%) after any other abdominal surgery. Splenectomy patients had a higher incidence of VTE compared to patients undergoing any other abdominal procedure (29.7% vs. 12.1%, p < 0.01). After adjustment, splenectomy was associated with a higher adjusted risk for VTE compared to the no-splenectomy group (AOR [95% CI]: 2.6 [1.2, 5.9], p = 0.02). Reactive thrombocytosis did not predict the development of VTE. Splenectomy increases the risk for VTE, however reactive thrombocytosis is not associated with this higher incidence. Further investigations are required to characterize the pathophysiologic mechanisms of VTE development following splenectomy. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Higher dietary folate intake reduces the breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, P; Li, C; Li, X; Li, J; Chu, R; Wang, H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have investigated the association between folate intake, circulating folate level and risk of breast cancer; however, the findings were inconsistent between the studies. Methods: We searched the PubMed and MEDLINE databases updated to January, 2014 and performed the systematic review and meta-analysis of the published epidemiological studies to assess the associations between folate intake level, circulating folate level and the overall risk of breast cancer. Results: In all, 16 eligible prospective studies with a total of 744 068 participants and 26 205 breast cancer patients and 26 case–control studies with a total of 16 826 cases and 21 820 controls that have evaluated the association between folate intake and breast cancer risk were identified. Pooled analysis of the prospective studies and case–control studies suggested a potential nonlinearity relationship for dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk. Prospective studies indicated a U-shaped relationship for the dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk. Women with daily dietary folate intake between 153 and 400 μg showed a significant reduced breast cancer risk compared with those <153 μg, but not for those >400 μg. The case–control studies also suggested a significantly negative correlation between the dietary folate intake level and the breast cancer risk. Increased dietary folate intake reduced breast cancer risk for women with higher alcohol intake level, but not for those with lower alcohol intake. No significant association between circulating folate level and breast cancer risk was found when the results of 8 identified studies with 5924 participants were pooled. Conclusions: Our studies suggested that folate may have preventive effects against breast cancer risk, especially for those with higher alcohol consumption level; however, the dose and timing are critical and more studies are warranted to further elucidate the questions

  16. Risk assessment in the face of a changing environment: gypsy moth and climate change in Utah.

    PubMed

    Logan, J A; Régnière, J; Gray, D R; Munson, A S

    2007-01-01

    The importance of efficaciously assessing the risk for introduction and establishment of pest species is an increasingly important ecological and economic issue. Evaluation of climate is fundamental to determining the potential success of an introduced or invasive insect pest. However, evaluating climatic suitability poses substantial difficulties; climate can be measured and assessed in a bewildering array of ways. Some physiological filter, in essence a lens that focuses climate through the requirements and constraints of a potential pest introduction, is required. Difficulties in assessing climate suitability are further exacerbated by the effects of climate change. Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is an exotic, tree-defoliating insect that is frequently introduced into the western United States. In spite of an abundance of potential host species, these introductions have yet to result in established populations. The success of eradication efforts and the unsuccessful establishment of many detected and undetected introductions may be related to an inhospitable climate. Climatic suitability for gypsy moth in the western United States, however, is potentially improving, perhaps rapidly, due to a general warming trend that began in the mid 1970s and continues today. In this work, we describe the application of a physiologically based climate suitability model for evaluating risk of gypsy moth establishment on a landscape level. Development of this risk assessment system first required amassing databases that integrated the gypsy moth climatic assessment model, with host species distributions, and climate (historical, present, and future). This integrated system was then used to evaluate climate change scenarios for native host species in Utah, with the result that risk of establishment will dramatically increase during the remainder of the 21st century under reasonable climate change scenarios. We then applied the risk assessment system to several case histories of

  17. Predictors of higher-risk chronic opioid prescriptions in an academic primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Scott R; Hitchner, Lily; Harrison, Hannah; Gerstenberger, John; Steiger, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic noncancer pain treated with higher doses of opioids or concurrent substance use are at increased risk of adverse events. Although several national guidelines recommend maximum dosing thresholds and urine drug testing, adherence to these guidelines is inconsistent. To identify predictors of higher-risk opioid prescriptions in 2 academic primary care clinics, the authors developed a retrospective cohort of 842 patients who were prescribed ≥5 opioid prescriptions for noncancer pain between March 2012 and March 2013. The authors evaluated odds of higher-dose opioid prescriptions and urine drug testing using multivariate logistic models. Among study subjects, 47% received prescriptions for the equivalent of ≥50 mg morphine per day. After adjustment for confounders, patients with a resident primary care provider were less likely to receive higher-dose prescriptions compared with faculty providers (odds ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46-0.94), whereas patients with a nonlocal home address were more likely to be prescribed higher doses (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.5-2.9). Hispanic, Asian, and older patients were also less likely to be prescribed higher doses. Urine drug testing was not regularly completed (35% over 2 years), but odds of testing were higher for patients who self-identified as black, had resident primary care providers, lived locally, or were prescribed higher opioid doses. In this academic clinical setting, patients with a resident primary care provider are less likely to receive higher-risk opioid prescriptions, as are Hispanic, Asian, and older patients. Black patients complete urine drug tests more frequently independent of other patient and provider characteristics. Additional studies are needed to assess why patients who travel larger distances to their primary care clinic are prescribed higher doses of opioids for chronic noncancer pain.

  18. Hazards Faced by Young Designated Drivers: In-Car Risks of Driving Drunken Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, Peter J.; Carroll, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the risk in the practice of young designated drivers transporting drunken peers. Young drivers 18–29 years old in Alberta, Canada participated in 12 focus groups (N = 146). Interviews were semi-structured. A key finding is that when highly intoxicated youth are driven by a designated driver who is a peer, they are likely to behave in ways that are unsafe. Unsafe actions of drunken passengers in the vehicle include physical “rough-housing” with the driver, creating stress for the driver that leads to high risk driving situations and disrupting safe driving through nausea and in-car vomiting. PMID:19578459

  19. Comparison of audio computer assisted self-interview and face-to-face interview methods in eliciting HIV-related risks among men who have sex with men and men who inject drugs in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Sylvia; Obianwu, Otibho; Eluwa, George; Vu, Lung; Oginni, Ayo; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Bashorun, Adebobola; Idogho, Omokhudu; Karlyn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Face-to-face (FTF) interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who inject drugs (MWID). However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) is an interviewing technique that may mitigate social desirability bias in this context. This study evaluated differences in the reporting of HIV-related risky behaviours by MSM and MWID using ACASI and FTF interviews. Between August and September 2010, 712 MSM and 328 MWID in Nigeria were randomized to either ACASI or FTF interview for completion of a behavioural survey that included questions on sensitive sexual and injecting risk behaviours. Data were analyzed separately for MSM and MWID. Logistic regression was run for each behaviour as a dependent variable to determine differences in reporting methods. MSM interviewed via ACASI reported significantly higher risky behaviours with both women (multiple female sexual partners 51% vs. 43%, p = 0.04; had unprotected anal sex with women 72% vs. 57%, p = 0.05) and men (multiple male sex partners 70% vs. 54%, p≤0.001) than through FTF. Additionally, they were more likely to self-identify as homosexual (AOR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.4-4.6) and report drug use in the past 12 months (AOR:40.0, 95%CI: 9.6-166.0). MWID interviewed with ACASI were more likely to report needle sharing (AOR:3.3, 95%CI:1.2-8.9) and re-use (AOR:2.2, 95%CI:1.2-3.9) in the past month and prior HIV testing (AOR:1.6, 95%CI 1.02-2.5). The feasibility of using ACASI in studies and clinics targeting key populations in Nigeria must be explored to increase the likelihood of obtaining more accurate data on high risk behaviours to inform improved risk reduction strategies that reduce HIV transmission.

  20. Comparison of Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview and Face-To-Face Interview Methods in Eliciting HIV-Related Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Men Who Inject Drugs in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebajo, Sylvia; Obianwu, Otibho; Eluwa, George; Vu, Lung; Oginni, Ayo; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Bashorun, Adebobola; Idogho, Omokhudu; Karlyn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Face-to-face (FTF) interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who inject drugs (MWID). However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) is an interviewing technique that may mitigate social desirability bias in this context. Methods This study evaluated differences in the reporting of HIV-related risky behaviours by MSM and MWID using ACASI and FTF interviews. Between August and September 2010, 712 MSM and 328 MWID in Nigeria were randomized to either ACASI or FTF interview for completion of a behavioural survey that included questions on sensitive sexual and injecting risk behaviours. Data were analyzed separately for MSM and MWID. Logistic regression was run for each behaviour as a dependent variable to determine differences in reporting methods. Results MSM interviewed via ACASI reported significantly higher risky behaviours with both women (multiple female sexual partners 51% vs. 43%, p = 0.04; had unprotected anal sex with women 72% vs. 57%, p = 0.05) and men (multiple male sex partners 70% vs. 54%, p≤0.001) than through FTF. Additionally, they were more likely to self-identify as homosexual (AOR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.4–4.6) and report drug use in the past 12 months (AOR:40.0, 95%CI: 9.6–166.0). MWID interviewed with ACASI were more likely to report needle sharing (AOR:3.3, 95%CI:1.2–8.9) and re-use (AOR:2.2, 95%CI:1.2–3.9) in the past month and prior HIV testing (AOR:1.6, 95%CI 1.02–2.5). Conclusion The feasibility of using ACASI in studies and clinics targeting key populations in Nigeria must be explored to increase the likelihood of obtaining more accurate data on high risk behaviours to inform improved risk reduction strategies

  1. Job Loss at Mid-Life: Managers and Executives Face the "New Risk Economy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Ruby; Kalil, Ariel; Spindel, Laurel J.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2008-01-01

    We use a life course framework to examine how the "new risk economy" has left middle-age professionals, managers and executives more vulnerable to job loss and unemployment despite high levels of human capital. Using in-depth qualitative data from 77 recently-unemployed white-collar workers, we examine perceptions of macro-economic…

  2. Women exposed to DES in the womb face increased cancer risk

    Cancer.gov

    A large study of the daughters of women who had been given DES, the first synthetic form of estrogen, during pregnancy has found that exposure to the drug while in the womb (in utero) is associated with many reproductive problems and an increased risk of

  3. Facing Up to the Risks in Commercially Focused University-Industry R&D Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulop, Liz; Couchman, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The number of university-industry R&D partnerships (UIPs) has increased significantly over the past decade, in most OECD countries and in Australia, yet the study of risk in such commercially focused collaborative ventures is still a developing area. This review paper seeks to contribute to debate on this increasingly important phenomenon by…

  4. How family members manage risk around functional decline: The autonomy management process in households facing dementia

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Brandon; Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Gomez, Yarin

    2015-01-01

    Most dementia research investigates the social context of declining ability through studies of decision-making around medical treatment and end-of-life care. This study seeks to fill an important gap in research about how family members manage the risks of functional decline at home. Drawing on three waves of retrospective interviewing in 2012–2014, it investigates how family members in US households manage decline in an affected individual’s natural range of daily activities over time. The findings show that early on in the study period affected individuals were perceived to have awareness of their decline and routinely drew on family members for support. Support transformed when family members detected that the individual’s deficit awareness had diminished, creating a corresponding increase in risk of self-harm around everyday activities. With a loss of confidence in the individual’s ability to regulate his or her own activities to avoid these risks, family members employed unilateral practices to manage the individual’s autonomy around his or her activity involvements. These practices typically involved various deceits and ruses to discourage elders from engaging in activities perceived as potentially dangerous. The study concludes by discussing the implications that the social context of interpretive work around awareness and risk plays an important role in how families perceive an elder’s functional ability and manage his or her activity involvements. PMID:25697634

  5. Getting Your Ducks in a Row: IT Governance, Risk, and Compliance Programs in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bichsel, Jacqueline; Feehan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Higher education IT governance, risk, and compliance (GRC) programs are in the development stage. Few institutions have all three programs in place, and many institutions are unclear where they should start when instituting or maturing their IT GRC programs. In addition, they are often uncertain as to whether GRC programs should be developed in…

  6. Study finds stronger nicotine dependency associated with higher risk of lung cancer

    Cancer.gov

    NCI headed study finds people who are highly addicted to nicotine -- those who smoke their first cigarette within five minutes after awakening -- are at higher risk of developing lung cancer than those who wait for an hour or more to smoke.

  7. Getting Your Ducks in a Row: IT Governance, Risk, and Compliance Programs in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bichsel, Jacqueline; Feehan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Higher education IT governance, risk, and compliance (GRC) programs are in the development stage. Few institutions have all three programs in place, and many institutions are unclear where they should start when instituting or maturing their IT GRC programs. In addition, they are often uncertain as to whether GRC programs should be developed in…

  8. Freezing behaviour facilitates bioelectric crypsis in cuttlefish faced with predation risk.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Christine N; Kajiura, Stephen M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2015-12-07

    Cephalopods, and in particular the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, are common models for studies of camouflage and predator avoidance behaviour. Preventing detection by predators is especially important to this group of animals, most of which are soft-bodied, lack physical defences, and are subject to both visually and non-visually mediated detection. Here, we report a novel cryptic mechanism in S. officinalis in which bioelectric cues are reduced via a behavioural freeze response to a predator stimulus. The reduction of bioelectric fields created by the freeze-simulating stimulus resulted in a possible decrease in shark predation risk by reducing detectability. The freeze response may also facilitate other non-visual cryptic mechanisms to lower predation risk from a wide range of predator types. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. The changing face of nanomaterials: Risk assessment challenges along the value chain.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Simkó, Myrtill

    2017-03-01

    Risk assessment (RA) of manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) is essential for regulatory purposes and risk management activities. Similar to RA of "classical" chemicals, MNM RA requires knowledge about exposure as well as of hazard potential and dose response relationships. What makes MNM RA especially challenging is the multitude of materials (which is expected to increase substantially in the future), the complexity of MNM value chains and life cycles, the accompanying possible changes in material properties over time and in contact with various environmental and organismal milieus, and the difficulties to obtain proper exposure data and to consider the proper dose metric. This article discusses these challenges and also critically overviews the current state of the art regarding MNM RA approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Freezing behaviour facilitates bioelectric crypsis in cuttlefish faced with predation risk

    PubMed Central

    Bedore, Christine N.; Kajiura, Stephen M.; Johnsen, Sönke

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods, and in particular the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, are common models for studies of camouflage and predator avoidance behaviour. Preventing detection by predators is especially important to this group of animals, most of which are soft-bodied, lack physical defences, and are subject to both visually and non-visually mediated detection. Here, we report a novel cryptic mechanism in S. officinalis in which bioelectric cues are reduced via a behavioural freeze response to a predator stimulus. The reduction of bioelectric fields created by the freeze-simulating stimulus resulted in a possible decrease in shark predation risk by reducing detectability. The freeze response may also facilitate other non-visual cryptic mechanisms to lower predation risk from a wide range of predator types. PMID:26631562

  11. Left Visual Field Biases when Infants Process Faces: A Comparison of Infants at High- and Low-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundas, Eva; Gastgeb, Holly; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    While it is well-known that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties processing faces, very little is known about the origins of these deficits. The current study focused on 6- and 11-month-old infants who were at either high-risk (n = 43) or low-risk (n = 31) for developing ASD based on having a sibling already diagnosed…

  12. Left Visual Field Biases when Infants Process Faces: A Comparison of Infants at High- and Low-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundas, Eva; Gastgeb, Holly; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    While it is well-known that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties processing faces, very little is known about the origins of these deficits. The current study focused on 6- and 11-month-old infants who were at either high-risk (n = 43) or low-risk (n = 31) for developing ASD based on having a sibling already diagnosed…

  13. Plastic proteans: reduced predictability in the face of predation risk in hermit crabs.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Mark

    2013-10-23

    Variation in behaviour occurs at multiple levels, including between individuals (personality) and between situations (plasticity). Behaviour also varies within individuals, and intra-individual variation (IIV) in behaviour describes within-individual residual variance in behaviour that remains after the effects of obvious external and internal influences on behaviour have been accounted for. IIV thus describes how predictable an individual's behaviour is. Differences in predictability, between individuals and between situations, might be biologically significant. For example, behaving unpredictably under predation threat might reduce the chance of capture. Here, we investigated the duration of startle responses in hermit crabs, in the presence and absence of a predator cue. Individuals differed in startle response duration (personality) and while individuals also varied in their sensitivity to risk, mean response time was greater in the presence of a predator (plasticity). Moreover, IIV was greater in the presence of a predator, providing some of the first evidence that the facultative injection of unpredictability into behaviour might represent a strategy for dealing with risk.

  14. Risk, ritual and health responsibilisation: Japan's 'safety blanket' of surgical face mask-wearing.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Adam; Horii, Mitsutoshi

    2012-11-01

    This article begins to develop an understanding of surgical mask-wearing in Japan, now a routine practice against a range of health threats. Their usage and associated meanings are explored through surveys conducted in Tokyo with both mask wearers and non-mask wearers. It contests commonly held cultural views of the practice as a fixed and distinctively Japanese collective courtesy to others. A historical analysis suggests that an originally collective, targeted and science-based response to public health threats has dispersed into a generalised practice lacking a clear end or purpose. Developed as part of the biomedical response to the Spanish flu of 1919, the practice resonated with folk assumptions as making a barrier between purity and pollution. But mask-wearing became socially embedded as a general protective practice only from the 1990s through a combination of commercial, corporate and political pressures that responsibilised individual health protection. These developments are usefully understood amidst the uncertainty created by Japan's 'second modernity' and the fracturing of her post-war order. Mask-wearing is only one form of a wider culture of risk; a self-protective risk ritual rather than a selfless collective practice. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

    PubMed

    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Economically optimal risk reduction strategies in the face of uncertain climate thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerney, D.; Keller, K.

    2006-12-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions may trigger climate threshold responses, such as a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC). Climate threshold responses have been interpreted as an example of "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" in the sense of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). One UNFCCC objective is to "prevent" such dangerous anthropogenic interference. The current uncertainty about important parameters of the coupled natural-human system implies, however, that this UNFCCC objective can only be achieved in a probabilistic sense. In other words, climate management can only reduce - but not entirely eliminate - the risk of crossing climate thresholds. Here we use an integrated assessment model of climate change to derive economically optimal risk-reduction strategies. We implement a stochastic version of the DICE model and account for uncertainty about four parameters that have been previously identified as dominant drivers of the uncertain system response. The resulting model is, of course, just a crude approximation as it neglects, for example, some structural uncertainty and focuses on a single threshold, out of many potential climate responses. Subject to this and other caveats, our analysis suggests five main conclusions. First, reducing the numerical artifacts due to sub-sampling the parameter probability density functions to reasonable levels requires thousands of samples. Conclusions of previous studies that are based on much smaller sample sizes may hence need to be revisited. Second, following a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario results in odds for an MOC collapse in the next 150 years exceeding 1 in 3 in this model. Third, an economically "optimal" strategy (that maximizes the expected utility of the decision-maker) reduces carbon dioxide emissions by approximately 25 percent at the end of this century, compared with BAU emissions. Perhaps surprisingly, this

  17. Psychological risks associated with appearance-altering procedures: issues "facing" cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Walter F; Prstojevich, Steven J; Langley, Harriet S; Hlavacek, Matthew R

    2010-11-01

    There is a dynamic and fluid relationship between cosmetic surgery and psychology that requires careful and constant attention from the surgeon. Surgeons all desire a "short and sweet" checklist evaluation that tells them if it is safe for the patient to undergo an elective surgical procedure. Obviously, this is wishful thinking. It is asking too much for surgeons to be able to quantify the overall psychological risk. Rather, they should objectively screen, review, and evaluate as many of the variables as possible. These include but are not limited to the surgical issue, the personality of the patient, the patient's family and/or relationships, and the overall context of the situation. Surgeons should also reflect on both their technical expertise and limitations and the patient's personal resiliency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Health risks facing travelers to Russia with special reference to natural-focal diseases.

    PubMed

    Malkhazova, Svetlana M; Mironova, Varvara A; Shartova, Natalia V; Pestina, Polina V; Orlov, Dmitry S

    2015-01-01

    Russia, an enormous country almost completely located within temperate latitudes, has a broad spectrum of natural landscapes which attract increasing numbers of tourists, from arctic deserts in the north to steppes and deserts in the south. Currently, tourism is undergoing active development in Russia: new travel routes, including ones that involve visiting the wilderness, are steadily appearing. Among the multitude of infectious diseases that can endanger travelers, natural-focal diseases, whose agents and/or carriers are integral to natural landscapes, are especially prominent. Some of the results of the study of natural-focal infections and parasitoses, which are necessary to evaluate the recreational and travel potential of the Russian Federation, are presented and discussed in this article. A cartographical and statistical analysis of infectious and parasitic natural-focal diseases, spanning more than a decade (1997-2013), is the basis of this article. This analysis, along with that of additional cartographical and textual sources, reveals that natural-focal infections are most diverse between 48° N and 60° N and least diverse in the northern regions of the Far East of Russia. Different regions have different numbers of nosoforms and different morbidity level, which signifies an irregularity in the distribution of parasitic diseases. This medico-geographical information may be useful both for individual tourists planning trips to Russia and tour agencies organizing tour groups. It also can be used by health advisers when they consult people before a trip, to assess the actual risks, suggest a number of precautions and pick the particular diseases out of those listed that actually constitute a risk in certain regions, and suggest a suitable preventative treatment if needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pregnant Women in Sport Climbing - Is there a Higher Risk for Preterm Birth?

    PubMed

    Drastig, Jan; Hillebrandt, David; Rath, Werner; Küpper, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Sport climbing is a popular recreational sport with an increasing proportion of female athletes. International recommendations emphasize the physical and mental benefits of regular sport activity during any uncomplicated pregnancy. In this context, sport climbing is associated with a high risk potential.The aim of this study was to examine if there is a higher risk for preterm birth in active climbing athletes.Original manuscript.A retrospective self-report online survey in the German language collected data between September 2012 and November 2013. In addition to anthropometric and demographic data, data on climbing experience, preferred climbing discipline, skill level and changes of climbing habits during pregnancy, known risk factors for preterm birth and information on delivery and the newborn were requested. The rate of preterm birth of the survey was tested with Fisher's exact test with information from the German Federal Statistical Office.Sample size was 32. 72% had a university degree, 81% were primiparous, all were singleton pregnancies. A 33(rd) questionnaire was excluded because of described preeclampsia. Age ranged between 21 and 39 years, climbing experience before pregnancy between 2 and 24 years, and skill level before pregnancy between 4 and 7 on the UIAA scale (International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation). Half of the women climbed until the 36(th) week and 90% adjusted their climbing habits mostly by reducing climbing difficulty and doing more top roping. 2 preterm births in the 36(th) week of gestation were found (2 from 15, p=0.36). According to the data from the German Federal Statistical Office, 8.9% births in the year 2013 in Germany were preterm.This is the first study investigating the risk of preterm birth in recreational sport climbing athletes. No significantly higher proportion of preterm birth could be found. Limitations are small sample size and high social status of participants. What is known about the subject: Sport

  20. Higher risk taking propensity of contact lens wearers is associated with less compliance.

    PubMed

    Carnt, Nicole; Keay, Lisa; Willcox, Mark; Evans, Vicki; Stapleton, Fiona

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether risk taking personality is associated with compliance in contact lens wear, and how practitioner perception of compliance compares with wearer risk taking and non-compliant behaviour. Optometrists in Australia, recruited through professional organizations, were asked to enroll up to 10 current contact lens wearers each. Wearers completed a questionnaire assessing risk-taking propensity (20-item instrument), non-compliant behaviour and demographics. Non-compliance was scored on four components (maximum score 40, lens disinfection, 20; hand hygiene, 8; case hygiene, 6; case replacement, 6). Independently, practitioners ranked each wearer's non-compliance on a 1-5 scale. Associations between wearer risk taking propensity, non-compliant behaviour and practitioner perceived non-compliance were investigated using Pearson correlation. Significant associations were entered into a linear regression model predicting overall non-compliant behaviour. Seventy-three wearers were recruited by 18 optometrists (mean 4, range 1-10). Wearer risk taking was associated with less compliance (p<0.01) as was younger age (p<0.01) and male gender (p=0.02). Years of lens wear was not associated with non-compliant behaviour (p=0.8), nor was practitioner perception of compliance (p>0.6) Linear regression indicated that risk taking was the only independent significant factor predicting non-compliance, explaining 24% of the variation in behaviour. A higher risk taking personality style of contact lens wearers in Australia is associated with less compliant behaviour. Risk taking is a better predictor of compliance than age, gender and practitioner perception and helps explain the individual characteristics of wearers that may influence lens care and maintenance. Copyright © 2010 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vulnerability and Risk of Agro-ecosystems Facing Increased Salinity Intrusion in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nguyen, M. T.; Hagenlocher, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Vietnamese portion of the Mekong Delta increasingly suffers from salinity intrusion in its freshwater system, as exemplified by the historically high salinity levels recorded during the 2016 dry season. Although this exceptional situation was linked to the El Niño phenomena, many factors contribute to an increasing salinization of coastal areas. Salinity intrusion is a natural process in this tidal area but its extent is increasing and projected to worsen due to increased demand for water, diversion/storage of water flows in the Mekong river and its tributaries, land subsidence linked to groundwater over-abstraction, changes in land use and water management in coastal areas, and sea level rise. The Mekong Delta remains predominantly an agricultural landscape which contributes the majority of the rice, aquaculture, and fruit production of the country. These systems will need to be adapted to increased salinity levels. We will present results from two research projects, DeltAdapt and DELTAS, which were designed to allow understanding of, respectively (1) the main drivers of change of agro-ecosystems in coastal areas of the delta and (2) the relative vulnerabilities and risks deltaic social-ecological systems face with respect to various environmental hazards. We used the Global Delta Vulnerability Index developed within the DELTAS project to characterize the vulnerabilities and risks faced by coastal provinces of the delta with respect to salinity intrusion. The analysis allows us to understand which social, economic, and ecological variables index explain the relative vulnerability of the provinces. In addition, drivers of change (e.g. policy, economic, social, environmental) of coastal agro-ecosystems were systematically analyzed through 80 interviews and 7 focus group discussions in the provinces of Kien Giang and Soc Trang within the DeltAdapt project. This was combined with the analysis of Vietnamese policies to determine which are the important drivers of

  2. HIV incidence in a cohort of women at higher risk in Beira, Mozambique: prospective study 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Karine; Zango, Arlinda; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Meque, Ivete; Ferro, Josefo J; Cumbe, Fidelina; Chen, Pai Lien; Ma, Sabrina; Jolles, Erik; Fumo, Afonso; Robb, Merlin L; Feldblum, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    HIV is prevalent in Sofala Province, Mozambique. To inform future prevention research, we undertook a study in the provincial capital (Beira) to measure HIV incidence in women at higher risk of HIV and assess the feasibility of recruiting and retaining them as research participants. Women age 18-35 were recruited from schools and places where women typically meet potential sexual partners. Eligibility criteria included HIV-seronegative status and self-report of at least 2 sexual partners in the last month. History of injection drug use was an exclusion criterion, but pregnancy was not. Participants were scheduled for monthly follow-up for 12 months, when they underwent face-to-face interviews, HIV counseling and testing, and pregnancy testing. 387 women were eligible and contributed follow-up data. Most were from 18-24 years old (median 21). Around one-third of participants (33.8%) reported at least one new sexual partner in the last month. Most women (65.5%) reported not using a modern method of contraception at baseline. Twenty-two women seroconverted for a prospective HIV incidence of 6.5 per 100 woman-years (WY; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.1-9.9). Factors associated with HIV seroconversion in the multivariable analysis were: number of vaginal sex acts without using condoms with partners besides primary partner in the last 7 days (hazard ratio (HR) 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.5) and using a form of contraception at baseline other than hormonal or condoms (vs. no method; HR 25.3; 95% CI: 2.5-253.5). The overall retention rate was 80.0% for the entire follow-up period. We found a high HIV incidence in a cohort of young women reporting risky sexual behavior in Beira, Mozambique. HIV prevention programs should be strengthened. Regular HIV testing and condom use should be encouraged, particularly among younger women with multiple sexual partners.

  3. Kidneys at higher risk of discard: expanding the role of dual kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanriover, B; Mohan, S; Cohen, D J; Radhakrishnan, J; Nickolas, T L; Stone, P W; Tsapepas, D S; Crew, R J; Dube, G K; Sandoval, P R; Samstein, B; Dogan, E; Gaston, R S; Tanriover, J N; Ratner, L E; Hardy, M A

    2014-02-01

    Half of the recovered expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys are discarded in the United States. A new kidney allocation system offers kidneys at higher risk of discard, Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI)>85%, to a wider geographic area to promote broader sharing and expedite utilization. Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) based on the KDPI is a potential option to streamline allocation of kidneys which otherwise would have been discarded. To assess the clinical utility of the KDPI in kidneys at higher risk of discard, we analyzed the OPTN/UNOS Registry that included the deceased donor kidneys recovered between 2002 and 2012. The primary outcomes were allograft survival, patient survival and discard rate based on different KDPI categories (<80%, 80-90% and >90%). Kidneys with KDPI>90% were associated with increased odds of discard (OR=1.99, 95% CI 1.74-2.29) compared to ones with KDPI<80%. DKTs of KDPI>90% were associated with lower overall allograft failure (HR=0.74, 95% CI 0.62-0.89) and better patient survival (HR=0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98) compared to single ECD kidneys with KDPI>90%. Kidneys at higher risk of discard may be offered in the up-front allocation system as a DKT. Further modeling and simulation studies are required to determine a reasonable KDPI cutoff percentile.

  4. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) face protracted health risks associated with lifetime exposure to PCBs.

    PubMed

    Hickie, Brendan E; Ross, Peter S; Macdonald, Robie W; Ford, John K B

    2007-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations declined rapidly in environmental compartments and most biota following implementation of regulations in the 1970s. However, the metabolic recalcitrance of PCBs may delay responses to such declines in large, long-lived species, such as the endangered and highly PCB-contaminated resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. To investigate the influence of life history on PCB-related health risks, we developed models to estimate PCB concentrations in killer whales during the period from 1930 forward to 2030, both within a lifetime (approximately 50 years) and across generations, and then evaluated these in the context of health effects thresholds established for marine mammals. Modeled PCB concentrations in killer whales responded slowly to changes in loadings to the environment as evidenced by slower accumulation and lower magnitude increases in PCB concentrations relative to prey, and a delayed decline that was particularly evident in adult males. Since PCBs attained peak levels well above the effects threshold (17 mg/kg lipid) in approximately 1969, estimated concentrations in both the northern and the more contaminated southern resident populations have declined gradually. Projections suggest that the northern resident population could largely fall below the threshold concentration by 2030 while the endangered southern residents may not do so until at least 2063. Long-lived aquatic mammals are therefore not protected from PCBs by current dietary residue guidelines.

  5. The Influence of the Digital Divide on Face Preferences in El Salvador: People without Internet Access Prefer More Feminine Men, More Masculine Women, and Women with Higher Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18–25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries. PMID:25006801

  6. The influence of the digital divide on face preferences in El Salvador: people without internet access prefer more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity.

    PubMed

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries.

  7. An unexpected finding: younger fathers have a higher risk for offspring with chromosomal aneuploidies

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Bernhard; Masood, Rahim; Rufibach, Kaspar; Niedrist, Dunja; Kundert, Oliver; Riegel, Mariluce; Schinzel, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The past decades have seen a remarkable shift in the demographics of childbearing in Western countries. The risk for offspring with chromosomal aneuploidies with advancing maternal age is well known, but most studies failed to demonstrate a paternal age effect. Retrospectively, we analyzed two case data sets containing parental ages from pre- and postnatal cases with trisomies 21, 13 and 18. The reference data set contains the parental ages of the general Swiss population. We dichotomized all couples into two distinct groups. In the first group, the mothers' integral age was as least as the father's age or older. We compared the frequency of cases in nine 5-year intervals of maternal age. In addition, we computed logistic regression models for the binary endpoint aneuploidy yes/no where paternal ages were incorporated as linear or quadratic, as well as smooth functions within a generalized additive model framework. We demonstrated that the proportion of younger fathers is uniformly different between cases and controls of live-born trisomy 21 as well, although not reaching significance, for fetuses over all mother's ages. Logistic regression models with different strategies to incorporate paternal ages confirmed our findings. The negative paternal age effect was also found in pre- and postnatal cases taken together with trisomies 13 and 18. The couples with younger fathers face almost twofold odds for a child with Down syndrome (DS). We estimated odds curves for parental ages. If confirmation of these findings can be achieved, the management of couples at risk needs a major correction of the risk stratification. PMID:25005732

  8. Sperm competition games: the risk model can generate higher sperm allocation to virgin females.

    PubMed

    Ball, M A; Parker, G A

    2007-03-01

    We examine the risk model in sperm competition games for cases where female fertility increases significantly with sperm numbers (sperm limitation). Without sperm competition, sperm allocation increases with sperm limitation. We define 'average risk' as the probability q that females in the population mate twice, and 'perceived risk' as the information males gain about the sperm competition probability with individual females. If males obtain no information from individual females, sperm numbers increase with q unless sperm limitation is high and one of the two competing ejaculates is strongly disfavoured. If males can distinguish between virgin and mated females, greater sperm allocation to virgins is favoured by high sperm limitation, high q, and by the second male's ejaculate being disfavoured. With high sperm limitation, sperm allocation to virgins increases and to mated females decreases with q at high q levels. With perfect information about female mating pattern, sperm allocation (i) to virgins that will mate again exceeds that to mated females and to virgins that will mate only once, (ii) to virgins that mate only once exceeds that for mated females if q is high and there is high second male disadvantage and (iii) to each type of female can decrease with q if sperm limitation is high, although the average allocation increases at least across low q levels. In general, higher sperm allocation to virgins is favoured by: strong disadvantage to the second ejaculate, high sperm limitation, high average risk and increased information (perceived risk). These conditions may apply in a few species, especially spiders.

  9. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. “rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March),” “deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June),” “20-mSv exposure,” and “100-mSv exposure.” The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d—much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident. PMID:26359666

  10. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. "rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March)," "deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June)," "20-mSv exposure," and "100-mSv exposure." The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d-much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident.

  11. Long sleep duration associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness in males.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsai-Chen; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Huang, Ying-Hsiang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to examine the association between sleep duration and arterial stiffness among adults of different ages, because to date there has been only one study on this relationship, which was confined to middle-aged civil servants. Cross-sectional study. A health examination center in National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Taiwan. A total of 3,508 subjects, age 20-87 y, were enrolled after excluding those with a history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, hypoglycemic agents, and anti-inflammatory drugs, from October 2006 to August 2009. N/A. SLEEP DURATION WAS CLASSIFIED INTO THREE GROUPS: short (< 6 h), normal (6-8 h) and long (> 8 h). Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (baPWV), and increased arterial stiffness was defined as baPWV ≥ 1400 cm/sec. The sleep duration was different for subjects with and without increased arterial stiffness in males, but not in females. In the multivariate analysis for males, long sleepers (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, P = 0.034) but not short sleepers (OR 0.98, P = 0.92) had a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. In addition, age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypertension, diabetes, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, cigarette smoking, and exercise were also independently associated factors. However, in females, neither short nor long sleep duration was associated with increased arterial stiffness. Long sleep duration was associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness in males. Short sleepers did not exhibit a significant risk of increased arterial stiffness in either sex. Tsai TC, Wu JS, Yang YC, Huang YH, Lu FH, Chang CJ. Long sleep duration associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness in males. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1315-1320.

  12. Oral clofarabine in the treatment of patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Faderl, Stefan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Estrov, Zeev; Ravandi, Farhad; Borthakur, Gautam; Cortes, Jorge E; O'Brien, Susan; Gandhi, Varsha; Plunkett, William; Byrd, Anna; Kwari, Monica; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2010-06-01

    Efficacy and toxicity profile of orally administered clofarabine were evaluated in patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Thirty-two patients were treated, of whom 22 had intermediate-2 or high-risk disease (International Prognostic Scoring System). Median age was 70 years (range, 53 to 86), nine patients had secondary MDS, and 20 patients experienced prior therapy failure with hypomethylating agents. Three doses of clofarabine were evaluated: 40 mg/m(2), 30 mg/m(2), and 20 mg/m(2) daily for 5 days. Courses were repeated every 4 to 8 weeks. Eight patients (25%) achieved complete remission (CR), three had (9%) hematologic improvement (HI), and three had (9%) clinical benefit (CB; overall response rate, 43%). Responses in patients who experience treatment failure with hypomethylating agents included CR in two (10%), HI in two (10%), and CB in two patients (10%). No patients died within 6 weeks of induction. Renal failure occurred in four patients in the context of myelosuppression-associated infectious complications. Common adverse events were gastrointestinal and hepatic. Myelosuppression was common, but prolonged myelosuppression (> 42 days) was rare. The toxicity profile was better with lower doses of clofarabine, whereas response rates did not differ significantly. Oral clofarabine has achieved a response rate of 43% in patients with higher-risk MDS. The optimal dose and schedule and the appropriate patient population for such therapy remain to be further defined.

  13. South Africa youths' higher-risk sexual behaviour: an eco-developmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Makiwane, Monde; Mokomane, Zitha

    2010-04-01

    Despite their high levels of knowledge about HIV and AIDS, young people ages 15-24 years in South Africa remain disproportionately affected by the epidemic. Young people's continued susceptibility to HIV infection has been consistently linked to intractable higher-risk sexual behaviours. This paper uses multivariate techniques and secondary data from two nationally representative surveys to illuminate individual and socio-structural factors that play a significant role in youths' continued engagement in higher-risk behaviour, despite their high awareness about HIV and AIDS. The findings show that notwithstanding progress in terms of increased condom use and reduced incidence of other sexually transmitted infections, the average age of sexual debut remains low, multiple sexual partnerships are prevalent, and inconsistent condom use is widespread among young people. Factors significantly associated with these risk behaviours occur at the individual and structural levels and include issues of race, gender, poverty and susceptibility to peer pressure. The paper concludes by recommending that future HIV-prevention interventions in South Africa should aim at building resilience among youths by promoting affirmative, supportive interventions that emphasize the potentials of young people.

  14. Vascular morphology differentiates prostate cancer mortality risk among men with higher Gleason grade.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Zu, Ke; Mucci, Lorelei A; Rider, Jennifer R; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Clinton, Steven K; Loda, Massimo; Stampfer, Meir J; Giovannucci, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Higher Gleason grade is associated with prostate cancer mortality; however, there is significant heterogeneity in this association. We evaluated whether vessel morphology, a biomarker of angiogenesis, aided in distinguishing mortality risks among men with high Gleason grading. We characterized vessel morphology (area and irregularity) among 511 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer during 1986 to 2000, re-reviewed Gleason grade, and followed men through 2012. Men were grouped according to integrated vessel lumen irregularity and vessel area across Gleason grade. The more angiogenic group was identified as those with more irregular vessel lumen and smaller vessel area. Crude rates (95 % confidence intervals) and survival probability were estimated across Gleason grade and vessel morphology. During a median 14-year follow-up, 62 men developed bone metastases or died of prostate cancer. Lethality rates were uniformly low within Gleason grade categories 6 and 7(3 + 4), regardless of vessel morphology. However, among men with Gleason grades of 7(4 + 3) or 8-10, the more angiogenic group was associated with fourfold higher risk of lethal outcomes compared to those with less angiogenic potential. Ten-year survival probability ranged from 95 to 74 % according to the extent of vessel morphology (p < 0.0001, log-rank test). Vessel morphology may aid Gleason grading in predicting prostate cancer mortality risks among men diagnosed with high-grade Gleason cancers.

  15. Higher revision risk for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in low-volume hospitals.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Mona; Espehaug, Birgitte; Indrekvam, Kari; Havelin, Leif I; Furnes, Ove

    2014-08-01

    Some studies have found high complication rates and others have found low complication rates after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). We evaluated whether hospital procedure volume influences the risk of revision using data from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR). 5,791 UKAs have been registered in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. We analyzed the 4,460 cemented medial Oxford III implants that were used from 1999 to 2012; this is the most commonly used UKA implant in Norway. Cox regression (adjusted for age, sex, and diagnosis) was used to estimate risk ratios (RRs) for revision. 4 different volume groups were compared: 1-10, 11-20, 21-40, and > 40 UKA procedures annually per hospital. We also analyzed the reasons for revision. We found a lower risk of revision in hospitals performing more than 40 procedures a year than in those with less than 10 UKAs a year, with an unadjusted RR of 0.53 (95% CI: 0.35-0.81) and adjusted RR of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.39-0.90). Low-volume hospitals appeared to have a higher risk of revision due to dislocation, instability, malalignment, and fracture than high-volume hospitals.

  16. Non-Targeted Effects Models Predict Significantly Higher Mars Mission Cancer Risk than Targeted Effects Models.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Cacao, Eliedonna

    2017-05-12

    Cancer risk is an important concern for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, which consist of a wide-energy range of protons, heavy ions and secondary radiation produced in shielding and tissues. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for surrogate cancer endpoints in cell culture models and tumor induction in mice vary considerable, including significant variations for different tissues and mouse strains. Many studies suggest non-targeted effects (NTE) occur for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, leading to deviation from the linear dose response model used in radiation protection. Using the mouse Harderian gland tumor experiment, the only extensive data-set for dose response modelling with a variety of particle types (>4), for the first-time a particle track structure model of tumor prevalence is used to investigate the effects of NTEs in predictions of chronic GCR exposure risk. The NTE model led to a predicted risk 2-fold higher compared to a targeted effects model. The scarcity of data with animal models for tissues that dominate human radiation cancer risk, including lung, colon, breast, liver, and stomach, suggest that studies of NTEs in other tissues are urgently needed prior to long-term space missions outside the protection of the Earth's geomagnetic sphere.

