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Sample records for face processing erps

  1. Face Context Influences Local Part Processing: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Sun, Yaoru; Zhao, Lun

    2017-01-01

    Perception of face parts on the basis of features is thought to be different from perception of whole faces, which is more based on configural information. Face context is also suggested to play an important role in face processing. To investigate how face context influences the early-stage perception of facial local parts, we used an oddball paradigm that tested perceptual stages of face processing rather than recognition. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by whole faces and face parts presented in four conditions (upright-normal, upright-thatcherised, inverted-normal and inverted-thatcherised), as well as the ERPs elicited by non-face objects (whole houses and house parts) with corresponding conditions. The results showed that face context significantly affected the N170 with increased amplitudes and earlier peak latency for upright normal faces. Removing face context delayed the P1 latency but did not affect the P1 amplitude prominently for both upright and inverted normal faces. Across all conditions, neither the N170 nor the P1 was modulated by house context. The significant changes on the N170 and P1 components revealed that face context influences local part processing at the early stage of face processing and this context effect might be specific for face perception. We further suggested that perceptions of whole faces and face parts are functionally distinguished.

  2. An ERP Study of Emotional Face Processing in the Adult and Infant Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Jukka M.; Moulson, Margaret C.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the ontogeny of emotional face processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from adults and 7-month-old infants while viewing pictures of fearful, happy, and neutral faces. Face-sensitive ERPs at occipital-temporal scalp regions differentiated between fearful and neutral/happy faces in both adults (N170 was larger for fear)…

  3. Investigation of Effects of Face Rotation on Race Processing: An ERPs Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montalan, Benoit; Veujoz, Mathieu; Boitout, Alexis; Leleu, Arnaud; Camus, Odile; Lalonde, Robert; Rebai, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Recent ERP research has indicated that the processing of faces of other races (OR) and same race (SR) as the perceiver differs at the perceptual level, more precisely for the N170 component. The purpose of the present study was to continue the investigation of the race-of-face processing across multiple orientations. Event-related brain potentials…

  4. An ERP study of emotional face processing in the adult and infant brain.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Jukka M; Moulson, Margaret C; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K; Nelson, Charles A

    2007-01-01

    To examine the ontogeny of emotional face processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from adults and 7-month-old infants while viewing pictures of fearful, happy, and neutral faces. Face-sensitive ERPs at occipital-temporal scalp regions differentiated between fearful and neutral/happy faces in both adults (N170 was larger for fear) and infants (P400 was larger for fear). Behavioral measures showed no overt attentional bias toward fearful faces in adults, but in infants, the duration of the first fixation was longer for fearful than happy faces. Together, these results suggest that the neural systems underlying the differential processing of fearful and happy/neutral faces are functional early in life, and that affective factors may play an important role in modulating infants' face processing.

  5. A novel BCI based on ERP components sensitive to configural processing of human faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Qibin; Jing, Jin; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2012-04-01

    This study introduces a novel brain-computer interface (BCI) based on an oddball paradigm using stimuli of facial images with loss of configural face information (e.g., inversion of face). To the best of our knowledge, till now the configural processing of human faces has not been applied to BCI but widely studied in cognitive neuroscience research. Our experiments confirm that the face-sensitive event-related potential (ERP) components N170 and vertex positive potential (VPP) have reflected early structural encoding of faces and can be modulated by the configural processing of faces. With the proposed novel paradigm, we investigate the effects of ERP components N170, VPP and P300 on target detection for BCI. An eight-class BCI platform is developed to analyze ERPs and evaluate the target detection performance using linear discriminant analysis without complicated feature extraction processing. The online classification accuracy of 88.7% and information transfer rate of 38.7 bits min-1 using stimuli of inverted faces with only single trial suggest that the proposed paradigm based on the configural processing of faces is very promising for visual stimuli-driven BCI applications.

  6. Effect of Affective Personality Information on Face Processing: Evidence from ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qiu L.; Wang, Han L.; Dzhelyova, Milena; Huang, Ping; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which there are the neural correlates of the affective personality influence on face processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the learning phase, participants viewed a target individual’s face (expression neutral or faint smile) paired with either negative, neutral or positive sentences describing previous typical behavior of the target. In the following EEG testing phase, participants completed gender judgments of the learned faces. Statistical analyses were conducted on measures of neural activity during the gender judgment task. Repeated measures ANOVA of ERP data showed that faces described as having a negative personality elicited larger N170 than did those with a neutral or positive description. The early posterior negativity (EPN) showed the same result pattern, with larger amplitudes for faces paired with negative personality than for others. The size of the late positive potential was larger for faces paired with positive personality than for those with neutral and negative personality. The current study indicates that affective personality information is associated with an automatic, top–down modulation on face processing. PMID:27303359

  7. Face-selective processing and the effect of pleasant and unpleasant emotional expressions on ERP correlates.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Pozzoli, Uberto

    2003-07-01

    Previous studies have revealed that decoding of facial-expressions starts very early in the brain ( approximately 180 ms post-stimulus) and might be processed separately from the basic stage of face perception. In order to explore brain potentials (ERPs) related to decoding of facial-expressions and the effect of emotional valence of the stimulus, we analyzed 18 normal subjects. Faces with five basic emotional expressions (fear, anger, surprise, happiness, sadness) and neutral stimulus were presented in random order. The results demonstrated that an emotional face elicited a negative peak at approximately 230 ms (N230), distributed mainly over the posterior site for each emotion. The electrophysiological activity observed may represent specific cognitive processing underlying the decoding of emotional facial-expressions. Nevertheless, differences in peak amplitude were observed for high-arousal negative expressions compared with positive (happiness) and low-arousal expressions (sadness). N230 amplitude increased in response to anger, fear and surprise, suggesting that subjects' ERP variations are affected by experienced emotional intensity, related to arousal and unpleasant value of the stimulus.

  8. Following the time course of face gender and expression processing: a task-dependent ERP study.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Conroy, Berenice; Aguado, Luis; Fernández-Cahill, María; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa

    2014-05-01

    The effects of task demands and the interaction between gender and expression in face perception were studied using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants performed three different tasks with male and female faces that were emotionally inexpressive or that showed happy or angry expressions. In two of the tasks (gender and expression categorization) facial properties were task-relevant while in a third task (symbol discrimination) facial information was irrelevant. Effects of expression were observed on the visual P100 component under all task conditions, suggesting the operation of an automatic process that is not influenced by task demands. The earliest interaction between expression and gender was observed later in the face-sensitive N170 component. This component showed differential modulations by specific combinations of gender and expression (e.g., angry male vs. angry female faces). Main effects of expression and task were observed in a later occipito-temporal component peaking around 230 ms post-stimulus onset (EPN or early posterior negativity). Less positive amplitudes in the presence of angry faces and during performance of the gender and expression tasks were observed. Finally, task demands also modulated a positive component peaking around 400 ms (LPC, or late positive complex) that showed enhanced amplitude for the gender task. The pattern of results obtained here adds new evidence about the sequence of operations involved in face processing and the interaction of facial properties (gender and expression) in response to different task demands.

  9. Repetition effects in human ERPs to faces.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Neumann, Markus F

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we review research conducted over the past 25 years addressing the effects of repeating various kinds of information in faces (e.g., pictorial, spatial configural, identity, semantic) on different components in human event-related brain potentials (ERPs). This body of evidence suggests that several ERP components are systematically linked to different functional components of face identity processing. Specifically, we argue (1) that repetition of the category of faces (categorical adaptation) strongly affects the occipitotemporal N170 amplitude, which is systematically suppressed when a face is preceded by another face, irrespective of its identity, whereas (2) the prototypicality of a face's second order spatial configuration has a prominent effect on the subsequent occipitotemporal P200. Longer-latency repetition effects are related to the processing of individual facial identities. These include (3) an ERP correlate of the transient activation of individual representations of repeated faces in the form of an enhanced occipitotemporal N250r as seen in repetition priming experiments, and (4) a correlate of the acquisition of individual face identity representations during learning as seen in a topographically similar long-lasting N250 effect. Finally, (5) the repetition of semantic information in familiar person recognition elicits a central-parietal N400 ERP effect. We hope that this overview will encourage researchers to further exploit the potential of ERPs to provide a continuous time window to neuronal correlates of multiple processes in face perception under comparatively natural viewing conditions.

  10. Behavioral and ERP Measures of Holistic Face Processing in a Composite Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letourneau, Susan M.; Mitchell, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Holistic processing of faces is characterized by encoding of the face as a single stimulus. This study employed a composite face task to examine whether holistic processing varies when attention is restricted to the top as compared to the bottom half of the face, and whether evidence of holistic processing would be observed in event-related…

  11. The Role of Configural Processing in Face Classification by Race: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jing; Yan, Tianyi; Tao, Luyang; Zhao, Lun

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the time course of the other-race classification advantage (ORCA) in the subordinate classification of normally configured faces and distorted faces by race. Slightly distorting the face configuration delayed the categorization of own-race faces and had no conspicuous effects on other-race faces. The N170 was sensitive neither to configural distortions nor to faces' races. The P3 was enhanced for other-race than own-race faces and reduced by configural manipulation only for own-race faces. We suggest that the source of ORCA is the configural analysis applied by default while processing own-race faces. PMID:26733850

  12. Working memory load reduces facilitated processing of threatening faces: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Van Dillen, Lotte F; Derks, Belle

    2012-12-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that facilitated processing of threatening faces depends on working memory load. Participants judged the gender of angry versus happy faces while event-related brain potentials were recorded. Working memory load was manipulated within subjects by the mental rehearsal of one- versus eight-digit numbers. Behavioral results showed that the relative slow-down to angry compared to happy faces in the gender-naming task (i.e., the negativity bias) was eliminated under high working memory load. Under low (but not high) load, N2 amplitudes were smaller to angry compared to happy faces. Moreover, high load reduced LPP amplitude and eliminated the enhanced LPP to angry compared to happy faces that were present under low load. These results suggest that working memory load improves attentional control, and reduces sustained attention for distracting negative expressions. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that facilitated processing of threatening cues may be contingent on cognitive resources.

  13. Biased processing of sad faces: an ERP marker candidate for depression susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bistricky, Steven L; Atchley, Ruth Ann; Ingram, Rick; O'Hare, Aminda

    2014-04-01

    Depression has been associated with task-relevant increased attention toward negative information, reduced attention toward positive information, or reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant negative information. This study employed behavioural and psychophysiological measures (event-related potentials; ERP) to examine whether groups with risk factors for depression (past depression, current dysphoria) would show attentional biases or inhibitory deficits related to viewing facial expressions. In oddball task blocks, young adult participants responded to an infrequently presented target emotion (e.g., sad) and inhibited responses to an infrequently presented distracter emotion (e.g., happy) in the context of frequently presented neutral stimuli. Previous depression was uniquely associated with greater P3 ERP amplitude following sad targets, reflecting a selective attention bias. Also, dysphoric individuals less effectively inhibited responses to sad distracters than non-dysphoric individuals according to behavioural data, but not psychophysiological data. Results suggest that depression risk may be most reliably characterised by increased attention toward others' depressive facial emotion.

  14. The Effects of Face Inversion and Face Race on the P100 ERP.

    PubMed

    Colombatto, Clara; McCarthy, Gregory

    2016-11-29

    Research about the neural basis of face recognition has investigated the timing and anatomical substrates of different stages of face processing. Scalp-recorded ERP studies of face processing have focused on the N170, an ERP with a peak latency of ∼170 msec that has long been associated with the initial structural encoding of faces. However, several studies have reported earlier ERP differences related to faces, suggesting that face-specific processes might occur before N170. Here, we examined the influence of face inversion and face race on the timing of face-sensitive scalp-recorded ERPs by examining neural responses to upright and inverted line-drawn and luminance-matched White and Black faces in a sample of White participants. We found that the P100 ERP evoked by inverted faces was significantly larger than that evoked by upright faces. Although this inversion effect was statistically significant at 100 msec, the inverted-upright ERP difference peaked at 138 msec, suggesting that it might represent an activity in neural sources that overlap with P100. Inverse modeling of the inversion effect difference waveform suggested possible neural sources in pericalcarine extrastriate visual cortex and lateral occipito-temporal cortex. We also found that the inversion effect difference wave was larger for White faces. These results are consistent with behavioral evidence that individuals process the faces of their own races more configurally than faces of other races. Taken together, the inversion and race effects observed in the current study suggest that configuration influences face processing by at least 100 msec.

  15. Early ERPs to faces: aging, luminance, and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Magdalena M.; Frei, Luisa S.; Rousselet, Guillaume A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Rousselet et al. reported a 1 ms/year delay in visual processing speed in a sample of healthy aged 62 subjects (Frontiers in Psychology 2010, 1:19). Here, we replicate this finding in an independent sample of 59 subjects and investigate the contribution of optical factors (pupil size and luminance) to the age-related slowdown and to individual differences in visual processing speed. We conducted two experiments. In experiment 1 we recorded EEG from subjects aged 18–79. Subjects viewed images of faces and phase scrambled noise textures under nine luminance conditions, ranging from 0.59 to 60.8 cd/m2. We manipulated luminance using neutral density filters. In experiment 2, 10 young subjects (age < 35) viewed similar stimuli through pinholes ranging from 1 to 5 mm. In both experiments, subjects were tested twice. We found a 1 ms/year slowdown in visual processing that was independent of luminance. Aging effects became visible around 125 ms post-stimulus and did not affect the onsets of the face-texture ERP differences. Furthermore, luminance modulated the entire ERP time-course from 60 to 500 ms. Luminance effects peaked in the N170 time window and were independent of age. Importantly, senile miosis and individual differences in pupil size did not account for aging differences and inter-subject variability in processing speed. The pinhole manipulation also failed to match the ERPs of old subjects to those of young subjects. Overall, our results strongly suggest that early ERPs to faces (<200 ms) are delayed by aging and that these delays are of cortical, rather than optical origin. Our results also demonstrate that even late ERPs to faces are modulated by low-level factors. PMID:23717297

  16. Neural correlates of top-down processing in emotion perception: an ERP study of emotional faces in white noise versus noise-alone stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Yong; Lee, Tae-Ho; Yoon, So-Jeong; Cho, Yang Seok; Choi, June-Seek; Kim, Hyun Taek

    2010-06-14

    In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates underlying the perception of emotion in response to facial stimuli in order to elucidate the extent to which emotional perception is affected by the top-down process. Subjects performed a forced, two-choice emotion discrimination task towards ambiguous visual stimuli consisted of emotional faces embedded in different levels of visual white noise, including white noise-alone stimuli. ERP recordings and behavioral responses were analyzed according to the four response categories: hit, miss, false alarm and correct rejection. We observed enlarged EPN and LPP amplitudes when subjects reported seeing fearful faces and a typical emotional EPN response in the white noise-alone conditions when fearful faces were not presented. The two components of the ERP data which imply the characteristic modulation reflecting emotional processing showed the type of emotion each individual subjectively perceived. The results suggest that top-down modulations might be indispensable for emotional perception, which consists of two distinct stages of stimulus processing in the brain.

  17. Early ERP Modulation for Task-Irrelevant Subliminal Faces

    PubMed Central

    Pegna, Alan J.; Darque, Alexandra; Berrut, Claire; Khateb, Asaid

    2011-01-01

    A number of investigations have reported that emotional faces can be processed subliminally, and that they give rise to specific patterns of brain activation in the absence of awareness. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have suggested that electrophysiological differences occur early in time (<200 ms) in response to backward-masked emotional faces. These findings have been taken as evidence of a rapid non-conscious pathway, which would allow threatening stimuli to be processed rapidly and subsequently allow appropriate avoidance action to be taken. However, for this to be the case, subliminal processing should arise even if the threatening stimulus is not attended. This point has in fact not yet been clearly established. In this ERP study, we investigated whether subliminal processing of fearful faces occurs outside the focus of attention. Fourteen healthy participants performed a line judgment task while fearful and non-fearful (happy or neutral) faces were presented both subliminally and supraliminally. ERPs were compared across the four experimental conditions (i.e., subliminal and supraliminal; fearful and non-fearful). The earliest differences between fearful and non-fearful faces appeared as an enhanced posterior negativity for the former at 170 ms (the N170 component) over right temporo-occipital electrodes. This difference was observed for both subliminal (p < 0.05) and supraliminal presentations (p < 0.01). Our results confirm that subliminal processing of fearful faces occurs early in the course of visual processing, and more importantly, that this arises even when the subject's attention is engaged in an incidental task. PMID:21687457

  18. Women are better at seeing faces where there are none: an ERP study of face pareidolia.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice M; Galli, Jessica

    2016-09-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 26 right-handed students while they detected pictures of animals intermixed with those of familiar objects, faces and faces-in-things (FITs). The face-specific N170 ERP component over the right hemisphere was larger in response to faces and FITs than to objects. The vertex positive potential (VPP) showed a difference in FIT encoding processes between males and females at frontal sites; while for men, the FIT stimuli elicited a VPP of intermediate amplitude (between that for faces and objects), for women, there was no difference in VPP responses to faces or FITs, suggesting a marked anthropomorphization of objects in women. SwLORETA source reconstructions carried out to estimate the intracortical generators of ERPs in the 150-190 ms time window showed how, in the female brain, FIT perception was associated with the activation of brain areas involved in the affective processing of faces (right STS, BA22; posterior cingulate cortex, BA22; and orbitofrontal cortex, BA10) in addition to regions linked to shape processing (left cuneus, BA18/30). Conversely, in the men, the activation of occipito/parietal regions was prevalent, with a considerably smaller activation of BA10. The data suggest that the female brain is more inclined to anthropomorphize perfectly real objects compared to the male brain.

  19. Love withdrawal is related to heightened processing of faces with emotional expressions and incongruent emotional feedback: evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Huffmeijer, Renske; Tops, Mattie; Alink, Lenneke R A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2011-03-01

    Parental use of love withdrawal is thought to affect children's later psychological functioning because it creates a link between children's performance and relational consequences. To investigate whether love withdrawal is also associated with the underlying level of basic information processing in the brain, we studied event-related potentials to feedback stimuli that combined performance feedback with emotional facial expressions. We focused on the VPP (face processing) and N400 (incongruence processing). More maternal use of love withdrawal was related to more positive VPP amplitudes, larger effects of the emotional facial expression on VPP amplitude, and more negative N400 responses to incongruent combinations of feedback and facial expressions. Our findings suggest a heightened processing of faces with emotional expressions and greater sensitivity to incongruence between feedback and facial expression in individuals who experienced more love withdrawal.

  20. Hemodynamic and Electrophysiological Relationship Involved in Human Face Processing: Evidence from a Combined fMRI-ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Haneda, Kaoruko; Okada, Tomohisa; Sadato, Norihiro

    2006-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) experiments were conducted in the same group of subjects and with an identical task paradigm to investigate a possible relationship between hemodynamic and electrophysiological responses within the brain. The subjects were instructed to judge whether visually presented…

  1. Face repetition detection and social interest: An ERP study in adults with and without Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Key, Alexandra P; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2016-12-01

    The present study examined possible neural mechanisms underlying increased social interest in persons with Williams syndrome (WS). Visual event-related potentials (ERPs) during passive viewing were used to compare incidental memory traces for repeated vs. single presentations of previously unfamiliar social (faces) and nonsocial (houses) images in 26 adults with WS and 26 typical adults. Results indicated that participants with WS developed familiarity with the repeated faces and houses (frontal N400 response), but only typical adults evidenced the parietal old/new effect (previously associated with stimulus recollection) for the repeated faces. There was also no evidence of exceptional salience of social information in WS, as ERP markers of memory for repeated faces vs. houses were not significantly different. Thus, while persons with WS exhibit behavioral evidence of increased social interest, their processing of social information in the absence of specific instructions may be relatively superficial. The ERP evidence of face repetition detection in WS was independent of IQ and the earlier perceptual differentiation of social vs. nonsocial stimuli. Large individual differences in ERPs of participants with WS may provide valuable information for understanding the WS phenotype and have relevance for educational and treatment purposes.

  2. Implicit conditioning of faces via the social regulation of emotion: ERP evidence of early attentional biases for security conditioned faces.

    PubMed

    Beckes, Lane; Coan, James A; Morris, James P

    2013-08-01

    Not much is known about the neural and psychological processes that promote the initial conditions necessary for positive social bonding. This study explores one method of conditioned bonding utilizing dynamics related to the social regulation of emotion and attachment theory. This form of conditioning involves repeated presentations of negative stimuli followed by images of warm, smiling faces. L. Beckes, J. Simpson, and A. Erickson (2010) found that this conditioning procedure results in positive associations with the faces measured via a lexical decision task, suggesting they are perceived as comforting. This study found that the P1 ERP was similarly modified by this conditioning procedure and the P1 amplitude predicted lexical decision times to insecure words primed by the faces. The findings have implications for understanding how the brain detects supportive people, the flexibility and modifiability of early ERP components, and social bonding more broadly.

  3. ERP profiles for face and word recognition are based on their status in semantic memory not their stimulus category.

    PubMed

    Nie, Aiqing; Griffin, Michael; Keinath, Alexander; Walsh, Matthew; Dittmann, Andrea; Reder, Lynne

    2014-04-04

    Previous research has suggested that faces and words are processed and remembered differently as reflected by different ERP patterns for the two types of stimuli. Specifically, face stimuli produced greater late positive deflections for old items in anterior compared to posterior regions, while word stimuli produced greater late positive deflections in posterior compared to anterior regions. Given that words have existing representations in subjects׳ long-term memories (LTM) and that face stimuli used in prior experiments were of unknown individuals, we conducted an ERP study that crossed face and letter stimuli with the presence or absence of a prior (stable or existing) memory representation. During encoding, subjects judged whether stimuli were known (famous face or real word) or not known (unknown person or pseudo-word). A surprise recognition memory test required subjects to distinguish between stimuli that appeared during the encoding phase and stimuli that did not. ERP results were consistent with previous research when comparing unknown faces and words; however, the late ERP pattern for famous faces was more similar to that for words than for unknown faces. This suggests that the critical ERP difference is mediated by whether there is a prior representation in LTM, and not whether the stimulus involves letters or faces.

  4. Event-Related Brain Potential Correlates of Emotional Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eimer, Martin; Holmes, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Results from recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies investigating brain processes involved in the detection and analysis of emotional facial expression are reviewed. In all experiments, emotional faces were found to trigger an increased ERP positivity relative to neutral faces. The onset of this emotional expression effect was…

  5. How do neural responses to eyes contribute to face-sensitive ERP components in young infants? A rapid repetition study.

    PubMed

    Hoehl, Stefanie

    2015-04-01

    Several face-sensitive components of the event-related potential (ERP) have been identified in infants, such as the posterior N290 and P400 components. The contribution of eye-sensitive neurons to these components is still unclear, however. A rapid repetition ERP paradigm was used to test 4-month-olds' responses to faces with and without eyes (preceded by houses, i.e., unprimed) and faces with eyes that were preceded by faces with or without eyes (i.e., primed). N290 latency was reduced and P400 amplitude was increased for unprimed faces without eyes compared to intact faces. In addition, N290 latency was reduced for faces preceded by intact faces compared to faces preceded by faces without eyes. Thus, processing speed at the level of the N290 and amplitude of the P400 are affected by the absence of eyes in a face supporting the notion that eye-sensitive neurons contribute to these components in infancy. Findings are discussed in relation to the early development of face processing and infant and adult ERP responses to faces and eyes.

  6. Simultaneous face and voice processing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taosheng; Pinheiro, Ana P; Zhao, Zhongxin; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-05-15

    While several studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in the unisensory processing of face and voice in schizophrenia (SZ), the extent of abnormalities in the simultaneous processing of both types of information remains unclear. To address this issue, we used event-related potentials (ERP) methodology to probe the multisensory integration of face and non-semantic sounds in schizophrenia. EEG was recorded from 18 schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects in three conditions: neutral faces (visual condition-VIS); neutral non-semantic sounds (auditory condition-AUD); neutral faces presented simultaneously with neutral non-semantic sounds (audiovisual condition-AUDVIS). When compared with HC, the schizophrenia group showed less negative N170 to both face and face-voice stimuli; later P270 peak latency in the multimodal condition of face-voice relative to unimodal condition of face (the reverse was true in HC); reduced P400 amplitude and earlier P400 peak latency in the face but not in the voice-face condition. Thus, the analysis of ERP components suggests that deficits in the encoding of facial information extend to multimodal face-voice stimuli and that delays exist in feature extraction from multimodal face-voice stimuli in schizophrenia. In contrast, categorization processes seem to benefit from the presentation of simultaneous face-voice information. Timepoint by timepoint tests of multimodal integration did not suggest impairment in the initial stages of processing in schizophrenia.

  7. Brain Activation during Upright and Inverted Encoding of Own- and Other-Age Faces: ERP Evidence for an Own-Age Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melinder, Annika; Gredeback, Gustaf; Westerlund, Alissa; Nelson, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the neural processing underlying own-age versus other-age faces among 5-year-old children and adults, as well as the effect of orientation on face processing. Upright and inverted faces of 5-year-old children, adults, and elderly adults (greater than 75 years of age) were presented to participants while ERPs and eye tracking…

  8. Social identity modifies face perception: an ERP study of social categorization

    PubMed Central

    Stedehouder, Jeffrey; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social identity processes, i.e. group identification and social identity threat, amplify the degree to which people attend to social category information in early perception [assessed with event-related brain potentials (ERPs)]. Participants were presented with faces of Muslims and non-Muslims in an evaluative priming task while ERPs were measured and implicit evaluative bias was assessed. Study 1 revealed that non-Muslims showed stronger differentiation between ingroup and outgroup faces in both early (N200) and later processing stages (implicit evaluations) when they identified more strongly with their ethnic group. Moreover, identification effects on implicit bias were mediated by intergroup differentiation in the N200. In Study 2, social identity threat (vs control) was manipulated among Muslims. Results revealed that high social identity threat resulted in stronger differentiation of Muslims from non-Muslims in early (N200) and late (implicit evaluations) processing stages, with N200 effects again predicting implicit bias. Combined, these studies reveal how seemingly bottom-up early social categorization processes are affected by individual and contextual variables that affect the meaning of social identity. Implications of these results for the social identity perspective as well as social cognitive theories of person perception are discussed. PMID:25140049

  9. Social identity modifies face perception: an ERP study of social categorization.

    PubMed

    Derks, Belle; Stedehouder, Jeffrey; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-05-01

    Two studies examined whether social identity processes, i.e. group identification and social identity threat, amplify the degree to which people attend to social category information in early perception [assessed with event-related brain potentials (ERPs)]. Participants were presented with faces of Muslims and non-Muslims in an evaluative priming task while ERPs were measured and implicit evaluative bias was assessed. Study 1 revealed that non-Muslims showed stronger differentiation between ingroup and outgroup faces in both early (N200) and later processing stages (implicit evaluations) when they identified more strongly with their ethnic group. Moreover, identification effects on implicit bias were mediated by intergroup differentiation in the N200. In Study 2, social identity threat (vs control) was manipulated among Muslims. Results revealed that high social identity threat resulted in stronger differentiation of Muslims from non-Muslims in early (N200) and late (implicit evaluations) processing stages, with N200 effects again predicting implicit bias. Combined, these studies reveal how seemingly bottom-up early social categorization processes are affected by individual and contextual variables that affect the meaning of social identity. Implications of these results for the social identity perspective as well as social cognitive theories of person perception are discussed.

  10. An ERP investigation of the co-development of hemispheric lateralization of face and word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Dundas, Eva M.; Plaut, David C.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    The adult human brain would appear to have specialized and independent neural systems for the visual processing of words and faces. Extensive evidence has demonstrated greater selectivity for written words in the left over right hemisphere, and, conversely, greater selectivity for faces in the right over left hemisphere. This study examines the emergence of these complementary neural profiles, as well as the possible relationship between them. Using behavioral and neurophysiological measures, in adults, we observed the standard finding of greater accuracy and a larger N170 ERP component in the left over right hemisphere for words, and conversely, greater accuracy and a larger N170 in the right over the left hemisphere for faces. We also found that, although children aged 7-12 years revealed the adult hemispheric pattern for words, they showed neither a behavioral nor a neural hemispheric superiority for faces. Of particular interest, the magnitude of their N170 for faces in the right hemisphere was related to that of the N170 for words in their left hemisphere. These findings suggest that the hemispheric organization of face recognition and of word recognition do not develop independently, and that word lateralization may precede and drive later face lateralization. A theoretical account for the findings, in which competition for visual representations unfolds over the course of development, is discussed. PMID:24933662

  11. Impact of Intention on the ERP Correlates of Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Tiberghien, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of study-test similarity on face recognition by manipulating, in the same experiment, the expression change (same vs. different) and the task-processing context (inclusion vs. exclusion instructions) as within-subject variables. Consistent with the dual-process framework, the present results showed that…

  12. N250r and N400 ERP correlates of immediate famous face repetition are independent of perceptual load.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Markus F; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2008-11-06

    It is a matter of considerable debate whether attention to initial stimulus presentations is required for repetition-related neural modulations to occur. Recently, it has been assumed that faces are particularly hard to ignore, and can capture attention in a reflexive manner. In line with this idea, electrophysiological evidence for long-term repetition effects of unattended famous faces has been reported. The present study investigated influences of attention to prime faces on short-term repetition effects in event-related potentials (ERPs). We manipulated attention to short (200 ms) prime presentations (S1) of task-irrelevant famous faces according to Lavie's Perceptual Load Theory. Participants attended to letter strings superimposed on face images, and identified target letters "X" vs. "N" embedded in strings of either 6 different (high load) or 6 identical (low load) letters. Letter identification was followed by probe presentations (S2), which were either repetitions of S1 faces, new famous faces, or infrequent butterflies, to which participants responded. Our ERP data revealed repetition effects in terms of an N250r at occipito-temporal regions, suggesting priming of face identification processes, and in terms of an N400 at the vertex, suggesting semantic priming. Crucially, the magnitude of these effects was unaffected by perceptual load at S1 presentation. This indicates that task-irrelevant face processing is remarkably preserved even in a demanding letter detection task, supporting recent notions of face-specific attentional resources.

  13. ERP investigation of study-test background mismatch during face recognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Guillem, François; Tiberghien, Guy; Stip, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Old/new effects on event-related potentials (ERP) were explored in 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 paired comparison subjects during unfamiliar face recognition. Extrinsic perceptual changes - which influence the overall familiarity of an item while retaining face-intrinsic features for use in structural face encoding - were manipulated between the study phase and the test. The question raised here concerns whether these perceptual incongruities would have a different effect on the sense of familiarity and the corresponding behavioral and ERP measures in the two groups. The results showed that schizophrenia patients were more inclined to consider old faces shown against a new background as distractors. This drop in face familiarity was accompanied by the disappearance of ERP old/new effects in this condition, i.e., FN400 and parietal old/new effects. Indeed, while ERP old/new recognition effects were found in both groups when the picture of the face was physically identical to the one presented for study, the ERP correlates of recognition disappeared among patients when the background behind the face was different. This difficulty in disregarding a background change suggests that recognition among patients with schizophrenia is based on a global perceptual matching strategy rather than on the extraction of configural information from the face. The correlations observed between FN400 amplitude, the rejection of faces with a different background, and the reality-distortion scores support the idea that the recognition deficit found in schizophrenia results from early anomalies that are carried over onto the parietal ERP old/new effect. Face-extrinsic perceptual variations provide an opportune situation for gaining insight into the social difficulties that patients encounter throughout their lives.

  14. What drives social in-group biases in face recognition memory? ERP evidence from the own-gender bias

    PubMed Central

    Kemter, Kathleen; Schweinberger, Stefan R.; Wiese, Holger

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that memory is more accurate for own-relative to other-race faces (own-race bias), which has been suggested to result from larger perceptual expertise for own-race faces. Previous studies also demonstrated better memory for own-relative to other-gender faces, which is less likely to result from differences in perceptual expertise, and rather may be related to social in-group vs out-group categorization. We examined neural correlates of the own-gender bias using event-related potentials (ERP). In a recognition memory experiment, both female and male participants remembered faces of their respective own gender more accurately compared with other-gender faces. ERPs during learning yielded significant differences between the subsequent memory effects (subsequently remembered – subsequently forgotten) for own-gender compared with other-gender faces in the occipito-temporal P2 and the central N200, whereas neither later subsequent memory effects nor ERP old/new effects at test reflected a neural correlate of the own-gender bias. We conclude that the own-gender bias is mainly related to study phase processes, which is in line with sociocognitive accounts. PMID:23474824

  15. Flashing characters with famous faces improves ERP-based brain-computer interface performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, T.; Schulz, S. M.; Grünzinger, C.; Kübler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Currently, the event-related potential (ERP)-based spelling device, often referred to as P300-Speller, is the most commonly used brain-computer interface (BCI) for enhancing communication of patients with impaired speech or motor function. Among numerous improvements, a most central feature has received little attention, namely optimizing the stimulus used for eliciting ERPs. Therefore we compared P300-Speller performance with the standard stimulus (flashing characters) against performance with stimuli known for eliciting particularly strong ERPs due to their psychological salience, i.e. flashing familiar faces transparently superimposed on characters. Our results not only indicate remarkably increased ERPs in response to familiar faces but also improved P300-Speller performance due to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences needed for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-Speller.

  16. Flashing characters with famous faces improves ERP-based brain-computer interface performance.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, T; Schulz, S M; Grünzinger, C; Kübler, A

    2011-10-01

    Currently, the event-related potential (ERP)-based spelling device, often referred to as P300-Speller, is the most commonly used brain-computer interface (BCI) for enhancing communication of patients with impaired speech or motor function. Among numerous improvements, a most central feature has received little attention, namely optimizing the stimulus used for eliciting ERPs. Therefore we compared P300-Speller performance with the standard stimulus (flashing characters) against performance with stimuli known for eliciting particularly strong ERPs due to their psychological salience, i.e. flashing familiar faces transparently superimposed on characters. Our results not only indicate remarkably increased ERPs in response to familiar faces but also improved P300-Speller performance due to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences needed for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-Speller.

  17. Your emotion or mine: labeling feelings alters emotional face perception—an ERP study on automatic and intentional affect labeling

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Cornelia; Sfärlea, Anca; Blumenthal, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that words are powerful regulators of emotion processing. Although a number of studies have used words as contextual cues for emotion processing, the role of what is being labeled by the words (i.e., one's own emotion as compared to the emotion expressed by the sender) is poorly understood. The present study reports results from two experiments which used ERP methodology to evaluate the impact of emotional faces and self- vs. sender-related emotional pronoun-noun pairs (e.g., my fear vs. his fear) as cues for emotional face processing. The influence of self- and sender-related cues on the processing of fearful, angry and happy faces was investigated in two contexts: an automatic (experiment 1) and intentional affect labeling task (experiment 2), along with control conditions of passive face processing. ERP patterns varied as a function of the label's reference (self vs. sender) and the intentionality of the labeling task (experiment 1 vs. experiment 2). In experiment 1, self-related labels increased the motivational relevance of the emotional faces in the time-window of the EPN component. Processing of sender-related labels improved emotion recognition specifically for fearful faces in the N170 time-window. Spontaneous processing of affective labels modulated later stages of face processing as well. Amplitudes of the late positive potential (LPP) were reduced for fearful, happy, and angry faces relative to the control condition of passive viewing. During intentional regulation (experiment 2) amplitudes of the LPP were enhanced for emotional faces when subjects used the self-related emotion labels to label their own emotion during face processing, and they rated the faces as higher in arousal than the emotional faces that had been presented in the “label sender's emotion” condition or the passive viewing condition. The present results argue in favor of a differentiated view of language-as-context for emotion processing. PMID:23888134

  18. Gender Differences in Neural Responses to Perceptually Invisible Fearful Face-An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung A; Kim, Chai-Youn; Shim, Miseon; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Women tend to respond to emotional stimuli differently from men. This study aimed at investigating whether neural responses to perceptually "invisible" emotional stimuli differ between men and women by exploiting event-related potential (ERP). Forty healthy participants (21 women) were recruited for the main experiment. A control experiment was conducted by excluding nine (7 women) participants from the main experiment and replacing them with additional ten (6 women) participants (total 41 participants) where Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) scores were controlled. Using the visual backward masking paradigm, either a fearful or a neutral face stimulus was presented in varied durations (subthreshold, near-threshold, or suprathreshold) followed by a mask. Participants performed a two-alternative forced choice (2-AFC) emotion discrimination task on each face. Behavioral analysis showed that participants were unaware of masked stimuli of which duration was the shortest and, therefore, processed at subthreshold. Nevertheless, women showed significantly larger response in P100 amplitude to subthreshold fearful faces than men. This result remained consistent in the control experiment. Our findings indicate gender-differences in neural response to subthreshold emotional face, which is reflected in the early processing stage.

  19. Early visual ERP sensitivity to the species and animacy of faces

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin; Koldewyn, Kami

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the agency of potential actors in the visual world is a critically important aspect of social cognition. Adult observers are generally capable of distinguishing real faces from artificial faces (even allowing for recent advances in graphics technology and motion capture); even small deviations from real facial appearance can lead to profound effects on face recognition. Presently, we examined how early components ofvisual event-related potentials (ERPs) are affected by the “life” in human faces and animal faces. We presented participants with real and artificial faces of humans and dogs, and analyzed the response properties of the P100 and the N170 as a function of stimulus appearance and task (species categorization vs. animacy categorization). The P100 exhibited sensitivity to face species and animacy. We found that the N170's differential responses to human faces vs. dog faces depended on the task participants’ performed. Also, the effect of species was only evident for real faces of humans and dogs, failing to obtain with artificial faces. These results suggest that face animacy does modulate early components of visual ERPs – the N170 is not merely a crude face detector, but reflects the tuning of the visual system to natural face appearance. PMID:24041668

  20. Spatiotemporal analysis of ERP data in emotional processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jin; Tian, Jie; Yang, Lei; Pan, Xiaohong; Liu, Jianggang

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of Event-related potential (ERP) in emotional processing by using fuzzy k-means clustering method to segment ERP data into microstates.108 pictures (categorized as positive, negative and neutral) were presented to 24 healthy, right-handed subjects while 128-channel EEG data were recorded. For each subject, 3 artifact-free ERPs were computed under each condition. A modified fuzzy k-mean clustering method based on shape similarity is applied to the grand mean ERPs and the statistical analysis is performed to define the significance of each segmentation map. In the results, positive and negative conditions showed different spatiotemporal patterns of ERP. The results were in accord with other emotional study by fMRI or PET.

  1. Face-Sensitive Cortical Processing in Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halit, Hanife; Csibra, Gergely; Volein, Agnes; Johnson, Mark H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Debates about the developmental origins of adult face processing could be directly addressed if a clear infant neural marker could be identified. Previous research with infants remains open to criticism regarding the control stimuli employed. Methods: We recorded ERPs from adults and 3-month-old infants while they watched faces and…

  2. Sex differences in interhemispheric communication during face identity encoding: evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Godard, Ornella; Leleu, Arnaud; Rebaï, Mohamed; Fiori, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Sex-related hemispheric lateralization and interhemispheric transmission times (IHTTs) were examined in twenty-four participants at the level of the first visual ERP components (P1 and N170) during face identity encoding in a divided visual-field paradigm. While no lateralization-related and sex-related differences were reflected in the P1 characteristics, these two factors modulated the N170. Indeed, N170 amplitudes indicated a right hemisphere (RH) dominance in men (and a more bilateral functioning in women). N170 latencies and the derived IHTTs confirmed the RH advantage in men but showed the reverse asymmetry in women. Altogether, the results of this study suggest a clear asymmetry in men and a more divided work between the hemispheres in women, with a tendency toward a left hemisphere (LH) advantage. Thus, by extending the pattern to the right-sided face processing, our results generalize previous findings from studies using other materials and indicating longer transfers from the specialized to the non-specialized hemisphere, especially in the male brain. Because asymmetries started from the N170 component, the first electrophysiological index of high-level perceptual processing on face representations, they also suggest a functional account for hemispheric lateralization and sex-related differences rather than a structural one.

  3. Fearful contextual expression impairs the encoding and recognition of target faces: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huiyan; Schulz, Claudia; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that the N170 to faces is modulated by the emotion of the face and its context. However, it is unclear how the encoding of emotional target faces as reflected in the N170 is modulated by the preceding contextual facial expression when temporal onset and identity of target faces are unpredictable. In addition, no study as yet has investigated whether contextual facial expression modulates later recognition of target faces. To address these issues, participants in the present study were asked to identify target faces (fearful or neutral) that were presented after a sequence of fearful or neutral contextual faces. The number of sequential contextual faces was random and contextual and target faces were of different identities so that temporal onset and identity of target faces were unpredictable. Electroencephalography (EEG) data was recorded during the encoding phase. Subsequently, participants had to perform an unexpected old/new recognition task in which target face identities were presented in either the encoded or the non-encoded expression. ERP data showed a reduced N170 to target faces in fearful as compared to neutral context regardless of target facial expression. In the later recognition phase, recognition rates were reduced for target faces in the encoded expression when they had been encountered in fearful as compared to neutral context. The present findings suggest that fearful compared to neutral contextual faces reduce the allocation of attentional resources towards target faces, which results in limited encoding and recognition of target faces. PMID:26388751

  4. The Development of Emotional Face and Eye Gaze Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehl, Stefanie; Striano, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that infants' attention towards novel objects is affected by an adult's emotional expression and eye gaze toward the object. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated how infants at 3, 6, and 9 months of age process fearful compared to neutral faces looking toward objects or averting gaze away…

  5. An Efficient ERP-Based Brain-Computer Interface Using Random Set Presentation and Face Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP)-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI) stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC)-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non-) self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup. PMID:25384045

  6. Online processing of moral transgressions: ERP evidence for spontaneous evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, Angelika; Mackenzie, Ian G.; Filik, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies using fictional moral dilemmas indicate that both automatic emotional processes and controlled cognitive processes contribute to moral judgments. However, not much is known about how people process socio-normative violations that are more common to their everyday life nor the time-course of these processes. Thus, we recorded participants’ electrical brain activity while they were reading vignettes that either contained morally acceptable vs unacceptable information or text materials that contained information which was either consistent or inconsistent with their general world knowledge. A first event-related brain potential (ERP) positivity peaking at ∼200 ms after critical word onset (P200) was larger when this word involved a socio-normative or knowledge-based violation. Subsequently, knowledge-inconsistent words triggered a larger centroparietal ERP negativity at ∼320 ms (N400), indicating an influence on meaning construction. In contrast, a larger ERP positivity (larger late positivity), which also started at ∼320 ms after critical word onset, was elicited by morally unacceptable compared with acceptable words. We take this ERP positivity to reflect an implicit evaluative (good–bad) categorization process that is engaged during the online processing of moral transgressions. PMID:25556210

  7. Age differences on ERP old/new effects for emotional and neutral faces.

    PubMed

    Schefter, Maria; Knorr, Sandro; Kathmann, Norbert; Werheid, Katja

    2012-08-01

    This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine age differences in recognition memory for negative and neutral faces that systematically varied in facial expression during encoding and retrieval. During study, younger and older participants viewed negative and neutral faces and were asked to classify each facial expression. During test, half of the facial identities changed their facial expression, while the other half showed the same facial expression. Participants were asked to give old/new judgments to the depicted person. Four main findings were observed. First, when facial emotion did not switch from study to test, negative and neutral faces evoked spatially dissociable ERP old/new effects, independent of age. This suggests that different retrieval mechanisms contributed to successful recognition of negative and neutral faces in both age groups. Second, faces encoded with a negative expression evoked an early occipital old/new effect only in the young, perhaps suggesting superior memory for visual information. Third, faces retrieved with a negative expression evoked in both age groups an early parietal old/new effect, suggesting that negative emotion during retrieval facilitated memory access. Hence, in the early time latency in young adults both encoding-related and retrieval-related emotion effects contributed to face recognition memory, whereas in older adults encoding-related emotion effects were reduced and retrieval-related emotion effects were preserved. Finally, in the late time latency perceptual similarity between study and test faces modified or overruled encoding-related emotion effects in the young and retrieval-related emotion effects in both age groups, respectively.

  8. An ERP Investigation of Regional and Foreign Accent Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goslin, Jeremy; Duffy, Hester; Floccia, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether we employ the same normalisation mechanisms when processing words spoken with a regional accent or foreign accent. Our results showed that the Phonological Mapping Negativity (PMN) following the onset of the final word of sentences spoken with an unfamiliar regional accent was…

  9. The association between chronic exposure to video game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Anderson, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to video game violence (VGV) is known to result in desensitization to violent material and may alter the processing of positive emotion related to facial expressions. The present study was designed to address three questions: (1) Does the association between VGV and positive emotion extend to stimuli other than faces, (2) is the association between VGV and affective picture processing observed with a single presentation of the stimuli, and (3) is the association between VGV and the response to violent stimuli sensitive to the relevance of emotion for task performance? The data revealed that transient modulations of the event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attentional orienting and sustained modulations of the ERPs related to evaluative processing were sensitive to VGV exposure.

  10. ERP Correlates of Target-Distracter Differentiation in Repeated Runs of a Continuous Recognition Task with Emotional and Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treese, Anne-Cecile; Johansson, Mikael; Lindgren, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    The emotional salience of faces has previously been shown to induce memory distortions in recognition memory tasks. This event-related potential (ERP) study used repeated runs of a continuous recognition task with emotional and neutral faces to investigate emotion-induced memory distortions. In the second and third runs, participants made more…

  11. Using ERP and WfM Systems for Implementing Business Processes: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aversano, Lerina; Tortorella, Maria

    Software systems mainly considered from enterprises for dealing with a business process automation belong to the following two categories: Workflow Management Systems (WfMS) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. The wider diffusion of ERP systems tends to favourite this solution, but there are several limitations of most ERP systems for automating business processes. This paper reports an empirical study aiming at comparing the ability of implementing business processes of ERP systems and WfMSs. Two different case studies have been considered in the empirical study. It evaluates and analyses the correctness and completeness of the process models implemented by using ERP and WfM systems.

  12. Face-Sensitive Processes One Hundred Milliseconds after Picture Onset

    PubMed Central

    Dering, Benjamin; Martin, Clara D.; Moro, Sancho; Pegna, Alan J.; Thierry, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The human face is the most studied object category in visual neuroscience. In a quest for markers of face processing, event-related potential (ERP) studies have debated whether two peaks of activity – P1 and N170 – are category-selective. Whilst most studies have used photographs of unaltered images of faces, others have used cropped faces in an attempt to reduce the influence of features surrounding the “face–object” sensu stricto. However, results from studies comparing cropped faces with unaltered objects from other categories are inconsistent with results from studies comparing whole faces and objects. Here, we recorded ERPs elicited by full front views of faces and cars, either unaltered or cropped. We found that cropping artificially enhanced the N170 whereas it did not significantly modulate P1. In a second experiment, we compared faces and butterflies, either unaltered or cropped, matched for size and luminance across conditions, and within a narrow contrast bracket. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the main findings of Experiment 1. We then used face–car morphs in a third experiment to manipulate the perceived face-likeness of stimuli (100% face, 70% face and 30% car, 30% face and 70% car, or 100% car) and the N170 failed to differentiate between faces and cars. Critically, in all three experiments, P1 amplitude was modulated in a face-sensitive fashion independent of cropping or morphing. Therefore, P1 is a reliable event sensitive to face processing as early as 100 ms after picture onset. PMID:21954382

  13. Single-trial EEG-informed fMRI reveals spatial dependency of BOLD signal on early and late IC-ERP amplitudes during face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wirsich, Jonathan; Bénar, Christian; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Descoins, Médéric; Soulier, Elisabeth; Le Troter, Arnaud; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Guye, Maxime

    2014-10-15

    Simultaneous EEG-fMRI has opened up new avenues for improving the spatio-temporal resolution of functional brain studies. However, this method usually suffers from poor EEG quality, especially for evoked potentials (ERPs), due to specific artifacts. As such, the use of EEG-informed fMRI analysis in the context of cognitive studies has particularly focused on optimizing narrow ERP time windows of interest, which ignores the rich diverse temporal information of the EEG signal. Here, we propose to use simultaneous EEG-fMRI to investigate the neural cascade occurring during face recognition in 14 healthy volunteers by using the successive ERP peaks recorded during the cognitive part of this process. N170, N400 and P600 peaks, commonly associated with face recognition, were successfully and reproducibly identified for each trial and each subject by using a group independent component analysis (ICA). For the first time we use this group ICA to extract several independent components (IC) corresponding to the sequence of activation and used single-trial peaks as modulation parameters in a general linear model (GLM) of fMRI data. We obtained an occipital-temporal-frontal stream of BOLD signal modulation, in accordance with the three successive IC-ERPs providing an unprecedented spatio-temporal characterization of the whole cognitive process as defined by BOLD signal modulation. By using this approach, the pattern of EEG-informed BOLD modulation provided improved characterization of the network involved than the fMRI-only analysis or the source reconstruction of the three ERPs; the latter techniques showing only two regions in common localized in the occipital lobe.