  17. Non-Targeted Effects Models Predict Significantly Higher Mars Mission Cancer Risk than Targeted Effects Models

    DOE PAGES

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Cacao, Eliedonna

    2017-05-12

    Cancer risk is an important concern for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, which consist of a wide-energy range of protons, heavy ions and secondary radiation produced in shielding and tissues. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for surrogate cancer endpoints in cell culture models and tumor induction in mice vary considerable, including significant variations for different tissues and mouse strains. Many studies suggest non-targeted effects (NTE) occur for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, leading to deviation from the linear dose response model used in radiation protection. Using the mouse Harderian gland tumor experiment, the only extensive data-setmore » for dose response modelling with a variety of particle types (>4), for the first-time a particle track structure model of tumor prevalence is used to investigate the effects of NTEs in predictions of chronic GCR exposure risk. The NTE model led to a predicted risk 2-fold higher compared to a targeted effects model. The scarcity of data with animal models for tissues that dominate human radiation cancer risk, including lung, colon, breast, liver, and stomach, suggest that studies of NTEs in other tissues are urgently needed prior to long-term space missions outside the protection of the Earth’s geomagnetic sphere.« less

  18. Increased risk of phosphorus limitation at higher temperatures for Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Persson, Jonas; Wojewodzic, Marcin Włodzimierz; Hessen, Dag Olav; Andersen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Invertebrate herbivores frequently face growth rate constraints due to their high demands for phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). Temperature is a key modulator of growth rate, yet the interaction between temperature and P limitation on somatic growth rate is scarcely known. To investigate this interaction, we conducted a study on the somatic growth rate (SGR) of the cladoceran Daphnia magna, known to be susceptible to P-limitation. We determined the SGR across a broad range of dietary P content of algae (carbon (C):P ratios (125-790), and at different temperatures (10-25°C). There was a strong impact of both temperature and C:P ratio on the SGR of D. magna, and also a significant interaction between both factors was revealed. The negative effect of dietary C:P on growth rate was reduced with decreased temperature. We found no evidence of P limitation at lowest temperature, suggesting that enzyme kinetics or other measures of food quality overrides the demands for P to RNA and protein synthesis at low temperatures. These findings also indicate an increased risk of P limitation and thus reduced growth efficiency at high temperatures.

  19. Increased risk of phosphorus limitation at higher temperatures for Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Wojewodzic, Marcin Włodzimierz; Hessen, Dag Olav; Andersen, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrate herbivores frequently face growth rate constraints due to their high demands for phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). Temperature is a key modulator of growth rate, yet the interaction between temperature and P limitation on somatic growth rate is scarcely known. To investigate this interaction, we conducted a study on the somatic growth rate (SGR) of the cladoceran Daphnia magna, known to be susceptible to P-limitation. We determined the SGR across a broad range of dietary P content of algae (carbon (C):P ratios (125–790), and at different temperatures (10–25°C). There was a strong impact of both temperature and C:P ratio on the SGR of D. magna, and also a significant interaction between both factors was revealed. The negative effect of dietary C:P on growth rate was reduced with decreased temperature. We found no evidence of P limitation at lowest temperature, suggesting that enzyme kinetics or other measures of food quality overrides the demands for P to RNA and protein synthesis at low temperatures. These findings also indicate an increased risk of P limitation and thus reduced growth efficiency at high temperatures. PMID:20803219

  20. Higher Circulating Adiponectin Levels Are Associated with Increased Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Macheret, Fima; Bartz, Traci M.; Djousse, Luc; Ix, Joachim H.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Zieman, Susan J.; Siscovick, David S.; Tracy, Russell P.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kizer, Jorge R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adiponectin has cardioprotective properties, suggesting that lower levels seen in obesity and diabetes could heighten risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Among older adults, however, higher adiponectin has been linked to greater incidence of adverse outcomes associated with AF, although recent reports have shown this association to be U-shaped. We postulated that higher adiponectin would be linked to increased risk for AF in older adults in a U-shaped manner. Methods We examined the associations of total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin with incident AF among individuals free of prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) participating in a population-based cohort study of older adults (n=3190; age=74±5 years). Results During median follow-up of 11.4 years, there were 886 incident AF events. Adjusted cubic splines showed a positive and linear association between adiponectin and incident AF. After adjusting for potential confounders, including amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide 1–76, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for AF per SD increase in total adiponectin was 1.14 (1.05–1.24), while that for HMW adiponectin was 1.17 (1.08–1.27). Additional adjustment for putative mediators, including subclinical CVD, diabetes, lipids, and inflammation, did not significantly affect these estimates. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that higher, not lower, levels of adiponectin are independently associated with increased risk of AF in older adults despite its documented cardiometabolic benefits. Additional work is necessary to determine if adiponectin is a marker of failed counter-regulatory pathways or whether this hormone is directly harmful in the setting of or as a result of advanced age. PMID:25855796

  1. Predicting high-risk versus higher-risk substance use during late adolescence from early adolescent risk factors using Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Andrea E.; Woodlief, Darren; Malone, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the existing risk factor literature focuses on identifying predictors of low-levels of substance use versus higher-levels of substance use. In this paper, we explore more nuanced patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use during late adolescence. Our aims were to: 1) identify subgroups of youth with qualitatively different patterns of ATOD use; and 2) explore whether membership among qualitatively distinct, high-risk classes could be predicted based on early adolescent risk factors. Data came from a selected subsample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 1,689). Predictors were measured when youth were about 12 years old; ATOD use was assessed when youth were aged 17 years. Results showed that adolescent ATOD use is not a homogenous behavior. Four distinct classes of adolescent ATOD users were derived. Each class had a qualitatively distinct and discriminable pattern of ATOD use. Ecological predictors were shown to differentiate between latent classes, with peer factors playing a particularly important role in differentiating between high-risk and higher-risk users. Implications for prevention and limitations are discussed. PMID:24511308

  2. Diabetes Mellitus is Associated With Higher Risk of Developing Decompensated Cirrhosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Mohammed J; Olsen, Margaret A; Powderly, William G; Presti, Rachel M

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association of diabetes with risk of decompensated cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Direct-acting antivirals are highly effective in treating CHC but very expensive. CHC patients at high risk of progression to symptomatic liver disease may benefit most from early treatment. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the 2006 to 2013 Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database including inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy claims from private insurers. CHC and cirrhosis were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes; baseline diabetes was identified by diagnosis codes or antidiabetic medications. CHC patients were followed to identify decompensated cirrhosis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the risk of decompensated cirrhosis by baseline cirrhosis. There were 75,805 CHC patients with median 1.9 years follow-up. A total of 10,317 (13.6%) of the CHC population had diabetes. The rates of decompensated cirrhosis per 1000 person-years were: 185.5 for persons with baseline cirrhosis and diabetes, 119.8 for persons with cirrhosis and no diabetes, 35.3 for persons with no cirrhosis and diabetes, and 17.1 for persons with no cirrhosis and no diabetes. Diabetes was associated with increased risk of decompensated cirrhosis in persons with baseline cirrhosis (adjusted hazard ratio=1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.6) and in persons without baseline cirrhosis (adjusted hazard ratio=1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-2.1). In a privately insured US population with CHC, the adjusted risk of decompensated cirrhosis was higher in diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients. Diabetes status should be included in prioritization of antiviral treatment.

  3. Impaired face recognition is associated with social inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Suzanne N; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Heckers, Stephan; Blackford, Jennifer U

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is fundamental to successful social interaction. Individuals with deficits in face recognition are likely to have social functioning impairments that may lead to heightened risk for social anxiety. A critical component of social interaction is how quickly a face is learned during initial exposure to a new individual. Here, we used a novel Repeated Faces task to assess how quickly memory for faces is established. Face recognition was measured over multiple exposures in 52 young adults ranging from low to high in social inhibition, a core dimension of social anxiety. High social inhibition was associated with a smaller slope of change in recognition memory over repeated face exposure, indicating participants with higher social inhibition showed smaller improvements in recognition memory after seeing faces multiple times. We propose that impaired face learning is an important mechanism underlying social inhibition and may contribute to, or maintain, social anxiety. PMID:26776300

  4. Impaired face recognition is associated with social inhibition.

    PubMed

    Avery, Suzanne N; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Heckers, Stephan; Blackford, Jennifer U

    2016-02-28

    Face recognition is fundamental to successful social interaction. Individuals with deficits in face recognition are likely to have social functioning impairments that may lead to heightened risk for social anxiety. A critical component of social interaction is how quickly a face is learned during initial exposure to a new individual. Here, we used a novel Repeated Faces task to assess how quickly memory for faces is established. Face recognition was measured over multiple exposures in 52 young adults ranging from low to high in social inhibition, a core dimension of social anxiety. High social inhibition was associated with a smaller slope of change in recognition memory over repeated face exposure, indicating participants with higher social inhibition showed smaller improvements in recognition memory after seeing faces multiple times. We propose that impaired face learning is an important mechanism underlying social inhibition and may contribute to, or maintain, social anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Humber-in-a-Box : Gamification to Communicate Coastal Flood Risk in the Face of Rising Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, C. J.; van Rij, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Humber-in-a-Box is an immersive visualisation of the Humber Estuary (on the east coast of the UK), designed to communicate coastal flood risk in the face of rising seas. It is designed for use in a busy festival-like setting. The user views the environment via an Oculus Rift Virtual Reality (VR) headset and is able to explore using an XBOX controller. A live simulation of tidal flows on a modelled version of the estuary can be viewed on a box in the centre of a virtual room. Using the controller, the user is able to raise sea levels and see what happens as the tide levels adjust. Humber-in-a-Box uses a numerical model built with data used for published research. The hydraulic component of the CAESAR-Lisflood model code was incorporated into the UNITY-3D gaming engine, and the model uses recorded tidal stage data, bathymetry and elevations to build the virtual environment and drive the simulation. Present day flood defences are incorporated into the model, and in conjunction with modelling tidal flows, this provides a better representation of future flood risk than simpler linear models. The user is able to raise and lower sea levels between -10 m and 100 m, in 1m increments, and can reset the simulation to present day levels with one button click. Humber-in-a-Box has been showcased at several outreach events and has proven to be very popular and effective in an environment where time with each user is pressured, and information needs to exchange quickly. It has also been used in teaching at Undergraduate level, although the full potential of this is yet to be explored. A non-interactive version of the application is available on YouTube which is designed for use with Google Cardboard and similar kit.

  6. In Your Face: Risk of Punishment Enhances Cognitive Control and Error-Related Activity in the Corrugator Supercilii Muscle.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn R; Mattsson-Mårn, Isak Berglund; Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control is needed when mistakes have consequences, especially when such consequences are potentially harmful. However, little is known about how the aversive consequences of deficient control affect behavior. To address this issue, participants performed a two-choice response time task where error commissions were expected to be punished by electric shocks during certain blocks. By manipulating (1) the perceived punishment risk (no, low, high) associated with error commissions, and (2) response conflict (low, high), we showed that motivation to avoid punishment enhanced performance during high response conflict. As a novel index of the processes enabling successful cognitive control under threat, we explored electromyographic activity in the corrugator supercilii (cEMG) muscle of the upper face. The corrugator supercilii is partially controlled by the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) which is sensitive to negative affect, pain and cognitive control. As hypothesized, the cEMG exhibited several key similarities with the core temporal and functional characteristics of the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) ERP component, the hallmark index of cognitive control elicited by performance errors, and which has been linked to the aMCC. The cEMG was amplified within 100 ms of error commissions (the same time-window as the ERN), particularly during the high punishment risk condition where errors would be most aversive. Furthermore, similar to the ERN, the magnitude of error cEMG predicted post-error response time slowing. Our results suggest that cEMG activity can serve as an index of avoidance motivated control, which is instrumental to adaptive cognitive control when consequences are potentially harmful.

  7. Effectiveness of personalized face-to-face and telephone nursing counseling interventions for cardiovascular risk factors: a controlled clinical trial 1

    PubMed Central

    Vílchez Barboza, Vivian; Klijn, Tatiana Paravic; Salazar Molina, Alide; Sáez Carrillo, Katia Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effect and gender differences of an innovative intervention involving in-person and telephone nursing counseling to control cardiovascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight), improve health-related quality of life and strengthen self-efficacy and social support in persons using the municipal health centers' cardiovascular health program. Method: a randomized controlled clinical trial involving participants randomized into the intervention group who received traditional consultation plus personalized and telephone nursing counseling for 7 months (n = 53) and the control group (n = 56). The study followed the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement. Results: women in the intervention group presented a significant increase in the physical and mental health components compared to the control group, with decreases in weight, abdominal circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the atherogenic index. The effects attributable to the intervention in the men in the intervention group were increased physical and emotional roles and decreased systolic and diastolic pressure, waist circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, cardiovascular risk factor, and 10-year coronary risk. Conclusion: this intervention is an effective strategy for the control of three cardiovascular risk factors and the improvement of health-related quality of life. PMID:27508917

  8. HLA-DRB1*07:01 is associated with a higher risk of asparaginase allergies.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Christian A; Smith, Colton; Yang, Wenjian; Daté, Mihir; Bashford, Donald; Larsen, Eric; Bowman, W Paul; Liu, Chengcheng; Ramsey, Laura B; Chang, Tamara; Turner, Victoria; Loh, Mignon L; Raetz, Elizabeth A; Winick, Naomi J; Hunger, Stephen P; Carroll, William L; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Chen, Wei-Min; Concannon, Patrick; Rich, Stephen S; Scheet, Paul; Jeha, Sima; Pui, Ching-Hon; Evans, William E; Devidas, Meenakshi; Relling, Mary V

    2014-08-21

    Asparaginase is a therapeutic enzyme used to treat leukemia and lymphoma, with immune responses resulting in suboptimal drug exposure and a greater risk of relapse. To elucidate whether there is a genetic component to the mechanism of asparaginase-induced immune responses, we imputed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in patients of European ancestry enrolled on leukemia trials at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (n = 541) and the Children's Oncology Group (n = 1329). We identified a higher incidence of hypersensitivity and anti-asparaginase antibodies in patients with HLA-DRB1*07:01 alleles (P = 7.5 × 10(-5), odds ratio [OR] = 1.64; P = 1.4 × 10(-5), OR = 2.92, respectively). Structural analysis revealed that high-risk amino acids were located within the binding pocket of the HLA protein, possibly affecting the interaction between asparaginase epitopes and the HLA-DRB1 protein. Using a sequence-based consensus approach, we predicted the binding affinity of HLA-DRB1 alleles for asparaginase epitopes, and patients whose HLA genetics predicted high-affinity binding had more allergy (P = 3.3 × 10(-4), OR = 1.38). Our results suggest a mechanism of allergy whereby HLA-DRB1 alleles that confer high-affinity binding to asparaginase epitopes lead to a higher frequency of reactions. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00137111, NCT00549848, NCT00005603, and NCT00075725.

  9. Higher nest predation risk in association with a top predator: mesopredator attraction?

    PubMed

    Morosinotto, Chiara; Thomson, Robert L; Hänninen, Mikko; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2012-10-01

    Breeding close to top predators is a widespread reproductive strategy. Breeding animals may gain indirect benefits if proximity to top predators results in a reduction of predation due to suppression of mesopredators. We tested if passerine birds gain protection from mesopredators by nesting within territories of a top predator, the Ural owl (Strix uralensis). We placed nest boxes for pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in Ural owl nest sites and in control sites (currently unoccupied by owls). The nest boxes were designed so that nest predation risk could be altered (experimentally increased) after flycatcher settlement; we considered predation rate as a proxy of mesopredator abundance. Overall, we found higher nest predation rates in treatment than in control sites. Flycatcher laying date did not differ between sites, but smaller clutches were laid in treatment sites compared to controls, suggesting a response to perceived predation risk. Relative nest predation rate varied between years, being higher in owl nest sites in 2 years but similar in another; this variation might be indirectly influenced by vole abundance. Proximity to Ural owl nests might represent a risky habitat for passerines. High predation rates within owl territories could be because small mesopredators that do not directly threaten owl nests are attracted to owl nest sites. This could be explained if some mesopredators use owl territories to gain protection from their own predators, or if top predators and mesopredators independently seek similar habitats.

  10. Pancreatic cancer early detection: expanding higher-risk group with clinical and metabolomics parameters.

    PubMed

    Urayama, Shiro

    2015-02-14

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth and fifth leading cause of cancer death for each gender in developed countries. With lack of effective treatment and screening scheme available for the general population, the mortality rate is expected to increase over the next several decades in contrast to the other major malignancies such as lung, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. Endoscopic ultrasound, with its highest level of detection capacity of smaller pancreatic lesions, is the commonly employed and preferred clinical imaging-based PDAC detection method. Various molecular biomarkers have been investigated for characterization of the disease, but none are shown to be useful or validated for clinical utilization for early detection. As seen from studies of a small subset of familial or genetically high-risk PDAC groups, the higher yield and utility of imaging-based screening methods are demonstrated for these groups. Multiple recent studies on the unique cancer metabolism including PDAC, demonstrate the potential for utility of the metabolites as the discriminant markers for this disease. In order to generate an early PDAC detection screening strategy available for a wider population, we propose to expand the population of higher risk PDAC group with combination clinical and metabolomics parameters.

  11. HLA-DRB1*07:01 is associated with a higher risk of asparaginase allergies

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Christian A.; Smith, Colton; Yang, Wenjian; Daté, Mihir; Bashford, Donald; Larsen, Eric; Bowman, W. Paul; Liu, Chengcheng; Ramsey, Laura B.; Chang, Tamara; Turner, Victoria; Loh, Mignon L.; Raetz, Elizabeth A.; Winick, Naomi J.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Carroll, William L.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Chen, Wei-Min; Concannon, Patrick; Rich, Stephen S.; Scheet, Paul; Jeha, Sima; Pui, Ching-Hon; Evans, William E.; Devidas, Meenakshi

    2014-01-01

    Asparaginase is a therapeutic enzyme used to treat leukemia and lymphoma, with immune responses resulting in suboptimal drug exposure and a greater risk of relapse. To elucidate whether there is a genetic component to the mechanism of asparaginase-induced immune responses, we imputed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in patients of European ancestry enrolled on leukemia trials at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital (n = 541) and the Children’s Oncology Group (n = 1329). We identified a higher incidence of hypersensitivity and anti-asparaginase antibodies in patients with HLA-DRB1*07:01 alleles (P = 7.5 × 10−5, odds ratio [OR] = 1.64; P = 1.4 × 10−5, OR = 2.92, respectively). Structural analysis revealed that high-risk amino acids were located within the binding pocket of the HLA protein, possibly affecting the interaction between asparaginase epitopes and the HLA-DRB1 protein. Using a sequence-based consensus approach, we predicted the binding affinity of HLA-DRB1 alleles for asparaginase epitopes, and patients whose HLA genetics predicted high-affinity binding had more allergy (P = 3.3 × 10−4, OR = 1.38). Our results suggest a mechanism of allergy whereby HLA-DRB1 alleles that confer high-affinity binding to asparaginase epitopes lead to a higher frequency of reactions. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00137111, NCT00549848, NCT00005603, and NCT00075725. PMID:24970932

  12. Are individuals with an autoimmune disease at higher risk of a second autoimmune disorder?

    PubMed

    Somers, Emily C; Thomas, Sara L; Smeeth, Liam; Hall, Andrew J

    2009-03-15

    Limited evidence suggests that autoimmune diseases tend to co-occur, although data are needed to determine whether individuals with an existing autoimmune disorder are at increased risk of a second disorder. The authors conducted a series of population-based cohort studies, utilizing the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, to assess intraindividual risks of coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), multiple sclerosis (MS), and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) during 1990-1999. Sex-specific age- and calendar-period standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for development of a second autoimmune disease among index populations including 22,888 RA, 26,198 AIT, 4,332 MS, and 6,170 IDDM patients compared with the general population. Among those with IDDM, adjusted AIT rates were higher than expected for both males (SIR = 646.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 466, 873) and females (SIR = 409.6, 95% CI: 343, 485), as were RA rates for females (SIR = 181.6, 95% CI: 136, 238). Coexistence of AIT and RA was also shown for either disease sequence (sex-specific SIRs = 130.4-162.0). However, point estimates suggested an inverse relation between RA and MS, irrespective of diagnostic sequence. This study demonstrates coexistence of RA, AIT, and IDDM at higher than expected rates but reduced comorbidity between RA and MS.

  13. Heavy smokers have higher bcl-2 mutation frequency and risk for lymphoma than non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cortopassi, G.A.; Bell, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    Early detection of cells carrying somatic mutations at oncogenic loci could prove useful for identifying individuals at high risk for cancer and permit intervention prior to the onset of clinically recognizable disease. We have determined the frequency of rare t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocations at the bcl-2 proto-oncogene locus in the peripheral blood of 85 smokers and 35 nonsmokers using a sensitive nested PCR assay. The identical translocation occurs in 85% of follicular lymphoma tumors, and about 50% of all non-Hodgkin`s Lymphoma. Smokers with the highest exposure had a 3.6-fold higher mutation frequency relative to the nonsmokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that of the variables tested (age, race, sex, current smoking, years of smoking, and pack-years), the cumulative smoking measure (pack-years) was the best predictor of t(14;18) frequency (p=0.004). These observations are consistent with two recent epidemiological studies showing 2.3-fold and 3.8-fold increased risk for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma among heavy smokers. The results support the hypothesis that smokers have an increased burden of lymphocytes bearing bcl-2 mutations which raises their individual risk for future lymphoid tumors. We speculate that the increased frequency of oncogenic translocations in smokers may result either from the mutagenic or antigenic activity of cigarette smoke.

  14. Does Smoking History Confer a Higher Risk for Reconstructive Complications in Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy?

    PubMed

    Frey, Jordan D; Alperovich, Michael; Levine, Jamie P; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S

    2017-07-01

    History of smoking has been implicated as a risk factor for reconstructive complications in nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM), however there have been no direct analyses of outcomes in smokers and nonsmokers. All patients undergoing NSM at New York University Langone Medical Center from 2006 to 2014 were identified. Outcomes were compared for those with and without a smoking history and stratified by pack-year smoking history and years-to-quitting (YTQ). A total of 543 nipple-sparing mastectomies were performed from 2006 to 2014 with a total of 49 in patients with a history of smoking. Reconstructive outcomes in NSM between those with and without a smoking history were equivalent. Those with a smoking history were not significantly more likely to have mastectomy flap necrosis (p = 0.6251), partial (p = 0.8564), or complete (p = 0.3365) nipple-areola complex (NAC) necrosis. Likewise, active smokers alone did not have a higher risk of complications compared to nonsmokers or those with smoking history. Comparing nonsmokers and those with a less or greater than 10 pack-year smoking history, those with a > 10 pack-year history had significantly more complete NAC necrosis (p = 0.0114, <0.0001). Those with <5 YTQ prior to NSM trended toward an increased rate of complete NAC necrosis (p = 0.0752). Outcomes for those with a < 10 pack-year smoking history or >5 YTQ prior to NSM were equivalent to those without a smoking history. We demonstrate that NSM may be safely offered to those with a smoking history although a > 10 pack-year smoking history or <5 YTQ prior to NSM may impart a higher risk of reconstructive complications, including complete NAC necrosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Accelerated bone turnover identifies hemiplegic patients at higher risk of demineralization.

    PubMed

    Del Puente, A; Pappone, N; Servodio Iammarrone, C; Esposito, A; Scarpa, R; Costa, L; Caso, F; Bardoscia, A; Del Puente, A

    2016-01-01

    Immobilization osteoporosis represents a severe complication in hemiplegic patients (HPs), causing fragility fractures, which may occur during rehabilitation reducing functional recovery and survival. The aim of the study was to investigate determinants of bone loss, independent from length of immobilization, which may be useful in early identification of HPs at higher risk of demineralization. Forty-eight HPs of both sexes underwent anthropometric measurements, evaluation of scores of spasticity and of lower limb motory capacity. Laboratory tests were performed. On serum: calcium; phosphorus; creatinine; ALP; iPTH; 25(OH) vitamin-D; sex hormones; Δ4-androstenedione; DHEA-S; insulin; IGF-1; FT3; FT4; TSH; c-AMP. On urine: c-AMP and calcium/creatinine ratio. Two bone turnover markers were measured: serum osteocalcin (BGP) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Bone mineral density was determined at both femoral necks, defining a percentage difference in bone loss between paretic and non-paretic limb, thus controlling for the complex cofactors involved. Only bone turnover markers significantly and directly correlated with the entity of demineralization, controlling for age, sex and length of immobilization in the multivariate analysis (BGP coefficient estimate=0.008; SE=0.003; p=0.020; DPD coefficient estimate=0.005; SE=0.002; p=0.036). BGP and DPD are not dependent on anthropometric and endocrine-metabolic parameters, disability patterns and duration of immobilization, thus represent independent determinants of the degree of demineralization. A cutoff was defined for BGP and DPD above which subjects show significantly greater risk of demineralization. The immobilization event generates more severe bone loss when it occurs in subjects with higher bone turnover. BGP and DPD measurements may be of primary importance for early identification of HPs at risk, with relevant preventive implications.

  16. Do First Generation Immigrant Adolescents Face Higher Rates of Bullying, Violence and Suicidal Behaviours Than Do Third Generation and Native Born?

    PubMed

    Pottie, Kevin; Dahal, Govinda; Georgiades, Katholiki; Premji, Kamila; Hassan, Ghayda

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to examine first generation immigrant adolescents' likelihood of experiencing bullying, violence, and suicidal behaviours compared to their later-generation and native born counterparts, and to identify factors that may underlie these risks. Eighteen studies met full inclusion criteria. First generation immigrant adolescents experience higher rate of bullying and peer aggression compared to third generation and native counterparts. Refugee status and advanced parental age were associated with increased parent to child aggression among South East Asians. Family cohesion was associated with lower rates of violence. Suicidal ideation was lower across most immigrant adolescents' ethnicities, with the exception of Turkish and South Asian Surinamese female adolescents in the Netherlands. Bullying and peer aggression of immigrant children and adolescents and potential mitigating factors such as family cohesion warrant research and program attention by policymakers, teachers and parents.

  17. Analyzing Early At-Risk Factors in Higher Education E-Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ryan S.; Lindrum, David; Lindrum, Mary Jane; Perkowski, David

    2015-01-01

    College students enrolled in online courses lack many of the supports available to students in traditional face-to-face classes on a campus such as meeting the instructor, having a set class time, discussing topics in-person during class, meeting peers and having the option to speak with them outside of class, being able to visit faculty during…

  18. Higher risk of progression to dementia in mild cognitive impairment cases who revert to normal

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Cha, Ruth H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Christianson, Teresa J.H.; Geda, Yonas E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Rocca, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate rates of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia and of reversion from MCI to being cognitively normal (CN) in a population-based cohort. Methods: Participants (n = 534, aged 70 years and older) enrolled in the prospective Mayo Clinic Study of Aging were evaluated at baseline and every 15 months to identify incident MCI or dementia. Results: Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 153 of 534 participants (28.7%) with prevalent or incident MCI progressed to dementia (71.3 per 1,000 person-years). The cumulative incidence of dementia was 5.4% at 1 year, 16.1% at 2, 23.4% at 3, 31.1% at 4, and 42.5% at 5 years. The risk of dementia was elevated in MCI cases (hazard ratio [HR] 23.2, p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. Thirty-eight percent (n = 201) of MCI participants reverted to CN (175.0/1,000 person-years), but 65% subsequently developed MCI or dementia; the HR was 6.6 (p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. The risk of reversion was reduced in subjects with an APOE ε4 allele (HR 0.53, p < 0.001), higher Clinical Dementia Rating Scale–Sum of Boxes (HR 0.56, p < 0.001), and poorer cognitive function (HR 0.56, p < 0.001). The risk was also reduced in subjects with amnestic MCI (HR 0.70, p = 0.02) and multidomain MCI (HR 0.61, p = 0.003). Conclusions: MCI cases, including those who revert to CN, have a high risk of progressing to dementia. This suggests that diagnosis of MCI at any time has prognostic value. PMID:24353333

  19. Obesity is associated with higher risk of prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Juhyun; Cho, Sung Yong; Lee, Seung Bae; Son, Hwancheol; Jeong, Hyeon

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of obesity on prostate cancer detection, as measured by the body mass index (BMI) in a Korean biopsy population. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1213 men who underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy at our institution. Biopsy outcomes were analysed with respect to various variables, including patient age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, digital rectal examination (DRE) findings and obesity, defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) , an Asian BMI category. Among 1213 men, 408 (33.6%) were obese and 344 (28.4%) had a positive biopsy. Obese men were younger (65.5 vs 67.1 years, P = 0.003), had a larger prostate (49.2 vs 42.9 mL, P < 0.001) and were less likely to have any abnormality on DRE (8.1 vs 15.9% P < 0.001) than non-obese men. In the multivariate analysis, obesity was significantly associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer detection in men undergoing biopsy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.446, P = 0.024). In addition, obesity was significantly associated with a higher rate of biopsy-detected high grade (Gleason score ≥4 + 3) disease, and this association remained after multivariate adjustment (OR = 1.498, P = 0.039). Obese men were younger, had a larger prostate, and had less tendency to have an abnormality on DRE than non-obese men. Obesity was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer detection as an independent factor, including high grade prostate cancer in a Korean biopsy population. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  20. Women with endometriosis have a higher DNA repair capacity and diminished breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Jaime L.; Flores, Idhaliz; Morales, Luisa M.; Monteiro, Janice; Alvarez-Garriga, Carolina; Bayona, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer (BC) and endometriosis are important reproductive health diseases for women. Although endometriosis is not a malignant condition, some of its characteristics mimic that of a malignancy. Endometriosis is associated with increased risk of certain cancers; however, whether it alters BC risk is unclear. This study evaluates the association of endometriosis and BC and explores whether DNA repair capacity (DRC) plays a role in such a relationship. Materials and Methods A case-control study of 991 women (385 with BC and 606 controls, all recruited over 5 years) was undertaken in Puerto Rico. Eighty participants with self-reported surgically diagnosed endometriosis were identified, 20 of whom also had a diagnosis of BC. Data from a structured questionnaire and DRC measurements were assessed to determine the association between BC, DRC, and endometriosis. Results Participants with BC cases were 50% less likely to have history of endometriosis (OR = 0.5 95%CI: 0.3, 0.9, p = 0.038) than women without BC controls. Findings that did not reach statistical significance included the following: women with history of endometriosis had a slightly higher DRC level than those without it; BC cases and history of endometriosis were less likely to have had endometriosis diagnosis before age 38 as compared to controls with endometriosis. Discussion Here we report an inverse association between endometriosis and BC, the former possibly conferring a protective effect on the latter. Although the mechanisms involved are unknown they may include protection provided by higher DRC and or hormonal treatments for endometriosis. A larger sample of endometriosis cases is necessary to confirm these results and answer the question of whether a higher DRC capacity may contribute to this potential protection, and to identify other factors at play. PMID:25473592

  1. Increased plasma N-glycome complexity is associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Keser, Toma; Gornik, Ivan; Vučković, Frano; Selak, Najda; Pavić, Tamara; Lukić, Edita; Gudelj, Ivan; Gašparović, Hrvoje; Biočina, Bojan; Tilin, Therese; Wennerström, Annika; Männistö, Satu; Salomaa, Veikko; Havulinna, Aki; Wang, Wei; Wilson, James F; Charutvedi, Nishi; Perola, Markus; Campbell, Harry; Lauc, Gordan; Gornik, Olga

    2017-09-13

    Better understanding of type 2 diabetes and its prevention is a pressing need. Changes in human plasma N-glycome are associated with many diseases and represent promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Variations in glucose metabolism directly affect glycosylation through the hexosamine pathway but studies of plasma glycome in type 2 diabetes are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma protein N-glycome is changed in individuals who are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Using a chromatographic approach, we analysed N-linked glycans from plasma proteins in two populations comprising individuals with registered hyperglycaemia during critical illness (increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes) and individuals who stayed normoglycaemic during the same condition: AcuteInflammation (59 cases vs 49 controls) and AcuteInflammation Replication (52 cases vs 14 controls) populations. N-glycome was also studied in individuals from FinRisk (37 incident cases of type 2 diabetes collected at baseline vs 37 controls), Orkney Complex Disease Study (ORCADES; 94 individuals with HbA1c > 6.5% [47.5 mmol/mol] vs 658 controls) and Southall and Brent Revisited (SABRE) cohort studies (307 individuals with HbA1c > 6.5% [47.5 mmol/mol] vs 307 controls). Individuals with increased risk for diabetes type 2 development (AcuteInflammation and AcuteInflammation Replication populations), incident cases of type 2 diabetes collected at baseline (FinRisk population) and individuals with elevated HbA1c (ORCADES and SABRE populations) all presented with increased branching, galactosylation and sialylation of plasma protein N-glycans and these changes were of similar magnitude. Increased complexity of plasma N-glycan structures is associated with higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and poorer regulation of blood glucose levels. Although further research is needed, this finding could offer a potential new approach for improvement in prevention

  2. HIV Incidence in a Cohort of Women at Higher Risk in Beira, Mozambique: Prospective Study 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Karine; Zango, Arlinda; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Meque, Ivete; Ferro, Josefo J.; Cumbe, Fidelina; Chen, Pai Lien; Ma, Sabrina; Jolles, Erik; Fumo, Afonso; Robb, Merlin L.; Feldblum, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV is prevalent in Sofala Province, Mozambique. To inform future prevention research, we undertook a study in the provincial capital (Beira) to measure HIV incidence in women at higher risk of HIV and assess the feasibility of recruiting and retaining them as research participants. Methods Women age 18–35 were recruited from schools and places where women typically meet potential sexual partners. Eligibility criteria included HIV-seronegative status and self-report of at least 2 sexual partners in the last month. History of injection drug use was an exclusion criterion, but pregnancy was not. Participants were scheduled for monthly follow-up for 12 months, when they underwent face-to-face interviews, HIV counseling and testing, and pregnancy testing. Results 387 women were eligible and contributed follow-up data. Most were from 18–24 years old (median 21). Around one-third of participants (33.8%) reported at least one new sexual partner in the last month. Most women (65.5%) reported not using a modern method of contraception at baseline. Twenty-two women seroconverted for a prospective HIV incidence of 6.5 per 100 woman-years (WY; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.1–9.9). Factors associated with HIV seroconversion in the multivariable analysis were: number of vaginal sex acts without using condoms with partners besides primary partner in the last 7 days (hazard ratio (HR) 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2–2.5) and using a form of contraception at baseline other than hormonal or condoms (vs. no method; HR 25.3; 95% CI: 2.5–253.5). The overall retention rate was 80.0% for the entire follow-up period. Conclusions We found a high HIV incidence in a cohort of young women reporting risky sexual behavior in Beira, Mozambique. HIV prevention programs should be strengthened. Regular HIV testing and condom use should be encouraged, particularly among younger women with multiple sexual partners. PMID:24475035

  3. Association of higher parental and grandparental education and higher school grades with risk of hospitalization for eating disorders in females: the Uppsala birth cohort multigenerational study.

    PubMed

    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie; Silverwood, Richard; Klinteberg, Britt Af; Koupil, Ilona

    2009-09-01

    Eating disorders are a leading cause of disease burden among young women. This study investigated associations of social characteristics of parents and grandparents, sibling position, and school performance with incidence of eating disorders. The authors studied Swedish females born in 1952-1989 (n = 13,376), third-generation descendants of a cohort born in Uppsala in 1915-1929. Data on grandparental and parental social characteristics, sibling position, school grades, hospitalizations, emigrations, and deaths were obtained by register linkages. Associations with incidence of hospitalization for eating disorders were studied with multivariable Cox regression, adjusted for age and study period. Overall incidence of hospitalization for eating disorders was 32.0/100,000 person-years. Women with more highly educated parents and maternal grandparents were at higher risk (hazard ratio for maternal grandmother with higher education relative to elementary education = 6.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.2, 19.3, adjusted for parental education). Independent of family social characteristics, women with the highest school grades had a higher risk of eating disorders (hazard ratio = 7.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.5, 24.1 for high compared with low grades in Swedish, adjusted for parental education). Thus, higher parental and grandparental education and higher school grades may increase risk of hospitalization for eating disorders in female offspring, possibly because of high internal and external demands.

  4. Face pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... face may be caused by a nerve problem, injury, or infection. Face pain may also begin in other places in ... zoster (shingles) or herpes simplex (cold sores) infection Injury to the face Migraine Myofascial pain syndrome Sinusitis or sinus infection ( ...

  5. Pre-transplant reversible pulmonary hypertension predicts higher risk for mortality after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Butler, Javed; Stankewicz, Mark A; Wu, Jack; Chomsky, Don B; Howser, Renee L; Khadim, Ghazanfar; Davis, Stacy F; Pierson, Richard N; Wilson, John R

    2005-02-01

    Pre-transplant fixed pulmonary hypertension is associated with higher post-transplant mortality. In this study, we assessed the significance of pre-transplant reversible pulmonary hypertension in patients undergoing cardiac transplantation. Overall, we studied 182 patients with baseline normal pulmonary pressures or reversible pulmonary hypertension, defined as a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to < or =2.5 Wood units (WU), who underwent cardiac transplantation. Multiple recipient and donor characteristics were assessed to identify independent predictors of mortality. The average duration of follow-up was 42 +/- 28 months. Forty patients (22%) died during the follow-up period. Baseline hemodynamics for alive vs dead patients were as follows: pulmonary artery systolic (PAS) 42 +/- 15 vs 52 +/- 15 mm Hg; PA diastolic 21 +/- 9 vs 25 +/- 9 mm Hg; PA mean 28 +/- 11 vs 35 +/- 10 mm Hg; transpulmonary gradient (TPG) 9 +/- 4 vs 11 +/- 7 mm Hg (all p < 0.05); total pulmonary resistance 7.7 +/- 4.8 vs 8.8 +/- 3.2 WU (p = 0.08); and PVR 2.3 +/- 1.5 vs 2.9 +/- 1.6 WU (p = 0.06). In an unadjusted analysis, patients with PAS >50 mm Hg had a higher risk of death (odds ratio [OR] 5.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46 to 19.84 as compared with PAS < or =30 mm Hg). There was no significant difference in survival among patients with baseline PVR <2.5, 2.5 to 4.0 or >4.0 WU, but patients with TPG > or =16 had a higher risk of mortality (OR 4.93, 95% CI 1.84 to 13.17). PAS pressure was an independent predictor of mortality (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.06). Recipient body mass index, history of sternotomy; and donor ischemic time were the other independent predictors of mortality. Pre-transplant pulmonary hypertension, even when reversible to a PVR of < or =2.5 WU, is associated with a higher mortality post-transplant.

  6. Efficacy and tolerability of 5-day azacytidine dose-intensified regimen in higher-risk MDS.

    PubMed

    Pierdomenico, Francesca; Esteves, Susana; Almeida, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are aggressive disorders with rapid progression to AML and short survival. Azacitidine has shown unprecedented survival advantage in these patients but its treatment schedule involves daily hospital administrations for 7 days every 4 weeks. Due to patient and staffing constraints, we have treated 50 patients with a 5-day dose-intensified (500 mg/m(2) total monthly dose divided in 5 days) azacitidine schedule in our center. The regimen was well tolerated, with Grade 3/4 adverse events seen in 24 % patients and only two discontinuations due to toxicity. The response rate was similar to that reported with the 7-day schedule: 16 % complete remissions, 32 % partial remissions, and 62 % transfusion independence. The median survival was 19.2 months from diagnosis. In addition, this regimen reduced hospital visits by 28 % and drug use by 30 %. Our results demonstrate the safety and efficacy of a dose-intensified 5-day regimen.

  7. Cost-effectiveness in Canada of azacitidine for the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Levy, A R; Zou, D; Risebrough, N; Buckstein, R; Kim, T; Brereton, N

    2014-02-01

    Our goal was to determine the economic value of azacitidine in Canada compared with conventional care regimens (ccrs), including best supportive care (bsc) and low- or standard-dose chemotherapy plus bsc in the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (mdss) and acute myeloid leukemia (aml) with 20%-30% blasts. The cost-utility model is a lifetime probabilistic Markov model with a 35-day cycle length consisting of 3 health states: mds; transformation to aml with more than 30% blasts; and death. A third-party public payer perspective was adopted. Overall survival was extrapolated beyond the time horizon of the aza-001 trial comparing azacitidine with ccr. Resource use was determined through a questionnaire completed by Canadian hematologists. Utility values were obtained from two studies in which EQ-5D health questionnaire values were mapped from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer qlq-C30 survey, and SF-6D scores were mapped from the Short Form 12, elicited from 191 and 43 patients in two different trials. In the base case, azacitidine had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (icer) of $86,182 (95% confidence limits: $69,920, $107,157) per quality-adjusted life year (qaly) gained relative to ccr. Comparing azacitidine with bsc, low-dose chemotherapy plus bsc, and standard-dose chemotherapy plus bsc, the icers were, respectively, $86,973, $84,829, and $2,152 per qaly gained. Results were most sensitive to the utility for azacitidine after 6 months of treatment and to overall survival. The prolonged 9-month median overall survival with azacitidine relative to ccr fills a gap w hen treating patients with higher-risk mds and aml with 20%-30% blasts. The economic value of azacitidine is within the threshold of willingness-to-pay for third-party public payers for oncology treatments in Canada.

  8. Cost-effectiveness in Canada of azacitidine for the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Levy, A.R.; Zou, D.; Risebrough, N.; Buckstein, R.; Kim, T.; Brereton, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to determine the economic value of azacitidine in Canada compared with conventional care regimens (ccrs), including best supportive care (bsc) and low- or standard-dose chemotherapy plus bsc in the treatment of higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (mdss) and acute myeloid leukemia (aml) with 20%–30% blasts. Methods The cost–utility model is a lifetime probabilistic Markov model with a 35-day cycle length consisting of 3 health states: mds; transformation to aml with more than 30% blasts; and death. A third-party public payer perspective was adopted. Overall survival was extrapolated beyond the time horizon of the aza-001 trial comparing azacitidine with ccr. Resource use was determined through a questionnaire completed by Canadian hematologists. Utility values were obtained from two studies in which EQ-5D health questionnaire values were mapped from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer qlq-C30 survey, and SF-6D scores were mapped from the Short Form 12, elicited from 191 and 43 patients in two different trials. Results In the base case, azacitidine had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (icer) of $86,182 (95% confidence limits: $69,920, $107,157) per quality-adjusted life year (qaly) gained relative to ccr. Comparing azacitidine with bsc, low-dose chemotherapy plus bsc, and standard-dose chemotherapy plus bsc, the icers were, respectively, $86,973, $84,829, and $2,152 per qaly gained. Results were most sensitive to the utility for azacitidine after 6 months of treatment and to overall survival. Conclusions The prolonged 9-month median overall survival with azacitidine relative to ccr fills a gap w hen treating patients with higher-risk mds and aml with 20%–30% blasts. The economic value of azacitidine is within the threshold of willingness-to-pay for third-party public payers for oncology treatments in Canada. PMID:24523619

  9. Audio computer-assisted survey instrument versus face-to-face interviews: optimal method for detecting high-risk behaviour in pregnant women and their sexual partners in the south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K

    2013-04-01

    Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use.

  10. Audio computer-assisted survey instrument versus face-to-face interviews: optimal method for detecting high-risk behaviour in pregnant women and their sexual partners in the south of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use. PMID:23970659

  11. Seasonal pattern in bipolar disorders and cardio-vascular risk factors: A study from the FACE-BD cohort.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Pierre A; Godin, Ophelia; Mahee, Diane; Henry, Chantal; Aubin, Valérie; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Bougerol, Thierry; Courtet, Philippe; Gard, Sébastien; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Passerieux, Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Bellivier, Frank; Etain, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal pattern (SP) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are major contributors to poor outcome in bipolar disorders (BD). Patients with seasonal bipolar depression present increased appetite, carbohydrate cravings, weight gain, and hypersomnia, which can increase the development of MetS. MetS also appears to be associated with seasonal mood changes in the general population. This study examines whether a SP in BD is associated with an increased risk of MetS and its sub-components. One thousand four hundred and seventy-one outpatients with BD were systematically enrolled from 2009 to 2016. Inclusion required a disease duration of at least 5 years, with 486 (33%) patients with SP (SP+) and 985 (67%) without (SP-) according to the DSM IV-TR criteria. When using continuous measures of metabolic components, SP+ patients, as compared to SP-, suffered from higher levels for systolic blood pressure (p = 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.009), fasting glucose (p = 0.007), triglycerides levels (p = 0.03), a larger abdominal circumference (p = 0.02), and a higher body mass index (p = 0.07). In the covariance analysis, adjusted for gender, age, and bipolar subtype, as well as the number of depressive and hypomanic episode, SP+ patients had a significantly higher level of fasting glucose and higher systolic blood pressure. The frequency of MetS did not differ between groups (21.2% in SP- versus 23.9% in SP+). When using categorical definitions for abnormal metabolic components (International Diabetes Federation criteria), there were no differences between groups, except that SP+ patients were more overweight/obese as compared to SP- patients (55.03% versus 46.7%, respectively; p = 0.002) and tended to have more frequently high fasting glucose (18.2% versus 14.3%, respectively; p = 0.07). MetS was frequent in patients with BD, however not associated with SP. Patients with SP appeared more vulnerable to overweight/obesity and presented with higher

  12. A Stress Management Program for Higher Risk Medical Students: Preliminary Findings.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Julie; McGrady, Angele; Lynch, Denis J; Schaefer, Paul; Whearty, Kary

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 10 % of first year medical students have clinically relevant anxiety or depression which may affect academic success and quality of life. This study tested the effects of a stress management intervention on indicators of anxiety, depression and self-efficacy in self-selected first year medical students. Forty two medical students volunteered to participate and provided informed consent. An eight session intervention was offered and focused on building relaxation skills, adaptive coping, and basic nutrition. Anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy were assessed pre and post intervention. This group of students had significantly higher baseline values of depression and anxiety but lower self-efficacy compared to a previous study of medical students at the same institution (p < 0.03). After the intervention, statistically significant improvements were observed in anxiety (p < 0.05), and self-efficacy (p < 0.05), but not in depression. The entering levels of anxiety and depression in this group suggested that these students were at risk for later clinical syndromes. Intervention directed to decreasing the effects of stress was associated with improvement in indicators of distress and may modify the longer term risk.

  13. Decreased expression of Klotho in cardiac atria biopsy samples from patients at higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Corsetti, Giovanni; Pasini, Evasio; Scarabelli, Tiziano M; Romano, Claudia; Agrawal, Pratik R; Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Knight, Richard; Saravolatz, Louis; Narula, Jagat; Ferrari-Vivaldi, Mario; Flati, Vincenzo; Assanelli, Deodato; Dioguardi, Francesco S

    2016-01-01

    Background Klotho proteins (α- and β) are membrane-based circulating proteins that regulate cell metabolism, as well as the lifespan modulating activity of Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). Recent data has shown that higher plasma circulating Klotho levels reduce cardiovascular risk, suggesting Klotho has a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, although so far it has been identified in various organs, it is unknown whether cardiomyocytes express Klotho and FGFs, and whether high cardiovascular risk could affect cardiac expression of Klotho, FGFs and other molecules. Methods We selected 20 patients with an estimated 10-year high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and 10 age-matched control subjects with an estimated 10-year low risk undergone cardiac surgery for reasons other than coronary artery by-pass. In myocardial biopsies, we evaluated by immuno-histochemistry whether Klotho and FGFs were expressed in cardiomyocytes, and whether higher cardiovascular risk influenced the expression of other molecules involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Results Only cardiomyocytes of patients with a higher cardiovascular risk showed lower expression of Klotho, but higher expressions of FGFs. Furthermore, higher cardiovascular risk was associated with increased expression of oxidative and endoplasmic reticular stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Conclusions This study showed for the first time that Klotho proteins are expressed in human cardiomyocytes and that cardiac expression of Klotho is down-regulated in higher cardiovascular risk patients, while expression of stress-related molecules were significantly increased. PMID:27781061

  14. Risk for Revision After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Is Higher Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faunø, Peter; Rahr-Wagner, Lene; Lind, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The number of children and adolescents with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions is increasing, and disturbing reports on high rerupture rates in this group have been noted. Purpose: To describe the outcome of ACL reconstruction in children and adolescents based on data from the Danish Knee Ligament Reconstruction Registry (DKRR). Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data were retrieved from the DKRR, a national population-based registry. The analysis was based on a population of 14,806 ACL-reconstructed patients. The outcome was evaluated using risk of ACL revision, subjective outcome score (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS]), Tegner function score, and objective knee laxity. Three age groups were defined (A, <13 years; B, 13-15 years; and C, 15-20 years) and compared with D, patients ≥20 years (adults). There were 95 patients in group A, 327 in B, 2888 in C, and 11,496 in D. Results: There was a significantly increased risk of revision surgery in the age groups B (6.7%) and C (4.9%) compared with the adults in group D (2.0%). Objective knee laxity did not differ between the 4 groups. Groups A, B, and C had a higher score on the combined KOOS symptoms, pain, sport, and quality of life subscales (KOOS4; 79.6, 76.6, and 73.1, respectively) compared with the adults (69.7). Group B had higher KOOS quality of life (76.6) and sports (71.1) scores than did group C (73.1 and 66.4, respectively). The Tegner activity score did not differ between the 4 groups. No impact of the use of extracortical graft fixation was detected in the youngest age group. Conclusion: Study results indicated an increased risk of graft failure in patients between 13 and 20 years of age. This is in contrast to the better subjective and equal objective knee score found in the same age groups. Clinical Relevance: The new knowledge about the high revision rate among ACL-reconstructed teenagers is important for evidence

  15. Are LGBT populations at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors in Australia? Research findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Delaney M; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the Australian literature about suicidality in minority sexual identity and/or behavior groups in order to determine the evidence base for their reported higher vulnerability to suicidal behaviors than heterosexual and non-transgendered individuals in the Australian context, as well as to identify the factors that are predictive of suicidal behaviors in these groups in Australia. A literature search for all available years (until the end of 2012) was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Proquest for articles published in English in peer-reviewed academic journals. All peer-reviewed publications that provided empirical evidence for prevalence and predictive factors of suicidal behaviors among LGBT individuals (or a subset thereof) in Australia were included. Reference lists were also scrutinized to identify "gray" literature for inclusion. The results revealed that there is only limited research from Australia. Nevertheless, although no population-based studies have been published, research indicates that sexual minorities are indeed at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. In order to further the understanding of suicidal behaviors and potential prevention among LGBT groups in the Australia, further research is needed, particularly on fatal suicidal behaviors.

  16. Prevalent vertebral fractures on chest CT: higher risk for future hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Buckens, Constantinus F; de Jong, Pim A; Mali, Willem P; Verhaar, Harald J; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Verkooijen, Helena M

    2014-02-01

    Subclinical or undiagnosed vertebral fractures on routine chest computed tomography (CT) may be useful for detecting patients at increased risk of future hip fractures who might benefit from preventive interventions. We investigated whether prevalent vertebral fractures on routine chest CT are associated with future hip fractures. From a source population of 5679 patients ≥40 years old undergoing chest CT in one of three Dutch hospitals between 2002 and 2005, patients hospitalized for hip fractures (n = 149) during a median follow-up of 4.4 years were identified. Following a case-cohort design, a random sample of 576 patients was drawn from the source population and added to the cases. In this group, the presence and severity of vertebral fractures was determined using semiquantitative vertebral fracture assessment and multivariate case-cohort appropriate Cox modeling. We found that cases were older (69 versus 63 years) and more often female (48% versus 38%) than the source population. Compared with those with no fracture, patients with any vertebral fracture had triple the risk of future hip fracture (age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-4.7). This HR rose to 3.8 (CI 2.6-5.6) if mild fractures were discounted. Future fracture risk increased significantly with increasing severity of vertebral fracture status: from mild (HR = 2.4, CI 1.5-3.7) and moderate (HR = 4.8, CI 2.5-9.2) to severe (HR = 6.7, CI 2.9-15.5). The same was true for having higher cumulative fracture grades: 1 to 3 (HR = 2.7, CI 1.8-4.1), 4 to 6 (HR = 4.8, CI 2.2-10.5), or ≥7 (HR = 11.2, CI 3.7-34.6). In conclusion, prevalent vertebral fractures on routine clinical chest CT are associated with future hip fracture risk. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Is Risk of Artificial Urethral Sphincter Cuff Erosion Higher in Patients with Penile Prosthesis?

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Varun; Cordon, Billy H; Hofer, Matthias D; Morey, Allen F

    2016-09-01

    Frequently encountered morbidities after prostatectomy include stress urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Patients with severe disease may undergo placement of both a penile prosthesis (PP) and an artificial urethral sphincter (AUS). We hypothesized that concomitant PP may promote AUS cuff erosion by impaired corporal blood flow and/or direct pressure on the cuff. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of AUS cuff erosion in patients with and without a PP. We reviewed 366 AUS operations at our tertiary center between 2007 and 2015 with a mean follow-up of 41 months (range 6-104). Included in the analysis were first-time AUS cuff erosions. Patients with recurrent erosions, AUS revisions, and iatrogenic erosions were excluded. In a separate analysis, we analyzed AUS explantations for all causes. Cohorts were compared by demographic information, preoperative characteristics, and rates of erosion and explantation. Erosion confirmed by cystourethroscopy and explantation of the AUS for all causes. Among 366 AUS surgeries at a mean follow-up of 41 months, there were 248 (67.8%) AUS alone cases compared to 118 (32.2%) AUS and PP cases (AUS/PP). Sixty-two patients met exclusion criteria for first-time cuff erosion. Among 304 evaluable AUS patients, we found a significantly higher rate of erosion in the AUS/PP group (11/95, 11.6%) compared to the AUS alone group (9/209, 4.3%, P = .037). When examining explantations for all causes in the entire cohort (n = 366), we observed a significantly higher rate of device removal, (20/118, 17%) in the AUS/PP group compared to the AUS group (23/248, 9.2%, P = .044). AUS/PP patients appear to have a higher risk of AUS cuff erosion and explantation compared to men with AUS alone. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Higher Fluid Balance Increases the Risk of Death From Sepsis: Results From a Large International Audit.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Yasser; Rubatto Birri, Paolo Nahuel; Kotfis, Katarzyna; Nanchal, Rahul; Shah, Bhagyesh; Kluge, Stefan; Schroeder, Mary E; Marshall, John C; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2017-03-01

    Excessive fluid therapy in patients with sepsis may be associated with risks that outweigh any benefit. We investigated the possible influence of early fluid balance on outcome in a large international database of ICU patients with sepsis. Observational cohort study. Seven hundred and thirty ICUs in 84 countries. All adult patients admitted between May 8 and May 18, 2012, except admissions for routine postoperative surveillance. For this analysis, we included only the 1,808 patients with an admission diagnosis of sepsis. Patients were stratified according to quartiles of cumulative fluid balance 24 hours and 3 days after ICU admission. ICU and hospital mortality rates were 27.6% and 37.3%, respectively. The cumulative fluid balance increased from 1,217 mL (-90 to 2,783 mL) in the first 24 hours after ICU admission to 1,794 mL (-951 to 5,108 mL) on day 3 and decreased thereafter. The cumulative fluid intake was similar in survivors and nonsurvivors, but fluid balance was less positive in survivors because of higher fluid output in these patients. Fluid balances became negative after the third ICU day in survivors but remained positive in nonsurvivors. After adjustment for possible confounders in multivariable analysis, the 24-hour cumulative fluid balance was not associated with an increased hazard of 28-day in-hospital death. However, there was a stepwise increase in the hazard of death with higher quartiles of 3-day cumulative fluid balance in the whole population and after stratification according to the presence of septic shock. In this large cohort of patients with sepsis, higher cumulative fluid balance at day 3 but not in the first 24 hours after ICU admission was independently associated with an increase in the hazard of death.

  19. High nutrition risk is associated with higher risk of dysphagia in advanced age adults newly admitted to hospital.

    PubMed

    Popman, Amy; Richter, Marilize; Allen, Jacqueline; Wham, Carol

    2017-09-15

    To establish the prevalence of nutrition risk and associated risk factors among adults of advanced age newly admitted to hospital. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in adults aged over 85 years admitted to one of two hospital wards in Auckland within the previous 5 days. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to establish participant's socio-demographic and health characteristics. Markers of body composition and muscle strength were collected. Nutrition risk was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), dysphagia risk using the 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) and level of cognition using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. A total of 88 participants with a mean age of 90.0 ± 3.7 years completed the assessments. A third (28.4%) of the participants were categorised by the MNA-SF as malnourished and 43.2% were classified at risk of malnutrition. A third (29.5%) were at risk of dysphagia as assessed by EAT-10. Malnourished participants were more likely to be at risk of dysphagia (P = 0.015). The MNA-SF score was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.484, P < 0.001) and grip strength (r = 0.250, P = 0.026) and negatively correlated with risk of dysphagia (r = -0.383, P < 0.001). Among newly hospitalised adults of advanced age, over two thirds were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, and a third were at risk of dysphagia. Nutrition risk was positively correlated with low BMI and grip strength and negatively correlated with dysphagia risk. Findings highlight the importance of screening for dysphagia risk, especially in those identified to be malnourished or at nutrition risk. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  20. Adult Arabs have higher risk for diabetes mellitus than Jews in Israel.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Anat; Giveon, Shmuel; Wulffhart, Liat; Oberman, Bernice; Baidousi, Maslama; Ziv, Arnona; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an emerging epidemic in the Arab world. Although high diabetes prevalence is documented in Israeli Arabs, information from cohort studies is scant. This is a population study, based on information derived between 2007-2011, from the electronic database of the largest health fund in Israel, among Arabs and Jews. Prevalence, 4-year-incidence and diabetes hazard ratios [HRs], adjusted for sex and the metabolic-syndrome [MetS]-components, were determined in 3 age groups (<50 years, 50-59 years, and ≥60 years). The study cohort included 17,044 Arabs (males: 49%, age: 39.4±17.3) and 16,012 Jews (males: 50%, age: 40.5 ±17.6). The overall age and sex-adjusted diabetes prevalence rates were much higher among Arabs 18.4% (95%CI: 17.6-19.1); and 10.3% (95%CI: 9.7-10.9) among Jews. Arab females had higher prevalence rates 20.0% (95%CI: 19-21) than Arab males 16.7% (95%CI: 15.7-17.8). Annual incidence rates were also significantly higher among Arabs 2.9% (95%CI: 2.7-3.1) than among Jews 1.7% (95%CI: 1.6-1.8). This held true across all age and sex subgroups. Adjustment for body mass index [BMI] attenuated HR estimates associated with Arab ethnicity across all age subgroups, mainly in the <50yrs age group from HR 2.04 (95%CI: 1.74-2.40) to 1.64 (95%CI: 1.40-1.92). BMI at incident diabetes among females was higher in Arabs than Jews. Males, however, did not differ by ethnicity. Arabs, mainly female, have high incidence and prevalence of diabetes. This excess risk is only partially explained by the high prevalence of obesity. Effective culturally-congruent diabetes prevention and treatment and an effective engagement partnership with the Arab community are of paramount need.

  1. Adult Arabs have higher risk for diabetes mellitus than Jews in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Giveon, Shmuel; Wulffhart, Liat; Oberman, Bernice; Baidousi, Maslama; Ziv, Arnona; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2017-01-01

    Objective Diabetes mellitus is an emerging epidemic in the Arab world. Although high diabetes prevalence is documented in Israeli Arabs, information from cohort studies is scant. Methods This is a population study, based on information derived between 2007–2011, from the electronic database of the largest health fund in Israel, among Arabs and Jews. Prevalence, 4-year-incidence and diabetes hazard ratios [HRs], adjusted for sex and the metabolic-syndrome [MetS]-components, were determined in 3 age groups (<50 years, 50–59 years, and ≥60 years). Results The study cohort included 17,044 Arabs (males: 49%, age: 39.4±17.3) and 16,012 Jews (males: 50%, age: 40.5 ±17.6). The overall age and sex-adjusted diabetes prevalence rates were much higher among Arabs 18.4% (95%CI: 17.6–19.1); and 10.3% (95%CI: 9.7–10.9) among Jews. Arab females had higher prevalence rates 20.0% (95%CI: 19–21) than Arab males 16.7% (95%CI: 15.7–17.8). Annual incidence rates were also significantly higher among Arabs 2.9% (95%CI: 2.7–3.1) than among Jews 1.7% (95%CI: 1.6–1.8). This held true across all age and sex subgroups. Adjustment for body mass index [BMI] attenuated HR estimates associated with Arab ethnicity across all age subgroups, mainly in the <50yrs age group from HR 2.04 (95%CI: 1.74–2.40) to 1.64 (95%CI: 1.40–1.92). BMI at incident diabetes among females was higher in Arabs than Jews. Males, however, did not differ by ethnicity. Conclusion Arabs, mainly female, have high incidence and prevalence of diabetes. This excess risk is only partially explained by the high prevalence of obesity. Effective culturally-congruent diabetes prevention and treatment and an effective engagement partnership with the Arab community are of paramount need. PMID:28481942

  2. Conflicts at work are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Only few authors have analyzed the impact of workplace conflicts and the resulting stress on the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. The goal of this study was to analyze the association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders in patients treated by German general practitioners. Methods: Patients with an initial documentation of a workplace conflict experience between 2005 and 2014 were identified in 699 general practitioner practices (index date). We included only those who were between the ages of 18 and 65 years, had a follow-up time of at least 180 days after the index date, and had not been diagnosed with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, coronary heart diseases, or stroke prior to the documentation of the workplace mobbing. In total, the study population consisted of 7,374 patients who experienced conflicts and 7,374 controls for analysis. The main outcome measure was the incidence of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and stroke correlated with workplace conflict experiences. Results: After a maximum of five years of follow-up, 2.9% of individuals who experienced workplace conflict were affected by cardiovascular diseases, while only 1.4% were affected in the control group (p-value <0.001). Workplace conflict was associated with a 1.63-fold increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Finally, the impact of workplace conflict was higher for myocardial infarction (OR=2.03) than for angina pectoris (OR=1.79) and stroke (OR=1.56). Conclusions: Overall, we found a significant association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:28496397

  3. Men at higher risk of groin injuries in elite team sports: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Orchard, John William

    2015-06-01

    Groin injuries are common in sports, particularly multidirectional team sports, but incidence rates across sports other than football (soccer) have been poorly documented. A systematic review (initially using PubMed and SportDiscus databases) was performed to record incidence of groin and groin region injuries in sports. Inclusion criteria included presentation of groin injury incidence data for at least 10 team/squad seasons. Data from 31 studies were included. These used varying injury definitions and also considered varying injury categories from general to specific (all groin/hip region injuries, groin injuries, adductor muscle strains, intra-articular hip injuries). When playing the same sport, men had greater injury incidence of groin injury than women (relative risk, RR 2.45, 95% CI 2.06 to 2.92). Sports with high incidences of groin injury included ice hockey and the football codes. There is variation by player position for rate of groin injury in many sports. Hip injuries have become more commonly diagnosed over the past decade in Australian football (p=0.001) and other sports. There is moderate evidence that men have a higher risk of groin injury than women when playing the same sport. There is some evidence that hip injuries are being increasingly diagnosed in the subset of 'groin injuries' in recent years. It is recommended that injury epidemiology consensus statements aim to include a number of relevant sports to improve injury incidence comparisons among different sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Narrow subpubic arch angle is associated with higher risk of persistent occiput posterior position at delivery.

    PubMed

    Ghi, T; Youssef, A; Martelli, F; Bellussi, F; Aiello, E; Pilu, G; Rizzo, N; Frusca, T; Arduini, D; Rizzo, G

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether the subpubic arch angle (SPA) measured by three-dimensional ultrasound is associated with the fetal occiput position at delivery and the mode of delivery. Nulliparous women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy at ≥ 37 weeks' gestation were recruited from two tertiary centers between September 2013 and August 2015. All women underwent a three-dimensional transperineal ultrasound examination and the SPA was measured using the previously validated Oblique View Extended Imaging software. Data on the outcome of labor were obtained prospectively in all cases and the correlations between SPA and the fetal occiput position at delivery and the incidence of operative delivery were investigated. Overall, 368 women were included in the study. Fetal position at delivery was occiput anterior in 339 (92.1%) cases and occiput posterior (OP) in 29 (7.9%) cases. A significantly narrower SPA was found in the OP group compared with the occiput anterior group (104.4 ± 16.8° vs 116.4 ± 11.9°; P < 0.0001). The SPA was significantly narrower in women requiring obstetric intervention compared with in women with a spontaneous vaginal delivery. From multivariable logistic regression analysis, SPA and maternal height appeared to be significant predictors of both the fetal occiput position at delivery and the risk of operative delivery. The best cut-off value of SPA for predicting an OP position at delivery was 90.5°. A narrow SPA is associated with a higher risk of persistent OP position at delivery and of operative delivery. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Are manual workers at higher risk of death than non-manual employees when living in Swedish municipalities with higher income inequality?

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Göran; Allebeck, Peter; Weitoft, Gunilla Ringbäck; Thelle, Dag

    2007-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that manual workers are at higher risk of death than are non-manual employees when living in municipalities with higher income inequality. Hierarchical regression was used for the analysis were individuals were nested within municipalities according to the 1990 Swedish census. The outcome was all-cause mortality 1992-1998. The income measure at the individual level was disposable family income weighted against composition of family; the income inequality measure used at the municipality level was the Gini coefficient. The study population consisted of 1 578 186 people aged 40-64 years in the 1990 Swedish census, who were being reported as unskilled or skilled manual workers, lower-, intermediate-, or high-level non-manual employees. There was no significant association between income inequality at the municipality level and risk of death, but an expected gradient with unskilled manual workers having the highest risk and high-level non-manual employees having the lowest. However, in the interaction models the relative risk (RR) of death for high-level non-manual employees was decreasing with increasing income inequality (RR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.93), whereas the corresponding risk for unskilled manual workers increased with increasing income inequality (RR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.46). The RRs for skilled manual, low- and medium- level non-manual employees were not significant. Controlling for income at the individual level did not substantially alter these findings, neither did potential confounders at the municipality level. The findings suggest that there could be a differential impact from income inequality on risk of death, dependent on individuals' social position.

  6. Are Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Caregivers at Higher Risk for Health Problems?

    PubMed

    Pinho, Ana Catarina; Gonçalves, Edna

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rare neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons. Patients present with progressive physical impairment, respiratory failure being the main cause of death. A significant portion of patients presents neurobehavioral problems as well. As severe impairment occurs, patients become highly dependent and in general, their families assume the role of primary caregivers, exposing them to stress and other potential causes of disease like insomnia, physical strain from patients' mobilization and changes on eating habits. The aim of this work is to understand if taking care of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis increases disease and health problems on caregivers. Comprehensive review of the literature published on the electronic databases PubMed and Scopus between 2010 and 2014. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. We found that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caregivers have higher levels of burden, depression and anxiety with lower quality of life. This is associated to age and gender of caregivers, time spent caring, patients' disability and neurobehavioral changes. Higher sense of support and spirituality on family seem to promote wellbeing. On our work, we were able to understand that several factors have influenced caregivers' quality of life and affect their health. Besides, we could understand that the outcomes studied are related between themselves and, as seen in some of the studies, related to patients' quality of life itself. Consequently, it has become essential to adopt a holistic approach of these patients and their families, fighting the deteriorating risk factors and investing on health promoters. Despite the large body of research on family caregiving for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, little has changed and the outcomes measured remain almost the same before and after 2010. The work indicates that caregivers have lower levels of health than the general population. Still additional research is

  7. Women are at a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Mitra, Amal K; Zainuddin, Laila Ruwaida Mohd; Leng, Soo Kah; Wan Muda, Wan Manan

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine gender differences in the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a rural Malay population. This cross-sectional study, conducted in Bachok, Kelantan, involved 306 respondents aged 18 to 70 years. The survey used a structured questionnaire to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Venous blood samples were taken by a doctor or nurses and analyzed for lipid profile and fasting glucose. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and was higher among females (42.9%). Being unemployed or a housewife and being of older age were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a multivariate analysis. Weight management and preventive community-based programs involving housewives, the unemployed, and adults of poor education must be reinforced to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome effectively in adults.

  8. Higher critical shoulder angle increases the risk of retear after rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Grant H; Liu, Joseph N; Degen, Ryan M; Johnson, Christine C; Wong, Alexander; Dines, David M; Gulotta, Lawrence V; Dines, Joshua S

    2017-02-01

    No evaluation has been done on the relationship of the critical shoulder angle (CSA) with retear after rotator cuff repair. Our purpose was to evaluate whether a higher CSA is associated with retear after rotator cuff repair. This was a retrospective review of 76 patients who had undergone rotator cuff repair with postoperative ultrasound examination. Ultrasound findings were graded no retear (NT), partial-thickness (PT) retear, or full-thickness (FT) retear. Preoperative radiographs were used to measure CSA, glenoid inclination, lateral acromion angle, and acromion index. Average age was 61.9 years (45.3-74.9 years). On ultrasound examination, 57 shoulders (74.0%) had NT, 11 (14.2%) had PT retears, and 8 (10.3%) had FT retears. There was no significant difference in retear rate by age, gender, or tension of repair. Average CSA was significantly lower for the NT group at 34.3° ± 2.9° than for the FT group at 38.6° ± 3.5° (P < .01). If CSA was >38°, the odds ratio of having an FT retear was 14.8 (P < .01). In addition, higher CSA inversely correlated with postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (P < .03). Average glenoid inclination was significantly lower in the NT group at 12.3° ± 2.7° compared with 17.3° ± 2.6° in the FT group (P < .01). If glenoid inclination was >14, the odds ratio of having a FT retear was 15.0 (P < .01). At short-term follow-up, higher CSA significantly increased the risk of an FT retear after rotator cuff repair. Also, increasing CSA correlated with worse postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores. This radiographic marker may help manage expectations for rotator cuff tear patients. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Higher levels of psychological distress are associated with a higher risk of incident diabetes during 18 year follow-up: results from the British household panel survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reviews have shown that depression is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is limited evidence for general psychological distress to be associated with incident diabetes. The aim of the present study was to test whether persons who report higher levels of psychological distress are at increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes during 18 years follow up, adjusted for confounders. Methods A prospective analysis using data from 9,514 participants (41 years, SD=14; 44% men) of the British Household Panel Survey. The General Health Questionnaire 12 item version was used to assess general psychological distress, diabetes was measured by means of self-report. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of incident diabetes during 18 years follow up, comparing participants with low versus high psychological distress at baseline (1991). Results A total of 472 participants developed diabetes 18 year follow up. Those with a high level of psychological distress had a 33% higher hazard of developing diabetes (HR=1.33, 95% CI 1.10–1.61), relative to those with a low level of psychological distress, adjusted for age, sex, education level and household income. After further adjustment for differences in level of energy, health status, health problems and activity level, higher psychological distress was no longer associated with incident diabetes (HR=1.10, 95% CI 0.91-1.34). Conclusions Higher levels of psychological distress are a risk factor for the development of diabetes during an 18 year follow up period. This association may be potentially mediated by low energy level and impaired health status. PMID:23259455

  10. Energy efficient face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehnal, J.; Sedy, J.; Etsion, I.; Zobens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Torque, face temperature, leakage, and wear of a flat face seal were compared with three coned face seals at pressures up to 2758 kPa and speeds up to 8000 rpm. Axial movement of the mating seal parts was recorded by a digital data acquisition system. The coning of the tungsten carbide primary ring ranged from .51 micro-m to 5.6 micro-m. The torque of the coned face seal balanced to 76.3% was an average 42% lower, the leakage eleven times higher, than that of the standard flat face seal. The reduction of the balance of the coned face seal to 51.3% resulted by decreasing the torque by an additional 44% and increasing leakage 12 to 230 times, depending on the seal shaft speed. No measurable wear was observed on the face of the coned seals.

  11. Higher fish intake is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in Chinese men and women: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fan; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Wu, Bao-Hua; He, Ming-Guang; Xie, Hai-Li; Ouyang, Wei-Fu; Tu, Su-Lan; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years), were enrolled from four hospitals. 1∶1 matched controls by gender and age (±3 years) were also recruited from communities and hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were used to obtain habitual dietary intake and information on various covariates. Univariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed significantly dose-dependent inverse correlations between the risk of hip fractures and the intake of fresh-water fish, sea fish, mollusca, shellfish, and total fish in all of the subjects (p-trend: <0.001-0.016). After adjusting for covariates, the associations were slightly attenuated but remained significant for all (p-trend: <0.001-0.017) except for fresh-water fish (p = 0.553). The ORs (95%CI) of hip fractures for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.80 (0.48-1.31) for fresh-water fish, 0.31 (0.18-0.52) for sea fish, 0.55 (0.34-0.88) for mollusca and shellfish, and 0.47 (0.28-0.79) for total fish, respectively. Stratified and interaction analyses showed that the association was more significant in males than in females (p-interaction = 0.052). Higher intake of seafood is independently associated with lower risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese. Increasing consumption of sea fish may benefit the prevention of hip fractures in this population.

  12. Face Lift.

    PubMed

    Wan, Dinah; Small, Kevin H; Barton, Fritz E

    2015-11-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Identify the essential anatomy of the aging face and its relationship to face-lift surgery. 2. Understand the common operative approaches to the aging face and a historical perspective. 3. Understand and describe the common complications following face lifting and treatment options. Surgical rejuvenation of the aging face remains one of the most commonly performed plastic surgery procedures. This article reviews the anatomy of the face and its impact on surgical correction. In addition, this review discusses the evolution of various face-lift techniques and the current surgical approach to the aging face. Finally, this article discusses potential postoperative complications after rhytidectomy and management solutions.

  13. Primary Joint Arthroplasty Surgery: Is the Risk of Major Bleeding Higher in Elderly Patients? A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Jorge I; Cárdenas, Laura L; Navas, Mónica; Bautista, Maria P; Bonilla, Guillermo A; Llinás, Adolfo M

    2016-10-01

    Increased risk of bleeding after major orthopedic surgery (MOS) has been widely documented in general population. However, this complication has not been studied in elderly patients. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the risk of major bleeding after MOS is higher in elderly patients, compared with those operated at a younger age. This retrospective cohort study included total hip and total knee arthroplasty patients operated during 5 consecutive years. The main outcome was the occurrence of major bleeding. Patients with other causes of bleeding were excluded. Relative risks (RRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and a multivariate analysis was performed. A total of 1048 patients were included, 56% of patients were hip arthroplasties. At the time of surgery, 553 (53%) patients were older than 70 years. Patients aged >70 years showed an increased risk of major bleeding (RR: 2.42 [95% CI: 1.54-3.81]). For hip arthroplasty, the RR of bleeding was 2.61 (95%CI: 1.50-4.53) and 2.25 (95% CI: 1.03-4.94) for knee arthroplasty. After multivariate analysis, age was found to be independently associated with higher risk of major bleeding. According to European Medicines Agency criteria, patients aged ≥70 years are at a higher risk of major bleeding after MOS, result of a higher frequency of blood transfusions in this group of patients. Standardized protocols for blood transfusion in these patients are still required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Initial recommendations for higher-tier risk assessment protocols for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Almanza, Maria Teresa; Cutler, G Christopher; Fischer, David L; Hinarejos, Silvia; Lewis, Gavin; Nigro, Daniel; Olmstead, Allen; Overmyer, Jay; Potter, Daniel A; Raine, Nigel E; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Thompson, Helen; van der Steen, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Global declines of bumble bees and other pollinator populations are of concern because of their critical role for crop production and maintenance of wild plant biodiversity. Although the consensus among scientists is that the interaction of many factors, including habitat loss, forage scarcity, diseases, parasites, and pesticides, potentially plays a role in causing these declines, pesticides have received considerable attention and scrutiny. In response, regulatory agencies have introduced more stringent pollinator testing requirements for registration and reregistration of pesticides, to ensure that the risks to pollinators are minimized. In this context, guidelines for testing bumble bees (Bombus spp.) in regulatory studies are not yet available, and a pressing need exists to develop suitable protocols for routine higher-tier studies with these non-Apis sp., social bees. To meet this need, Bayer CropScience LP, Syngenta Crop Protection LLC US, and Valent USA. Corporation organized a workshop bringing together a group of global experts on bumble bee behavior, ecology, and ecotoxicology to discuss and develop draft protocols for both semi-field (Tier II) and field (Tier III) studies. The workshop was held May 8-9, 2014, at the Bayer Bee Care Center, North Carolina, USA. The participants represented academic, consulting, and industry scientists from Europe, Canada, the United States, and Brazil. The workshop identified a clear protection goal and generated proposals for basic experimental designs, relevant measurements, and endpoints for both semifield (tunnel) and field tests. These initial recommendations are intended to form the basis of discussions to help advance the development of appropriate protocol guidelines. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by SETAC.

  15. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  16. Women more vulnerable than men when facing risk for treatment-induced infertility: a qualitative study of young adults newly diagnosed with cancer.

    PubMed

    Armuand, Gabriela M; Wettergren, Lena; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Lampic, Claudia

    2015-02-01

    Being diagnosed with cancer constitutes not only an immediate threat to health, but cancer treatments may also have a negative impact on fertility. Retrospective studies show that many survivors regret not having received fertility-related information and being offered fertility preservation at time of diagnosis. This qualitative study investigates newly diagnosed cancer patients' experiences of fertility-related communication and how they reason about the risk of future infertility. Informants were recruited at three cancer wards at a university hospital. Eleven women and 10 men newly diagnosed with cancer participated in individual semi-structured interviews focusing on three domains: experiences of fertility-related communication, decision-making concerning fertility preservation, and thoughts and feelings about the risk of possible infertility. Data was analyzed through qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in three sub-themes, 'Getting to know', 'Reacting to the risk' and 'Handling uncertainty', and one main theme 'Women more vulnerable when facing risk for infertility', indicating that women reported more negative experiences related to patient-provider communication regarding fertility-related aspects of cancer treatment, as well as negative emotional reactions to the risk of infertility and challenges related to handling uncertainty regarding future fertility. The informants described distress when receiving treatment with possible impact on fertility and used different strategies to handle the risk for infertility, such as relying on fertility preservation or thinking of alternative ways to achieve parenthood. The negative experiences reported by the female informants may be related to the fact that none of the women, but almost all men, had received information about and used fertility preservation. Women newly diagnosed with cancer seem to be especially vulnerable when facing risk for treatment-induced infertility. Lack of shared decision

  17. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  18. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  19. Androgenetic alopecia in policemen: higher prevalence and different risk factors relative to the general population (KCIS no. 23).

    PubMed

    Su, Lin-Hui; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2011-12-01

    Prevalence and risk factors of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in policemen are not known. This study aimed to compare the prevalence and risk factors of AGA between policemen and the general population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by recruiting a total of 758 (78%) of 972 policemen and 740 (80%) of 924 participants in a community-based integrated screening served as a comparison group. The Norwood classification system was used to assess the degree of hair loss. Information on age, family history of androgenetic alopecia, and other possible risk factors was collected with questionnaire interviews. The association analysis between policemen and the general population was limited to participants aged 40-59 years. After controlling for other significant factors, policemen aged 40-59 years had an increased risk of developing AGA compared with the general population (OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.14, 4.36, p = 0.02). Obesity measured by waist circumference and body mass index made contribution to higher risk for AGA in younger policemen (20-39 years). A statistically significant association was noted between AGA and sunlight exposure in policemen aged 40-59 years. We concluded the prevalence of AGA in policemen was twofold higher than that in the general population. Obesity at young age and sunlight exposure may be responsible for higher risk of AGA in policemen. However, further studies are warranted to confirm the current findings.

  20. Expression of p-AKT characterizes adenoid cystic carcinomas of head and neck with a higher risk for tumor relapses

    PubMed Central

    Völker, Hans-Ullrich; Scheich, Matthias; Berndt, Annette; Haubitz, Imme; Metzger, Alexandra; Müller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Kämmerer, Ulrike; Schmidt, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Background Adenoid cystic carcinomas are rare tumors with an indolent clinical course, but frequent local relapses. The identification of tumors with a higher relapse risk seems to be interesting. Hence we investigated parameters of glucose metabolism, which were found associated with poor prognosis in other malignancies. Methods Specimen of 29 patients were investigated immunohistochemically with antibodies against p-AKT, TKTL-1 (transketolase-like 1), M2PK (M2 pyruvate kinase), and GLUT-1. Proliferation was investigated by staining with Ki67. The tumors were located at the major or minor salivary glands. Only the typical cribriform subtype was investigated. The initial tumor stage was pT1 or pT2. Results Expression of p-AKT was significantly (P = 0.036) associated with a higher relapse risk in multivariate analysis. Low expression of M2PK was non-significantly (P = 0.065) predictive for a higher risk. TKTL-1 and GLUT-1 were expressed in the majority of cases, albeit not associated with relapse risk. Conclusion Adenoid cystic carcinomas positive for p-AKT show a higher relapse risk. However, other parameters of glucose metabolism investigated here or proliferation (Ki67) were not predictive in this entity. Our findings demonstrate a possible background for therapeutic approaches targeting the inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:19545368

  1. Part-Time Students and Part-Time Study in Higher Education in the UK: Strand 2--A Survey of the Issues Facing Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Susan; Brown, Nigel; Payne, Philip; Ramsden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This is the report on part-time study in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) for Universities UK and GuildHE (previously SCOP) from Nigel Brown Associates. It forms Strand 2 of the wider research into part-time higher education commissioned by Universities UK and GuildHE using quantitative data not available from published sources and…

  2. Higher order concentration moments collapse in the expected mass fraction (EMF) based risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srzic, Veljko; Gotovac, Hrvoje; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Andricevic, Roko

    2014-05-01

    In this work Langrangian framework is used for conservative tracer transport simulations through 2-D extremely heterogeneous porous media. Conducted numerical simulations enable large sets of concentration values in both spatial and temporal domains. In addition to the advection, which acts on all scales, an additional mechanism considered is local scale dispersion (LSD), accounting for both mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion. The ratio between these two mechanisms is quantified by the Peclet (Pe) number. In its base, the work gives answers to concentration scalar features when influenced by: i) different log-conductivity variance; ii) log-conductivity structures defined by the same global variogram but with different log conductivity patterns correlated; and iii) for a wide range of Peclet values. Results conducted by Monte Carlo analysis show a complex interplay between the aforementioned parameters, indicating the influence of aquifer properties to temporal LSD evolution. A remarkable collapse of higher order to second-order concentration moments [Yee, 2009] leads to the conclusion that only two concentration moments are required for an accurate description of concentration fluctuations. This explicitly holds for the pure advection case, while in the case of LSD presence the moment deriving function(MDF) is involved to ensure the moment collapse validity. An inspection of the Beta distribution leads to the conclusion that the two-parametric distribution can be used for concentration fluctuation characterization even in cases of high aquifer heterogeneity and/or for different log-conductivity structures, independent of the sampling volume used. Furthermore, the expected mass fraction (EMF) [Heagy & Sullivan, 1996] concept is applied in groundwater transport. In its origin, EMF is function of the concentration but with lower number of realizations needed for its determination, compared to the one point PDF. From practical point of view, EMF excludes

  3. Higher Education Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Dementia after a Stroke or TIA. The Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Portegies, Marileen L P; Wolters, Frank J; Hofman, Albert; Koudstaal, Peter J; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia, possibly because of a higher tolerance to subclinical neurodegenerative pathology. Whether higher education also protects against dementia after clinical stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains unknown. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, 12,561 participants free of stroke, TIA and dementia were followed for occurrence of stroke, TIA and dementia. Across the levels of education, associations of incident stroke or TIA with subsequent development of dementia and differences in cognitive decline following stroke or TIA were investigated. During 124,862 person-years, 1,463 persons suffered a stroke or TIA, 1,158 persons developed dementia, of whom 186 developed dementia after stroke or TIA. Risk of dementia after a stroke or TIA, compared to no stroke or TIA, was highest in the low education category (hazards ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.18-1.81) followed by intermediate education category (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.81). No significant association was observed in the high education category (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.25-1.54). In gender stratified analyses, decrease in risk of dementia with increasing education was significant only in men. Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia after stroke or TIA, particularly in men, which might be explained by a higher cognitive reserve. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Risk Analysis and Prediction of Floor Failure Mechanisms at Longwall Face in Parvadeh-I Coal Mine using Rock Engineering System (RES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghababaei, Sajjad; Saeedi, Gholamreza; Jalalifar, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    The floor failure at longwall face decreases productivity and safety, increases operation costs, and causes other serious problems. In Parvadeh-I coal mine, the timber is used to prevent the puncture of powered support base into the floor. In this paper, a rock engineering system (RES)-based model is presented to evaluate the risk of floor failure mechanisms at the longwall face of E 2 and W 1 panels. The presented model is used to determine the most probable floor failure mechanism, effective factors, damaged regions and remedial actions. From the analyzed results, it is found that soft floor failure is dominant in the floor failure mechanism at Parvadeh-I coal mine. The average of vulnerability index (VI) for soft, buckling and compressive floor failure mechanisms was estimated equal to 52, 43 and 30 for both panels, respectively. By determining the critical VI for soft floor failure mechanism equal to 54, the percentage of regions with VIs beyond the critical VI in E 2 and W 1 panels is equal to 65.5 and 30, respectively. The percentage of damaged regions showed that the excess amount of used timber to prevent the puncture of weak floor below the powered support base is equal to 4,180,739 kg. RES outputs and analyzed results showed that setting and yielding load of powered supports, length of face, existent water at face, geometry of powered supports, changing the cutting pattern at longwall face and limiting the panels to damaged regions with supercritical VIs could be considered to control the soft floor failure in this mine. The results of this research could be used as a useful tool to identify the damaged regions prior to mining operation at longwall panel for the same conditions.