  14. Emotions in Word and Face Processing: Early and Late Cortical Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that emotion effects in word processing resemble those in other stimulus domains such as pictures or faces. The present study aims to provide more direct evidence for this notion by comparing emotion effects in word and face processing in a within-subject design. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded as…

  15. Multimodal processing of emotional information in 9-month-old infants I: emotional faces and voices.

    PubMed

    Otte, R A; Donkers, F C L; Braeken, M A K A; Van den Bergh, B R H

    2015-04-01

    Making sense of emotions manifesting in human voice is an important social skill which is influenced by emotions in other modalities, such as that of the corresponding face. Although processing emotional information from voices and faces simultaneously has been studied in adults, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying the development of this ability in infancy. Here we investigated multimodal processing of fearful and happy face/voice pairs using event-related potential (ERP) measures in a group of 84 9-month-olds. Infants were presented with emotional vocalisations (fearful/happy) preceded by the same or a different facial expression (fearful/happy). The ERP data revealed that the processing of emotional information appearing in human voice was modulated by the emotional expression appearing on the corresponding face: Infants responded with larger auditory ERPs after fearful compared to happy facial primes. This finding suggests that infants dedicate more processing capacities to potentially threatening than to non-threatening stimuli.

  16. Holistic processing predicts face recognition.

    PubMed

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  17. Perceptual face processing in developmental prosopagnosia is not sensitive to the canonical location of face parts.

    PubMed

    Towler, John; Parketny, Joanna; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but it is controversial whether this deficit is linked to atypical visual-perceptual face processing mechanisms. Previous behavioural studies have suggested that face perception in DP might be less sensitive to the canonical spatial configuration of face parts in upright faces. To test this prediction, we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to intact upright faces and to faces with spatially scrambled parts (eyes, nose, and mouth) in a group of ten participants with DP and a group of ten age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. The face-sensitive N170 component and the vertex positive potential (VPP) were both enhanced and delayed for scrambled as compared to intact faces in the control group. In contrast, N170 and VPP amplitude enhancements to scrambled faces were absent in the DP group. For control participants, the N170 to scrambled faces was also sensitive to feature locations, with larger and delayed N170 components contralateral to the side where all features appeared in a non-canonical position. No such differences were present in the DP group. These findings suggest that spatial templates of the prototypical feature locations within an upright face are selectively impaired in DP.

  18. Electrophysiological evidence for separation between human face and non-face object processing only in the right hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Niina, Megumi; Okamura, Jun-ya; Wang, Gang

    2015-10-01

    Scalp event-related potential (ERP) studies have demonstrated larger N170 amplitudes when subjects view faces compared to items from object categories. Extensive attempts have been made to clarify face selectivity and hemispheric dominance for face processing. The purpose of this study was to investigate hemispheric differences in N170s activated by human faces and non-face objects, as well as the extent of overlap of their sources. ERP was recorded from 20 subjects while they viewed human face and non-face images. N170s obtained during the presentation of human faces appeared earlier and with larger amplitude than for other category images. Further source analysis with a two-dipole model revealed that the locations of face and object processing largely overlapped in the left hemisphere. Conversely, the source for face processing in the right hemisphere located more anterior than the source for object processing. The results suggest that the neuronal circuits for face and object processing are largely shared in the left hemisphere, with more distinct circuits in the right hemisphere.

  19. Processing of famous faces and medial temporal lobe event-related potentials: a depth electrode study.

    PubMed

    Dietl, T; Trautner, P; Staedtgen, M; Vannucci, M; Vannuchi, M; Mecklinger, A; Grunwald, T; Clusmann, H; Elger, C E; Kurthen, M

    2005-04-01

    The present study aims at analyzing the modulation of two types of event-related potentials originating from the human medial temporal lobe, the rhinal AMTL-N400 and the hippocampal P600 by the processing of famous faces. Therefore, we used a face recognition paradigm in which subjects had to discriminate the faces of famous persons from the faces of non-famous persons. Eleven patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing intrahippocampal depth electrode recording for presurgical evaluation participated in this study. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a sequence of famous and non-famous faces was presented to the patients. The presentation of each face was repeated. The faces evoked N400-like potentials (anterior medial temporal lobe N400, AMTL-N400) in the rhinal cortex and P600-like potentials in the hippocampus. ERPs elicited by famous faces were contrasted with ERPs elicited by non-famous faces. The first presentation of famous faces elicited an enhanced AMTL-N400 and an enhanced hippocampal P600 in comparison to the second presentations of the famous faces or the (first and second presentation of the) non-famous faces. This findings are discussed in terms of associative semantic memory processes and the retrieval of person-specific information from long-term memory stores triggered by the processing of famous faces.

  20. Semantic processing during morphological priming: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Iakimova, Galina; Ziegler, Johannes C; Colé, Pascale

    2014-09-04

    Previous research has yielded conflicting results regarding the onset of semantic processing during morphological priming. The present study was designed to further explore the time-course of morphological processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). We conducted a primed lexical decision study comparing a morphological (LAVAGE - laver [washing - wash]), a semantic (LINGE - laver [laundry - wash]), an orthographic (LAVANDE - laver [lavender - wash]), and an unrelated control condition (HOSPICE - laver [nursing home - wash]), using the same targets across the four priming conditions. The behavioral data showed significant effects of morphological and semantic priming, with the magnitude of morphological priming being significantly larger than the magnitude of semantic priming. The ERP data revealed significant morphological but no semantic priming at 100-250 ms. Furthermore, a reduction of the N400 amplitude in the morphological condition compared to the semantic and orthographic condition demonstrates that the morphological priming effect was not entirely due to the semantic or orthographic overlap between the prime and the target. The present data reflect an early process of semantically blind morphological decomposition, and a later process of morpho-semantic decomposition, which we discuss in the context of recent morphological processing theories.

  1. Audiovisual speech integration in autism spectrum disorders: ERP evidence for atypicalities in lexical-semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Megnin, Odette; Flitton, Atlanta; Jones, Catherine R G; de Haan, Michelle; Baldeweg, Torsten; Charman, Tony

    2012-02-01

    In typically developing (TD) individuals, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) studies suggest that audiovisual (AV) integration enables faster and more efficient processing of speech. However, little is known about AV speech processing in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined ERP responses to spoken words to elucidate the effects of visual speech (the lip movements accompanying a spoken word) on the range of auditory speech processing stages from sound onset detection to semantic integration. The study also included an AV condition, which paired spoken words with a dynamic scrambled face in order to highlight AV effects specific to visual speech. Fourteen adolescent boys with ASD (15-17 years old) and 14 age- and verbal IQ-matched TD boys participated. The ERP of the TD group showed a pattern and topography of AV interaction effects consistent with activity within the superior temporal plane, with two dissociable effects over frontocentral and centroparietal regions. The posterior effect (200-300 ms interval) was specifically sensitive to lip movements in TD boys, and no AV modulation was observed in this region for the ASD group. Moreover, the magnitude of the posterior AV effect to visual speech correlated inversely with ASD symptomatology. In addition, the ASD boys showed an unexpected effect (P2 time window) over the frontocentral region (pooled electrodes F3, Fz, F4, FC1, FC2, FC3, FC4), which was sensitive to scrambled face stimuli. These results suggest that the neural networks facilitating processing of spoken words by visual speech are altered in individuals with ASD.

  2. Declarative Business Process Modelling and the Generation of ERP Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz-Møller, Nicholas Poul; Hølmer, Christian; Hansen, Michael R.

    We present an approach to the construction of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems, which is based on the Resources, Events and Agents (REA) ontology. This framework deals with processes involving exchange and flow of resources in a declarative, graphically-based manner describing what the major entities are rather than how they engage in computations. We show how to develop a domain-specific language on the basis of REA, and a tool which automatically can generate running web-applications. A main contribution is a proof-of-concept showing that business-domain experts can generate their own applications without worrying about implementation details.

  3. The Neural Correlates of Processing Newborn and Adult Faces in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Westerlund, Alissa; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Kuefner, Dana; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the processing of upright and inverted faces in 3-year-old children (n = 35). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive looking paradigm including adult and newborn face stimuli. We observed three face-sensitive components, the P1, the N170 and the P400. Inverted faces elicited shorter P1 latency and…

  4. Processing Metrical Information in Silent Reading: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Kriukova, Olga; Mani, Nivedita

    2016-01-01

    Listeners are sensitive to the metric structure of words, i.e., an alternating pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, in auditory speech processing: Event-related potentials recorded as participants listen to a sequence of words with a consistent metrical pattern, e.g., a series of trochaic words, suggest that participants register words metrically incongruent with the preceding sequence. Here we examine whether the processing of individual words in silent reading is similarly impacted by rhythmic properties of the surrounding context. We recorded participants' EEG as they read lists of either three trochaic or iambic disyllabic words followed by a target word that was either congruent or incongruent with the preceding metric pattern. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to targets were modulated by an interaction between metrical structure (iambic vs. trochaic) and congruence: for iambs, more positive ERPs were observed in the incongruent than congruent condition 250-400 ms and 400-600 ms post-stimulus, whereas no reliable impact of congruence was found for trochees. We suggest that when iambs are in an incongruent context, i.e., preceded by trochees, the context contains the metrical structure that is more typical in participants' native language which facilitates processing relative to when they are presented in a congruent context, containing the less typical, i.e., iambic, metrical structure. The results provide evidence that comprehenders are sensitive to the prosodic properties of the context even in silent reading, such that this sensitivity impacts lexico-semantic processing of individual words.

  5. Processing Metrical Information in Silent Reading: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Kriukova, Olga; Mani, Nivedita

    2016-01-01

    Listeners are sensitive to the metric structure of words, i.e., an alternating pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, in auditory speech processing: Event-related potentials recorded as participants listen to a sequence of words with a consistent metrical pattern, e.g., a series of trochaic words, suggest that participants register words metrically incongruent with the preceding sequence. Here we examine whether the processing of individual words in silent reading is similarly impacted by rhythmic properties of the surrounding context. We recorded participants’ EEG as they read lists of either three trochaic or iambic disyllabic words followed by a target word that was either congruent or incongruent with the preceding metric pattern. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to targets were modulated by an interaction between metrical structure (iambic vs. trochaic) and congruence: for iambs, more positive ERPs were observed in the incongruent than congruent condition 250–400 ms and 400–600 ms post-stimulus, whereas no reliable impact of congruence was found for trochees. We suggest that when iambs are in an incongruent context, i.e., preceded by trochees, the context contains the metrical structure that is more typical in participants’ native language which facilitates processing relative to when they are presented in a congruent context, containing the less typical, i.e., iambic, metrical structure. The results provide evidence that comprehenders are sensitive to the prosodic properties of the context even in silent reading, such that this sensitivity impacts lexico-semantic processing of individual words. PMID:27713718

  6. Grammatical agreement processing in reading: ERP findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Nicola; Barber, Horacio A; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-09-01

    In the domain of written sentence comprehension, the computation of agreement dependencies is generally considered as a form-driven processing routine whose domain is syntactic in nature. In the present review we discuss the main findings emerging in the Event-Related Potential (ERP) literature on sentence comprehension, focusing on the different dimensions of agreement patterns (features, values, constituents involved and language): Agreement mismatches usually evoke a biphasic electrophysiological pattern (Left Anterior Negativity - LAN, 300-450 msec and P600 after 500 msec). This ERP pattern is assumed to reflect rule-based computations sensitive to formal (inflectional) covariations of related words (trigger-target). Here we claim that agreement processing is sensitive to both the type of feature involved and the constituents that express the agreement dependency. More specifically, LAN could reflect violation of expectancy (elicited by the trigger) for the target functional morphology; later, trigger and target are structurally integrated at the sentence level (early P600). However, morphosyntactic information could trigger the activation of higher-level representations that are not strictly syntactic in nature. The recruitment of this additional non-syntactic information (mirrored by N400-like effects) indicates that rule-based computations of agreement dependencies are not blind to non-syntactic information but are often recruited to establish sentence-level relations.

  7. How does gaze direction affect facial processing in social anxiety? -An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Yu, Fengqiong; Ye, Rong; Chen, Xingui; Xie, Xinhui; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai

    2017-02-09

    Previous behavioral studies have demonstrated an effect of eye gaze direction on the processing of emotional expressions in adults with social anxiety. However, specific brain responses to the interaction between gaze direction and facial expressions in social anxiety remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the time course of such interaction using event-related potentials (ERPs) in participants with social anxiety. High socially anxious individuals and low socially anxious individuals were asked to identify the gender of angry or neutral faces with direct or averted gaze while their behavioral performance and electrophysiological data were monitored. We found that identification of angry faces with direct but not averted gaze elicited larger N2 amplitude in high socially anxious individuals compared to low socially anxious individuals, while identification of neutral faces did not produce any gaze modulation effect. Moreover, the N2 was correlated with increased anxiety severity upon exposure to angry faces with direct gaze. Therefore, our results suggest that gaze direction modulates the processing of threatening faces in social anxiety. The N2 component elicited by angry faces with direct gaze could be a state-dependent biomarker of social anxiety and may be an important reference biomarker for social anxiety diagnosis and intervention.

  8. Eye-Tracking, Autonomic, and Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Face Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Jennifer B.; Hirsch, Suzanna B.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Redcay, Elizabeth; Nelson, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty with social-emotional cues. This study examined the neural, behavioral, and autonomic correlates of emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD and typical development (TD) using eye-tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) across two different paradigms. Scanning of faces was similar across groups in the first task, but the second task found that face-sensitive ERPs varied with emotional expressions only in TD. Further, ASD showed enhanced neural responding to non-social stimuli. In TD only, attention to eyes during eye-tracking related to faster face-sensitive ERPs in a separate task; in ASD, a significant positive association was found between autonomic activity and attention to mouths. Overall, ASD showed an atypical pattern of emotional face processing, with reduced neural differentiation between emotions and a reduced relationship between gaze behavior and neural processing of faces. PMID:22684525

  9. Reward sensitivity to faces versus objects in children: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Leslie J.

    2014-01-01

    How children respond to social and nonsocial rewards has important implications for understanding social cognitive development. Adults find faces intrinsically rewarding. However, little is known about how children respond to face vs nonface rewards. We utilized event-related potentials (the stimulus-preceding negativity, SPN) to measure differences in reward anticipation during a guessing game in 6- to 8-year-olds. Children were presented with reward indicators accompanied by incidental face or nonface stimuli. Nonface stimuli were comprised of scrambled faces in the shape of arrows, controlling for low-level properties of the two conditions. Children showed an increased SPN when the reward stimuli were accompanied by faces, relative to nonface stimuli. This suggests that children find a face stimulus more rewarding than a nonface stimulus. The results have important implications for processing social vs nonsocial rewards in typically developing children, and allow testing of populations with deficits in social reward processing, such as autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24036961

  10. The impact of oxytocin administration and maternal love withdrawal on event-related potential (ERP) responses to emotional faces with performance feedback.

    PubMed

    Huffmeijer, Renske; Alink, Lenneke R A; Tops, Mattie; Grewen, Karen M; Light, Kathleen C; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-03-01

    This is the first experimental study on the effect of oxytocin administration on the neural processing of facial stimuli conducted with female participants that uses event-related potentials (ERPs). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects design, we studied the effects of 16 IU of intranasal oxytocin on ERPs to pictures combining performance feedback with emotional facial expressions in 48 female undergraduate students. Participants also reported on the amount of love withdrawal they experienced from their mothers. Vertex positive potential (VPP) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes were more positive after oxytocin compared to placebo administration. This suggests that oxytocin increased attention to the feedback stimuli (LPP) and enhanced the processing of emotional faces (VPP). Oxytocin heightened processing of the happy and disgusted faces primarily for those reporting less love withdrawal. Significant associations with LPP amplitude suggest that more maternal love withdrawal relates to the allocation of attention toward the motivationally relevant combination of negative feedback with a disgusted face.

  11. Does ERP Hands-On Experience Help Students Learning Business Process Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienzo, Thomas; Han, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, more and more business schools are attempting to teach business processes (BPs) by using enterprise resource planning (ERP) software in their curricula. Currently, most studies involving ERP software in the academy have concentrated on learning and teaching via self-assessment surveys or curriculum integration. This research…

  12. A Critical Review of ERP and fMRI Evidence on L2 Syntactic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotz, Sonja A.

    2009-01-01

    The current review focuses on recent event-related brain potential (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in L2 syntactic processing data. To this end, critical factors influencing both the dynamics of neural mechanisms (ERPs) and critical functional brain correlates (fMRI) are discussed. These entail the critical period…

  13. The neural correlates of processing newborn and adult faces in 3-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Westerlund, Alissa; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Kuefner, Dana; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the processing of upright and inverted faces in 3-year-old children (n = 35). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive-looking paradigm including adult and newborn face stimuli. We observed three face-sensitive components, the P1, the N170 and the P400. Inverted faces elicited shorter P1 latency and larger P400 amplitude. P1 and N170 amplitudes were larger for adult faces. To examine the role of experience in the development of face processing, the processing of adult and newborn faces was compared for children with a younger sibling (n = 23) and children without a younger sibling (n = 12). Age of sibling at test correlated negatively with P1 amplitude for adult and newborn faces. This may indicate more efficient processing of different face ages in children with a younger sibling and potentially reflects a more flexible face representation. PMID:24118716

  14. ERP correlates of target-distracter differentiation in repeated runs of a continuous recognition task with emotional and neutral faces.

    PubMed

    Treese, Anne-Cécile; Johansson, Mikael; Lindgren, Magnus

    2010-04-01

    The emotional salience of faces has previously been shown to induce memory distortions in recognition memory tasks. This event-related potential (ERP) study used repeated runs of a continuous recognition task with emotional and neutral faces to investigate emotion-induced memory distortions. In the second and third runs, participants made more false alarms to distracters (repeated from previous runs). Emotion did not modulate the amount of errors, but the extent to which recollection was employed to maximise performance as reflected in the putative ERP correlate of recollection; the parietal old-new effect. Targets from all stimulus classes (positive, negative, neutral) were associated with parietal ERP memory effects, but this was also the case for correctly rejected negative distracters. This suggests that recollection was strategically used to correctly reject negative distracters (recall-to-reject). This finding is consistent with the view that facilitated recollection of negative stimuli may be used to decrease the susceptibility to memory errors induced by emotional salience.

  15. The early visual encoding of a face (N170) is viewpoint-dependent: a parametric ERP-adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Caharel, Stéphanie; Collet, Kevin; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Visual representations of faces are extracted shortly after 100 ms in the human brain, leading to an occipito-temporal cortex N170 event-related potential (ERP). To understand the nature of this early visual representation, a full-front adapting face preceded a different or identical target face identity. The target face varied parametrically in head orientation from the adapting face (0-90°, 15° steps). The N170 elicited by the target face increased progressively from 0° up to 30° head orientation, with no further increase until 90°. The N170 decreased for repeated face identities, this effect being stable between 0° and 30° changes of viewpoint, and no effect beyond that angle. These observations suggest that a face is encoded in a view-dependent manner, being matched to either a full-front or a profile face view. Yet, individual face representations activated as early as the peak of the N170 generalize partially across views.

  16. An ERP study on the processing of common fractions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Xin, Ziqiang; Li, Fuhong; Wang, Qi; Ding, Cody; Li, Hong

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how adults processed common fractions with common numerators under two distinct conditions. Whereas participants were presented with only common fractions in a "simple" condition, a "complex" condition involved the random presentation of common fractions as well as decimal fractions. In both conditions, participants were required to assess whether various "target" fractions were larger than or smaller than a "standard" common fraction (1/5). Behavioral results indicated that under both conditions, participants mentally processed the fractions componentially in terms of their constituent parts rather than holistically in terms of the numerical value of the fraction as a whole. The data provided by the event-related potentials (ERPs) demonstrated electrophysiological correlates of the componential processing of common fractions in the simple condition, as reflected in the latency and amplitude of P3. However, in contrast to what the behavioral data showed, there was no strong electrophysiological evidence to indicate that common fractions were accessed componentially in the complex condition. In addition, the complex condition was linked to longer latency and more negative amplitude of N2 over the frontal scalp than the simple condition, which could be attributed to the fact that the comparison of fractions in the complex condition involved task switching and thus was more taxing on cognitive control than the simple condition.

  17. Neural correlates of facial expression processing during a detection task: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    He, Weijie

    2017-01-01

    Given finite attentional resources, how emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Present study examined the time-course for automatic processing of facial expression by assessing N170, and late positive potentials (LPPs) of event-related potentials (ERPs) using a modified rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Observers were required to confirm a certain house image and to detect whether a face image was presented at the end of a series of pictures. There were no significant main effects on emotional type for P1 amplitudes, whereas happy and fearful expressions elicited larger N170 amplitudes than neutral expressions. Significantly different LPP amplitudes were elicited depending on the type of emotional facial expressions (fear > happy > neutral). These results indicated that threatening priority was absent but discrimination of expressive vs. neutral faces occurred in implicit emotional tasks, at approximately 250 ms post-stimulus. Moreover, the three types of expressions were discriminated during the later stages of processing. Encoding emotional information of faces can be automated to a relatively higher degree, when attentional resources are mostly allocated to superficial analyzing. PMID:28350800

  18. Neural Correlates of Human and Monkey Face Processing in 9-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lisa S.; Shannon, Robert W.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence suggests a gradual, experience-dependent specialization of cortical face processing systems that takes place largely in the 1st year of life. To further investigate these findings, event-related potentials (ERPs) were collected from typically developing 9-month-old infants presented with pictures of…

  19. Using ERPs to investigate valence processing in the affect misattribution procedure.

    PubMed

    von Gunten, Curtis D; Bartholow, Bruce D; Scherer, Laura D

    2017-02-01

    The construct validity of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) has been challenged by theories proposing that the task does not actually measure affect misattribution. The current study tested the validity of the AMP as a measure of affect misattribution by examining three components of the ERP known to be associated with the allocation of motivated attention. Results revealed that ERP amplitudes varied in response to affectively ambiguous targets as a function of the valence of preceding primes. Furthermore, differences in ERP responses to the targets were largely similar to differences in ERPs elicited by the primes. The existence of valence differentiation in both the prime-locked and the target-locked ERPs, along with the similarity in this differentiation, provides evidence that the affective content of the primes is psychologically registered, and that this content influences the processing of the subsequent, evaluatively ambiguous targets, both of which are required if the priming effects found in the AMP are the result of affect misattribution. However, the behavioral priming effect was uncorrelated with ERP amplitudes, leaving some question as to the locus of this effect in the information-processing system. Findings are discussed in light of the strengths and weaknesses of using ERPs to understand the priming effects in the AMP.

  20. Trust at first sight: evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Tessa; Righi, Stefania; Ottonello, Sara; Cincotta, Massimo; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to tap the temporal dynamics of first impressions based on face appearance. Participants were asked to evaluate briefly presented faces for trustworthiness and political choice. Behaviorally, participants were better at discriminating faces that were pre-rated as untrustworthy. The ERP results showed that the P100 component was enhanced for untrustworthy faces, consistently with the view that signals of potential threat are given precedence in neural processing. The enhanced ERP responses to untrustworthy faces persisted throughout the processing sequence and the amplitude of early posterior negativity (EPN), and subsequent late positive potential (LPP) was increased with respect to trustworthy faces which, in contrast, elicited an enhanced positivity around 150 ms on frontal sites. These ERP patterns were found specifically for the trustworthiness evaluation and not for the political decision task. Political decision yielded an increase in the N170 amplitude, reflecting a more demanding and taxing structural encoding. Similar ERP responses, as previously reported in the literature for facial expressions processing, were found throughout the entire time course specifically elicited by faces explicitly judged as untrustworthy. One possibility might be that evolution has provided the brain with a 'special toolkit' for trust evaluation that is fast and triggers ERPs related to emotional processing.

  1. About-face on face recognition ability and holistic processing

    PubMed Central

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Floyd, R. Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Previous work found a small but significant relationship between holistic processing measured with the composite task and face recognition ability measured by the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). Surprisingly, recent work using a different measure of holistic processing (Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test [VHPT-F]; Richler, Floyd, & Gauthier, 2014) and a larger sample found no evidence for such a relationship. In Experiment 1 we replicate this unexpected result, finding no relationship between holistic processing (VHPT-F) and face recognition ability (CFMT). A key difference between the VHPT-F and other holistic processing measures is that unique face parts are used on each trial in the VHPT-F, unlike in other tasks where a small set of face parts repeat across the experiment. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that correlations between the CFMT and holistic processing tasks are driven by stimulus repetition that allows for learning during the composite task. Consistent with our predictions, CFMT performance was correlated with holistic processing in the composite task when a small set of face parts repeated over trials, but not when face parts did not repeat. A meta-analysis confirms that relationships between the CFMT and holistic processing depend on stimulus repetition. These results raise important questions about what is being measured by the CFMT, and challenge current assumptions about why faces are processed holistically. PMID:26223027

  2. Time course of facial emotion processing in women with borderline personality disorder: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Izurieta Hidalgo, Natalie A.; Oelkers-Ax, Rieke; Nagy, Krisztina; Mancke, Falk; Bohus, Martin; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Bertsch, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a negative perception of others. Previous studies have revealed deficits and biases in facial emotion recognition. This study investigates the behavioural and electrophysiological correlates underlying facial emotion processing in individuals with BPD. Methods The present study was conducted between July 2012 and May 2014. In an emotion classification task, unmedicated female patients with BPD as well as healthy women had to classify faces displaying blends of anger and happiness while the electroencephalogram was recorded. We analyzed visual event-related potentials (ERPs) reflecting early (P100), structural (N170) and categorical (P300) facial processing in addition to behavioural responses. Results We included 36 women with BPD and 29 controls in our analysis. Patients with BPD were more likely than controls to classify predominantly happy faces as angry. Independent of facial emotion, women with BPD showed enhanced early occipital P100 amplitudes. Additionally, temporo-occipital N170 amplitudes were reduced at right hemispherical electrode sites. Centroparietal P300 amplitudes were reduced particularly for predominantly happy faces and increased for highly angry faces in women with BPD, whereas in healthy volunteers this component was modulated by both angry and happy facial affect. Limitations Our sample included only women, and no clinical control group was investigated. Conclusion Our findings suggest reduced thresholds for facial anger and deficits in the discrimination of facial happiness in individuals with BPD. This biased perception is associated with alterations in very early visual as well as deficient structural and categorical processing of faces. The current data could help to explain the negative perception of others that may be related to the patients’ impairments in interpersonal functioning. PMID:26269211

  3. Semantic Learning Modifies Perceptual Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…

  4. Too bad: Bias for angry faces in social anxiety interferes with identity processing.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Julian; Straube, Thomas; Schulz, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The recognition of faces across incidences is a complex function of the human brain and a crucial ability for communication and daily interactions. This first study on ERP correlates of emotional face learning in social anxiety disorder (SAD) investigates whether the known attentional bias for threatening faces leads to a corresponding memory bias. Therefore, 21 patients with SAD and 21 healthy controls (HCs) learned faces with emotional facial expressions (neutral, happy, and angry) and were later asked to recognize these out of novel identities all presented with a neutral facial expression. EEG was recorded throughout. Behaviorally, the faces' emotional expression modulated later recognition in terms of accuracy, response times, signal detection parameters and ratings of valence, but with better performance for happy than angry faces in HC as well as in SAD. In the learning phase, attention- and memory-associated event-related potentials (ERPs) P100, N170, P200, N250/EPN, and LPP indicated enhanced processing of angry faces, which was restricted to patients with SAD in N250/EPN and LPP. In the test phase, familiarity effects emerged in N250, FN400 and LPP. While N250 was affected by learned-angry faces, FN400 and LPP reflected image learning of neutral faces, which was restricted to SAD in LPP. We replicated the attentional bias to threatening faces, which was not restricted to early ERP components, but was prolonged to later stages of conscious processing, especially in SAD. In contrast to what had been expected, sustained hypervigilance to the emotional content seems to have impaired the processing of the facial identity, resulting in a happy face advantage at the behavioral level. This could be explained by prominent models assuming separate processing of facial emotion and identity. Hypervigilance in SAD might be a disadvantage in those studies focusing on other aspects of face processing than emotion.

  5. Combination of PCA and LORETA for sources analysis of ERP data: an emotional processing study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jin; Tian, Jie; Yang, Lei; Pan, Xiaohong; Liu, Jiangang

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal activity in emotional processing by analysis of ERP data. 108 pictures (categorized as positive, negative and neutral) were presented to 24 healthy, right-handed subjects while 128-channel EEG data were recorded. An analysis of two steps was applied to the ERP data. First, principal component analysis was performed to obtain significant ERP components. Then LORETA was applied to each component to localize their brain sources. The first six principal components were extracted, each of which showed different spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal activity. The results agree with other emotional study by fMRI or PET. The combination of PCA and LORETA can be used to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of ERP data in emotional processing.

  6. Emotion and attention in visual word processing: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Kissler, Johanna; Herbert, Cornelia; Winkler, Irene; Junghofer, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Emotional words are preferentially processed during silent reading. Here, we investigate to what extent different components of the visual evoked potential, namely the P1, N1, the early posterior negativity (EPN, around 250 ms after word onset) as well as the late positive complex (LPC, around 500 ms) respond differentially to emotional words and whether this response depends on the availability of attentional resources. Subjects viewed random sequences of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant adjectives and nouns. They were first instructed to simply read the words and then to count either adjectives or nouns. No consistent effects emerged for the P1 and N1. However, during both reading and counting the EPN was enhanced for emotionally arousing words (pleasant and unpleasant), regardless of whether the word belonged to a target or a non-target category. A task effect on the EPN was restricted to adjectives, but the effect did not interact with emotional content. The later centro-parietal LPC (450-650 ms) showed a large enhancement for the attended word class. A small and topographically distinct emotion-LPC effect was found specifically in response to pleasant words, both during silent reading and the active task. Thus, emotional word content is processed effortlessly and automatically and is not subject to interference from a primary grammatical decision task. The results are in line with other reports of early automatic semantic processing as reflected by posterior negativities in the ERP around 250 ms after word onset. Implications for models of emotion-attention interactions in the brain are discussed.

  7. Differences in the dynamics of affective and cognitive processing - An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Christina J; Fritsch, Nathalie; Hofmann, Markus J; Kuchinke, Lars

    2017-01-15

    A controversy in emotion research concerns the question of whether affective or cognitive primacy are evident in processing affective stimuli and the factors contributing to each alternative. Using electrophysiological recordings in an adapted visual oddball paradigm allowed tracking the dynamics of affective and cognitive effects. Stimuli consisted of face pictures displaying affective expressions with rare oddballs differing from frequent stimuli in either affective expression, structure (while frequent stimuli were shown frontally these deviants were turned sideways) or they differed on both dimensions, i.e. in affective expression and structure. Results revealed a defined sequence of differences in ERP amplitudes: For stimuli deviating in their affective expression only, P1 modulations ~100ms were evident, while affective differences of structure deviants were not evident before the N170 time window. All three types of deviants differed in P300 amplitudes, indicating integration of affective and structural information. These results encompass evidence for both, cognitive and affective primacy depending on stimulus properties. Specifically affective primacy is only visible when the respective facial features can be extracted with ease. When structural differences make face processing harder, however, cognitive primacy is brought forward.

  8. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training (‘better’ trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics’ everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits. PMID:24691394

  9. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits.

  10. Neural processing of high and low spatial frequency information in faces changes across development: qualitative changes in face processing during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Peters, Judith C; Vlamings, Petra; Kemner, Chantal

    2013-05-01

    Face perception in adults depends on skilled processing of interattribute distances ('configural' processing), which is disrupted for faces presented in inverted orientation (face inversion effect or FIE). Children are not proficient in configural processing, and this might relate to an underlying immaturity to use facial information in low spatial frequency (SF) ranges, which capture the coarse information needed for configural processing. We hypothesized that during adolescence a shift from use of high to low SF information takes place. Therefore, we studied the influence of SF content on neural face processing in groups of children (9-10 years), adolescents (14-15 years) and young adults (21-29 years) by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) to upright and inverted faces which varied in SF content. Results revealed that children show a neural FIE in early processing stages (i.e. P1; generated in early visual areas), suggesting a superficial, global facial analysis. In contrast, ERPs of adults revealed an FIE at later processing stages (i.e. N170; generated in face-selective, higher visual areas). Interestingly, adolescents showed FIEs in both processing stages, suggesting a hybrid developmental stage. Furthermore, adolescents and adults showed FIEs for stimuli containing low SF information, whereas such effects were driven by both low and high SF information in children. These results indicate that face processing has a protracted maturational course into adolescence, and is dependent on changes in SF processing. During adolescence, sensitivity to configural cues is developed, which aids the fast and holistic processing that is so special for faces.

  11. Parallel Processing in Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  12. Teaching Tip: Using a Group Role-Play Exercise to Engage Students in Learning Business Processes and ERP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yide; Nicholson, Jennifer; Nicholson, Darren

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing process-centric focus and proliferation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems in organizations, it is imperative for business graduates to understand cross-functional business processes and ERP system's role in supporting business processes. However, this topic can be rather abstract and dry to undergraduate students,…

  13. Parametric design and correlational analyses help integrating fMRI and electrophysiological data during face processing.

    PubMed

    Horovitz, Silvina G; Rossion, Bruno; Skudlarski, Pawel; Gore, John C

    2004-08-01

    Face perception is typically associated with activation in the inferior occipital, superior temporal (STG), and fusiform gyri (FG) and with an occipitotemporal electrophysiological component peaking around 170 ms on the scalp, the N170. However, the relationship between the N170 and the multiple face-sensitive activations observed in neuroimaging is unclear. It has been recently shown that the amplitude of the N170 component monotonically decreases as gaussian noise is added to a picture of a face [Jemel et al., 2003]. To help clarify the sources of the N170 without a priori assumptions regarding their number and locations, ERPs and fMRI were recorded in five subjects in the same experiment, in separate sessions. We used a parametric paradigm in which the amplitude of the N170 was modulated by varying the level of noise in a picture, and identified regions where the percent signal change in fMRI correlated with the ERP data. N170 signals were observed for pictures of both cars and faces but were stronger for faces. A monotonic decrease with added noise was observed for the N170 at right hemisphere sites but was less clear on the left and occipital central sites. Correlations between fMRI signal and N170 amplitudes for faces were highly significant (P < 0.001) in bilateral fusiform gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. For cars, the strongest correlations were observed in the parahippocampal region and in the STG (P < 0.005). Besides contributing to clarify the spatiotemporal course of face processing, this study illustrates how ERP information may be used synergistically in fMRI analyses. Parametric designs may be developed further to provide some timing information on fMRI activity and help identify the generators of ERP signals.

  14. Configural processing in face recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Barbara L.; Marvel, Cherie L.; Drapalski, Amy; Rosse, Richard B.; Deutsch, Stephen I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. There is currently substantial literature to suggest that patients with schizophrenia are impaired on many face-processing tasks. This study investigated the specific effects of configural changes on face recognition in groups of schizophrenia patients. Methods. In Experiment 1, participants identified facial expressions in upright faces and in faces inverted from their upright orientation. Experiments 2 and 3 examined recognition memory for faces and other non-face objects presented in upright and inverted orientations. Experiment 4 explored recognition of facial identity in composite images where the top half of one face was fused to the bottom half of another face to form a new face configuration. Results. In each experiment, the configural change had the same effect on face recognition for the schizophenia patients as it did for control participants. Recognising inverted faces was more difficult than recognising upright faces, with a disproportionate effect of inversion on faces relative to other objects. Recognition of facial identity in face-halves was interfered with by the formation of a new face configuration. Conclusion. Collectively, these results suggest that people with schizophrenia rely on configural information to recognise photographs of faces. PMID:16528403

  15. The Effect of Affective Context on Visuocortical Processing of Neutral Faces in Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Matthias J.; Moscovitch, David A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that verbal context information alters the neural processing of ambiguous faces such as faces with no apparent facial expression. In social anxiety, neutral faces may be implicitly threatening for socially anxious individuals due to their ambiguous nature, but even more so if these neutral faces are put in self-referential negative contexts. Therefore, we measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to neutral faces which were preceded by affective verbal information (negative, neutral, positive). Participants with low social anxiety (LSA; n = 23) and high social anxiety (HSA; n = 21) were asked to watch and rate valence and arousal of the respective faces while continuous EEG was recorded. ERP analysis revealed that HSA showed elevated P100 amplitudes in response to faces, but reduced structural encoding of faces as indexed by reduced N170 amplitudes. In general, affective context led to an enhanced early posterior negativity (EPN) for negative compared to neutral facial expressions. Moreover, HSA compared to LSA showed enhanced late positive potentials (LPP) to negatively contextualized faces, whereas in LSA this effect was found for faces in positive contexts. Also, HSA rated faces in negative contexts as more negative compared to LSA. These results point at enhanced vigilance for neutral faces regardless of context in HSA, while structural encoding seems to be diminished (avoidance). Interestingly, later components of sustained processing (LPP) indicate that LSA show enhanced visuocortical processing for faces in positive contexts (happy bias), whereas this seems to be the case for negatively contextualized faces in HSA (threat bias). Finally, our results add further new evidence that top-down information in interaction with individual anxiety levels can influence early-stage aspects of visual perception. PMID:26648889

  16. Processing Biological Gender and Number Information during Chinese Pronoun Resolution: ERP Evidence for Functional Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaodong; Jiang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of behavioral and neural studies on the processing of syntactic gender and number agreement information, marked by different morpho-syntactic features during sentence comprehension. By using the event-related potential (ERP) technique, the present study investigated whether the processing of semantic gender information and…

  17. Orienting to Eye Gaze and Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipples, Jason

    2005-01-01

    The author conducted 7 experiments to examine possible interactions between orienting to eye gaze and specific forms of face processing. Participants classified a letter following either an upright or inverted face with averted, uninformative eye gaze. Eye gaze orienting effects were recorded for upright and inverted faces, irrespective of whether…

  18. ERP evidence of a meaningfulness impact on visual global/local processing: when meaning captures attention.

    PubMed

    Beaucousin, Virginie; Cassotti, Mathieu; Simon, Grégory; Pineau, Arlette; Kostova, Milena; Houdé, Olivier; Poirel, Nicolas

    2011-04-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to investigate whether the meaningfulness of experimental stimuli impacted performances during global/local visual tasks. Participants were presented with compound stimuli, based on either meaningful letters, meaningful objects, or meaningless non-objects. The ERP recordings displayed typical early components, P1 and N1, evoked by task-related processes that affected global and local processes differently according to the meaningfulness of the stimuli. The effect of meaningfulness of the stimuli during global processing showed that P1 amplitudes were larger in response to objects and non-objects compared to letters, while letters and objects elicited larger N1 amplitudes than non-objects. Second, during local processing, the mean amplitudes of the ERPs recorded for object and letter stimuli were systematically smaller than the amplitudes recorded for non-object stimuli for both P1 and N1 components. In addition, object and letter stimuli elicited comparable mean ERP responses during local processing. These results are discussed in terms of the influences of both attentional and top-down identification processes. Taken together, these findings suggested that looking for meaning is crucial in the perception of visual scenes and that the meaningfulness nature of the stimuli should be taken into account in future studies.

  19. The development of visual- and auditory processing in Rett syndrome: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Stauder, Johannes E A; Smeets, Eric E J; van Mil, Saskia G M; Curfs, Leopold G M

    2006-09-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs almost exclusively in females. It is characterized by a progressive loss of intellectual functioning and motor skills, and the development of stereotypic hand movements, that occur after a period of normal development. Event-related potentials were recorded to a passive auditory- and visual oddball task in 17 females with Rett syndrome aged between 2 and 60 years, and age-matched controls. Overall the participants with Rett syndrome had longer ERP latencies and smaller ERP amplitudes than the Control group suggesting slowed information processing and reduced brain activation. The Rett groups also failed to show typical developmental changes in event-related brain activity and revealed a marked decline in ERP task modulation with increasing age.

  20. Age-related changes in emotional face processing across childhood and into young adulthood: evidence from event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Vergés, Alvaro; Kujawa, Autumn; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Monk, Christopher S.; Phan, K. Luan

    2016-01-01

    Socio-emotional processing is an essential part of development, and age-related changes in its neural correlates can be observed. The late positive potential (LPP) is a measure of motivated attention that can be used to assess emotional processing; however, changes in the LPP elicited by emotional faces have not been assessed across a wide age range in childhood and young adulthood. We used an emotional face matching task to examine behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) in 33 youth aged 7 to 19 years old. Younger children were slower when performing the matching task. The LPP elicited by emotional faces but not control stimuli (geometric shapes) decreased with age; by contrast, an earlier ERP (the P1) decreased with age for both faces and shapes, suggesting increased efficiency of early visual processing. Results indicate age-related attenuation in emotional processing that may stem from increased efficiency and regulatory control when performing a socio-emotional task. PMID:26220144

  1. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O

    2015-12-10

    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds.

  2. ERP Study of Pre-Attentive Auditory Processing in Treatment-Refractory Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milovan, Denise L.; Baribeau, Jacinthe; Roth, Robert M.; Stip, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have demonstrated impaired auditory sensory processing in patients with schizophrenia, as reflected in abnormal mismatch negativity (MMN). We sought to extend this finding by evaluating MMN in 13 treatment-refractory patients with schizophrenia, and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Subjects…

  3. Deduction Electrified: ERPs Elicited by the Processing of Words in Conditional Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnefond, Mathilde; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the ERP components associated with the processing of words that are critical to generating and rejecting deductive conditional Modus Ponens arguments ("If P then Q; P//"Therefore, "Q"). The generation of a logical inference is investigated by placing a verb in the minor premise that matches the one used in the antecedent of…

  4. Sentence Integration Processes: An ERP Study of Chinese Sentence Comprehension with Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chin Lung; Perfetti, Charles A.; Liu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to sentence constituent relations, it allows a test of…

  5. An ERP Study of the Processing of Subject and Object Relative Clauses in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Mieko; Garnsey, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Using reading times and event-related brain potentials (ERPs), we investigated the processing of Japanese subject and object relative clauses (SRs/ORs). Previous research on English relative clauses shows that ORs take longer to read (King & Just, 1991) and elicit anterior negativity between fillers and gaps (King & Kutas, 1995), which is…

  6. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  7. A change of task prolongs early processes: evidence from ERPs in lexical tasks.

    PubMed

    Elchlepp, Heike; Lavric, Aureliu; Monsell, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Switching tasks costs time. Allowing time to prepare reduces the cost, but usually leaves an irreducible "residual cost." Most accounts of this residual cost locate it within the response-selection stage of processing. To determine which processing stage is affected, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) as participants performed a reading task or a perceptual judgment task, and examined the effect of a task switch on early markers of lexical processing. A task cue preceding a string of blue and red letters instructed the participant either to read the letter string (for a semantic classification in Experiment 1, and a lexical decision in Experiment 2) or to judge the symmetry of its color pattern. In Experiment 1, having to switch to the reading task delayed the evolution of the effect of word frequency on the reading task ERP by a substantial fraction of the effect on reaction time (RT). In Experiment 2, a task switch delayed the onset of the effect of lexical status on the ERP by about the same extent that it prolonged the RT. These effects indicate an early locus of (most of) the residual switch cost: We propose that this reflects a form of task-related attentional inertia. Other findings have implications for the automaticity of lexical access: Effects of frequency, lexicality, and orthographic familiarity on ERPs in the symmetry task indicated involuntary, but attenuated, orthographic and lexical processing even when attention was focused on a nonlexical property.

  8. Concreteness in Word Processing: ERP and Behavioral Effects in a Lexical Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Horacio A.; Otten, Leun J.; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Relative to abstract words, concrete words typically elicit faster response times and larger N400 and N700 event-related potential (ERP) brain responses. These effects have been interpreted as reflecting the denser links to associated semantic information of concrete words and their recruitment of visual imagery processes. Here, we examined…

  9. Spectral vs. Temporal Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment: A Developmental ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceponiene, R.; Cummings, A.; Wulfeck, B.; Ballantyne, A.; Townsend, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in "temporal" processing, have been implicated in developmental language impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral…

  10. Eye-Tracking, Autonomic, and Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Face Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jennifer B.; Hirsch, Suzanna B.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Redcay, Elizabeth; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty with social-emotional cues. This study examined the neural, behavioral, and autonomic correlates of emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD and typical development (TD) using eye-tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) across two different paradigms. Scanning of…

  11. On the Automaticity of Emotion Processing in Words and Faces: Event-Related Brain Potentials Evidence from a Superficial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rellecke, Julian; Palazova, Marina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Here, we assessed the automatic elicitation of emotion-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive, negative, and neutral words and facial expressions in an easy and superficial face-word discrimination task, for which the emotional valence was…

  12. Self-reflection modulates the outcome evaluation process: Evidence from an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangru; Gu, Ruolei; Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-12-01

    Recent research demonstrated structural overlap between reward and self processing, but the functional relationship that explains how self processing influences reward processing remains unclear. The present study used an experimentally constrained reflection task to investigate whether individuals' outcome evaluations in a gambling task are modulated by task-unrelated self- and other-reflection processes. The self- and other-reflection task contained descriptions of the self or others, and brain event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while 16 normal adults performed a gambling task. The ERP analysis focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN) component. We found that the difference wave of FRN increased in the self-reflection condition compared with the other-reflection condition. The present findings provide direct evidence that self processing can influence reward processing.

  13. Cortisol-induced enhancement of emotional face processing in social phobia depends on symptom severity and motivational context.

    PubMed

    van Peer, Jacobien M; Spinhoven, Philip; van Dijk, J Gert; Roelofs, Karin

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the effects of cortisol administration on approach and avoidance tendencies in 20 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured during a reaction time task, in which patients evaluated the emotional expression of photographs of happy and angry faces by making an approaching (flexion) or avoiding (extension) arm movement. Patients showed significant avoidance tendencies for angry but not for happy faces, both in the placebo and cortisol condition. Moreover, ERP analyses showed a significant interaction of condition by severity of social anxiety on early positive (P150) amplitudes during avoidance compared to approach, indicating that cortisol increases early processing of social stimuli (in particular angry faces) during avoidance. This result replicates previous findings from a non-clinical sample of high anxious individuals and demonstrates their relevance for clinical SAD. Apparently the cortisol-induced increase in processing of angry faces in SAD depends on symptom severity and motivational context.