  5. Higher gait speed and smaller sway area decrease the risk for decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Mariko; Otsuka, Rei; Yuki, Atsumu; Nishita, Yukiko; Tange, Chikako; Tomida, Makiko; Kato, Yuki; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether physical function can indicate a risk of decline in higher-level functional capacity. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 466 men and 495 women aged 40-79 years at baseline (1997-2000), whose total score for the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) at baseline was ≥11 and who participated in the follow-up survey. Baseline physical function examination included grip strength, comfortable gait speed, and sway area with eyes open. A decline in higher-level functional capacity was defined as a ≥2-point decrease in the TMIG-IC score after 14 years. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for decline in the TMIG-IC score for 14 years according to a 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in physical function measurements at baseline were estimated. Subjects with decreased TMIG-IC scores included 78 (16.7%) men and 80 (16.2%) women. In women, the multivariate-adjusted OR (95% CI) for a TMIG-IC score decrease with a 1-SD increase in comfortable gait speed was 0.68 (0.50-0.92; p=0.013), and that with a 1-SD increase in sway area with eyes open was 1.49 (1.17-1.90; p=0.001). Grip strength was not associated with TMIG-IC score decline. None of the physical performance measures affected TMIG-IC score declines in men. These results suggest that gait speed decreases and sway area increases might predict a risk of decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupations and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: are jobs exposed to the general public at higher risk?

    PubMed

    D'Ovidio, F; d'Errico, A; Calvo, A; Costa, G; Chiò, A

    2017-02-14

    Aim of this study was to assess whether previous employment in certain occupations could be a risk factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) incidence. This topic has been explored by several studies, but no risk factor has been firmly identified. The study population consisted of all subjects over 30 years old resident in Turin in 1996 who worked or were unemployed at 1991 Italian census ( n = 284 406), followed up for ALS occurrence from 1996 to 2014. The risk of ALS was estimated in relation to the occupation held in 1991, using the Italian classification of occupations at the greatest detail. The association between occupations and ALS risk was estimated through Huber-White sandwich multivariate Poisson regression models adjusted for age, gender, education and marital status. During the follow-up, 208 subjects developed ALS. ALS risk was significantly associated with previous employment as bank teller (IRR = 7.33), general practitioner (IRR = 4.61) and sales representative (IRR = 3.06). Categorizing all occupations as exposed or unexposed to direct contact with general public, it was found that previous employment in this group of occupations increased significantly ALS risk (IRR = 1.51), mainly driven by occupations in direct contact with customers (IRR = 1.79). The study results indicate that ALS risk may be increased by previous employment in occupations implying direct contact with the general public, in particular customers. A possible explanation of this finding, partly supported by the literature, is that workers in contact with the public could be more exposed to certain infections, which would increase their ALS risk.

  7. Why are poorer children at higher risk of obesity and overweight? A UK cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sacker, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited evidence on which risk factors attenuate income inequalities in child overweight and obesity; whether and why these inequalities widen as children age. Method: Eleven thousand nine hundred and sixty five singletons had complete data at age 5 and 9384 at age 11 from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK). Overweight (age 5 : 15%; age 11 : 20%) and obesity (age 5 : 5%; age 11 : 6%) were defined using the International Obesity Taskforce body mass index cut-points. To measure socioeconomic inequalities, we used quintiles of family income and as risk factors, we considered markers of maternal health behaviours and of children’s physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet. Binary and multinomial logistic regression models were used. Results: The unadjusted analyses revealed stark income inequalities in the risk of obesity at age 5 and 11. At age 5, children in the bottom income quintile had 2.0 (95% CI: 1.4–2.8) increased relative risk of being obese whilst at age 11 they had 3.0 (95% CI: 2.0–4.5) increased risk compared to children in the top income quintile. Similar income inequalities in the risk of overweight emerged by age 11. Physical activity and diet were particularly important in explaining inequalities. Income inequalities in obesity and overweight widened significantly between age 5 and 11 and a similar set of risk factors protected against upward and promoted downward movements across weight categories. Conclusions: To reduce income inequalities in overweight and obesity and their widening across childhood the results support the need of early interventions which take account of multiple risk factors. PMID:26659411

  8. Why are poorer children at higher risk of obesity and overweight? A UK cohort study.

    PubMed

    Goisis, Alice; Sacker, Amanda; Kelly, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    There is limited evidence on which risk factors attenuate income inequalities in child overweight and obesity; whether and why these inequalities widen as children age. Eleven thousand nine hundred and sixty five singletons had complete data at age 5 and 9384 at age 11 from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK). Overweight (age 5 : 15%; age 11 : 20%) and obesity (age 5 : 5%; age 11 : 6%) were defined using the International Obesity Taskforce body mass index cut-points. To measure socioeconomic inequalities, we used quintiles of family income and as risk factors, we considered markers of maternal health behaviours and of children's physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet. Binary and multinomial logistic regression models were used. The unadjusted analyses revealed stark income inequalities in the risk of obesity at age 5 and 11. At age 5, children in the bottom income quintile had 2.0 (95% CI: 1.4-2.8) increased relative risk of being obese whilst at age 11 they had 3.0 (95% CI: 2.0-4.5) increased risk compared to children in the top income quintile. Similar income inequalities in the risk of overweight emerged by age 11. Physical activity and diet were particularly important in explaining inequalities. Income inequalities in obesity and overweight widened significantly between age 5 and 11 and a similar set of risk factors protected against upward and promoted downward movements across weight categories. To reduce income inequalities in overweight and obesity and their widening across childhood the results support the need of early interventions which take account of multiple risk factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  9. Health risk impacts analysis of fugitive aromatic compounds emissions from the working face of a municipal solid waste landfill in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Liu, Yanting; Li, Hao; Fu, Xindi; Guo, Hanwen; Meng, Ruihong; Lu, Wenjing; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-12-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) emitted from landfills have attracted a lot of attention of the public due to their adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This study assessed the health risk impacts of the fugitive ACs emitted from the working face of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in China. The emission data was acquired by long-term in-situ samplings using a modified wind tunnel system. The uncertainty of aromatic emissions is determined by means of statistics and the emission factors were thus developed. Two scenarios, i.e. 'normal-case' and 'worst-case', were presented to evaluate the potential health risk in different weather conditions. For this typical large anaerobic landfill, toluene was the dominant species owing to its highest releasing rate (3.40±3.79g·m(-2)·d(-1)). Despite being of negligible non-carcinogenic risk, the ACs might bring carcinogenic risks to human in the nearby area. Ethylbenzene was the major health threat substance. The cumulative carcinogenic risk impact area is as far as ~1.5km at downwind direction for the normal-case scenario, and even nearly 4km for the worst-case scenario. Health risks of fugitive ACs emissions from active landfills should be concerned, especially for landfills which still receiving mixed MSW.

  10. Higher normal range of fasting plasma glucose still has a higher risk for metabolic syndrome: a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study in elderly.

    PubMed

    Wei, S-H; Lin, J-D; Hsu, C-H; Wu, C-Z; Hsieh, C-H; Pei, D; Chang, J-B; Liang, Y-J; Hsia, T-L; Chen, Y-L

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This relationship still exists even the FPG is within the normal range. However, most of these studies did not exclude subjects who were on medications which would affect the results of the studies. At the same time, there is no longitudinal study done to validate this correlation, especially in elderly. In this study, the relationships between normal FPG and MetS were evaluated. We randomly selected 57,517 subjects who were ≥ 60-years old from health screening centre. In the first part of study, subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study to find out the optimal cut-off value of FPG with higher chances to have MetS. In the second part of current study, subjects with MetS at baseline were excluded from the same study group, and performed a median 5.3-year longitudinal study. There were 18,287 subjects enrolled in this study. In the first part of study, the cross-sectional study, optimal cut-off values of FPG were determined by the ROC curve and the sensitivity for these cut-off values were 56.6% in men and 60.9% in women, respectively. The result showed that lower FPG is healthier than the higher (log-rank test, p < 0.001). During the follow-up period, 5039 subjects showed hazard ratios of 2.09 for men and 1.884 for women developing future MetS. Our study is the first longitudinal design in elderly and showed that older subjects with higher FPG proved to have higher risk of Mets even the FPG is still within its normal range. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. High-risk drinking is associated with a higher risk of diabetes mellitus in Korean men, based on the 2010-2012 KNHANES.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Won; Linton, John A; Shim, Jae-Yong; Kang, Hee-Taik

    2015-05-01

    We examined the association between alcohol-drinking pattern and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 12,486 participants (5551 men and 6935 women) who participated in the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized alcohol-drinking pattern into three groups based on the alcohol-use disorders identification test (AUDIT): low-risk (score: 0-7), intermediate-risk (score: 8-14), and high-risk (score: ≥15). DM was defined as having fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL or taking glucose-lowering medication, including insulin therapy. In the study population, 25.2% of men and 4.7% of women were high-risk drinkers. DM prevalence was 9.2% in men and 5.4% in women. DM prevalence was 9.0% and 5.7% in the low-risk drinking group, 7.6% and 4.1% in the intermediate-risk drinking group, and 11.2% and 3.5% in the high-risk drinking group in men and women, respectively. Compared to the low-risk drinking group, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of men and women in the intermediate-risk drinking group for DM were 1.043 (0.779-1.396) and 1.139 (0.712-1.824), respectively, and 1.480 (1.133-1.933) and 0.827 (0.296-2.311) in the high-risk drinking group, after adjusting for age and other confounding factors. In conclusion, high-risk drinking appears to be associated with a higher risk of DM in men, but not in women.

  12. Innovative community-based educational face-to-face intervention to reduce HIV, hepatitis C virus and other blood-borne infectious risks in difficult-to-reach people who inject drugs: results from the ANRS-AERLI intervention study.

    PubMed

    Roux, Perrine; Le Gall, Jean-Marie; Debrus, Marie; Protopopescu, Camélia; Ndiaye, Khadim; Demoulin, Baptiste; Lions, Caroline; Haas, Aurelie; Mora, Marion; Spire, Bruno; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of an educational intervention on risks associated with drug injection, comparing primary [unsafe HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) practices] and secondary (local complications at injecting site) end-points in harm reduction (HR) programmes offering this intervention versus HR programmes not offering it. This non-random clustered intervention study was conducted in nine intervention groups (programmes offering the intervention) and eight control groups (programmes not offering it). Each participant was followed-up through a telephone interview at enrolment and at 6 and 12 months. The study took place in 17 cities throughout France. Of the 271 participants, 144 were enrolled into the intervention group and 127 in the control group. Of the latter, 113 received at least one educational session. A series of participant-centred face-to-face educational sessions. Each session included direct observation by trained non-governmental organization (NGO) staff or volunteers of participants' self-injecting the psychoactive product they used habitually; analysis by the trained NGO staff or volunteers of the participant's injecting practices, identification of injection-related risks and explanation of safer injecting practices; and an educational exchange on the individual participant's injection practices and the questions he or she asked. Primary and secondary outcomes were 'at least one unsafe HIV-HCV practice' and at least one injection-related complication (derived from a checklist). The proportion of participants with at least one unsafe HIV-HCV practice in the intervention group decreased significantly, from 44% at M0 to 25% at M6, as well as complications at the injection site (from 66 to 39% at M12), while in the control group it remained mainly stable. Multivariate probit analyses showed that the intervention group experienced a significant reduction in unsafe HIV-HCV practices at M6 [coefficient, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.73 (-1

  13. Higher plain water intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk: a cross-sectional study in humans.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Harriet A; Davis, Mark G; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plain water intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. It was hypothesized that higher plain water intake would be associated with a lower T2D risk score. One hundred thirty-eight adults from Southwest and Southeast England answered a cross-sectional online survey assessing T2D risk (using the Diabetes UK risk assessment); physical activity (using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire); and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and beverages (using an adapted version of the Cambridge European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Food Frequency Questionnaire). There was a trend for differences in mean plain water intake between those stratified as having low, increased, moderate, or high risk of T2D; but these did not achieve significance (P = .084). However, plain water intake was significantly negatively correlated with T2D risk score (τ = -0°180, P = .005); and for every 240-mL cup of water consumed per day, T2D risk score was reduced by 0.72 point (range, 0-47) (B = -0.03, 95% confidence interval = -0.06 to -0.01, P = .014). The current study has provided preliminary results that are supported by theory; mechanisms need to be explored further to determine the true effect of plain water intake on disease risk. As increasing plain water intake is a simple and cost-effective dietary modification, its impact on T2D risk is important to investigate further in a randomized controlled trial. Overall, this study found that plain water intake had a significant negative correlation with T2D risk score; and regression analysis suggested that water may have a role in reducing T2D risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Critical Race Ethnography of Higher Education: Racial Risk and Counter-Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The Ethnography of the University Initiative (EUI) joins a long history of critique, challenge and transformation of higher education. EUI courses are an important site for the creation of non-traditional narratives in which students challenge "business-as-usual" in higher education. For under-represented students, this includes inquiry…

  15. Critical Race Ethnography of Higher Education: Racial Risk and Counter-Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The Ethnography of the University Initiative (EUI) joins a long history of critique, challenge and transformation of higher education. EUI courses are an important site for the creation of non-traditional narratives in which students challenge "business-as-usual" in higher education. For under-represented students, this includes inquiry…

  16. Female white-collar workers remain at higher risk of breast cancer after adjustments for individual risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Kullberg, Cecilia; Selander, Jenny; Albin, Maria; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to investigate the variation in risk of breast cancer between occupational groups with a focus on white-collar and blue-collar workers and to investigate to what extent the differences were explained by risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle. Methods Between 1991 and 1996, 14 119 women born between 1923 and 1950 and residents of Malmö, Sweden, were included in this cohort study. Individual data on risk factors (eg, age, parity, age at first child, months of breast feeding per child, hormonal replacement therapy, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, height and body mass index) and occupational history were assessed using a questionnaire. First-time diagnoses of invasive breast cancer were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry up until 31 December 2013. Results A total of 897 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Analyses adjusted for age showed an increased risk for white-collar workers compared with blue-collar workers and indicated higher risks in the occupational categories: professionals, administrative and bookkeeping than among women in sales, transportation, production and service work. This difference was only marginally attenuated after adjustment for an extensive set of risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle. Conclusion Reproductive and lifestyle factors explain only a minor part of the increased risk of breast cancer in white-collar workers. Further studies are needed to investigate the remaining factors for the difference in risk between occupational groups. PMID:28456763

  17. Higher risk for adverse obstetric outcomes among immigrants of African and Asian descent: a comparison study at a low-risk maternity hospital in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Kjersti S; Skjeldal, Ola H; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2015-06-01

    Immigrants have higher risks for some adverse obstetric outcomes, and 40 percent of women giving birth at the low-risk maternity ward in Baerum Hospital, Norway, are immigrants. This study compared obstetric outcomes between immigrants and ethnic Norwegians giving birth in a low-risk setting. This was a population-based study linking the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to Statistics Norway. The study included the first registered birth during the study period to immigrant and ethnic Norwegian women at Baerum Hospital from 2006 to 2010. The main outcome measures were onset of labor, operative vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery, episiotomy, postpartum bleeding > 500 mL, epidural analgesia, labor dystocia, gestational age, meconium-stained liquor, 5-minute Apgar score, birthweight, and transfer to a neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 11,540 women originating from 141 countries were divided into seven groups. Compared with Norwegians, women from East, Southeast, and Central Asia had increased risk for operative vaginal delivery, postpartum bleeding, and low Apgar score. The African women had increased risk for postterm birth, meconium-stained liquor, episiotomy, operative vaginal delivery, emergency cesarean delivery, postpartum bleeding, low Apgar score, and low birthweight. Women from South and Western Asia had increased risk for low birthweight. Obstetric outcomes of immigrants differ significantly from those of Norwegians, even in a low-risk maternity unit. Thus, immigrant women would benefit from more targeted care during pregnancy and childbirth, even in low-risk settings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Daytime sleepiness during transition into daylight saving time in adolescents: Are owls higher at risk?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Anne-Marie; Randler, Christoph

    2009-10-01

    Individuals differ in their biological rhythms and preferences for time of day. Here, we looked at the transition into daylight saving time (DST) in adolescents. As adolescents tend to be evening types, one may expect that they suffer from a transition into DST. To assess these changes, we measured daytime sleepiness and morningness-eveningness preference (CSM score) in adolescents. Daytime sleepiness correlated with age and CSM score. Older pupils and evening types showed a higher sleepiness. Daytime sleepiness was higher after the transition until the third week after. Older pupils and pupils scoring higher on eveningness reported higher daytime sleepiness after the transition, suggesting that these pupils suffer most from the change. Using cut-off scores for larks and owls, we found that owls showed higher sleepiness than larks. As one consequence, class and school performance tests should not take place in the first week(s) after the transition into DST.

  19. Beyond mean-field dynamics of ultra-cold bosonic atoms in higher dimensions: facing the challenges with a multi-configurational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolsinger, V. J.; Krönke, S.; Schmelcher, P.

    2017-02-01

    Exploring the impact of dimensionality on the quantum dynamics of interacting bosons in traps including particle correlations is an interesting but challenging task. Due to the different participating length scales, the modelling of the short-range interactions in three dimensions plays a special role. We review different approaches for the latter and elaborate that for multi-configurational computational strategies, finite-range potentials are adequate resulting in the need for large grids to resolve the relevant length scales. This results in computational challenges, which include the exponential scaling of complexity with the number of atoms. We show that the recently developed ab initio multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartee method for bosons (ML-MCTDHB) (2013 J. Chem. Phys. 139 134103) can face both numerical challenges and present an efficient numerical implementation of ML-MCTDHB in three spatial dimensions, particularly suited to describe the quantum dynamics for elongated traps. The beneficial scaling of our approach is demonstrated by studying the tunnelling dynamics of bosonic ensembles in a double well. Comparing three-dimensional with quasi-one dimensional simulations, we find dimensionality-induced effects in the density. Furthermore, we study the crossover from weak transversal confinement, where a mean-field description of the system is sufficient, towards tight transversal confinement, where particle correlations and beyond mean-field effects are pronounced.

  20. Do women with fibromyalgia present higher cardiovascular disease risk profile than healthy women? The al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Manzano, Pedro; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Gavilán-Carrera, Blanca; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Aparicio, Virginia A

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the cardiovascular disease risk profile of women with fibromyalgia and compare it with control women; and to test whether physical activity is associated with the cardiovascular disease risk profile in this population. This cross-sectional study comprised 436 women with fibromyalgia (51.4±7.5 years old) and 217 controls (48.4±9.6 years old) from Andalusia, Spain. Clinical data, waist circumference, body fat percentage, resting heart rate, blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was objectively assessed with accelerometry. A clustering of individual cardiovascular disease risk factors was represented by the number of cigarettes/day, adiposity, mean arterial pressure, resting heart rate and cardiorespiratory fitness. Women with fibromyalgia presented higher waist circumference and body fat percentage, greater number of cigarettes/day consumption and lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness after controlling for age, marital status, educational level, occupational status, medication for cholesterol and monthly regular menstruation (all, p<.05). Women with fibromyalgia showed higher clustered cardiovascular disease risk than control women after controlling for the potential confounders described above (p<.001). Women with fibromyalgia who did not meet moderate-to-vigorous physical activity recommendations showed increased clustered cardiovascular disease risk after adjusting for the potential confounders described above (p<.001). Women with fibromyalgia may present higher risk of cardiovascular disease than controls. Inadequate levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity may play a significant role as an additional predisposing factor for cardiovascular disease risk in this population.

  1. One-third of reef-building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kent E; Abrar, Muhammad; Aeby, Greta; Aronson, Richard B; Banks, Stuart; Bruckner, Andrew; Chiriboga, Angel; Cortés, Jorge; Delbeek, J Charles; Devantier, Lyndon; Edgar, Graham J; Edwards, Alasdair J; Fenner, Douglas; Guzmán, Héctor M; Hoeksema, Bert W; Hodgson, Gregor; Johan, Ofri; Licuanan, Wilfredo Y; Livingstone, Suzanne R; Lovell, Edward R; Moore, Jennifer A; Obura, David O; Ochavillo, Domingo; Polidoro, Beth A; Precht, William F; Quibilan, Miledel C; Reboton, Clarissa; Richards, Zoe T; Rogers, Alex D; Sanciangco, Jonnell; Sheppard, Anne; Sheppard, Charles; Smith, Jennifer; Stuart, Simon; Turak, Emre; Veron, John E N; Wallace, Carden; Weil, Ernesto; Wood, Elizabeth

    2008-07-25

    The conservation status of 845 zooxanthellate reef-building coral species was assessed by using International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Criteria. Of the 704 species that could be assigned conservation status, 32.8% are in categories with elevated risk of extinction. Declines in abundance are associated with bleaching and diseases driven by elevated sea surface temperatures, with extinction risk further exacerbated by local-scale anthropogenic disturbances. The proportion of corals threatened with extinction has increased dramatically in recent decades and exceeds that of most terrestrial groups. The Caribbean has the largest proportion of corals in high extinction risk categories, whereas the Coral Triangle (western Pacific) has the highest proportion of species in all categories of elevated extinction risk. Our results emphasize the widespread plight of coral reefs and the urgent need to enact conservation measures.

  2. Practical use of azacitidine in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: an expert panel opinion.

    PubMed

    Fenaux, Pierre; Bowen, David; Gattermann, Norbert; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Sanz, Guillermo; Santini, Valeria

    2010-11-01

    Azacitidine is currently the only drug to have shown a significant survival benefit over conventional care regimens in patients with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) intermediate-2 (Int-2) and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), establishing it as an important new treatment for these individuals. However, several aspects of the practical use of azacitidine remain uncertain. This manuscript outlines recommendations discussed by a panel of experts, providing a practical guide for physicians to ensure optimal management of Int-2 and high-risk patients receiving azacitidine.

  3. Do Asian-American women who were maltreated as children have a higher likelihood for HIV risk behaviors and adverse mental health outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Kolaczyk, Eric; Lee, Yookyong; Jang, Jisun; Ng, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study is the first to systematically investigate whether multiple child maltreatment is associated with HIV risk behaviors and adverse mental health outcomes among Asian-American women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of unmarried Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women (n = 400), aged 18 to 35, who are identified as children of immigrants, using Computer-Assisted Survey Interviews (CASI). Results Approximately seven in ten women reported having been maltreated as a child and 6.8% reported any type of sexual abuse. Only 15% of our sample reported having sex at age 16 or before, yet almost 60% had ever engaged with risky sexual partners. Contrary to the findings from previous studies of White and Black women, sexual abuse plus other maltreatment was not associated with HIV risk behaviors among Asian-American women. However,it was associated with a marked increase in depression, lifetime suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. A higher education was associated with increased odds of HIV risk behaviors including ever having anal sex and ever having potentially risky sexual partners. Conclusion There was no evidence indicating that multiple child maltreatment was linked to HIV risk behaviors, but it exhibited a robust association with poor mental health outcomes. These empirical patterns of internalizing trauma, suffering alone, and stayingsilent are in accord with Asian-cultural norms of saving face and maintaining family harmony. The prevention of multiple child maltreatment may reduce high levels of depression and suicidal behaviors among this population. It is urgently needed to identify victims of multiple child maltreatment and provide culturally appropriate interventions. PMID:21872488

  4. Gender Equity Requires Higher Education Equity: A Discussion with African Women about the Barriers They Face to Participation as Students, Faculty, and in Academic Leadership Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerrer, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Although women outnumber men in higher education participation in many regions, there is still a gender gap in Sub-Saharan Africa, with far fewer females enrolling than males. This is true even with affirmative action policies in place in many university settings. Not surprisingly, there is a corresponding dearth of female leadership in African…

  5. Improving Learning Processes in Institutions of Higher Education by Incorporating High-Risk Web Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinga, Sophia W.; Chen, Linlin Irene

    With the assistance of learning technology consultants in the Technology Teaching and Learning Center (TTLC) at the University of Houston-Downtown (Texas), professors have shifted their paradigms and are taking the leap to use more high-risk World Wide Web technologies in their courses. One that has become a hallmark is delivering exams via the…

  6. Child welfare clients have higher risks for teenage childbirths: which are the major confounders?

    PubMed Central

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aiming to support effective social intervention strategies targeting high-risk groups for teenage motherhood, this study examined to what extent the elevated crude risks of teenage childbirth among child welfare groups were attributable to the uneven distribution of adverse individual and family background factors. Methods: Comprehensive longitudinal register data for more than 700 000 Swedish females born 1973–1989 (including around 29 000 child welfare clients) were analysed by means of binary logistic regression. The Karlson/Holm/Breen-method was used to decompose each confounding factor’s relative contribution to the difference between crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs). Results: Elevated crude risks for teenage childbirth are to a large extent attributable to selection on observables. Girls’ school failure was the most potent confounder, accounting for 28–35% of the difference between crude and adjusted ORs. Conclusion: As in majority populations, girls’ school failure was a strong risk factor for teenage childbirth among former child welfare children. At least among pre-adolescents, promoting school performance among children in the child welfare system seems to be a viable intervention path. PMID:27085195

  7. Face Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of face painting as a technique for making the endangered species issue tangible for children while addressing the complexity of the issue. Children are "given" an animal of their own and are educated about the animal while having their faces painted to resemble the animal. (LZ)

  8. A Risk Score based on histopathological features predicts higher risk of distant recurrence in premenopausal patients with lymph node-negative endocrine-responsive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dellapasqua, Silvia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Regan, Meredith M.; Rotmensz, Nicole; Mastropasqua, Mauro G.; Viale, Giuseppe; Maiorano, Eugenio; Price, Karen N.; Gelber, Richard D.; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Goldhirsch, Aron; Colleoni, Marco

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose To develop a Risk Score (RS) to predict distant recurrence among premenopausal women with node-negative endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. Methods The Cox model was used to develop the RS using clinical and histopathological features from 378 women participating in the IBCSG Trial VIII who received endocrine therapy alone or following chemotherapy. The performance of the resulting model was validated on a cohort of 1005 patients from a single institution who received endocrine therapy alone. Results In a multivariable analysis, the risk of distant recurrence was associated with tumor size, ER, Ki-67 and peritumoral vascular invasion. In the validation cohort, patients with high RS were at greater risk of distant recurrence compared to patients with low RS (HR, 17.41 ; 95% CI, 5.72 to 52.95). Conclusion In premenopausal women with node-negative endocrine-responsive early breast cancer, the RS identifies patients at higher risk of distant recurrence. PMID:22749924

  9. Higher Caffeinated Coffee Intake Is Associated with Reduced Malignant Melanoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jibin; Shen, Biao; Shi, Minxin; Cai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies have determined the associations between coffee intake level and skin cancer risk; however, the results were not yet conclusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cohort and case-control studies for the association between coffee intake level and malignant melanoma (MM) risk. Methods Studies were identified through searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases (to November, 2015). Study-specific risk estimates were pooled under the random-effects model. Results Two case-control studies (846 MM patients and 843 controls) and five cohort studies (including 844,246 participants and 5,737 MM cases) were identified. For caffeinated coffee, the pooled relative risk (RR) of MM was 0.81 [95% confidential interval (95% CI) = 0.68–0.97; P-value for Q-test = 0.003; I2 = 63.5%] for those with highest versus lowest quantity of intake. In the dose-response analysis, the RR of MM was 0.955 (95% CI = 0.912–0.999) for per 1 cup/day increment of caffeinated coffee consumption and linearity dose-response association was found (P-value for nonlinearity = 0.326). Strikingly, no significant association was found between the decaffeinated coffee intake level and MM risk (pooled RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.81–1.05; P-value for Q-test = 0.967; I2 = 0%; highest versus lowest quantity of intake). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that caffeinated coffee might have chemo-preventive effects against MM but not decaffeinated coffee. However, larger prospective studies and the intervention studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26816289

  10. Higher Caffeinated Coffee Intake Is Associated with Reduced Malignant Melanoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jibin; Shen, Biao; Shi, Minxin; Cai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have determined the associations between coffee intake level and skin cancer risk; however, the results were not yet conclusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cohort and case-control studies for the association between coffee intake level and malignant melanoma (MM) risk. Studies were identified through searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases (to November, 2015). Study-specific risk estimates were pooled under the random-effects model. Two case-control studies (846 MM patients and 843 controls) and five cohort studies (including 844,246 participants and 5,737 MM cases) were identified. For caffeinated coffee, the pooled relative risk (RR) of MM was 0.81 [95% confidential interval (95% CI) = 0.68-0.97; P-value for Q-test = 0.003; I2 = 63.5%] for those with highest versus lowest quantity of intake. In the dose-response analysis, the RR of MM was 0.955 (95% CI = 0.912-0.999) for per 1 cup/day increment of caffeinated coffee consumption and linearity dose-response association was found (P-value for nonlinearity = 0.326). Strikingly, no significant association was found between the decaffeinated coffee intake level and MM risk (pooled RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.81-1.05; P-value for Q-test = 0.967; I2 = 0%; highest versus lowest quantity of intake). This meta-analysis suggested that caffeinated coffee might have chemo-preventive effects against MM but not decaffeinated coffee. However, larger prospective studies and the intervention studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  11. Relationship between early onset severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and higher risk of meconium-stained fluid.

    PubMed

    Estiú, Maria C; Frailuna, Maria A; Otero, Carla; Dericco, Marcela; Williamson, Catherine; Marin, Jose J G; Macias, Rocio I R

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the commonest gestational liver disease. The risk of adverse fetal outcome has been associated with the severity of maternal hypercholanemia after diagnosis. To investigate whether there is a relationship between the severity and timing of onset of hypercholanemia and the risk of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and adverse neonatal events. The study included 382 pregnancies complicated by ICP managed at a referral hospital in Buenos Aires (Argentina) between June 2009 and December 2013. The patients were classified into three groups according to the severity of hypercholanemia at diagnosis; mild (10-19.9 μmol/L), moderate (20-39.9 μmol/L) and severe (≥40 μmol/L). Their clinical characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were investigated in a prospective observational study. Higher risk of MSAF was observed when ICP appeared early in gestation or when hypercholanemia was more severe. Taking both parameters into account an MSAF risk factor (MRF) was defined. Based on a model of positive/negative predictive values, a cut-off point of MRF = 3 was selected, which prioritized sensitivity versus specificity. In ICP patients with MRF>3, the probability of MSAF was enhanced 4-fold. An increase in the frequency of MSAF was also associated with higher serum levels at diagnosis of alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and direct bilirubin. The risk of MSAF is associated not only with the magnitude of hypercholanemia at diagnosis but also with the early gestational onset of raised maternal serum bile acids.

  12. Lack of replication of higher genetic risk load in men than in women with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to replicate a recent study which showed higher genetic risk load at 15 loci in men than in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This difference was very significant, and it was interpreted as indicating that men require more genetic susceptibility than women to develop SLE. Methods Nineteen SLE-associated loci (thirteen of which are shared with the previous study) were analyzed in 1,457 SLE patients and 1,728 healthy controls of European ancestry. Genetic risk load was calculated as sex-specific sum genetic risk scores (GRSs). Results Our results did not replicate those of the previous study at either the level of individual loci or the global level of GRSs. GRSs were larger in women than in men (4.20 ± 1.07 in women vs. 3.27 ± 0.98 in men). This very significant difference (P < 10−16) was more dependent on the six new loci not included in the previous study (59% of the difference) than on the thirteen loci that are shared (the remaining 41%). However, the 13 shared loci also showed a higher genetic risk load in women than in men in our study (P = 6.6 × 10−7), suggesting that heterogeneity of participants, in addition to different loci, contributed to the opposite results. Conclusion Our results show the lack of a clear trend toward higher genetic risk in one of the sexes for the analyzed SLE loci. They also highlight several limitations of assessments of genetic risk load, including the possibility of ascertainment bias with loci discovered in studies that have included mainly women. PMID:24946689

  13. Infections after shoulder arthroplasty are correlated with higher anesthetic risk score: a case-control study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nagaya, Leonardo Hideto; Salles, Mauro José Costa; Takikawa, Lucas Sadawo Chagas; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Doneux, Pedro; Silva, Luciana Andrade da; Sella, Guilherme do Val; Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2017-07-10

    Shoulder arthroplasty (SA) has been performed by many years for the treatment of several conditions, including osteoarthritis and proximal humeral fractures following trauma. Surgical site infection (SSI) following SA remains a challenge, contributing to increased morbidity and costs. Identification of risk factors may help implementing adequate strategies to prevent infection. We aimed to identify pre- and intra-operative risk factors associated with deep infections after SA. An unmatched case-control study was conducted to describe the prevalence, clinical and microbiological findings, and to evaluate patient and surgical risk factors for prosthetic shoulder infection (PSI), among 158 patients who underwent SA due to any reason, at a tertiary public university institution. Risk factors for PSI was assessed by uni- and multivariate analyses using multiple logistic regression. 168 SA from 158 patients were analyzed, with an overall infection rate of 9.5% (16/168 cases). Subjects undergoing SA with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade III or higher (odds ratio [OR]=5.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.58-17.79, p<0.013) and presenting local hematoma after surgery (odds ratio [OR]=7.10, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.09-46.09, p=0.04) had higher risk for PSI on univariate analysis. However, only ASA score grade III or higher remained significant on multivariate analysis (OR=4.74, 95% CI=1.33-16.92, p=0.016). Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli were equally isolated in 50% of cases; however, the most commonly detected bacterium was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.7%). This study provides evidence suggesting that patient-related known factors such as higher ASA score predisposes to shoulder arthroplasty-associated infection. Furthermore, unusual pathogens associated with PSI were identified. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. A toxicokinetic model for thiamethoxam in rats: implications for higher-tier risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Edwards, Peter; Sibly, Richard; Thorbek, Pernille

    2013-04-01

    Risk assessment for mammals is currently based on external exposure measurements, but effects of toxicants are better correlated with the systemically available dose than with the external administered dose. So for risk assessment of pesticides, toxicokinetics should be interpreted in the context of potential exposure in the field taking account of the timescale of exposure and individual patterns of feeding. Internal concentration is the net result of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). We present a case study for thiamethoxam to show how data from ADME study on rats can be used to parameterize a body burden model which predicts body residue levels after exposures to LD50 dose either as a bolus or eaten at different feeding rates. Kinetic parameters were determined in male and female rats after an intravenous and oral administration of (14)C labelled by fitting one-compartment models to measured pesticide concentrations in blood for each individual separately. The concentration of thiamethoxam in blood over time correlated closely with concentrations in other tissues and so was considered representative of pesticide concentration in the whole body. Body burden model simulations showed that maximum body weight-normalized doses of thiamethoxam were lower if the same external dose was ingested normally than if it was force fed in a single bolus dose. This indicates lower risk to rats through dietary exposure than would be estimated from the bolus LD50. The importance of key questions that should be answered before using the body burden approach in risk assessment, data requirements and assumptions made in this study are discussed in detail.

  15. Work–Family Trajectories and the Higher Cardiovascular Risk of American Women Relative to Women in 13 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    van Hedel, Karen; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Avendaño, Mauricio; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether less-healthy work–family life histories contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease prevalence in older American compared with European women. Methods. We used sequence analysis to identify distinct work–family typologies for women born between 1935 and 1956 in the United States and 13 European countries. Data came from the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2006) and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (2004–2009). Results. Work–family typologies were similarly distributed in the United States and Europe. Being a lone working mother predicted a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, and smoking among American women, and smoking for European women. Lone working motherhood was more common and had a marginally stronger association with stroke in the United States than in Europe. Simulations indicated that the higher stroke risk among American women would only be marginally reduced if American women had experienced the same work–family trajectories as European women. Conclusions. Combining work and lone motherhood was more common in the United States, but differences in work–family trajectories explained only a small fraction of the higher cardiovascular risk of American relative to European women. PMID:27310346

  16. Developing higher resolution climate change scenarios for agricultural risk assessment: progress, challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qunying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-07-01

    Climate change presents perhaps the greatest economic and environmental challenge we have ever faced. Climate change and its associated impacts, adaptation and vulnerability have become the focus of current policy, business and research. This paper provides invaluable information for those interested in climate change and its impacts. This paper comprehensively reviews the advances made in the development of regional climate change scenarios and their application in agricultural impact, adaptation and vulnerability assessment. Construction of regional climate change scenarios evolved from the application of arbitrary scenarios to the application of scenarios based on general circulation models (GCMs). GCM-based climate change scenarios progressed from equilibrium climate change scenarios to transient climate change scenarios; from the use of direct GCM outputs to the use of downscaled GCM outputs; from the use of single scenarios to the use of probabilistic climate change scenarios; and from the application of mean climate change scenarios to the application of integrated climate change scenarios considering changes in both mean climate and climate variability.

  17. Targeting populations at higher risk for malaria: a survey of national malaria elimination programmes in the Asia Pacific.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shawn; Harvard, Kelly E; Gueye, Cara Smith; Canavati, Sara E; Chancellor, Arna; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Leaburi, John; Lek, Dysoley; Namgay, Rinzin; Surya, Asik; Thakur, Garib D; Whittaker, Maxine Anne; Gosling, Roly D

    2016-05-10

    Significant progress has been made in reducing the malaria burden in the Asia Pacific region, which is aggressively pursuing a 2030 regional elimination goal. Moving from malaria control to elimination requires National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) to target interventions at populations at higher risk, who are often not reached by health services, highly mobile and difficult to test, treat, and track with routine measures, and if undiagnosed, can maintain parasite reservoirs and contribute to ongoing transmission. A qualitative, free-text questionnaire was developed and disseminated among 17 of the 18 partner countries of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network (APMEN). All 14 countries that responded to the survey identified key populations at higher risk of malaria in their respective countries. Thirteen countries engage in the dissemination of malaria-related Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) materials. Eight countries engage in diagnostic screening, including of mobile and migrant workers, military staff, and/or overseas workers. Ten countries reported distributing or recommending the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) among populations at higher risk with fewer countries engaging in other prevention measures such as indoor residual spraying (IRS) (two countries), spatial repellents (four countries), chemoprophylaxis (five countries), and mass drug administration (MDA) (three countries). Though not specifically tailored to populations at higher risk, 11 countries reported using mass blood surveys as a surveillance tool and ten countries map case data. Most NMCPs lack a monitoring and evaluation structure. Countries in the Asia Pacific have identified populations at higher risk and targeted interventions to these groups but there is limited information on the effectiveness of these interventions. Platforms like APMEN offer the opportunity for the sharing of protocols and lessons learned related to finding, targeting and

  18. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  19. Facing the Future: Barriers and Resources in Work and Family Plans of At-Risk Israeli Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Hason, Iris

    2009-01-01

    This study examines 15 at-risk Israeli youngsters' work and family plans and the perceived barriers and resources influencing the realization of those plans. In-depth interviews analyzed by Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) demonstrate the complexity of the future awaiting these youths. Participants perceive work mainly as a means of obtaining…

  20. Prostate-specific antigen testing in inner London general practices: are those at higher risk most likely to get tested?

    PubMed Central

    Nderitu, Paul; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Ashworth, Mark; Mathur, Rohini; Hull, Sally; Dudek, Alexandra; Chowdhury, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between factors influencing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing prevalence including prostate cancer risk factors (age, ethnicity, obesity) and non-risk factors (social deprivation and comorbidity). Setting A cross-sectional database of 136 inner London general practices from 1 August 2009 to 31 July 2014. Participants Men aged ≥40 years without prostate cancer were included (n=150 481). Primary outcome Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between PSA testing and age, ethnicity, social deprivation, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidity while adjusting for age, benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis and tamsulosin or finasteride use. Results PSA testing prevalence was 8.2% (2013–2014), and the mean age was 54 years (SD 11). PSA testing was positively associated with age (OR 70–74 years compared to 40–44 years: 7.34 (95% CI 6.82 to 7.90)), ethnicity (black) (OR compared to white: 1.78 (95% CI 1.71 to 1.85)), increasing BMI and cardiovascular comorbidity. Testing was negatively associated with Chinese ethnicity and with increasing social deprivation. Conclusions PSA testing among black patients was higher compared to that among white patients, which differs from lower testing rates seen in previous studies. PSA testing was positively associated with prostate cancer risk factors and non-risk factors. Association with non-risk factors may increase the risk of unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. PMID:27406644

  1. Effects of Country and Delivery Mode on Perceived Risk in International Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamal Basha, Norazlyn; Sweeney, Jillian C.; Soutar, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is an increasingly competitive global market. Consequently, it is crucial that universities fully understand students' motivations in university selection. While past research mainly focused on university-level attributes, this study extends the factors used to evaluate different international universities to include both the…

  2. Home and Away: Risk, Familiarity and the Multiple Geographies of the Higher Education Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, John; Crozier, Gill; Reay, Diane

    2009-01-01

    With reference to an ESRC/TLRP project conducted across two academic years with working-class students in higher education (HE), this paper explores the relationship between geographies of home and those of university at two UK HE institutions. It addresses how social relations inflected by class influence the experience of students as they adapt…

  3. Effects of Country and Delivery Mode on Perceived Risk in International Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamal Basha, Norazlyn; Sweeney, Jillian C.; Soutar, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is an increasingly competitive global market. Consequently, it is crucial that universities fully understand students' motivations in university selection. While past research mainly focused on university-level attributes, this study extends the factors used to evaluate different international universities to include both the…

  4. Negotiating the Risk of Debt-Financed Higher Education: The Experience of Lone Parent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton-Smith, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Widening participation has opened higher education (HE) to diverse learners, but in doing so has created challenges negotiating situations of disadvantaged positioning compared with peers conforming more closely to the ideal "bachelor boy" student. As one of the most financially vulnerable groups of students, lone parents occupy a doubly…

  5. Negotiating the Risk of Debt-Financed Higher Education: The Experience of Lone Parent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton-Smith, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Widening participation has opened higher education (HE) to diverse learners, but in doing so has created challenges negotiating situations of disadvantaged positioning compared with peers conforming more closely to the ideal "bachelor boy" student. As one of the most financially vulnerable groups of students, lone parents occupy a doubly…

  6. Home and Away: Risk, Familiarity and the Multiple Geographies of the Higher Education Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, John; Crozier, Gill; Reay, Diane

    2009-01-01

    With reference to an ESRC/TLRP project conducted across two academic years with working-class students in higher education (HE), this paper explores the relationship between geographies of home and those of university at two UK HE institutions. It addresses how social relations inflected by class influence the experience of students as they adapt…

  7. Small Increases in Plasma Sodium Are Associated with Higher Risk of Mortality in a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se Won; Baek, Seon Ha; An, Jung Nam; Goo, Ho Suk; Kim, Sejoong; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong Wan; Kim, Suhnggwon

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) is the most common cause of cardiovascular disease. Salt intake has a strong influence on BP, and plasma sodium (pNa) is increased with progressive increases in salt intake. However, the associations with pNa and BP had been reported inconsistently. We evaluated the association between pNa and BP, and estimated the risks of all-cause-mortality according to pNa levels. On the basis of data collected from health checkups during 1995-2009, 97,009 adult subjects were included. Positive correlations between pNa and systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure (PP) were noted in participants with pNa ≥138 mM/L (P<0.001). In participants aged ≥50 yr, SBP, DBP, and PP were positively associated with pNa. In participants with metabolic syndrome components, the differences in SBP and DBP according to pNa were greater (P<0.001). A cumulative incidence of mortality was increased with increasing pNa in women aged ≥50 yr during the median 4.2-yr-follow-up (P<0.001). In women, unadjusted risks for mortality were increased according to sodium levels. After adjustment, pNa ≥145 mM/L was related to mortality. The positive correlation between pNa and BP is stronger in older subjects, women, and subjects with metabolic syndrome components. The incidence and adjusted risks of mortality increase with increasing pNa in women aged ≥50 yr. PMID:23853486

  8. Contribution of higher risk genes and European admixture to Crohn's disease in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Hsi; Okazaki, Toshihiko; Kugathasan, Subra; Cho, Judy H.; Isaacs, Kim L.; Lewis, James D.; Smoot, Duane T.; Valentine, John F.; Kader, Howard A.; Ford, Jean G.; Harris, Mary L.; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Cuffari, Carmen; Torbenson, Michael S.; Duerr, Richard H.; Silverberg, Mark S.; Rioux, John D.; Taylor, Kent D.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Wu, Yuqiong; Datta, Lisa W.; Hooker, Stanley; Dassopoulos, Themistocles; Kittles, Rick A.; Kao, Linda W.H.; Brant, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims African Americans (AA) are an admixed population of West African (WA) and European ancestry (EA). Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility genes have not been established. We therefore evaluated the contribution of European admixture and major established risk genes to AA CD. Methods Ninety-seven admixture informative markers were genotyped for ancestry estimates using STRUCTURE. 354 AA CD cases and 354 ethnicity-matched controls were genotyped for total 21 SNPs in ATG16L1, NOD2, IBD5, IL23R and IRGM by TaqMan or direct sequencing. Association was evaluated by logistic regression, adjusted for ancestry. Results Mean EA was similar among the CD cases and controls (20.9% and 20.4, respectively, p=0.58). No significant admixture differences were observed among cases (211 to 227) stratified by phenotypic sub-classifications including onset, surgery, site, and behavior. CD was associated with NOD2 carrier (6.93% CD, 2.15% Controls, p = 0.007), ATG16L1 Thr300Ala (36.1% CD, 29.3% Controls, p=0.003), SLC22A4 and SLC22A5 (IBD5 locus) functional SNPs (L503F [10.6% CD, 7.6% Controls, p=0.05] and g-207c [41.3% CD, 35.7% Controls, p=0.03], respectively) and IL23R rs2201841 (18.2% CD, 13.8% Controls, p=0.03), but not IRGM variants nor three African ancestral NOD2 nonsynonymous variants. IBD5 risk was recessive. An all-minor allele IBD5 haplotype from EA was associated (p=0.05), whereas a more common haplotype isolating g-207c was not. Conclusions Specific functional gene variations significantly contribute to AA CD risk. Established NOD2, SLC22A4-A5, and ATG16L1 variants show increased CD risk, with IBD5 in recessive. Although CD is more common in whites, European admixture is similar among AA cases and controls. PMID:22411504

  9. The Caledonian face test: A new test of face discrimination.

    PubMed

    Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4 min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests.

  10. How to face the low intrinsic sensitivity of 2D heteronuclear NMR with fast repetition techniques: go faster to go higher!

    PubMed

    Farjon, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most widely used analytical techniques in numerous domains where molecules are objects of investigation. However, major limitations of multidimensional NMR experiments come from their low sensitivity and from the long times needed for their acquisition. In order to overcome such limitations, fast repetition NMR techniques allowed for the reduction of 2D experimental time and for the conversion of the gained time into a higher number of scans leading to a better sensitivity. Thus, fast repetition 2D heteronuclear NMR techniques have allowed new advances in NMR, especially to access infomation on low abundant nuclei, to enhance the detection of low concentrated compounds and to probe weak interactions like hydrogen bonds at natural abundance. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Recognizing Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Hadyn D.

    1975-01-01

    The proposition that the mechanisms underlying facial recognition are different from those involved in recognizing other classes of pictorial material was assessed following a general review of the literature concerned with recognizing faces. (Author/RK)

  12. Differences in Sexual Risk Behaviors Between Lower and Higher Frequency Alcohol-Using African-American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica McDermott; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Carolyn; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve; Samp, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine differences between lower and higher frequency alcohol users in sexual behaviors and psychosocial correlates of risk for HIV among young African-American females. Methods Data were collected from sexually active African-American females aged 15–20 years, seeking services at a STD clinic in Atlanta, GA, to assess sexual behavior, correlates of risk, and a non-disease biological marker of unprotected vaginal sex. Results Number of drinking occasions was significantly related to three of four psychosocial correlates and with all self-reporting sexual behavior measures. Also, heavier drinking per occasion was associated with the presence of semen in vaginal fluid. Conclusion Non-abuse levels of drinking were related to increased sexual risk-taking in this sample of young African-American females. Incorporating messages about the intersection of alcohol use and sexual decision making into HIV/STD prevention programs would strengthen STD prevention messaging in this vulnerable population. PMID:25053364

  13. Buried free flaps in head and neck reconstruction: higher risk of free flap failure?

    PubMed

    Reiter, M; Harréus, U; Kisser, U; Betz, C S; Baumeister, Ph

    2017-01-01

    Thrombosis of the pedicle is central to free flap failure, and early revision of a compromised flap is the key to successfully salvage a flap. Therefore, the majority of free flaps in reconstructive head and neck surgery are used with the ability to visually examine the flap. Sometimes, due to intra-operative circumstances, it is necessary to use a flap that cannot be monitored externally. These flaps are called buried flaps and have the reputation of being put at risk. The current literature provides only limited data to support or disprove this position. A single institution retrospective review of patient charts between 2007 and 2015 was performed. Flap monitoring was carried out with hand-held Doppler of the pedicle hourly for the first 72 h in all cases. Additional duplex ultrasound was performed in the majority of buried flaps. A total of 437 flaps were included into the study. 37 flaps (7.8 %) were identified to fulfill the criteria of a buried free flap. In total, four patients had complications, three of which required operative reexploration. All interventions were successful, resulting in no flap loss in our series. An accurate operation technique combined with meticulous monitoring protocols supported by duplex ultrasound can result in satisfactory outcome of buried flaps. No enhanced risk of flap loss of buried flaps was found in our cohort.

  14. Regulation of MET by FOXP2, genes implicated in higher cognitive dysfunction and autism risk.

    PubMed

    Mukamel, Zohar; Konopka, Genevieve; Wexler, Eric; Osborn, Gregory E; Dong, Hongmei; Bergman, Mica Y; Levitt, Pat; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2011-08-10

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable, behaviorally defined, heterogeneous disorder of unknown pathogenesis. Several genetic risk genes have been identified, including the gene encoding the receptor tyrosine kinase MET, which regulates neuronal differentiation and growth. An ASD-associated polymorphism disrupts MET gene transcription, and there are reduced levels of MET protein expression in the mature temporal cortex of subjects with ASD. To address the possible neurodevelopmental contribution of MET to ASD pathogenesis, we examined the expression and transcriptional regulation of MET by a transcription factor, FOXP2, which is implicated in regulation of cognition and language, two functions altered in ASD. MET mRNA expression in the midgestation human fetal cerebral cortex is strikingly restricted, localized to portions of the temporal and occipital lobes. Within the cortical plate of the temporal lobe, the pattern of MET expression is highly complementary to the expression pattern of FOXP2, suggesting the latter may play a role in repression of gene expression. Consistent with this, MET and FOXP2 also are reciprocally expressed by differentiating normal human neuronal progenitor cells (NHNPs) in vitro, leading us to assess whether FOXP2 transcriptionally regulates MET. Indeed, FOXP2 binds directly to the 5' regulatory region of MET, and overexpression of FOXP2 results in transcriptional repression of MET. The expression of MET in restricted human neocortical regions, and its regulation in part by FOXP2, is consistent with genetic evidence for MET contributing to ASD risk.

  15. Are Asian American women at higher risk of severe perineal lacerations?

    PubMed

    Quist-Nelson, Johanna; Hua Parker, Meiling; Berghella, Vincenzo; Biba Nijjar, J

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate whether Asian race is an independent risk factor for severe perineal lacerations. We performed a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study examining the relationship between Asian race and severe perineal lacerations (third and fourth degree). The data were collected from the 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). Characteristics of Asian American women were compared with those of non-Asian women. The primary outcome of interest was severe perineal lacerations. Multivariable logistic regression was used to refine the associations between Asian race and severe perineal lacerations while adjusting for confounding effects. Results were compared with previously published data using a pooled odds ratio. 2,270,044 Women with singleton vaginal deliveries were identified, and 120,452 (5.3%) were Asian. After adjusting for confounders, Asian women were more likely to experience severe perineal lacerations than any other racial group (3.5% versus 6.3%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.50, 99% CI 1.29-1.74, p < 0.0001). Analysis of literature indicated that Asian American women are 74% more likely to experience severe perineal lacerations (aOR 1.74, 99% CI 1.72-1.76, p < 0.0001) than non-Asians. Asian race is an independent risk factor for severe perineal lacerations in the United States.

  16. Does a higher ratio of serum calcium to magnesium increase the risk for postmenopausal breast cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Sahmoun, Abe E.; Singh, Brij B.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among United States (US) women. Established risk factors explain only about 13% of breast cancer incidence among women in the US. Thus, the cause of most cases of breast cancer remains unknown. In postmenopausal women, serum calcium (Ca) and serum magnesium (Mg) play an important role in skeletal health, cell proliferation and cancer. Mg is essential for DNA duplication and repair and Mg deficiency favors DNA mutations leading to carcinogenesis. Dietary intake of Mg in the US is less than the recommended amount, and the deficit is more pronounced in older individuals where gastrointestinal and renal mechanisms for Mg conservation are not as efficient. Furthermore, healthy postmenopausal women are frequently recommended to take supplemental Ca, but not Mg and vitamin D to maintain bone and overall health. Most women with hormone sensitive breast cancer are recommended to take aromatase inhibitors, which causes bone loss and thus are generally prescribed Ca and vitamin D, but not Mg. Although the association between serum Ca and breast cancer risk remains controversial, we hypothesize that this may be because Mg levels have not been accounted for. Mg level directly influences transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) related Ca influx, calcium–adenosine triphosphatase (Ca–ATP) levels, and cell proliferation, and thereby could lead to cancer. Thus a high serum Ca/Mg ratio is more appropriate and alterations in this ratio could lead to increased development of new and recurrent breast cancer. PMID:20371155

  17. Associations between maternal feeding style and food intake of children with a higher risk for overweight.

    PubMed

    Kröller, Katja; Warschburger, Petra

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of different feeding strategies on the child's food intake as well as the effect and influence socio-economic status and weight have on the use of feeding strategies. 219 mothers and their children between 3 and 6 years of age at risk for becoming overweight took part in this cross-sectional study. The participating mothers were recruited from inpatient-clinics and kindergartens with a lower socio-economic background. Besides demographic and weight data, which describe the child's risk for overweight, the mothers were asked for their use of feeding strategies and their child's food intake. Maternal feeding practices have an important impact (22.2-26.9% explained variance) on the child's food intake. There are three strategies (rewarding, child's control and pressure) which turned out to be significant predictors. Additionally, the child's weight, family income and educational level have an effect on the choice of feeding strategies and their impact on the child's food intake. The results are evidence of the influence of parental feeding practices on the child's food intake. Parent training in prevention and intervention of childhood obesity should include the discussion and modification of feeding practices.

  18. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  19. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-06-17

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70-0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants' energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76-228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability.

  20. Ischemic Stroke and Its Risk Factors in a Registry-Based Large Cross-Sectional Diabetic Cohort in a Country Facing a Diabetes Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Hussain, Fawaz; Youssef, Amira M.; Subhani, Shazia N.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Ibrahim, Heba M.

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of ischemic stroke among diabetic patients registered in the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR) database. A cross-sectional sample of 62,681 diabetic patients aged ≥25 years was used to calculate ischemic stroke prevalence and its risk factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the roles of different risk factors. The prevalence of ischemic stroke was 4.42% and was higher in the older age group with longer diabetes duration. Poor glycemic control and the presence of chronic diabetes complications were associated with a high risk of ischemic stroke. History of smoking and type 2 diabetes were more frequent among stroke patients. Obesity significantly decreased the risk for ischemic stroke. Regression analysis for ischemic stroke risk factors proved that age ≥45 years, male gender, hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes duration ≥10 years, insulin use, and hyperlipidemia were significant independent risk factors for ischemic stroke. We conclude that ischemic stroke is prevalent among diabetic individuals, particularly among those with type 2 diabetes. Good glycemic, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia control, in addition to smoking cessation, are the cornerstones to achieve a significant reduction in ischemic stroke risk. PMID:26989695

  1. Are flexibility and muscle-strengthening activities associated with a higher risk of developing low back pain?

    PubMed

    Sandler, Robert D; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Fritz, Stacy L; Beattie, Paul F; Blair, Steven N

    2014-07-01

    To examine the association between participation in flexibility or muscle-strengthening activities with the development of low back pain. Observational cohort study. The cohort included 4610 adults, 17% female, between 20 and 81 years of age (mean 46.6, standard deviation 4.96). The cohort was followed for a mean of 4.9 years for self-reported low back pain. All participants reported at baseline whether they performed flexibility or muscle-strengthening activities, including specific sub-types. Neither general performance of flexibility or muscle-strengthening activities were associated with a higher incidence of low back pain compared to those who did not perform these activities. Those who reported stretching, as a specific flexibility activity were at a higher risk of developing low back pain compared with those who performed no flexibility exercises, reported callisthenic flexibility activities, or attended exercise classes. Those who reported using weight training machines, as part of muscle-strengthening activities, had a higher risk of reporting low back pain, compared with those who did not perform muscle-strengthening activities or performed callisthenic or free weight activities. In this sample, stretching or use of weight training machines is associated with increased risk of developing low back pain compared to use of free weights, callisthenics or exercise classes. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A phase I/II trial of Erlotinib in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia after azacitidine failure.

    PubMed

    Thepot, Sylvain; Boehrer, Simone; Seegers, Valérie; Prebet, Thomas; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Wattel, Eric; Delaunay, Jacques; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Hunault, Mathilde; Jourdan, Eric; Chermat, Fatiha; Sebert, Marie; Kroemer, Guido; Fenaux, Pierre; Adès, Lionel

    2014-12-01

    Survival after azacitidine (AZA) failure in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is poor and new treatment options are needed. Erlotinib, an oral inhibitor of the epidermal-growth-factor-receptor (EGFR), has shown in preclinical models some efficacy in higher risk MDS and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this phase I/II trial, 30 patients received 100mg/day (n=5) or 150mg/day (n=25) of Erlotinib orally after primary or secondary resistance to AZA treatment. Eighteen MDS and 12 AML patients were treated. This outpatient treatment was well tolerated with limited grade III-IV extra hematological toxicities (skin (n=1), and diarrhea (n=3). Response was observed in 6 patients (20%) including 1 complete remission (CR), 1 marrow CR and 4 hematological improvement (2 erythroid and 2 on platelets). Median duration of response was 5 months. Erlotinib appears to induce a significant number of responses in higher risk MDS/AML having failed AZA treatment. Given the good safety profile of Erlotinib, its combination with other drugs could be tested in the future in MDS and AML.

  3. Coronary patients with high plasma omentin are at a higher cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Saely, Christoph H; Leiherer, Andreas; Muendlein, Axel; Vonbank, Alexander; Rein, Philipp; Geiger, Kathrin; Malin, Cornelia; Drexel, Heinz

    2016-03-01

    The adipokine omentin, also known as intelectin, is a secretory protein, expressed in visceral adipose tissue and is highly abundant in plasma. It is involved in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, but nothing is known about its impact on the cardiovascular event risk. Here, plasma omentin was measured in 295 patients undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of established or suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients were separated according to the median plasma omentin concentrations into a high and low omentin group and cardiovascular events occurring during a period of 3.5 years have been recorded. We observed that patients within the high omentin group had significantly more cardiovascular events than patients in the low omentin group. This was true even if using different study endpoints. This article describes data related to a research article titled "High Plasma Omentin Predicts Cardiovascular Events Independently From the Presence and Extent of Angiographically Determined Atherosclerosis" (Saely et al., 2015) [1].

  4. Bias of health estimates obtained from chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems using telephone population surveys in Australia: results from a representative face-to-face survey in Australia from 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Dal Grande, Eleonora; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Campostrini, Stefano; Taylor, Anne W

    2016-04-18

    Emerging communication technologies have had an impact on population-based telephone surveys worldwide. Our objective was to examine the potential biases of health estimates in South Australia, a state of Australia, obtained via current landline telephone survey methodologies and to report on the impact of mobile-only household on household surveys. Data from an annual multi-stage, systematic, clustered area, face-to-face population survey, Health Omnibus Survey (approximately 3000 interviews annually), included questions about telephone ownership to assess the population that were non-contactable by current telephone sampling methods (2006 to 2013). Univariable analyses (2010 to 2013) and trend analyses were conducted for sociodemographic and health indicator variables in relation to telephone status. Relative coverage biases (RCB) of two hypothetical telephone samples was undertaken by examining the prevalence estimates of health status and health risk behaviours (2010 to 2013): directory-listed numbers, consisting mainly of landline telephone numbers and a small proportion of mobile telephone numbers; and a random digit dialling (RDD) sample of landline telephone numbers which excludes mobile-only households. Telephone (landline and mobile) coverage in South Australia is very high (97%). Mobile telephone ownership increased slightly (7.4%), rising from 89.7% in 2006 to 96.3% in 2013; mobile-only households increased by 431% over the eight year period from 5.2% in 2006 to 27.6% in 2013. Only half of the households have either a mobile or landline number listed in the telephone directory. There were small differences in the prevalence estimates for current asthma, arthritis, diabetes and obesity between the hypothetical telephone samples and the overall sample. However, prevalence estimate for diabetes was slightly underestimated (RCB value of -0.077) in 2013. Mixed RCB results were found for having a mental health condition for both telephone samples. Current

  5. Higher-risk behavioral practices associated with bacterial vaginosis compared with vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catriona Susan; Morton, Anna N; Garland, Suzanne M; Morris, Margaret B; Moss, Lorna M; Fairley, Christopher K

    2005-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with hormonal factors and sexual practices; however, the cause is unclear, and the notion that bacterial vaginosis is a sexually transmitted infection is still debated. To investigate whether bacterial vaginosis is associated with specific sexual practices or instead has features in common with a sexually transmitted infection, we compared behavioral associations in women with bacterial vaginosis to women with vaginal candidiasis. Women with symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge or odor who attended Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between July 2003 and August 2004 were eligible for enrollment in the study. Information on demographics and behavioral and contraceptive practices were collected by self-completed questionnaire. Participants were tested for bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp (microscopy and culture), and sexually transmitted infections. Statistical comparisons were made between women with and without bacterial vaginosis and women with and without candidiasis, using univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 342 women were enrolled in the study; 157 were diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, 51 had candidiasis by microscopy, and 95 had candidiasis by culture. Bacterial vaginosis was associated with indicators of high-risk sexual behavior such as a new sexual partner and greater number of male partners in the last year, increased number of lifetime sexual partners, less than 13 years of education, a past history of pregnancy, and smoking (P < .05). Candidiasis was not associated with these risk behaviors and was instead related to practices such as receptive anal and oral sex and douching. The association between bacterial vaginosis and practices that are associated with sexually transmitted infections, in contrast to those observed with candidiasis, suggests a possible sexually transmitted cause. II-2.

  6. Polymorphisms of the ITGAM Gene Confer Higher Risk of Discoid Cutaneous Than of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tiina M.; Hellquist, Anna; Koskenmies, Sari; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Panelius, Jaana; Hasan, Taina; Julkunen, Heikki; Padyukov, Leonid; Kvarnström, Marika; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie; Nyberg, Filippa; D'Amato, Mauro; Kere, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Background Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a heterogeneous disease ranging from mainly skin-restricted manifestations (discoid LE [DLE] and subacute cutaneous LE) to a progressive multisystem disease (systemic LE [SLE]). Genetic association studies have recently identified several strong susceptibility genes for SLE, including integrin alpha M (ITGAM), also known as CD11b, whereas the genetic background of DLE is less clear. Principal Findings To specifically investigate whether ITGAM is a susceptibility gene not only for SLE, but also for cutaneous DLE, we genotyped 177 patients with DLE, 85 patients with sporadic SLE, 190 index cases from SLE families and 395 population control individuals from Finland for nine genetic markers at the ITGAM locus. SLE patients were further subdivided by the presence or absence of discoid rash and renal involvement. In addition, 235 Finnish and Swedish patients positive for Ro/SSA-autoantibodies were included in a subphenotype analysis. Analysis of the ITGAM coding variant rs1143679 showed highly significant association to DLE in patients without signs of systemic disease (P-value  = 4.73×10−11, OR  = 3.20, 95% CI  = 2.23–4.57). Significant association was also detected to SLE patients (P-value  = 8.29×10−6, OR  = 2.14, 95% CI  = 1.52–3.00), and even stronger association was found when stratifying SLE patients by presence of discoid rash (P-value  = 3.59×10−8, OR  = 3.76, 95% CI  = 2.29–6.18). Significance We propose ITGAM as a novel susceptibility gene for cutaneous DLE. The risk effect is independent of systemic involvement and has an even stronger genetic influence on the risk of DLE than of SLE. PMID:21151989

  7. Risk of tuberculosis with anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy: substantially higher number of patients at risk in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Navarra, Sandra V; Tang, Boxiong; Lu, Liangjing; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Mok, Chi Chiu; Asavatanabodee, Paijit; Suwannalai, Parawee; Hussein, Heselynn; Rahman, Mahboob U

    2014-01-01

    Aim To assess the potential risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) agents in Asia. Methods Absolute risk increase (ARI) of TB was estimated for three widely used anti-TNF-α therapies using published standardized incidence ratios (SIR) from the French Research Axed on Tolerance of bIOtherapies registry and incidence (absolute risk [AR]) of TB in Asia. Assuming an association of increased TB risk with anti-TNF-α therapy and country TB AR (incidence), the ARI of TB by country was calculated by multiplying the SIR of the anti-TNF-α therapy by the country's TB AR. The numbers needed to harm (NNH) for each anti-TNF-α agent and numbers needed to treat (NNT) to reduce one TB event using etanercept therapy instead of adalimumab or infliximab were also calculated for each country. Results The ARI of TB with anti-TNF-α therapies in Asian countries is substantially higher than Western Europe and North America and the difference between etanercept versus the monoclonal antibodies becomes more evident. The NNH for Asian countries ranged from 8 to 163 for adalimumab, 126 to 2646 for etanercept and 12 to 256 for infliximab. The NNT to reduce one TB event using etanercept instead of adalimumab therapy ranged from 8 to 173, and using etanercept instead of infliximab therapy the NNT ranged from 13 to 283. Conclusion Higher numbers of patients are at risk of developing TB with anti-TNF-α therapy in Asia compared with Western Europe and North America. The relative lower risk of TB with etanercept may be particularly relevant for Asia, an endemic area for TB. PMID:24131578

  8. Managing Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Colleges and universities face a wide range of environmental risk. In spite of this, with proper planning, they can avoid emergencies or surprises. Advanced planning, coupled with strategic, technical environmental and legal advice, enable higher-education institutions to keep their environmental budgets under control and predictable. This article…

  9. Managing Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Colleges and universities face a wide range of environmental risk. In spite of this, with proper planning, they can avoid emergencies or surprises. Advanced planning, coupled with strategic, technical environmental and legal advice, enable higher-education institutions to keep their environmental budgets under control and predictable. This article…

  10. Patient-reported Limitations to Surgical Buy-in: A Qualitative Study of Patients Facing High-risk Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nabozny, Michael J; Kruser, Jacqueline M; Steffens, Nicole M; Pecanac, Kristen E; Brasel, Karen J; Chittenden, Eva H; Cooper, Zara; McKneally, Martin F; Schwarze, Margaret L

    2017-01-01

    To characterize how patients buy-in to treatments beyond the operating room and what limits they would place on additional life-supporting treatments. During a high-risk operation, surgeons generally assume that patients buy-in to life-supporting interventions that might be necessary postoperatively. How patients understand this agreement and their willingness to participate in additional treatment is unknown. We purposively sampled surgeons in Toronto, Ontario, Boston, Massachusetts, and Madison, Wisconsin, who are good communicators and routinely perform high-risk operations. We audio-recorded their conversations with patients considering high-risk surgery. For patients who were then scheduled for surgery, we performed open-ended preoperative and postoperative interviews. We used directed qualitative content analysis to analyze the interviews and surgeon visits, specifically evaluating the content about the use of postoperative life support. We recorded 43 patients' conversations with surgeons, 34 preoperative, and 27 postoperative interviews. Patients expressed trust in their surgeon to make decisions about additional treatments if a serious complication occurred, yet expressed a preference for significant treatment limitations that were not discussed with their surgeon preoperatively. Patients valued the existence or creation of an advance directive preoperatively, but they did not discuss this directive with their surgeon. Instead they assumed it would be effective if needed and that family members knew their wishes. Patients implicitly trust their surgeons to treat postoperative complications as they arise. Although patients may buy-in to some additional postoperative interventions, they hold a broad range of preferences for treatment limitations that were not discussed with the surgeon preoperatively.

  11. Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissists: Who Is at Higher Risk for Social Networking Addiction?

    PubMed

    Casale, Silvia; Fioravanti, Giulia; Rugai, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Scholars have recently taken an interest in the connection between narcissism and Internet use, especially among users who frequent social networking sites (SNSs). Conversely, the association between narcissism and problematic use of SNSs (i.e., unregulated use that leads to negative outcomes) has been scarcely investigated. This study addresses this gap by comparing the mean levels of problematic use of SNSs among grandiose narcissists, vulnerable narcissists, and non-narcissists. A sample of 535 students completed the 16-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory, the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale-2 (GPIUS2). Vulnerable narcissists reported (a) significant higher levels on all GPIUS2 subscales and total scores than non-narcissists and (b) a stronger preference for online social interactions and higher overall levels of problematic use of SNSs than grandiose narcissists. Conversely, no significant differences were found between grandiose narcissists and non-narcissists. This study suggests that vulnerable narcissism may contribute more to problematic use of SNSs than grandiose narcissism.

  12. Low vs. higher-dose dark chocolate and blood pressure in cardiovascular high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Desch, Steffen; Kobler, Daniela; Schmidt, Johanna; Sonnabend, Melanie; Adams, Volker; Sareban, Mahdi; Eitel, Ingo; Blüher, Matthias; Schuler, Gerhard; Thiele, Holger

    2010-06-01

    Dark chocolate may have blood pressure-lowering properties. We conducted a prospective randomized open-label blinded end-point design trial to study a potential dose dependency of the presumed antihypertensive effect of dark chocolate by directly comparing low vs. higher doses of dark chocolate over the course of 3 months. We enrolled a total of 102 patients with prehypertension/stage 1 hypertension and established cardiovascular end-organ damage or diabetes mellitus. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 6 or 25 g/day of flavanol-rich dark chocolate for 3 months. The difference in 24-h mean blood pressure between groups was defined as the primary outcome measure. Significant reductions in mean ambulatory 24-h blood pressure were observed between baseline and follow-up in both groups (6 g/day: -2.3 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval -4.1 to -0.4; 25 g/day: -1.9 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval -3.6 to -0.2). There were no significant differences in blood pressure changes between groups. In the higher-dose group, a slight increase in body weight was noted (0.8 kg, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 1.6). The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that dark chocolate may be associated with a reduction in blood pressure (BP). However, due to the lack of a control group, confounding may be possible and the results should be interpreted with caution.

  13. Vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities: a retrospective study on sexual violence, substance use and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Servin, Argentina E; Strathdee, Steffanie; Muñoz, Fatima A; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Silverman, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of female sex workers (FSWs) conducted in the Mexico-US border region have focused on individual HIV risk, centered on sexual behaviors and substance abuse patterns. Little attention has been drawn to the reality that sex workers are often parents whose children potentially face vulnerabilities unique to their family situation. The objective of the present study was to identify the vulnerabilities faced by the children of FSWs in two Mexican-US border cities. From 2008 to 2010, 628 FSW-injection drug users underwent interviewer-administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Approximately one in five participants (20%) reported having a parent involved in sex work and majority referred it was their mother (88%). Close to one-third of participants (31%) reported first injecting drugs <18 years of age, and 33% reported they began working regularly as a prostitute <18 years of age. First drinking alcohol <18 years old (AOR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.13-3.08), lifetime cocaine use (AOR = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.09-2.84), ever being forced or coerced into non-consensual sex as a minor (<18 years of age; AOR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.01-2.35), and injecting drugs with used syringes in the prior month (AOR = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.07-2.49) were the factors associated with having had a parent involved in sex work. These findings begin to lay the groundwork for understanding the potential vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers. Understanding these potential needs is necessary for creating relevant, evidence-based interventions focused on supporting these women.

  14. Vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers in two Mexico - U.S. border cities: a retrospective study on sexual violence, substance use and HIV risk

    PubMed Central

    Servin, Argentina E.; Strathdee, Steffanie; Muñoz, Fatima A.; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Silverman, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of female sex workers (FSWs) conducted in the Mexico-US border region have focused on individual HIV risk, centered on sexual behaviors and substance abuse patterns. Little attention has been drawn to the reality that sex workers are often parents whose children potentially face vulnerabilities unique to their family situation. The objective of the present study was to identify the vulnerabilities faced by the children of FSWs in two Mexican-U.S. border cities. From 2008-2010, 628 FSW-IDUs underwent interviewer-administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Approximately 1 in 5 participants (20%) reported having a parent involved in sex work and majority referred it was their mother (88%). Close to one third of participants (31%) reported first injecting drugs <18 years of age and 33% reported they began working regularly as a prostitute <18 years of age. First drinking alcohol <18 years old (AdjOR=1.87, 95%CI: 1.13–3.08), lifetime cocaine use (AOR=1.76, 95%CI: 1.09–2.84), ever being forced or coerced into non–consensual sex as a minor (<18 years of age) (AdjOR =1.54, 95%CI: 1.01-2.35) and injecting drugs with used syringes in the prior month (AOR=1.63, 95%CI:1.07 -2.49) were factors associated with having had a parent involved in sex work. These findings begin to lay the groundwork for understanding the potential vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers. Understanding these potential needs are necessary for creating relevant, evidence based interventions focused on supporting these women. PMID:25117749

  15. Prenatal screening for fetal face and clefting in a prospective study on low-risk population: can 3- and 4-dimensional ultrasound enhance visualization and detection rate?

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Centini, Giovanni; Rosignoli, Lucia

    2005-10-01

    A study of 1856 second trimester low-risk pregnancies was conducted over a period of 12 months to evaluate the detection rate of cleft lip and palate by 3- and 4-dimensional (3D, 4D) ultrasonography. To image the fetal face and profile, a protocol regarding the use of external or internal hand stimulation or a repeated scan was followed, and the time taken to perform 3D scan was compared to that of a conventional 2D ultrasound. One case of unilateral right cleft lip and a cleft lip plus cleft palate were both identified, giving a prevalence of 1.1 per 1000 live births and a prenatal detection rate of 100%. The average imaging time for fetal face/profile view was significantly less with 3D when compared to 2D (5.33 vs 6.2 seconds, P < .001) and diagnosis at first scan without external or internal hand stimulation was feasible in 78% by 2D versus 87% by 3D technique (P < .0001). Cleft lip and palate were isolated prenatal findings and newborn karyotyping showed normal chromosomal maps in both cases. With the use of this standardized protocol, we were able to image the fetal face and profile view in all cases. We underline the critical role of sonographic expertise in screening for these anomalies and the great enhancement in imaging soft tissues and bone lesions by using 3D ultrasound. We advocate that screening for cleft lip and palate be included in future standard ultrasound examination in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  16. High-risk medical devices, children and the FDA: regulatory challenges facing pediatric mechanical circulatory support devices.

    PubMed

    Almond, Christopher S D; Chen, Eric A; Berman, Michael R; Less, Joanne R; Baldwin, J Timothy; Linde-Feucht, Sarah R; Hoke, Tracey R; Pearson, Gail D; Jenkins, Kathy; Duncan, Brian W; Zuckerman, Bram D

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric mechanical circulatory support is a critical unmet need in the United States. Infant- and child-sized ventricular assist devices are currently being developed largely through federal contracts and grants through the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Human testing and marketing of high-risk devices for children raises epidemiologic and regulatory issues that will need to be addressed. Leaders from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), NHLBI, academic pediatric community, and industry convened in January 2006 for the first FDA Workshop on the Regulatory Process for Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices. The purpose was to provide the pediatric community with an overview of the federal regulatory process for high-risk medical devices and to review the challenges specific to the development and regulation of pediatric mechanical circulatory support devices. Pediatric mechanical circulatory support present significant epidemiologic, logistic, and financial challenges to industry, federal regulators, and the pediatric community. Early interactions with the FDA, shared appreciation of challenges, and careful planning will be critical to avoid unnecessary delays in making potentially life-saving devices available for children. Collaborative efforts to address these challenges are warranted.

  17. Selected health and management issues facing working donkeys presented for veterinary treatment in rural Mexico: some possible risk factors and potential intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Burden, Faith A; Du Toit, Nicole; Hernandez-Gil, Mariano; Prado-Ortiz, Omar; Trawford, Andrew F

    2010-04-01

    The examination of 216 donkeys presented for treatment at the Donkey Sanctuary-World Horse Welfare-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico mobile clinics revealed a number of health and welfare problems. A general overview of the donkeys' health was made and showed that the median body condition score (BCS) in this population was 2.5. Underweight animals only accounted for 26% of the population. Females, 0-5-year-olds and >21-year-olds, were more likely to be underweight. When analysed, there was no correlation between faecal worm egg count (FEC) and BCS. The prevalence of strongyle infection as assessed by FEC was shown to be 80% with a median FEC of 600 eggs per gramme. Donkeys were assessed for body lesions and showed a high prevalence (71%), particularly in the facial region (54%). Analysis showed that mature animals (6-15 years old) were at increased risk of body lesions compared to older animals (16+ years old) as were donkeys with dental disease and those in particular villages. Risk factor analysis for lesions of the face showed that stallions and geldings are at increased risk as were donkeys wearing halters made from nylon rope. This study has identified areas for further investigation and potential areas where targeted interventions may be made to improve the health and welfare of working donkeys in Mexico.

  18. Youth research. Naked wire and naked truths: a study of reproductive health risks faced by teenage girls in Honiara, Solomon Islands, November 1997.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    A qualitative research project conducted in 1997 in the Solomon Islands used questionnaires, focus groups discussions, and in-depth interviews to gather information on reproductive health risks faced by young, unmarried women in Honiara. In this setting, urbanization and poverty, migration, unemployment, and low levels of education increase the risk for youth of acquiring HIV/AIDS or a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Young women, who must yield to the authority of their male relatives, often have clandestine sexual relationships beginning as early as age 12 and are unable to negotiate safe sex behavior. Commercial sexual exchanges are also on the increase. Sex education is generally confined to secondary schools, although most girls drop-out after primary school. The main source of sex information is the media and friends. While there is concern about adolescent pregnancy rates, contraceptive access is restricted to young, unmarried women. The reaction of a family to an adolescent pregnancy is initial anger and ultimate acceptance. Condom use is low, largely because it is believed that it interferes with sexual pleasure. Because the young women are unable to negotiate safe sex, they are at risk of pregnancy, STDs, and HIV/AIDS. The situation can be improved by creating an enabling environment for young women through policy initiatives, improving knowledge, promoting condom use, providing reproductive health services, and improving communication channels.

  19. Outcomes of three universal eating disorder risk reduction programs by participants with higher and lower baseline shape and weight concern.

    PubMed

    Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn; O'Shea, Anne; Wade, Tracey D

    2017-01-01

    To investigate if baseline shape and weight concern (SWC) moderated outcomes in Prevention Across the Spectrum, a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) of 3 school-based programs aimed at reducing eating disorder and obesity risk factors. N = 1,316 Grade 7 and 8 girls and boys (M age = 13.21 years) across three Australian states were randomly allocated to: Media Smart; Life Smart; Helping, Encouraging, Listening and Protecting Peers Initiative (HELPP) or control (usual school class). Moderation was explored by testing interaction effects for group (Media Smart; Life Smart; HELPP; Control) × moderator (SWC: higher-SWC; lower-SWC) × time (post-program; 6-month follow-up; 12-month follow-up), with baseline risk factor scores entered as covariates. Moderation effects were found for shape concern, weight concern, eating concern, regular eating (i.e., meal skipping), physical activity, body dissatisfaction, dieting, and perfectionism. Post-hoc testing found eating concern at post-program was the only variable where higher-SWC Media Smart participants experienced a reduction in risk relative to controls. Both higher-SWC Life Smart and HELPP participants reported an increase in eating concern relative to controls and both groups were skipping more meals than controls at 12-month follow-up. Amongst lower-SWC participants, Media Smart was the only group to experience a benefit relative to controls (physical activity). This study highlights the need for moderator analyses to become more routinely conducted in universal trials, to ensure that participants across baseline risk levels are benefiting and not harmed from program participation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:66-75). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Higher morale is associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, Johan; Näsman, Marina; Nyqvist, Fredrica; Conradsson, Mia; Olofsson, Birgitta; Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether higher morale, i.e. future-oriented optimism, at baseline was associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people.Methods The Umeå85+/GErontological Regional Database, a population-based study with a longitudinal design, recruited participants in Sweden and Finland aged 85, 90 and ≥95 years. The sample in the present study included 647 individuals (89.1±4.4 years (Mean±SD), range 85-103). After five years, 216 were alive and agreed to a follow-up (92.6±3.4 years, range 90-104). The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) was used to assess morale. The depressive disorder diagnosis was determined according to DSM-IV based on medical records and interview data including assessment scales for depressive disorders. A number of sociodemographic, functional and health-related variables were analysed as possible confounders.Results For those with no depressive disorders at baseline, the only baseline variable significantly associated with depressive disorders five years later was the PGCMS score. A logistic regression model showed lower risk of depressive disorders five years later with higher baseline PGCMS scores (odds ratio 0.779 for one point increase in PGCMS, p<0.001). The association remained after adjusting for social isolation (p<0.1 association with depressive disorders five years later).Conclusion Our results indicate that the higher the morale, the lower the risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people. The PGCMS seems to identify those very old individuals at increased risk of depressive disorders five years later. Preventive measures could befocused on this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. COPD Patients with Exertional Desaturation Are at a Higher Risk of Rapid Decline in Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changhwan; Park, Yong Bum; Park, So Young; Park, Sunghoon; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Park, Sang Myeon; Lee, Myung-Goo; Hyun, In-Gyu; Jung, Ki-Suck

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A recent study demonstrated that exertional desaturation is a predictor of rapid decline in lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, the study was limited by its method used to detect exertional desaturation. The main purpose of this study was to explore whether exertional desaturation assessed using nadir oxygen saturation (SpO2) during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) can predict rapid lung function decline in patients with COPD. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 57 patients with moderate to very severe COPD who underwent the 6MWT. Exertional desaturation was defined as a nadir SpO2 of <90% during the 6MWT. Rapid decline was defined as an annual rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ≥50 mL. Patients were divided into rapid decliner (n=26) and non-rapid decliner (n=31) groups. Results A statistically significant difference in exertional desaturation was observed between rapid decliners and non-rapid decliners (17 vs. 8, p=0.003). No differences were found between the groups for age, smoking status, BODE index, and FEV1. Multivariate analysis showed that exertional desaturation was a significant independent predictor of rapid decline in patients with COPD (relative risk, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.8 to 25.4; p=0.004). Conclusion This study supports that exertional desaturation is a predictor of rapid lung function decline in male patients with COPD. PMID:24719141

  2. Low Phosphorylated AKT Expression in Laryngeal Cancer: Indications for a Higher Metastatic Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Nijkamp, Monique M.; Span, Paul N.; Stegeman, Hanneke; Grénman, Reidar; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Bussink, Johan

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To validate the association of phosphorylated (p)AKT with lymph node metastasis in an independent, homogeneous cohort of patients with larynx cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients with laryngeal cancer were included. Epidermal growth factor receptor, pAKT, vimentin, E-cadherin, hypoxia, and blood vessels were visualized in biopsy material using immunohistochemistry. Positive tumor areas and spatial relationships between markers were assessed by automated image analysis. In 6 laryngeal cancer cell lines, E-cadherin and vimentin messenger RNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and by immunohistochemistry before and after treatment with the pAKT inhibitor MK-2206. Results: A significant correlation was found between low pAKT in the primary tumor and positive lymph node status (P=.0005). Tumors with lymph node metastases had an approximately 10-fold lower median pAKT value compared with tumors without lymph node metastases, albeit with large intertumor variations, validating our previous results. After inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer cells with MK-2206, up-regulation of vimentin and a downregulation of E-cadherin occurred, consistent with epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Conclusion: Low pAKT expression in larynx tumors is associated with lymph node metastases. Further, inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition, predisposing for an increased metastatic risk.