  14. Reward processing in gain versus loss context: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya; Li, Qi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Qi; Shen, Huijuan; Gao, Qianhui; Zhou, Shiyu

    2017-03-23

    Previous research has shown that consummatory ERP components are sensitive to contextual valence. The present study investigated the contextual valence effect across anticipatory and consummatory phases by requiring participants to play a simple gambling task during a gain context and a loss context. During the anticipatory phase, the cue-P3 was more positive in the gain context compared to the loss context, whereas the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) was comparable across the two contexts. With respect to the consummatory phase, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to the zero-value outcome was more negative in the gain versus loss context, whereas the feedback P3 (fb-P3) in response to the zero-value outcome was insensitive to contextual valence. These findings suggest that contextual valence effect occurs at a relative early stage of both the reward anticipation and consumption. Moreover, across the gain and loss contexts, the SPN was selectively correlated with the FRN, whereas the cue-P3 was selectively associated with the fb-P3, pointing to a close association between the anticipatory and consummatory phases in reward dynamics.

  15. ERP evidence for telicity effects on syntactic processing in garden-path sentences

    PubMed Central

    Malaia, Evguenia; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Verbs contain multifaceted information about both the semantics of an action, and potential argument structures. Linguistic theory classifies verbs according to whether the denoted action has an inherent (telic) end-point (fall, awaken), or whether it is considered homogenous, or atelic (read, worship). The aim of our study was to examine how this distinction influences online sentence processing, investigating the effects of verbal telicity on the ease of syntactic re-analysis of Object reduced relative clauses. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 22 English speakers as they read sentences in which the main verb was either telic or atelic, e.g., “The actress awakened/worshippedby the writer left in a hurry”. ERPs elicited by telic and atelic verbs, the preposition “by” introducing the second argument (Agent), and the second argument itself, e.g., “writer”, were compared. Additionally, participants were grouped according to receptive syntactic proficiency: normal (NP) or high (HP). ERPs from the NP group first diverged at the second argument, with the atelic condition eliciting larger amplitude negativity at the N100, and continuing to the P200 interval. In contrast, ERPs from the HP group first diverged earlier in the sentence, on the word “by”. ERPs elicited by “by” in the atelic condition were also characterized by increased negativity, in this case significant at P200 and Anterior Negativity between 320-500ms post stimulus onset. Our results support the postulated conceptual/semantic distinction underlying the two verb categories, and demonstrate that world-knowledge about actions designated by verbs and syntactic proficiency are reflected in on-line processing of sentence structure. PMID:18945484

  16. Time course of implicit processing and explicit processing of emotional faces and emotional words.

    PubMed

    Frühholz, Sascha; Jellinghaus, Anne; Herrmann, Manfred

    2011-05-01

    Facial expressions are important emotional stimuli during social interactions. Symbolic emotional cues, such as affective words, also convey information regarding emotions that is relevant for social communication. Various studies have demonstrated fast decoding of emotions from words, as was shown for faces, whereas others report a rather delayed decoding of information about emotions from words. Here, we introduced an implicit (color naming) and explicit task (emotion judgment) with facial expressions and words, both containing information about emotions, to directly compare the time course of emotion processing using event-related potentials (ERP). The data show that only negative faces affected task performance, resulting in increased error rates compared to neutral faces. Presentation of emotional faces resulted in a modulation of the N170, the EPN and the LPP components and these modulations were found during both the explicit and implicit tasks. Emotional words only affected the EPN during the explicit task, but a task-independent effect on the LPP was revealed. Finally, emotional faces modulated source activity in the extrastriate cortex underlying the generation of the N170, EPN and LPP components. Emotional words led to a modulation of source activity corresponding to the EPN and LPP, but they also affected the N170 source on the right hemisphere. These data show that facial expressions affect earlier stages of emotion processing compared to emotional words, but the emotional value of words may have been detected at early stages of emotional processing in the visual cortex, as was indicated by the extrastriate source activity.

  17. Attention to individual identities modulates face processing.

    PubMed

    Ruz, María; Aranda, Clara; Sarmiento, Beatriz R; Sanabria, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The ability of attention to apply in a flexible manner to several types of information at various stages of processing has been studied extensively. However, the susceptibility of these effects to the nature of the idiosyncratic items being attended is less understood. In the current study, we used symbolic cues to orient the attention of participants to the subsequent appearance of the face of a famous person (the former king of Spain) or an unfamiliar face. These were matched in perceptual characteristics. Behavioral effects showed that face-specific attention optimized response speed in an orthogonal task when the target matched the cue (valid trials) compared to when it did not (invalid trials). According to topographical analyses of the electrophysiological data, the famous and unfamiliar faces engaged dissociable brain circuits in two different temporal windows, from 144 to 300 ms after target processing, and at a later 456-492 ms epoch. In addition, orienting attention to specific faces modulated the perceptual stages reflected in the P1 and N170 potentials but with a different laterality pattern that depended on the familiarity of the faces. Whereas only attention to the famous face enhanced the P1 potential at left posterior electrodes, with no corresponding effect for the unfamiliar face at this stage, the N170 was modulated at left posterior sites for the famous item and at right homologous electrodes for the unfamiliar face. Intermediate processing stages, previously linked to facial identity processing indexed by the P2 and N2 potentials, reflected item familiarity but were not affected by the cueing manipulation. At the P3 level, attention influenced again item processing but did so in an equivalent manner for the famous and unfamiliar face. Our results, showing that identity-specific attention modulates perceptual stages of facial processing at different locations depending on idiosyncratic stimulus familiarity, may inform comparison of studies

  18. Cognitive control in belief-laden reasoning during conclusion processing: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Junlong; Liu, Xin; Stupple, Edward J N; Zhang, Entao; Xiao, Xiao; Jia, Lei; Yang, Qun; Li, Haijiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-01-01

    Belief bias is the tendency to accept conclusions that are compatible with existing beliefs more frequently than those that contradict beliefs. It is one of the most replicated behavioral findings in the reasoning literature. Recently, neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) have provided a new perspective and have demonstrated neural correlates of belief bias that have been viewed as supportive of dual-process theories of belief bias. However, fMRI studies have tended to focus on conclusion processing, while ERPs studies have been concerned with the processing of premises. In the present research, the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive control were studied among 12 subjects using high-density ERPs. The analysis was focused on the conclusion presentation phase and was limited to normatively sanctioned responses to valid-believable and valid-unbelievable problems. Results showed that when participants gave normatively sanctioned responses to problems where belief and logic conflicted, a more positive ERP deflection was elicited than for normatively sanctioned responses to nonconflict problems. This was observed from -400 to -200 ms prior to the correct response being given. The positive component is argued to be analogous to the late positive component (LPC) involved in cognitive control processes. This is consistent with the inhibition of empirically anomalous information when conclusions are unbelievable. These data are important in elucidating the neural correlates of belief bias by providing evidence for electrophysiological correlates of conflict resolution during conclusion processing. Moreover, they are supportive of dual-process theories of belief bias that propose conflict detection and resolution processes as central to the explanation of belief bias.

  19. Early sensitivity for eyes within faces: a new neuronal account of holistic and featural processing.

    PubMed

    Nemrodov, Dan; Anderson, Thomas; Preston, Frank F; Itier, Roxane J

    2014-08-15

    Eyes are central to face processing however their role in early face encoding as reflected by the N170 ERP component is unclear. Using eye tracking to enforce fixation on specific facial features, we found that the N170 was larger for fixation on the eyes compared to fixation on the forehead, nasion, nose or mouth, which all yielded similar amplitudes. This eye sensitivity was seen in both upright and inverted faces and was lost in eyeless faces, demonstrating it was due to the presence of eyes at fovea. Upright eyeless faces elicited largest N170 at nose fixation. Importantly, the N170 face inversion effect (FIE) was strongly attenuated in eyeless faces when fixation was on the eyes but was less attenuated for nose fixation and was normal when fixation was on the mouth. These results suggest the impact of eye removal on the N170 FIE is a function of the angular distance between the fixated feature and the eye location. We propose the Lateral Inhibition, Face Template and Eye Detector based (LIFTED) model which accounts for all the present N170 results including the FIE and its interaction with eye removal. Although eyes elicit the largest N170 response, reflecting the activity of an eye detector, the processing of upright faces is holistic and entails an inhibitory mechanism from neurons coding parafoveal information onto neurons coding foveal information. The LIFTED model provides a neuronal account of holistic and featural processing involved in upright and inverted faces and offers precise predictions for further testing.

  20. Subcortical amygdala pathways enable rapid face processing.

    PubMed

    Garvert, Mona M; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Raymond J; Garrido, Marta I

    2014-11-15

    Human faces may signal relevant information and are therefore analysed rapidly and effectively by the brain. However, the precise mechanisms and pathways involved in rapid face processing are unclear. One view posits a role for a subcortical connection between early visual sensory regions and the amygdala, while an alternative account emphasises cortical mediation. To adjudicate between these functional architectures, we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) evoked fields in human subjects to presentation of faces with varying emotional valence. Early brain activity was better explained by dynamic causal models containing a direct subcortical connection to the amygdala irrespective of emotional modulation. At longer latencies, models without a subcortical connection had comparable evidence. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that a subcortical pathway to the amygdala plays a role in rapid sensory processing of faces, in particular during early stimulus processing. This finding contributes to an understanding of the amygdala as a behavioural relevance detector.

  1. Long-term academic stress increases the late component of error processing: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhui; Yuan, Yiran; Duan, Hongxia; Qin, Shaozheng; Buchanan, Tony W; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Liang

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to long-term stress has a variety of consequences on the brain and cognition. Few studies have examined the influence of long-term stress on event related potential (ERP) indices of error processing. The current study investigated how long-term academic stress modulates the error related negativity (Ne or ERN) and the error positivity (Pe) components of error processing. Forty-one male participants undergoing preparation for a major academic examination and 20 non-exam participants completed a Go-NoGo task while ERP measures were collected. The exam group reported higher perceived stress levels and showed increased Pe amplitude compared with the non-exam group. Participants' rating of the importance of the exam was positively associated with the amplitude of Pe, but these effects were not found for the Ne/ERN. These results suggest that long-term academic stress leads to greater motivational assessment of and higher emotional response to errors.

  2. Power effects on implicit prejudice and stereotyping: The role of intergroup face processing.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Petra C; Amodio, David M

    2017-04-01

    Power is thought to increase discrimination toward subordinate groups, yet its effect on different forms of implicit bias remains unclear. We tested whether power enhances implicit racial stereotyping, in addition to implicit prejudice (i.e., evaluative associations), and examined the effect of power on the automatic processing of faces during implicit tasks. Study 1 showed that manipulated high power increased both forms of implicit bias, relative to low power. Using a neural index of visual face processing (the N170 component of the ERP), Study 2 revealed that power affected the encoding of White ingroup vs. Black outgroup faces. Whereas high power increased the relative processing of outgroup faces during evaluative judgments in the prejudice task, it decreased the relative processing of outgroup faces during stereotype trait judgments. An indirect effect of power on implicit prejudice through enhanced processing of outgroup versus ingroup faces suggested a potential link between face processing and implicit bias. Together, these findings demonstrate that power can affect implicit prejudice and stereotyping as well as early processing of racial ingroup and outgroup faces.

  3. The effect of a brief mindfulness induction on processing of emotional images: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Marianna D.; Brunyé, Tad T.; Tower-Richardi, Sarah; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to effectively direct one’s attention is an important aspect of regulating emotions and a component of mindfulness. Mindfulness practices have been established as effective interventions for mental and physical illness; however, the underlying neural mechanisms of mindfulness and how they relate to emotional processing have not been explored in depth. The current study used a within-subjects repeated measures design to examine if focused breathing, a brief mindfulness induction, could modulate event-related potentials (ERPs) during emotional image processing relative to a control condition. We related ERP measures of processing positive, negative, and neutral images (the P300 and late positive potential – LPP) to state and trait mindfulness measures. Overall, the brief mindfulness induction condition did not influence ERPs reflecting emotional processing; however, in the brief mindfulness induction condition, those participants who reported feeling more decentered (a subscale of the Toronto Mindfulness Scale) after viewing the images had reduced P300 responses to negative versus neutral images. PMID:26441766

  4. The time course of novelty processing in sensation seeking: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya; Xu, Jing; Jin, Yuan; Sheng, Wenbin; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Shen, Huijuan

    2010-05-01

    Novelty processing is critical for human survival in a rapidly changing environment. However, how and when the orientation attention reflected by novelty processing is modulated by personality elements such as sensation seeking is still opened. The present study investigated the time course of novelty processing in sensation seeking by recording the event-related potentials (ERPs) in a visual novelty oddball task. High and low sensation seekers performed a visual oddball task, in which participants were instructed to detect an inverted triangle (target) and ignore both upright triangle (standard) and unrepeated line drawings of pseudo-objects deviant from participants' long-term memory (novelty). While there were no group differences in ERPs to standard and target stimuli, ERPs to novel stimuli showed a strong modulation by sensation seeking trait. The low sensation seekers, compared with the high sensation seekers, exhibited an increased N2 to novel stimuli at frontal sites. Moreover, the Pd3 component reflecting purely novelty processing was enhanced and less habituated in the high sensation seeking participants. The current findings implicated that low sensation seekers showed sensitivity to novelty detection, whereas high sensation seekers displayed stronger and more sustained novelty appraisal.

  5. On the incrementality of pragmatic processing: An ERP investigation of informativeness and pragmatic abilities

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwland, Mante S.; Ditman, Tali; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2010-01-01

    In two event-related potential (ERP) experiments, we determined to what extent Grice’s maxim of informativeness as well as pragmatic ability contributes to the incremental build-up of sentence meaning, by examining the impact of underinformative versus informative scalar statements (e.g. “Some people have lungs/pets, and…”) on the N400 event-related potential (ERP), an electrophysiological index of semantic processing. In Experiment 1, only pragmatically skilled participants (as indexed by the Autism Quotient Communication subscale) showed a larger N400 to underinformative statements. In Experiment 2, this effect disappeared when the critical words were unfocused so that the local underinformativeness went unnoticed (e.g., “Some people have lungs that…”). Our results suggest that, while pragmatic scalar meaning can incrementally contribute to sentence comprehension, this contribution is dependent on contextual factors, whether these are derived from individual pragmatic abilities or the overall experimental context. PMID:20936088

  6. Online processing of tone and intonation in Mandarin: Evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Chen, Yiya; Schiller, Niels O

    2016-10-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the online processing of tone and intonation in Mandarin at the attentive stage. We examined the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of native Mandarin listeners to Mandarin sentences, which contrast in final tones (rising Tone2 or falling Tone4) and intonations (Question or Statement). A clear P300 effect was observed for question-statement contrast in sentences ending with Tone4, but no ERP effect was found for question-statement contrast in sentences ending with Tone2. Our results provide ERP evidence for the interaction of tone and intonation in Mandarin, confirming the findings with behavioral metalinguistic data that native Mandarin listeners can distinguish between question intonation and statement intonation when the intonation is associated with a final Tone4, but fail to do so when the intonation is associated with a final Tone2. Our study extended the understanding of online processing of tone and intonation (1) from the pre-attentive stage to the attentive stage and (2) within a larger domain (i.e. multi-word utterances) than a single word utterance.

  7. A thousand words are worth a picture: Snapshots of printed word processing in an ERP megastudy

    PubMed Central

    Dufau, Stéphane; Grainger, Jonathan; Midgley, Katherine J.; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 1000 words were presented to 75 participants in a go/no-go lexical decision task while recording event-related potentials (ERPs). Partial correlations were computed for variables selected to reflect orthographic, lexical, and semantic processing, as well as a novel measure of the visual complexity of written words. Correlations were based on the item-level ERPs at each electrode site and time slice while applying a False Discovery Rate correction. Early effects of visual complexity were seen around 50 ms post-word onset, followed by the earliest sustained orthographic effects around 100-150 ms, and with the bulk of orthographic and lexical influences arising after 200 ms post-word onset. Effects of a semantic variable (concreteness) emerged later, at around 300 ms post-word onset. The overall time-course of these ERP effects is in line with hierarchical, cascaded, interactive accounts of word recognition in which fast feed-forward influences are consolidated by top-down feedback via recurrent processing loops. PMID:26525074

  8. Effect of empathy trait on attention to faces: an event-related potential (ERP) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Empathy is deeply linked with the ability to adapt to human social environments. The present study investigated the relationship between the empathy trait and attention elicited by discriminating facial expressions. Methods Event-related potentials were measured while 32 participants (17 men and 15 women) discriminated facial expressions (happy or angry) and colors of flowers (yellow or purple) under an oddball paradigm. The empathy trait of participants was measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980). Results The empathy trait correlated positively with both the early portion (300 to 600 ms after stimulus onset) and late portion (600 to 800 ms after stimulus onset) of late positive potential (LPP) amplitude elicited by faces, but not with LPP elicited by flowers. Conclusions This result suggests that, compared to people with low empathy, people with high empathy pay more attention when discriminating facial expressions. The present study suggests that differences exist in methods of adapting to social environments between people with high and low empathy. PMID:24460950

  9. Normative Topographic ERP Analyses of Speed of Speech Processing and Grammar Before and After Grammatical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Paul J.; Molfese, Dennis; Murray, Micah M.; Key, Alexandra P. F.

    2013-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) preschoolers and age-matched preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) received event-related potentials (ERPs) to four monosyllabic speech sounds prior to treatment and, in the SLI group, after 6 months of grammatical treatment. Before treatment, the TD group processed speech sounds faster than the SLI group. The SLI group increased the speed of their speech processing after treatment. Post-treatment speed of speech processing predicted later impairment in comprehending phrase elaboration in the SLI group. During the treatment phase, change in speed of speech processing predicted growth rate of grammar in the SLI group. PMID:24219693

  10. ERP effects of the processing of syntactic long-distance dependencies.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Colin; Kazanina, Nina; Abada, Shani H

    2005-03-01

    In behavioral studies on sentence comprehension, much evidence indicates that shorter dependencies are preferred over longer dependencies, and that longer dependencies incur a greater processing cost. However, it remains uncertain which of the various steps involved in the processing of long-distance dependencies is responsible for the increased cost of longer dependencies. Previous sentence comprehension studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have revealed response components that reflect the construction [J. King, M. Kutas, Who did what and when? Using word- and clause-level ERPs to monitor working memory usage in reading. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 7, (1995) 376-395.] and completion [E. Kaan, A. Harris, E. Gibson, P. Holcomb, The P600 as an index of syntactic integration difficulty. Language and Cognitive Processes, 5, (2000) 159-201.] of long-distance wh-dependencies. This article reports one off-line rating study and one ERP study that manipulated both the presence of wh-dependencies and the length of the dependencies (one clause vs. two clauses), with the aim of clarifying the locus of length-sensitivity and the functional role of associated ERP components. Results of the off-line study confirm that longer wh-dependencies incur greater processing cost. Results of the ERP study indicate that both a sustained anterior negativity that follows the initiation of the wh-dependency and also a late posterior positivity (P600) that marks the completion of the dependency are sensitive to the presence of a wh-dependency, but do not show amplitude variations reflecting the length of the dependency. However, the P600 is delayed when it marks the completion of a longer wh-dependency. This suggests that both the sustained negativity and the P600 reflect length-insensitive aspects of the construction of syntactic dependencies. In addition, an N400 component is elicited in the middle of the two clause wh-dependency, upon encountering a verb with an argument

  11. Brain Signals of Face Processing as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Ela I.; Iglesias, Jaime; Saavedra, Cristina; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the functional significance of different event-related potentials (ERPs) as electrophysiological indices of face perception and face recognition, according to cognitive and neurofunctional models of face processing. Initially, the processing of faces seems to be supported by early extrastriate occipital cortices and revealed by modulations of the occipital P1. This early response is thought to reflect the detection of certain primary structural aspects indicating the presence grosso modo of a face within the visual field. The posterior-temporal N170 is more sensitive to the detection of faces as complex-structured stimuli and, therefore, to the presence of its distinctive organizational characteristics prior to within-category identification. In turn, the relatively late and probably more rostrally generated N250r and N400-like responses might respectively indicate processes of access and retrieval of face-related information, which is stored in long-term memory (LTM). New methods of analysis of electrophysiological and neuroanatomical data, namely, dynamic causal modeling, single-trial and time-frequency analyses, are highly recommended to advance in the knowledge of those brain mechanisms concerning face processing. PMID:26160999

  12. The Impact of Deliberative Strategy Dissociates ERP Components Related to Conflict Processing vs. Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Warren, Christopher M; Holroyd, Clay B

    2012-01-01

    We applied the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique to investigate the involvement of two neuromodulatory systems in learning and decision making: The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (NE system) and the mesencephalic dopamine system (DA system). We have previously presented evidence that the N2, a negative deflection in the ERP elicited by task-relevant events that begins approximately 200 ms after onset of the eliciting stimulus and that is sensitive to low-probability events, is a manifestation of cortex-wide noradrenergic modulation recruited to facilitate the processing of unexpected stimuli. Further, we hold that the impact of DA reinforcement learning signals on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) produces a component of the ERP called the feedback-related negativity (FRN). The N2 and the FRN share a similar time range, a similar topography, and similar antecedent conditions. We varied factors related to the degree of cognitive deliberation across a series of experiments to dissociate these two ERP components. Across four experiments we varied the demand for a deliberative strategy, from passively watching feedback, to more complex/challenging decision tasks. Consistent with our predictions, the FRN was largest in the experiment involving active learning and smallest in the experiment involving passive learning whereas the N2 exhibited the opposite effect. Within each experiment, when subjects attended to color, the N2 was maximal at frontal-central sites, and when they attended to gender it was maximal over lateral-occipital areas, whereas the topology of the FRN was frontal-central in both task conditions. We conclude that both the DA system and the NE system act in concert when learning from rewards that vary in expectedness, but that the DA system is relatively more exercised when subjects are relatively more engaged by the learning task.

  13. The Impact of Deliberative Strategy Dissociates ERP Components Related to Conflict Processing vs. Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Christopher M.; Holroyd, Clay B.

    2012-01-01

    We applied the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique to investigate the involvement of two neuromodulatory systems in learning and decision making: The locus coeruleus–norepinephrine system (NE system) and the mesencephalic dopamine system (DA system). We have previously presented evidence that the N2, a negative deflection in the ERP elicited by task-relevant events that begins approximately 200 ms after onset of the eliciting stimulus and that is sensitive to low-probability events, is a manifestation of cortex-wide noradrenergic modulation recruited to facilitate the processing of unexpected stimuli. Further, we hold that the impact of DA reinforcement learning signals on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) produces a component of the ERP called the feedback-related negativity (FRN). The N2 and the FRN share a similar time range, a similar topography, and similar antecedent conditions. We varied factors related to the degree of cognitive deliberation across a series of experiments to dissociate these two ERP components. Across four experiments we varied the demand for a deliberative strategy, from passively watching feedback, to more complex/challenging decision tasks. Consistent with our predictions, the FRN was largest in the experiment involving active learning and smallest in the experiment involving passive learning whereas the N2 exhibited the opposite effect. Within each experiment, when subjects attended to color, the N2 was maximal at frontal–central sites, and when they attended to gender it was maximal over lateral-occipital areas, whereas the topology of the FRN was frontal–central in both task conditions. We conclude that both the DA system and the NE system act in concert when learning from rewards that vary in expectedness, but that the DA system is relatively more exercised when subjects are relatively more engaged by the learning task. PMID:22493568

  14. ERP Correlates of Verbal and Numerical Probabilities in Risky Choices: A Two-Stage Probability Processing View

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu; Du, Xue-Lei; Li, Qi; Xuan, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yun; Rao, Li-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Two kinds of probability expressions, verbal and numerical, have been used to characterize the uncertainty that people face. However, the question of whether verbal and numerical probabilities are cognitively processed in a similar manner remains unresolved. From a levels-of-processing perspective, verbal and numerical probabilities may be processed differently during early sensory processing but similarly in later semantic-associated operations. This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the neural processing of verbal and numerical probabilities in risky choices. The results showed that verbal probability and numerical probability elicited different N1 amplitudes but that verbal and numerical probabilities elicited similar N2 and P3 waveforms in response to different levels of probability (high to low). These results were consistent with a levels-of-processing framework and suggest some internal consistency between the cognitive processing of verbal and numerical probabilities in risky choices. Our findings shed light on possible mechanism underlying probability expression and may provide the neural evidence to support the translation of verbal to numerical probabilities (or vice versa). PMID:26834612

  15. Are Happy Faces Attractive? The Roles of Early vs. Late Processing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Delin; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Fan, Jintu; Wu, Yi; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Facial attractiveness is closely related to romantic love. To understand if the neural underpinnings of perceived facial attractiveness and facial expression are similar constructs, we recorded neural signals using an event-related potential (ERP) methodology for 20 participants who were viewing faces with varied attractiveness and expressions. We found that attractiveness and expression were reflected by two early components, P2-lateral (P2l) and P2-medial (P2m), respectively; their interaction effect was reflected by LPP, a late component. The findings suggested that facial attractiveness and expression are first processed in parallel for discrimination between stimuli. After the initial processing, more attentional resources are allocated to the faces with the most positive or most negative valence in both the attractiveness and expression dimensions. The findings contribute to the theoretical model of face perception. PMID:26648885

  16. The Development of Face Processing in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Noah J.

    2006-01-01

    Both behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that individuals with autism demonstrate marked abnormalities in the processing of faces. These abnormalities are often explained as either the result of an innate impairment to specialized neural systems or as a secondary consequence of reduced levels of social interest. A review of the…

  17. ERP Evidence of Visualization at Early Stages of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jonathan W.; Duhamel, Paul; Crognale, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests that early visual processing circuits are activated similarly during visualization and perception but have not demonstrated that the cortical activity is similar in character. We found functional equivalency in cortical activity by recording evoked potentials while color and luminance patterns were viewed and…

  18. Sluggishness of Early-Stage Face Processing (N170) Is Correlated with Negative and General Psychiatric Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yingjun; Li, Haijing; Ning, Yuping; Ren, Jianjuan; Wu, Zhangying; Huang, Rongcheng; Luan, Guoming; Li, Tianfu; Bi, Taiyong; Wang, Qian; She, Shenglin

    2016-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia consistently exhibit abnormalities in the N170 event-related potential (ERP) component evoked by images of faces. However, the relationship between these face-specific N170 abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia and the clinical characteristics of this disorder has not been elucidated. Here, ERP recordings were conducted for patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. The amplitude and latency of the N170 component were recorded while participants passively viewed face and non-face (table) images to explore the correlation between face-specific processing and clinical characteristics in schizophrenia. The results provided evidence for a face-specific N170 latency delay in patients with schizophrenia. The N170 latency in patients with schizophrenia was significantly longer than that in healthy controls when images of faces were presented in both upright and inverted orientations. Importantly, the face-related N170 latencies of the left temporo-occipital electrodes (P7 and PO7) were positively correlated with both negative and general psychiatric symptoms in these patients. The N170 amplitudes were weaker in patients than in controls for inverted images of both faces and non-faces (tables), with a left-hemisphere dominance. The face inversion effect (FIE), meaning the difference in N170 amplitude between upright and inverted faces, was absent in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting an abnormality of holistic face processing. Together, these results revealed a marked symptom-relevant neural delay associated with face-specific processing in patients with schizophrenia, providing additional evidence to support the demyelination hypothesis of schizophrenia. PMID:27965562

  19. Selective attention modulates high-frequency activity in the face-processing network.

    PubMed

    Müsch, Kathrin; Hamamé, Carlos M; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe; Engel, Andreas K; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Schneider, Till R

    2014-11-01

    Face processing depends on the orchestrated activity of a large-scale neuronal network. Its activity can be modulated by attention as a function of task demands. However, it remains largely unknown whether voluntary, endogenous attention and reflexive, exogenous attention to facial expressions equally affect all regions of the face-processing network, and whether such effects primarily modify the strength of the neuronal response, the latency, the duration, or the spectral characteristics. We exploited the good temporal and spatial resolution of intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) and recorded from depth electrodes to uncover the fast dynamics of emotional face processing. We investigated frequency-specific responses and event-related potentials (ERP) in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOTC), ventral temporal cortex (VTC), anterior insula, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and amygdala when facial expressions were task-relevant or task-irrelevant. All investigated regions of interest (ROI) were clearly modulated by task demands and exhibited stronger changes in stimulus-induced gamma band activity (50-150 Hz) when facial expressions were task-relevant. Observed latencies demonstrate that the activation is temporally coordinated across the network, rather than serially proceeding along a processing hierarchy. Early and sustained responses to task-relevant faces in VOTC and VTC corroborate their role for the core system of face processing, but they also occurred in the anterior insula. Strong attentional modulation in the OFC and amygdala (300 msec) suggests that the extended system of the face-processing network is only recruited if the task demands active face processing. Contrary to our expectation, we rarely observed differences between fearful and neutral faces. Our results demonstrate that activity in the face-processing network is susceptible to the deployment of selective attention. Moreover, we show that endogenous attention operates along the whole

  20. The ANK3 gene and facial affect processing: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wan; Zhang, Qiumei; Yu, Ping; Zhang, Zhifang; Chen, Xiongying; Gu, Huang; Zhai, Jinguo; Chen, Min; Du, Boqi; Deng, Xiaoxiang; Ji, Feng; Wang, Chuanyue; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Li, Dawei; Wu, Hongjie; Dong, Qi; Luo, Yuejia; Li, Jun; Chen, Chuansheng

    2016-09-01

    ANK3 is one of the most promising candidate genes for bipolar disorder (BD). A polymorphism (rs10994336) within the ANK3 gene has been associated with BD in at least three genome-wide association studies of BD [McGuffin et al., 2003; Kieseppä, 2004; Edvardsen et al., 2008]. Because facial affect processing is disrupted in patients with BD, the current study aimed to explore whether the BD risk alleles are associated with the N170, an early event-related potential (ERP) component related to facial affect processing. We collected data from two independent samples of healthy individuals (Ns = 83 and 82, respectively) to test the association between rs10994336 and an early event-related potential (ERP) component (N170) that is sensitive to facial affect processing. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance in both samples consistently revealed significant main effects of rs10994336 genotype (Sample I: F (1, 72) = 7.24, P = 0.009; Sample II: F (1, 69) = 11.81, P = 0.001), but no significant interaction of genotype × electrodes (Ps > 0.05) or genotype × emotional conditions (Ps > 0.05). These results suggested that rs10994336 was linked to early ERP component reflecting facial structural encoding during facial affect processing. These results shed new light on the brain mechanism of this risk SNP and associated disorders such as BD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Neurodynamics of executive control processes in bilinguals: evidence from ERP and source reconstruction analyses.

    PubMed

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Hemforth, Barbara; Moutier, Sylvain; Isel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the impact of bilingualism on the neuronal activity in different executive control processes namely conflict monitoring, control implementation (i.e., interference suppression and conflict resolution) and overcoming of inhibition. Twenty-two highly proficient but non-balanced successive French-German bilingual adults and 22 monolingual adults performed a combined Stroop/Negative priming task while event-related potential (ERP) were recorded online. The data revealed that the ERP effects were reduced in bilinguals in comparison to monolinguals but only in the Stroop task and limited to the N400 and the sustained fronto-central negative-going potential time windows. This result suggests that bilingualism may impact the process of control implementation rather than the process of conflict monitoring (N200). Critically, our study revealed a differential time course of the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in conflict processing. While the ACC showed major activation in the early time windows (N200 and N400) but not in the latest time window (late sustained negative-going potential), the PFC became unilaterally active in the left hemisphere in the N400 and the late sustained negative-going potential time windows. Taken together, the present electroencephalography data lend support to a cascading neurophysiological model of executive control processes, in which ACC and PFC may play a determining role.

  2. Language-based social feedback processing with randomized "senders": An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Sebastian; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-02-06

    Recently, several event-related potential (ERP) studies investigated the impact of sender attributions on language-based social feedback processing. Results showed very early responses to the social context, while interactions or effects of emotional content started later. However, in these studies, sender attribution was varied across blocks, possibly inducing unspecific, anticipatory effects. Here, who was giving feedback was disclosed simultaneously with the decision itself. Participants' ERPs differentiated between attributed senders starting with the early posterior negativity. P3 and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes were also enlarged for the "human sender". Emotion effects occurred in the P3 and LPP time windows. Further, we found an interaction on the P3: "Human" emotional feedback was selectively amplified. Source analysis localized enhanced processing of "human"-generated feedback in visual areas from around 300 ms after feedback onset and from 400 ms also in temporal regions. Enhancement of "human" emotional feedback resulted from increased activations in the left visual word form area. These findings highlight that decoding who is giving feedback precedes content processing, both in blocked and in randomly alternating situations. Further, in quasi-realistic social contexts, processing of emotional content is selectively amplified. Finally, involvement of semantic language processing structures indicates reintegration of words in a salient context.

  3. An ERP Study of Syntactic Processing in English and Nonsense Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yoshiko; Neville, Helen J.

    2007-01-01

    The timecourse of the interaction between syntactic and semantic information during sentence processing in monolingual native English speakers was investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs). To examine the effects of semantic information on syntactic processing, the results for normal English sentences were compared to those for semantically impoverished nonsense (Jabberwocky) sentences. Within each sentence type condition, half of the sentences contained a syntactic violation. Violations elicited a larger amplitude N1 and more negative ERPs around 200 ms after the onset of the critical word relative to the grammatical condition. Although these effects were observed in both sentence types, they were anteriorly distributed for English sentences only. Moreover, the P600 elicited by the syntactic violation was attenuated in processing Jabberwocky as compared to English sentences. These results suggest that semantic and syntactic information are integrated during the earlier stages of syntactic processing indexed by the anterior negativities, and that these interactions continue in the later stages of processing indexed by the P600. PMID:17173867

  4. Neurodynamics of executive control processes in bilinguals: evidence from ERP and source reconstruction analyses

    PubMed Central

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Hemforth, Barbara; Moutier, Sylvain; Isel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the impact of bilingualism on the neuronal activity in different executive control processes namely conflict monitoring, control implementation (i.e., interference suppression and conflict resolution) and overcoming of inhibition. Twenty-two highly proficient but non-balanced successive French–German bilingual adults and 22 monolingual adults performed a combined Stroop/Negative priming task while event-related potential (ERP) were recorded online. The data revealed that the ERP effects were reduced in bilinguals in comparison to monolinguals but only in the Stroop task and limited to the N400 and the sustained fronto-central negative-going potential time windows. This result suggests that bilingualism may impact the process of control implementation rather than the process of conflict monitoring (N200). Critically, our study revealed a differential time course of the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in conflict processing. While the ACC showed major activation in the early time windows (N200 and N400) but not in the latest time window (late sustained negative-going potential), the PFC became unilaterally active in the left hemisphere in the N400 and the late sustained negative-going potential time windows. Taken together, the present electroencephalography data lend support to a cascading neurophysiological model of executive control processes, in which ACC and PFC may play a determining role. PMID:26124740

  5. Anticipatory processes under academic stress: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Yang, Can; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that preparing for and taking high-stakes exams has a significant influence on the emotional and physiological wellbeing of exam-takers, but few studies have investigated the resulting cognitive changes. The current study examined the effect of examination-induced academic stress on anticipation in information processing. Anticipation was indexed using the contingent negative variation (CNV). Electroencephalograms (EEG) were collected from 42 participants using the classic S1-S2 paradigm. These participants were preparing for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE). EEGs were also collected from 21 age-matched, non-exam comparison participants. The levels of perceived stress and state anxiety were higher and both the initial CNV (iCNV) and the late CNV (lCNV) were more negative in the exam group than in the non-exam group. These results suggest that participants under academic stress experienced greater anticipation of upcoming events. More important, for the non-exam group, state anxiety was positively related to both the iCNV and lCNV amplitude, and this correlation existed when trait anxiety was controlled; however, there was no such relationship in the exam group. These results suggested that the cortical anticipatory activity in the high-stressed exam group reached the maximum ceiling, leaving little room for transient increases in state anxiety.

  6. The evolution of face processing in primates.

    PubMed

    Parr, Lisa A

    2011-06-12

    The ability to recognize faces is an important socio-cognitive skill that is associated with a number of cognitive specializations in humans. While numerous studies have examined the presence of these specializations in non-human primates, species where face recognition would confer distinct advantages in social situations, results have been mixed. The majority of studies in chimpanzees support homologous face-processing mechanisms with humans, but results from monkey studies appear largely dependent on the type of testing methods used. Studies that employ passive viewing paradigms, like the visual paired comparison task, report evidence of similarities between monkeys and humans, but tasks that use more stringent, operant response tasks, like the matching-to-sample task, often report species differences. Moreover, the data suggest that monkeys may be less sensitive than chimpanzees and humans to the precise spacing of facial features, in addition to the surface-based cues reflected in those features, information that is critical for the representation of individual identity. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the available data from face-processing tasks in non-human primates with the goal of understanding the evolution of this complex cognitive skill.

  7. Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Semantic Processing in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Coderre, Emily L; Chernenok, Mariya; Gordon, Barry; Ledoux, Kerry

    2017-01-12

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience difficulties with language, particularly higher-level functions like semantic integration. Yet some studies indicate that semantic processing of non-linguistic stimuli is not impaired, suggesting a language-specific deficit in semantic processing. Using a semantic priming task, we compared event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to lexico-semantic processing (written words) and visuo-semantic processing (pictures) in adults with ASD and adults with typical development (TD). The ASD group showed successful lexico-semantic and visuo-semantic processing, indicated by similar N400 effects between groups for word and picture stimuli. However, differences in N400 latency and topography in word conditions suggested different lexico-semantic processing mechanisms: an expectancy-based strategy for the TD group but a controlled post-lexical integration strategy for the ASD group.

  8. Processing of emotional faces in congenital amusia: An emotional music priming event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Zhishuai, Jin; Hong, Liu; Daxing, Wu; Pin, Zhang; Xuejing, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Congenital amusia is characterized by lifelong impairments in music perception and processing. It is unclear whether pitch detection deficits impact amusic individuals' perception of musical emotion. In the current work, 19 amusics and 21 healthy controls were subjected to electroencephalography (EEG) while being exposed to music excerpts and emotional faces. We assessed each individual's ability to discriminate positive- and negative-valenced emotional faces and analyzed electrophysiological indices, in the form of event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded at 32 sites, following exposure to emotionally positive or negative music excerpts. We observed smaller N2 amplitudes in response to facial expressions in the amusia group than in the control group, suggesting that amusics were less affected by the musical stimuli. The late-positive component (LPC) in amusics was similar to that in controls. Our results suggest that the neurocognitive deficit characteristic of congenital amusia is fundamentally an impairment in musical information processing rather than an impairment in emotional processing.

  9. Beat Processing Is Pre-Attentive for Metrically Simple Rhythms with Clear Accents: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Bouwer, Fleur L.; Van Zuijen, Titia L.; Honing, Henkjan

    2014-01-01

    The perception of a regular beat is fundamental to music processing. Here we examine whether the detection of a regular beat is pre-attentive for metrically simple, acoustically varying stimuli using the mismatch negativity (MMN), an ERP response elicited by violations of acoustic regularity irrespective of whether subjects are attending to the stimuli. Both musicians and non-musicians were presented with a varying rhythm with a clear accent structure in which occasionally a sound was omitted. We compared the MMN response to the omission of identical sounds in different metrical positions. Most importantly, we found that omissions in strong metrical positions, on the beat, elicited higher amplitude MMN responses than omissions in weak metrical positions, not on the beat. This suggests that the detection of a beat is pre-attentive when highly beat inducing stimuli are used. No effects of musical expertise were found. Our results suggest that for metrically simple rhythms with clear accents beat processing does not require attention or musical expertise. In addition, we discuss how the use of acoustically varying stimuli may influence ERP results when studying beat processing. PMID:24870123

  10. Trait inferences in goal-directed behavior: ERP timing and localization under spontaneous and intentional processing

    PubMed Central

    Van den Eede, Sofie; Baetens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during multiple goal and trait inferences, under spontaneous or intentional instructions. Participants read sentences describing several goal-implying behaviors of a target person from which also a strong trait could be inferred or not. The last word of each sentence determined the consistency with the inference induced during preceding sentences. In comparison with behaviors that implied only a goal, stronger waveforms beginning at ∼150 ms were obtained when the behaviors additionally implied a trait. These ERPs showed considerable parallels between spontaneous and intentional inferences. This suggests that traits embedded in a stream of goal-directed behaviors were detected more rapidly and automatically than mere goals, irrespective of the participants’ spontaneous or intentional instructions. In line with this, source localization (LORETA) of the ERPs show predominantly activation in the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during 150–200 ms, suggesting that goals were detected at that time interval. During 200–300 ms, activation was stronger at the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for multiple goals and traits as opposed to goals only, suggesting that traits were inferred during this time window. A cued recall measure taken after the presentation of the stimulus material support the occurrence of goal and trait inferences and shows significant correlations with the neural components, indicating that these components are valid neural indices of spontaneous and intentional social inferences. The early detection of multiple goal and trait inferences is explained in terms of their greater social relevance, leading to privileged attention allocation and processing in the brain. PMID:19270041

  11. Trait inferences in goal-directed behavior: ERP timing and localization under spontaneous and intentional processing.

    PubMed

    Van Overwalle, Frank; Van den Eede, Sofie; Baetens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2009-06-01

    This study measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during multiple goal and trait inferences, under spontaneous or intentional instructions. Participants read sentences describing several goal-implying behaviors of a target person from which also a strong trait could be inferred or not. The last word of each sentence determined the consistency with the inference induced during preceding sentences. In comparison with behaviors that implied only a goal, stronger waveforms beginning at approximately 150 ms were obtained when the behaviors additionally implied a trait. These ERPs showed considerable parallels between spontaneous and intentional inferences. This suggests that traits embedded in a stream of goal-directed behaviors were detected more rapidly and automatically than mere goals, irrespective of the participants' spontaneous or intentional instructions. In line with this, source localization (LORETA) of the ERPs show predominantly activation in the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during 150-200 ms, suggesting that goals were detected at that time interval. During 200-300 ms, activation was stronger at the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for multiple goals and traits as opposed to goals only, suggesting that traits were inferred during this time window. A cued recall measure taken after the presentation of the stimulus material support the occurrence of goal and trait inferences and shows significant correlations with the neural components, indicating that these components are valid neural indices of spontaneous and intentional social inferences. The early detection of multiple goal and trait inferences is explained in terms of their greater social relevance, leading to privileged attention allocation and processing in the brain.

  12. Gender differences in the processing of standard emotional visual stimuli: integrating ERP and fMRI results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Tian, Jie; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Jin

    2005-04-01

    The comprehensive understanding of human emotion processing needs consideration both in the spatial distribution and the temporal sequencing of neural activity. The aim of our work is to identify brain regions involved in emotional recognition as well as to follow the time sequence in the millisecond-range resolution. The effect of activation upon visual stimuli in different gender by International Affective Picture System (IAPS) has been examined. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological responses were measured in the same subjects. Both fMRI and ERP study were employed in an event-related study. fMRI have been obtained with 3.0 T Siemens Magnetom whole-body MRI scanner. 128-channel ERP data were recorded using an EGI system. ERP is sensitive to millisecond changes in mental activity, but the source localization and timing is limited by the ill-posed 'inversed' problem. We try to investigate the ERP source reconstruction problem in this study using fMRI constraint. We chose ICA as a pre-processing step of ERP source reconstruction to exclude the artifacts and provide a prior estimate of the number of dipoles. The results indicate that male and female show differences in neural mechanism during emotion visual stimuli.

  13. The time course of face processing: startle eyeblink response modulation by face gender and expression.

    PubMed

    Duval, Elizabeth R; Lovelace, Christopher T; Aarant, Justin; Filion, Diane L

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of both facial expression and face gender on startle eyeblink response patterns at varying lead intervals (300, 800, and 3500ms) indicative of attentional and emotional processes. We aimed to determine whether responses to affective faces map onto the Defense Cascade Model (Lang et al., 1997) to better understand the stages of processing during affective face viewing. At 300ms, there was an interaction between face expression and face gender with female happy and neutral faces and male angry faces producing inhibited startle. At 3500ms, there was a trend for facilitated startle during angry compared to neutral faces. These findings suggest that affective expressions are perceived differently in male and female faces, especially at short lead intervals. Future studies investigating face processing should take both face gender and expression into account.

  14. Facial identity and facial expression are initially integrated at visual perceptual stages of face processing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Katie; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-08

    It is frequently assumed that facial identity and facial expression are analysed in functionally and anatomically distinct streams within the core visual face processing system. To investigate whether expression and identity interact during the visual processing of faces, we employed a sequential matching procedure where participants compared either the identity or the expression of two successively presented faces, and ignored the other irrelevant dimension. Repetitions versus changes of facial identity and expression were varied independently across trials, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during task performance. Irrelevant facial identity and irrelevant expression both interfered with performance in the expression and identity matching tasks. These symmetrical interference effects show that neither identity nor expression can be selectively ignored during face matching, and suggest that they are not processed independently. N250r components to identity repetitions that reflect identity matching mechanisms in face-selective visual cortex were delayed and attenuated when there was an expression change, demonstrating that facial expression interferes with visual identity matching. These findings provide new evidence for interactions between facial identity and expression within the core visual processing system, and question the hypothesis that these two attributes are processed independently.

  15. ERP manifestations of processing printed words at different psycholinguistic levels: time course and scalp distribution.

    PubMed

    Bentin, S; Mouchetant-Rostaing, Y; Giard, M H; Echallier, J F; Pernier, J

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the time course and scalp distribution of electrophysiological manifestations of the visual word recognition mechanism. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by visually presented lists of words were recorded while subjects were involved in a series of oddball tasks. The distinction between the designated target and nontarget stimuli was manipulated to induce a different level of processing in each session (visual, phonological/phonetic, phonological/lexical, and semantic). The ERPs of main interest in this study were those elicited by nontarget stimuli. In the visual task the targets were twice as big as the nontargets. Words, pseudowords, strings of consonants, strings of alphanumeric symbols, and strings of forms elicited a sharp negative peak at 170 msec (N170); their distribution was limited to the occipito-temporal sites. For the left hemisphere electrode sites, the N170 was larger for orthographic than for nonorthographic stimuli and vice versa for the right hemisphere. The ERPs elicited by all orthographic stimuli formed a clearly distinct cluster that was different from the ERPs elicited by nonorthographic stimuli. In the phonological/phonetic decision task the targets were words and pseudowords rhyming with the French word vitrail, whereas the nontargets were words, pseudowords, and strings of consonants that did not rhyme with vitrail. The most conspicuous potential was a negative peak at 320 msec, which was similarly elicited by pronounceable stimuli but not by nonpronounceable stimuli. The N320 was bilaterally distributed over the middle temporal lobe and was significantly larger over the left than over the right hemisphere. In the phonological/lexical processing task we compared the ERPs elicited by strings of consonants (among which words were selected), pseudowords (among which words were selected), and by words (among which pseudowords were selected). The most conspicuous potential in these tasks was a

  16. A Shape-Based Account for Holistic Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Faces are processed holistically, so selective attention to 1 face part without any influence of the others often fails. In this study, 3 experiments investigated what type of facial information (shape or surface) underlies holistic face processing and whether generalization of holistic processing to nonexperienced faces requires extensive…

  17. What can individual differences reveal about face processing?

    PubMed Central

    Yovel, Galit; Wilmer, Jeremy B.; Duchaine, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Faces are probably the most widely studied visual stimulus. Most research on face processing has used a group-mean approach that averages behavioral or neural responses to faces across individuals and treats variance between individuals as noise. However, individual differences in face processing can provide valuable information that complements and extends findings from group-mean studies. Here we demonstrate that studies employing an individual differences approach—examining associations and dissociations across individuals—can answer fundamental questions about the way face processing operates. In particular these studies allow us to associate and dissociate the mechanisms involved in face processing, tie behavioral face processing mechanisms to neural mechanisms, link face processing to broader capacities and quantify developmental influences on face processing. The individual differences approach we illustrate here is a powerful method that should be further explored within the domain of face processing as well as fruitfully applied across the cognitive sciences. PMID:25191241

  18. ERP correlates of German Sign Language processing in deaf native signers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the neural correlates of sign language processing of Deaf people who had learned German Sign Language (Deutsche Gebärdensprache, DGS) from their Deaf parents as their first language. Correct and incorrect signed sentences were presented sign by sign on a computer screen. At the end of each sentence the participants had to judge whether or not the sentence was an appropriate DGS sentence. Two types of violations were introduced: (1) semantically incorrect sentences containing a selectional restriction violation (implausible object); (2) morphosyntactically incorrect sentences containing a verb that was incorrectly inflected (i.e., incorrect direction of movement). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 74 scalp electrodes. Results Semantic violations (implausible signs) elicited an N400 effect followed by a positivity. Sentences with a morphosyntactic violation (verb agreement violation) elicited a negativity followed by a broad centro-parietal positivity. Conclusions ERP correlates of semantic and morphosyntactic aspects of DGS clearly differed from each other and showed a number of similarities with those observed in other signed and oral languages. These data suggest a similar functional organization of signed and oral languages despite the visual-spacial modality of sign language. PMID:24884527

  19. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    PubMed Central

    Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, and unpresented (unlearned) rare words while their ERPs were recorded. The behavioral results showed no significant effects of comprehension skill on meaning judgment performance. Contrastingly, the ERP results indicated comprehension skill differences in P600 amplitude; high-skilled readers showed stronger familiarity effects for learned words, whereas less-skilled readers did not distinguish between learned words, familiar words, and unlearned words. Evidence from the P600 and N400 illustrated superior learning of meaning when meaning information was coupled with orthography rather than phonology. These results suggest that the availability of word knowledge (orthography, phonology, and meaning) at learning affects subsequent word identification processes when the words are encountered in a new context. PMID:22399833

  20. Early sensitivity for eyes within faces: a new neuronal account of holistic and featural processing

    PubMed Central

    Nemrodov, Dan; Anderson, Thomas; Preston, Frank F.; Itier, Roxane J.

    2017-01-01

    Eyes are central to face processing however their role in early face encoding as reflected by the N170 ERP component is unclear. Using eye tracking to enforce fixation on specific facial features, we found that the N170 was larger for fixation on the eyes compared to fixation on the forehead, nasion, nose or mouth, which all yielded similar amplitudes. This eye sensitivity was seen in both upright and inverted faces and was lost in eyeless faces, demonstrating it was due to the presence of eyes at fovea. Upright eyeless faces elicited largest N170 at nose fixation. Importantly, the N170 face inversion effect (FIE) was strongly attenuated in eyeless faces when fixation was on the eyes but was less attenuated for nose fixation and was normal when fixation was on the mouth. These results suggest the impact of eye removal on the N170 FIE is a function of the angular distance between the fixated feature and the eye location. We propose the Lateral Inhibition, Face Template and Eye Detector based (LIFTED) model which accounts for all the present N170 results including the FIE and its interaction with eye removal. Although eyes elicit the largest N170 response, reflecting the activity of an eye detector, the processing of upright faces is holistic and entails an inhibitory mechanism from neurons coding parafoveal information onto neurons coding foveal information. The LIFTED model provides a neuronal account of holistic and featural processing involved in upright and inverted faces and offers precise predictions for further testing. PMID:24768932

  1. Holistic Processing of Faces: Perceptual and Decisional Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Gauthier, Isabel; Wenger, Michael J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have used several composite face paradigms to assess holistic processing of faces. In the selective attention paradigm, participants decide whether one face part (e.g., top) is the same as a previously seen face part. Their judgment is affected by whether the irrelevant part of the test face is the same as or different than the…

  2. Lexical and sublexical orthographic processing: an ERP study with skilled and dyslexic adult readers.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Susana; Faísca, Luís; Bramão, Inês; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2015-02-01

    This ERP study investigated the cognitive nature of the P1-N1 components during orthographic processing. We used an implicit reading task with various types of stimuli involving different amounts of sublexical or lexical orthographic processing (words, pseudohomophones, pseudowords, nonwords, and symbols), and tested average and dyslexic readers. An orthographic regularity effect (pseudowords-nonwords contrast) was observed in the average but not in the dyslexic group. This suggests an early sensitivity to the dependencies among letters in word-forms that reflect orthographic structure, while the dyslexic brain apparently fails to be appropriately sensitive to these complex features. Moreover, in the adults the N1-response may already reflect lexical access: (i) the N1 was sensitive to the familiar vs. less familiar orthographic sequence contrast; (ii) and early effects of the phonological form (words-pseudohomophones contrast) were also found. Finally, the later N320 component was attenuated in the dyslexics, suggesting suboptimal processing in later stages of phonological analysis.

  3. Conflict processing is modulated by positive emotion: ERP data from a flanker task.

    PubMed

    Kanske, Philipp; Kotz, Sonja A

    2011-06-01

    Recent evidence shows that negative emotional stimuli speed up the resolution of conflict between opposing response tendencies. This mechanism ensures rapid reactions in potentially threatening situations. However, it is unclear whether positive emotion has a similar effect on conflict processing. We therefore presented positive emotional words in a version of the flanker conflict task, in which conflict is elicited by incongruent target and flanker stimuli. Response times to incongruent stimuli were shortened in positive words, indicating a speeding up of conflict resolution. We also observed an enlargement of the first conflict-sensitive event-related potential (ERP) of the electroencephalogram, the N200, in positive emotional trials. The data suggest that positive emotion already modulates first stages of conflict processing. The results demonstrate that positive, reward-predicting stimuli influence conflict processing in a similar manner to threat signals. Positive emotion thus reduces the time that an organism is unable to respond due to simultaneously present conflicting action tendencies.

  4. The special status of sad infant faces: age and valence differences in adults' cortical face processing.

    PubMed

    Colasante, Tyler; Mossad, Sarah I; Dudek, Joanna; Haley, David W

    2016-12-20

    Understanding the relative and joint prioritization of age- and valence-related face characteristics in adults' cortical face processing remains elusive because these two characteristics have not been manipulated in a single study of neural face processing. We used electroencephalography to investigate adults' P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses to infant and adult faces with happy and sad facial expressions. Viewing infant vs adult faces was associated with significantly larger P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses, with hemisphere and/or participant gender moderating this effect in select cases. Sad faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses than happy faces. Sad infant faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses in the right hemisphere than all other combinations of face age and face valence characteristics. We discuss the relative and joint neural prioritization of infant face characteristics and negative facial affect, and their biological value as distinct caregiving and social cues.

  5. ERP differences of pre-lexical processing between dyslexic and non-dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Kast, Monika; Elmer, Stefan; Jancke, Lutz; Meyer, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The present Event-Related Potential (ERP) study aimed to investigate group differences in the early processing stages of 36 dyslexic and 24 non-dyslexic 8-12 year old children performing a lexical decision (word/pseudoword judgment) task. Our data showed larger amplitudes of negative-going waveforms in non-dyslexic children than dyslexic children over occipital/occipitotemporal electrodes at about 220 ms after stimulus onset. This electrophysiological response has previously been identified in adult readers and labeled as the N170 component. Notably, as reflected by the topographic maps children irrespective of group processed the linguistic stimuli bilaterally and we did not observe any differences in ERP parameters in words and pseudowords within groups. Contrarily, behavioral responses indicate that words were more quickly recognized than pseudowords irrespective of group. By applying post-hoc ROI analyses based on a source estimation approach (sLORETA) we observed that non-dyslexic participants, when compared to dyslexic children, demonstrated significantly stronger current density over the left hemispheric inferior temporal lobe when processing pseudowords. We concluded that impaired reading is reflected by the decreased amplitude of the early lexical component N170. The lack of a left hemispheric processing preference in both groups and similar activation for words and pseudowords can be considered a lack of reading experience and less established reading system in children. Our results indicate that dyslexic children commit fewer specialized neuronal circuits for processing print and confirm the reasoning that acquiring reading skills requires cortical reorganization over occipitotemporal regions.

  6. The influence of background music on recognition processes of Chinese characters: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baolin; Huang, Yizhou; Wang, Zhongning; Wu, Guangning

    2012-06-19

    In this paper, we employed RSS (rapid stream stimulation) paradigm to study the recognition processes of Chinese characters in background music. Real Chinese characters (upright or rotated) were used as target stimuli, while pseudo-words were used as background stimuli. Subjects were required to detect real characters while listening to Mozart's Sonata K. 448 and in silence. Both behavioral results and ERP results supported that Mozart's music mainly served as a distracter in the recognition processes of real Chinese characters in the experiment. The modulation of Mozart's music on RP (recognition potential) was different across different orientations of Chinese characters; in particular, the modulation of RP elicited by upright Chinese characters was more significant, suggesting that the music factor and orientation factor interact to affect the RP component. In brief, the simultaneous playing of Mozart's music did not improve subjects' performance in the detection of real Chinese characters.

  7. The Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test: A short and reliable measure of holistic face processing

    PubMed Central

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Floyd, R. Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to understand individual differences in high-level vision necessitate the development of measures that have sufficient reliability, which is generally not a concern in group studies. Holistic processing is central to research on face recognition and, more recently, to the study of individual differences in this area. However, recent work has shown that the most popular measure of holistic processing, the composite task, has low reliability. This is particularly problematic for the recent surge in interest in studying individual differences in face recognition. Here, we developed and validated a new measure of holistic face processing specifically for use in individual-differences studies. It avoids some of the pitfalls of the standard composite design and capitalizes on the idea that trial variability allows for better traction on reliability. Across four experiments, we refine this test and demonstrate its reliability. PMID:25228629

  8. An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Investigation of Filler-Gap Processing in Native and Second Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas, Andrea; DeDe, Gayle; Nicol, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The current study employed a neuro-imaging technique, Event-Related Potentials (ERP), to investigate real-time processing of sentences containing filler-gap dependencies by late-learning speakers of English as a second language (L2) with a Chinese native language background. An individual differences approach was also taken to examine the role of…

  9. Left inferior frontal gyrus mediates morphosyntax: ERP evidence from verb processing in left-hemisphere damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Regel, Stefanie; Kotz, Sonja A; Henseler, Ilona; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-01-01

    Neurocognitive models of language comprehension have proposed different mechanisms with different neural substrates mediating human language processing. Whether the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is engaged in morpho-syntactic information processing is currently still controversially debated. The present study addresses this issue by examining the processing of irregular verb inflection in real words (e.g., swim > swum > swam) and pseudowords (e.g., frim > frum > fram) by using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in neurological patients with lesions in the LIFG involving Broca's area as well as healthy controls. Different ERP patterns in response to the grammatical violations were observed in both groups. Controls showed a biphasic negativity-P600 pattern in response to incorrect verb inflections whereas patients with LIFG lesions displayed a N400. For incorrect pseudoword inflections, a late positivity was found in controls, while no ERP effects were obtained in patients. These findings of different ERP patterns in the two groups strongly indicate an involvement of LIFG in morphosyntactic processing, thereby suggesting brain regions' specialization for different language functions.

  10. The Interplay of Discourse Congruence and Lexical Association during Sentence Processing: Evidence from ERPs and Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camblin, C. Christine; Gordon, Peter C.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2007-01-01

    Five experiments used ERPs and eye tracking to determine the interplay of word-level and discourse-level information during sentence processing. Subjects read sentences that were locally congruent but whose congruence with discourse context was manipulated. Furthermore, critical words in the local sentence were preceded by a prime word that was…

  11. The Effect of Gaze Direction on the Processing of Facial Expressions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the neural basis of the effect of gaze direction on facial expression processing in children with and without ASD, using event-related potential (ERP). Children with ASD (10-17-year olds) and typically developing (TD) children (9-16-year olds) were asked to determine the emotional expressions (anger or fearful) of a facial…

  12. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuan; Du, Fenglei; Wang, Chunjie; Liu, Yuqiu; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-h/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a 2-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and event related potential (ERP) recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC) (NC task) or the physical size (PC task) of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1) and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component) time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children. PMID:26042012

  13. ERP evidence of adaptive changes in error processing and attentional control during rhythm synchronization learning.

    PubMed

    Padrão, Gonçalo; Penhune, Virginia; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-10-15

    The ability to detect and use information from errors is essential during the acquisition of new skills. There is now a wealth of evidence about the brain mechanisms involved in error processing. However, the extent to which those mechanisms are engaged during the acquisition of new motor skills remains elusive. Here we examined rhythm synchronization learning across 12 blocks of practice in musically naïve individuals and tracked changes in ERP signals associated with error-monitoring and error-awareness across distinct learning stages. Synchronization performance improved with practice, and performance improvements were accompanied by dynamic changes in ERP components related to error-monitoring and error-awareness. Early in learning, when performance was poor and the internal representations of the rhythms were weaker we observed a larger error-related negativity (ERN) following errors compared to later learning. The larger ERN during early learning likely results from greater conflict between competing motor responses, leading to greater engagement of medial-frontal conflict monitoring processes and attentional control. Later in learning, when performance had improved, we observed a smaller ERN accompanied by an enhancement of a centroparietal positive component resembling the P3. This centroparietal positive component was predictive of participant's performance accuracy, suggesting a relation between error saliency, error awareness and the consolidation of internal templates of the practiced rhythms. Moreover, we showed that during rhythm learning errors led to larger auditory evoked responses related to attention orientation which were triggered automatically and which were independent of the learning stage. The present study provides crucial new information about how the electrophysiological signatures related to error-monitoring and error-awareness change during the acquisition of new skills, extending previous work on error processing and cognitive

  14. Catching the news: Processing strategies in listening to dialogs as measured by ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Toepel, Ulrike; Pannekamp, Ann; Alter, Kai

    2007-01-01

    Background The online segmentation of spoken single sentences has repeatedly been associated with a particular event-related brain potential. The brain response could be attributed to the perception of major prosodic boundaries, and was termed Closure Positive Shift (CPS). However, verbal exchange between humans is mostly realized in the form of cooperative dialogs instead of loose strings of single sentences. The present study investigated whether listeners use prosodic cues for structuring larger contextually embedded utterances (i.e. dialogs) like in single sentence processing. Methods ERPs were recorded from listeners (n = 22) when presented with question-answer dialogs in German. The prosody of the answer (target sentence) either matched the context provided by a question or did not match the context question. Results CPS responses to the processing of the target sentences are elicited, first, when listeners encounter information comprising 'novelties', i.e. information not mentioned in the preceding question but facts corrected between context and target. Thereby it is irrelevant whether the actual prosody of the target sentence is in congruence with the informative status or not. Second, when listeners encounter target sentences which do not convey any novelties but only previously 'given' already known information, the structuring of the speech input is driven by prosody again. The CPS is then elicited when listeners perceive major prosodic boundaries similar as for the processing of context-free single sentences. Conclusion The study establishes a link between the on-line structuring of context-free (single sentences) and context-embedded utterances (dialogs) as measured by ERPs. Moreover, the impact of prosodic phrasing and accentuation on the perception of spoken utterances on and beyond sentence level is discussed. PMID:17922900

  15. Atypical Processing of Gaze Cues and Faces Explains Comorbidity between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Groom, Madeleine J; Kochhar, Puja; Hamilton, Antonia; Liddle, Elizabeth B; Simeou, Marina; Hollis, Chris

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the neurobiological basis of comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We compared children with ASD, ADHD or ADHD+ASD and typically developing controls (CTRL) on behavioural and electrophysiological correlates of gaze cue and face processing. We measured effects of ASD, ADHD and their interaction on the EDAN, an ERP marker of orienting visual attention towards a spatially cued location and the N170, a right-hemisphere lateralised ERP linked to face processing. We identified atypical gaze cue and face processing in children with ASD and ADHD+ASD compared with the ADHD and CTRL groups. The findings indicate a neurobiological basis for the presence of comorbid ASD symptoms in ADHD. Further research using larger samples is needed.

  16. Greater sensitivity of the cortical face processing system to perceptually-equated face detection

    PubMed Central

    Maher, S.; Ekstrom, T.; Tong, Y.; Nickerson, L.D.; Frederick, B.; Chen, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Face detection, the perceptual capacity to identify a visual stimulus as a face before probing deeper into specific attributes (such as its identity or emotion), is essential for social functioning. Despite the importance of this functional capacity, face detection and its underlying brain mechanisms are not well understood. This study evaluated the roles that the cortical face processing system, which is identified largely through studying other aspects of face perception, play in face detection. Specifically, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the activations of the fusifom face area (FFA), occipital face area (OFA) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) when face detection was isolated from other aspects of face perception and when face detection was perceptually-equated across individual human participants (n=20). During face detection, FFA and OFA were significantly activated, even for stimuli presented at perceptual-threshold levels, whereas STS was not. During tree detection, however, FFA and OFA were responsive only for highly salient (i.e., high contrast) stimuli. Moreover, activation of FFA during face detection predicted a significant portion of the perceptual performance levels that were determined psychophysically for each participant. This pattern of result indicates that FFA and OFA have a greater sensitivity to face detection signals and selectively support the initial process of face vs. non-face object perception. PMID:26592952

  17. Holistic Face Processing Is Mature at 4 Years of Age: Evidence from the Composite Face Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Heering, Adelaide; Houthuys, Sarah; Rossion, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Although it is acknowledged that adults integrate features into a representation of the whole face, there is still some disagreement about the onset and developmental course of holistic face processing. We tested adults and children from 4 to 6 years of age with the same paradigm measuring holistic face processing through an adaptation of the…

  18. Age Effects in L2 Grammar Processing as Revealed by ERPs and How (Not) to Study Them.

    PubMed

    Meulman, Nienke; Wieling, Martijn; Sprenger, Simone A; Stowe, Laurie A; Schmid, Monika S

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effect of age of acquisition (AoA) on grammatical processing in second language learners as measured by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We compare a traditional analysis involving the calculation of averages across a certain time window of the ERP waveform, analyzed with categorical groups (early vs. late), with a generalized additive modeling analysis, which allows us to take into account the full range of variability in both AoA and time. Sixty-six Slavic advanced learners of German listened to German sentences with correct and incorrect use of non-finite verbs and grammatical gender agreement. We show that the ERP signal depends on the AoA of the learner, as well as on the regularity of the structure under investigation. For gender agreement, a gradual change in processing strategies can be shown that varies by AoA, with younger learners showing a P600 and older learners showing a posterior negativity. For verb agreement, all learners show a P600 effect, irrespective of AoA. Based on their behavioral responses in an offline grammaticality judgment task, we argue that the late learners resort to computationally less efficient processing strategies when confronted with (lexically determined) syntactic constructions different from the L1. In addition, this study highlights the insights the explicit focus on the time course of the ERP signal in our analysis framework can offer compared to the traditional analysis.

  19. Effects of Repetition and Configural Changes on the Development of Face Recognition Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itier, Roxane J.; Taylor, Margot J.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of repetition on recognition of upright, inverted and contrast-reversed target faces in children from 8 to 15 years when engaged in a learning phase/test phase paradigm with target and distractor faces. Early (P1, N170) and late ERP components were analysed. Children across age groups performed equally well, and were…

  20. Traditional facial tattoos disrupt face recognition processes.

    PubMed

    Buttle, Heather; East, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Factors that are important to successful face recognition, such as features, configuration, and pigmentation/reflectance, are all subject to change when a face has been engraved with ink markings. Here we show that the application of facial tattoos, in the form of spiral patterns (typically associated with the Maori tradition of a Moko), disrupts face recognition to a similar extent as face inversion, with recognition accuracy little better than chance performance (2AFC). These results indicate that facial tattoos can severely disrupt our ability to recognise a face that previously did not have the pattern.

  1. Crossmodal Integration of Emotional Information from Face and Voice in the Infant Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossmann, Tobias; Striano, Tricia; Friederici, Angela D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined 7-month-old infants' processing of emotionally congruent and incongruent face-voice pairs using ERP measures. Infants watched facial expressions (happy or angry) and, after a delay of 400 ms, heard a word spoken with a prosody that was either emotionally congruent or incongruent with the face being presented. The ERP data revealed that…

  2. Faces in Motion: Selectivity of Macaque and Human Face Processing Areas for Dynamic Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Polosecki, Pablo; Moeller, Sebastian; Schweers, Nicole; Romanski, Lizabeth M.; Tsao, Doris Y.

    2013-01-01

    Face recognition mechanisms need to extract information from static and dynamic faces. It has been hypothesized that the analysis of dynamic face attributes is performed by different face areas than the analysis of static facial attributes. To date, there is no evidence for such a division of labor in macaque monkeys. We used fMRI to determine specializations of macaque face areas for motion. Face areas in the fundus of the superior temporal sulcus responded to general object motion; face areas outside of the superior temporal sulcus fundus responded more to facial motion than general object motion. Thus, the macaque face-processing system exhibits regional specialization for facial motion. Human face areas, processing the same stimuli, exhibited specializations for facial motion as well. Yet the spatial patterns of facial motion selectivity differed across species, suggesting that facial dynamics are analyzed differently in humans and macaques. PMID:23864665

  3. Faces in motion: selectivity of macaque and human face processing areas for dynamic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Polosecki, Pablo; Moeller, Sebastian; Schweers, Nicole; Romanski, Lizabeth M; Tsao, Doris Y; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2013-07-17

    Face recognition mechanisms need to extract information from static and dynamic faces. It has been hypothesized that the analysis of dynamic face attributes is performed by different face areas than the analysis of static facial attributes. To date, there is no evidence for such a division of labor in macaque monkeys. We used fMRI to determine specializations of macaque face areas for motion. Face areas in the fundus of the superior temporal sulcus responded to general object motion; face areas outside of the superior temporal sulcus fundus responded more to facial motion than general object motion. Thus, the macaque face-processing system exhibits regional specialization for facial motion. Human face areas, processing the same stimuli, exhibited specializations for facial motion as well. Yet the spatial patterns of facial motion selectivity differed across species, suggesting that facial dynamics are analyzed differently in humans and macaques.

  4. Sequential Processing and the Matching-Stimulus Interval Effect in ERP Components: An Exploration of the Mechanism Using Multiple Regression

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Barry, Robert J.; Gonsalvez, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    In oddball tasks, increasing the time between stimuli within a particular condition (target-to-target interval, TTI; nontarget-to-nontarget interval, NNI) systematically enhances N1, P2, and P300 event-related potential (ERP) component amplitudes. This study examined the mechanism underpinning these effects in ERP components recorded from 28 adults who completed a conventional three-tone oddball task. Bivariate correlations, partial correlations and multiple regression explored component changes due to preceding ERP component amplitudes and intervals found within the stimulus series, rather than constraining the task with experimentally constructed intervals, which has been adequately explored in prior studies. Multiple regression showed that for targets, N1 and TTI predicted N2, TTI predicted P3a and P3b, and Processing Negativity (PN), P3b, and TTI predicted reaction time. For rare nontargets, P1 predicted N1, NNI predicted N2, and N1 predicted Slow Wave (SW). Findings show that the mechanism is operating on separate stages of stimulus-processing, suggestive of either increased activation within a number of stimulus-specific pathways, or very long component generator recovery cycles. These results demonstrate the extent to which matching-stimulus intervals influence ERP component amplitudes and behavior in a three-tone oddball task, and should be taken into account when designing similar studies. PMID:27445774

  5. ERPs Differentially Reflect Automatic and Deliberate Processing of the Functional Manipulability of Objects

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Christopher R.; Chen, Yvonne Y.; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the functional properties of an object can interact with perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. Previously we have found that a between-subjects manipulation of judgment instructions resulted in different manipulability-related memory biases in an incidental memory test. To better understand this effect we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while participants made judgments about images of objects that were either high or low in functional manipulability (e.g., hammer vs. ladder). Using a between-subjects design, participants judged whether they had seen the object recently (Personal Experience), or could manipulate the object using their hand (Functionality). We focused on the P300 and slow-wave event-related potentials (ERPs) as reflections of attentional allocation. In both groups, we observed higher P300 and slow wave amplitudes for high-manipulability objects at electrodes Pz and C3. As P300 is thought to reflect bottom-up attentional processes, this may suggest that the processing of high-manipulability objects recruited more attentional resources. Additionally, the P300 effect was greater in the Functionality group. A more complex pattern was observed at electrode C3 during slow wave: processing the high-manipulability objects in the Functionality instruction evoked a more positive slow wave than in the other three conditions, likely related to motor simulation processes. These data provide neural evidence that effects of manipulability on stimulus processing are further mediated by automatic vs. deliberate motor-related processing. PMID:27536224

  6. Attentional bias in anxiety: a behavioral and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Bar-Haim, Yair; Lamy, Dominique; Glickman, Shlomit

    2005-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests the existence of a processing bias in favor of threat-related stimulation in anxious individuals. Using behavioral and ERP measures, the present study investigated the deployment of attention to face stimuli with different emotion expressions in high-anxious and low-anxious participants. An attention-shifting paradigm was used in which faces with neutral, angry, fearful, sad, or happy expressions were presented singly at fixation. Participants had to fixate on the face cue and then discriminate a target shape that appeared randomly above, below, to the left, or right of the fixated face. The behavioral data show that high-anxious participants were slower to respond to targets regardless of the emotion expressed by the face cue. In contrast, the ERP data indicate that threat-related faces elicited faster latencies and greater amplitudes of early ERP components in high-anxious than in low-anxious individuals. The between-group pattern in ERP waveforms suggests that the slower reaction times in high-anxious participants might reflect increased attentional dwelling on the face cues, rather than a general slowing of response enacting.

  7. Atypical Faces vs. Object Processing and Hemispheric Asymmetries in 10-Month-Old Infants at Risk for Autism

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Joseph P.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Dobkins, Karen R.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have documented atypicalities in face/object processing in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To investigate whether such atypicalities may reflect a genetically-mediated risk factor present early in development, we measured face/object processing in 10-month-old “High-Risk” infants, who carry some of the genes associated with ASD because they have an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder. Methods We employed event related potentials (ERPs) to measure cortical responses to pictures of faces and objects, the objects being pictures of toys. Latencies and amplitudes of four ERP components (P100, N290, P400 and Nc) were compared between 20 High-Risk infants and 20 Low-Risk controls (infants with no family history of ASD). Results Responses to faces vs. objects differed between High- and Low-Risk infants, for the latencies of the N290 and P400. Differences were driven by faster responses to faces than objects in Low-Risk, but not High-Risk, infants (P400), and conversely, faster responses to objects than faces in High-Risk, but not Low-Risk, infants (N290). And, object responses were faster in High-Risk than Low-Risk infants (both N290 and P400). Left vs. right hemisphere responses also differed between High- and Low-Risk infants, for the amplitudes of the P100, N290 and P400; collapsed across faces/objects, Low-Risk, but not High-Risk, infants exhibited hemisphere asymmetries. Conclusions Genetic risk for ASD is associated with atypical face vs. object processing, and an atypical lack of hemispheric asymmetry, early in life. These atypicalities might contribute to development of the disorder. PMID:19765688

  8. Interference among the Processing of Facial Emotion, Face Race, and Face Gender

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongna; Tse, Chi-Shing

    2016-01-01

    People can process multiple dimensions of facial properties simultaneously. Facial processing models are based on the processing of facial properties. The current study examined the processing of facial emotion, face race, and face gender using categorization tasks. The same set of Chinese, White and Black faces, each posing a neutral, happy or angry expression, was used in three experiments. Facial emotion interacted with face race in all the tasks. The interaction of face race and face gender was found in the race and gender categorization tasks, whereas the interaction of facial emotion and face gender was significant in the emotion and gender categorization tasks. These results provided evidence for a symmetric interaction between variant facial properties (emotion) and invariant facial properties (race and gender). PMID:27840621

  9. Interference among the Processing of Facial Emotion, Face Race, and Face Gender.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongna; Tse, Chi-Shing

    2016-01-01

    People can process multiple dimensions of facial properties simultaneously. Facial processing models are based on the processing of facial properties. The current study examined the processing of facial emotion, face race, and face gender using categorization tasks. The same set of Chinese, White and Black faces, each posing a neutral, happy or angry expression, was used in three experiments. Facial emotion interacted with face race in all the tasks. The interaction of face race and face gender was found in the race and gender categorization tasks, whereas the interaction of facial emotion and face gender was significant in the emotion and gender categorization tasks. These results provided evidence for a symmetric interaction between variant facial properties (emotion) and invariant facial properties (race and gender).

  10. Outlining face processing skills of portrait artists: Perceptual experience with faces predicts performance.

    PubMed

    Devue, Christel; Barsics, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    Most humans seem to demonstrate astonishingly high levels of skill in face processing if one considers the sophisticated level of fine-tuned discrimination that face recognition requires. However, numerous studies now indicate that the ability to process faces is not as fundamental as once thought and that performance can range from despairingly poor to extraordinarily high across people. Here we studied people who are super specialists of faces, namely portrait artists, to examine how their specific visual experience with faces relates to a range of face processing skills (perceptual discrimination, short- and longer term recognition). Artists show better perceptual discrimination and, to some extent, recognition of newly learned faces than controls. They are also more accurate on other perceptual tasks (i.e., involving non-face stimuli or mental rotation). By contrast, artists do not display an advantage compared to controls on longer term face recognition (i.e., famous faces) nor on person recognition from other sensorial modalities (i.e., voices). Finally, the face inversion effect exists in artists and controls and is not modulated by artistic practice. Advantages in face processing for artists thus seem to closely mirror perceptual and visual short term memory skills involved in portraiture.

  11. On the Processing of Japanese Wh-Questions: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Mieko; Kluender, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The processing of Japanese wh-questions was investigated using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Unlike in English or German, a wh-element in Japanese need not be displaced from its canonical position, but instead needs a corresponding Q(uestion)-particle to indicate its interrogative scope. We tested to see if there were any processing correlates specific to these features of Japanese wh-questions. Both mono-clausal and bi-clausal Japanese wh-questions elicited right-lateralized anterior negativity (RAN) between wh-words and corresponding Q-particles, relative to structurally-equivalent yes/no-question control conditions. These results suggest a reliable neural processing correlate of the dependency between wh-elements and Q-particles in Japanese, which is similar to effects of (left) anterior negativity seen between wh-fillers and gaps in English and German, but with a right- rather than left-lateralized distribution. It is suggested that wh-in-situ questions in Japanese are processed by the incremental formation of a long-distance dependency between wh-elements and their Q-particles, resulting in a working memory load for keeping track of the scopeless wh-elements. PMID:19501576

  12. Semantic Processing Persists despite Anomalous Syntactic Category: ERP Evidence from Chinese Passive Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Wu, Fuyun; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    The syntax-first model and the parallel/interactive models make different predictions regarding whether syntactic category processing has a temporal and functional primacy over semantic processing. To further resolve this issue, an event-related potential experiment was conducted on 24 Chinese speakers reading Chinese passive sentences with the passive marker BEI (NP1 + BEI + NP2 + Verb). This construction was selected because it is the most-commonly used Chinese passive and very much resembles German passives, upon which the syntax-first hypothesis was primarily based. We manipulated semantic consistency (consistent vs. inconsistent) and syntactic category (noun vs. verb) of the critical verb, yielding four conditions: CORRECT (correct sentences), SEMANTIC (semantic anomaly), SYNTACTIC (syntactic category anomaly), and COMBINED (combined anomalies). Results showed both N400 and P600 effects for sentences with semantic anomaly, with syntactic category anomaly, or with combined anomalies. Converging with recent findings of Chinese ERP studies on various constructions, our study provides further evidence that syntactic category processing does not precede semantic processing in reading Chinese. PMID:26125621

  13. On the processing of Japanese wh-questions: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Mieko; Kluender, Robert

    2009-09-22

    The processing of Japanese wh-questions was investigated using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Unlike in English or German, a wh-element in Japanese need not be displaced from its canonical position, but instead needs a corresponding Q(uestion)-particle to indicate its interrogative scope. We tested to see if there were any processing correlates specific to these features of Japanese wh-questions. Both mono-clausal and bi-clausal Japanese wh-questions elicited right-lateralized anterior negativity (RAN) between wh-words and corresponding Q-particles, relative to structurally-equivalent yes/no-question control conditions. These results suggest a reliable neural processing correlate of the dependency between wh-elements and Q-particles in Japanese, similar to effects of (left) anterior negativity between wh-fillers and gaps in English and German, but with a right- rather than left-lateralized distribution. It is suggested that wh-in-situ questions in Japanese are processed by the incremental formation of a long-distance dependency between wh-elements and their Q-particles, resulting in a working memory load for keeping track of scopeless wh-elements.

  14. Conscious awareness is required for holistic face processing

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Vadim; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the limits of unconscious processing is essential to understand the function of consciousness. Here, we explored whether holistic face processing, a mechanism believed to be important for face processing in general, can be accomplished unconsciously. Using a novel “eyes-face” stimulus we tested whether discrimination of pairs of eyes was influenced by the surrounding face context. While the eyes were fully visible, the faces that provided context could be rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression. Two experiments with three different sets of face stimuli and a subliminal learning procedure converged to show that invisible faces did not influence perception of visible eyes. In contrast, surrounding faces, when they were clearly visible, strongly influenced perception of the eyes. Thus, we conclude that conscious awareness might be a prerequisite for holistic face processing. PMID:24950500

  15. An ERP Implementation and Business Process Reengineering at a Small University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakovlev, Ilya V.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the reengineering of business practices that took place at the University of Wisconsin-Superior when they implemented an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, PeopleSoft Student Administration (SA). Discusses lessons learned. (EV)

  16. Implications of holistic face processing in autism and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Tamara L.

    2013-01-01

    People with autism and schizophrenia have been shown to have a local bias in sensory processing and face recognition difficulties. A global or holistic processing strategy is known to be important when recognizing faces. Studies investigating face recognition in these populations are reviewed and show that holistic processing is employed despite lower overall performance in the tasks used. This implies that holistic processing is necessary but not sufficient for optimal face recognition and new avenues for research into face recognition based on network models of autism and schizophrenia are proposed. PMID:23847581

  17. The Impact of Early Bilingualism on Face Recognition Processes.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Sonia; Burfin, Sabine; Méary, David; Ruiz-Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker's face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes). Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other-Race Effect (ORE) and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race), Chinese faces (other race), and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals' face processing abilities differ from monolinguals'. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation.

  18. The Impact of Early Bilingualism on Face Recognition Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, Sonia; Burfin, Sabine; Méary, David; Ruiz-Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker’s face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes). Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other-Race Effect (ORE) and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race), Chinese faces (other race), and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals’ face processing abilities differ from monolinguals’. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation. PMID:27486422

  19. An ERP study on L2 syntax processing: When do learners fail?

    PubMed

    Meulman, Nienke; Stowe, Laurie A; Sprenger, Simone A; Bresser, Moniek; Schmid, Monika S

    2014-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) can reveal online processing differences between native speakers and second language (L2) learners during language comprehension. Using the P600 as a measure of native-likeness, we investigated processing of grammatical gender agreement in highly proficient immersed Romance L2 learners of Dutch. We demonstrate that these late learners consistently fail to show native-like sensitivity to gender violations. This appears to be due to a combination of differences from the gender marking in their L1 and the relatively opaque Dutch gender system. We find that L2 use predicts the effect magnitude of non-finite verb violations, a relatively regular and transparent construction, but not that of gender agreement violations. There were no effects of age of acquisition, length of residence, proficiency or offline gender knowledge. Additionally, a within-subject comparison of stimulus modalities (written vs. auditory) shows that immersed learners may show some of the effects only in the auditory modality; in non-finite verb violations, an early native-like N400 was only present for auditory stimuli. However, modality failed to influence the response to gender. Taken together, the results confirm the persistent problems of Romance learners of Dutch with online gender processing and show that they cannot be overcome by reducing task demands related to the modality of stimulus presentation.

  20. What Do Infants See in Faces? ERP Evidence of Different Roles of Eyes and Mouth for Face Perception in 9-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Alexandra P. F.; Stone, Wendy; Williams, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether face-specific perceptual brain mechanisms in 9-month-old infants are differentially sensitive to changes in individual facial features (eyes versus mouth) and whether sensitivity to such changes is related to infants' social and communicative skills. Infants viewed photographs of a smiling unfamiliar female face. On 30%…

  1. The Impact of Perceptual Load on the Non-Conscious Processing of Fearful Faces

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Feng, Chunliang; Mai, Xiaoqin; Jia, Lina; Zhu, Xiangru; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2016-01-01

    Emotional stimuli can be processed without consciousness. In the current study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess whether perceptual load influences non-conscious processing of fearful facial expressions. Perceptual load was manipulated using a letter search task with the target letter presented at the fixation point, while facial expressions were presented peripherally and masked to prevent conscious awareness. The letter string comprised six letters (X or N) that were identical (low load) or different (high load). Participants were instructed to discriminate the letters at fixation or the facial expression (fearful or neutral) in the periphery. Participants were faster and more accurate at detecting letters in the low load condition than in the high load condition. Fearful faces elicited a sustained positivity from 250 ms to 700 ms post-stimulus over fronto-central areas during the face discrimination and low-load letter discrimination conditions, but this effect was completely eliminated during high-load letter discrimination. Our findings imply that non-conscious processing of fearful faces depends on perceptual load, and attentional resources are necessary for non-conscious processing. PMID:27149273

  2. From Sensory Perception to Lexical-Semantic Processing: An ERP Study in Non-Verbal Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Cantiani, Chiara; Choudhury, Naseem A.; Yu, Yan H.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Benasich, April A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines electrocortical activity associated with visual and auditory sensory perception and lexical-semantic processing in nonverbal (NV) or minimally-verbal (MV) children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Currently, there is no agreement on whether these children comprehend incoming linguistic information and whether their perception is comparable to that of typically developing children. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10 NV/MV children with ASD and 10 neurotypical children were recorded during a picture-word matching paradigm. Atypical ERP responses were evident at all levels of processing in children with ASD. Basic perceptual processing was delayed in both visual and auditory domains but overall was similar in amplitude to typically-developing children. However, significant differences between groups were found at the lexical-semantic level, suggesting more atypical higher-order processes. The results suggest that although basic perception is relatively preserved in NV/MV children with ASD, higher levels of processing, including lexical- semantic functions, are impaired. The use of passive ERP paradigms that do not require active participant response shows significant potential for assessment of non-compliant populations such as NV/MV children with ASD. PMID:27560378

  3. From Sensory Perception to Lexical-Semantic Processing: An ERP Study in Non-Verbal Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Cantiani, Chiara; Choudhury, Naseem A; Yu, Yan H; Shafer, Valerie L; Schwartz, Richard G; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    This study examines electrocortical activity associated with visual and auditory sensory perception and lexical-semantic processing in nonverbal (NV) or minimally-verbal (MV) children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Currently, there is no agreement on whether these children comprehend incoming linguistic information and whether their perception is comparable to that of typically developing children. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10 NV/MV children with ASD and 10 neurotypical children were recorded during a picture-word matching paradigm. Atypical ERP responses were evident at all levels of processing in children with ASD. Basic perceptual processing was delayed in both visual and auditory domains but overall was similar in amplitude to typically-developing children. However, significant differences between groups were found at the lexical-semantic level, suggesting more atypical higher-order processes. The results suggest that although basic perception is relatively preserved in NV/MV children with ASD, higher levels of processing, including lexical- semantic functions, are impaired. The use of passive ERP paradigms that do not require active participant response shows significant potential for assessment of non-compliant populations such as NV/MV children with ASD.

  4. Controlled categorisation processing in brand extension evaluation by Indo-European language speakers. An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fudali-Czyż, Agnieszka; Ratomska, Marta; Cudo, Andrzej; Francuz, Piotr; Kopiś, Natalia; Tużnik, Przemysław

    2016-08-15

    The purpose of our experiment was to test event-related potentials (ERP) accompanying the process of brand extension evaluation in people speaking Indo-European languages. The experimental procedure consisted of sequential presentations of pairs of stimuli; namely, a beverage brand name and a product name. The products fell into the category of beverages (congruent trials) or clothes (incongruent trials). In the response condition (RC), the participants decided whether they accepted the product as an extension of the brand. In the no-response condition (NRC), the participants' task was to attend the stimuli and try to remember them. In the response condition, the amplitudes of the N270, P300 and N400 components were sensitive to incongruence between the product category and the previously presented brand. However, in the no-response condition, differences emerged only at the level of early P1 and P2 components. Our results suggest that, in people speaking one of the Indo-European languages, the process of categorisation in brand extension evaluation is not automatic.

  5. Real-time processing in picture naming in adults who stutter: ERP evidence

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Nathan D.; Morris, Kalie; Frisch, Stefan A.; Morphew, Kathryn; Constantine, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim was to compare real-time language/cognitive processing in picture naming in adults who stutter (AWS) versus typically-fluent adults (TFA). Methods Participants named pictures preceded by masked prime words. Primes and target picture labels were Identical or mismatched. Priming effects on naming and picture-elicited ERP activity were analyzed. Vocabulary knowledge correlations with these measures were assessed. Results Priming improved naming RTs and accuracy in both groups. RTs were longer for AWS, and correlated positively with receptive vocabulary in TFA. Electrophysiologically, posterior-P1 amplitude negatively correlated with expressive vocabulary in TFA versus receptive vocabulary in AWS. Frontal/temporal-P1 amplitude correlated positively with expressive vocabulary in AWS. Identity priming enhanced frontal/posterior-N2 amplitude in both groups, and attenuated P280 amplitude in AWS. N400 priming was topographically-restricted in AWS. Conclusions Results suggest that conceptual knowledge was perceptually-grounded in expressive vocabulary in TFA versus receptive vocabulary in AWS. Poorer expressive vocabulary in AWS was potentially associated with greater suppression of irrelevant conceptual information. Priming enhanced N2-indexed cognitive control and visual attention in both groups. P280-indexed focal attention attenuated with priming in AWS only. Topographically-restricted N400 priming suggests that lemma/word form connections were weaker in AWS. Significance Real-time language/cognitive processing in picture naming operates differently in AWS. PMID:24910149

  6. Conflict-Specific Aging Effects Mainly Manifest in Early Information Processing Stages-An ERP Study with Different Conflict Types.

    PubMed

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERPs) such as the P2, N2 and P3 components. In the present study, 19 young and 23 elderly adults performed a combined Flanker conflict and stimulus-response-conflict (SRC) task. Analysis of the reaction times (RTs) revealed an increased SRC related conflict effect in elderly. ERP analysis furthermore demonstrated an age-related increase of the P2 amplitude in response to the SRC task. In addition, elderly adults exhibited an increased P3 amplitude modulation induced by incongruent SRC and Flanker conflict trials.

  7. Conflict-Specific Aging Effects Mainly Manifest in Early Information Processing Stages—An ERP Study with Different Conflict Types

    PubMed Central

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERPs) such as the P2, N2 and P3 components. In the present study, 19 young and 23 elderly adults performed a combined Flanker conflict and stimulus-response-conflict (SRC) task. Analysis of the reaction times (RTs) revealed an increased SRC related conflict effect in elderly. ERP analysis furthermore demonstrated an age-related increase of the P2 amplitude in response to the SRC task. In addition, elderly adults exhibited an increased P3 amplitude modulation induced by incongruent SRC and Flanker conflict trials. PMID:27014059

  8. An ERP study of structural anomalies in native and semantic free artificial grammar: evidence for shared processing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tabullo, Ángel; Sevilla, Yamila; Segura, Enrique; Zanutto, Silvano; Wainselboim, Alejandro

    2013-08-21

    Artificial grammars have been widely applied to the study of sequential learning in language, but few studies have directly compared the neural correlates of artificial and native grammar processing. In this study, we examined Event Related Potentials (ERPs) elicited by structural anomalies in semantic-free artificial grammar sequences and sentences in the subjects' native language (Spanish). Although ERPs differed during early stages, we observed similar posterior negativities (N400) and P600 effects in a late stage. We interpret these results as evidence of at least partially shared neural mechanisms for processing of language and artificial grammars. We suggest that in both the natural and artificial grammars, the N400 and P600 components we observed can be explained as the result of unfulfilled predictions about incoming stimuli.

  9. Face recognition in simulated prosthetic vision: face detection-based image processing strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Xiaobei; Lu, Yanyu; Wu, Hao; Kan, Han; Chai, Xinyu

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Given the limited visual percepts elicited by current prosthetic devices, it is essential to optimize image content in order to assist implant wearers to achieve better performance of visual tasks. This study focuses on recognition of familiar faces using simulated prosthetic vision. Approach. Combined with region-of-interest (ROI) magnification, three face extraction strategies based on a face detection technique were used: the Viola-Jones face region, the statistical face region (SFR) and the matting face region. Main results. These strategies significantly enhanced recognition performance compared to directly lowering resolution (DLR) with Gaussian dots. The inclusion of certain external features, such as hairstyle, was beneficial for face recognition. Given the high recognition accuracy achieved and applicable processing speed, SFR-ROI was the preferred strategy. DLR processing resulted in significant face gender recognition differences (i.e. females were more easily recognized than males), but these differences were not apparent with other strategies. Significance. Face detection-based image processing strategies improved visual perception by highlighting useful information. Their use is advisable for face recognition when using low-resolution prosthetic vision. These results provide information for the continued design of image processing modules for use in visual prosthetics, thus maximizing the benefits for future prosthesis wearers.

  10. Putting the face in context: Body expressions impact facial emotion processing in human infants.

    PubMed

    Rajhans, Purva; Jessen, Sarah; Missana, Manuela; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Body expressions exert strong contextual effects on facial emotion perception in adults. Specifically, conflicting body cues hamper the recognition of emotion from faces, as evident on both the behavioral and neural level. We examined the developmental origins of the neural processes involved in emotion perception across body and face in 8-month-old infants by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We primed infants with body postures (fearful, happy) that were followed by either congruent or incongruent facial expressions. Our results revealed that body expressions impact facial emotion processing and that incongruent body cues impair the neural discrimination of emotional facial expressions. Priming effects were associated with attentional and recognition memory processes, as reflected in a modulation of the Nc and Pc evoked at anterior electrodes. These findings demonstrate that 8-month-old infants possess neural mechanisms that allow for the integration of emotion across body and face, providing evidence for the early developmental emergence of context-sensitive facial emotion perception.

  11. The Time-Course of Processing of Grammatical Class and Semantic Attributes of Words: Dissociation by Means of ERP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Domínguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the time-course of word processing by grammatical class (verbs vs. nouns) and meaning (action vs. non-action) by means of an ERP experiment. The morphology of Spanish words allows for a noun (e.g., "bail"-e [a dance]) or a verb (e.g., "bail"-ar [to dance]) to be formed by simply changing the suffix attached…

  12. Morphological processing in early bilinguals: an ERP study of regular and irregular verb processing.

    PubMed

    De Diego Balaguer, R; Sebastián-Gallés, N; Díaz, B; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2005-09-01

    Although the age of acquisition of a language has an effect when learning a second language, the similarity between languages may also have a crucial role. The aim of the present study is to understand the influence of this latter factor in the acquisition of morphosyntactic information. With this purpose, two groups of highly proficient early Catalan-Spanish bilinguals were presented with a repetition-priming paradigm with regular and irregular verbs of Spanish. Catalan and Spanish have a similar suffix (-o) for regular verbs and completely different alternations for irregular verbs. Two types of irregular verbs were studied (semi-regular verbs with a systematic diphthong alternation, sentir-siento, and verbs with idiosyncratic changes, venir-vengo). Regular verbs showed the same centro-parietal N400 priming effect in the second-language speakers (L2) as in primary-language (L1) speakers. However, differences between groups, in the ERP pattern and the topography of the N400 effect, were observed for irregular morphology. In L1 speakers, the N400 effect was attenuated only for semi-regular verbs. In contrast, L2 speakers showed a reduced N400 priming effect in both irregular contrasts. This pattern of results suggests that the similarity between languages may help for similar structures but may interfere for dissimilar structures, at least when the two languages have very similar morphological systems.