  3. Relationship between early onset severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and higher risk of meconium-stained fluid

    PubMed Central

    Estiú, Maria C.; Frailuna, Maria A.; Otero, Carla; Dericco, Marcela; Williamson, Catherine; Marin, Jose J. G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the commonest gestational liver disease. The risk of adverse fetal outcome has been associated with the severity of maternal hypercholanemia after diagnosis. Objective To investigate whether there is a relationship between the severity and timing of onset of hypercholanemia and the risk of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and adverse neonatal events. Study design The study included 382 pregnancies complicated by ICP managed at a referral hospital in Buenos Aires (Argentina) between June 2009 and December 2013. The patients were classified into three groups according to the severity of hypercholanemia at diagnosis; mild (10–19.9 μmol/L), moderate (20–39.9 μmol/L) and severe (≥40 μmol/L). Their clinical characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were investigated in a prospective observational study. Results Higher risk of MSAF was observed when ICP appeared early in gestation or when hypercholanemia was more severe. Taking both parameters into account an MSAF risk factor (MRF) was defined. Based on a model of positive/negative predictive values, a cut-off point of MRF = 3 was selected, which prioritized sensitivity versus specificity. In ICP patients with MRF>3, the probability of MSAF was enhanced 4-fold. An increase in the frequency of MSAF was also associated with higher serum levels at diagnosis of alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and direct bilirubin. Conclusions The risk of MSAF is associated not only with the magnitude of hypercholanemia at diagnosis but also with the early gestational onset of raised maternal serum bile acids. PMID:28437442

  4. When the levee breaks - public policy and holistic risk management - lessons from Katrina for coastal cities faced with rising storm surge flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir-Wood, R.

    2009-04-01

    In a period of accelerating sea level rise and increased tropical cyclone intensities, extreme 100 year coastal flood levels are rising rapidly along a number of tropical and subtropical coastlines. Meanwhile, whether from natural megadelta consolidation, post glacial rebound or overpumping of shallow aquifers, many coastal cities are sinking even faster than mean sea level is rising. Without significant investment in continually improved flood defence inevitably this means the risk of catastrophic flooding is rising, for many cities quite steeply. The experience of Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans may become seen as iconic for 21st Century catastrophe risk as more and more coastal cities are subject to similar calamities. The story of New Orleans also highlights many aspects of catastrophe risk management failures before and after extreme events. The city of New Orleans had already been flooded three times by storm surges in the 100 years before Katrina. After each flood, investments were made in improved flood defences but these investments dwindled through time as there appeared to be a reduced imperative to divert money to support abstract risk reduction. Meanwhile land subsidence and rising sea levels and storm surges meant that risk levels continued to rise, until the inevitable time when the city once again was flooded. As the city increasingly sinks below mean sea level the impact of each flood has become increasingly catastrophic, both in terms of areas flooded, property damage and casualties. While a major program of investment in improved flood defences has once again followed the catastrophic 2005 flood, Federal government agencies have given no assurance that levels of flood risk will be maintained below some designated threshold long term. Therefore another cycle of rising flood risk has now started that will inevitably eventually to lead to the city becoming reflooded. This cycle can only end with the eventual abandonment of much of the city area

  5. Higher risk of dural tears and recurrent herniation with lumbar micro-endoscopic discectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lovi, Alessio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Zagra, Antonino; Corriero, Andrea; Giudici, Fabrizio; Minoia, Leone

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies on micro-endoscopic lumbar discectomy report similar outcomes to those of open and microdiscectomy and conflicting results on complications. We designed a randomised controlled trial to investigate the hypothesis of different outcomes and complications obtainable with the three techniques. 240 patients aged 18–65 years affected by posterior lumbar disc herniation and symptoms lasting over 6 weeks of conservative management were randomised to micro-endoscopic (group 1), micro (group 2) or open (group 3) discectomy. Exclusion criteria were less than 6 weeks of pain duration, cauda equina compromise, foraminal or extra-foraminal herniations, spinal stenosis, malignancy, previous spinal surgery, spinal deformity, concurrent infection and rheumatic disease. Surgery and follow-up were made at a single Institution. A biomedical researcher independently collected and reviewed the data. ODI, back and leg VAS and SF-36 were the outcome measures used preoperatively, postoperatively and at 6-, 12- and 24-month follow-up. 212/240 (91%) patients completed the 24-month follow-up period. VAS back and leg, ODI and SF36 scores showed clinically and statistically significant improvements within groups without significant difference among groups throughout follow-up. Dural tears, root injuries and recurrent herniations were significantly more common in group 1. Wound infections were similar in group 2 and 3, but did not affect patients in group 1. Overall costs were significantly higher in group 1 and lower in group 3. In conclusion, outcome measures are equivalent 2 years following lumbar discectomy with micro-endoscopy, microscopy or open technique, but severe complications are more likely and costs higher with micro-endoscopy. PMID:20127495

  6. Higher risk of dural tears and recurrent herniation with lumbar micro-endoscopic discectomy.

    PubMed

    Teli, Marco; Lovi, Alessio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Zagra, Antonino; Corriero, Andrea; Giudici, Fabrizio; Minoia, Leone

    2010-03-01

    Existing studies on micro-endoscopic lumbar discectomy report similar outcomes to those of open and microdiscectomy and conflicting results on complications. We designed a randomised controlled trial to investigate the hypothesis of different outcomes and complications obtainable with the three techniques. 240 patients aged 18-65 years affected by posterior lumbar disc herniation and symptoms lasting over 6 weeks of conservative management were randomised to micro-endoscopic (group 1), micro (group 2) or open (group 3) discectomy. Exclusion criteria were less than 6 weeks of pain duration, cauda equina compromise, foraminal or extra-foraminal herniations, spinal stenosis, malignancy, previous spinal surgery, spinal deformity, concurrent infection and rheumatic disease. Surgery and follow-up were made at a single Institution. A biomedical researcher independently collected and reviewed the data. ODI, back and leg VAS and SF-36 were the outcome measures used preoperatively, postoperatively and at 6-, 12- and 24-month follow-up. 212/240 (91%) patients completed the 24-month follow-up period. VAS back and leg, ODI and SF36 scores showed clinically and statistically significant improvements within groups without significant difference among groups throughout follow-up. Dural tears, root injuries and recurrent herniations were significantly more common in group 1. Wound infections were similar in group 2 and 3, but did not affect patients in group 1. Overall costs were significantly higher in group 1 and lower in group 3. In conclusion, outcome measures are equivalent 2 years following lumbar discectomy with micro-endoscopy, microscopy or open technique, but severe complications are more likely and costs higher with micro-endoscopy.

  7. HTLV-I infection is not associated with a higher risk of death in Peruvian HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jaime A; Hernández, Adrián V; Hidalgo, José A; Salazar, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    Limited and contradictory information exists regarding the prognosis of HIV/HTLV-I co-infection. Our goal was to estimate the effect of HTLV-I infection on mortality in HIV-infected patients at a HIV reference center in Peru. We studied a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected patients, who were exposed or unexposed to HTLV-I. Exposed patients were Western Blot (WB) positive for both retroviruses. Unexposed patients were WB positive for HIV, and had least one negative EIA for HTLV-I. These were selected among patients who entered our Program immediately before and after each exposed patient, between January 1990 and June 2004. Survival time was considered between the diagnosis of exposure to HTLV-I and death or censoring. Confounding variables were age, gender, baseline HIV clinical stage, baseline CD4+ T cell count, and antiretroviral therapy. We studied 50 exposed, and 100 unexposed patients. Exposed patients had a shorter survival compared to unexposed patients [median survival: 47 months (95% CI: 17-77) vs. 85 months (95% CI: 70-100), unadjusted p = 0.06]. Exposed patients had a higher rate of mortality compared to unexposed patients (HIV/HTLV-I (24/50 [48%]) vs. HIV only (37/100 [37%]), univariable p = 0.2]. HTLV-I exposure was not associated to a higher risk of death in the adjusted analysis: HR: 1.2 (0.4-3.5). AIDS clinical stage and lack of antiretroviral therapy were associated to a higher risk of dying. In conclusions, HTLV-I infection was not associated with a higher risk of death in Peruvian HIV-infected patients. Advanced HIV infection and lack of antiretroviral therapy may explain the excess of mortality in this population.

  8. Higher risk of developing a subsequent migraine in adults with nonapnea sleep disorders: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Harnod, Tomor; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-05-01

    This nationwide population-based cohort study evaluated the effect of nonapnea sleep disorders (NSDs) on the subsequent development of a migraine. We identified 46,777 patients aged 20 years and older who were diagnosed with an NSD (ICD-9-CM: 307.4 or 780.5) and without coding for apnea-sleep disorders (ICD-9-CM: 780.51, 780.53, or 780.57) between 2000 and 2002 as the sleep disorder (SD) cohort. A comparison cohort of 93,552 people was enrolled. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for developing a migraine (ICD-9-CM: 346) after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, and drug use. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to measure the cumulative incidence of a migraine between 2 curves until the end of 2011. The cumulative incidence of a migraine was significantly higher in the SD cohort. The aHR for developing a migraine in the SD cohort was 3.52 (95% CI=3.28-3.79). The risk of developing a migraine with an NSD was higher in men (aHR=4.31) than in women (aHR=3.35). The age-stratified effect of an NSD on developing a migraine was highest among patients aged 55 years and younger. Higher risks of developing a migraine were observed among the participants without any comorbidity and without any drug treatment for their insomnia. The findings of this population-based cohort study indicate a higher risk of developing a subsequent migraine in patients with an NSD, which could be considered an independent, predisposing factor for developing subsequent a migraine in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term trends in trait structure of riverine communities facing predation risk increase and trophic resource decline.

    PubMed

    Latli, Adrien; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Mondy, Cédric P; Floury, Mathieu; Viroux, Laurent; Otjacques, William; Marescaux, Jonathan; Depiereux, Eric; Ovidio, Michael; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Kestemont, Patrick

    2017-09-05

    Many large European rivers have undergone multiple pressures which have strongly impaired ecosystem functioning at different spatial and temporal scales. Global warming and other environmental changes have favoured the success of invasive species, deeply modifying the structure of aquatic communities in large rivers. Some exogenous species could alter trophic interactions within assemblages by increasing the predation risk for potential prey species (top-down effect) and limiting the dynamics of others via resource availability limitation (bottom-up effect). Furthermore, large transboundary rivers are complex aquatic ecosystems which have often been poorly investigated so that data for assessing long-term ecological trends are missing. In this study, we propose an original approach for investigating long-term combined effects of global warming, trophic resource decrease, predation risk and water quality variations on the trait-based structure of macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages over 26 years (1985-2011) and 427-km stretch of the river Meuse (France and Belgium). The study of temporal variations in biological, physiological and ecological traits of macroinvertebrate and fish allowed identifying community trends and distinguishing impacts of environmental perturbations from those induced by biological alterations. We provide evidence, for this large European river, of an increase in water temperature (close to 1°C) and a decrease in phytoplankton biomass (- 85%), as well as independent effects of these changes on both invertebrate and fish communities. The reduction of trophic resources in the water column by invasive molluscs has dramatically affected the density of omnivorous fish in favour of invertebrate-feeders, while scrapers became the major feeding guild among invertebrates. Macroinvertebrate and fish communities have shifted from large-sized organisms with low fecundity to prolific, small-sized organisms, with early maturity, as a response to

  10. Sex dependent risk management in face of perceived danger of socially foraging Bee-eaters (Merops apiaster) during migration.

    PubMed

    Yosef, Reuven; Fehervari, Peter; Yosef-Sukenik, Nufar

    2013-11-01

    The proximal reasons and ultimal consequences of decisions made during foraging by breeding individuals are widely studied in numerous avian systems. However, the effects of these decisions are more pronounced in migratory birds because they spend more time and energy foraging than on the actual journey itself. The peak flowering and pollination period of crops in southern Israel, when large numbers of hives are transported to the region, coincide with the peak migration of Bee-eaters. We hypothesized that Bee-eaters cue on conspecifics while foraging at a stopover site, react to perceived danger at a given foraging patch, and that the degree of risk taken by an individual was a function of body condition and sex. Bee-eaters were caught on 44 different mornings in spring 2004, 2005, and 2009. A sex-dependent trapping was noted and significantly more females were caught in the first bout. The sex ratio remained significantly male biased in bouts 3-8. Birds caught in the first bout were heavier in comparison to those caught in the second bout, and there was a significant interaction between sex and bouts. From the second bout onwards both sexes showed a significant increase in body mass, by 1.05g/bout on average (±0.6 SD), however wing lengths remained similar for both sexes. We conclude that migrant Bee-eaters cue on conspecifics to evaluate predation risks when socially foraging at a localized food patch and males, who we assume to be time-minimizers, are more likely to forage at a novel site and once danger of foraging is perceived only high energy demand individuals will attempt to hunt.

  11. Sharper angle, higher risk? The effect of cutting angle on knee mechanics in invasion sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Schreurs, Mervin J; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2017-08-24

    Cutting is an important skill in team-sports, but unfortunately is also related to non-contact ACL injuries. The purpose was to examine knee kinetics and kinematics at different cutting angles. 13 males and 16 females performed cuts at different angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) at maximum speed. 3D kinematics and kinetics were collected. To determine differences across cutting angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) and sex (female, male), a 4×2 repeated measures ANOVA was conducted followed by post hoc comparisons (Bonferroni) with alpha level set at α≤0.05a priori. At all cutting angles, males showed greater knee flexion angles than females (p<0.01). Also, where males performed all cutting angles with no differences in the amount of knee flexion -42.53°±8.95°, females decreased their knee flexion angle from -40.6°±7.2° when cutting at 45° to -36.81°±9.10° when cutting at 90°, 135° and 180° (p<0.01). Knee flexion moment decreased for both sexes when cutting towards sharper angles (p<0.05). At 90°, 135° and 180°, males showed greater knee valgus moments than females. For both sexes, knee valgus moment increased towards the sharper cutting angles and then stabilized compared to the 45° cutting angle (p<0.01). Both females and males showed smaller vGRF when cutting to sharper angles (p<0.01). It can be concluded that different cutting angles demand different knee kinematics and kinetics. Sharper cutting angles place the knee more at risk. However, females and males handle this differently, which has implications for injury prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Jacobs, David R; Park, Kyong

    2014-10-01

    Cumulative evidence suggests that coffee consumption may have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases; however, few previous studies have considered the types of coffee consumed and the additives used. We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and its components. We analyzed 17,953 Korean adults, aged 19-65 years, using cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2007-2011). Coffee consumption level, types of coffee consumed, and the additives used were assessed based on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall. Demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Data on metabolic biomarkers were obtained from a health examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios of prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components according to frequency and type of coffee consumption. We found that 76% of the subjects were habitual coffee drinkers, most of whom consumed instant coffee mix containing sugar and powder creamer. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% CI) comparing those who consumed coffee ≥3 times/day with those who consumed coffee <1 time/week were 1.37 (1.15-1.63) for obesity, 1.33 (1.11-1.59) for abdominal obesity, 1.28 (1.09-1.51) for hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, and 1.37 (1.10-1.72) for metabolic syndrome. Instant-coffee drinkers were observed to have elevated risks of these metabolic conditions. Consumption of coffee, particularly instant coffee mix, may have harmful effects on MetSyn, perhaps partly deriving from excessive intake of sugar and powder creamer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factor V Leiden Is Associated with Higher Risk of Deep Venous Thrombosis of Large Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Arsov, Todor; Miladinova, Daniela; Spiroski, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation in patients with different presentation of venous thromboembolic disease and healthy individuals in the Republic of Macedonia. Methods The retrospective case-control study involved 190 patients with venous thromboembolic disease and 200 healthy individuals, who were screened for the presence of factor V Leiden mutation, using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The prevalence of factor V Leiden was analyzed according to the localization of thrombosis, presence of risk factors, and family history of thrombosis. The odds of deep venous thrombosis were calculated with respect to the presence of factor V Leiden mutation. Results The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation among patients with venous thromboembolic disease was 21.1%, compared with 5.5% in the healthy individuals. Factor V Leiden positive patients had the first episode of deep venous thrombosis at a younger age, and the prevalence of the mutation was the highest among patients with a positive family history of thrombosis (33.9%, P = 0.003) and in patients with deep venous thrombosis affecting a large blood vessel (37.7%, P = 0.001). The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation was lower in patients with calf deep venous thrombosis and primary thromboembolism (13.3% and 13.1%, respectively; P>0.05). The odds ratio for iliofemoral or femoral deep venous thrombosis in factor V Leiden carriers was 10.4 (95% confidence interval, 4.7-23.1). Conclusion The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation was high in patients with venous thromboembolic disease and healthy individuals in the Republic of Macedonia. Factor V Leiden carriers have the highest odds of developing deep venous thrombosis affecting a large venous blood vessel. PMID:16758522

  14. Do obese adults have a higher risk of asthma attack when exposed to indoor mold? A study based on the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Jun; Balluz, Lina; Mokdad, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Some studies show an association between asthma and obesity, but it is unknown whether exposure to mold will increase the risk of asthma attacks among obese people. This study examined whether obese adults have a higher risk of asthma attacks than non-obese adults when exposed to indoor mold. We used data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to conduct a cross-sectional analysis among 9,668 respondents who reported exposure to indoor mold. With exposure to indoor mold, weighted prevalence of asthma attacks among obese respondents was 11.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0, 20.6], which was 2.3 times as high as among the exposed non-obese respondents (5.0%, 95% CI 2.8, 8.8). This ratio was almost the same as the ratio of 2.0:1 between the obese respondents (5.7%, 95% CI 4.6, 7.2) and the non-obese respondents (2.8%, 95% CI 2.3, 3.9) when neither group had exposure to mold. The odds ratio of asthma attack among obese people was 3.10 (95% CI 1.10, 8.67) for those with exposure to mold and 2.21 (95% CI 1.54, 3.17) for those without exposure to mold after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Our study suggests that obese adults who have been exposed to indoor mold may not necessarily have a higher risk of asthma attack than obese adults who have not been exposed, even though obesity and exposure to indoor mold are both major risk factors for asthma attack. Medical professionals should not only incorporate weight-control or weight-reduction measures as the components of asthma treatment plans, but also advise asthma patients to avoid exposure to indoor mold.

  15. Higher body mass index increases the risk for biopsy-mediated detection of prostate cancer in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng-Bo; Bai, Pei-De; Wu, Yi-Shuo; Zhang, Li-Min; Xu, Hua; Na, Rong; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Ding, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk at biopsy in Chinese men. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,807 consecutive men who underwent initial multicore (≥10) prostate biopsy under transrectal ultrasound guidance between Dec 2004 and Feb 2014. BMI was categorised based on the Asian classification of obesity as follows: <18.5 (underweight), 18.5-22.9 (normal weight), 23-24.9 (overweight), 25-29.9 (moderately obese), and ≥30 kg/m2 (severely obese). The odds ratios (OR) of each BMI category for risk of PCa and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa, Gleason score ≥4+3) detection were estimated in crude, age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted models. Prevalence ratios and accuracies of PSA predicted PCa were also estimated across BMI groups. In total, PCa was detected by biopsy in 750 (45.4%) men, and HGPCa was detected in 419 (25.4%) men. Compared with men of normal weight, underweight men and obese men were older and had higher prostate specific antigen levels. The risk of overall PCa detection via biopsy presented an obvious U-shaped relationship with BMI in crude analysis. Overall, 50.0%, 37.4%, 45.6% 54.4% and 74.1% of the men in the underweight, normal weight, overweight, moderately obese and severely obese groups, respectively, were diagnosed with PCa via biopsy. In multivariate analysis, obesity was significantly correlated with a higher risk of PCa detection (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 1.10-1.25, P<0.001). However, higher BMI was not correlated with HGPCa detection (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 0.97-1.09, P = 0.29). There were no significant differences in the accuracy of using PSA to predict PCa or HGPCa detection across different BMI categories. Obesity was associated with higher risk of PCa detection in the present Chinese biopsy population. No significant association was detected between obesity and HGPCa.

  16. Higher Body Mass Index Increases the Risk for Biopsy-Mediated Detection of Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Shuo; Zhang, Li-Min; Xu, Hua; Na, Rong; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Ding, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk at biopsy in Chinese men. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,807 consecutive men who underwent initial multicore (≥10) prostate biopsy under transrectal ultrasound guidance between Dec 2004 and Feb 2014. BMI was categorised based on the Asian classification of obesity as follows: <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–22.9 (normal weight), 23–24.9 (overweight), 25–29.9 (moderately obese), and ≥30 kg/m2 (severely obese). The odds ratios (OR) of each BMI category for risk of PCa and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa, Gleason score ≥4+3) detection were estimated in crude, age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted models. Prevalence ratios and accuracies of PSA predicted PCa were also estimated across BMI groups. Results In total, PCa was detected by biopsy in 750 (45.4%) men, and HGPCa was detected in 419 (25.4%) men. Compared with men of normal weight, underweight men and obese men were older and had higher prostate specific antigen levels. The risk of overall PCa detection via biopsy presented an obvious U-shaped relationship with BMI in crude analysis. Overall, 50.0%, 37.4%, 45.6% 54.4% and 74.1% of the men in the underweight, normal weight, overweight, moderately obese and severely obese groups, respectively, were diagnosed with PCa via biopsy. In multivariate analysis, obesity was significantly correlated with a higher risk of PCa detection (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 1.10–1.25, P<0.001). However, higher BMI was not correlated with HGPCa detection (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 0.97–1.09, P = 0.29). There were no significant differences in the accuracy of using PSA to predict PCa or HGPCa detection across different BMI categories. Conclusion Obesity was associated with higher risk of PCa detection in the present Chinese biopsy population. No significant association was detected between obesity and HGPCa. PMID:25861033

  17. Risk assessment for selected xenobiotics by bioassay methods with higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Petra; Pestemer, Wilfried

    1990-05-01

    Different bioassays with higher plants were approved for use in a bioassay procedure for testing of xenobiotics according to the German Chemicals Act. Selected environmental pollutants (atrazine, cadmium chloride, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, thiourea), all from a list of reference chemicals, were tested with these methods. Dose-response curves for growth of oats and turnips were evaluated in soil and vermiculite (nonsorptive substrate), and availability to plants was calculated by comparing the EC50 values for one chemical in both substrates. The most active chemical was atrazine, followed by 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, cadmium chloride, and thiourea. The least available compound to plants was pentachlorophenol, tested with turnips ( Brassica rapa var. rapa). The strongest inhibition of germination, demonstrated in an in vitro assay with garden cress ( Lepidium sativum), was found with 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, the lowest with atrazine. The effect of an extended exposure of the plants to the chemicals was evaluated in a long-term bioassay with oats ( Avena sativa) in hydroponic culture. Several dose-response curves during the growing period were derived. It was found that the EC50 values for atrazine and thiourea decreased markedly during the first four weeks; thereafter the changes were much smaller. As an overall conclusion, a bioassay procedure is proposed that can be included in the graduated plan recommended by the German Chemicals Act.

  18. Does post-traumatic stress disorder carry a higher risk of sexual dysfunctions?

    PubMed

    Arbanas, Goran

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have a higher incidence of sexual dysfunction. However, such studies have not examined the influence of traumatic experience on sexual dysfunction. This study was conducted to compare various components of sexual functioning among five groups of males: (i) untreated patients with PTSD; (ii) patients with PTSD treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); (iii) untreated patients with subthreshold PTSD symptoms; (iv) patients with subthreshold PTSD symptoms treated with SSRIs; and (v) subjects who had suffered a traumatic experience but presented no mental disorder. All participants were evaluated using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Structured Clinical Interview, and the International Index of Erectile Function. Results on individual subscales of the International Index of Erectile Function in men with PTSD symptoms and subthreshold PTSD symptoms, treated and untreated. Patients with PTSD did not differ from patients with subthreshold PTSD symptoms in any of the domains of sexual functioning. Differences were found between this group and subjects with no mental disorder only in the domain of sexual desire. Patients with subthreshold PTSD symptoms treated with SSRIs showed better results in all domains of sexual functioning in comparison with those treated with PTSD. The results show that patients who suffered a traumatic experience have the same level of sexual functioning (or the same incidence of sexual dysfunction) regardless of the severity of PTSD. Treatment with SSRIs helps reduce sexual problems in patients with subthreshold PTSD symptoms.

  19. Dabigatran association with higher risk of acute coronary events: meta-analysis of noninferiority randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Ken; Hernandez, Adrian V

    2012-03-12

    The original RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulant Therapy) trial suggested a small increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) with the use of dabigatran etexilate vs warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. We systematically evaluated the risk of MI or acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with the use of dabigatran. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and the Web of Science for randomized controlled trials of dabigatran that reported on MI or ACS as secondary outcomes. The fixed-effects Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) test was used to evaluate the effect of dabigatran on MI or ACS. We expressed the associations as odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% CIs. Seven trials were selected (N = 30,514), including 2 studies of stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation, 1 in acute venous thromboembolism, 1 in ACS, and 3 of short-term prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis. Control arms included warfarin, enoxaparin, or placebo administration. Dabigatran was significantly associated with a higher risk of MI or ACS than that seen with agents used in the control group (dabigatran, 237 of 20,000 [1.19%] vs control, 83 of 10,514 [0.79%]; OR(M-H), 1.33; 95% CI, 1.03-1.71; P = .03). The risk of MI or ACS was similar when using revised RE-LY trial results (OR(M-H), 1.27; 95% CI, 1.00-1.61; P = .05) or after exclusion of short-term trials (OR(M-H), 1.33; 95% CI, 1.03-1.72; P = .03). Risks were not heterogeneous for all analyses (I(2) = 0%; P ≥ .30) and were consistent using different methods and measures of association. Dabigatran is associated with an increased risk of MI or ACS in a broad spectrum of patients when tested against different controls. Clinicians should consider the potential of these serious harmful cardiovascular effects with use of dabigatran.

  20. Higher-risk mitral valve operations after previous sternotomy: endoscopic, minimally invasive approach improves patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Losenno, Katie L; Jones, Philip M; Valdis, Matthew; Fox, Stephanie A; Kiaii, Bob; Chu, Michael W A

    2016-12-01

    Reoperative mitral valve (MV) surgery is associated with significant morbidity and mortality; however, endoscopic minimally invasive surgical techniques may preserve the surgical benefits of conventional mitral operations while potentially reducing perioperative risk and length of stay (LOS) in hospital. We compared the outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent reoperative MV surgery between 2000 and 2014 using a minimally invasive endoscopic approach (MINI) with those of patients who underwent a conventional sternotomy (STERN). The primary outcome was in-hospital/30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included blood product transfusion, LOS in hospital and in the intensive care unit (ICU), and postoperative complications. We included 132 patients in our study: 40 (mean age 68 ± 14 yr, 70% men) underwent MINI and 92 (62 ± 13 yr, 40% men) underwent STERN. The MINI group had significantly more comorbidities than the STERN group. While there were no significant differences in complications, all point estimates suggested lower mortality and morbidity in the MINI than the STERN group (in-hospital/ 30-day mortality 5% v. 11%, p = 0.35; composite any of 10 complications 28% v. 41%, p = 0.13). Individual complication rates were similar between the MINI and STERN groups, except for intra-aortic balloon pump requirement (IABP; 0% v. 12%, p = 0.034). MINI significantly reduced the need for any blood transfusion (68% v. 84%, p = 0.036) or packed red blood cells (63% v. 79%, p = 0.042), fresh frozen plasma (35% v. 59%, p = 0.012) and platelets (20% v. 40%, p = 0.024). It also significantly reduced median hospital LOS (8 v. 12 d, p = 0.014). An exploratory propensity score analysis similarly demonstrated a significantly reduced need for IABP (p < 0.001) and a shorter mean LOS in the ICU (p = 0.046) and in hospital (p = 0.047) in the MINI group. A MINI approach for reoperative MV surgery reduces blood product utilization and hospital LOS. Possible clinically relevant

  1. Higher-risk mitral valve operations after previous sternotomy: endoscopic, minimally invasive approach improves patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Losenno, Katie L.; Jones, Philip M.; Valdis, Matthew; Fox, Stephanie A.; Kiaii, Bob; Chu, Michael W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Reoperative mitral valve (MV) surgery is associated with significant morbidity and mortality; however, endoscopic minimally invasive surgical techniques may preserve the surgical benefits of conventional mitral operations while potentially reducing perioperative risk and length of stay (LOS) in hospital. Methods We compared the outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent reoperative MV surgery between 2000 and 2014 using a minimally invasive endoscopic approach (MINI) with those of patients who underwent a conventional sternotomy (STERN). The primary outcome was in-hospital/30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included blood product transfusion, LOS in hospital and in the intensive care unit (ICU), and postoperative complications. Results We included 132 patients in our study: 40 (mean age 68 ± 14 yr, 70% men) underwent MINI and 92 (62 ± 13 yr, 40% men) underwent STERN. The MINI group had significantly more comorbidities than the STERN group. While there were no significant differences in complications, all point estimates suggested lower mortality and morbidity in the MINI than the STERN group (in-hospital/30-day mortality 5% v. 11%, p = 0.35; composite any of 10 complications 28% v. 41%, p = 0.13). Individual complication rates were similar between the MINI and STERN groups, except for intra-aortic balloon pump requirement (IABP; 0% v. 12%, p = 0.034). MINI significantly reduced the need for any blood transfusion (68% v. 84%, p = 0.036) or packed red blood cells (63% v. 79%, p = 0.042), fresh frozen plasma (35% v. 59%, p = 0.012) and platelets (20% v. 40%, p = 0.024). It also significantly reduced median hospital LOS (8 v. 12 d, p = 0.014). An exploratory propensity score analysis similarly demonstrated a significantly reduced need for IABP (p < 0.001) and a shorter mean LOS in the ICU (p = 0.046) and in hospital (p = 0.047) in the MINI group. Conclusion A MINI approach for reoperative MV surgery reduces blood product utilization and hospital LOS

  2. Does vacuum delivery carry a higher risk of shoulder dystocia? Review and meta-analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, Andrea; Ghi, Tullio; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Frusca, Tiziana

    2016-09-01

    Vacuum extractor has been increasingly used over the last decades and is acknowledged as a risk factor for shoulder dystocia (SD). In this meta-analysis we assess the actual risk of SD following a vacuum delivery compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) and forceps. Systematic literature search (English literature only) on MEDLINE, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane library and ClinicalTrials.gov conducted up to May 2015. Key search terms included: Operative/Vacuum/Forceps delivery [Mesh] and shoulder dystocia and subheadings. 2 stage-process study selection. We included only studies where data concerning the occurrence of SD following operative vaginal delivery were reported as adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and no significant difference in confounding factors for SD was recorded. Included trials clustered according to the delivery mode (1) vacuum vs. SVD, (2) forceps vs. vacuum. Methodological quality of each study evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa System (NOS). 87 potentially relevant papers. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria only 7 were selected for the meta-analysis. Vacuum delivery appeared associated with a higher risk of SD than SVD in both fixed and random model (OR 2.87 and 2.98 respectively). No difference in the rate of SD was found between vacuum and forceps (p>0.05). Vacuum extractor carries an increased risk of SD compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery whereas the occurrence of SD does not seem to vary following vacuum or forceps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Disease Risk in Temperate Amphibian Populations Is Higher at Closed-Canopy Sites

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C. Guilherme; Rodriguez, David; Longo, Ana V.; Talaba, Amanda L.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat loss and chytridiomycosis (a disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis - Bd) are major drivers of amphibian declines worldwide. Habitat loss regulates host-pathogen interactions by altering biotic and abiotic factors directly linked to both host and pathogen fitness. Therefore, studies investigating the links between natural vegetation and chytridiomycosis require integrative approaches to control for the multitude of possible interactions of biological and environmental variables in spatial epidemiology. In this study, we quantified Bd infection dynamics across a gradient of natural vegetation and microclimates, looking for causal associations between vegetation cover, multiple microclimatic variables, and pathogen prevalence and infection intensity. To minimize the effects of host diversity in our analyses, we sampled amphibian populations in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, a region with relatively high single-host dominance. We sampled permanent ponds for anurans, focusing on populations of the habitat generalist frog Lithobates clamitans, and recorded various biotic and abiotic factors that potentially affect host-pathogen interactions: natural vegetation, canopy density, water temperature, and host population and community attributes. We screened for important explanatory variables of Bd infections and used path analyses to statistically test for the strength of cascading effects linking vegetation cover, microclimate, and Bd parameters. We found that canopy density, natural vegetation, and daily average water temperature were the best predictors of Bd. High canopy density resulted in lower water temperature, which in turn predicted higher Bd prevalence and infection intensity. Our results confirm that microclimatic shifts arising from changes in natural vegetation play an important role in Bd spatial epidemiology, with areas of closed canopy favoring Bd. Given increasing rates of anthropogenic habitat modification

  4. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration may imply higher risk of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Bencze, Szilvia; Puskás, Katalin; Vida, Gyula; Karsai, Ildikó; Balla, Krisztina; Komáromi, Judit; Veisz, Ottó

    2017-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration not only has a direct impact on plants but also affects plant-pathogen interactions. Due to economic and health-related problems, special concern was given thus in the present work to the effect of elevated CO2 (750 μmol mol(-1)) level on the Fusarium culmorum infection and mycotoxin contamination of wheat. Despite the fact that disease severity was found to be not or little affected by elevated CO2 in most varieties, as the spread of Fusarium increased only in one variety, spike grain number and/or grain weight decreased significantly at elevated CO2 in all the varieties, indicating that Fusarium infection generally had a more dramatic impact on the grain yield at elevated CO2 than at the ambient level. Likewise, grain deoxynivalenol (DON) content was usually considerably higher at elevated CO2 than at the ambient level in the single-floret inoculation treatment, suggesting that the toxin content is not in direct relation to the level of Fusarium infection. In the whole-spike inoculation, DON production did not change, decreased or increased depending on the variety × experiment interaction. Cooler (18 °C) conditions delayed rachis penetration while 20 °C maximum temperature caused striking increases in the mycotoxin contents, resulting in extremely high DON values and also in a dramatic triggering of the grain zearalenone contamination at elevated CO2. The results indicate that future environmental conditions, such as rising CO2 levels, may increase the threat of grain mycotoxin contamination.

  5. Abnormal Sleep Duration Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Accidental Injury.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Develop normative data for adult sleep duration and determine if nonstandard sleep time relates to the likelihood of accidental injury. Cross-sectional analysis. National health information database. The National Health Interview Survey, 2004-2013, was examined for adult sleep time and accidental injury within the past 3 months. The mean hours slept per night was determined. The relationship between sleep time and incidence of accidental injury was determined for any injury, injury while driving, and injury while working, adjusting for demographic variables. Among 221.4 million adults (raw sample, N = 282,692), the mean sleep time was 7.17 hours (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 7.16-7.18 hours). Men and women slept very similar times (7.14 vs 7.17 hours, respectively), and sleep time decreased until the fifth decade (minimum, 6.99 hours), increasing each decade thereafter; 2.81% of adults reported being accidentally injured in the preceding 3 months. Too little sleep and excessive sleep times were both associated with higher rates of accidental injury (odds ratio per hour of deviation from mean, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.12-1.19]), adjusting for age, sex, marital status, and education level. Similar increased odds ratios were noted for injury while driving (1.11 [95% CI, 1.01-1.22]) and injury while at work (1.12 [95% CI, 1.04-1.20]) with sleep time deviation. Most adults sleep between 7 and 8 hours nightly. Adults with sleep time outside this range, with either less or more sleep, have increased rates of accidental injury. These data highlight the need for sufficient quantity and quality of sleep in preventing accidental injury. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  6. Are female smokers at higher risk for lung cancer than male smokers? A case-control analysis by histologic type.

    PubMed

    Risch, H A; Howe, G R; Jain, M; Burch, J D; Holowaty, E J; Miller, A B

    1993-09-01

    A case-control study of male-female differences in cigarette smoking and lung cancer was conducted during 1981-1985 in Toronto, St. Catharine's, and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. In total, 442 female and 403 male histologically verified cancer cases were individually matched by age and area of residence to each other and to 410 female and 362 male randomly selected population controls. Subjects were interviewed concerning their exposures to various life-style factors, and in particular, they received detailed questioning regarding their lifelong histories of usage of tobacco products. It was found that, for both sexes, a greatly elevated risk of developing lung cancer was associated with cigarette consumption, increasing with pack-years of cigarettes smoked and declining with duration of time since quitting smoking. Furthermore, the association was significantly (p = 0.010) and appreciably stronger for females than for males. At a history of 40 pack-years relative to lifelong nonsmoking, the odds ratio for women was 27.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.9-52.0) and that for men was 9.60 (95% CI 5.64-16.3). Higher odds ratios for females were also seen within each of the major histologic groupings. Thus, the higher elevated risk of lung cancer currently observed in other studies for female ever smokers compared with male ever smokers, while possibly attributable in part to greater smoking cessation among males, may be due to higher susceptibility among females.

  7. Reassurance through surveillance in the face of clinical uncertainty: the experience of women at risk of familial breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Evelyn P.; Beale, Valerie; Bennett, Helen; Jones, Jo; Lycett, Emma J

    2001-01-01

    Objective To identify the main issues raised by clinicians when they are counselling women at risk of breast cancer and explore the response of a group of women 1 year after counselling. Design A qualitative study which involved the thematic analysis of a series of transcripts from clinical consultations, semi‐structured interviews and focus groups. Participants First, a series of clinical consultations (n=153), involving seven clinicians, were randomly selected during a Medical Research Council funded study of genetic assessment (TRACE). Second, a group of women (n=43), involved in the TRACE study, were interviewed, or joined a focus group, 1 year after their genetic assessment. Conclusions There was evidence that, although the clinical consultations were embedded with multiple messages of uncertainty, the women’s accounts did not reflect this. The women talked about the reassurance they had found because they had met with an expert and become members of the surveillance society. The authors highlight the tension that exists because of the difference between lay expectations about on‐going surveillance and the realities of collective service provision. PMID:11281937

  8. The (Un)reliability of Alibi Corroborators: Failure to Recognize Faces of Briefly Encountered Strangers Puts Innocent Suspects at Risk.

    PubMed

    Charman, Steve D; Reyes, Andrea; Villalba, Daniella K; Evans, Jacqueline R

    2016-10-19

    Some innocent suspects rely on the memory of strangers to corroborate their alibis. However, no research has examined whether such potential alibi corroborators can accurately recognize an innocent suspect with whom they previously interacted. We developed a novel alibi corroboration paradigm in which undergraduate students (representing innocent suspects who would later provide an alibi) interacted with naïve university employees (representing potential alibi corroborators). Each student briefly interacted with a different naïve university employee (n = 60), and were also each yoked to a different employee with whom they did not interact (n = 60). Employees were presented 24 hours later with either a single photograph of the student or a six-person array containing a photograph of the student and were asked if they recognized anyone. The majority of employees failed to make a correct recognition of the student. False recognitions, however, were rare. Students exhibited overconfidence that they would be recognized. Findings imply that innocent suspects who rely on strangers to corroborate their alibis may be at risk. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Increased ventilation by fish leads to a higher risk of parasitism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish are common intermediate hosts of trematode cercariae and their gills can potentially serve as important sites of penetration by these larval stages. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that volume of ventilation flow across the gills contributes to acquisition of these parasites by fish. We manipulated the intensity of ventilation by using different oxygen concentrations. Methods Juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss were individually exposed for 10 minutes to a standard dose of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum cercariae at three levels of oxygen concentration, 30, 60 and 90%. Ventilation amplitude (measured as a distance between left and right operculum), operculum beat rate, and the number of cercariae established in the eyes of fish were recorded. Results Fish reacted to low oxygen concentration with wider expansion of opercula (but not with increasing beat rate), leading to an increase in ventilation volume. As expected, the intensity of infection increased with decreasing oxygen saturation—probably due to a higher exposure to cercariae caused by increased ventilation under low oxygen concentrations. The number of cercariae acquired by an individual fish was positively correlated with ventilation amplitude and with ventilation volume, but not with operculum beat rate. However, even though the infection rate increased under these circumstances, the proportion of larval trematodes successfully establishing in fish eyes decreased with increasing ventilation volume, suggesting that the high flow velocity, although increasing host exposure to cercarial parasites, may interfere with the ability of these parasites to penetrate their hosts. There was no difference in the behaviour of trematode cercariae exposed to low and high oxygen concentrations. Conclusion A reduction in oxygen saturation resulted in an increase in ventilation volume across the gills and in doing so an increase in the exposure of fish to cercariae. A significant correlation between

  10. Lower vitamin D levels at first trimester are associated with higher risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Houde, Ghislaine; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Hivert, Marie-France; Perron, Patrice

    2014-08-01

    The progressive increase of insulin resistance observed in pregnancy contributes to the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). There is controversy whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to abnormal glycemic regulation in pregnancy. We tested the associations between first trimester 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and: 1) the risk of developing GDM; 2) insulin resistance/sensitivity, beta cell function and compensation indices in a large population-based prospective cohort of pregnant women. Participants (n = 655) were seen at first (6-13 weeks) and second (24-28 weeks) trimesters for blood samples. At first trimester, 25OHD levels were measured. At second trimester, glucose and insulin were measured 3 times during the oral glucose tolerance test to estimate insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), beta cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), insulin secretion (AUCins/gluc) and beta cell compensation (ISSI-2). Based on IADPSG criteria, 54 participants (8.2 %) developed GDM. Lower first trimester 25OHD levels were associated with higher risk of developing GDM even after adjustment for vitamin D confounding factors and GDM risk factors (OR = 1.48 per decrease of one SD in 25OHD levels; P = 0.04). Lower first trimester 25OHD levels were associated with higher HOMA-IR (r = - 0.08; P = 0.03), lower Matsuda index (r = 0.13; P = 0.001) and lower ISSI-2 (r = 0.08; P = 0.04). After adjustment for confounders, we found no significant association with HOMA-B and AUCins/gluc. Our results suggest that low levels of 25OHD at first trimester are (1) an independent risk factor for developing GDM and (2) associated with insulin resistance at second trimester.