  13. Hemisphere-Dependent Holistic Processing of Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramon, Meike; Rossion, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    In two behavioral experiments involving lateralized stimulus presentation, we tested whether one of the most commonly used measures of holistic face processing--the composite face effect--would be more pronounced for stimuli presented to the right as compared to the left hemisphere. In experiment 1, we investigated the composite face effect in a…

  14. Audio-visuomotor processing in the musician's brain: an ERP study on professional violinists and clarinetists.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Calbi, Marta; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto

    2014-07-29

    The temporal dynamics of brain activation during visual and auditory perception of congruent vs. incongruent musical video clips was investigated in 12 musicians from the Milan Conservatory of music and 12 controls. 368 videos of a clarinetist and a violinist playing the same score with their instruments were presented. The sounds were similar in pitch, intensity, rhythm and duration. To produce an audiovisual discrepancy, in half of the trials, the visual information was incongruent with the soundtrack in pitch. ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. Only in musicians for their own instruments was a N400-like negative deflection elicited due to the incongruent audiovisual information. SwLORETA applied to the N400 response identified the areas mediating multimodal motor processing: the prefrontal cortex, the right superior and middle temporal gyrus, the premotor cortex, the inferior frontal and inferior parietal areas, the EBA, somatosensory cortex, cerebellum and SMA. The data indicate the existence of audiomotor mirror neurons responding to incongruent visual and auditory information, thus suggesting that they may encode multimodal representations of musical gestures and sounds. These systems may underlie the ability to learn how to play a musical instrument.

  15. Audio-visuomotor processing in the Musician's brain: an ERP study on professional violinists and clarinetists

    PubMed Central

    Mado Proverbio, Alice; Calbi, Marta; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of brain activation during visual and auditory perception of congruent vs. incongruent musical video clips was investigated in 12 musicians from the Milan Conservatory of music and 12 controls. 368 videos of a clarinetist and a violinist playing the same score with their instruments were presented. The sounds were similar in pitch, intensity, rhythm and duration. To produce an audiovisual discrepancy, in half of the trials, the visual information was incongruent with the soundtrack in pitch. ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. Only in musicians for their own instruments was a N400-like negative deflection elicited due to the incongruent audiovisual information. SwLORETA applied to the N400 response identified the areas mediating multimodal motor processing: the prefrontal cortex, the right superior and middle temporal gyrus, the premotor cortex, the inferior frontal and inferior parietal areas, the EBA, somatosensory cortex, cerebellum and SMA. The data indicate the existence of audiomotor mirror neurons responding to incongruent visual and auditory information, thus suggesting that they may encode multimodal representations of musical gestures and sounds. These systems may underlie the ability to learn how to play a musical instrument. PMID:25070060

  16. Attentional Bias in Anxiety: A Behavioral and ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Haim, Yair; Lamy, Dominique; Glickman, Shlomit

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests the existence of a processing bias in favor of threat-related stimulation in anxious individuals. Using behavioral and ERP measures, the present study investigated the deployment of attention to face stimuli with different emotion expressions in high-anxious and low-anxious participants. An attention-shifting…

  17. Attachment representation modulates oxytocin effects on the processing of own-child faces in fathers.

    PubMed

    Waller, Christiane; Wittfoth, Matthias; Fritzsche, Konstantin; Timm, Lydia; Wittfoth-Schardt, Dina; Rottler, Edit; Heinrichs, Markus; Buchheim, Anna; Kiefer, Markus; Gündel, Harald

    2015-12-01

    Oxytocin (OT) plays a crucial role in parental-infant bonding and attachment. Recent functional imaging studies reveal specific attachment and reward related brain regions in individuals or within the parent-child dyad. However, the time course and functional stage of modulatory effects of OT on attachment-related processing, especially in fathers, are poorly understood. To elucidate the functional and neural mechanisms underlying the role of OT in paternal-child attachment, we performed an event-related potential study in 24 healthy fathers who received intranasal OT in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject experimental design. Participants passively viewed pictures of their own child (oC), a familiar (fC) and an unfamiliar child (ufC) while event-related potentials were recorded. Familiarity of the child's face modulated a broad negativity at occipital and temporo-parietal electrodes within a time window of 300-400ms, presumably reflecting a modulation of the N250 and N300 ERP components. The oC condition elicited a more negative potential compared to the other familiarity conditions suggesting different activation of perceptual memory representations and assignment of emotional valence. Most importantly, this familiarity effect was only observed under placebo (PL) and was abolished under OT, in particular at left temporo-parietal electrodes. This OT induced attenuation of ERP responses was related to habitual attachment representations in fathers. In summary, our results demonstrate an OT-specific effect at later stages of attachment-related face processing presumably reflecting both activation of perceptual memory representations and assignment of emotional value.

  18. Adaptation Duration Dissociates Category-, Image-, and Person-Specific Processes on Face-Evoked Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Márta; Zbanţ, Adriana; Németh, Kornél; Kovács, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated that face perception is biased by the prior presentation of another face, a phenomenon termed as face-related after-effect (FAE). FAE is linked to a neural signal-reduction at occipito-temporal areas and it can be observed in the amplitude modulation of the early event-related potential (ERP) components. Recently, macaque single-cell recording studies suggested that manipulating the duration of the adaptor makes the selective adaptation of different visual motion processing steps possible. To date, however, only a few studies tested the effects of adaptor duration on the electrophysiological correlates of human face processing directly. The goal of the current study was to test the effect of adaptor duration on the image-, identity-, and generic category-specific face processing steps. To this end, in a two-alternative forced choice familiarity decision task we used five adaptor durations (ranging from 200–5000 ms) and four adaptor categories: adaptor and test were identical images—Repetition Suppression (RS); adaptor and test were different images of the Same Identity (SameID); adaptor and test images depicted Different Identities (DiffID); the adaptor was a Fourier phase-randomized image (No). Behaviorally, a strong priming effect was observed in both accuracy and response times for RS compared with both DiffID and No. The electrophysiological results suggest that rapid adaptation leads to a category-specific modulation of P100, N170, and N250. In addition, both identity and image-specific processes affected the N250 component during rapid adaptation. On the other hand, prolonged (5000 ms) adaptation enhanced, and extended category-specific adaptation processes over all tested ERP components. Additionally, prolonged adaptation led to the emergence of image-, and identity-specific modulations on the N170 and P2 components as well. In other words, there was a clear dissociation among category, identity-, and image

  19. Neural correlates of emotional intelligence in a visual emotional oddball task: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Raz, Sivan; Dan, Orrie; Zysberg, Leehu

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed at identifying potential behavioral and neural correlates of Emotional Intelligence (EI) by using scalp-recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). EI levels were defined according to both self-report questionnaire and a performance-based ability test. We identified ERP correlates of emotional processing by using a visual-emotional oddball paradigm, in which subjects were confronted with one frequent standard stimulus (a neutral face) and two deviant stimuli (a happy and an angry face). The effects of these faces were then compared across groups with low and high EI levels. The ERP results indicate that participants with high EI exhibited significantly greater mean amplitudes of the P1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP components in response to emotional and neutral faces, at frontal, posterior-parietal and occipital scalp locations. P1, P2 and N2 are considered indexes of attention-related processes and have been associated with early attention to emotional stimuli. The later P3 component has been thought to reflect more elaborative, top-down, emotional information processing including emotional evaluation and memory encoding and formation. These results may suggest greater recruitment of resources to process all emotional and non-emotional faces at early and late processing stages among individuals with higher EI. The present study underscores the usefulness of ERP methodology as a sensitive measure for the study of emotional stimuli processing in the research field of EI.

  20. Neurophysiological Correlates of Featural and Spacing Processing for Face and Non-face Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Negrini, Marcello; Brkić, Diandra; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Premoli, Isabella; Rivolta, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The peculiar ability of humans to recognize hundreds of faces at a glance has been attributed to face-specific perceptual mechanisms known as holistic processing. Holistic processing includes the ability to discriminate individual facial features (i.e., featural processing) and their spatial relationships (i.e., spacing processing). Here, we aimed to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of featural- and spacing-processing of faces and objects. Nineteen healthy volunteers completed a newly created perceptual discrimination task for faces and objects (i.e., the “University of East London Face Task”) while their brain activity was recorded with a high-density (128 electrodes) electroencephalogram. Our results showed that early event related potentials at around 100 ms post-stimulus onset (i.e., P100) are sensitive to both facial features and spacing between the features. Spacing and features discriminability for objects occurred at circa 200 ms post-stimulus onset (P200). These findings indicate the existence of neurophysiological correlates of spacing vs. features processing in both face and objects, and demonstrate faster brain processing for faces. PMID:28348535

  1. The development of anticipatory cognitive control processes in task-switching: an ERP study in children, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Alberto; Nessler, Doreen; Czernochowski, Daniela; Friedman, David

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the development of advance task-set updating and reconfiguration, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data were recorded in children (9-10 years), adolescents (13-14 years), and young adults (20-27 years) in a cued task-switching paradigm. In pure blocks, the same task was repeated. In mixed blocks, comprised of stay and switch trials, two tasks were intermixed. Age differences were found for stay-pure performance (mixing costs) in the 600-ms but not in the 1200-ms cue-target interval (CTI). Children showed larger reaction time mixing costs than adults. The ERPs suggested that the larger costs were due to delayed anticipatory task-set updating in children. Switch-stay performance decrements (switch costs) were age-invariant in both CTIs. However, ERP data suggested that children reconfigured the task-set on some stay trials, rather than only on switch trials, suggesting the continued maturation of task-set reconfiguration processes.

  2. Developmental changes in analytic and holistic processes in face perception

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jane E.; DiBartolo, Michelle D.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Although infants demonstrate sensitivity to some kinds of perceptual information in faces, many face capacities continue to develop throughout childhood. One debate is the degree to which children perceive faces analytically versus holistically and how these processes undergo developmental change. In the present study, school-aged children and adults performed a perceptual matching task with upright and inverted face and house pairs that varied in similarity of featural or 2nd order configural information. Holistic processing was operationalized as the degree of serial processing when discriminating faces and houses [i.e., increased reaction time (RT), as more features or spacing relations were shared between stimuli]. Analytical processing was operationalized as the degree of parallel processing (or no change in RT as a function of greater similarity of features or spatial relations). Adults showed the most evidence for holistic processing (most strongly for 2nd order faces) and holistic processing was weaker for inverted faces and houses. Younger children (6–8 years), in contrast, showed analytical processing across all experimental manipulations. Older children (9–11 years) showed an intermediate pattern with a trend toward holistic processing of 2nd order faces like adults, but parallel processing in other experimental conditions like younger children. These findings indicate that holistic face representations emerge around 10 years of age. In adults both 2nd order and featural information are incorporated into holistic representations, whereas older children only incorporate 2nd order information. Holistic processing was not evident in younger children. Hence, the development of holistic face representations relies on 2nd order processing initially then incorporates featural information by adulthood. PMID:26300838

  3. Face Processing in Children with ASD: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campatelli, G.; Federico, R. R.; Apicella, F.; Sicca, F.; Muratori, F.

    2013-01-01

    Face processing has been studied and discussed in depth during previous decades in several branches of science, and evidence from research supports the view that this process is a highly specialized brain function. Several authors argue that difficulties in the use and comprehension of the information conveyed by human faces could represent a core…

  4. Stimulus Dependent Dynamic Reorganization of the Human Face Processing Network.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Gideon; Sporns, Olaf; Avidan, Galia

    2016-09-12

    Using the "face inversion effect", a hallmark of face perception, we examined network mechanisms supporting face representation by tracking functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) stimulus-dependent dynamic functional connectivity within and between brain networks associated with the processing of upright and inverted faces. We developed a novel approach adapting the general linear model (GLM) framework classically used for univariate fMRI analysis to capture stimulus-dependent fMRI dynamic connectivity of the face network. We show that under the face inversion manipulation, the face and non-face networks have complementary roles that are evident in their stimulus-dependent dynamic connectivity patterns as assessed by network decomposition into components or communities. Moreover, we show that connectivity patterns are associated with the behavioral face inversion effect. Thus, we establish "a network-level signature" of the face inversion effect and demonstrate how a simple physical transformation of the face stimulus induces a dramatic functional reorganization across related brain networks. Finally, we suggest that the dynamic GLM network analysis approach, developed here for the face network, provides a general framework for modeling the dynamics of blocked stimulus-dependent connectivity experimental designs and hence can be applied to a host of neuroimaging studies.

  5. When Does the Brain Distinguish between Genuine and Ambiguous Smiles? An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo, Manuel G.; Marrero, Hipolito; Beltran, David

    2013-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess the processing time course of ambiguous facial expressions with a smiling mouth but neutral, fearful, or angry eyes, in comparison with genuinely happy faces (a smile and happy eyes) and non-happy faces (neutral, fearful, or angry mouth and eyes). Participants judged whether the faces…

  6. ERP measures of syllable processing in 1 year olds: infant diet- and gender-related differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Language skills are generally better in females than males, but the basis for these differences has not been determined. To investigate whether variations in infant diet contribute to these differences, cortical responses to the syllable /pa/ (ERPs;124 sites) were examined in healthy 12-month-old, f...

  7. Conflict and Surrender during Sentence Processing: An ERP Study of Syntax-Semantics Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Albert; Sikos, Les

    2011-01-01

    Recent ERP studies report that implausible verb-argument combinations can elicit a centro-parietal P600 effect (e.g., "The hearty meal was devouring..."; Kim & Osterhout, 2005). Such eliciting conditions do not involve outright syntactic anomaly, deviating from previous reports of P600. Kim and Osterhout (2005) attributed such P600 effects to…

  8. An Initial Investigation into the Processes of Change in ACT, CT, and ERP for OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.; Whittal, Maureen L.; Cox, Jared M.; Gunter, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Six adults diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) were treated with either acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), cognitive therapy (CT), or exposure with ritual prevention (ERP) in a preliminary attempt to clarify the similarities or differences between the purported mechanisms of change that underlie these treatments. A new process…

  9. Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ponseti, J.; Granert, O.; van Eimeren, T.; Jansen, O.; Wolff, S.; Beier, K.; Deuschl, G.; Bosinski, H.; Siebner, H.

    2014-01-01

    Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating. In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more than child faces. These brain regions comprised areas known to be implicated in face processing, and sexual processing, including occipital areas, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and, subcortically, the putamen and nucleus caudatus. The same regions were activated in paedophiles, but with a reversed preferential response pattern. PMID:24850896

  10. Key elements of successful care process of patients with heart symptoms in an emergency care - could an ERP system help?

    PubMed

    Kontio, Elina; Korvenranta, Heikki; Lundgren-Laine, Heljä; Salanterä, Sanna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify key elements of successful care process of patients with heart symptoms from the nursing management viewpoint in an emergency care. Through these descriptions, we aimed at identifying possibilities for using enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems to support decision making in emergency care. Hospitals are increasingly moving to process-based workings and at the same time new information system in healthcare are developed and therefore it is essential to understand the strengths and weaknesses of current processes better. A qualitative descriptive design using critical incident technique was employed. Critical Incidents were collected with an open-ended questionnaire. The sample (n=50), 13 head nurses and 37 registered nurses, was purposeful selected from three acute hospitals in southern Finland. The process of patients with heart symptoms in emergency care was described. We identified three competence categories where special focus should be placed to achieve successful process of patients with heart symptoms: process-oriented competencies, personal/management competencies and logistics oriented competencies. Improvement of decision making requires that the care processes are defined and modeled. The research showed that there are several happenings in emergency care where an ERP system could help and support decision making. These happenings can be categorized in two groups: 1) administrative related happenings and 2) patient processes related happenings.

  11. Looking to the eyes influences the processing of emotion on face-sensitive event-related potentials in 7-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Westerlund, Alissa; Montoya, Lina; McCormick, Sarah A; Miguel, Helga O; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies in infants have shown that face-sensitive components of the ongoing electroencephalogram (the event-related potential, or ERP) are larger in amplitude to negative emotions (e.g., fear, anger) versus positive emotions (e.g., happy). However, it is still unclear whether the negative emotions linked with the face or the negative emotions alone contribute to these amplitude differences. We simultaneously recorded infant looking behaviors (via eye-tracking) and face-sensitive ERPs while 7-month-old infants viewed human faces or animals displaying happy, fear, or angry expressions. We observed that the amplitude of the N290 was greater (i.e., more negative) to angry animals compared to happy or fearful animals; no such differences were obtained for human faces. Eye-tracking data highlighted the importance of the eye region in processing emotional human faces. Infants that spent more time looking to the eye region of human faces showing fearful or angry expressions had greater N290 or P400 amplitudes, respectively.

  12. Precedence of the eye region in neural processing of faces

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Elias; DiCarlo, James

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has revealed multiple subregions in monkey inferior temporal cortex (IT) that are selective for images of faces over other objects. The earliest of these subregions, the posterior lateral face patch (PL), has not been studied previously at the neurophysiological level. Perhaps not surprisingly, we found that PL contains a high concentration of ‘face selective’ cells when tested with standard image sets comparable to those used previously to define the region at the level of fMRI. However, we here report that several different image sets and analytical approaches converge to show that nearly all face selective PL cells are driven by the presence of a single eye in the context of a face outline. Most strikingly, images containing only an eye, even when incorrectly positioned in an outline, drove neurons nearly as well as full face images, and face images lacking only this feature led to longer latency responses. Thus, bottom-up face processing is relatively local and linearly integrates features -- consistent with parts-based models -- grounding investigation of how the presence of a face is first inferred in the IT face processing hierarchy. PMID:23175821

  13. Processing expected and unexpected uncertainty is modulated by fearless-dominance personality traits - An exploratory ERP study on feedback processing.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Lydia; Sailer, Uta; Derntl, Birgit; Pfabigan, Daniela M

    2017-01-01

    Expectancy and certainty regarding an outcome are important factors during performance monitoring. However, the separate contributions of expected and unexpected uncertainty on different measures of performance monitoring, including feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 components, are not well established. The current study investigated their relationship to fearless-dominance, a personality construct described by high social potency and low anxiety. Accurately predicting environmental outcomes in certain and uncertain situations might be a prerequisite of social potency, therefore it may be associated with increased performance monitoring and its ERP correlates. Consequently, expected-uncertain and unexpected-uncertain feedback (by violating previously learned certain and expected feedback) was introduced in addition to expected-certain feedback in healthy individuals during a probabilistic gambling task. In both FRN and P300 components, difference waves were more pronounced for unexpected-uncertain and expected-uncertain compared to expected-certain feedback. Moreover, more fearless-dominant individuals showed diminished feedback processing specifically in expected-uncertain trials, but concurrently enhanced attentional processing in expected-certain trials. These findings indicate adaptive and situation-appropriate utilization of performance monitoring resources in individuals with more pronounced fearless-dominance personality traits. The results indicate that a precise differentiation of expected and unexpected uncertainty in fearless-dominant individuals is mandatory in order to better understand the underlying personality construct and related behavior.

  14. Developing Cultural Differences in Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David J.; Liu, Shaoying; Rodger, Helen; Miellet, Sebastien; Ge, Liezhong; Caldara, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Perception and eye movements are affected by culture. Adults from Eastern societies (e.g. China) display a disposition to process information "holistically," whereas individuals from Western societies (e.g. Britain) process information "analytically." Recently, this pattern of cultural differences has been extended to face…

  15. What Aspects of Face Processing Are Impaired in Developmental Prosopagnosia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grand, Richard; Cooper, Philip A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Sagiv, Noam; de Gelder, Beatrice; Maurer, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group…

  16. Electrophysiological studies of face processing in developmental prosopagnosia: neuropsychological and neurodevelopmental perspectives.

    PubMed

    Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    People with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) show severe face-recognition deficits that typically emerge during childhood without history of neurological damage. We review findings from recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies of face perception and face recognition in DP. The generic face-sensitivity of the N170 component is present in most DPs, suggesting rapid category-selective streaming of facial information. In contrast, DPs show atypical N170 face inversion effects, indicative of impaired structural encoding, specifically for upright faces. In line with neurodevelopmental accounts of DP, these effects are similar to those observed for other developmental disorders, as well as for younger children and older adults. Identity-sensitive ERP components (N250, P600f) triggered during successful face recognition are similar for DPs and control participants, indicating that the same mechanisms are active in both groups. The presence of covert face-recognition effects for the N250 component suggests that visual face memory and semantic memory can become disconnected in some individuals with DP. The implications of these results for neuropsychological and neurodevelopmental perspectives on DP are discussed.

  17. ERP responses to face repetition during passive viewing: a nonverbal measure of social motivation in children with autism and typical development.

    PubMed

    Key, Alexandra P; Corbett, Blythe A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether individual differences in social motivation affect the extent of processing of social versus nonsocial information. Event-related potentials were recorded in 13 children with autism spectrum disorder and 11 typically developing children during passive viewing of unfamiliar faces and houses. One image in each category was presented repeatedly, the rest were shown once. Analyses indicated no group differences in the early perceptual responses. Only typical children evidenced larger P600 for the repeated faces. These results were replicated during a retest session. Individual differences in memory for the repeated faces correlated with standardized behavioral assessments of social skills.

  18. Neural Features of Processing the Enforcement Phrases Used during Occupational Health and Safety Inspections: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Shi, Liping; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Qiuzhen

    2016-01-01

    The appropriate enforcement phrases used during occupational health and safety (OHS) inspection activities is a crucial factor to guarantee the compliance with OHS regulations in enterprises. However, few researchers have empirically investigated the issue of how enforcement phrases are processed. The present study explored the neural features of processing two types of enforcement phrases (severe-and-deterrent vs. mild-and-polite phrases) used during OHS inspections by applying event-related potentials (ERP) method. Electroencephalogram data were recorded while the participants distinguished between severe-and-deterrent phrases and mild-and-polite phrases depicted in written Chinese words. The ERP results showed that severe-and-deterrent phrases elicited significantly augmented P300 amplitude with a central-parietal scalp distribution compared with mild-and-polite phrases, indicating the allocation of more attention resources to and elaborate processing of the severe-and-deterrent phrases. It reveals that humans may consider the severe-and-deterrent phrases as more motivationally significant and elaborately process the severity and deterrence information contained in the enforcement phrases for the adaptive protection. The current study provides an objective and supplementary way to measure the efficiency of different enforcement phrases at neural level, which may help generate appropriate enforcement phrases and improve the performance of OHS inspections.

  19. Neural Features of Processing the Enforcement Phrases Used during Occupational Health and Safety Inspections: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingguo; Shi, Liping; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Qiuzhen

    2016-01-01

    The appropriate enforcement phrases used during occupational health and safety (OHS) inspection activities is a crucial factor to guarantee the compliance with OHS regulations in enterprises. However, few researchers have empirically investigated the issue of how enforcement phrases are processed. The present study explored the neural features of processing two types of enforcement phrases (severe-and-deterrent vs. mild-and-polite phrases) used during OHS inspections by applying event-related potentials (ERP) method. Electroencephalogram data were recorded while the participants distinguished between severe-and-deterrent phrases and mild-and-polite phrases depicted in written Chinese words. The ERP results showed that severe-and-deterrent phrases elicited significantly augmented P300 amplitude with a central-parietal scalp distribution compared with mild-and-polite phrases, indicating the allocation of more attention resources to and elaborate processing of the severe-and-deterrent phrases. It reveals that humans may consider the severe-and-deterrent phrases as more motivationally significant and elaborately process the severity and deterrence information contained in the enforcement phrases for the adaptive protection. The current study provides an objective and supplementary way to measure the efficiency of different enforcement phrases at neural level, which may help generate appropriate enforcement phrases and improve the performance of OHS inspections. PMID:27807404

  20. Phasic alertness enhances processing of face and non-face stimuli in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, Michal; Weinbach, Noam; Mardo, Elite; Henik, Avishai; Avidan, Galia

    2016-08-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) is a severe face processing impairment that occurs in the absence of any obvious brain damage and has often been associated with a more general deficit in deriving holistic relations between facial features or even between non-face shape dimensions. Here we further characterized this deficit and examined a potential way to ameliorate it. To this end we manipulated phasic alertness using alerting cues previously shown to modulate attention and enhance global processing of visual stimuli in normal observers. Specifically, we first examined whether individuals with CP, similarly to controls, would show greater global processing when exposed to an alerting cue in the context of a non-facial task (Navon global/local task). We then explored the effect of an alerting cue on face processing (upright/inverted face discrimination). Confirming previous findings, in the absence of alerting cues, controls showed a typical global bias in the Navon task and an inversion effect indexing holistic processing in the upright/inverted task, while CP failed to show these effects. Critically, when alerting cues preceded the experimental trials, both groups showed enhanced global interference and a larger inversion effect. These results suggest that phasic alertness may modulate visual processing and consequently, affect global/holistic perception. Hence, these findings further reinforce the notion that global/holistic processing may serve as a possible mechanism underlying the face processing deficit in CP. Moreover, they imply a possible route for enhancing face processing in individuals with CP and thus shed new light on potential amelioration of this disorder.

  1. Investigating face-property specific processing in the right OFA.

    PubMed

    Kadosh, Kathrin Cohen; Walsh, Vincent; Kadosh, Roi Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Within the neural face-processing network, the right occipital face area (rOFA) plays a prominent role, and it has been suggested that it receives both feed-forward and re-entrant feedback from other face sensitive areas. Its functional role is less well understood and whether the rOFA is involved in the initial analysis of a face stimulus or in the detailed integration of different face properties remains an open question. The present study investigated the functional role of the rOFA with regard to different face properties (identity, expression, and gaze) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Experiment 1 showed that the rOFA integrates information across different face properties: performance for the combined processing of identity and expression decreased after TMS to the rOFA, while no impairment was seen in gaze processing. In Experiment 2 we examined the temporal dynamics of this effect. We pinpointed the impaired integrative computation to 170 ms post stimulus presentation. Together the results suggest that TMS to the rOFA affects the integrative processing of facial identity and expression at a mid-latency processing stage.

  2. Single-neuron correlates of atypical face processing in autism

    PubMed Central

    Rutishauser, U.; Tudusciuc, O.; Wang, S.; Mamelak, A.N.; Ross, I.B.; Adolphs, R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormal processing of faces. A range of morphometric, histological, and neuroimaging studies suggest the hypothesis that this abnormality may be linked to the amygdala. Here for the first time we recorded from single neurons within the amygdalae of two rare neurosurgical patients with ASD. While basic electrophysiological response parameters were normal, there were specific and striking abnormalities in how individual facial features drove neuronal response. Compared to control patients, a population of neurons in the two ASD patients responded significantly more to the mouth, but less to the eyes. Moreover, we found a second class of face-responsive neurons whose responses to faces appeared normal. The findings confirm the amygdala’s pivotal role in abnormal face processing by people with ASD at the cellular level, and suggest that dysfunction may be traced to a specific subpopulation of neurons with altered selectivity for the features of faces. PMID:24267649

  3. The interplay between referential processing and local syntactic/semantic processing: ERPs to written Chinese discourse.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Zhang, Yaxu; Boland, Julie E; Cai, Lin

    2015-02-09

    Two event-related brain potential experiments were conducted to investigate the functional interplay between discourse-level referential processing and local syntactic/semantic processing of phrases. We manipulated both the syntactic/semantic coherence of a noun phrase (NP) and the referential ambiguity of the same NP. Incoherence of the NP elicited a P600 effect in both experiments. Referential ambiguities elicited a sustained negativity (Nref) in a subset of the participants in both experiments. Crucially, among participants showing robust Nref effects to referential ambiguity in the coherent condition, Nref effects were absent when the NP was incoherent. These results provide evidence against theories in which referential processing is functionally independent of local syntactic/semantic processing of phrases. Instead, a local phrase anomaly can block aspects of referential processing concerning ambiguity.

  4. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M; Zarco, Wilbert; Everling, Stefan; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2015-01-01

    Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills.

  5. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M.; Zarco, Wilbert; Everling, Stefan; Freiwald, Winrich A.

    2015-01-01

    Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills. PMID:26348613

  6. Temporal Integration in Face Perception: Evidence of Configural Processing of Temporally Separated Face Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaki, David; Boyd, Jennifer; Moscovitch, Morris

    2007-01-01

    Temporal integration is the process by which temporally separated visual components are combined into a unified representation. Although this process has been studied in object recognition, little is known about temporal integration in face perception and recognition. In the present study, the authors investigated the characteristics and time…

  7. Combat veterans with comorbid PTSD and mild TBI exhibit a greater inhibitory processing ERP from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Shu, I-Wei; Onton, Julie A; O'Connell, Ryan M; Simmons, Alan N; Matthews, Scott C

    2014-10-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among combat personnel with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). While patients with either PTSD or mTBI share abnormal activation of multiple frontal brain areas, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity during inhibitory processing may be particularly affected by PTSD. To further test this hypothesis, we recorded electroencephalography from 32 combat veterans with mTBI-17 of whom were also comorbid for PTSD (mTBI+PTSD) and 15 without PTSD (mTBI-only). Subjects performed the Stop Task, a validated inhibitory control task requiring inhibition of initiated motor responses. We observed a larger inhibitory processing eventrelated potential (ERP) in veterans with mTBI+PTSD, including greater N200 negativity. Furthermore, greater N200 negativity correlated with greater PTSD severity. This correlation was most dependent on contributions from the dorsal ACC. Support vector machine analysis demonstrated that N200 and P300 amplitudes objectively classified veterans into mTBI-only or mTBI+PTSD groups with 79.4% accuracy. Our results support a model where, in combat veterans with mTBI, larger ERPs from cingulate areas are associated with greater PTSD severity and likely related to difficulty controlling ongoing brain processes, including trauma-related thoughts and feelings.

  8. Impaired holistic processing of unfamiliar individual faces in acquired prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Meike; Busigny, Thomas; Rossion, Bruno

    2010-03-01

    Prosopagnosia is an impairment at individualizing faces that classically follows brain damage. Several studies have reported observations supporting an impairment of holistic/configural face processing in acquired prosopagnosia. However, this issue may require more compelling evidence as the cases reported were generally patients suffering from integrative visual agnosia, and the sensitivity of the paradigms used to measure holistic/configural face processing in normal individuals remains unclear. Here we tested a well-characterized case of acquired prosopagnosia (PS) with no object recognition impairment, in five behavioral experiments (whole/part and composite face paradigms with unfamiliar faces). In all experiments, for normal observers we found that processing of a given facial feature was affected by the location and identity of the other features in a whole face configuration. In contrast, the patient's results over these experiments indicate that she encodes local facial information independently of the other features embedded in the whole facial context. These observations and a survey of the literature indicate that abnormal holistic processing of the individual face may be a characteristic hallmark of prosopagnosia following brain damage, perhaps with various degrees of severity.

  9. Tolerance for distorted faces: challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition.

    PubMed

    Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement.

  10. Functionally integrated neural processing of linguistic and talker information: An event-related fMRI and ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Caicai; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Mencl, W. Einar; Molfese, Peter J.; Frost, Stephen J.; Magnuson, James S.; Peng, Gang; Wang, William S-Y

    2016-01-01

    Speech signals contain information of both linguistic content and a talker’s voice. Conventionally, linguistic and talker processing are thought to be mediated by distinct neural systems in the left and right hemispheres respectively, but there is growing evidence that linguistic and talker processing interact in many ways. Previous studies suggest that talker-related vocal tract changes are processed integrally with phonetic changes in the bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (STG/STS), because the vocal tract parameter influences the perception of phonetic information. It is yet unclear whether the bilateral STG are also activated by the integral processing of another parameter – pitch, which influences the perception of lexical tone information and are related to talker differences in tone languages. In this study, we conducted separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) experiments to examine the spatial and temporal loci of interactions of lexical tone and talker-related pitch processing in Cantonese. We found that the STG was activated bilaterally during the processing of talker changes when listeners attended to lexical tone changes in the stimuli and during the processing of lexical tone changes when listeners attended to talker changes, suggesting that lexical tone and talker processing are functionally integrated in the bilateral STG. It extends the previous study, providing evidence for a general neural mechanism of integral phonetic and talker processing in the bilateral STG. The ERP results show interactions of lexical tone and talker processing 500–800 ms after auditory word onset (a simultaneous posterior P3b and a frontal negativity). Moreover, there is some asymmetry in the interaction, such that unattended talker changes affect linguistic processing more than vice versa, which may be related to the ambiguity that talker changes cause in speech perception and

  11. Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Oberlander, Tim F.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Hertzman, Clyde; Maggi, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) and other electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort) emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc.) and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc.) may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in two matched-samples of fourteen lower-SES and higher-SES adolescents. ERP and EEG activation were measured during a task probing selective attention to sequences of tones. Pre- and post-task salivary cortisol and self-reported emotional states were also measured. At similar behavioural performance level, the higher-SES group showed a greater ERP differentiation between attended (relevant) and unattended (irrelevant) tones than the lower-SES group. EEG power analysis revealed a cross-over interaction, specifically, lower-SES adolescents showed significantly higher theta power when ignoring rather than attending to tones, whereas, higher-SES adolescents showed the opposite pattern. Significant theta asymmetry differences were also found at midfrontal electrodes indicating left hypo-activity in lower-SES adolescents. The attended vs. unattended difference in right midfrontal theta increased with individual SES rank, and (independently from SES) with lower cortisol task reactivity and higher boredom. Results suggest lower-SES children used additional compensatory resources to monitor/control response inhibition to distracters, perceiving also more mental effort, as compared to higher-SES counterparts. Nevertheless, stress, boredom and other task-related perceived states were unrelated to SES. Ruling out presumed confounds, this study confirms the midfrontal mechanisms responsible for the SES effects on selective attention reported previously and here reflect genuine cognitive

  12. Snap Your Fingers! An ERP/sLORETA Study Investigating Implicit Processing of Self- vs. Other-Related Movement Sounds Using the Passive Oddball Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Justen, Christoph; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    So far, neurophysiological studies have investigated implicit and explicit self-related processing particularly for self-related stimuli such as the own face or name. The present study extends previous research to the implicit processing of self-related movement sounds and explores their spatio-temporal dynamics. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were assessed while participants (N = 12 healthy subjects) listened passively to previously recorded self- and other-related finger snapping sounds, presented either as deviants or standards during an oddball paradigm. Passive listening to low (500 Hz) and high (1000 Hz) pure tones served as additional control. For self- vs. other-related finger snapping sounds, analysis of ERPs revealed significant differences in the time windows of the N2a/MMN and P3. An subsequent source localization analysis with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) revealed increased cortical activation in distinct motor areas such as the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the N2a/mismatch negativity (MMN) as well as the P3 time window during processing of self- and other-related finger snapping sounds. In contrast, brain regions associated with self-related processing [e.g., right anterior/posterior cingulate cortex (ACC/PPC)] as well as the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) showed increased activation particularly during processing of self- vs. other-related finger snapping sounds in the time windows of the N2a/MMN (ACC/PCC) or the P3 (IPL). None of these brain regions showed enhanced activation while listening passively to low (500 Hz) and high (1000 Hz) pure tones. Taken together, the current results indicate (1) a specific role of motor regions such as SMA during auditory processing of movement-related information, regardless of whether this information is self- or other-related, (2) activation of neural sources such as the ACC/PCC and the IPL during implicit processing of self-related movement stimuli, and (3

  13. Snap Your Fingers! An ERP/sLORETA Study Investigating Implicit Processing of Self- vs. Other-Related Movement Sounds Using the Passive Oddball Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Justen, Christoph; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    So far, neurophysiological studies have investigated implicit and explicit self-related processing particularly for self-related stimuli such as the own face or name. The present study extends previous research to the implicit processing of self-related movement sounds and explores their spatio-temporal dynamics. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were assessed while participants (N = 12 healthy subjects) listened passively to previously recorded self- and other-related finger snapping sounds, presented either as deviants or standards during an oddball paradigm. Passive listening to low (500 Hz) and high (1000 Hz) pure tones served as additional control. For self- vs. other-related finger snapping sounds, analysis of ERPs revealed significant differences in the time windows of the N2a/MMN and P3. An subsequent source localization analysis with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) revealed increased cortical activation in distinct motor areas such as the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the N2a/mismatch negativity (MMN) as well as the P3 time window during processing of self- and other-related finger snapping sounds. In contrast, brain regions associated with self-related processing [e.g., right anterior/posterior cingulate cortex (ACC/PPC)] as well as the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) showed increased activation particularly during processing of self- vs. other-related finger snapping sounds in the time windows of the N2a/MMN (ACC/PCC) or the P3 (IPL). None of these brain regions showed enhanced activation while listening passively to low (500 Hz) and high (1000 Hz) pure tones. Taken together, the current results indicate (1) a specific role of motor regions such as SMA during auditory processing of movement-related information, regardless of whether this information is self- or other-related, (2) activation of neural sources such as the ACC/PCC and the IPL during implicit processing of self-related movement stimuli, and (3

  14. A Brain Network Processing the Age of Faces

    PubMed Central

    Homola, György A.; Jbabdi, Saad; Beckmann, Christian F.; Bartsch, Andreas J.

    2012-01-01

    Age is one of the most salient aspects in faces and of fundamental cognitive and social relevance. Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using evocative face morphs and fMRI, we segregate two areas extending beyond the previously established face-sensitive core network, centered on the inferior temporal sulci and angular gyri bilaterally, both of which process changes of facial age. By means of probabilistic tractography, we compare their patterns of functional activation and structural connectivity. The ventral portion of Wernicke's understudied perpendicular association fasciculus is shown to interconnect the two areas, and activation within these clusters is related to the probability of fiber connectivity between them. In addition, post-hoc age-rating competence is found to be associated with high response magnitudes in the left angular gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that facial age has a distinct representation pattern in the posterior human brain. We propose that particular face-sensitive nodes interact with additional object-unselective quantification modules to obtain individual estimates of facial age. This brain network processing the age of faces differs from the cortical areas that have previously been linked to less developmental but instantly changeable face aspects. Our probabilistic method of associating activations with connectivity patterns reveals an exemplary link that can be used to further study, assess and quantify structure-function relationships. PMID:23185334

  15. The Implications of Real Options on ERP-Enabled Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankpa, Joseph K.

    2012-01-01

    Current research on Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and real options focuses on valuation and justification issues that manager's face prior to project approval with existing literature attempting to demonstrate that ERP systems as technology positioning investments have option-like characteristics thus making such ERP systems…

  16. The effects of music exposure and own genre preference on conscious and unconscious cognitive processes: a pilot ERP study.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, George N; Riby, Leigh M

    2007-12-01

    Did Beethoven and Mozart have more in common with each other than Clapton and Hendrix? The current research demonstrated the widely reported Mozart Effect as only partly significant. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 16 professional classical and rock musicians during a standard 2 stimulus visual oddball task, while listening to classical and rock music. During the oddball task participants were required to discriminate between an infrequent target stimulus randomly embedded in a train of repetitive background or standard stimuli. Consistent with previous research, the P3 and N2 ERPs were elicited in response to the infrequent target stimuli. Own genre preference resulted in a reduction in amplitude of the P3 for classical musicians exposed to classical music and rock musicians exposed to rock music. Notably, at the pre-attentive stage of processing (N2) beneficial effects of exposure to classical music were observed for both groups of musicians. These data are discussed in terms of short and long-term music benefits on both conscious and unconscious cognitive processes.

  17. Local Discriminability Determines the Strength of Holistic Processing for Faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    PubMed Central

    Goffaux, Valerie; Schiltz, Christine; Mur, Marieke; Goebel, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the Fusiform Face Area (FFA) is not exclusively dedicated to the interactive processing of face features, but also contains neurons sensitive to local features. This suggests the existence of both interactive and local processing modes, consistent with recent behavioral findings that the strength of interactive feature processing (IFP) engages most strongly when similar features need to be disambiguated. Here we address whether the engagement of the FFA into interactive versus featural representational modes is governed by local feature discriminability. We scanned human participants while they matched target features within face pairs, independently of the context of distracter features. IFP was operationalized as the failure to match the target without being distracted by distracter features. Picture-plane inversion was used to disrupt IFP while preserving input properties. We found that FFA activation was comparably strong, irrespective of whether similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts(i.e., inducing robust IFP) or dissimilar target features were embedded in the same context (i.e., engaging local processing). Second, inversion decreased FFA activation to faces most robustly when similar target features were embedded in dissimilar contexts, indicating that FFA engages into IFP mainly when features cannot be disambiguated at a local level. Third, by means of Spearman rank correlation tests, we show that the local processing of feature differences in the FFA is supported to a large extent by the Occipital Face Area, the Lateral Occipital Complex, and early visual cortex, suggesting that these regions encode the local aspects of face information. The present findings confirm the co-existence of holistic and featural representations in the FFA. Furthermore, they establish FFA as the main contributor to the featural/holistic representational mode switches determined by local discriminability. PMID:23316180

  18. Multiple faces elicit augmented neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Puce, Aina; McNeely, Marie E.; Berrebi, Michael E.; Thompson, James C.; Hardee, Jillian; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie

    2013-01-01

    How do our brains respond when we are being watched by a group of people?Despite the large volume of literature devoted to face processing, this question has received very little attention. Here we measured the effects on the face-sensitive N170 and other ERPs to viewing displays of one, two and three faces in two experiments. In Experiment 1, overall image brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, whereas in Experiment 2 local contrast and brightness of individual faces were not manipulated. A robust positive-negative-positive (P100-N170-P250) ERP complex and an additional late positive ERP, the P400, were elicited to all stimulus types. As the number of faces in the display increased, N170 amplitude increased for both stimulus sets, and latency increased in Experiment 2. P100 latency and P250 amplitude were affected by changes in overall brightness and contrast, but not by the number of faces in the display per se. In Experiment 1 when overall brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, later ERP (P250 and P400) latencies showed differences as a function of hemisphere. Hence, our data indicate that N170 increases its magnitude when multiple faces are seen, apparently impervious to basic low-level stimulus features including stimulus size. Outstanding questions remain regarding category-sensitive neural activity that is elicited to viewing multiple items of stimulus categories other than faces. PMID:23785327

  19. Intranasal inhalation of oxytocin improves face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Bate, Sarah; Cook, Sarah J; Duchaine, Bradley; Tree, Jeremy J; Burns, Edwin J; Hodgson, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is characterised by a severe lifelong impairment in face recognition. In recent years it has become clear that DP affects a substantial number of people, yet little work has attempted to improve face processing in these individuals. Intriguingly, recent evidence suggests that intranasal inhalation of the hormone oxytocin can improve face processing in unimpaired participants, and we investigated whether similar findings might be noted in DP. Ten adults with DP and 10 matched controls were tested using a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind within-subject experimental design (AB-BA). Each participant took part in two testing sessions separated by a 14-25 day interval. In each session, participants inhaled 24 IU of oxytocin or placebo spray, followed by a 45 min resting period to allow central oxytocin levels to plateau. Participants then completed two face processing tests: one assessing memory for a set of newly encoded faces, and one measuring the ability to match simultaneously presented faces according to identity. Participants completed the Multidimensional Mood Questionnaire (MMQ) at three points in each testing session to assess the possible mood-altering effects of oxytocin and to control for attention and wakefulness. Statistical comparisons revealed an improvement for DP but not control participants on both tests in the oxytocin condition, and analysis of scores on the MMQ indicated that the effect cannot be attributed to changes in mood, attention or wakefulness. This investigation provides the first evidence that oxytocin can improve face processing in DP, and the potential neural underpinnings of the findings are discussed alongside their implications for the treatment of face processing disorders.

  20. Holistic face processing can inhibit recognition of forensic facial composites.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Alex H; Hancock, Peter J B; Frowd, Charlie D; Langton, Stephen R H

    2016-04-01

    Facial composite systems help eyewitnesses to show the appearance of criminals. However, likenesses created by unfamiliar witnesses will not be completely accurate, and people familiar with the target can find them difficult to identify. Faces are processed holistically; we explore whether this impairs identification of inaccurate composite images and whether recognition can be improved. In Experiment 1 (n = 64) an imaging technique was used to make composites of celebrity faces more accurate and identification was contrasted with the original composite images. Corrected composites were better recognized, confirming that errors in production of the likenesses impair identification. The influence of holistic face processing was explored by misaligning the top and bottom parts of the composites (cf. Young, Hellawell, & Hay, 1987). Misalignment impaired recognition of corrected composites but identification of the original, inaccurate composites significantly improved. This effect was replicated with facial composites of noncelebrities in Experiment 2 (n = 57). We conclude that, like real faces, facial composites are processed holistically: recognition is impaired because unlike real faces, composites contain inaccuracies and holistic face processing makes it difficult to perceive identifiable features. This effect was consistent across composites of celebrities and composites of people who are personally familiar. Our findings suggest that identification of forensic facial composites can be enhanced by presenting composites in a misaligned format.

  1. Behavioural and neurophysiological evidence for face identity and face emotion processing in animals

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Andrew J; Fischer, Hanno; Leigh, Andrea E; Kendrick, Keith M

    2006-01-01

    Visual cues from faces provide important social information relating to individual identity, sexual attraction and emotional state. Behavioural and neurophysiological studies on both monkeys and sheep have shown that specialized skills and neural systems for processing these complex cues to guide behaviour have evolved in a number of mammals and are not present exclusively in humans. Indeed, there are remarkable similarities in the ways that faces are processed by the brain in humans and other mammalian species. While human studies with brain imaging and gross neurophysiological recording approaches have revealed global aspects of the face-processing network, they cannot investigate how information is encoded by specific neural networks. Single neuron electrophysiological recording approaches in both monkeys and sheep have, however, provided some insights into the neural encoding principles involved and, particularly, the presence of a remarkable degree of high-level encoding even at the level of a specific face. Recent developments that allow simultaneous recordings to be made from many hundreds of individual neurons are also beginning to reveal evidence for global aspects of a population-based code. This review will summarize what we have learned so far from these animal-based studies about the way the mammalian brain processes the faces and the emotions they can communicate, as well as associated capacities such as how identity and emotion cues are dissociated and how face imagery might be generated. It will also try to highlight what questions and advances in knowledge still challenge us in order to provide a complete understanding of just how brain networks perform this complex and important social recognition task. PMID:17118930

  2. The Processing of Consonants and Vowels during Letter Identity and Letter Position Assignment in Visual-Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Marin, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that there is a processing distinction between consonants and vowels in visual-word recognition. Here we conjointly examine the time course of consonants and vowels in processes of letter identity and letter position assignment. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in…

  3. How and When Accentuation Influences Temporally Selective Attention and Subsequent Semantic Processing during On-Line Spoken Language Comprehension: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiao-qing; Ren, Gui-qin

    2012-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials (ERP) experiment was carried out to investigate how and when accentuation influences temporally selective attention and subsequent semantic processing during on-line spoken language comprehension, and how the effect of accentuation on attention allocation and semantic processing changed with the degree of…

  4. Faces as objects of non-expertise: processing of thatcherised faces in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Thomas; Weber, Joachim E; Lueschow, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (cPA) is a severe disorder in recognising familiar faces, a human characteristic that is presumably innate, without any macro-spatial brain anomalies. Following the idea that cPA is based on deficits of configural face processing, we used a speeded grotesqueness decision task with thatcherised faces, since the Thatcher illusion can serve as a test of configural disruption (Lewis and Johnston, 1997 Perception 26 225-227). The time needed to report the grotesqueness of a face in relation to orientation showed dissociate patterns between a group of fourteen people with cPA and a group of matched controls: whereas the RTs of controls followed a strong sigmoid function depending on rotation from the upright orientation, the RTs of people with cPA showed a much weaker sigmoid trend approaching a linear function. The latter result is interpreted as a diagnostic sign of impaired configural processing, being the primary cause of the absence of 'face expertise' in prosopagnosia.