  11. Scatterhoarding rodents favor higher predation risks for cache sites: The potential for predators to influence the seed dispersal process.

    PubMed

    Steele, Michael A; Rompré, Ghislain; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Hongmao; Suchocki, Matthew; Marino, Shealyn

    2015-05-01

    Scatterhoarding rodents often place caches in the open where pilferage rates are reduced, suggesting that they tradeoff higher risks of predation for more secure cache sites. We tested this hypothesis in two study systems by measuring predation risks inferred from measures of giving-up densities (GUDs) at known cache sites and other sites for comparison. Rodent GUDs were measured with small trays containing 3 L of fine sand mixed with sunflower seeds. In the first experiment, we relied on a 2-year seed dispersal study in a natural forest to identify caches of eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and then measured GUDs at: (i) these caches; (ii) comparable points along logs and rocks where rodent activity was assumed highest; and (iii) a set of random points. We found that GUDs and, presumably, predation risks, were higher at both cache and random points than those with cover. At the second site, we measured GUDs of eastern gray squirrels in an open park system and found that GUDs were consistently lowest at the base of the tree compared to more open sites, where previous studies show caching by squirrels to be highest and pilferage rates by naïve competitors to be lowest. These results confirm that predation risks can influence scatterhoarding decisions but that they are also highly context dependent, and that the landscape of fear, now so well documented in the literature, could potentially shape the temporal and spatial patterns of seedling establishment and forest regeneration in systems where scatterhoarding is common. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Are patients with preoperative air travel at higher risk for venous thromboembolism following primary total hip and knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Citak, Mustafa; Klatte, Till Orla; Suero, Eduardo M; Lenhart, Johannes; Gehrke, Thorsten; Kendoff, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The advent of international medical travel has resulted in many patients travelling abroad to seek medical attention at foreign institutions. However, it is not known whether long-haul flights further increase the risk of VTE in patients who are to receive a joint replacement. We performed this retrospective cohort study to analyze if patients with preoperative air travel with a flight time more than four hours are at higher risk for VTE development following total knee or total hip athroplasty (THA) compared to patients without preoperative travel. Between January 2007 and December 2012, 245 patients were treated with either a primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) with preoperative air travel with a flight time more than 4 hours at our institution. One-hundred fifty five patients (n= 87 THA and n= 68 TKA) out of 245 patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in this study. A total of 187 patients (n= 92 THA and n= 95 TKA) without bus, air or car travel longer than 30 minutes met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in this study as controls. Patients with preoperative air travel were not at higher risk for VTE development compared to patients without preoperative air travel following TKA (HR = 0.95; 95%CI = 0.14-6.52). Gender (HR = 0.41; 95%CI = 0.05-3.56) and age (HR = 3.77; 95%CI = 0.63-22.37) did not influence the VTE development in TKA patients. Our study results show that preoperative air travel do not further increase the risk of VTE after TKA and THA.

  13. About Face

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and clinicians share their experiences with PTSD and PTSD treatment. Choose a topic below to hear what they have to say. What is PTSD? → How ...

  14. Face Prints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadash, Dre Ann

    1984-01-01

    Eighth graders made prints of their own faces, using photographic papers and chemicals. Describes the supplies needed and the printing process involved. Because junior high school students are so concerned with self, this was a very meaningful activity for them. (CS)

  15. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  16. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  17. The legal aspects of the termination of unwanted pregnancies and the risks faced by the medical doctor: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Gibson, C

    2003-03-01

    Historical perspective of terminations of unwanted pregnancies in the UK. Moral and ethical considerations imposed by established church's teachings becoming increasingly in conflict with the wishes and expectations of a more secular society. Recognition that illegal abortion was, as a matter of fact available, at great risk to vulnerable girls and women. Eventually public demand and a radical and reforming government led to the current Statutory Framework. Statutory provisions: Offences against the Person Act 1861, Sections 58 and 59; Infant Life Preservation Act 1929 Section 1. Recognition of the limited flexibility allowed by the law in the original restrictive statutory framework. The direction to the jury in July 1938 by Macnaghten J in the case of R. v. Bourne [1939] 1 KB 687, where an eminent obstetrician was acquitted after carrying out an abortion on a young rape victim. Then the modern statutory provisions: Abortion Act 1967, amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. The statutory framework provides for healthcare professionals not to have to take part in terminations if they have a conscientious objection to doing so. While there are still fierce challenges from moral pressure groups when any changes in the detail of the law are proposed--such as reducing the maximum gestation period for a lawful termination--as a whole society seems to have accepted the current law. Issues affecting doctors who consider and provide terminations; current medico-legal problems relating to wanted pregnancies that have been lost by reason of clinical negligence, and unwanted children that have been born by reason of clinical negligence.

  18. Association Between NRAS and BRAF Mutational Status and Melanoma-Specific Survival Among Patients With Higher Risk Primary Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Nancy E.; Edmiston, Sharon N.; Alexander, Audrey; Groben, Pamela A.; Parrish, Eloise; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B.; From, Lynn; Busam, Klaus J.; Hao, Honglin; Orlow, Irene; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Luo, Li; Reiner, Anne S.; Paine, Susan; Frank, Jill S.; Bramson, Jennifer I.; Marrett, Lorraine D.; Gallagher, Richard P.; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Cust, Anne E.; Ollila, David W.; Begg, Colin B.; Berwick, Marianne; Conway, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Importance NRAS and BRAF mutations in melanoma inform current treatment paradigms but their role in survival from primary melanoma has not been established. Identification of patients at high risk of melanoma-related death based on their primary melanoma characteristics before evidence of recurrence could inform recommendations for patient follow-up and eligibility for adjuvant trials. Objective To determine tumor characteristics and survival from primary melanoma by somatic NRAS and BRAF status. Design, Setting, and Participants A population-based study with median follow-up of 7.6 years for 912 patients with first primary cutaneous melanoma analyzed for NRAS and BRAF mutations diagnosed in the year 2000 from the United States and Australia in the Genes, Environment and Melanoma Study and followed through 2007. Main Outcomes and Measures Tumor characteristics and melanoma-specific survival of primary melanoma by NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Results The melanomas were 13% NRAS+, 30% BRAF+, and 57% with neither NRAS nor BRAF mutation (wildtype). In a multivariable model including clinicopathologic characteristics, NRAS+ melanoma was associated (P<.05) with mitoses, lower tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) grade, and anatomic site other than scalp/neck and BRAF+ melanoma was associated with younger age, superficial spreading subtype, and mitoses, relative to wildtype melanoma. There was no significant difference in melanoma-specific survival for melanoma harboring mutations in NRAS (HR 1.7, 95% CI, 0.8–3.4) or BRAF (HR, 1.5, 95% CI, 0.8–2.9) compared to wildtype melanoma adjusted for age, sex, site, AJCC tumor stage, TIL grade, and study center. However, melanoma-specific survival was significantly poorer for higher risk (T2b or higher stage) tumors with NRAS (HR 2.9; 95% CI 1.1–7.7) or BRAF (HR 3.1; 95% CI 1.2–8.5) mutations but not for lower risk (T2a or lower) tumors (P=.65) adjusted for age, sex, site, AJCC tumor stage, TIL grade, and study center

  19. Double jeopardy in astronomy and planetary science: Women of color face greater risks of gendered and racial harassment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Lee, Katharine M. N.; Rodgers, Erica M.; Richey, Christina

    2017-07-01

    Women generally, and women of color specifically, have reported hostile workplace experiences in astronomy and related fields for some time. However, little is known of the extent to which individuals in these disciplines experience inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault. We hypothesized that the multiple marginality of women of color would mean that they would experience a higher frequency of inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault in the astronomical and planetary science workplace. We conducted an internet-based survey of the workplace experiences of 474 astronomers and planetary scientists between 2011 and 2015 and found support for this hypothesis. In this sample, in nearly every significant finding, women of color experienced the highest rates of negative workplace experiences, including harassment and assault. Further, 40% of women of color reported feeling unsafe in the workplace as a result of their gender or sex, and 28% of women of color reported feeling unsafe as a result of their race. Finally, 18% of women of color, and 12% of white women, skipped professional events because they did not feel safe attending, identifying a significant loss of career opportunities due to a hostile climate. Our results suggest that the astronomy and planetary science community needs to address the experiences of women of color and white women as they move forward in their efforts to create an inclusive workplace for all scientists.

  20. Parallel psychometric and cognitive modeling analyses of the Penn Face Memory Test in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael L; Brown, Gregory G; Gur, Ruben C; Hansen, John A; Nock, Matthew K; Heeringa, Steven; Ursano, Robert J; Stein, Murray B

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Penn Face Memory Test (PFMT) were investigated in a large sample (4,236 participants) of U.S. Army Soldiers undergoing computerized neurocognitive testing. Data were drawn from the initial phase of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), a large-scale study directed towards identifying risk and resilience factors for suicidal behavior and other stress-related disorders in Army Soldiers. In this paper, we report parallel psychometric and cognitive modeling analyses of the PFMT to determine whether ability estimates derived from the measure are precise and valid indicators of memory in the Army STARRS sample. Single-sample cross-validation methodology combined with exploratory factor and multidimensional item response theory techniques were used to explore the latent structure of the PFMT. To help resolve rotational indeterminacy of the exploratory solution, latent constructs were aligned with parameter estimates derived from an unequal-variance signal detection model. Analyses suggest that the PFMT measures two distinct latent constructs, one associated with memory strength and one associated with response bias, and that test scores are generally precise indicators of ability for the majority of Army STARRS participants. These findings support the use of the PFMT as a measure of major constructs related to recognition memory and have implications for further cognitive-psychometric model development.

  1. Parallel Psychometric and Cognitive Modeling Analyses of the Penn Face Memory Test in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service Members

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael L.; Brown, Gregory G.; Gur, Ruben C.; Hansen, John A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Heeringa, Steven; Ursano, Robert J.; Stein, Murray B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The psychometric properties of the Penn Face Memory Test (PFMT; Gur et al., 1997) were investigated in a large sample (4,236 participants) of U.S. Army Soldiers undergoing computerized neurocognitive testing. Data were drawn from the initial phase of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), a large-scale study directed towards identifying risk and resilience factors for suicidal behavior and other stress-related disorders in Army Soldiers. In this paper we report parallel psychometric and cognitive modeling analyses of the PFMT to determine whether ability estimates derived from the measure are precise and valid indicators of memory in the Army STARRS sample. Method Single-sample cross-validation methodology combined with exploratory factor and multidimensional item response theory techniques were used to explore the latent structure of the PFMT. To help resolve rotational indeterminacy of the exploratory solution, latent constructs were aligned with parameter estimates derived from an unequal-variance signal detection model. Results Analyses suggest that the PFMT measures two distinct latent constructs, one associated with memory strength and one associated with response bias, and that test scores are generally precise indicators of ability for the majority of Army STARRS participants. Conclusions These findings support the use of the PFMT as a measure of major constructs related to recognition memory and have implications for further cognitive-psychometric model development. PMID:23383967

  2. Statement before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) on Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act: Exploring Institutional Risk-Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Andrew Kelly, the director of the Center on Higher Education Reform at the American Enterprise Institute, shares his views on the concept of risk-sharing in higher education. The author presents the question: How would a risk-sharing policy--where colleges bear some financial responsibility for a portion of the federal loans that their students do…

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi-infected pregnant women without vector exposure have higher parasitemia levels: implications for congenital transmission risk.

    PubMed

    Rendell, Victoria R; Gilman, Robert H; Valencia, Edward; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Leny; Acosta, Janet; Sanchez, Gerardo; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; LaFuente, Carlos; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; Colanzi, Rony; Bern, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Congenital transmission is a major source of new Trypanosoma cruzi infections, and as vector and blood bank control continue to improve, the proportion due to congenital infection will grow. A major unanswered question is why reported transmission rates from T. cruzi-infected mothers vary so widely among study populations. Women with high parasite loads during pregnancy are more likely to transmit to their infants, but the factors that govern maternal parasite load are largely unknown. Better understanding of these factors could enable prioritization of screening programs to target women most at risk of transmission to their infants. We screened pregnant women presenting for delivery in a large urban hospital in Bolivia and followed infants of infected women for congenital Chagas disease. Of 596 women screened, 128 (21.5%) had confirmed T. cruzi infection; transmission occurred from 15 (11.7%) infected women to their infants. Parasite loads were significantly higher among women who transmitted compared to those who did not. Congenital transmission occurred from 31.3% (9/29), 15.4% (4/26) and 0% (0/62) of women with high, moderate and low parasite load, respectively (χx2 for trend 18.2; p<0.0001). Twin births were associated with higher transmission risk and higher maternal parasite loads. Infected women without reported vector exposure had significantly higher parasite loads than those who had lived in an infested house (median 26.4 vs 0 parasites/mL; p<0.001) with an inverse relationship between years of living in an infested house and parasite load. We hypothesize that sustained vector-borne parasite exposure and repeated superinfection by T. cruzi may act as an immune booster, allowing women to maintain effective control of the parasite despite the down-regulation of late pregnancy.

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Pregnant Women without Vector Exposure Have Higher Parasitemia Levels: Implications for Congenital Transmission Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rendell, Victoria R.; Gilman, Robert H.; Valencia, Edward; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Leny; Acosta, Janet; Sanchez, Gerardo; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; LaFuente, Carlos; Abastoflor, Maria del Carmen; Colanzi, Rony; Bern, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital transmission is a major source of new Trypanosoma cruzi infections, and as vector and blood bank control continue to improve, the proportion due to congenital infection will grow. A major unanswered question is why reported transmission rates from T. cruzi-infected mothers vary so widely among study populations. Women with high parasite loads during pregnancy are more likely to transmit to their infants, but the factors that govern maternal parasite load are largely unknown. Better understanding of these factors could enable prioritization of screening programs to target women most at risk of transmission to their infants. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened pregnant women presenting for delivery in a large urban hospital in Bolivia and followed infants of infected women for congenital Chagas disease. Of 596 women screened, 128 (21.5%) had confirmed T. cruzi infection; transmission occurred from 15 (11.7%) infected women to their infants. Parasite loads were significantly higher among women who transmitted compared to those who did not. Congenital transmission occurred from 31.3% (9/29), 15.4% (4/26) and 0% (0/62) of women with high, moderate and low parasite load, respectively (χx2 for trend 18.2; p<0.0001). Twin births were associated with higher transmission risk and higher maternal parasite loads. Infected women without reported vector exposure had significantly higher parasite loads than those who had lived in an infested house (median 26.4 vs 0 parasites/mL; p<0.001) with an inverse relationship between years of living in an infested house and parasite load. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that sustained vector-borne parasite exposure and repeated superinfection by T. cruzi may act as an immune booster, allowing women to maintain effective control of the parasite despite the down-regulation of late pregnancy. PMID:25807498

  5. Childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system: identifying disease trajectories and early risk factors for persistently higher disease activity.

    PubMed

    Cellucci, Tania; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Sheikh, Shehla; Benseler, Susanne M

    2012-05-01

    To compare clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics of childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) subtypes at diagnosis and during followup; to characterize disease activity trajectories in childhood PACNS subtypes; and to identify early risk factors for higher disease activity. We performed a single-center cohort study of consecutive children diagnosed as having childhood PACNS. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected at diagnosis and during standardized clinic visits. Outcome measures included disease activity measured by physician's global assessment. Descriptive statistics were used to assess characteristics of the study cohort, and longitudinal data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects regression. The study cohort consisted of 45 patients with childhood PACNS; 26 had angiography-negative childhood PACNS and 19 had angiography-positive childhood PACNS. There were 24 females, the median age at diagnosis was 9.8 years, and the median followup period was 1.8 years. Patients with angiography-negative childhood PACNS were more likely to be female and to present with seizures, cognitive dysfunction, vision abnormalities, high levels of inflammatory markers, and bilateral findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Motor deficits and ischemic MRI lesions were more common in angiography-positive disease. Disease activity decreased significantly after treatment in all patients. Distinct trajectories of disease activity over time were identified for both childhood PACNS subtypes. Patients with angiography-negative childhood PACNS had persistently higher disease activity. Seizures at presentation also predicted higher disease activity over time. Distinct subtypes of childhood PACNS have unique disease activity trajectories. Patients with angiography-negative disease and seizures at presentation experience higher disease activity. Early recognition of this high-risk cohort may enable the treating physician to

  6. Face gender modulates women's brain activity during face encoding.

    PubMed

    Lovén, Johanna; Svärd, Joakim; Ebner, Natalie C; Herlitz, Agneta; Fischer, Håkan

    2014-07-01

    Women typically remember more female than male faces, whereas men do not show a reliable own-gender bias. However, little is known about the neural correlates of this own-gender bias in face recognition memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether face gender modulated brain activity in fusiform and inferior occipital gyri during incidental encoding of faces. Fifteen women and 14 men underwent fMRI while passively viewing female and male faces, followed by a surprise face recognition task. Women recognized more female than male faces and showed higher activity to female than male faces in individually defined regions of fusiform and inferior occipital gyri. In contrast, men's recognition memory and blood-oxygen-level-dependent response were not modulated by face gender. Importantly, higher activity in the left fusiform gyrus (FFG) to one gender was related to better memory performance for that gender. These findings suggest that the FFG is involved in the gender bias in memory for faces, which may be linked to differential experience with female and male faces. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Elevated heat shock protein 60 levels are associated with higher risk of coronary heart disease in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomin; He, Mei'an; Cheng, Longxian; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Li; Zeng, Hesong; Pockley, A Graham; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun

    2008-12-16

    Although heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, its role in coronary heart disease (CHD) is uncertain. This study explored the influence of circulating Hsp60 on CHD in a large case-control study, as well as the impact of acute myocardial infarction on Hsp60 levels in a prospective study. Plasma Hsp60 and anti-Hsp60 antibody levels were determined by immunoassay. In the case-control study (1003 patients with CHD, 1003 matched control subjects), Hsp60 levels were higher in patients with CHD and were related to CHD (OR comparing extreme quartiles=4.14, P<0.0001). This association remained after adjustment for traditional risk factors (P for trend <0.0001). Individuals having high levels of Hsp60 (greater than the median of 160.24 ng/mL) and anti-Hsp60 antibody (greater than the median of 38.42 U/mL) were at a greater risk of CHD than those with low levels (OR 2.30, P<0.0001). Stronger additive effects (OR 14.04, P<0.0001) were apparent at higher Hsp60 and anti-Hsp60 antibody levels (>1000 ng/mL and greater than the median of 38.42 U/mL, respectively). The simultaneous presence of high Hsp60 and anti-Hsp60 antibody levels, current smoking, hypertension, and diabetes were cumulatively associated with CHD. Individuals who had any 4 or more of these 5 factors had an OR of 38.61 for CHD (P<0.0001) compared with individuals who had none of these factors. For the prospective study, blood was drawn from 20 patients immediately after admission for acute myocardial infarction and 2, 3, and 7 days thereafter. Hsp60 levels were significantly higher on the day of and the day after arrival than 7 days after an acute myocardial infarction (P=0.011 and P=0.026, respectively). Elevated Hsp60 levels are associated with an increased risk for CHD, and Hsp60 and anti-Hsp60 antibody levels combine to increase this risk. In addition, acute myocardial infarction induces Hsp60 release.

  8. Higher direct bilirubin levels during mid-pregnancy are associated with lower risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoqun; Zhong, Chunrong; Zhou, Xuezhen; Chen, Renjuan; Wu, Jiangyue; Wang, Weiye; Li, Xiating; Ding, Huisi; Guo, Yanfang; Gao, Qin; Hu, Xingwen; Xiong, Guoping; Yang, Xuefeng; Hao, Liping; Xiao, Mei; Yang, Nianhong

    2017-01-01

    Bilirubin concentrations have been recently reported to be negatively associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the association between bilirubin concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus. In a prospective cohort study, 2969 pregnant women were recruited prior to 16 weeks of gestation and were followed up until delivery. The value of bilirubin was tested and oral glucose tolerance test was conducted to screen gestational diabetes mellitus. The relationship between serum bilirubin concentration and gestational weeks was studied by two-piecewise linear regression. A subsample of 1135 participants with serum bilirubin test during 16-18 weeks gestation was conducted to research the association between serum bilirubin levels and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus by logistic regression. Gestational diabetes mellitus developed in 8.5 % of the participants (223 of 2969). Two-piecewise linear regression analyses demonstrated that the levels of bilirubin decreased with gestational week up to the turning point 23 and after that point, levels of bilirubin were increased slightly. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the relative risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus was lower in the highest tertile of direct bilirubin than that in the lowest tertile (RR 0.60; 95 % CI, 0.35-0.89). The results suggested that women with higher serum direct bilirubin levels during the second trimester of pregnancy have lower risk for development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  9. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with higher risk of frequent headache in middle-aged and older men

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Giniatullin, Rashid; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Voutilainen, Sari; Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D has been suggested to have a role in various neurovascular diseases, but the data regarding headache is inconclusive. Our aim was to investigate the associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a marker for vitamin D status, and risk of frequent headache. The study population consisted of 2601 men from the population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) from eastern Finland, aged 42–60 years in 1984–1989. The cross-sectional associations with prevalence of self-reported frequent headache (defined as weekly or daily headaches) were estimated with multivariable-adjusted odds ratios. The average serum 25(OH) concentration was 43.4 nmol/L (SD 18.9, min-max 7.8–136.1 nmol/L). A total of 250 men (9.6%) reported frequent headache. The average serum 25(OH)D concentration among those with frequent headache was 38.3 nmol/L (SD 18.8) and 43.9 nmol/L (SD 18.9) among those without frequent headache, after adjustment for age and year and month of blood draw (P for difference <0.001). After multivariable adjustments, those in the lowest vs. the highest serum 25(OH)D quartile had 113% (95% CI 42, 218%; P for trend <0.001) higher odds for frequent headache. In conclusion, low serum 25(OH)D concentration was associated with markedly higher risk of frequent headache in men. PMID:28045039

  10. Living at a Geographically Higher Elevation Is Associated with Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: Prospective Analysis of the SUN Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Pascual, Amaya; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Sayón-Orea, Carmen; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Díaz-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Pons, Juan J.; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; González-Muniesa, Pedro; Martínez, J. Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Living in a geographically higher altitude affects oxygen availability. The possible connection between environmental factors and the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) feature is not fully understood, being the available epidemiological evidence still very limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the longitudinal association between altitude and incidence of MetS and each of its components in a prospective Spanish cohort, The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) project. Our study included 6860 highly educated subjects (university graduates) free from any MetS criteria at baseline. The altitude of residence was imputed with the postal code of each individual subject residence according to the data of the Spanish National Cartographic Institute and participants were categorized into tertiles. MetS was defined according to the harmonized definition. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between the altitude of residence and the risk of MetS during follow-up. After a median follow-up period of 10 years, 462 incident cases of MetS were identified. When adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest category of altitude (>456 m) exhibited a significantly lower risk of developing MetS compared to those in the lowest tertile (<122 m) of altitude of residence [Model 2: Hazard ratio = 0.75 (95% Confidence interval: 0.58–0.97); p for trend = 0.029]. Living at geographically higher altitude was associated with a lower risk of developing MetS in the SUN project. Our findings suggest that geographical elevation may be an important factor linked to metabolic diseases. PMID:28101063

  11. Higher prepregnancy body mass index is a risk factor for developing preeclampsia in Maya-Mestizo women: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Rojano-Mejía, David; Godoy, Sergio Pérez; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2017-04-06

    Preeclampsia and obesity are two closely related syndromes. The high maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for present preeclampsia, independently of the ethnic background of the studied population. The aim of this study was to analyse in a prospective cohort study the relation between prepregnancy BMI and development of preeclampsia in Maya-Mestizo women. This is a prospective cohort study of 642 pregnant women that were included in the first trimester of the pregnancy (gestational age ≤12 weeks at the first antenatal visit) and all of them were of Maya-Mestizo ethnic origin from the state of Yucatán, México. We assessed the potential risk factors for preeclampsia and documented the prepregnancy BMI (kg/m(2)) that was based on measured height and maternal self-report of prepregnancy weight at the initial visit. Besides, in the antenatal visit we documented if the pregnant women developed preeclampsia. Of the 642 pregnant Maya-Mestizo women, 49 developed preeclampsia, with an incidence of 7.6% (44.9% had severe and 55% mild). The prepregnancy BMI was higher in women with developed preeclampsia than in those with normal pregnancies. Women with overweight or obesity in comparison with normal weight presented a RR = 2.82 (95% CI: 1.32-6.03; P = 0.008) and RR= 4.22 (95% CI: 2.07-8.61; P = 0.001), respectively. Our findings expand the previous studies to show that the higher prepregnancy BMI is a strong, independent risk factor for preeclampsia.

  12. Living at a Geographically Higher Elevation Is Associated with Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: Prospective Analysis of the SUN Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Pascual, Amaya; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Sayón-Orea, Carmen; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Díaz-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Pons, Juan J; Martínez-González, Miguel A; González-Muniesa, Pedro; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Living in a geographically higher altitude affects oxygen availability. The possible connection between environmental factors and the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) feature is not fully understood, being the available epidemiological evidence still very limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the longitudinal association between altitude and incidence of MetS and each of its components in a prospective Spanish cohort, The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) project. Our study included 6860 highly educated subjects (university graduates) free from any MetS criteria at baseline. The altitude of residence was imputed with the postal code of each individual subject residence according to the data of the Spanish National Cartographic Institute and participants were categorized into tertiles. MetS was defined according to the harmonized definition. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between the altitude of residence and the risk of MetS during follow-up. After a median follow-up period of 10 years, 462 incident cases of MetS were identified. When adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest category of altitude (>456 m) exhibited a significantly lower risk of developing MetS compared to those in the lowest tertile (<122 m) of altitude of residence [Model 2: Hazard ratio = 0.75 (95% Confidence interval: 0.58-0.97); p for trend = 0.029]. Living at geographically higher altitude was associated with a lower risk of developing MetS in the SUN project. Our findings suggest that geographical elevation may be an important factor linked to metabolic diseases.

  13. Is group sex a higher-risk setting for HIV and other STIs compared to dyadic sex among MSM?

    PubMed Central

    van den Boom, Wijnand; Davidovich, Udi; Heuker, José; Lambers, Femke; Prins, Maria; Sandfort, Theo; Stolte, Ineke G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Group sex has been suggested as a potential high-risk setting for HIV and other STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated whether group sex is associated with lower condom use during anal sex and higher proportions of STIs compared to dyadic sex among HIV-negative MSM between 2009–2012. Methods Cross-sectional data from 7 data waves of the Amsterdam Cohort Studies were used. The sample consisted of 465 MSM who either reported both group and dyadic sex (at n=706 visits) or dyadic sex only (at n=1339 visits) in the preceding 6 months. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to investigate the association between sexual setting (group versus dyadic sex), condomless anal sex, and STI. Results Group sex was reported at 35% (706/2045) of visits. Condomless sex was more often reported during dyadic than group sex, OR=3.64 (95%CI=2.57–5.16). Men who had group sex were more likely diagnosed with Gonorrhea compared to men with dyadic sex, OR=1.71 (95%CI=1.08–2.97), but this effect was not retained in the multivariate model. Conclusions Results demonstrate within-person differences in sexual behavior during group and dyadic sex among MSM. Men were more likely to use condoms during group sex than dyadic sex. Thus, for some, group sex may not necessarily be risky for HIV infection compared to dyadic sex. However, group sex may be a higher-risk setting for acquiring STIs other than HIV, such as Gonorrhea. Group sex encounters should be recognized as distinct sexual settings with specific risk characteristics that need to be addressed accordingly. PMID:26766526

  14. Responder Interferon λ Genotypes Are Associated With Higher Risk of Liver Fibrosis in HIV-Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Moqueet, Nasheed; Cooper, Curtis; Gill, John; Hull, Mark; Platt, Robert W; Klein, Marina B

    2016-07-01

    Liver fibrosis progresses faster in individuals coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Interferon λ3 (IFN-λ3) has both antiviral and proinflammatory properties. Genotypes at IFNL single-nucleotide proteins (SNPs; rs12979860CC and rs8099917TT) are linked to higher HCV clearance, potentially via rs8103142. We examined the relationship between IFN-λ genotypes and significant liver fibrosis in HIV-HCV coinfection. From the prospective Canadian Co-infection Cohort (n = 1423), HCV RNA-positive participants in whom IFN-λ genotypes were detected and who were free of fibrosis, end-stage liver disease, and chronic hepatitis B at baseline (n = 485) were included. Time to significant fibrosis (defined as an aspartate transaminase level to platelet count ratio index [APRI] of ≥1.5) by IFN-λ genotypes was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards, with adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol use, CD4(+) T-cell count, HCV genotype, γ-glutamyl transferase level, and baseline APRI. Haplotype analysis was performed, with adjustment for ethnicity. A total of 125 participants developed fibrosis over 1595 person-years (7.84 cases/100 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.58-9.34 cases/100 person-years). Each genotype was associated with an increased fibrosis risk, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.37 (95% CI, .94-2.02) for rs12979860CC, 1.34 (95% CI, .91-1.97) for rs8103142TT, and 1.79 (95% CI, 1.24-2.57) for rs8099917TT. Haplotype TCT was also linked with a higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, .73-1.77]). IFN-λ SNPs rs12979860, rs8099917, and rs81013142 were individually linked to higher rates of fibrosis in individuals with HIV-HCV coinfection. IFN-λ genotypes may be useful to target HCV treatments to people who are at higher risk of liver disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  15. Responder Interferon λ Genotypes Are Associated With Higher Risk of Liver Fibrosis in HIV–Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Moqueet, Nasheed; Cooper, Curtis; Gill, John; Hull, Mark; Platt, Robert W.; Klein, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Liver fibrosis progresses faster in individuals coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Interferon λ3 (IFN-λ3) has both antiviral and proinflammatory properties. Genotypes at IFNL single-nucleotide proteins (SNPs; rs12979860CC and rs8099917TT) are linked to higher HCV clearance, potentially via rs8103142. We examined the relationship between IFN-λ genotypes and significant liver fibrosis in HIV-HCV coinfection. Methods. From the prospective Canadian Co-infection Cohort (n = 1423), HCV RNA–positive participants in whom IFN-λ genotypes were detected and who were free of fibrosis, end-stage liver disease, and chronic hepatitis B at baseline (n = 485) were included. Time to significant fibrosis (defined as an aspartate transaminase level to platelet count ratio index [APRI] of ≥1.5) by IFN-λ genotypes was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards, with adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol use, CD4+ T-cell count, HCV genotype, γ-glutamyl transferase level, and baseline APRI. Haplotype analysis was performed, with adjustment for ethnicity. Results. A total of 125 participants developed fibrosis over 1595 person-years (7.84 cases/100 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.58–9.34 cases/100 person-years). Each genotype was associated with an increased fibrosis risk, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.37 (95% CI, .94–2.02) for rs12979860CC, 1.34 (95% CI, .91–1.97) for rs8103142TT, and 1.79 (95% CI, 1.24–2.57) for rs8099917TT. Haplotype TCT was also linked with a higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, .73–1.77]). Conclusions. IFN-λ SNPs rs12979860, rs8099917, and rs81013142 were individually linked to higher rates of fibrosis in individuals with HIV-HCV coinfection. IFN-λ genotypes may be useful to target HCV treatments to people who are at higher risk of liver disease. PMID:26984148

  16. Weight Patterns in Children With Higher Risk ALL: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group (COG) for CCG 1961

    PubMed Central

    Withycombe, Janice S.; Post-White, Janice E.; Meza, Jane L.; Hawks, Ria G.; Smith, Lynette M.; Sacks, Nancy; Seibel, Nita L.

    2011-01-01

    Background This retrospective analysis defined and described patterns and predictors of weight change during treatment in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) with high-risk features who received treatment on Children's Cancer Group protocol CCG 1961. Procedure Patients (1,638) were enrolled in CCG 1961 from November 1996 to May 2002. Weight was measured as BMI percent (%), specific for age and gender, and defined as 100 × ln(BMI/median BMI). Results By the end of treatment, 23% of children were obese (BMI ≥ 95%), compared with 14% at diagnosis. Children who received post-induction intensified therapy (arms C, D, SER with Doxorubicin or Idarubicin) had higher gastrointestinal toxicities and lower BMI% from consolidation through interim maintenance 1. BMI% then increased for all arms between delayed intensification and maintenance 1 or 2. Children who were of Black or Hispanic race, obese at diagnosis, or who had grade 3 or 4 pancreatitis/glucose toxicities during induction had higher BMI% throughout treatment. Children were more likely to be obese at the end of the study if they were aged 5–9 years at diagnosis or female gender. Cranial radiation was not a predictor of obesity. Conclusions Successful treatment of higher risk childhood ALL was associated with obesity, independent of cranial irradiation. The beginning of maintenance therapy may be the best time to intervene with nutritional and behavioral interventions, particularly for children who are obese or aged 5–9 years at diagnosis, female, Black or Hispanic, or those with metabolic toxicities during induction. PMID:19688832

  17. Genetic variants reflecting higher vitamin e status in men are associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Major, Jacqueline M; Yu, Kai; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Berndt, Sonja I; Hyland, Paula L; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Albanes, Demetrius

    2014-05-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) plays a key role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation and has been studied as a potential chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer. The association of serum vitamin E concentrations with cancer risk may be modified by genetic variations in vitamin E-related genes. We examined whether variants in vitamin E-related genes were associated with risk of prostate cancer in a nested case-control study using 483 prostate cancer cases and 542 matched controls of European ancestry from a large U.S. multicenter trial that had available measurements of serum vitamin E concentrations and genotyping of 3 genome-wide association study meta-analysis-identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with circulating vitamin E. ORs and 95% CIs were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer, and serum total cholesterol. Findings suggest lower prostate cancer risk for men whose genotypes reflect higher vitamin E (i.e., α-tocopherol) status. An SNP (rs964184) near budding-site selection protein 13 (yeast) (BUD13), zinc finger protein 259 (ZNF259), and apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) on 11q23.3 was significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (per-allele OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P-trend = 0.03). The association between rs964184 and prostate cancer risk was stronger among homozygous carriers of the minor allele (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.83). Another variant, rs11057830 in scavenger receptor class-B member 1 (SCARB1) on 12p24.31, approached statistical significance (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.10, 1.01, P = 0.05; 2 minor allele copies). This study suggests that polymorphisms near BUD13/ZNF259/APOA5, involved in vitamin E transport and metabolism, may be associated with lower risk of prostate cancer. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00002540.

  18. Contemporary Issues in Higher Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph, Ed.; Dagley, David, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Colleges and universities remain vulnerable to lawsuits and face an increasingly litigious environment. This book is intended to provide board members, administrators, faculty, and students of higher education with a basis for informed decision-making that will reduce the risk of liability through a preventive-law approach. Readers will find this…

  19. Higher energy efficient homes are associated with increased risk of doctor diagnosed asthma in a UK subpopulation.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Richard A; Thornton, Christopher R; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J

    2015-02-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) has one of the highest prevalence of asthma in the world, which represents a significant economic and societal burden. Reduced ventilation resulting from increased energy efficiency measures acts as a modifier for mould contamination and risk of allergic diseases. To our knowledge no previous study has combined detailed asset management property and health data together to assess the impact of household energy efficiency (using the UK Government's Standard Assessment Procedure) on asthma outcomes in an adult population residing in social housing. Postal questionnaires were sent to 3867 social housing properties to collect demographic, health and environmental information on all occupants. Detailed property data, residency periods, indices of multiple deprivation (IMD) and household energy efficiency ratings were also investigated. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals while allowing for clustering of individuals coming from the same location. Eighteen percent of our target social housing population were recruited into our study. Adults had a mean age of 59 (SD±17.3) years and there was a higher percentage of female (59%) and single occupancy (58%) respondents. Housing demographic characteristics were representative of the target homes. A unit increase in household Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) rating was associated with a 2% increased risk of current asthma, with the greatest risk in homes with SAP >71. We assessed exposure to mould and found that the presence of a mouldy/musty odour was associated with a two-fold increased risk of asthma (OR 2.2 95%; CI 1.3-3.8). A unit increase in SAP led to a 4-5% reduction in the risk of visible mould growth and a mouldy/musty odour. In contrast to previous research, we report that residing in energy efficient homes may increase the risk of adult asthma. We report that mould contamination increased the risk of asthma, which is in agreement with existing

  20. HIV Prevalence and Incidence in a Cohort of Women at Higher Risk for HIV Acquisition in Chókwè, Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Feldblum, Paul J.; Enosse, Sónia; Dubé, Karine; Arnaldo, Paulo; Muluana, Chadreque; Banze, Reginaldo; Nhanala, Aristides; Cunaca, Joana; Chen, Pai-Lien; Robb, Merlin L.; Thompson, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Reliable HIV incidence estimates for Mozambique are limited. We conducted a prospective HIV incidence study as part of a clinical research site development initiative in Chókwè district, Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. Methods Between June 2010 and October 2012, we recruited women at sites where women at higher risk of HIV infection would likely be found. We enrolled and tested 1,429 sexually active women in the screening phase and 479 uninfected women in the prospective phase. Participants were scheduled for 12+ months follow-up, when they underwent face-to-face interviews, HIV counseling and testing, and pregnancy testing. We observed a total of 373.1 woman-years (WY) of follow-up, with mean (median) of 9.4 (9.7) women-months per participant. Results The prevalence of HIV was 29.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.0–31.8%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors that remained significantly associated with prevalent HIV were: older age (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.7), lower educational level (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3–0.7), and using hormonal contraception (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.7) or condoms (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3–0.7). We observed an HIV incidence rate of 4.6 per 100 WY (95% CI: 2.7, 7.3). The HIV incidence was 4.8 per 100 WY (95% CI: 2.5, 8.3) in women aged 18–24 years, 4.5 per 100 WY (95% CI: 1.2, 11.4) in women aged 25–29 years and 3.2 per 100 WY (95% CI: 0.1, 18.0) in the 30–35 years stratum. None of the demographic factors or time-varying behavioral factors examined was significantly associated with incident HIV infection in bivariable analysis at p≤0.10. Conclusions We found a high HIV incidence among sexually active young women in Chókwè, Mozambique. HIV prevention programs should be strengthened in the area, with more comprehensive reproductive health services, regular HIV testing, condom promotion, and messaging about multiple sexual partners. PMID:24842811

  1. Researcher and Researched: The Phenomenology of Change from Face-to-Face to Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Frank E.; Fewell, Martha D.; Sugar, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Online instruction, courses, and degree programs are rising in popularity in higher education and corporations. Novice and experienced instructors face increased demands from administrators and students to teach online, in a higher education environment long noted for face-to-face, residence-based instruction. Viewing the shift from face-to-face…

  2. Gender Disparities in the Prevalence of Undernutrition and the Higher Risk among the Young Women of Indian Tribes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background High undernutrition is a grave concern in India. Marginalized populations like Indian tribes have been under the serious stress of such nutritional extreme. Women, in particular, are the worst sufferers. Gender-related comprehensive studies regarding the prevalence and risks of undernutrition among the tribes have not been properly pursued in India; the vulnerability of the young females has least been examined. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study during January 2011 to December 2013 among 1066 males and 1090 females (n = 2156) in the 20–60 years age group belonging to the nine major tribes; Santals, Oraons and Koras (West Bengal): Santals, Bhumijs and Bathudis (Odisha): Dhodias, Kuknas and Chaudharis (Gujarat). The undernutrition burden was estimated and such risks were analyzed for the women in comparison to the men. The overall undernutrition among the females was found to be 47.4% (95% CI 44.4–50.4) against 32.1% (95% CI 29.3–34.9) among males, indicating about a half of the female population undernourished. The odds of risks for underweight status among females were observed to be high in comparison to males with an odds of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.6–2.2; p≤0.001) for the overall undernutrition category, 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3–2.3; p≤0.001) for the mild undernutrition category, 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1–1.6; p≤0.01) for combined moderate and mild undernutrition category and 3.3 (95% CI at 2.3–4.6; p≤0.001) for severe undernutrition category. The young females were observed with a high prevalence of undernutrition along with increased risk. The 30-year mean BMI trend of the Indian population in comparison to the males, females, and overall tribal population places the tribal females at the highest risk. Conclusion Indian tribes are suffering from the higher prevalence of undernutrition by further highlighting a high gender bias. The health and empowerment of adolescent and young tribal girls needs additional focus. Overall, no

  3. Hot flashes: emerging cardiovascular risk factors in recent and late postmenopause and their association with higher blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Juliano S; Clapauch, Ruth; Souza, Maria das Graças C de; Bouskela, Eliete

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the endothelial function of symptomatic (self-reported hot flashes >3 on a scale of 0-10) versus asymptomatic (≤3) women in different postmenopause stages, and to examine if the association between hot flashes and endothelial function was independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors observed during the analysis. Noninvasive venous occlusion plethysmography within two groups: recent (recent postmenopause [RPM], <10 y, n = 63) and late (late postmenopause [LPM], ≥10 y, n = 67) postmenopause. Symptomatic women showed lower forearm blood flow and lower percentage increment of it during the reactive hyperemia response; higher systolic (P < 0.0001 in RPM and P = 0.0008 in LPM) and diastolic (P = 0.0005 in RPM and P = 0.0219 in LPM) blood pressure; highest score for perimenopausal hot flashes (P = 0.0007 in RPM and P < 0.0001 in LPM), longer duration of prior oral contraceptive use (P = 0.009 in RPM and P = 0.0253 in LPM), and higher current sleep disorders (P < 0.0001 in RPM and P = 0.0281 in LPM) compared with asymptomatic ones. In the LPM group, symptomatic women also had higher prevalence of previous hypertension diagnosis (P = 0.0092). During multivariate analysis, blood flow during the reactive hyperemia response was associated with hot flashes after adjusting for age, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure (odds ratio 0.55 [0.36-0.84] in RPM and odds ratio 0.7 [0.5-0.97] in LPM). In both phases, recent and late post menopause, hot flashes were associated with endothelial dysfunction and higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but the relationship between hot flashes and endothelial dysfunction was independent of blood pressure.

  4. Association Between NRAS and BRAF Mutational Status and Melanoma-Specific Survival Among Patients With Higher-Risk Primary Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nancy E; Edmiston, Sharon N; Alexander, Audrey; Groben, Pamela A; Parrish, Eloise; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B; From, Lynn; Busam, Klaus J; Hao, Honglin; Orlow, Irene; Kanetsky, Peter A; Luo, Li; Reiner, Anne S; Paine, Susan; Frank, Jill S; Bramson, Jennifer I; Marrett, Lorraine D; Gallagher, Richard P; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Cust, Anne E; Ollila, David W; Begg, Colin B; Berwick, Marianne; Conway, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    , sex, site, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage, TIL grade, and study center. However, melanoma-specific survival was significantly poorer for higher-risk (T2b or higher stage) tumors with NRAS (2.9 [1.1-7.7]) or BRAF (3.1 [1.2-8.5]) mutations (P = .04) but not for lower-risk (T2a or lower) tumors with NRAS (0.9 [0.3-3.0]) or BRAF (0.6 [0.2-1.7]) (P = .65), as adjusted for age, sex, site, AJCC tumor stage, TIL grade, and study center. Lower TIL grade for NRAS+ melanoma suggests it has a more immunosuppressed microenvironment, which may affect its response to immunotherapies. The approximate 3-fold increased risk of death for higher-risk tumors harboring NRAS or BRAF mutations after adjusting for other prognostic factors compared with WT melanomas indicates that the prognostic implication of these mutations deserves further investigation, particularly in higher–AJCC stage primary melanomas.

  5. [Endarterectomy more favourable than stenting in symptomatic significant carotid stenosis: higher risk of ischaemic stroke or death following stenting].

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Beuk, Roland J; Huisman, Ad B; Manschot, Sanne M; Zeebregts, Clark J; Geelkerken, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has proven its value in the treatment of patients with recent significant carotid artery stenosis. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with carotid artery stenting ('stenting' in short) is an alternative to CEA. The results of stenting and CEA in patients with symptomatic significant carotid artery stenosis were evaluated in 9 prospective randomized controlled trials and 11 meta-analyses. Almost all of these trials failed to show superiority of stenting to CEA. According to the 4 largest and most recent studies in this field the risk of a stroke or death within 30 days after the intervention is considerably higher following stenting than following CEA. In the long run the results of stenting and CEA seem to be comparable. CEA remains the gold standard in treatment of significant carotid artery stenosis, in particular in patients older than 70.

  6. Challenges faced by new mothers in the early postpartum period: an analysis of comment data from the 2000 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey.

    PubMed

    Kanotra, Sarojini; D'Angelo, Denise; Phares, Tanya M; Morrow, Brian; Barfield, Wanda D; Lansky, Amy

    2007-11-01

    To identify challenges that women face 2-9 months postpartum using qualitative data gathered by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). PRAMS is an on-going population-based surveillance system that collects self-reported information on maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after the birth of a live infant. We analyzed free text comment data from women in 10 states who answered the PRAMS survey in 2000. Preliminary analysis included a review of the comment data to identify major themes and a demographic comparison of women who commented (n = 3,417) versus women who did not (n = 12,497). Subsequent analysis included systematic coding of the data from 324 women that commented about postpartum concerns and evaluation to ensure acceptable levels of reliability among coders. We identified the following major themes, listed in order of frequency: (1) need for social support, (2) breastfeeding issues, (3) lack of education about newborn care after discharge, (4) need for help with postpartum depression, (5) perceived need for extended postpartum hospital stay, and (6) need for maternal insurance coverage beyond delivery. The themes identified indicate that new mothers want more social support and education and that some of their concerns relate to policies regarding breastfeeding and medical care. These results can be used to inform programs and policies designed to address education and continuity of postpartum care for new mothers.

  7. Are Middle-Aged Men with Chronic Kidney Disease at Higher Risk of Having Nocturia than Age-Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Kai; Wu, Mei-Yi; Chiang, I-Ni; Yang, Stephen S-D; Chang, Shang-Jen

    2015-09-01

    We compared the lower urinary tract symptoms between middle-aged men with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD) under 50 years of age. Between October 2010 and July 2013, patients with CKD aged below 50 who received regular follow-ups at the nephrology outpatient clinics were enrolled. We also enrolled men aged below 50 years with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) higher than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) and without history of kidney diseases from the health examination department as the control group. Clinical parameters and laboratory parameters were collected for analysis and comparison. The lower urinary tract symptoms were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Metabolic syndromes were defined according to the ATP III guidelines. Overall, 50 men with CKD and 187 age-matched men without CKD were enrolled in the study (age: 44.9 ± 6.9 vs. 43.7.0 ± 4.3, P = 0.11). When compared with the age-matched control group, the occurrences of lower urinary tract symptoms were fewer in CKD patients, though not statistically significant. CKD Patients had significantly higher scores of nocturia (1.3 vs. 0.8, P = 0.02) but had significantly less urinary frequency and relatively fewer urgency score. Nocturia was significantly associated with eGFR. Multivariate analysis showed that lower eGFR and overweight were the only two independent risk factors for nocturia (P < 0.01), but was not the case for metabolic syndromes. Middle-aged men with CKD had significantly more nocturia episodes than the age-matched control group, but had lower urinary frequency scores. Lower eGFR and overweight are independent risk factors for nocturia in middle-aged men. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Longer Lengths of Stay and Higher Risk of Mortality among Inpatients of Physicians with More Years in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Southern, William N.; Bellin, Eran Y.; Arnsten, Julia H.

    2011-01-01

    Background More physician years in practice have been associated with less frequent guideline adherence, but it is unknown whether years in practice are associated with patient outcomes. Methods We examined all inpatients on the teaching service of an urban hospital from 7/1/02 through 6/30/04. Admissions were assigned to attending physicians quasi-randomly. Years in practice was defined as the number of years the attending physician held a medical license. We divided physicians into 4 groups (0–5, 6–10, 11–20, and > 20 years in practice), and used negative binomial and logistic regression to adjust for patient characteristics and estimate associations between years in practice and length-of-stay, readmission, and mortality. Results 59 physicians and 6,572 admissions were examined. Though the four inpatient groups had similar demographic and clinical characteristics, physicians with more years in practice had longer mean lengths-of-stay (4.77, 5.29, 5.42, and 5.31 days for physicians with 0–5, 6–10, 11–20, and >20 years in practice respectively, p = 0.001). After adjustment, inpatients of physicians with more than 20 years in practice had higher risk for both in-hospital mortality (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.06–2.76) and 30-day mortality (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06–2.16) than inpatients of physicians with 0–5 years in practice. Conclusion Inpatient care by physicians with more years in practice is associated with higher risk of mortality. Quality of care interventions should be developed to maintain inpatient skills for physicians. PMID:21745651

  9. A higher ratio of beans to white rice is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factors in Costa Rican adults123

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Josiemer; Hu, Frank B

    2011-01-01

    Background: A high intake of white rice is associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Costa Ricans follow a staple dietary pattern that includes white rice and beans, yet the combined role of these foods on cardiometabolic risk factors has not been studied. Objective: We aimed to determine the association between intake of white rice and beans and the metabolic syndrome and its components in Costa Rican adults (n = 1879) without diabetes. Design: Multivariate-adjusted means were calculated for components of the metabolic syndrome by daily servings of white rice and beans (<1, 1, or >1) and by the ratio of beans to white rice. The OR for the metabolic syndrome was calculated by substituting one serving of beans for one serving of white rice. Results: An increase in daily servings of white rice was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (BP), triglycerides, and fasting glucose and inversely associated with HDL cholesterol (P-trend <0.01 for all). An increase in servings of beans was inversely associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.049). Significant trends for higher HDL cholesterol and lower BP and triglycerides were observed for 1:3, 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1 ratios of beans to white rice. Substituting one serving of beans for one serving of white rice was associated with a 35% (95% CI: 15%, 50%) lower risk of the metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Increasing the ratio of beans to white rice, or limiting the intake of white rice by substituting beans, may lower cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:21813808

  10. A higher ratio of beans to white rice is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factors in Costa Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Josiemer; Hu, Frank B; Campos, Hannia

    2011-09-01

    A high intake of white rice is associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Costa Ricans follow a staple dietary pattern that includes white rice and beans, yet the combined role of these foods on cardiometabolic risk factors has not been studied. We aimed to determine the association between intake of white rice and beans and the metabolic syndrome and its components in Costa Rican adults (n = 1879) without diabetes. Multivariate-adjusted means were calculated for components of the metabolic syndrome by daily servings of white rice and beans (<1, 1, or >1) and by the ratio of beans to white rice. The OR for the metabolic syndrome was calculated by substituting one serving of beans for one serving of white rice. An increase in daily servings of white rice was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (BP), triglycerides, and fasting glucose and inversely associated with HDL cholesterol (P-trend <0.01 for all). An increase in servings of beans was inversely associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.049). Significant trends for higher HDL cholesterol and lower BP and triglycerides were observed for 1:3, 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1 ratios of beans to white rice. Substituting one serving of beans for one serving of white rice was associated with a 35% (95% CI: 15%, 50%) lower risk of the metabolic syndrome. Increasing the ratio of beans to white rice, or limiting the intake of white rice by substituting beans, may lower cardiometabolic risk factors.

  11. Higher Risk of Homicide Among Pregnant and Postpartum Females Aged 10-29 Years in Illinois, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Koch, Abigail R; Rosenberg, Deborah; Geller, Stacie E

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether being pregnant or postpartum was associated with excess risk for homicide among females in Illinois and to describe the association between pregnancy status and homicide by race, ethnicity, and age group. This is a retrospective, multicohort, ecologic study of females of reproductive age in Illinois between 2002 and 2011 using Illinois Department of Public Health maternal mortality data and vital records data. We compared pregnancy-associated homicides with live births using χ tests. Among maternal deaths in the state, we calculated mortality rates per 100,000 live births for homicide and other violent causes and the leading direct obstetric causes. We calculated aggregate, pregnancy-associated, and nonpregnancy associated homicide rates stratified by race or ethnicity and age group. There were 636 pregnancy-associated deaths in Illinois from 2002 to 2011. Of these, 82 (13%) were the result of homicide (5.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0-6.2]/100,000 live births). There were 931 homicides among females of reproductive age not associated with pregnancy (2.88 [95% CI 2.70-3.07]/100,000 population). More than half of the homicides were women aged 20-29 years (n=53 [64.6%]), non-Hispanic black women (n=43 [52.4%]), women residing in Cook County (n=47 [57.3%]), and unmarried women (n=57 [69.5%]). Pregnant and postpartum females aged 10-29 years were at twice the risk of homicide compared with their nonpregnant or postpartum counterparts (relative risk 2.20 [95% CI 1.70-2.85]). Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic females experienced higher rates of homicide than non-Hispanic white females irrespective of pregnancy or age. Although all violence against women must be addressed, we recommend that state maternal mortality review committees, in addition to reviewing deaths resulting from obstetric and clinical causes, should conduct in-depth reviews of pregnancy-associated homicides and other violent deaths.

  12. Evidence for higher tropical storm risks in Haiti due to increasing population density in hazard prone urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Christian D.

    2011-10-01

    Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.

  13. Higher vitamin D intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of dental caries in young Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiko; Hitsumoto, Shinichi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Arakawa, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    The intrauterine environment, including maternal nutrition status, may affect the development, formation, and mineralization of children's teeth. We assessed the relationship between self-reported maternal dietary vitamin D intake during pregnancy and the risk of dental caries among young Japanese children. This study is based on a prospective analysis of 1210 Japanese mother-child pairs. Information on maternal intake during pregnancy was collected using a validated diet history questionnaire. Data on oral examination at 36-46 months of age were obtained from the mothers, who transcribed the information from their maternal and child health handbooks to our self-administered questionnaire. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or had been filled. Compared with the lowest quartile of maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4 were 1.06 (0.72-1.56), 0.53 (0.34-0.81), and 0.67 (0.44-1.02), respectively (P for trend = .01). When maternal vitamin D intake was treated as a continuous variable, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.94 (0.89-0.995). Higher maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy may be associated with a lower risk of dental caries in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Is it necessary to penalize impulsive noise +5 dB due to higher risk of hearing damage?

    PubMed

    de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo; Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2011-06-01

    It is studied whether the +5 dB penalty for impulsiveness established by ISO 1999:1990 accounts for a higher risk of noise-induced hearing loss. A total of 16 normal-hearing human subjects were exposed for 10 min to two types of binaural industrial-recordings: (1) a continuous broad-band noise normalized to L(EX,8 h)=80 dBA and (2) the combination of the previous stimulus with an impulsive noise normalized to L(EX,8 h)=75+5(db penalty)=80 dBA (peak level 117 dBC and repetition rate of 0.5 impacts per second). Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured in a broad frequency range before and in the following 90 min after the exposure. The group results show that the continuous exposure had a bigger impact on DPOAE levels, with a maximum DPOAE shift of approximately 5 dB in the frequency range of 2-3.15 kHz during the first 10 min of the recovery. No evident DPOAE shift is seen for the impulsive + continuous stimulus. The results indicate that the penalty overestimated the effects on DPOAE levels and support the concept that the risk of hearing loss from low-level impulses may be predicted on an equal-energy basis.

  15. Semi-Professional Rugby League Players have Higher Concussion Risk than Professional or Amateur Participants: A Pooled Analysis.

    PubMed

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor

    2017-02-01

    A combined estimate of injuries within a specific sport through pooled analysis provides more precise evidence and meaningful information about the sport, whilst controlling for between-study variation due to individual sub-cohort characteristics. The objective of this analysis was to review all published rugby league studies reporting injuries from match and training participation and report the pooled data estimates for rugby league concussion injury epidemiology. A systematic literature analysis of concussion in rugby league was performed on published studies from January 1990 to October 2015. Data were extracted and pooled from 25 studies that reported the number and incidence of concussions in rugby league match and training activities. Amateur rugby league players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in match activities (19.1 per 1000 match hours) while semi-professional players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in training activities (3.1 per 1000 training hours). This pooled analysis showed that, during match participation activities, amateur rugby league participants had a higher reported concussion injury rate than professional and semi-professional participants. Semi-professional participants had nearly a threefold greater concussion injury risk than amateur rugby league participants during match participation. They also had nearly a 600-fold greater concussion injury risk than professional rugby league participants during training participation.

  16. Balance and gait performance after maximal and submaximal endurance exercise in seniors: is there a higher fall-risk?

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Roth, Ralf; Fricker, Livia; Cordes, Mareike; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Faude, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Impaired balance and gait performance increase fall-risk in seniors. Acute effects of different exercise bouts on gait and balance were not yet addressed. Therefore, 19 healthy seniors (10 women, 9 men, age: 64.6 ± 3.2 years) were examined on 3 days. After exhaustive treadmill testing, participants randomly completed a 2-km treadmill walking test (76 ± 8 % VO(2max)) and a resting control condition. Standing balance performance (SBALP) was assessed by single limb-eyes opened (SLEO) and double limb-eyes closed (DLEC) stance. Gait parameters were collected at comfortable walking velocity. A condition × time interaction of center of pressure path length (COP(path)) was observed for both balance tasks (p < 0.001). Small (Cohen's d = 0.42, p = 0.05) and large (d = 1.04, p < 0.001) COP(path) increases were found after 2-km and maximal exercise during DLEC. Regarding SLEO, slightly increased COP(path) occurred after 2-km walking (d = 0.29, p = 0.65) and large increases after exhaustive exercise (d = 1.24, p < 0.001). No significant differences were found for gait parameters. Alterations of SBALP after exhaustive exercise might lead to higher fall-risk in seniors. Balance changes upon 2-km testing might be of minor relevance. Gait is not affected during single task walking at given velocities.

  17. In Australia are people born in other countries at higher risk of road trauma than locally born people?

    PubMed

    Dobson, Annette; Smith, Nadine; McFadden, Michael; Walker, Michelle; Hollingworth, Samantha

    2004-05-01

    This study examined whether people born in other countries had higher rates of death and hospitalization due to road crashes than people born in Australia. Data on deaths that occurred in the whole of Australia between 1994 and 1997 and hospitalizations that occurred in the state of New South Wales, Australia, between 1 July 1995 and 30 June 1997 due to road crashes were analyzed. The rates of death and hospitalization, adjusted for age and area of residence, were calculated using population data from the 1996 Australian census. The study categorized people born in other countries according to the language (English speaking, non-English speaking) and the road convention (left-hand side, right-hand side) of their country of birth. Australia has the left-hand side driving convention. The study found that drivers born in other countries had rates of death or hospitalization due to road trauma equal to or below those of Australian born drivers. In contrast, pedestrians born in other countries, especially older pedestrians had higher rates of death and hospitalization due to road crashes. Pedestrians aged 60 years or more born in non-English speaking countries where traffic travels on the right-hand side of the road had risks about twice those of Australian born pedestrians in the same age group.

  18. Bacterial contamination of blood components: Norwegian strategies in identifying donors with higher risk of inducing septic transfusion reactions in recipients.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Sofie Strand; Hervig, Tor; Seghatchian, Jerard; Reikvam, Håkon

    2014-10-01

    . Efforts also should be also directed to identify blood donors with significant risk of bacteremia, at the time of donation in the first place as a high priority. The goal of this review is to highlights strategies for identifying both the sources of bacterial contamination of blood components in Norway and identifying donors with a higher risk of bacteremia at the time of donation. The key to achieving this goal is initiating continual revising and upgrading the Norwegian transfusion guidelines, based on the transfusion legislation and by introducing a relevant specialized donor bacterial questionnaire. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lower diffusing capacity with chronic bronchitis predicts higher risk of acute exacerbation in chronic obstructive lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, Jin Woo; Lee, Sang Haak; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Shim, Jae Jeong; Park, Jeong-Woong; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Jung, Ki-Suck

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the effect of chronic bronchitis (CB) symptoms and degree of emphysema in a multicenter Korean cohort. Methods From April 2012 to May 2015, patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) who were aged above 40 years at 46 hospitals throughout Korea were enrolled. All of the patients were classified according to CB symptoms and the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO); demographic data, symptom scores, and the result of lung function tests and exacerbations were then analyzed. Results A total of 812 patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 285 (35.1%) had CB symptoms. A total of 51% of patients had high DLCO without CB symptoms [CB (−) high DLCO], 24.9% had CB symptoms only [CB (+) high DLCO], 14.2% had low DLCO only [CB (−) low DLCO], and 10.2% had both low DLCO and CB [CB (+) low DLCO]. Patients with CB (+) low DLCO showed a significantly lower post-bronchodilator (BD) forced expiratory volume for 1 second (FEV1) and more severe dyspnea than patients with CB (−) high DLCO. On multivariate analysis, the risk of acute exacerbation was two times higher [odds ratio (OR) 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18–3.62; P=0.01] in the CB (+) low DLCO group than in the CB (−) high DLCO group. Conclusions In this COPD cohort, patients showed distinct clinical characteristics and outcomes according to the presence of CB and degree of DLCO. CB and low DLCO were associated with the risk of acute exacerbation. PMID:27293847

  20. Higher Risk of Ischemic Events in Secondary Prevention for Patients With Persistent Than Those With Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Koga, Masatoshi; Yoshimura, Sohei; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Satoshi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Matsuoka, Hideki; Takamatsu, Kazuhiro; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Todo, Kenichi; Kimura, Kazumi; Furui, Eisuke; Terasaki, Tadashi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Kamiyama, Kenji; Takizawa, Shunya; Okuda, Satoshi; Okada, Yasushi; Kameda, Tomoaki; Nagakane, Yoshinari; Yagita, Yoshiki; Kario, Kazuomi; Shiozawa, Masayuki; Sato, Shoichiro; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Arihiro, Shoji; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    The discrimination between paroxysmal and sustained (persistent or permanent) atrial fibrillation (AF) has not been considered in the approach to secondary stroke prevention. We aimed to assess the differences in clinical outcomes between mostly anticoagulated patients with sustained and paroxysmal AF who had previous ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Using data from 1192 nonvalvular AF patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack who were registered in the SAMURAI-NVAF study (Stroke Management With Urgent Risk-Factor Assessment and Improvement-Nonvalvular AF; a prospective, multicenter, observational study), we divided patients into those with paroxysmal AF and those with sustained AF. We compared clinical outcomes between the 2 groups. The median follow-up period was 1.8 (interquartile range, 0.93-2.0) years. Of the 1192 patients, 758 (336 women; 77.9±9.9 years old) and 434 (191 women; 77.3±10.0 years old) were assigned to the sustained AF group and paroxysmal AF groups, respectively. After adjusting for sex, age, previous anticoagulation, and initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, sustained AF was negatively associated with 3-month independence (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.87; P=0.006). The annual rate of stroke or systemic embolism was 8.3 and 4.6 per 100 person-years, respectively (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-3.14) and that of major bleeding events was 3.4 and 3.1, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-2.08). Among patients with previous ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, those with sustained AF had a higher risk of stroke or systemic embolism compared with those with paroxysmal AF. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01581502. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. The Work Instability Scale predicts absenteeism in people with gout and suggests a higher risk for those in manual occupations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, William J; House, Meaghan; Horne, Anne; McQueen, Fiona M; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    Gout occurs in working-age people and may be associated with significant work disability. There are no longitudinal studies to examine risk factors for work disability in people with gout. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the Work Instability Scale (WIS) in patients with gout and to see if baseline WIS scores predicted future work absences. We conducted a longitudinal, cohort study with patients who had gout for less than 10 years. Sick leave over the previous 3 months was recorded by patient recall at baseline and at 12 months. Self-report health status measures and disease characteristics including C-reactive protein and serum urate were measured at baseline. Work Instability Scale scores were fitted to a Rasch model, and nonparametric statistics were used to determine associations between disease features or future sick leave and WIS scores. One hundred seventy-six participants were recruited, and follow-up information was available for 133 (76%). The WIS instrument showed satisfactory internal, construct, and predictive validity. Participants in nonmanual occupations had lower (better) WIS scores (median, 0 vs. 5.5; P < 0.001). Only 7% of working participants reported any sick leave in the 3 months before the 12-month follow-up. Work Instability Scale scores were associated with future sick leave: a cutoff of 4.5 was found to have the best combined sensitivity (88%) and specificity (72%) for predicting at least 1 day of sick leave. The WIS instrument can identify people with gout who have a higher risk of future work disability and might be a useful guide to targeted vocational counseling or job modification, especially in people in manual occupations. However, further research is required to confirm these findings and to refine the instrument for optimal performance in this population.

  2. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    PubMed

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  3. Contributions of individual face features to face discrimination.

    PubMed

    Logan, Andrew J; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter

    2017-08-01

    Faces are highly complex stimuli that contain a host of information. Such complexity poses the following questions: (a) do observers exhibit preferences for specific information? (b) how does sensitivity to individual face parts compare? These questions were addressed by quantifying sensitivity to different face features. Discrimination thresholds were determined for synthetic faces under the following conditions: (i) 'full face': all face features visible; (ii) 'isolated feature': single feature presented in isolation; (iii) 'embedded feature': all features visible, but only one feature modified. Mean threshold elevations for isolated features, relative to full-faces, were 0.84x, 1.08, 2.12, 3.34, 4.07 and 4.47 for head-shape, hairline, nose, mouth, eyes and eyebrows respectively. Hence, when two full faces can be discriminated at threshold, the difference between the eyes is about four times less than what is required when discriminating between isolated eyes. In all cases, sensitivity was higher when features were presented in isolation than when they were embedded within a face context (threshold elevations of 0.94x, 1.74, 2.67, 2.90, 5.94 and 9.94). This reveals a specific pattern of sensitivity to face information. Observers are between two and four times more sensitive to external than internal features. The pattern for internal features (higher sensitivity for the nose, compared to mouth, eyes and eyebrows) is consistent with lower sensitivity for those parts affected by facial dynamics (e.g. facial expressions). That isolated features are easier to discriminate than embedded features supports a holistic face processing mechanism which impedes extraction of information about individual features from full faces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing

    PubMed Central

    Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T.; Alpers, Georg W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer—conveyed by facial expression and face direction—amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. PMID:28158672

  5. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing.

    PubMed

    Bublatzky, Florian; Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T; Alpers, Georg W

    2017-05-01

    The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer-conveyed by facial expression and face direction-amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Association of Higher Consumption of Foods Derived From Subsidized Commodities With Adverse Cardiometabolic Risk Among US Adults.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Karen R; McKeever Bullard, Kai; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Kahn, Henry S; Stein, Aryeh D; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M

    2016-08-01

    Food subsidies are designed to enhance food availability, but whether they promote cardiometabolic health is unclear. To investigate whether higher consumption of foods derived from subsidized food commodities is associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk among US adults. Cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2001 to 2006. Our final analysis was performed in January 2016. Participants were 10 308 nonpregnant adults 18 to 64 years old in the general community. From a single day of 24-hour dietary recall in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we calculated an individual-level subsidy score that estimated an individual's consumption of subsidized food commodities as a percentage of total caloric intake. The main outcomes were body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), abdominal adiposity, C-reactive protein level, blood pressure, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and glycemia. Among 10 308 participants, the mean (SD) age was 40.2 (0.3) years, and a mean (SD) of 50.5% (0.5%) were male. Overall, 56.2% of calories consumed were from the major subsidized food commodities. United States adults in the highest quartile of the subsidy score (compared with the lowest) had increased probabilities of having a body mass index of at least 30 (prevalence ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.23-1.52), a ratio of waist circumference to height of at least 0.60 (prevalence ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.25-1.59), a C-reactive protein level of at least 0.32 mg/dL (prevalence ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.19-1.51), an elevated non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (prevalence ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25), and dysglycemia (prevalence ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40). There was no statistically significant association between the subsidy score and blood pressure. Among US adults, higher consumption of calories from subsidized food commodities was associated with a greater

  7. Serious Choices: A Protocol for an Environmental Scan of Patient Decision Aids for Seriously Ill People at Risk of Death Facing Choices about Life-Sustaining Treatments.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Catherine H; Elwyn, Glyn; Kirkland, Kathryn; Durand, Marie-Anne

    2017-08-20

    Seriously ill people at high risk of death face difficult decisions, especially concerning the extent of medical intervention. Given the inherent difficulty and complexity of these decisions, the care they receive often does not align with their preferences. Patient decision aids that educate individuals about options and help them construct preferences about life-sustaining care may reduce the mismatch between the care people say they want and the care they receive. The quantity and quality of patient decision aids for those at high risk of death, however, are unknown. This protocol describes an approach for conducting an environmental scan of life-sustaining treatment patient decision aids for seriously ill patients, identified online and through informant analysis. We intend for the outcome to be an inventory of all life-sustaining treatment patient decision aids for seriously ill patients currently available (either publicly or proprietarily) along with information about their content, quality, and known use. We will identify patient decision aids in a three-step approach (1) mining previously published systematic reviews; (2) systematically searching online and in two popular app stores; and (3) undertaking a key informant survey. We will screen and assess the quality of each patient decision aid identified using the latest published draft of the U.S. National Quality Forum National Standards for the Certification of Patient Decision Aids. Additionally, we will evaluate readability via readable.io and content via inductive content analysis. We will also use natural language processing to assess the content of the decision aids. Researchers increasingly recognize the environmental scan as an optimal method for studying real-world interventions, such as patient decision aids. This study will advance our understanding of the availability, quality, and use of decision aids for life-sustaining interventions targeted at seriously ill patients. We also aim to provide

  8. Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Alfonsson, Sven; Johansson, Karin; Uddling, Jonas; Hursti, Timo

    2017-01-26

    Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients' behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion. The aims of this study were, therefore, to investigate whether motivation variables could predict adherence to a prescribed assignment in face-to-face and online interventions using a psychotherapy analog model. A total of 100 participants were included in this study and randomized to either a face-to-face or online intervention. Participants in both groups received a psychoeducation session and were given an assignment for the subsequent week. The main outcome measurements were self-reported motivation and adherence to the assignment. Participant in the face-to-face condition reported significantly higher levels of motivation and showed higher levels of adherence compared to participants in the online condition. Adherence to the assignment was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility in the whole sample and especially in the online group. This study shows that intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility are strong predictors of adherence to assignments, especially in online interventions. The results indicate that intrinsic motivation may be partly substituted with face-to-face contact with a therapist. It may also be possible to identify patients with low motivation in online interventions who are at risk of dropping out. Methods for making online interventions more intrinsically motivating without increasing external pressure are needed. clinicaltrials.gov NCT02895308 . Retrospectively registered 30 August 2016.

  9. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    PubMed

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  10. An equine pain face

    PubMed Central

    Gleerup, Karina B; Forkman, Björn; Lindegaard, Casper; Andersen, Pia H

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of an equine pain face and to describe this in detail. Study design Semi-randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Animals Six adult horses. Methods Pain was induced with two noxious stimuli, a tourniquet on the antebrachium and topical application of capsaicin. All horses participated in two control trials and received both noxious stimuli twice, once with and once without an observer present. During all sessions their pain state was scored. The horses were filmed and the close-up video recordings of the faces were analysed for alterations in behaviour and facial expressions. Still images from the trials were evaluated for the presence of each of the specific pain face features identified from the video analysis. Results Both noxious challenges were effective in producing a pain response resulting in significantly increased pain scores. Alterations in facial expressions were observed in all horses during all noxious stimulations. The number of pain face features present on the still images from the noxious challenges were significantly higher than for the control trial (p = 0.0001). Facial expressions representative for control and pain trials were condensed into explanatory illustrations. During pain sessions with an observer present, the horses increased their contact-seeking behavior. Conclusions and clinical relevance An equine pain face comprising ‘low’ and/or ‘asymmetrical’ ears, an angled appearance of the eyes, a withdrawn and/or tense stare, mediolaterally dilated nostrils and tension of the lips, chin and certain facial muscles can be recognized in horses during induced acute pain. This description of an equine pain face may be useful for improving tools for pain recognition in horses with mild to moderate pain. PMID:25082060

  11. The contribution of risk factors to the higher incidence of invasive and in situ breast cancers in women with higher levels of education in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Hermann, Silke; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amelia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; May, Anne; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, José Ramón; Duell, Eric J.; Sánchez, Maria-José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Chajes, Véronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the role of known risk factors in explaining educational differences in breast cancer incidence. Analyses were based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, and included 242,095 women, 433 in situ and 4,469 invasive breast cancers. Reproductive history (age at first full term pregnancy and parity), exposure to endogenous and exogenous hormones, height, and health behaviours were accounted for in the analyses. Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. Higher invasive breast cancer risk was found among women with higher education (RII=1.22: 1.09,1.37). This association was not observed among nulliparous women (RII=1.13: 0.84,1.52). Inequalities in breast cancer incidence decreased substantially after adjusting for reproductive history (RII=1.11: 0.98,1.25), most of the association being explained by age at first full term pregnancy. Each other risk factor explained a small additional part of inequalities in breast cancer incidence. Height contributed most of these factors. When all known risk factors were adjusted for, no association remained between education and invasive breast cancer risk. Inequalities in incidence were more pronounced for in situ breast cancers and remained after adjustment for all known risk factors (RII=1.61: 1.07,2.41), especially among nulliparous women. PMID:21084553

  12. Higher levels of self-reported sitting time is associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes independent of physical activity in Chile.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Martínez, Ximena; Steell, Lewis; Martinez, María Adela; Leiva, Ana María; Salas-Bravo, Carlos; Labraña, Ana María; Duran, Eliana; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; Livingstone, Katherine M; Garrido-Méndez, Alex; Alvarez, Cristian; Poblete-Valderrama, Felipe; Luisa Zagalaz, María; Valdivia-Moral, Pedro; Cuadra, Liliana; Ulloa, Natalia; Willis, Naomi D; Celis-Morales, Carlos A

    2017-07-28

    Sitting behaviours have increased markedly during the last two decades in Chile. However, their associations with health outcomes such as diabetes have not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the independent association of self-reported sitting time with diabetes-related markers and diabetes prevalence in Chile. This cross-sectional study included participants (aged ≥18 years) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009-10 (n = 4457). Fasting glucose and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured by standardized protocols. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) was determined using WHO criteria. Physical activity (PA) and time spent sitting were determined using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). The odds ratio for T2D was 1.10 [95% CI: 1.04-1.16, P = 0.002] and 1.08 [1.02-1.14, P = 0.002] per 1 h increase in sitting time in men and women, respectively, independent of age, education, smoking, BMI and total PA. Overall, prevalence of T2D was 10.2 and 17.2% in individuals classified in the lowest and highest categories of sitting time, respectively. No significant associations were found between sitting time and glucose or HbA1c. Sitting time is positively associated with diabetes risk, independent of socio-demographic, obesity and PA levels, in the Chilean population.

  13. Virtual & Real Face to Face Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teneqexhi, Romeo; Kuneshka, Loreta

    2016-01-01

    In traditional "face to face" lessons, during the time the teacher writes on a black or white board, the students are always behind the teacher. Sometimes, this happens even in the recorded lesson in videos. Most of the time during the lesson, the teacher shows to the students his back not his face. We do not think the term "face to…

  14. Akathisia: prevalence and risk factors in a community-dwelling sample of patients with schizophrenia. Results from the FACE-SZ dataset.

    PubMed

    Berna, F; Misdrahi, D; Boyer, L; Aouizerate, B; Brunel, L; Capdevielle, D; Chereau, I; Danion, J M; Dorey, J M; Dubertret, C; Dubreucq, J; Faget, C; Gabayet, F; Lancon, C; Mallet, J; Rey, R; Passerieux, C; Schandrin, A; Schurhoff, F; Tronche, A M; Urbach, M; Vidailhet, P; Llorca, P M; Fond, G

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of akathisia in a community-dwelling sample of patients with schizophrenia, and to determine the effects of treatments and the clinical variables associated with akathisia. 372 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were systematically included in the network of FondaMental Expert Center for Schizophrenia and assessed with validated scales. Akathisia was measured with the Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS). Ongoing psychotropic treatment was recorded. The global prevalence of akathisia (as defined by a score of 2 or more on the global akathisia subscale of the BAS) in our sample was 18.5%. Patients who received antipsychotic polytherapy were at higher risk of akathisia and this result remained significant (adjusted odd ratio=2.04, p=.025) after controlling the influence of age, gender, level of education, level of psychotic symptoms, substance use comorbidities, current administration of antidepressant, anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, and daily-administered antipsychotic dose. The combination of second-generation antipsychotics was associated with a 3-fold risk of akathisia compared to second-generation antipsychotics used in monotherapy. Our results indicate that antipsychotic polytherapy should be at best avoided and suggest that monotherapy should be recommended in cases of akathisia. Long-term administration of benzodiazepines or anticholinergic drugs does not seem to be advisable in cases of akathisia, given the potential side effects of these medications.

  15. Adults face increased asthma risk after infant RSV bronchiolitis and reduced respiratory health-related quality of life after RSV pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Backman, Katri; Piippo-Savolainen, Eija; Ollikainen, Hertta; Koskela, Heikki; Korppi, Matti

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the association between hospitalisation for respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection (RSV LRTI) in infancy and asthma, respiratory health-related quality of life and lung function at 28-31 years of age. In 2010, we carried out a 30-year follow-up on 43 adults admitted to Kuopio University Hospital, Finland, for RSV LRTI, 27 for bronchiolitis and 16 for pneumonia, between 1981 and 1982. Together with 86 population-based controls, they completed the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire and underwent prebronchodilator (pre-BD) and post-BD spirometry tests to measure percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%), percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1%) and percentage of predicted FEV1/FVC (FEV1/FVC%). Both the pre-BD and post-BD FEV1% and FEV1/FVC% were significantly lower in former RSV LRTI patients than in the controls. The bronchiolitis patients had more asthma in adulthood than the controls and pneumonia in infancy was associated with lower St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores. Respiratory tract infection LRTI hospitalisation in infancy was associated with an increased risk of permanent obstructive lung function reduction in adulthood. The asthma risk was higher after hospitalisation for bronchiolitis, than in the controls, and respiratory health-related quality of life was lower after hospitalisation for pneumonia. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Face to Face or E-Learning in Turkish EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to understand e-learners and face to face learners' views towards learning English through e-learning in vocational higher school context and to determine the role of academic achievement and gender in e-learning and face to face learning. This study was conducted at a state-run university in 2012-2013 academic year…

  17. Higher pericardial adiposity is associated with prevalent diabetes: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    PubMed

    Alman, A C; Jacobs, D R; Lewis, C E; Snell-Bergeon, J K; Carnethon, M R; Terry, J G; Goff, D C; Ding, J; Carr, J J

    2016-04-01

    Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is located on both sides of the pericardium. We tested whether PAT was associated with prevalent diabetes at the year 25 exam of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. The CARDIA Year 25 exam (2010-2011) included complete data for all covariates on 3107 participants. Prevalent diabetes (n = 436) was defined as high fasting (≥126 mg/dl) or 2-h postload glucose (≥200 mg/dl) or HbA1c (≥6.5%) or use of diabetes medications. Volume of PAT was measured from computed tomographic scans. Logistic regression was performed to examine the relationship between quartiles of PAT and diabetes. In regression models adjusted for field center, sex, race, age, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, log triglycerides, and treatment with blood pressure and cholesterol lowering medication, PAT volume in the 4th quartile was significantly associated with diabetes status after adjustment for BMI (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.66, 3.98) or visceral adipose tissue (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.32, 3.29). PAT volume in the 2nd and 3rd quartiles was not significantly associated with diabetes status relative to the first quartile. Metabolically active pericardial adipose tissue is associated with prevalent diabetes only at higher volumes independent of overall obesity. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A meta-analysis of indicated mental health prevention programs for at-risk higher education students.

    PubMed

    Conley, Colleen S; Shapiro, Jenna B; Kirsch, Alexandra C; Durlak, Joseph A

    2017-03-01

    This meta-analysis found empirical support for the effectiveness of indicated prevention programs for higher education students at risk for subsequent mental health difficulties based on their current subclinical levels of various presenting problems, such as depression, anxiety, or interpersonal difficulties. A systematic literature search identified 79 controlled published and unpublished interventions involving 4,470 college, graduate, or professional students. Programs were effective at post-intervention overall (ES = 0.49, CI [0.43, 0.55]), and for both targeted outcomes (ES = 0.58, CI [0.51, 0.64]) as well as additional nontargeted outcomes assessed in the studies (ES = 0.32, CI [0.25, 0.39]). Interventions compared with a no-intervention or a wait-list control (ES = 0.64, CI [0.57, 0.71], k = 68) demonstrated significantly larger effects overall than did interventions compared with an attention-placebo control (ES = 0.27, CI [0.11, 0.43], k = 11), although both were significant. Among the former group, modality and presenting problem emerged as significant moderators of intervention effectiveness, and among the 43 of these that assessed effectiveness at an average follow-up period of 35 weeks, the positive effects from intervention remained strong (ES = 0.59, CI [0.50, 0.68]). Overall, programs were fairly brief, attracted and retained students, were positively rated by students, and effective when administered by paraprofessionals as well as professionals. Current findings are promising and stimulate recommendations for improving future research, such as expanding the range of outcomes assessed, and clarifying moderators and mediators of intervention impact. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Face adaptation depends on seeing the face.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Farshad; Koch, Christof; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2005-01-06

    Retinal input that is suppressed from visual awareness can nevertheless produce measurable aftereffects, revealing neural processes that do not directly result in a conscious percept. We here report that the face identity-specific aftereffect requires a visible face; it is effectively cancelled by binocular suppression or by inattentional blindness of the inducing face. Conversely, the same suppression does not interfere with the orientation-specific aftereffect. Thus, the competition between incompatible or interfering visual inputs to reach awareness is resolved before those aspects of information that are exploited in face identification are processed. We also found that the face aftereffect remained intact when the visual distracters in the inattention experiment were replaced with auditory distracters. Thus, cross-modal or cognitive interference that does not affect the visibility of the face does not interfere with the face aftereffect. We conclude that adaptation to face identity depends on seeing the face.

  20. The contribution of risk factors to the higher incidence of invasive and in situ breast cancers in women with higher levels of education in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Hermann, Silke; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amelia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; May, Anne; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, José Ramón; Duell, Eric J; Sánchez, Maria-José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E; Reeves, Gillian K; Chajes, Véronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the role of known risk factors in educational differences in breast cancer incidence. Analyses were based on the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition and included 242,095 women, 433 cases of in situ breast cancer, and 4,469 cases of invasive breast cancer. Reproductive history (age at first full-term pregnancy and parity), exposure to endogenous and exogenous hormones, height, and health behaviors were accounted for in the analyses. Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. A higher risk of invasive breast cancer was found among women with higher levels of education (RII = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.37). This association was not observed among nulliparous women (RII = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.52). Inequalities in breast cancer incidence decreased substantially after adjusting for reproductive history (RII = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.25), with most of the association being explained by age at first full-term pregnancy. Each other risk factor explained a small additional part of the inequalities in breast cancer incidence. Height accounted for most of the remaining differences in incidence. After adjusting for all known risk factors, the authors found no association between education level and risk of invasive breast cancer. Inequalities in incidence were more pronounced for in situ breast cancer, and those inequalities remained after adjustment for all known risk factors (RII = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.41), especially among nulliparous women.