  5. Holistic Face Processing in Newborns, 3-Month-Old Infants, and Adults: Evidence from the Composite Face Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Bardi, Lara; Simion, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Holistic face processing was investigated in newborns, 3-month-old infants, and adults through a modified version of the composite face paradigm and the recording of eye movements. After familiarization to the top portion of a face, participants (N = 70) were shown 2 aligned or misaligned faces, 1 of which comprised the familiar top part. In the…

  6. Phonological and orthographic cues enhance the processing of inflectional morphology. ERP evidence from L1 and L2 French

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Ortiz, Haydee; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of two event-related potential (ERP) experiments in which Spanish learners of French and native French controls show graded sensitivity to verbal inflectional errors as a function of the presence of orthographic and/or phonological cues when reading silently in French. In both experiments, verbal agreement was manipulated in sentential context such that subject verb agreement was either correct, ill-formed and orally realized, involving both orthographic and phonological cues, or ill-formed and silent which involved only orthographic cues. The results of both experiments revealed more robust ERP responses to orally realized than to silent inflectional errors. This was true for L2 learners as well as native controls, although the effect in the learner group was reduced in comparison to the native group. In addition, the combined influence of phonological and orthographic cues led to the largest differences between syntactic/phonological conditions. Overall, the results suggest that the presence of phonological cues may enhance L2 readers’ sensitivity to morphology but that such may appear in L2 processing only when sufficient proficiency is attained. Moreover, both orthographic and phonological cues are used when available. PMID:25165460

  7. Cortical deficits of emotional face processing in adults with ADHD: its relation to social cognition and executive function.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustin; Petroni, Agustin; Urquina, Hugo; Torrente, Fernando; Torralva, Teresa; Hurtado, Esteban; Guex, Raphael; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Beltrachini, Leandro; Muravchik, Carlos; Baez, Sandra; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Sigman, Mariano; Lischinsky, Alicia; Manes, Facundo

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been shown that adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have impaired social cognition, no previous study has reported the brain correlates of face valence processing. This study looked for behavioral, neuropsychological, and electrophysiological markers of emotion processing for faces (N170) in adult ADHD compared to controls matched by age, gender, educational level, and handedness. We designed an event-related potential (ERP) study based on a dual valence task (DVT), in which faces and words were presented to test the effects of stimulus type (faces, words, or face-word stimuli) and valence (positive versus negative). Individual signatures of cognitive functioning in participants with ADHD and controls were assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, including executive functioning (EF) and theory of mind (ToM). Compared to controls, the adult ADHD group showed deficits in N170 emotion modulation for facial stimuli. These N170 impairments were observed in the absence of any deficit in facial structural processing, suggesting a specific ADHD impairment in early facial emotion modulation. The cortical current density mapping of N170 yielded a main neural source of N170 at posterior section of fusiform gyrus (maximum at left hemisphere for words and right hemisphere for faces and simultaneous stimuli). Neural generators of N170 (fusiform gyrus) were reduced in ADHD. In those patients, N170 emotion processing was associated with performance on an emotional inference ToM task, and N170 from simultaneous stimuli was associated with EF, especially working memory. This is the first report to reveal an adult ADHD-specific impairment in the cortical modulation of emotion for faces and an association between N170 cortical measures and ToM and EF.

  8. Using Regression to Measure Holistic Face Processing Reveals a Strong Link with Face Recognition Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGutis, Joseph; Wilmer, Jeremy; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Cohan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although holistic processing is thought to underlie normal face recognition ability, widely discrepant reports have recently emerged about this link in an individual differences context. Progress in this domain may have been impeded by the widespread use of subtraction scores, which lack validity due to their contamination with control condition…

  9. Preattentive processing of emotional musical tones: a multidimensional scaling and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Altenmüller, Eckart; Colonius, Hans; Münte, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Musical emotion can be conveyed by subtle variations in timbre. Here, we investigated whether the brain is capable to discriminate tones differing in emotional expression by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in an oddball paradigm under preattentive listening conditions. First, using multidimensional Fechnerian scaling, pairs of violin tones played with a happy or sad intonation were rated same or different by a group of non-musicians. Three happy and three sad tones were selected for the ERP experiment. The Fechnerian distances between tones within an emotion were in the same range as the distances between tones of different emotions. In two conditions, either 3 happy and 1 sad or 3 sad and 1 happy tone were presented in pseudo-random order. A mismatch negativity for the emotional deviant was observed, indicating that in spite of considerable perceptual differences between the three equiprobable tones of the standard emotion, a template was formed based on timbral cues against which the emotional deviant was compared. Based on Juslin's assumption of redundant code usage, we propose that tones were grouped together, because they were identified as belonging to one emotional category based on different emotion-specific cues. These results indicate that the brain forms an emotional memory trace at a preattentive level and thus, extends previous investigations in which emotional deviance was confounded with physical dissimilarity. Differences between sad and happy tones were observed which might be due to the fact that the happy emotion is mostly communicated by suprasegmental features.

  10. Processing Sentences with Literal versus Figurative Use of Verbs: An ERP Study with Children with Language Impairments, Nonverbal Impairments, and Typical Development.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Burigo, Michele; Borsa, Virginia; Molteni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Forty native Italian children (age 6-15) performed a sentence plausibility judgment task. ERP recordings were available for 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 11 children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD), and 13 control children. Participants listened to verb-object combinations and judged them as acceptable or unacceptable. Stimuli belonged to four conditions, where concreteness and congruency were manipulated. All groups made more errors responding to abstract and to congruent sentences. Moreover, SLI participants performed worse than NVLD participants with abstract sentences. ERPs were analyzed in the time window 300-500 ms. SLI children show atypical, reversed effects of concreteness and congruence as compared to control and NVLD children, respectively. The results suggest that linguistic impairments disrupt abstract language processing more than visual-motor impairments. Moreover, ROI and SPM analyses of ERPs point to a predominant involvement of the left rather than the right hemisphere in the comprehension of figurative expressions.

  11. Processing Sentences with Literal versus Figurative Use of Verbs: An ERP Study with Children with Language Impairments, Nonverbal Impairments, and Typical Development

    PubMed Central

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Burigo, Michele; Borsa, Virginia; Molteni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Forty native Italian children (age 6–15) performed a sentence plausibility judgment task. ERP recordings were available for 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 11 children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD), and 13 control children. Participants listened to verb-object combinations and judged them as acceptable or unacceptable. Stimuli belonged to four conditions, where concreteness and congruency were manipulated. All groups made more errors responding to abstract and to congruent sentences. Moreover, SLI participants performed worse than NVLD participants with abstract sentences. ERPs were analyzed in the time window 300–500 ms. SLI children show atypical, reversed effects of concreteness and congruence as compared to control and NVLD children, respectively. The results suggest that linguistic impairments disrupt abstract language processing more than visual-motor impairments. Moreover, ROI and SPM analyses of ERPs point to a predominant involvement of the left rather than the right hemisphere in the comprehension of figurative expressions. PMID:26246693

  12. Early visual ERPs are influenced by individual emotional skills

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Sylvie; Batty, Magali

    2014-01-01

    Processing information from faces is crucial to understanding others and to adapting to social life. Many studies have investigated responses to facial emotions to provide a better understanding of the processes and the neural networks involved. Moreover, several studies have revealed abnormalities of emotional face processing and their neural correlates in affective disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether early visual event-related potentials (ERPs) are affected by the emotional skills of healthy adults. Unfamiliar faces expressing the six basic emotions were presented to 28 young adults while recording visual ERPs. No specific task was required during the recording. Participants also completed the Social Skills Inventory (SSI) which measures social and emotional skills. The results confirmed that early visual ERPs (P1, N170) are affected by the emotions expressed by a face and also demonstrated that N170 and P2 are correlated to the emotional skills of healthy subjects. While N170 is sensitive to the subject’s emotional sensitivity and expressivity, P2 is modulated by the ability of the subjects to control their emotions. We therefore suggest that N170 and P2 could be used as individual markers to assess strengths and weaknesses in emotional areas and could provide information for further investigations of affective disorders. PMID:23720573

  13. Influence of eye gaze on spoken word processing: an ERP study with infants.

    PubMed

    Parise, Eugenio; Handl, Andrea; Palumbo, Letizia; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-01-01

    Eye gaze is an important communicative signal, both as mutual eye contact and as referential gaze to objects. To examine whether attention to speech versus nonspeech stimuli in 4- to 5-month-olds (n=15) varies as a function of eye gaze, event-related brain potentials were used. Faces with mutual or averted gaze were presented in combination with forward- or backward-spoken words. Infants rapidly processed gaze and spoken words in combination. A late Slow Wave suggests an interaction of the 2 factors, separating backward-spoken word+direct gaze from all other conditions. An additional experiment (n=15) extended the results to referential gaze. The current findings suggest that interactions between visual and auditory cues are present early in infancy.

  14. The music of language: an ERP investigation of the effects of musical training on emotional prosody processing.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Vasconcelos, Margarida; Dias, Marcelo; Arrais, Nuno; Gonçalves, Óscar F

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the positive effects of musical training on the perception of vocally expressed emotion. This study investigated the effects of musical training on event-related potential (ERP) correlates of emotional prosody processing. Fourteen musicians and fourteen control subjects listened to 228 sentences with neutral semantic content, differing in prosody (one third with neutral, one third with happy and one third with angry intonation), with intelligible semantic content (semantic content condition--SCC) and unintelligible semantic content (pure prosody condition--PPC). Reduced P50 amplitude was found in musicians. A difference between SCC and PPC conditions was found in P50 and N100 amplitude in non-musicians only, and in P200 amplitude in musicians only. Furthermore, musicians were more accurate in recognizing angry prosody in PPC sentences. These findings suggest that auditory expertise characterizing extensive musical training may impact different stages of vocal emotional processing.

  15. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Cognitive Control Functions of Performance Monitoring and Conflict Processing: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study

    PubMed Central

    Primosch, Mark; Leyton, Marco; Steffensen, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Studies using medications and psychiatric populations implicate dopamine in cognitive control and performance monitoring processes. However, side effects associated with medication or studying psychiatric groups may confound the relationship between dopamine and cognitive control. To circumvent such possibilities, we utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design wherein participants were administered a nutritionally-balanced amino acid mixture (BAL) and an amino acid mixture deficient in the dopamine precursors tyrosine (TYR) and phenylalanine (PHE) on two separate occasions. Order of sessions was randomly assigned. Cognitive control and performance monitoring were assessed using response times (RT), error rates, the N450, an event-related potential (ERP) index of conflict monitoring, the conflict slow potential (conflict SP), an ERP index of conflict resolution, and the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe), ERPs associated with performance monitoring. Participants were twelve males who completed a Stroop color-word task while ERPs were collected four hours following acute PHE and TYR depletion (APTD) or balanced (BAL) mixture ingestion in two separate sessions. N450 and conflict SP ERP amplitudes significantly differentiated congruent from incongruent trials, but did not differ as a function of APTD or BAL mixture ingestion. Similarly, ERN and Pe amplitudes showed significant differences between error and correct trials that were not different between APTD and BAL conditions. Findings indicate that acute dopamine precursor depletion does not significantly alter cognitive control and performance monitoring ERPs. Current results do not preclude the role of dopamine in these processes, but suggest that multiple methods for dopamine-related hypothesis testing are needed. PMID:26492082

  16. Validation of the Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao-Chih; Ross, David A.; Gauthier, Isabel; Richler, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test (VHPT-F) is a new measure of holistic face processing with better psychometric properties relative to prior measures developed for group studies (Richler et al., 2014). In fields where psychologists study individual differences, validation studies are commonplace and the concurrent validity of a new measure is established by comparing it to an older measure with established validity. We follow this approach and test whether the VHPT-F measures the same construct as the composite task, which is group-based measure at the center of the large literature on holistic face processing. In Experiment 1, we found a significant correlation between holistic processing measured in the VHPT-F and the composite task. Although this correlation was small, it was comparable to the correlation between holistic processing measured in the composite task with the same faces, but different target parts (top or bottom), which represents a reasonable upper limit for correlations between the composite task and another measure of holistic processing. These results confirm the validity of the VHPT-F by demonstrating shared variance with another measure of holistic processing based on the same operational definition. These results were replicated in Experiment 2, but only when the demographic profile of our sample matched that of Experiment 1. PMID:27933014

  17. Semantic memory processing is enhanced in preadolescents breastfed compared to those formula-fed as infants: An ERP N400 study of sentential semantic congruity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies comparing child cognitive development and brain activity during cognitive functions between children who were fed breast milk (BF), milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF) have not been reported. We recorded event-related scalp potentials reflecting semantic processing (N400 ERP) from 20 homo...

  18. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…

  19. Orthographic transparency modulates the grain size of orthographic processing: behavioral and ERP evidence from bilingualism.

    PubMed

    Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Tainturier, Marie-Josèphe; Savill, Nicola; Thierry, Guillaume

    2013-04-10

    Grapheme-to-phoneme mapping regularity is thought to determine the grain size of orthographic information extracted whilst encoding letter strings. Here we tested whether learning to read in two languages differing in their orthographic transparency yields different strategies used for encoding letter-strings as compared to learning to read in one (opaque) language only. Sixteen English monolingual and 16 early Welsh-English bilingual readers undergoing event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recordings were asked to report whether or not a target letter displayed at fixation was present in either a nonword (consonant string) or an English word presented immediately before. Bilinguals and monolinguals showed similar behavioural performance on target detection presented in words and nonwords, suggesting similar orthographic encoding in the two groups. By contrast, the amplitude of ERPs locked to the target letters (P3b, 340-570 ms post target onset, and a late frontal positive component 600-1,000 ms post target onset) were differently modulated by the position of the target letter in words and nonwords between bilinguals and monolinguals. P3b results show that bilinguals who learnt to read simultaneously in an opaque and a transparent orthographies encoded orthographic information presented to the right of fixation more poorly than monolinguals. On the opposite, only monolinguals exhibited a position effect on the late positive component for both words and nonwords, interpreted as a sign of better re-evaluation of their responses. The present study shed light on how orthographic transparency constrains grain size and visual strategies underlying letter-string encoding, and how those constraints are influenced by bilingualism.

  20. Spatial Frequency Training Modulates Neural Face Processing: Learning Transfers from Low- to High-Level Visual Features

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Judith C.; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Kemner, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Perception of visual stimuli improves with training, but improvements are specific for trained stimuli rendering the development of generic training programs challenging. It remains unknown to which extent training of low-level visual features transfers to high-level visual perception, and whether this is accompanied by neuroplastic changes. The current event-related potential (ERP) study showed that training-induced increased sensitivity to a low-level feature, namely low spatial frequency (LSF), alters neural processing of this feature in high-level visual stimuli. Specifically, neural activity related to face processing (N170), was decreased for low (trained) but not high (untrained) SF content in faces following LSF training. These novel results suggest that: (1) SF discrimination learning transfers from simple stimuli to complex objects; and that (2) training the use of specific SF information affects neural processing of facial information. These findings may open up a new avenue to improve face recognition skills in individuals with atypical SF processing, such as in cataract or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). PMID:28149275

  1. The role of perceptual load in processing distractor faces.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Nilli; Ro, Tony; Russell, Charlotte

    2003-09-01

    It has been established that successful ignoring of irrelevant distractors depends on the extent to which the current task loads attention. However, the previous load studies have typically employed neutral distractor stimuli (e.g., letters). In the experiments reported here, we examined whether the perception of irrelevant distractor faces would show the same effects. We manipulated attentional load in a relevant task of name search by varying the search set size and found that whereas congruency effects from meaningful nonface distractors were eliminated by higher search load, interference from distractor faces was entirely unaffected by search load. These results support the idea that face processing may be mandatory and generalize the load theory to the processing of meaningful and more complex nonface distractors.

  2. Arguments Against a Configural Processing Account of Familiar Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    Burton, A Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Jenkins, Rob; Kaufmann, Jürgen M

    2015-07-01

    Face recognition is a remarkable human ability, which underlies a great deal of people's social behavior. Individuals can recognize family members, friends, and acquaintances over a very large range of conditions, and yet the processes by which they do this remain poorly understood, despite decades of research. Although a detailed understanding remains elusive, face recognition is widely thought to rely on configural processing, specifically an analysis of spatial relations between facial features (so-called second-order configurations). In this article, we challenge this traditional view, raising four problems: (1) configural theories are underspecified; (2) large configural changes leave recognition unharmed; (3) recognition is harmed by nonconfigural changes; and (4) in separate analyses of face shape and face texture, identification tends to be dominated by texture. We review evidence from a variety of sources and suggest that failure to acknowledge the impact of familiarity on facial representations may have led to an overgeneralization of the configural account. We argue instead that second-order configural information is remarkably unimportant for familiar face recognition.

  3. Age-related processing strategies and go–nogo effects in task-switching: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Gaál, Zsófia A.; Czigler, István

    2015-01-01

    We studied cognitive and age-related changes in three task-switching (TS) paradigms: (1) informatively cued TS with go stimuli, (2) informatively cued TS with go and nogo stimuli, (3) non-informatively cued TS with go and nogo stimuli. This design allowed a direct comparison, how informative and non-informative cues influenced preparatory processes, and how nogo stimuli changed the context of the paradigm and cognitive processing in different aging groups. Beside the behavioral measures [reaction time (RT), error rate], event-related potentials (ERPs) were registered to the cue and target stimuli in young (N = 39, mean age = 21.6 ± 1.6 years) and older (N = 40, mean age = 65.7 ± 3.2 years) adults. The results provide evidence for declining performance in the older group: they had slower RT, less hits, more erroneous responses, higher mixing costs and decreased amplitude of ERP components than the participants of the younger group. In the task without the nogo stimuli young adults kept the previous task-set active that could be seen in shorter RT and larger amplitude of cue-locked late positivity (P3b) in task repeat (TR) trials compared to task switch trials. If both go and nogo stimuli were presented, similar RTs and P3b amplitudes appeared in the TR and TS trials. In the complex task situations older adults did not evolve an appropriate task representation and task preparation, as indicated by the lack of cue-locked P3b, CNV, and target-locked P3b. We conclude that young participants developed explicit representation of task structures, but the presence of nogo stimuli had marked effects on such representation. On the other hand, older people used only implicit control strategy to solve the task, hence the basic difference between the age groups was their strategy of task execution. PMID:26029072

  4. Unexpected Acceptance? Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Manifest their Social Expectancy in ERPs During Social Feedback Processing

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jianqin; Gu, Ruolei; Bi, Xuejing; Zhu, Xiangru; Wu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on social anxiety have demonstrated negative-expectancy bias in social contexts. In this study, we used a paradigm that employed self-relevant positive or negative social feedback, in order to test whether this negative expectancy manifests in event-related potentials (ERPs) during social evaluation among socially anxious individuals. Behavioral data revealed that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) showed more negative expectancy of peer acceptance both in the experiment and in daily life than did the healthy control participants. Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group. SAD participants demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) to positive feedback than to negative feedback. In addition, SAD participants showed a more positive ΔFRN (ΔFRN = negative – positive). Furthermore, acceptance expectancy in daily life correlated negatively with ΔFRN amplitude, while the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) score correlated positively with the ΔFRN amplitude. Finally, the acceptance expectancy in daily life fully mediated the relationship between the IAS and ΔFRN. These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2). However, the SAD group exhibited a larger FRN to positive social feedback than to negative social feedback, demonstrating their dysfunction in the late stage of social feedback processing. In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy. PMID:26635659

  5. Unexpected Acceptance? Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Manifest their Social Expectancy in ERPs During Social Feedback Processing.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianqin; Gu, Ruolei; Bi, Xuejing; Zhu, Xiangru; Wu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on social anxiety have demonstrated negative-expectancy bias in social contexts. In this study, we used a paradigm that employed self-relevant positive or negative social feedback, in order to test whether this negative expectancy manifests in event-related potentials (ERPs) during social evaluation among socially anxious individuals. Behavioral data revealed that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) showed more negative expectancy of peer acceptance both in the experiment and in daily life than did the healthy control participants. Regarding ERP results, we found a overally larger P2 for positive social feedback and also a group main effect, such that the P2 was smaller in SAD group. SAD participants demonstrated a larger feedback-related negativity (FRN) to positive feedback than to negative feedback. In addition, SAD participants showed a more positive ΔFRN (ΔFRN = negative - positive). Furthermore, acceptance expectancy in daily life correlated negatively with ΔFRN amplitude, while the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) score correlated positively with the ΔFRN amplitude. Finally, the acceptance expectancy in daily life fully mediated the relationship between the IAS and ΔFRN. These results indicated that both groups could differentiate between positive and negative social feedback in the early stage of social feedback processing (reflected on the P2). However, the SAD group exhibited a larger FRN to positive social feedback than to negative social feedback, demonstrating their dysfunction in the late stage of social feedback processing. In our opinion, such dysfunction is due to their greater negative social feedback expectancy.

  6. A specialized face-processing model inspired by the organization of monkey face patches explains several face-specific phenomena observed in humans

    PubMed Central

    Farzmahdi, Amirhossein; Rajaei, Karim; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ebrahimpour, Reza; Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Converging reports indicate that face images are processed through specialized neural networks in the brain –i.e. face patches in monkeys and the fusiform face area (FFA) in humans. These studies were designed to find out how faces are processed in visual system compared to other objects. Yet, the underlying mechanism of face processing is not completely revealed. Here, we show that a hierarchical computational model, inspired by electrophysiological evidence on face processing in primates, is able to generate representational properties similar to those observed in monkey face patches (posterior, middle and anterior patches). Since the most important goal of sensory neuroscience is linking the neural responses with behavioral outputs, we test whether the proposed model, which is designed to account for neural responses in monkey face patches, is also able to predict well-documented behavioral face phenomena observed in humans. We show that the proposed model satisfies several cognitive face effects such as: composite face effect and the idea of canonical face views. Our model provides insights about the underlying computations that transfer visual information from posterior to anterior face patches. PMID:27113635

  7. Aberrant Pattern of Scanning in Prosopagnosia Reflects Impaired Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Blossom Christa Maree; Caine, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Visual scanpath recording was used to investigate the information processing strategies used by a prosopagnosic patient, SC, when viewing faces. Compared to controls, SC showed an aberrant pattern of scanning, directing attention away from the internal configuration of facial features (eyes, nose) towards peripheral regions (hair, forehead) of the…

  8. The Development of Emotional Face Processing during Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batty, Magali; Taylor, Margot J.

    2006-01-01

    Our facial expressions give others the opportunity to access our feelings, and constitute an important nonverbal tool for communication. Many recent studies have investigated emotional perception in adults, and our knowledge of neural processes involved in emotions is increasingly precise. Young children also use faces to express their internal…

  9. MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT. MTR AND ITS ATTACHMENTS IN FOREGROUND. ETR BEYOND TO RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4100. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Big Questions Facing Vocational Psychology: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…

  11. Parallel approach to incorporating face image information into dialogue processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fuji

    2000-10-01

    There are many kinds of so-called irregular expressions in natural dialogues. Even if the content of a conversation is the same in words, different meanings can be interpreted by a person's feeling or face expression. To have a good understanding of dialogues, it is required in a flexible dialogue processing system to infer the speaker's view properly. However, it is difficult to obtain the meaning of the speaker's sentences in various scenes using traditional methods. In this paper, a new approach for dialogue processing that incorporates information from the speaker's face is presented. We first divide conversation statements into several simple tasks. Second, we process each simple task using an independent processor. Third, we employ some speaker's face information to estimate the view of the speakers to solve ambiguities in dialogues. The approach presented in this paper can work efficiently, because independent processors run in parallel, writing partial results to a shared memory, incorporating partial results at appropriate points, and complementing each other. A parallel algorithm and a method for employing the face information in a dialogue machine translation will be discussed, and some results will be included in this paper.

  12. The "Eye Avoidance" Hypothesis of Autism Face Processing.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, James W; Sung, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Although a growing body of research indicates that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit selective deficits in their ability to recognize facial identities and expressions, the source of their face impairment is, as yet, undetermined. In this paper, we consider three possible accounts of the autism face deficit: (1) the holistic hypothesis, (2) the local perceptual bias hypothesis and (3) the eye avoidance hypothesis. A review of the literature indicates that contrary to the holistic hypothesis, there is little evidence to suggest that individuals with autism do perceive faces holistically. The local perceptual bias account also fails to explain the selective advantage that ASD individuals demonstrate for objects and their selective disadvantage for faces. The eye avoidance hypothesis provides a plausible explanation of face recognition deficits where individuals with ASD avoid the eye region because it is perceived as socially threatening. Direct eye contact elicits a increased physiological response as indicated by heightened skin conductance and amygdala activity. For individuals with autism, avoiding the eyes is an adaptive strategy, however, this approach interferes with the ability to process facial cues of identity, expressions and intentions, exacerbating the social challenges for persons with ASD.

  13. Neural Decoding Reveals Impaired Face Configural Processing in the Right Fusiform Face Area of Individuals with Developmental Prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiedong; Liu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Most of human daily social interactions rely on the ability to successfully recognize faces. Yet ∼2% of the human population suffers from face blindness without any acquired brain damage [this is also known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP) or congenital prosopagnosia]). Despite the presence of severe behavioral face recognition deficits, surprisingly, a majority of DP individuals exhibit normal face selectivity in the right fusiform face area (FFA), a key brain region involved in face configural processing. This finding, together with evidence showing impairments downstream from the right FFA in DP individuals, has led some to argue that perhaps the right FFA is largely intact in DP individuals. Using fMRI multivoxel pattern analysis, here we report the discovery of a neural impairment in the right FFA of DP individuals that may play a critical role in mediating their face-processing deficits. In seven individuals with DP, we discovered that, despite the right FFA's preference for faces and it showing decoding for the different face parts, it exhibited impaired face configural decoding and did not contain distinct neural response patterns for the intact and the scrambled face configurations. This abnormality was not present throughout the ventral visual cortex, as normal neural decoding was found in an adjacent object-processing region. To our knowledge, this is the first direct neural evidence showing impaired face configural processing in the right FFA in individuals with DP. The discovery of this neural impairment provides a new clue to our understanding of the neural basis of DP. PMID:25632131

  14. Neural decoding reveals impaired face configural processing in the right fusiform face area of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiedong; Liu, Jia; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-01-28

    Most of human daily social interactions rely on the ability to successfully recognize faces. Yet ∼2% of the human population suffers from face blindness without any acquired brain damage [this is also known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP) or congenital prosopagnosia]). Despite the presence of severe behavioral face recognition deficits, surprisingly, a majority of DP individuals exhibit normal face selectivity in the right fusiform face area (FFA), a key brain region involved in face configural processing. This finding, together with evidence showing impairments downstream from the right FFA in DP individuals, has led some to argue that perhaps the right FFA is largely intact in DP individuals. Using fMRI multivoxel pattern analysis, here we report the discovery of a neural impairment in the right FFA of DP individuals that may play a critical role in mediating their face-processing deficits. In seven individuals with DP, we discovered that, despite the right FFA's preference for faces and it showing decoding for the different face parts, it exhibited impaired face configural decoding and did not contain distinct neural response patterns for the intact and the scrambled face configurations. This abnormality was not present throughout the ventral visual cortex, as normal neural decoding was found in an adjacent object-processing region. To our knowledge, this is the first direct neural evidence showing impaired face configural processing in the right FFA in individuals with DP. The discovery of this neural impairment provides a new clue to our understanding of the neural basis of DP.

  15. Is the rapid adaptation paradigm too rapid? Implications for face and object processing.

    PubMed

    Nemrodov, Dan; Itier, Roxane J

    2012-07-16

    Rapid adaptation is an adaptation procedure in which adaptors and test stimuli are presented in rapid succession. The current study tested the validity of this method for early ERP components by investigating the specificity of the adaptation effect on the face-sensitive N170 ERP component across multiple test stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 showed identical response patterns for house and upright face test stimuli using the same adaptor stimuli. The results were also identical to those reported in a previous study using inverted face test stimuli (Nemrodov and Itier, 2011). In Experiment 3 all possible adaptor-test combinations between upright face, house, chair and car stimuli were used and no interaction between adaptor and test category, expected in the case of test-specific adaptation, was found. These results demonstrate that the rapid adaptation paradigm does not produce category-specific adaptation effects around 170-200 ms following test stimulus onset, a necessary condition for the interpretation of adaptation results. These results suggest the rapid categorical adaptation paradigm does not work.

  16. The enhanced processing of visual novel events in females: ERP correlates from two modified three-stimulus oddball tasks.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiajin; Xu, Shuang; Li, Chengqiang; Yang, Jiemin; Li, Hong; Yuan, Yin; Huang, Yu

    2012-02-09

    The ability to detect and cope with unpredictable novel events is fundamental for adapting to a rapidly changing environment and ensuring the survival of the organism. Despite knowledge of gender differences in emotional processing, little is currently known about the impact of gender on neural processing of emotion-irrelevant, novel stimuli. Using two modified three-stimulus oddball tasks and event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated the impact of sex on brain processing of novel events and the associated neurophysiological correlates. With novel and non-novel control stimuli used as task-irrelevant distracters, Experiment 1 showed higher novelty rating scores and larger size of novelty effects in brain potentials at 200-300 ms and 300-430 ms time intervals in females compared to males. After excluding the contribution of stimulus probability, Experiment 2 continued to display significant novelty effects in the response times and the amplitudes of the 130-500 ms time windows. Most importantly, females displayed a sustained novelty effect in the late positive component (LPC) amplitudes of the 500-600 ms interval, which was not observed in males. Therefore, Experiment 1 and 2 demonstrated that females are equipped with enhanced brain processing of emotion-irrelevant, novel stimuli. This phenomenon is independent of the established gender difference in infrequent stimulus processing. We suggest that our findings reflect the differential adaptive demands on females and males during evolution.

  17. Facing facts: neuronal mechanisms of face perception.

    PubMed

    Dekowska, Monika; Kuniecki, Michał; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The face is one of the most important stimuli carrying social meaning. Thanks to the fast analysis of faces, we are able to judge physical attractiveness and features of their owners' personality, intentions, and mood. From one's facial expression we can gain information about danger present in the environment. It is obvious that the ability to process efficiently one's face is crucial for survival. Therefore, it seems natural that in the human brain there exist structures specialized for face processing. In this article, we present recent findings from studies on the neuronal mechanisms of face perception and recognition in the light of current theoretical models. Results from brain imaging (fMRI, PET) and electrophysiology (ERP, MEG) show that in face perception particular regions (i.e. FFA, STS, IOA, AMTG, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex) are involved. These results are confirmed by behavioral data and clinical observations as well as by animal studies. The developmental findings reviewed in this article lead us to suppose that the ability to analyze face-like stimuli is hard-wired and improves during development. Still, experience with faces is not sufficient for an individual to become an expert in face perception. This thesis is supported by the investigation of individuals with developmental disabilities, especially with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).

  18. Effects of Type of Agreement Violation and Utterance Position on the Auditory Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Sithembinkosi; Kung, Carmen; Peter, Varghese; Brock, Jon; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Previous ERP studies have often reported two ERP components—LAN and P600—in response to subject-verb (S-V) agreement violations (e.g., the boys *runs). However, the latency, amplitude and scalp distribution of these components have been shown to vary depending on various experiment-related factors. One factor that has not received attention is the extent to which the relative perceptual salience related to either the utterance position (verbal inflection in utterance-medial vs. utterance-final contexts) or the type of agreement violation (errors of omission vs. errors of commission) may influence the auditory processing of S-V agreement. The lack of reports on these effects in ERP studies may be due to the fact that most studies have used the visual modality, which does not reveal acoustic information. To address this gap, we used ERPs to measure the brain activity of Australian English-speaking adults while they listened to sentences in which the S-V agreement differed by type of agreement violation and utterance position. We observed early negative and positive clusters (AN/P600 effects) for the overall grammaticality effect. Further analysis revealed that the mean amplitude and distribution of the P600 effect was only significant in contexts where the S-V agreement violation occurred utterance-finally, regardless of type of agreement violation. The mean amplitude and distribution of the negativity did not differ significantly across types of agreement violation and utterance position. These findings suggest that the increased perceptual salience of the violation in utterance final position (due to phrase-final lengthening) influenced how S-V agreement violations were processed during sentence comprehension. Implications for the functional interpretation of language-related ERPs and experimental design are discussed. PMID:27625617

  19. Effects of Type of Agreement Violation and Utterance Position on the Auditory Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Dube, Sithembinkosi; Kung, Carmen; Peter, Varghese; Brock, Jon; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Previous ERP studies have often reported two ERP components-LAN and P600-in response to subject-verb (S-V) agreement violations (e.g., the boys (*) runs). However, the latency, amplitude and scalp distribution of these components have been shown to vary depending on various experiment-related factors. One factor that has not received attention is the extent to which the relative perceptual salience related to either the utterance position (verbal inflection in utterance-medial vs. utterance-final contexts) or the type of agreement violation (errors of omission vs. errors of commission) may influence the auditory processing of S-V agreement. The lack of reports on these effects in ERP studies may be due to the fact that most studies have used the visual modality, which does not reveal acoustic information. To address this gap, we used ERPs to measure the brain activity of Australian English-speaking adults while they listened to sentences in which the S-V agreement differed by type of agreement violation and utterance position. We observed early negative and positive clusters (AN/P600 effects) for the overall grammaticality effect. Further analysis revealed that the mean amplitude and distribution of the P600 effect was only significant in contexts where the S-V agreement violation occurred utterance-finally, regardless of type of agreement violation. The mean amplitude and distribution of the negativity did not differ significantly across types of agreement violation and utterance position. These findings suggest that the increased perceptual salience of the violation in utterance final position (due to phrase-final lengthening) influenced how S-V agreement violations were processed during sentence comprehension. Implications for the functional interpretation of language-related ERPs and experimental design are discussed.

  20. Dissociation between arithmetic relatedness and distance effects is modulated by task properties: an ERP study comparing explicit vs. implicit arithmetic processing.

    PubMed

    Avancini, Chiara; Galfano, Giovanni; Szűcs, Dénes

    2014-12-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have detected several characteristic consecutive amplitude modulations in both implicit and explicit mental arithmetic tasks. Implicit tasks typically focused on the arithmetic relatedness effect (in which performance is affected by semantic associations between numbers) while explicit tasks focused on the distance effect (in which performance is affected by the numerical difference of to-be-compared numbers). Both task types elicit morphologically similar ERP waves which were explained in functionally similar terms. However, to date, the relationship between these tasks has not been investigated explicitly and systematically. In order to fill this gap, here we examined whether ERP effects and their underlying cognitive processes in implicit and explicit mental arithmetic tasks differ from each other. The same group of participants performed both an implicit number-matching task (in which arithmetic knowledge is task-irrelevant) and an explicit arithmetic-verification task (in which arithmetic knowledge is task-relevant). 129-channel ERP data differed substantially between tasks. In the number-matching task, the arithmetic relatedness effect appeared as a negativity over left-frontal electrodes whereas the distance effect was more prominent over right centro-parietal electrodes. In the verification task, all probe types elicited similar N2b waves over right fronto-central electrodes and typical centro-parietal N400 effects over central electrodes. The distance effect appeared as an early-rising, long-lasting left parietal negativity. We suggest that ERP effects in the implicit task reflect access to semantic memory networks and to magnitude discrimination, respectively. In contrast, effects of expectation violation are more prominent in explicit tasks and may mask more delicate cognitive processes.

  1. Confusing similar words: ERP correlates of lexical-semantic processing in first language attrition and late second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kasparian, Kristina; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2016-12-01

    First language (L1) attrition is a socio-linguistic circumstance where second language (L2) learning coincides with changes in exposure and use of the native-L1. Attriters often report experiencing a decline in automaticity or proficiency in their L1 after a prolonged period in the L2 environment, while their L2 proficiency continues to strengthen. Investigating the neurocognitive correlates of attrition alongside those of late L2 acquisition addresses the question of whether the brain mechanisms underlying both L1 and L2 processing are strongly determined by proficiency, irrespective of whether the language was acquired from birth or in adulthood. Using event-related-potentials (ERPs), we examined lexical-semantic processing in Italian L1 attriters, compared to adult Italian L2 learners and to Italian monolingual native speakers. We contrasted the processing of classical lexical-semantic violations (Mismatch condition) with sentences that were equally semantically implausible but arguably trickier, as the target-noun was "swapped" with an orthographic neighbor that differed only in its final vowel and gender-marking morpheme (e.g., cappello (hat) vs. cappella (chapel)). Our aim was to determine whether sentences with such "confusable nouns" (Swap condition) would be processed as semantically correct by late L2 learners and L1 attriters, especially for those individuals with lower Italian proficiency scores. We found that lower-proficiency Italian speakers did not show significant N400 effects for Swap violations relative to correct sentences, regardless of whether Italian was the L1 or the L2. Crucially, N400 response profiles followed a continuum of "nativelikeness" predicted by Italian proficiency scores - high-proficiency attriters and high-proficiency Italian learners were indistinguishable from native controls, whereas attriters and L2 learners in the lower-proficiency range showed significantly reduced N400 effects for "Swap" errors. Importantly, attriters

  2. Assessing Leading ERP-SAP Implementation in Leading Firms in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaiful, B.; Gunawan, W.

    2017-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) enables to bring critical capabilities to an organisation, however, the implementation of such capabilities is often surrounded with problems. The implementing ERP-SAP in Indonesian enterprises are still facing tremendous challenges with the failure rate can reach more than 80% of the cases. The article examines the common problems faced by the consultants whenever they deal with their clients, from the practical perspectives. The article takes the multiple case studies of the leading enterprises in Indonesia, such as: KS (largest steel producer), GEM (large mining producer), and HS (large retailer), with the aim to identify the root of problems of SAP implementation. The outcome of the study is expected to provide the consultants with the guideline to understand the ERP implementation process in their clients and effective solutions to cope with it.

  3. Specific impairment of face-processing abilities in children with autism spectrum disorder using the Let's Face It! skills battery.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Julie M; Tanaka, James W; Klaiman, Cheryl; Cockburn, Jeff; Herlihy, Lauren; Brown, Carla; South, Mikle; McPartland, James; Kaiser, Martha D; Phillips, Rebecca; Schultz, Robert T

    2008-12-01

    Although it has been well established that individuals with autism exhibit difficulties in their face recognition abilities, it has been debated whether this deficit reflects a category-specific impairment of faces or a general perceptual bias toward the local-level information in a stimulus. In this study, the Let's Face It! Skills Battery [Tanaka & Schultz, 2008] of developmental face- and object-processing measures was administered to a large sample of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children. The main finding was that when matched for age and IQ, individuals with ASD were selectively impaired in their ability to recognize faces across changes in orientation, expression and featural information. In a face discrimination task, ASD participants showed a preserved ability to discriminate featural and configural information in the mouth region of a face, but were compromised in their ability to discriminate featural and configural information in the eyes. On object-processing tasks, ASD participants demonstrated a normal ability to recognize automobiles across changes in orientation and a superior ability to discriminate featural and configural information in houses. These findings indicate that the face-processing deficits in ASD are not due to a local-processing bias, but reflect a category-specific impairment of faces characterized by a failure to form view-invariant face representations and discriminate information in the eye region of the face.

  4. By the sound of it. An ERP investigation of human action sound processing in 7-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Geangu, Elena; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Lewis, James W; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that human adults perceive human action sounds as a distinct category from human vocalizations, environmental, and mechanical sounds, activating different neural networks (Engel et al., 2009; Lewis et al., 2011). Yet, little is known about the development of such specialization. Using event-related potentials (ERP), this study investigated neural correlates of 7-month-olds' processing of human action (HA) sounds in comparison to human vocalizations (HV), environmental (ENV), and mechanical (MEC) sounds. Relative to the other categories, HA sounds led to increased positive amplitudes between 470 and 570ms post-stimulus onset at left anterior temporal locations, while HV led to increased negative amplitudes at the more posterior temporal locations in both hemispheres. Collectively, human produced sounds (HA+HV) led to significantly different response profiles compared to non-living sound sources (ENV+MEC) at parietal and frontal locations in both hemispheres. Overall, by 7 months of age human action sounds are being differentially processed in the brain, consistent with a dichotomy for processing living versus non-living things. This provides novel evidence regarding the typical categorical processing of socially relevant sounds.

  5. By the sound of it. An ERP investigation of human action sound processing in 7-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Geangu, Elena; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Lewis, James W.; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that human adults perceive human action sounds as a distinct category from human vocalizations, environmental, and mechanical sounds, activating different neural networks (Engel et al., 2009; Lewis et al., 2011). Yet, little is known about the development of such specialization. Using event-related potentials (ERP), this study investigated neural correlates of 7-month-olds’ processing of human action (HA) sounds in comparison to human vocalizations (HV), environmental (ENV), and mechanical (MEC) sounds. Relative to the other categories, HA sounds led to increased positive amplitudes between 470 and 570 ms post-stimulus onset at left anterior temporal locations, while HV led to increased negative amplitudes at the more posterior temporal locations in both hemispheres. Collectively, human produced sounds (HA + HV) led to significantly different response profiles compared to non-living sound sources (ENV + MEC) at parietal and frontal locations in both hemispheres. Overall, by 7 months of age human action sounds are being differentially processed in the brain, consistent with a dichotomy for processing living versus non-living things. This provides novel evidence regarding the typical categorical processing of socially relevant sounds. PMID:25732377

  6. The neural time course of art perception: an ERP study on the processing of style versus content in art.

    PubMed

    Augustin, M Dorothee; Defranceschi, Birgit; Fuchs, Helene K; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hutzler, Florian

    2011-06-01

    A central prerequisite to understand the phenomenon of art in psychological terms is to investigate the nature of the underlying perceptual and cognitive processes. Building on a study by Augustin, Leder, Hutzler, and Carbon (2008) the current ERP study examined the neural time course of two central aspects of representational art, one of which is closely related to object- and scene perception, the other of which is art-specific: content and style. We adapted a paradigm that has repeatedly been employed in psycholinguistics and that allows one to examine the neural time course of two processes in terms of when sufficient information is available to allow successful classification. Twenty-two participants viewed pictures that systematically varied in style and content and conducted a combined go/nogo dual choice task. The dependent variables of interest were the Lateralised Readiness Potential (LRP) and the N200 effect. Analyses of both measures support the notion that in the processing of art style follows content, with style-related information being available at around 224 ms or between 40 and 94 ms later than content-related information. The paradigm used here offers a promising approach to further explore the time course of art perception, thus helping to unravel the perceptual and cognitive processes that underlie the phenomenon of art and the fascination it exerts.

  7. Modification of Threat-Processing in Non-Anxious Individuals: A Preliminary Behavioral and ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Suway, J.G.; White, L.K.; Vanderwert, R.E.; Bar-Haim, Y.; Pine, D.S.; Fox, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Previous research suggests that attention bias toward threat contributes to the development and maintenance of anxiety. The current study extends this work by mapping the neural correlates of experimentally-induced changes in attention bias. The study examines both behavioral and psychophysiological changes associated with experimentally-induced changes in threat bias. Methods Thirty-four non-anxious female adults were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: training attention toward threat or placebo control. Attention bias was assessed and trained via a modified dot-probe task. Participants completed pre- and post-training assessments of attention bias and stress reactivity. As well, EEG was collected during pre- and post-test assessment of attention bias using the dot-probe task. Results Training induced significant changes in attention bias, though findings were complicated by group differences in baseline threat-bias scores. Compared to controls, those in the training group showed greater depression vulnerability to a post-training stressor and increased P2 amplitude, an ERP component associated with attention toward threat, during the dot-probe task. Limitations Although participants were randomly assigned to groups, there were still group differences in pre-training bias scores. Also, while the use of a stress task before the initial assessment of attention bias was used to control for initial differences in stress vulnerability, this may have altered pre-bias scores since participants completed this task immediately after being stressed. Conclusions These findings demonstrate training-induced changes in behavior and neural response patterns relevant to prior work on attention bias modification. PMID:23391516

  8. Imagine that! ERPs provide evidence for distinct hemispheric contributions to the processing of concrete and abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Lee, Chia-Lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    Although abstract and concrete concepts are processed and remembered differently, the underlying nature of those differences remains in dispute. The current study used visual half-field (VF) presentation methods and event-related potential (ERP) measures to examine how the left (LH) and right (RH) cerebral hemispheres process concrete and abstract meanings of polysemous nouns (e.g., “green book,” referring to the concrete, physical object that is a book, versus “engaging book,” referring to the abstract information that a book conveys). With presentation to the right VF, nouns preceded by concrete modifiers were associated with more positivity on the P2 and N400, suggesting that concrete concepts were easier for the LH to process perceptually and semantically. In contrast, with presentation to the left VF (RH), nouns used in a concrete sense elicited a sustained frontal negativity (500-900 ms) that has been previously linked to imagery. The results thus reveal multiple, distinct neural and cognitive sources for concreteness effects and point to a critical role for the RH in linking language input to sensory imagery. PMID:19631274

  9. A Meta-Analysis and Review of Holistic Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face recognition research, yet central questions related to holistic processing remain unanswered, and debates have thus far failed to reach a resolution despite accumulating empirical evidence. We argue that a considerable source of confusion in this literature stems from a methodological problem. Specifically, two different measures of holistic processing based on the composite paradigm (complete design and partial design) are used in the literature, but they often lead to qualitatively different results. First, we present a comprehensive review of the work that directly compares the two designs, and which clearly favors the complete design over the partial design. Second, we report a meta-analysis of holistic face processing according to both designs, and use this as further evidence for one design over the other. The meta-analysis effect size of holistic processing in the complete design is nearly three times that of the partial design. Effect sizes were not correlated between measures, consistent with the suggestion that they do not measure the same thing. Our meta-analysis also examines the correlation between conditions in the complete design of the composite task, and suggests that in an individual differences context, little is gained by including a misaligned baseline. Finally, we offer a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge about holistic processing based on evidence gathered from the measure we favor based on the first sections of our review—the complete design—and outline outstanding research questions in that new context. PMID:24956123

  10. Influence of Eye Gaze on Spoken Word Processing: An ERP Study with Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parise, Eugenio; Handl, Andrea; Palumbo, Letizia; Friederici, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    Eye gaze is an important communicative signal, both as mutual eye contact and as referential gaze to objects. To examine whether attention to speech versus nonspeech stimuli in 4- to 5-month-olds (n = 15) varies as a function of eye gaze, event-related brain potentials were used. Faces with mutual or averted gaze were presented in combination with…

  11. ERP and behavioral evidence of increased sensory attenuation for fear-related action outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gethin

    2015-10-01

    Voluntary action selection entails the representation of the expected consequences of the action. Previous evidence suggests that accurate action-effect prediction modulates both ERP and behavioral markers of sensory processing-a phenomenon know as sensory attenuation. This may play an important role in monitoring the success or failure of our actions, or attributing agency. Nonetheless, the vast majority of studies in this domain focus on simplistic visual and auditory stimuli. Given that we rarely perform voluntary actions with the aim of generating such stimuli in social contexts, this provides little indication of the extent to which sensory attenuation operates in everyday behavior. The present study investigated ERP and behavioral measures of sensory attenuation for fearful and neutral facial expressions. Participants were trained to associate one voluntary action with the presentation of a fearful face, and another action with a neutral face. We measured both ERP responses and behavioral ratings following presentation of faces whose emotional content was either consistent or inconsistent with the action prediction. We observed significant modulation for fearful outcomes only, suggesting that sensory attenuation is heightened to stimuli of high social relevance. The N170 response was significantly attenuated for congruent fearful faces, but not for congruent neutral faces (in comparison to incongruent faces). Similarly, behavioral ratings were modulated only for fearful faces but not neutral faces. This provides new insight into how social and affective outcomes modulate sensory attenuation and may have implications for implicit sense of agency for socially relevant stimuli.

  12. Disrupted neural processing of emotional faces in psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Pujol, Jesus; Batalla, Iolanda; Harrison, Ben J; Bosque, Javier; Ibern-Regàs, Immaculada; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Deus, Joan; López-Solà, Marina; Pifarré, Josep; Menchón, José M; Cardoner, Narcís

    2014-04-01

    Psychopaths show a reduced ability to recognize emotion facial expressions, which may disturb the interpersonal relationship development and successful social adaptation. Behavioral hypotheses point toward an association between emotion recognition deficits in psychopathy and amygdala dysfunction. Our prediction was that amygdala dysfunction would combine deficient activation with disturbances in functional connectivity with cortical regions of the face-processing network. Twenty-two psychopaths and 22 control subjects were assessed and functional magnetic resonance maps were generated to identify both brain activation and task-induced functional connectivity using psychophysiological interaction analysis during an emotional face-matching task. Results showed significant amygdala activation in control subjects only, but differences between study groups did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, psychopaths showed significantly increased activation in visual and prefrontal areas, with this latest activation being associated with psychopaths' affective-interpersonal disturbances. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed a reciprocal reduction in functional connectivity between the left amygdala and visual and prefrontal cortices. Our results suggest that emotional stimulation may evoke a relevant cortical response in psychopaths, but a disruption in the processing of emotional faces exists involving the reciprocal functional interaction between the amygdala and neocortex, consistent with the notion of a failure to integrate emotion into cognition in psychopathic individuals.

  13. Impairment of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Galia; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the current paper is to review recent findings concerning the neural basis of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a lifelong impairment in face processing that occurs in the absence of explicit brain damage. As such, CP offers a unique model for exploring the psychological and neural bases of normal face processing. We start by providing background about face perception and representation, and then review behavioral evidence gleaned from individuals with CP. We then review recent functional and structural neural investigations which offer a comprehensive account of the mechanisms underlying CP and support a characterization of this impairment as a disconnection syndrome rather than as a syndrome related to focal brain malfunction. We end the paper by offering a general framework for CP which, we believe, best integrates the behavioral and neural findings, and offers a platform for generating hypotheses for future studies. There remain many open issues in our understanding of CP and, to address these unanswered questions, we lay out several future research directions and testable hypotheses for further investigation.

  14. Disgust evoked by strong wormwood bitterness influences the processing of visual food cues in women: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Daniela; Giraldo, Matteo; Spiegl, Benjamin; Schienle, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The perception of intense bitterness is associated with disgust and food rejection. The present cross-modal event-related potential (ERP) study investigated whether a bitter aftertaste is able to influence affective ratings and the neuronal processing of visual food cues. We presented 39 healthy normal-weight women (mean age: 22.5 years) with images depicting high-caloric meat dishes, high-caloric sweets, and low-caloric vegetables after they had either rinsed their mouth with wormwood tea (bitter group; n = 20) or water (control group; n = 19) for 30s. The bitter aftertaste of wormwood enhanced fronto-central early potentials (N100, N200) and reduced P300 amplitudes for all food types (meat, sweets, vegetables). Moreover, meat and sweets elicited higher fronto-central LPPs than vegetables in the water group. This differentiation was absent in the bitter group, which gave lower arousal ratings for the high-caloric food. We found that a minor intervention ('bitter rinse') was sufficient to induce changes in the neuronal processing of food images reflecting increased early attention (N100, N200) as well as reduced affective value (P300, LPP). Future studies should investigate whether this intervention is able to influence eating behavior.

  15. The effects of long-term stress on neural dynamics of working memory processing: An investigation using ERP

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yiran; Leung, Ada W. S.; Duan, Hongxia; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui; Qin, Shaozheng

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the neural dynamics of working memory (WM) processing under long-term stress. Forty participants who had been exposed to a long period of major exam preparation (six months) and twenty-one control participants performed a numerical n-back task (n = 1, 2) while electroencephalograms were recorded. Psychological and endocrinal measurements confirmed significantly higher levels of long-term stress for participants in the exam group. The exam group showed significantly increased P2 amplitude in the frontal-central sites in the 1-back and 2-back conditions, whereas other ERP components, including the P1, N1 and P3 and behavioral performance, were unchanged. Notably, the P2 effect was most pronounced in participants in the exam group who reported perceiving high levels of stress. The perceived stress scores positively correlated with the P2 amplitude in the 1-back and 2-back conditions. These results suggest that long-term stress has an impact on attention and the initiation of the updating process in WM. PMID:27000528

  16. Two Sides of the Same Coin: ERP and Wavelet Analyses of Visual Potentials Evoked and Induced by Task-Relevant Faces.

    PubMed

    Van der Lubbe, Rob H J; Szumska, Izabela; Fajkowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    New analysis techniques of the electroencephalogram (EEG) such as wavelet analysis open the possibility to address questions that may largely improve our understanding of the EEG and clarify its relation with related potentials (ER Ps). Three issues were addressed. 1) To what extent can early ERERP components be described as transient evoked oscillations in specific frequency bands? 2) Total EEG power (TP) after a stimulus consists of pre-stimulus baseline power (BP), evoked power (EP), and induced power (IP), but what are their respective contributions? 3) The Phase Reset model proposes that BP predicts EP, while the evoked model holds that BP is unrelated to EP; which model is the most valid one? EEG results on NoGo trials for 123 individuals that took part in an experiment with emotional facial expressions were examined by computing ERPs and by performing wavelet analyses on the raw EEG and on ER Ps. After performing several multiple regression analyses, we obtained the following answers. First, the P1, N1, and P2 components can by and large be described as transient oscillations in the α and θ bands. Secondly, it appears possible to estimate the separate contributions of EP, BP, and IP to TP, and importantly, the contribution of IP is mostly larger than that of EP. Finally, no strong support was obtained for either the Phase Reset or the Evoked model. Recent models are discussed that may better explain the relation between raw EEG and ERPs.

  17. Two Sides of the Same Coin: ERP and Wavelet Analyses of Visual Potentials Evoked and Induced by Task-Relevant Faces

    PubMed Central

    Van der Lubbe, Rob H. J.; Szumska, Izabela; Fajkowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    New analysis techniques of the electroencephalogram (EEG) such as wavelet analysis open the possibility to address questions that may largely improve our understanding of the EEG and clarify its relation with related potentials (ER Ps). Three issues were addressed. 1) To what extent can early ERERP components be described as transient evoked oscillations in specific frequency bands? 2) Total EEG power (TP) after a stimulus consists of pre-stimulus baseline power (BP), evoked power (EP), and induced power (IP), but what are their respective contributions? 3) The Phase Reset model proposes that BP predicts EP, while the evoked model holds that BP is unrelated to EP; which model is the most valid one? EEG results on NoGo trials for 123 individuals that took part in an experiment with emotional facial expressions were examined by computing ERPs and by performing wavelet analyses on the raw EEG and on ER Ps. After performing several multiple regression analyses, we obtained the following answers. First, the P1, N1, and P2 components can by and large be described as transient oscillations in the α and θ bands. Secondly, it appears possible to estimate the separate contributions of EP, BP, and IP to TP, and importantly, the contribution of IP is mostly larger than that of EP. Finally, no strong support was obtained for either the Phase Reset or the Evoked model. Recent models are discussed that may better explain the relation between raw EEG and ERPs. PMID:28154612

  18. First Language Attrition Induces Changes in Online Morphosyntactic Processing and Re-Analysis: An ERP Study of Number Agreement in Complex Italian Sentences.

    PubMed

    Kasparian, Kristina; Vespignani, Francesco; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2016-11-07

    First language (L1) attrition in adulthood offers new insight on neuroplasticity and the role of language experience in shaping neurocognitive responses to language. Attriters are multilinguals for whom advancing L2 proficiency comes at the cost of the L1, as they experience a shift in exposure and dominance (e.g., due to immigration). To date, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying L1 attrition are largely unexplored. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined L1-Italian grammatical processing in 24 attriters and 30 Italian native-controls. We assessed whether (a) attriters differed from non-attriting native speakers in their online detection and re-analysis/repair of number agreement violations, and whether (b) differences in processing were modulated by L1-proficiency. To test both local and non-local agreement violations, we manipulated agreement between three inflected constituents and examined ERP responses on two of these (subject, verb, modifier). Our findings revealed group differences in amplitude, scalp distribution, and duration of LAN/N400 + P600 effects. We discuss these differences as reflecting influence of attriters' L2-English, as well as shallower online sentence repair processes than in non-attriting native speakers. ERP responses were also predicted by L1-Italian proficiency scores, with smaller N400/P600 amplitudes in lower proficiency individuals. Proficiency only modulated P600 amplitude between 650 and 900 ms, whereas the late P600 (beyond 900 ms) depended on group membership and amount of L1 exposure within attriters. Our study is the first to show qualitative and quantitative differences in ERP responses in attriters compared to non-attriting native speakers. Our results also emphasize that proficiency predicts language processing profiles, even in native-speakers, and that the P600 should not be considered a monolithic component.

  19. Long-Range Reduced Predictive Information Transfers of Autistic Youths in EEG Sensor-Space During Face Processing.

    PubMed

    Khadem, Ali; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali; Khorrami, Anahita

    2016-03-01

    The majority of previous functional/effective connectivity studies conducted on the autistic patients converged to the underconnectivity theory of ASD: "long-range underconnectivity and sometimes short-rang overconnectivity". However, to the best of our knowledge the total (linear and nonlinear) predictive information transfers (PITs) of autistic patients have not been investigated yet. Also, EEG data have rarely been used for exploring the information processing deficits in autistic subjects. This study is aimed at comparing the total (linear and nonlinear) PITs of autistic and typically developing healthy youths during human face processing by using EEG data. The ERPs of 12 autistic youths and 19 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects were recorded while they were watching upright and inverted human face images. The PITs among EEG channels were quantified using two measures separately: transfer entropy with self-prediction optimality (TESPO), and modified transfer entropy with self-prediction optimality (MTESPO). Afterwards, the directed differential connectivity graphs (dDCGs) were constructed to characterize the significant changes in the estimated PITs of autistic subjects compared with HC ones. By using both TESPO and MTESPO, long-range reduction of PITs of ASD group during face processing was revealed (particularly from frontal channels to right temporal channels). Also, it seemed the orientation of face images (upright or upside down) did not modulate the binary pattern of PIT-based dDCGs, significantly. Moreover, compared with TESPO, the results of MTESPO were more compatible with the underconnectivity theory of ASD in the sense that MTESPO showed no long-range increase in PIT. It is also noteworthy that to the best of our knowledge it is the first time that a version of MTE is applied for patients (here ASD) and it is also its first use for EEG data analysis.

  20. Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Matthias J.; Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Reicherts, Philipp; Pauli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not – or only partly – affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e., facial expressions of pain). Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing. PMID:25352817

  1. Cognitive tasks during expectation affect the congruency ERP effects to facial expressions

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huiyan; Schulz, Claudia; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Expectancy congruency has been shown to modulate event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotional stimuli, such as facial expressions. However, it is unknown whether the congruency ERP effects to facial expressions can be modulated by cognitive manipulations during stimulus expectation. To this end, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while participants viewed (neutral and fearful) facial expressions. Each trial started with a cue, predicting a facial expression, followed by an expectancy interval without any cues and subsequently the face. In half of the trials, participants had to solve a cognitive task in which different letters were presented for target letter detection during the expectancy interval. Furthermore, facial expressions were congruent with the cues in 75% of all trials. ERP results revealed that for fearful faces, the cognitive task during expectation altered the congruency effect in N170 amplitude; congruent compared to incongruent fearful faces evoked larger N170 in the non-task condition but the congruency effect was not evident in the task condition. Regardless of facial expression, the congruency effect was generally altered by the cognitive task during expectation in P3 amplitude; the amplitudes were larger for incongruent compared to congruent faces in the non-task condition but the congruency effect was not shown in the task condition. The findings indicate that cognitive tasks during expectation reduce the processing of expectation and subsequently, alter congruency ERP effects to facial expressions. PMID:26578938

  2. Cognitive tasks during expectation affect the congruency ERP effects to facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huiyan; Schulz, Claudia; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Expectancy congruency has been shown to modulate event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotional stimuli, such as facial expressions. However, it is unknown whether the congruency ERP effects to facial expressions can be modulated by cognitive manipulations during stimulus expectation. To this end, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while participants viewed (neutral and fearful) facial expressions. Each trial started with a cue, predicting a facial expression, followed by an expectancy interval without any cues and subsequently the face. In half of the trials, participants had to solve a cognitive task in which different letters were presented for target letter detection during the expectancy interval. Furthermore, facial expressions were congruent with the cues in 75% of all trials. ERP results revealed that for fearful faces, the cognitive task during expectation altered the congruency effect in N170 amplitude; congruent compared to incongruent fearful faces evoked larger N170 in the non-task condition but the congruency effect was not evident in the task condition. Regardless of facial expression, the congruency effect was generally altered by the cognitive task during expectation in P3 amplitude; the amplitudes were larger for incongruent compared to congruent faces in the non-task condition but the congruency effect was not shown in the task condition. The findings indicate that cognitive tasks during expectation reduce the processing of expectation and subsequently, alter congruency ERP effects to facial expressions.

  3. Influence of long-term Sahaja Yoga meditation practice on emotional processing in the brain: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Reva, N V; Pavlov, S V; Loktev, K V; Korenyok, V V; Aftanas, L I

    2014-12-05

    Despite growing interest in meditation as a tool for alternative therapy of stress-related and psychosomatic diseases, brain mechanisms of beneficial influences of meditation practice on health and quality of life are still unclear. We propose that the key point is a persistent change in emotional functioning, specifically the modulation of the early appraisal of motivational significance of events. The main aim was to study the effects of long-term meditation practice on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during affective picture viewing. ERPs were recorded in 20 long-term Sahaja Yoga meditators and 20 control subjects without prior experience in meditation. The meditators' mid-latency (140-400ms) ERPs were attenuated for both positive and negative pictures (i.e. there were no arousal-related increases in ERP positivity) and this effect was more prominent over the right hemisphere. However, we found no differences in the long latency (400-800ms) responses to emotional images, associated with meditation practice. In addition we found stronger ERP negativity in the time window 200-300ms for meditators compared to the controls, regardless of picture valence. We assume that long-term meditation practice enhances frontal top-down control over fast automatic salience detection, based on amygdala functions.

  4. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was correct. Sentences were classified into literal translation sentences with the similar structure between the two languages and free translation sentences with the different structure. Behavioral data showed: shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates occurred in the high-proficient group than those in the intermediate-proficient group; shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates were observed in literal translation sentences than those in free translation sentences. ERP results showed literal translation sentences elicited an enhanced P200 and P600 while free translation sentences elicited a larger N400. The high-proficient group showed a larger P600 in syntactic violations and double violations while the intermediate-proficient group evoked an enhanced N400 in semantic violations and double violations. Literal translation sentences caused a larger P200 while free translation sentences elicited more negative-going N400. Behavioral and ERP data revealed the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on L2 sentence processing, and L2 proficiency played a predominate role.

  5. Face Processing Systems: From Neurons to Real-World Social Perception.

    PubMed

    Freiwald, Winrich; Duchaine, Bradley; Yovel, Galit

    2016-07-08

    Primate face processing depends on a distributed network of interlinked face-selective areas composed of face-selective neurons. In both humans and macaques, the network is divided into a ventral stream and a dorsal stream, and the functional similarities of the areas in humans and macaques indicate they are homologous. Neural correlates for face detection, holistic processing, face space, and other key properties of human face processing have been identified at the single neuron level, and studies providing causal evidence have established firmly that face-selective brain areas are central to face processing. These mechanisms give rise to our highly accurate familiar face recognition but also to our error-prone performance with unfamiliar faces. This limitation of the face system has important implications for consequential situations such as eyewitness identification and policing.

  6. Teacher Training in a Synchronous Cyber Face-to-Face Classroom: Characterizing and Supporting the Online Teachers' Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuping; Chen, Nian-Shing; Levy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the learning process undertaken by language teachers in a cyber face-to-face teacher training program. Eight tertiary Chinese language teachers attended a 12-week training program conducted in an online synchronous learning environment characterized by multimedia-based, oral and visual interaction. The term "cyber…

  7. ERP implementation in hospitals: a case study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Divya; Garg, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    In a competitive healthcare sector, hospitals have to focus on their processes in order to deliver high-quality care while at the same time reducing costs. Many hospitals have decided to adopt one or another Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system to improve their businesses, but implementing an ERP system can be a demanding endeavour. The systems are so difficult to implement that some are successful; many have failed, causing multimillion dollar losses. The challenge of ERP solutions lie in implementation because they are complex, time consuming and expensive too. This paper describes the various process workflows and phases of ERP implementation at Fortis Hospital Cunningham Road, Bangalore, India. This knowledge will provide valuable insights for the researchers and practitioners to understand the different process workflows and to make informed decisions when implementing ERP in any hospital.

  8. Single-trial ERP analysis reveals facial expression category in a three-stage scheme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-05-28

    Emotional faces are salient stimuli that play a critical role in social interactions. Following up on previous research suggesting that the event-related potentials (ERPs) show differential amplitudes in response to various facial expressions, the current study used trial-to-trial variability assembled from six discriminating ERP components to predict the facial expression categories in individual trials. In an experiment involved 17 participants, fearful trials were differentiated from non-fearful trials as early as the intervals of N1 and P1, with a mean predictive accuracy of 87%. Single-trial features in the occurrence of N170 and vertex positive potential could distinguish between emotional and neutral expressions (accuracy=90%). Finally, the trials associated with fearful, happy, and neutral faces were completely separated during the window of N3 and P3 (accuracy=83%). These categorization findings elucidated the temporal evolution of facial expression extraction, and demonstrated that the spatio-temporal characteristics of single-trial ERPs can distinguish facial expressions according to a three-stage scheme, with "fear popup," "emotional/unemotional discrimination," and "complete separation" as processing stages. This work constitutes the first examination of neural processing dynamics beyond multitrial ERP averaging, and directly relates the prediction performance of single-trial classifiers to the progressive brain functions of emotional face discrimination.

  9. Grounding context in face processing: color, emotion, and gender.

    PubMed

    Gil, Sandrine; Le Bigot, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have become interested in the way that the affective quality of contextual information transfers to a perceived target. We therefore examined the effect of a red (vs. green, mixed red/green, and achromatic) background - known to be valenced - on the processing of stimuli that play a key role in human interactions, namely facial expressions. We also examined whether the valenced-color effect can be modulated by gender, which is also known to be valenced. Female and male adult participants performed a categorization task of facial expressions of emotion in which the faces of female and male posers expressing two ambiguous emotions (i.e., neutral and surprise) were presented against the four different colored backgrounds. Additionally, this task was completed by collecting subjective ratings for each colored background in the form of five semantic differential scales corresponding to both discrete and dimensional perspectives of emotion. We found that the red background resulted in more negative face perception than the green background, whether the poser was female or male. However, whereas this valenced-color effect was the only effect for female posers, for male posers, the effect was modulated by both the nature of the ambiguous emotion and the decoder's gender. Overall, our findings offer evidence that color and gender have a common valence-based dimension.

  10. Processing Focus Structure and Implicit Prosody during Reading: Differential ERP Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolterfoht, Britta; Friederici, Angela D.; Alter, Kai; Steube, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that focus structural representations influence syntactic processing during reading, while other studies have shown that implicit prosody plays an important role in the understanding of written language. Up until now, the relationship between these two processes has been mostly disregarded. The present study…

  11. Enhancing Student Learning of Enterprise Integration and Business Process Orientation through an ERP Business Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seethamraju, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The sophistication of the integrated world of work and increased recognition of business processes as critical corporate assets require graduates to develop "process orientation" and an "integrated view" of business. Responding to these dynamic changes in business organizations, business schools are also continuing to modify…

  12. A magnetoencephalographic study of face processing: M170, Gamma-band oscillations and source localization

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zaifeng; Goldstein, Abraham; Harpaz, Yuval; Hansel, Myriam; Zion-Golumbic, Elana; Bentin, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    EEG studies suggested that the N170 ERP and Gamma-band responses to faces reflect early and later stages of a multiple-level face-perception mechanism, respectively. However, these conclusions should be considered cautiously because EEG-recorded Gamma may be contaminated by non-cephalic activity such as microsaccades. Moreover, EEG studies of Gamma cannot easily reveal its intracranial sources. Here we recorded MEG rather than EEG, assessed the sources of the M170 and Gamma oscillations using beamformer, and explored the sensitivity of these neural manifestations to global, featural and configural information in faces. The M170 was larger in response to faces and face components than in response to watches. Scrambling the configuration of the inner components of the face even if presented without the face contour reduced and delayed the M170. The amplitude of MEG Gamma oscillations (30–70 Hz) was higher than baseline during an epoch between 230–570 ms from stimulus onset and was particularly sensitive to the configuration of the stimuli, regardless of their category. However, in the lower part of this frequency range (30–40 Hz) only physiognomic stimuli elevated the MEG above baseline. Both the M170 and Gamma were generated in a posterior-ventral network including the fusiform, inferior-occipital and lingual gyri, all in the right hemisphere. The generation of Gamma involved additional sources in the visual system, bilaterally. We suggest that the evoked M170 manifests a face-perception mechanism based on the global characteristics of face, whereas the induced Gamma oscillations are associated with the integration of visual input into a pre-existent coherent perceptual representation. PMID:22422432

  13. The magnitude of the central visual field could be detected by active middle-late processing of ERPs.

    PubMed

    Li, Maojuan; Liu, Xiaoqin; Li, Qianqian; Ji, Mengmeng; Huang, Wenwen; Zhang, Mingyang; Wang, Tao; Luo, Chengliang; Wang, Zufeng; Chen, Xiping; Tao, Luyang

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the changes in event-related potential (ERP) waveforms under different central visual field conditions using a three-stimulus oddball paradigm. Circular checkerboards were presented in the center of a computer screen with a visual angle of 5°, 10°, 20°, or 30°, which were regarded as target stimuli. The ERP waveforms were analyzed separately for different stimulus conditions. Participants responded more slowly and had lower accuracy for the 30° visual field level than the other three visual field levels. The ERP results revealed that the amplitudes of target P2 gradually increased from the 5° to 20° visual field conditions, while they decreased abruptly in the 30° visual field condition. Regional effects showed that the amplitudes of target P2 were larger from the occipital electrodes than that from the temporal sites. Besides the negative-going deflection of target N2 and visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) components having an increasing tendency with expansion of the visual field, there was also a trend that the amplitudes of target P3 were decreased and the peak latencies were prolonged with increasing visual field ranges. In addition, the latencies of the difference P3 had a similar trend to the latencies of the target P3, and all the differences were more obvious at the 30° visual field level. The study demonstrated that middle-late components of ERPs can reflect changes in the visual field to some extent.

  14. Intonation processing deficits of emotional words among Mandarin Chinese speakers with congenital amusia: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Liu, Fang; Wu, Daxing; Thompson, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital amusia is a disorder that is known to affect the processing of musical pitch. Although individuals with amusia rarely show language deficits in daily life, a number of findings point to possible impairments in speech prosody that amusic individuals may compensate for by drawing on linguistic information. Using EEG, we investigated (1) whether the processing of speech prosody is impaired in amusia and (2) whether emotional linguistic information can compensate for this impairment. Method: Twenty Chinese amusics and 22 matched controls were presented pairs of emotional words spoken with either statement or question intonation while their EEG was recorded. Their task was to judge whether the intonations were the same. Results: Amusics exhibited impaired performance on the intonation-matching task for emotional linguistic information, as their performance was significantly worse than that of controls. EEG results showed a reduced N2 response to incongruent intonation pairs in amusics compared with controls, which likely reflects impaired conflict processing in amusia. However, our EEG results also indicated that amusics were intact in early sensory auditory processing, as revealed by a comparable N1 modulation in both groups. Conclusion: We propose that the impairment in discriminating speech intonation observed among amusic individuals may arise from an inability to access information extracted at early processing stages. This, in turn, could reflect a disconnection between low-level and high-level processing. PMID:25914659

  15. ERP responses to processing prosodic phrasing of sentences in amplitude modulated noise.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Rebecca; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Intonation phrase boundaries (IPBs) were hypothesized to be especially difficult to process in the presence of an amplitude modulated noise masker because of a potential rhythmic competition. In an event-related potential study, IPBs were presented in silence, stationary, and amplitude modulated noise. We elicited centro-parietal Closure Positive Shifts (CPS) in 23 young adults with normal hearing at IPBs in all acoustic conditions, albeit with some differences. CPS peak amplitudes were highest in stationary noise, followed by modulated noise, and lowest in silence. Both noise types elicited CPS delays, slightly more so in stationary compared to amplitude modulated noise. These data suggest that amplitude modulation is not tantamount to a rhythmic competitor for prosodic phrasing but rather supports an assumed speech perception benefit due to local release from masking. The duration of CPS time windows was, however, not only longer in noise compared to silence, but also longer for amplitude modulated compared to stationary noise. This is interpreted as support for additional processing load associated with amplitude modulation for the CPS component. Taken together, processing prosodic phrasing of sentences in amplitude modulated noise seems to involve the same issues that have been observed for the perception and processing of segmental information that are related to lexical items presented in noise: a benefit from local release from masking, even for prosodic cues, and a detrimental additional processing load that is associated with either stream segregation or signal reconstruction.

  16. Temporal Dynamics of Awareness for Facial Identity Revealed with ERP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genetti, Melanie; Khateb, Asaid; Heinzer, Severine; Michel, Christoph M.; Pegna, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the scalp recorded event-related potential (ERP) responses related to visual awareness. A backward masking procedure was performed while high-density EEG recordings were carried out. Subjects were asked to detect a familiar face, presented at durations that varied parametrically between 16 and 266 ms. ERPs were…

  17. ERP=Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. Deploying an ERP system is one of the most extensive--and expensive--IT projects a college or university can undertake. The potential benefits of ERP are significant: a more smoothly running operation with efficiencies in virtually every area of administration, from automated…

  18. Reevaluating the selectivity of face-processing difficulties in children and adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Louise; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Gillian

    2013-06-01

    There are few direct examinations of whether face-processing difficulties in autism are disproportionate to difficulties with other complex non-face stimuli. Here we examined discrimination ability and memory for faces, cars, and inverted faces in children and adolescents with and without autism. Results showed that, relative to typical children, the difficulties of children and adolescents with autism were not limited to, or disproportionately severe for, faces. Rather, these participants demonstrated significant difficulties in remembering and discriminating between faces and cars. This lack of face selectivity is inconsistent with prominent theories that attribute face-processing difficulties in autism to fundamental problems with social motivation or social attention. Instead, our results are consistent with a more pervasive perceptual atypicality that may affect autistic processing of non-face stimuli as well as face stimuli.

  19. Human versus Non-Human Face Processing: Evidence from Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Andreia; Rosset, Delphine; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Increased motivation towards social stimuli in Williams syndrome (WS) led us to hypothesize that a face's human status would have greater impact than face's orientation on WS' face processing abilities. Twenty-nine individuals with WS were asked to categorize facial emotion expressions in real, human cartoon and non-human cartoon faces presented…

  20. Reevaluating the Selectivity of Face-Processing Difficulties in Children and Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Louise; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    There are few direct examinations of whether face-processing difficulties in autism are disproportionate to difficulties with other complex non-face stimuli. Here we examined discrimination ability and memory for faces, cars, and inverted faces in children and adolescents with and without autism. Results showed that, relative to typical children,…

  1. Early ERP modulation during mood adjectives processing in patients with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Szczepan J; Wyczesany, Miroslaw

    2016-10-06

    Attentional bias is considered a key feature in mood disorders, and yet little is known of its neural correlates within the early stream of information processing in manic and depressed patients. The study aimed to capture and detail attentional bias during emotional word processing in patients within the first 500ms of stimulus exposition. 28 mood adjectives (14 positive and 14 negative) were used as stimuli. We expected differences in adjective encoding between groups during lexico-semantic analysis based on varying attentional resource allocation. Differences were evidenced within the first 100ms after stimulus onset with higher amplitudes for both patient groups than controls, possibly indicating more automatic attention allocation to stimuli during sensory analysis stages. Between 200-290ms after the words' onset, a specific valence mood-word mismatch was registered which approached significance, with higher responses evoked to negative than positive words in manic patients, and the opposite pattern of activity observed in depressed patients, suggesting cognitive bias based on mood incongruence during the lexico-semantic analysis stage. There was also a lateralized pattern of activity, with higher amplitudes over the right hemisphere posteriorly, and higher over the left frontally in the patient groups, especially in the manic individuals. The study points to attentional bias based on mood incongruence processing during crucial stages of meaning encoding within the early stream of information processing.

  2. The Representation and Processing of Identical Cognates by Late Bilinguals: RT and ERP Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, David; Dijkstra, Ton; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Across the languages of a bilingual, translation equivalents can have the same orthographic form and shared meaning (e.g., TABLE in French and English). How such words, called orthographically identical cognates, are processed and represented in the bilingual brain is not well understood. In the present study, late French-English bilinguals…

  3. Selective Interference on the Holistic Processing of Faces in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Olivia S.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Faces and objects of expertise compete for early perceptual processes and holistic processing resources (Gauthier, Curran, Curby, & Collins, 2003). Here, we examined the nature of interference on holistic face processing in working memory by comparing how various types of loads affect selective attention to parts of face composites. In dual…

  4. Processing the trees and the forest during initial stages of face perception: electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Bentin, Shlomo; Golland, Yulia; Flevaris, Anastasia; Robertson, Lynn C; Moscovitch, Morris

    2006-08-01

    Although configural processing is considered a hallmark of normal face perception in humans, there is ample evidence that processing face components also contributes to face recognition and identification. Indeed, most contemporary models posit a dual-code view in which face identification relies on the analysis of individual face components as well as the spatial relations between them. We explored the interplay between processing face configurations and inner face components by recording the N170, an event-related potential component that manifests early detection of faces. In contrast to a robust N170 effect elicited by line-drawn schematic faces compared to line-drawn schematic objects, no N170 effect was found if a pair of small objects substituted for the eyes in schematic faces. However, if a pair of two miniaturized faces substituted for the eyes, the N170 effect was restored. Additional experiments ruled out an explanation on the basis of miniaturized faces attracting attention independent of their location in a face-like configuration and show that global and local face characteristics compete for processing resources when in conflict. The results are discussed as they relate to normal and abnormal face processing.

  5. Differential Preparation Intervals Modulate Repetition Processes in Task Switching: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Qian-Jing; Wang, Meng; Jin, Zhenlan; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    In task-switching paradigms, reaction times (RTs) switch cost (SC) and the neural correlates underlying the SC are affected by different preparation intervals. However, little is known about the effect of the preparation interval on the repetition processes in task-switching. To examine this effect we utilized a cued task-switching paradigm with long sequences of repeated trials. Response-stimulus intervals (RSI) and cue-stimulus intervals (CSI) were manipulated in short and long conditions. Electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral data were recorded. We found that with increasing repetitions, RTs were faster in the short CSI conditions, while P3 amplitudes decreased in the LS (long RSI and short CSI) conditions. Positive correlations between RT benefit and P3 activation decrease (repeat 1 − repeat 5), and between the slope of the RT and P3 regression lines were observed only in the LS condition. Our findings suggest that differential preparation intervals modulate repetition processes in task switching. PMID:26924974

  6. Validating the truth of propositions: behavioral and ERP indicators of truth evaluation processes

    PubMed Central

    Koranyi, Nicolas; Müller, Florian; Langner, Oliver; Rothermund, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We investigated processes of truth validation during reading. Participants responded to ‘true’ and ‘false’ probes after reading simple true or false sentences. Compatible sentence/probe combinations (true/‘true’, false/‘false’) facilitated responding compared with incompatible combinations (true/‘false’, false/‘true’), indicating truth validation. Evidence for truth validation was obtained after inducing an evaluative mindset but not after inducing a non-evaluative mindset, using additional intermixed tasks requiring true/false decisions or sentence comparisons, respectively. Event-related potentials revealed an increased late negativity (500–1000 ms after onset of the last word of sentences) for false compared with true sentences. Paralleling behavioral results, this electroencephalographic marker only obtained in the evaluative mindset condition. Further, mere semantic mismatches between subject and object of sentences led to an elevated N400 for both mindset conditions. Taken together, our findings suggest that truth validation is a conditionally automatic process that is dependent on the current task demands and resulting mindset, whereas the processing of word meaning and semantic relations between words proceeds in an unconditionally automatic fashion. PMID:22461436

  7. Validating the truth of propositions: behavioral and ERP indicators of truth evaluation processes.

    PubMed

    Wiswede, Daniel; Koranyi, Nicolas; Müller, Florian; Langner, Oliver; Rothermund, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    We investigated processes of truth validation during reading. Participants responded to 'true' and 'false' probes after reading simple true or false sentences. Compatible sentence/probe combinations (true/'true', false/'false') facilitated responding compared with incompatible combinations (true/'false', false/'true'), indicating truth validation. Evidence for truth validation was obtained after inducing an evaluative mindset but not after inducing a non-evaluative mindset, using additional intermixed tasks requiring true/false decisions or sentence comparisons, respectively. Event-related potentials revealed an increased late negativity (500-1000 ms after onset of the last word of sentences) for false compared with true sentences. Paralleling behavioral results, this electroencephalographic marker only obtained in the evaluative mindset condition. Further, mere semantic mismatches between subject and object of sentences led to an elevated N400 for both mindset conditions. Taken together, our findings suggest that truth validation is a conditionally automatic process that is dependent on the current task demands and resulting mindset, whereas the processing of word meaning and semantic relations between words proceeds in an unconditionally automatic fashion.

  8. Empathy matters: ERP evidence for inter-individual differences in social language processing.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Daniëlle; Van Berkum, Jos J A; Bastiaansen, Marcel C M; Tesink, Cathelijne M J Y; Kos, Miriam; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-02-01

    When an adult claims he cannot sleep without his teddy bear, people tend to react surprised. Language interpretation is, thus, influenced by social context, such as who the speaker is. The present study reveals inter-individual differences in brain reactivity to social aspects of language. Whereas women showed brain reactivity when stereotype-based inferences about a speaker conflicted with the content of the message, men did not. This sex difference in social information processing can be explained by a specific cognitive trait, one's ability to empathize. Individuals who empathize to a greater degree revealed larger N400 effects (as well as a larger increase in γ-band power) to socially relevant information. These results indicate that individuals with high-empathizing skills are able to rapidly integrate information about the speaker with the content of the message, as they make use of voice-based inferences about the speaker to process language in a top-down manner. Alternatively, individuals with lower empathizing skills did not use information about social stereotypes in implicit sentence comprehension, but rather took a more bottom-up approach to the processing of these social pragmatic sentences.

  9. Differential recruitment of brain networks during visuospatial and color processing: Evidence from ERP microstates.

    PubMed

    Antonova, I; Bänninger, A; Dierks, T; Griskova-Bulanova, I; Koenig, T; Kohler, A

    2015-10-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies consistently revealed contributions of fronto-parietal and related networks to the execution of a visuospatial judgment task, the so-called "Clock Task". However, due to the low temporal resolution of fMRI, the exact cortical dynamics and timing of processing during task performance could not be resolved until now. In order to clarify the detailed cortical activity and temporal dynamics, 14 healthy subjects performed an established version of the "Clock Task", which comprises a visuospatial task (angle discrimination) and a control task (color discrimination) with the same stimulus material, in an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment. Based on the time-resolved analysis of network activations (microstate analysis), differences in timing between the angle compared to the color discrimination task were found after sensory processing in a time window starting around 200 ms. Significant differences between the two tasks were observed in an analysis window from 192 ms to 776 ms. We divided this window in two parts: an early phase - from 192 ms to ∼440 ms, and a late phase - from ∼440 ms to 776 ms. For both tasks, the order of network activations and the types of networks were the same, but, in each phase, activations for the two conditions were dominated by differing network states with divergent temporal dynamics. Our results provide an important basis for the assessment of deviations in processing dynamics during visuospatial tasks in clinical populations.

  10. Socially Important Faces Are Processed Preferentially to Other Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces in a Priming Task across a Range of Viewpoints

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Helen; Zalicks, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Using a priming paradigm, we investigate whether socially important faces are processed preferentially compared to other familiar and unfamiliar faces, and whether any such effects are affected by changes in viewpoint. Participants were primed with frontal images of personally familiar, famous or unfamiliar faces, and responded to target images of congruent or incongruent identity, presented in frontal, three quarter or profile views. We report that participants responded significantly faster to socially important faces (a friend’s face) compared to other highly familiar (famous) faces or unfamiliar faces. Crucially, responses to famous and unfamiliar faces did not differ. This suggests that, when presented in the context of a socially important stimulus, socially unimportant familiar faces (famous faces) are treated in a similar manner to unfamiliar faces. This effect was not tied to viewpoint, and priming did not affect socially important face processing differently to other faces. PMID:27219101

  11. The Relationship between Early Neural Responses to Emotional Faces at Age 3 and Later Autism and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Emily; Jones, Emily J. H.; Barnes, Karen; Sterling, Lindsey; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeff; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.

    2016-01-01

    Both autism spectrum (ASD) and anxiety disorders are associated with atypical neural and attentional responses to emotional faces, differing in affective face processing from typically developing peers. Within a longitudinal study of children with ASD (23 male, 3 female), we hypothesized that early ERPs to emotional faces would predict concurrent…

  12. An ERP-Approach to Study Age Differences in Cognitive Control Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kray, Jutta; Eppinger, Ben

    The flexible adaptation to changes in the environment is one important feature of intelligent behaviour and is associated with the ability to efficiently control one's own processing. Cognitive control refers to the ability to guide thoughts and actions in accord with internal task goals. Controlling one's own behaviour is particularly required in situations that involve the flexible switching between multiple tasks, the selection and maintenance of task-relevant and the inhibition of taskirrelevant information, as well as the monitoring of error and conflict information (e.g. [22, 42, 47]).

  13. Face Recognition and Processing in a Mini Brain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-28

    brain containing less than 1 million neurons (in animal model of the honeybee ) uses to learn and subsequently recognize human faces. There were four...specific aims. Aim (i) The project has been able to identify that the miniature brain of honeybees learns to recognize faces by binding information...model of the honeybee ) uses to learn and subsequently recognize human faces. There were four specific aims (detailed below) to the project, and all of

  14. ERP Response Unveils Effect of Second Language Manipulation on First Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Elvira; Camarrone, Flavio; Fias, Wim; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2016-01-01

    Lexical access in bilinguals has been considered either selective or non-selective and evidence exists in favor of both hypotheses. We conducted a linguistic experiment to assess whether a bilingual's language mode influences the processing of first language information. We recorded event related potentials during a semantic priming paradigm with a covert manipulation of the second language (L2) using two types of stimulus presentations (short and long). We observed a significant facilitation of word pairs related in L2 in the short version reflected by a decrease in N400 amplitude in response to target words related to the English meaning of an inter-lingual homograph (homograph-unrelated group). This was absent in the long version, as the N400 amplitude for this group was similar to the one for the control-unrelated group. We also interviewed the participants whether they were aware of the importance of L2 in the experiment. We conclude that subjects participating in the long and short versions were in different language modes: closer to monolingual mode for the long and closer to bilingual mode for the short version; and that awareness about covert manipulation of L2 can influence the language mode, which in its turn influences the processing of the first language.

  15. Short-term effects of processing musical syntax: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2008-05-30

    We investigated influences of short-term experience on music-syntactic processing, using a chord-sequence paradigm in which sequences ended on a harmony that was syntactically either regular or irregular. In contrast to previous studies (in which block durations were rather short), chord sequences were presented to participants for around 2 h while they were watching a silent movie with subtitles. Results showed that the music-syntactically irregular chord functions elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN), and that the ERAN amplitude significantly declined over the course of the experiment. The ERAN has previously been suggested to reflect the processing of music-syntactic irregularities, and the present data show that the cognitive representations of musical regularities are influenced by the repeated presentation of unexpected, irregular harmonies. Because harmonies were task-irrelevant, the data suggest that cognitive representations of musical regularities can change implicitly, i.e., even when listeners do not attend to the harmonies, and when they are presumably oblivious of the changes of such representations. Although the ERAN amplitude was significantly reduced, it was still present towards the end of the experiment at the right anterior electrodes, indicating that cognitive representations of basic music-syntactic regularities cannot easily be erased.

  16. ERP evidence for conceptual mappings and comparison processes during the comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors.

    PubMed

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Curran, Tim

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive linguists suggest that understanding metaphors requires activation of conceptual mappings between the involved concepts. We tested whether mappings are indeed in use during metaphor comprehension, and what mapping means as a cognitive process with Event-Related Potentials. Participants read literal, conventional metaphorical, novel metaphorical, and anomalous target sentences preceded by primes with related or unrelated mappings. Experiment 1 used sentence-primes to activate related mappings, and Experiment 2 used simile-primes to induce comparison thinking. In the unprimed conditions of both experiments, metaphors elicited N400s more negative than the literals. In Experiment 1, related sentence-primes reduced the metaphor-literal N400 difference in conventional, but not in novel metaphors. In Experiment 2, related simile-primes reduced the metaphor-literal N400 difference in novel, but not clearly in conventional metaphors. We suggest that mapping as a process occurs in metaphors, and the ways in which it can be facilitated by comparison differ between conventional and novel metaphors.

  17. ERP Response Unveils Effect of Second Language Manipulation on First Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Khachatryan, Elvira; Camarrone, Flavio; Fias, Wim; Van Hulle, Marc M.

    2016-01-01

    Lexical access in bilinguals has been considered either selective or non-selective and evidence exists in favor of both hypotheses. We conducted a linguistic experiment to assess whether a bilingual’s language mode influences the processing of first language information. We recorded event related potentials during a semantic priming paradigm with a covert manipulation of the second language (L2) using two types of stimulus presentations (short and long). We observed a significant facilitation of word pairs related in L2 in the short version reflected by a decrease in N400 amplitude in response to target words related to the English meaning of an inter-lingual homograph (homograph-unrelated group). This was absent in the long version, as the N400 amplitude for this group was similar to the one for the control-unrelated group. We also interviewed the participants whether they were aware of the importance of L2 in the experiment. We conclude that subjects participating in the long and short versions were in different language modes: closer to monolingual mode for the long and closer to bilingual mode for the short version; and that awareness about covert manipulation of L2 can influence the language mode, which in its turn influences the processing of the first language. PMID:27893807

  18. Impaired processing of self-face recognition in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hirot, France; Lesage, Marine; Pedron, Lya; Meyer, Isabelle; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Guardia, Dewi

    2016-03-01

    Body image disturbances and massive weight loss are major clinical symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of body changes and eating attitudes on self-face recognition ability in AN. Twenty-seven subjects suffering from AN and 27 control participants performed a self-face recognition task (SFRT). During the task, digital morphs between their own face and a gender-matched unfamiliar face were presented in a random sequence. Participants' self-face recognition failures, cognitive flexibility, body concern and eating habits were assessed with the Self-Face Recognition Questionnaire (SFRQ), Trail Making Test (TMT), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), respectively. Subjects suffering from AN exhibited significantly greater difficulties than control participants in identifying their own face (p = 0.028). No significant difference was observed between the two groups for TMT (all p > 0.1, non-significant). Regarding predictors of self-face recognition skills, there was a negative correlation between SFRT and body mass index (p = 0.01) and a positive correlation between SFRQ and EDI-2 (p < 0.001) or BSQ (p < 0.001). Among factors involved, nutritional status and intensity of eating disorders could play a part in impaired self-face recognition.

  19. Reliability of Composite Task Measurements of Holistic Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ross, David A.; Richler, Jennifer J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the study of individual differences in face recognition, including one of its hallmarks, holistic processing, which can be defined as a failure of selective attention to parts. These efforts demand that researchers be aware of, and try to maximize, the reliability of their measurements. Here we report on the reliability of measurements using the composite task (complete design), a measure of holistic processing that has been shown to have relatively good validity. Several studies have used the composite task to investigate individual differences, yet only one study has discussed its reliability. We investigate the reliability of composite task measurements in eight datasets from five different samples of subjects. In general, we found reliability to be fairly low but there was substantial variability across experiments. Researchers should keep in mind that reliability is a property of measurements, not a task, and the ways in which measurements in this task may be improved, before embarking on individual differences research. PMID:24961957

  20. Musicianship facilitates the processing of Western music chords--an ERP and behavioral study.

    PubMed

    Virtala, P; Huotilainen, M; Partanen, E; Tervaniemi, M

    2014-08-01

    The present study addressed the effects of musicianship on neural and behavioral discrimination of Western music chords. In abstract oddball paradigms, minor chords and inverted major chords were presented in the context of major chords to musician and non-musician participants in a passive listening task (with EEG recordings) and in an active discrimination task. Both sinusoidal sounds and harmonically rich piano sounds were used. Musicians outperformed non-musicians in the discrimination task. Change-related mismatch negativity (MMN) was evoked to minor and inverted major chords in musicians only, and N1 amplitude was larger in musicians than non-musicians. While MMN was absent in non-musicians, both groups showed decreased N1 in response to minor compared to major chords. The results indicate that processing of complex musical stimuli is enhanced in musicians both behaviorally and neurally, but that major-minor chord categorization is present to some extent also in the absence of music training.

  1. ERP correlates of language-specific processing of auditory pitch feedback during self-vocalization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaocong; Liu, Peng; Wang, Emily Q; Larson, Charles R; Huang, Dongfeng; Liu, Hanjun

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigated whether the neural correlates for auditory feedback control of vocal pitch can be shaped by tone language experience. Event-related potentials (P2/N1) were recorded from adult native speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese who heard their voice auditory feedback shifted in pitch by -50, -100, -200, or -500 cents when they sustained the vowel sound /u/. Cantonese speakers produced larger P2 amplitudes to -200 or -500 cents stimuli than Mandarin speakers, but this language effect failed to reach significance in the case of -50 or -100 cents. Moreover, Mandarin speakers produced shorter N1 latencies over the left hemisphere than the right hemisphere, whereas Cantonese speakers did not. These findings demonstrate that neural processing of auditory pitch feedback in vocal motor control is subject to language-dependent neural plasticity, suggesting that cortical mechanisms of auditory-vocal integration can be shaped by tone language experience.

  2. Horizontal Body Position Reduces Cortical Pain-Related Processing: Evidence from Late ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Fardo, Francesca; Spironelli, Chiara; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of short-term horizontal body position on pain-related somatosensory processing, by measuring subjective and cortical responses to electrical pain stimulation. Twenty-eight healthy women were randomly assigned to either the experimental horizontal group (Bed Rest, BR) or to the sitting control group (Sitting Control, SC). After 90 minutes in either horizontal or sitting position, the individual pain thresholds were assessed and EEG/self-evaluations recorded during the administration of 180 stimuli delivered to the left forearm. Electrical pain stimuli, calibrated to subjects’ individual pain thresholds, consisted of two different intensity levels: no pain (40% below pain threshold) and pain (40% above pain threshold). Compared with control, BR condition significantly inhibited subjective sensitivity to painless stimuli, whereas electrophysiological results pointed to a reduced slow cortical wave (interval: 300-600 ms) at all stimulus intensities, and smaller amplitude in BR’s right vs. left prefrontal sites. sLORETA analysis revealed that cortical responses were associated with a decreased activation of superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (BA 6/24). Interestingly, BR group only showed significant negative correlations between self-evaluation of painful intensities and frontal cortical negativity, revealing increasingly differentiated responses in bed rest: indeed those BR participants who reported lower pain ratings, displayed reduced negativity within anterior regions. Taken together, results indicate that short-term horizontal position is able to inhibit a fronto-parietal pain network, particularly at the level of central prefrontal regions typically involved in cognitive, affective and motor aspects of pain processing. PMID:24278467

  3. Origin of Emotion Effects on ERP Correlates of Emotional Word Processing: The Emotion Duality Approach.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil Konrad; Jarymowicz, Maria Teresa; Spustek, Tomasz; Kuś, Rafał; Żygierewicz, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    We distinguish two evaluative systems which evoke automatic and reflective emotions. Automatic emotions are direct reactions to stimuli whereas reflective emotions are always based on verbalized (and often abstract) criteria of evaluation. We conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in which 25 women were required to read and respond to emotional words which engaged either the automatic or reflective system. Stimulus words were emotional (positive or negative) and neutral. We found an effect of valence on an early response with dipolar fronto-occipital topography; positive words evoked a higher amplitude response than negative words. We also found that topographically specific differences in the amplitude of the late positive complex were related to the system involved in processing. Emotional stimuli engaging the automatic system were associated with significantly higher amplitudes in the left-parietal region; the response to neutral words was similar regardless of the system engaged. A different pattern of effects was observed in the central region, neutral stimuli engaging the reflective system evoked a higher amplitudes response whereas there was no system effect for emotional stimuli. These differences could not be reduced to effects of differences between the arousing properties and concreteness of the words used as stimuli.

  4. On the Role of Mentalizing Processes in Aesthetic Appreciation: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Beudt, Susan; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We used event-related brain potentials to explore the impact of mental perspective taking on processes of aesthetic appreciation of visual art. Participants (non-experts) were first presented with information about the life and attitudes of a fictitious artist. Subsequently, they were cued trial-wise to make an aesthetic judgment regarding an image depicting a piece of abstract art either from their own perspective or from the imagined perspective of the fictitious artist [i.e., theory of mind (ToM) condition]. Positive self-referential judgments were made more quickly and negative self-referential judgments were made more slowly than the corresponding judgments from the imagined perspective. Event-related potential analyses revealed significant differences between the two tasks both within the preparation period (i.e., during the cue-stimulus interval) and within the stimulus presentation period. For the ToM condition we observed a relative centro-parietal negativity during the preparation period (700–330 ms preceding picture onset) and a relative centro-parietal positivity during the stimulus presentation period (700–1100 ms after stimulus onset). These findings suggest that different subprocesses are involved in aesthetic appreciation and judgment of visual abstract art from one’s own vs. from another person’s perspective. PMID:26617506

  5. The "Eye Avoidance" Hypothesis of Autism Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, James W.; Sung, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of research indicates that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit selective deficits in their ability to recognize facial identities and expressions, the source of their face impairment is, as yet, undetermined. In this paper, we consider three possible accounts of the autism face deficit: (1) the holistic…

  6. Patches with links: a unified system for processing faces in the macaque temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Sebastian; Freiwald, Winrich A; Tsao, Doris Y

    2008-06-06

    The brain processes objects through a series of regions along the ventral visual pathway, but the circuitry subserving the analysis of specific complex forms remains unknown. One complex form category, faces, selectively activates six patches of cortex in the macaque ventral pathway. To identify the connectivity of these face patches, we used electrical microstimulation combined with simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging. Stimulation of each of four targeted face patches produced strong activation, specifically within a subset of the other face patches. Stimulation outside the face patches produced an activation pattern that spared the face patches. These results suggest that the face patches form a strongly and specifically interconnected hierarchical network.

  7. Bilateral hemispheric processing of words and faces: evidence from word impairments in prosopagnosia and face impairments in pure alexia.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

    2014-04-01

    Considerable research has supported the view that faces and words are subserved by independent neural mechanisms located in the ventral visual cortex in opposite hemispheres. On this view, right hemisphere ventral lesions that impair face recognition (prosopagnosia) should leave word recognition unaffected, and left hemisphere ventral lesions that impair word recognition (pure alexia) should leave face recognition unaffected. The current study shows that neither of these predictions was upheld. A series of experiments characterizing speed and accuracy of word and face recognition were conducted in 7 patients (4 pure alexic, 3 prosopagnosic) and matched controls. Prosopagnosic patients revealed mild but reliable word recognition deficits, and pure alexic patients demonstrated mild but reliable face recognition deficits. The apparent comingling of face and word mechanisms is unexpected from a domain-specific perspective, but follows naturally as a consequence of an interactive, learning-based account in which neural processes for both faces and words are the result of an optimization procedure embodying specific computational principles and constraints.

  8. The Whole Is More than the Sum of Its Parts--Audiovisual Processing of Phonemes Investigated with ERPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Dorte; Jonkers, Roel; Stowe, Laurie; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-01-01

    In the current ERP study, an active oddball task was carried out, testing pure tones and auditory, visual and audiovisual syllables. For pure tones, an MMN, an N2b, and a P3 were found, confirming traditional findings. Auditory syllables evoked an N2 and a P3. We found that the amplitude of the P3 depended on the distance between standard and…

  9. Holistic Processing of Faces as Measured by the Thatcher Illusion Is Intact in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Laura; Brady, Nuala; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Impaired face perception in autism spectrum disorders is thought to reflect a perceptual style characterized by componential rather than configural processing of faces. This study investigated face processing in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders using the Thatcher illusion, a perceptual phenomenon exhibiting "inversion effects"…

  10. Event-Related Brain Potentials Reveal Anomalies in Temporal Processing of Faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, James; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.; Panagiotides, Heracles; Carver, Leslie J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism exhibit impairments in face recognition, and neuroimaging studies have shown that individuals with autism exhibit abnormal patterns of brain activity during face processing. The current study examined the temporal characteristics of face processing in autism and their relation to behavior. Method: High-density…

  11. On the Links Among Face Processing, Language Processing, and Narrowing During Development

    PubMed Central

    Pascalis, Olivier; Loevenbruck, Hélène; Quinn, Paul C; Kandel, Sonia; Tanaka, James W; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    From the beginning of life, face and language processing are crucial for establishing social communication. Studies on the development of systems for processing faces and language have yielded such similarities as perceptual narrowing across both domains. In this article, we review several functions of human communication, and then describe how the tools used to accomplish those functions are modified by perceptual narrowing. We conclude that narrowing is common to all forms of social communication. We argue that during evolution, social communication engaged different perceptual and cognitive systems—face, facial expression, gesture, vocalization, sound, and oral language—that emerged at different times. These systems are interactive and linked to some extent. In this framework, narrowing can be viewed as a way infants adapt to their native social group. PMID:25254069

  12. Social contact and other-race face processing in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Silvert, Laetitia; Hewstone, Miles; Nobre, Anna C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence social factors upon the neural processing of faces of other races using event-related potentials. A multi-tiered approach was used to identify face-specific stages of processing, to test for effects of race-of-face upon processing at these stages and to evaluate the impact of social contact and individuating experience upon these effects. The results showed that race-of-face has significant effects upon face processing, starting from early perceptual stages of structural encoding, and that social factors may play an important role in mediating these effects. PMID:19015091

  13. Holistic processing, contact, and the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mintao; Hayward, William G; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    Face recognition, holistic processing, and processing of configural and featural facial information are known to be influenced by face race, with better performance for own- than other-race faces. However, whether these various other-race effects (OREs) arise from the same underlying mechanisms or from different processes remains unclear. The present study addressed this question by measuring the OREs in a set of face recognition tasks, and testing whether these OREs are correlated with each other. Participants performed different tasks probing (1) face recognition, (2) holistic processing, (3) processing of configural information, and (4) processing of featural information for both own- and other-race faces. Their contact with other-race people was also assessed with a questionnaire. The results show significant OREs in tasks testing face memory and processing of configural information, but not in tasks testing either holistic processing or processing of featural information. Importantly, there was no cross-task correlation between any of the measured OREs. Moreover, the level of other-race contact predicted only the OREs obtained in tasks testing face memory and processing of configural information. These results indicate that these various cross-race differences originate from different aspects of face processing, in contrary to the view that the ORE in face recognition is due to cross-race differences in terms of holistic processing.

  14. Balloons and bavoons versus spikes and shikes: ERPs reveal shared neural processes for shape-sound-meaning congruence in words, and shape-sound congruence in pseudowords.

    PubMed

    Sučević, Jelena; Savić, Andrej M; Popović, Mirjana B; Styles, Suzy J; Ković, Vanja

    2015-01-01

    There is something about the sound of a pseudoword like takete that goes better with a spiky, than a curvy shape (Köhler, 1929:1947). Yet despite decades of research into sound symbolism, the role of this effect on real words in the lexicons of natural languages remains controversial. We report one behavioural and one ERP study investigating whether sound symbolism is active during normal language processing for real words in a speaker's native language, in the same way as for novel word forms. The results indicate that sound-symbolic congruence has a number of influences on natural language processing: Written forms presented in a congruent visual context generate more errors during lexical access, as well as a chain of differences in the ERP. These effects have a very early onset (40-80 ms, 100-160 ms, 280-320 ms) and are later overshadowed by familiar types of semantic processing, indicating that sound symbolism represents an early sensory-co-activation effect.

  15. Individual differences in face cognition: brain-behavior relationships.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Grit; Kunina, Olga; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2010-03-01

    Individual differences in perceiving, learning, and recognizing faces, summarized under the term face cognition, have been shown on the behavioral and brain level, but connections between these levels have rarely been made. We used ERPs in structural equation models to determine the contributions of neurocognitive processes to individual differences in the accuracy and speed of face cognition as established by Wilhelm, Herzmann, Kunina, Danthiir, Schacht, and Sommer [Individual differences in face cognition, in press]. For 85 participants, we measured several ERP components and, in independent tasks and sessions, assessed face cognition abilities and other cognitive abilities, including immediate and delayed memory, mental speed, general cognitive ability, and object cognition. Individual differences in face cognition were unrelated to domain-general visual processes (P100) and to processes involved with memory encoding (Dm component). The ability of face cognition accuracy was moderately related to neurocognitive indicators of structural face encoding (latency of the N170) and of activating representations of both faces and person-related knowledge (latencies and amplitudes of the early and late repetition effects, ERE/N250 and LRE/N400, respectively). The ability of face cognition speed was moderately related to the amplitudes of the ERE and LRE. Thus, a substantial part of individual differences in face cognition is explained by the speed and efficiency of activating memory representations of faces and person-related knowledge. These relationships are not moderated by individual differences in established cognitive abilities.

  16. Face-specific and domain-general visual processing deficits in children with developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Elison, Jed T; Duchaine, Brad

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests that face and object recognition depend on distinct neural circuitry within the visual system. Work with adults with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) demonstrates that some individuals have preserved object recognition despite severe face recognition deficits. This face selectivity in adults with DP indicates that face- and object-processing systems can develop independently, but it is unclear at what point in development these mechanisms are separable. Determining when individuals with DP first show dissociations between faces and objects is one means to address this question. In the current study, we investigated face and object processing in six children with DP (5-12-years-old). Each child was assessed with one face perception test, two different face memory tests, and two object memory tests that were matched to the face memory tests in format and difficulty. Scores from the DP children on the matched face and object tasks were compared to within-subject data from age-matched controls. Four of the six DP children, including the 5-year-old, showed evidence of face-specific deficits, while one child appeared to have more general visual-processing deficits. The remaining child had inconsistent results. The presence of face-specific deficits in children with DP suggests that face and object perception depend on dissociable processes in childhood.

  17. More evidence of the linkage between face processing and language processing.

    PubMed

    Pascalis, Olivier; Dole, Marjorie; Lœvenbruck, Hélène

    2017-02-01

    This review of the literature on the emergence of language describes two opposing views of phonological development, the sound-based versus the whole-word-based accounts. An integrative model is proposed which claims that learning sublexical speech sounds and producing wordlike vocalizations are in fact parallel processes that feed each other during language development. We argue that this model might find unexpected support from the face processing literature.

  18. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. PROCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. PROCESS WATER BUILDING AND ETR STACK ARE IN LEFT HALF OF VIEW. TRA-666 IS NEAR CENTER, ABUTTED BY SECURITY BUILDING; TRA-626, AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW BEHIND BUS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-34-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Processing of masked and unmasked emotional faces under different attentional conditions: an electrophysiological investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zotto, Marzia Del; Pegna, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the interactions between non-spatial selective attention, awareness and emotion processing, we carried out an ERP study using a backward masking paradigm, in which angry, fearful, happy, and neutral facial expressions were presented, while participants attempted to detect the presence of one or the other category of facial expressions in the different experimental blocks. ERP results showed that negative emotions enhanced an early N170 response over temporal-occipital leads in both masked and unmasked conditions, independently of selective attention. A later effect arising at the P2 was linked to awareness. Finally, selective attention was found to affect the N2 and N3 components over occipito-parietal leads. Our findings reveal that (i) the initial processing of facial expressions arises prior to attention and awareness; (ii) attention and awareness give rise to temporally distinct periods of activation independently of the type of emotion with only a partial degree of overlap; and (iii) selective attention appears to be influenced by the emotional nature of the stimuli, which in turn impinges on unconscious processing at a very early stage. This study confirms previous reports that negative facial expressions can be processed rapidly, in absence of visual awareness and independently of selective attention. On the other hand, attention and awareness may operate in a synergistic way, depending on task demand. PMID:26583003

  20. Effects of Caricaturing in Shape or Color on Familiarity Decisions for Familiar and Unfamiliar Faces

    PubMed Central

    Itz, Marlena L.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.; Kaufmann, Jürgen M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that while reflectance information (including color) may be more diagnostic for familiar face recognition, shape may be more diagnostic for unfamiliar face identity processing. Moreover, event-related potential (ERP) findings suggest an earlier onset for neural processing of facial shape compared to reflectance. In the current study, we aimed to explore specifically the roles of facial shape and color in a familiarity decision task using pre-experimentally familiar (famous) and unfamiliar faces that were caricatured either in shape-only, color-only, or both (full; shape + color) by 15%, 30%, or 45%. We recorded accuracies, mean reaction times, and face-sensitive ERPs. Performance data revealed that shape caricaturing facilitated identity processing for unfamiliar faces only. In the ERP data, such effects of shape caricaturing emerged earlier than those of color caricaturing. Unsurprisingly, ERP effects were accentuated for larger levels of caricaturing. Overall, our findings corroborate the importance of shape for identity processing of unfamiliar faces and demonstrate an earlier onset of neural processing for facial shape compared to color. PMID:26900690

  1. Emotion Perception or Social Cognitive Complexity: What Drives Face Processing Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jennifer A.; Creighton, Sarah E.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Some, but not all, relevant studies have revealed face processing deficits among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, deficits are revealed in face processing tasks that involve emotion perception. The current study examined whether either deficits in processing emotional expression or deficits in processing social cognitive…

  2. Whole-agent selectivity within the macaque face-processing system.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Clark; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2015-11-24

    The primate brain contains a set of face-selective areas, which are thought to extract the rich social information that faces provide, such as emotional state and personal identity. The nature of this information raises a fundamental question about these face-selective areas: Do they respond to a face purely because of its visual attributes, or because the face embodies a larger social agent? Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether the macaque face patch system exhibits a whole-agent response above and beyond its responses to individually presented faces and bodies. We found a systematic development of whole-agent preference through the face patches, from subadditive integration of face and body responses in posterior face patches to superadditive integration in anterior face patches. Superadditivity was not observed for faces atop nonbody objects, implying categorical specificity of face-body interaction. Furthermore, superadditivity was robust to visual degradation of facial detail, suggesting whole-agent selectivity does not require prior face recognition. In contrast, even the body patches immediately adjacent to anterior face areas did not exhibit superadditivity. This asymmetry between face- and body-processing systems may explain why observers attribute bodies' social signals to faces, and not vice versa. The development of whole-agent selectivity from posterior to anterior face patches, in concert with the recently described development of natural motion selectivity from ventral to dorsal face patches, identifies a single face patch, AF (anterior fundus), as a likely link between the analysis of facial shape and semantic inferences about other agents.

  3. Face-specific capacity limits under perceptual load do not depend on holistic processing.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Volker

    2014-12-01

    Previous observations that face recognition may proceed automatically, without drawing on attentional resources, have been challenged by recent demonstrations that only a few faces can be processed at one time. However, a question remains about the nature of the stimulus properties that underlie face-specific capacity limits. Two experiments showed that speeded categorization of a famous face (such as a politician or pop star) is facilitated when it is congruent with a peripheral distractor face. This congruency effect is eliminated if the visual search is loaded with more than one face, unlike previous demonstrations of speeded classification using semantic information. Importantly, congruency effects are also eliminated when the search task is loaded with nontarget faces that are shown in an inverted orientation. These results indicate that face-specific capacity limits are not determined by the configural ("holistic") properties of face recognition.

  4. The Effects of Mothers' Past Infant-Holding Preferences on Their Adult Children's Face Processing Lateralisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Hendriks, Angelique W.; van den Eijnde, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Face processing development is negatively affected when infants have not been exposed to faces for some time because of congenital cataract blocking all vision (Le Grand, Mondloch, Maurer, & Brent, 2001). It is not clear, however, whether more subtle differences in face exposure may also have an influence. The present study looked at the effect of…

  5. Toddlers with Williams Syndrome Process Upright but Not Inverted Faces Holistically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashon, Cara H.; Ha, Oh-Ryeong; DeNicola, Christopher A.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2013-01-01

    Holistic processing of upright, but not inverted, faces is a marker of perceptual expertise for faces. This pattern is shown by typically developing individuals beginning at age 7 months. Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by extreme interest in faces from a very young age. Research on the effects of…

  6. Face processing pattern under top-down perception: a functional MRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie; Liu, Jiangang; Zhao, Jizheng; Zhang, Hui; Shi, Guangming

    2009-02-01

    Although top-down perceptual process plays an important role in face processing, its neural substrate is still puzzling because the top-down stream is extracted difficultly from the activation pattern associated with contamination caused by bottom-up face perception input. In the present study, a novel paradigm of instructing participants to detect faces from pure noise images is employed, which could efficiently eliminate the interference of bottom-up face perception in topdown face processing. Analyzing the map of functional connectivity with right FFA analyzed by conventional Pearson's correlation, a possible face processing pattern induced by top-down perception can be obtained. Apart from the brain areas of bilateral fusiform gyrus (FG), left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) and left superior temporal sulcus (STS), which are consistent with a core system in the distributed cortical network for face perception, activation induced by top-down face processing is also found in these regions that include the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC), right oribitofrontal cortex (OFC), left precuneus, right parahippocampal cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right frontal pole, bilateral premotor cortex, left inferior parietal cortex and bilateral thalamus. The results indicate that making-decision, attention, episodic memory retrieving and contextual associative processing network cooperate with general face processing regions to process face information under top-down perception.

  7. Across Languages, Space, and Time: A Review of the Role of Cross-Language Similarity in L2 (Morpho)Syntactic Processing as Revealed by fMRI and ERP Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolentino, Leida C.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This review examines whether similarity between the first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the (morpho)syntactic processing of the L2, using both neural location and temporal processing information. Results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) studies show that nonnative speakers can…

  8. Whole-agent selectivity within the macaque face-processing system

    PubMed Central

    Freiwald, Winrich A.

    2015-01-01

    The primate brain contains a set of face-selective areas, which are thought to extract the rich social information that faces provide, such as emotional state and personal identity. The nature of this information raises a fundamental question about these face-selective areas: Do they respond to a face purely because of its visual attributes, or because the face embodies a larger social agent? Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether the macaque face patch system exhibits a whole-agent response above and beyond its responses to individually presented faces and bodies. We found a systematic development of whole-agent preference through the face patches, from subadditive integration of face and body responses in posterior face patches to superadditive integration in anterior face patches. Superadditivity was not observed for faces atop nonbody objects, implying categorical specificity of face–body interaction. Furthermore, superadditivity was robust to visual degradation of facial detail, suggesting whole-agent selectivity does not require prior face recognition. In contrast, even the body patches immediately adjacent to anterior face areas did not exhibit superadditivity. This asymmetry between face- and body-processing systems may explain why observers attribute bodies’ social signals to faces, and not vice versa. The development of whole-agent selectivity from posterior to anterior face patches, in concert with the recently described development of natural motion selectivity from ventral to dorsal face patches, identifies a single face patch, AF (anterior fundus), as a likely link between the analysis of facial shape and semantic inferences about other agents. PMID:26464511

  9. Effects of valence and arousal on emotional word processing are modulated by concreteness: Behavioral and ERP evidence from a lexical decision task.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhao; Yu, Deshui; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Xiangru; Guo, Jingjing; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-12-01

    We investigated whether the effects of valence and arousal on emotional word processing are modulated by concreteness using event-related potentials (ERPs). The stimuli included concrete words (Experiment 1) and abstract words (Experiment 2) that were organized in an orthogonal design, with valence (positive and negative) and arousal (low and high) as factors in a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, the impact of emotion on the effects of concrete words mainly resulted from the contribution of valence. Positive concrete words were processed more quickly than negative words and elicited a reduction of N400 (300-410ms) and enhancement of late positive complex (LPC; 450-750ms), whereas no differences in response times or ERPs were found between high and low levels of arousal. In Experiment 2, the interaction between valence and arousal influenced the impact of emotion on the effects of abstract words. Low-arousal positive words were associated with shorter response times and a reduction of LPC amplitudes compared with high-arousal positive words. Low-arousal negative words were processed more slowly and elicited a reduction of N170 (140-200ms) compared with high-arousal negative words. The present study indicates that word concreteness modulates the contributions of valence and arousal to the effects of emotion, and this modulation occurs during the early perceptual processing stage (N170) and late elaborate processing stage (LPC) for emotional words and at the end of all cognitive processes (i.e., reflected by response times). These findings support an embodied theory of semantic representation and help clarify prior inconsistent findings regarding the ways in which valance and arousal influence different stages of word processing, at least in a lexical decision task.

  10. [The changing process of population probability and fluorescence intensity in ErP5O14 noncrystalline from 0 second to stabilization].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Ying; Li, Song; Yao, Wen-Ting; Wu, Zheng-Long

    2012-06-01

    The results of numerical simulation were compared respectively with and without considering the improved coefficient for the energy transfer process in ErP5O14 noncrystalline under 521.8, 450.0, 405.5 and 378.5 nm lights excitation. The results showed that it is essential to take the coefficient into calculation where energy transfer plays a key role. The relative fluorescence intensity ratios of 4I13/2-->4I15/2 to 4I11/2-->4I15/2 under 523.8, 450.0 and 378.5 nm lights excitation were 2.11, 2.82 and 2.99 times larger than that under 979.3 nm light excitation respectively. There are obviously effective near-infrared (NIR) quantum cutting of 4I13/2-->4I15/2 transition. The result indicates that ErP5O14 noncrystalline has potential application in the enhancement of conversion efficiency of germanium solar cells.

  11. Intentional forgetting reduces the semantic processing of to-be-forgotten items: an ERP study of item-method directed forgetting.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Jing; Kuo, Yu-Ching; Liu, Tzu-Ling; Han, Yi-Jhong; Cheng, Shih-Kuen

    2013-11-01

    In two ERP experiments, we examined whether active inhibition is involved in intentional forgetting. Both experiments consisted of a nondirected-forgetting (nDF) and a directed-forgetting (DF) block. Participants were sequentially presented with a prime, an R/F (remember/forget) cue, and a target. Participants made lexical decisions to both the primes and targets (Experiment 1) or only to the targets (Experiment 2). They were also instructed to remember or to forget the primes in response to the R/F cues in the DF block but to ignore these cues in the nDF block. The N400 semantic priming effect was observed when comparing the ERPs elicited by semantically unrelated and related targets in the DF block. In comparison to the nDF block, the N400 effect was greatly reduced for targets preceded by F cues in the DF block. These findings suggest that semantic processing is reduced by the instruction to forget and active inhibition is involved in intentional forgetting.

  12. Abnormal Functional Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders during Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Sterling, Lindsey; Stegbauer, Keith C.; Mahurin, Roderick; Johnson, L. Clark; Greenson, Jessica; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Abnormalities in the interactions between functionally linked brain regions have been suggested to be associated with the clinical impairments observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated functional connectivity within the limbic system during face identification; a primary component of social cognition, in 19 high-functioning…

  13. Challenges IT Instructors Face in the Self-Education Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzic-Dimitrijevic, Ljiljana; Dimitrijevic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    Every few years, there is a breakthrough in information technology, introducing a new concept that becomes widely used. This paper deals with the challenges IT (information technology) instructors face due to these rapid developments in the IT industry. More specifically, we are interested in the challenges instructors of the introductory IT…

  14. Autistic Symptomatology, Face Processing Abilities, and Eye Fixation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jennifer C.; Hatri, Alexander; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Dziobek, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Deviant gaze behavior is a defining characteristic of autism. Its relevance as a pathophysiological mechanism, however, remains unknown. In the present study, we compared eye fixations of 20 adults with autism and 21 controls while they were engaged in taking the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). Additional measures of face emotion and identity…

  15. Size determines whether specialized expert processes are engaged for recognition of faces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Shafai, Fakhri; Oruc, Ipek

    2014-07-22

    Many influential models of face recognition postulate specialized expert processes that are engaged when viewing upright, own-race faces, as opposed to a general-purpose recognition route used for nonface objects and inverted or other-race faces. In contrast, others have argued that empirical differences do not stem from qualitatively distinct processing. We offer a potential resolution to this ongoing controversy. We hypothesize that faces engage specialized processes at large sizes only. To test this, we measured recognition efficiencies for a wide range of sizes. Upright face recognition efficiency increased with size. This was not due to better visibility of basic image features at large sizes. We ensured this by calculating efficiency relative to a specialized ideal observer unique to each individual that incorporated size-related changes in visibility and by measuring inverted efficiencies across the same range of face sizes. Inverted face recognition efficiencies did not change with size. A qualitative face inversion effect, defined as the ratio of relative upright and inverted efficiencies, showed a complete lack of inversion effects for small sizes up to 6°. In contrast, significant face inversion effects were found for all larger sizes. Size effects may stem from predominance of larger faces in the overall exposure to faces, which occur at closer viewing distances typical of social interaction. Our results offer a potential explanation for the contradictory findings in the literature regarding the special status of faces.

  16. Holistic processing and reliance on global viewing strategies in older adults' face perception.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Meinhardt, Günter

    2014-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that face recognition might be impaired in older adults, but it is unclear whether the impairment is truly perceptual, and face specific. In order to address this question we compared performance in same/different matching tasks with face and non-face objects (watches) among young (mean age 23.7) and older adults (mean age 70.4) using a context congruency paradigm (Meinhardt-Injac, Persike & Meinhardt, 2010, Meinhardt-Injac, Persike and Meinhardt, 2011a). Older adults were less accurate than young adults with both object classes, while face matching was notably impaired. Effects of context congruency and inversion, measured as the hallmarks of holistic processing, were equally strong in both age groups, and were found only for faces, but not for watches. The face specific decline in older adults revealed deficits in handling internal facial features, while young adults matched external and internal features equally well. Comparison with non-face stimuli showed that this decline was face specific, and did not concern processing of object features in general. Taken together, the results indicate no age-related decline in the capabilities to process faces holistically. Rather, strong holistic effects, combined with a loss of precision in handling internal features indicate that older adults rely on global viewing strategies for faces. At the same time, access to the exact properties of inner face details becomes restricted.

  17. Detailed exploration of face-related processing in congenital prosopagnosia: 1. Behavioral findings.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Marlene; Avidan, Galia; Marotta, Jonathan J; Kimchi, Rutie

    2005-07-01

    We show that five individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) are impaired at face recognition and discrimination and do not exhibit the normal superiority for upright over inverted faces despite intact visual acuity, low-level vision and intelligence, and in the absence of any obvious neural concomitant. Interestingly, the deficit is not limited to faces: The CP individuals were also impaired at discriminating common objects and novel objects although to a lesser extent than discriminating faces. The perceptual deficit may be attributable to a more fundamental visual processing disorder; the CP individuals exhibited difficulty in deriving global configurations from simple visual stimuli, even with extended exposure duration and considerable perceptual support in the image. Deriving a global configuration from local components is more critical for faces than for other objects, perhaps accounting for the exaggerated deficit in face processing. These findings elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying CP and support the link between configural and face processing.

  18. The face-selective N170 component is modulated by facial color.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kae; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2012-08-01

    Faces play an important role in social interaction by conveying information and emotion. Of the various components of the face, color particularly provides important clues with regard to perception of age, sex, health status, and attractiveness. In event-related potential (ERP) studies, the N170 component has been identified as face-selective. To determine the effect of color on face processing, we investigated the modulation of N170 by facial color. We recorded ERPs while subjects viewed facial color stimuli at 8 hue angles, which were generated by rotating the original facial color distribution around the white point by 45° for each human face. Responses to facial color were localized to the left, but not to the right hemisphere. N170 amplitudes gradually increased in proportion to the increase in hue angle from the natural-colored face. This suggests that N170 amplitude in the left hemisphere reflects processing of facial color information.

  19. Evidence of a Shift from Featural to Configural Face Processing in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzer, Gudrun; Zauner, Nicola; Jovanovic, Bianca

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether 4-, 6-, and 10-month-old infants process natural looking faces by feature, i.e. processing internal facial features independently of the facial context or holistically by processing the features in conjunction with the facial context. Infants were habituated to two faces and looking time was measured. After…

  20. Exploring the Williams Syndrome Face-Processing Debate: The Importance of Building Developmental Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Thomas, Michael; Annaz, Dagmara; Humphreys, Kate; Ewing, Sandra; Brace, Nicola; Van Duuren, Mike; Pike, Graham; Grice, Sarah; Campbell, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Background: Face processing in Williams syndrome (WS) has been a topic of heated debate over the past decade. Initial claims about a normally developing ("intact") face-processing module were challenged by data suggesting that individuals with WS used a different balance of cognitive processes from controls, even when their behavioural scores fell…

  1. Beyond the FFA: The Role of the Ventral Anterior Temporal Lobes in Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jessica A.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research has supported the existence of a specialized face-processing network that is distinct from the visual processing areas used for general object recognition. The majority of this work has been aimed at characterizing the response properties of the fusiform face area (FFA) and the occipital face area (OFA), which together are thought to constitute the core network of brain areas responsible for facial identification. Although accruing evidence has shown that face-selective patches in the ventral anterior temporal lobes (vATLs) are interconnected with the FFA and OFA, and that they play a role in facial identification, the relative contribution of these brain areas to the core face-processing network has remained unarticulated. Here we review recent research critically implicating the vATLs in face perception and memory. We propose that current models of face processing should be revised such that the ventral anterior temporal lobes serve a centralized role in the visual face-processing network. We speculate that a hierarchically organized system of face processing areas extends bilaterally from the inferior occipital gyri to the vATLs, with facial representations becoming increasingly complex and abstracted from low-level perceptual features as they move forward along this network. The anterior temporal face areas may serve as the apex of this hierarchy, instantiating the final stages of face recognition. We further argue that the anterior temporal face areas are ideally suited to serve as an interface between face perception and face memory, linking perceptual representations of individual identity with person-specific semantic knowledge. PMID:24937188

  2. Impairments in the Face-Processing Network in Developmental Prosopagnosia and Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Mario F.; Ringman, John M.; Shapira, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) and semantic dementia (SD) may be the two most common neurologic disorders of face processing, but their main clinical and pathophysiologic differences have not been established. To identify those features, we compared patients with DP and SD. Methods Five patients with DP, five with right temporal-predominant SD, and ten normal controls underwent cognitive, visual perceptual, and face-processing tasks. Results Although the patients with SD were more cognitively impaired than those with DP, the two groups did not differ statistically on the visual perceptual tests. On the face-processing tasks, the DP group had difficulty with configural analysis and they reported relying on serial, feature-by-feature analysis or awareness of salient features to recognize faces. By contrast, the SD group had problems with person knowledge and made semantically related errors. The SD group had better face familiarity scores, suggesting a potentially useful clinical test for distinguishing SD from DP. Conclusions These two disorders of face processing represent clinically distinguishable disturbances along a right hemisphere face-processing network: DP, characterized by early configural agnosia for faces, and SD, characterized primarily by a multimodal person knowledge disorder. We discuss these preliminary findings in the context of the current literature on the face-processing network; recent studies suggest an additional right anterior temporal, unimodal face familiarity-memory deficit consistent with an “associative prosopagnosia.” PMID:26705265

  3. Strabismic amblyopia affects relational but not featural and Gestalt processing of faces.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Merabet, Lotfi B; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2013-03-22

    The ability to identify faces is of critical importance for normal social interactions. Previous evidence suggests that early visual deprivation may impair certain aspects of face recognition. The effects of strabismic amblyopia on face processing have not been investigated previously. In this study, a group of individuals with amblyopia were administered two tasks known to selectively measure face detection based on a Gestalt representation of a face (Mooney faces task) and featural and relational processing of faces (Jane faces task). Our data show that--when relying on their amblyopic eye only - strabismic amblyopes perform as well as normally sighted individuals in face detection and recognition on the basis of their single features. However, they are significantly impaired in discriminating among different faces on the basis of the spacing of their single features (i.e., configural processing of relational information). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that strabismic amblyopia may cause specific deficits in face recognition, and add to previous reports characterizing visual perceptual deficits associated in amblyopia as high-level and not only as low-level processing.

  4. Testing Differential Holistic Processing Within a Face: No Evidence of Asymmetry from the Complete Composite Task

    PubMed Central

    Shyi, Gary C.-W.; Wang, Chao-Chih

    2016-01-01

    The composite face task is one of the most popular research paradigms for measuring holistic processing of upright faces. The exact mechanism underlying holistic processing remains elusive and controversial, and some studies have suggested that holistic processing may not be evenly distributed, in that the top-half of a face might induce stronger holistic processing than its bottom-half counterpart. In two experiments, we further examined the possibility of asymmetric holistic processing. Prior to Experiment 1, we confirmed that perceptual discriminability was equated between top and bottom face halves; we found no differences in performance between top and bottom face halves when they were presented individually. Then, in Experiment 1, using the composite face task with the complete design to reduce response bias, we failed to obtain evidence that would support the notion of asymmetric holistic processing between top and bottom face halves. To further reduce performance variability and to remove lingering holistic effects observed in the misaligned condition in Experiment 1, we doubled the number of trials and increased misalignment between top and bottom face halves to make misalignment more salient in Experiment 2. Even with these additional manipulations, we were unable to find evidence indicative of asymmetric holistic processing. Taken together, these findings suggest that holistic processing is distributed homogenously within an upright face. PMID:27757095

  5. Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation

    PubMed Central

    Knowland, Victoria CP; Mercure, Evelyne; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dick, Fred; Thomas, Michael SC

    2014-01-01

    Being able to see a talking face confers a considerable advantage for speech perception in adulthood. However, behavioural data currently suggest that children fail to make full use of these available visual speech cues until age 8 or 9. This is particularly surprising given the potential utility of multiple informational cues during language learning. We therefore explored this at the neural level. The event-related potential (ERP) technique has been used to assess the mechanisms of audio-visual speech perception in adults, with visual cues reliably modulating auditory ERP responses to speech. Previous work has shown congruence-dependent shortening of auditory N1/P2 latency and congruence-independent attenuation of amplitude in the presence of auditory and visual speech signals, compared to auditory alone. The aim of this study was to chart the development of these well-established modulatory effects over mid-to-late childhood. Experiment 1 employed an adult sample to validate a child-friendly stimulus set and paradigm by replicating previously observed effects of N1/P2 amplitude and latency modulation by visual speech cues; it also revealed greater attenuation of component amplitude given incongruent audio-visual stimuli, pointing to a new interpretation of the amplitude modulation effect. Experiment 2 used the same paradigm to map cross-sectional developmental change in these ERP responses between 6 and 11 years of age. The effect of amplitude modulation by visual cues emerged over development, while the effect of latency modulation was stable over the child sample. These data suggest that auditory ERP modulation by visual speech represents separable underlying cognitive processes, some of which show earlier maturation than others over the course of development. PMID:24176002

  6. How race and age experiences shape young children's face processing abilities.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Luo, Lizhu; Pisacane, Antonella; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang

    2014-04-01

    Despite recent advances in research on race and age biases, the question of how race and age experiences combine to affect young children's face perception remains unexplored. To fill this gap, the current study tested two ethnicities of 3-year-old children using a combined cross-race/cross-age design. Caucasian children with and without older siblings and Mainland Chinese children without older siblings were tested for their ability to discriminate adult and child Caucasian faces as well as adult and child Asian faces in both upright and inverted orientations. Children of both ethnicities manifested an own-race bias, which was confined to adult faces, and an adult face bias, which was confined to own-race faces. Likewise, sibling experience affected Caucasian children's processing of own-race child faces, but this effect did not generalize to other-race faces. Results suggest that race and age information are represented at the same hierarchical level in young children's memory.

  7. Interdependent Mechanisms for Processing Gender and Emotion: The Special Status of Angry Male Faces

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Daniel A.; Ciaramitaro, Vivian M.

    2016-01-01

    While some models of how various attributes of a face are processed have posited that face features, invariant physical cues such as gender or ethnicity as well as variant social cues such as emotion, may be processed independently (e.g., Bruce and Young, 1986), other models suggest a more distributed representation and interdependent processing (e.g., Haxby et al., 2000). Here, we use a contingent adaptation paradigm to investigate if mechanisms for processing the gender and emotion of a face are interdependent and symmetric across the happy–angry emotional continuum and regardless of the gender of the face. We simultaneously adapted participants to angry female faces and happy male faces (Experiment 1) or to happy female faces and angry male faces (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, we found evidence for contingent adaptation, with simultaneous aftereffects in opposite directions: male faces were biased toward angry while female faces were biased toward happy. Interestingly, in the complementary Experiment 2, we did not find evidence for contingent adaptation, with both male and female faces biased toward angry. Our results highlight that evidence for contingent adaptation and the underlying interdependent face processing mechanisms that would allow for contingent adaptation may only be evident for certain combinations of face features. Such limits may be especially important in the case of social cues given how maladaptive it may be to stop responding to threatening information, with male angry faces considered to be the most threatening. The underlying neuronal mechanisms that could account for such asymmetric effects in contingent adaptation remain to be elucidated. PMID:27471482

  8. Age-related dedifferentiation and compensatory changes in the functional network underlying face processing.

    PubMed

    Burianová, Hana; Lee, Yunjo; Grady, Cheryl L; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-12-01

    Recent evidence has shown that older adults fail to show adaptation in the right fusiform gyrus (FG) to the same face presented repeatedly, despite accurate detection of the previously presented face. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether this phenomenon is associated with age-related reductions in face specificity in brain activity and whether older adults compensate for these face-processing deficiencies by increasing activity in other areas within the face-processing network, or outside this network. A comparison of brain activity across multiple stimulus categories showed that, unlike young adults who engaged a number of brain regions specific to face processing, older adults generalized these patterns of activity to objects and houses. Also, young adults showed functional connectivity between the right FG and its homologous region during face processing, whereas older adults did not engage the left FG but showed a functional connection between the right FG and left orbitofrontal cortex. Finally, this frontotemporal functional connection was activated more strongly in older adults who performed better on a face-matching task (done outside of the scanner), suggesting increased involvement of this functional link for successful face recognition with increasing age. These findings suggest that 2 neural mechanisms, dedifferentiation and compensatory neural recruitment, underlie age differences in face processing.

  9. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  10. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    PubMed Central

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization. PMID:27250879

  11. Characterizing the spatio-temporal dynamics of the neural events occurring prior to and up to overt recognition of famous faces.

    PubMed

    Jemel, Boutheina; Schuller, Anne-Marie; Goffaux, Valérie

    2010-10-01

    Although it is generally acknowledged that familiar face recognition is fast, mandatory, and proceeds outside conscious control, it is still unclear whether processes leading to familiar face recognition occur in a linear (i.e., gradual) or a nonlinear (i.e., all-or-none) manner. To test these two alternative accounts, we recorded scalp ERPs while participants indicated whether they recognize as familiar the faces of famous and unfamiliar persons gradually revealed in a descending sequence of frames, from the noisier to the least noisy. This presentation procedure allowed us to characterize the changes in scalp ERP responses occurring prior to and up to overt recognition. Our main finding is that gradual and all-or-none processes are possibly involved during overt recognition of familiar faces. Although the N170 and the N250 face-sensitive responses displayed an abrupt activity change at the moment of overt recognition of famous faces, later ERPs encompassing the N400 and late positive component exhibited an incremental increase in amplitude as the point of recognition approached. In addition, famous faces that were not overtly recognized at one trial before recognition elicited larger ERP potentials than unfamiliar faces, probably reflecting a covert recognition process. Overall, these findings present evidence that recognition of familiar faces implicates spatio-temporally complex neural processes exhibiting differential pattern activity changes as a function of recognition state.

  12. ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

  13. Spatial frequency and face processing in children with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deruelle, Christine; Rondan, Cecilie; Gepner, Bruno; Tardif, Carole

    2004-04-01

    Two experiments were designed to investigate possible abnormal face processing strategies in children with autistic spectrum disorders. A group of 11 children with autism was compared to two groups of normally developing children matched on verbal mental age and on chronological age. In the first experiment, participants had to recognize faces on the basis of identity, emotion, gaze direction, gender, and lip reading. All aspects of face processing, except for identity matching, were deficient in the autistic population compared with controls. In the second study, children had to match faces on either high-(i.e., local facial features) or low-spatial frequency information (i.e., global configuration of faces). Contrary to the control subjects, children with autism showed better performance when using high rather than low spatial frequency, confirming face-processing peculiarities in this population.

  14. Typical Emotion Processing for Cartoon but Not for Real Faces in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosset, Delphine B.; Rondan, Cecilie; Da Fonseca, David; Santos, Andreia; Assouline, Brigitte; Deruelle, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated whether atypical face processing in autism extends from human to cartoon faces for which they show a greater interest. Twenty children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) were compared to two groups of typically developing children, matched on chronological and mental age. They processed the emotional expressions of real…

  15. The activation of visual face memory and explicit face recognition are delayed in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Parketny, Joanna; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but the causes of this deficit are not well understood. We employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the time-course of neural processes involved in the recognition of previously unfamiliar faces in DPs and in age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. Faces of different individuals were presented sequentially in one of three possible views, and participants had to detect a specific Target Face ("Joe"). EEG was recorded during task performance to Target Faces, Nontarget Faces, or the participants' Own Face (which had to be ignored). The N250 component was measured as a marker of the match between a seen face and a stored representation in visual face memory. The subsequent P600f was measured as an index of attentional processes associated with the conscious awareness and recognition of a particular face. Target Faces elicited reliable N250 and P600f in the DP group, but both of these components emerged later in DPs than in control participants. This shows that the activation of visual face memory for previously unknown learned faces and the subsequent attentional processing and conscious recognition of these faces are delayed in DP. N250 and P600f components to Own Faces did not differ between the two groups, indicating that the processing of long-term familiar faces is less affected in DP. However, P600f components to Own Faces were absent in two participants with DP who failed to recognize their Own Face during the experiment. These results provide new evidence that face recognition deficits in DP may be linked to a delayed activation of visual face memory and explicit identity recognition mechanisms.

  16. My Face or Yours? Event-Related Potential Correlates of Self-Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Helen; Brady, Nuala; Reilly, Richard B.; Foxe, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The neural basis of self-recognition is mainly studied using brain-imaging techniques which reveal much about the localization of self-processing in the brain. There are comparatively few studies using EEG which allow us to study the time course of self-recognition. In this study, participants monitored a sequence of images, including 20 distinct…

  17. Effects of configural processing on the perceptual spatial resolution for face features.

    PubMed

    Namdar, Gal; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-11-01

    Configural processing governs human perception across various domains, including face perception. An established marker of configural face perception is the face inversion effect, in which performance is typically better for upright compared to inverted faces. In two experiments, we tested whether configural processing could influence basic visual abilities such as perceptual spatial resolution (i.e., the ability to detect spatial visual changes). Face-related perceptual spatial resolution was assessed by measuring the just noticeable difference (JND) to subtle positional changes between specific features in upright and inverted faces. The results revealed robust inversion effect for spatial sensitivity to configural-based changes, such as the distance between the mouth and the nose, or the distance between the eyes and the nose. Critically, spatial resolution for face features within the region of the eyes (e.g., the interocular distance between the eyes) was not affected by inversion, suggesting that the eye region operates as a separate 'gestalt' unit which is relatively immune to manipulations that would normally hamper configural processing. Together these findings suggest that face orientation modulates fundamental psychophysical abilities including spatial resolution. Furthermore, they indicate that classic psychophysical methods can be used as a valid measure of configural face processing.

  18. The Face-Processing Network Is Resilient to Focal Resection of Human Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Jacques; Gomez, Jesse; Maillard, Louis; Brissart, Hélène; Hossu, Gabriela; Jacques, Corentin; Loftus, David; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Stigliani, Anthony; Barnett, Michael A.; Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Rossion, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Human face perception requires a network of brain regions distributed throughout the occipital and temporal lobes with a right hemisphere advantage. Present theories consider this network as either a processing hierarchy beginning with the inferior occipital gyrus (occipital face area; IOG-faces/OFA) or a multiple-route network with nonhierarchical components. The former predicts that removing IOG-faces/OFA will detrimentally affect downstream stages, whereas the latter does not. We tested this prediction in a human patient (Patient S.P.) requiring removal of the right inferior occipital cortex, including IOG-faces/OFA. We acquired multiple fMRI measurements in Patient S.P. before and after a preplanned surgery and multiple measurements in typical controls, enabling both within-subject/across-session comparisons (Patient S.P. before resection vs Patient S.P. after resection) and between-subject/across-session comparisons (Patient S.P. vs controls). We found that the spatial topology and selectivity of downstream ipsilateral face-selective regions were stable 1 and 8 month(s) after surgery. Additionally, the reliability of distributed patterns of face selectivity in Patient S.P. before versus after resection was not different from across-session reliability in controls. Nevertheless, postoperatively, representations of visual space were typical in dorsal face-selective regions but atypical in ventral face-selective regions and V1 of the resected hemisphere. Diffusion weighted imaging in Patient S.P. and controls identifies white matter tracts connecting retinotopic areas to downstream face-selective regions, which may contribute to the stable and plastic features of the face network in Patient S.P. after surgery. Together, our results support a multiple-route network of face processing with nonhierarchical components and shed light on stable and plastic features of high-level visual cortex following focal brain damage. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Brain networks consist

  19. Effects of visual expertise on a novel eye-size illusion: implications for holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Genyue; Dong, Yan; Quinn, Paul C; Xiao, Wen S; Wang, Qiandong; Chen, Guowei; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang

    2015-08-01

    We examined the effect of visual experience on the magnitude of a novel eye-size illusion: when the size of a face's frame is increased or decreased but eye size is unchanged, observers judge the size of the eyes to be different from that in the original face frame. In the current study, we asked Chinese and Caucasian participants to judge eye size in different pairs of faces and measured the magnitude of the illusion when the faces were own- or other-age (adult vs. infant faces) and when the faces were own- or other-race (Chinese vs. Caucasian faces). We found an other-age effect and an other-race effect with the eye-size illusion: The illusion was more pronounced with own-race and own-age faces than with other-race and other-age faces. These findings taken together suggest that visual experience with faces influences the magnitude of this novel illusion. Extensive experience with certain face categories strengthens the illusion in the context of these categories, but lack of it reduces the magnitude of the illusion. Our results further imply that holistic processing may play an important role in engendering the eye-size illusion.

  20. Awake fMRI reveals a specialized region in dog temporal cortex for face processing

    PubMed Central

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Cook, Peter; Weiller, Samuel K.; Berns, Helen P.; Spivak, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioral evidence suggests that dogs, like humans and monkeys, are capable of visual face recognition. But do dogs also exhibit specialized cortical face regions similar to humans and monkeys? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in six dogs trained to remain motionless during scanning without restraint or sedation, we found a region in the canine temporal lobe that responded significantly more to movies of human faces than to movies of everyday objects. Next, using a new stimulus set to investigate face selectivity in this predefined candidate dog face area, we found that this region responded similarly to images of human faces and dog faces, yet significantly more to both human and dog faces than to images of objects. Such face selectivity was not found in dog primary visual cortex. Taken together, these findings: (1) provide the first evidence for a face-selective region in the temporal cortex of dogs, which cannot be explained by simple low-level visual feature extraction; (2) reveal that neural machinery dedicated to face processing is not unique to primates; and (3) may help explain dogs’ exquisite sensitivity to human social cues. PMID:26290784

  1. Contrasting specializations for facial motion within the macaque face-processing system.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Clark; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2015-01-19

    Facial motion transmits rich and ethologically vital information, but how the brain interprets this complex signal is poorly understood. Facial form is analyzed by anatomically distinct face patches in the macaque brain, and facial motion activates these patches and surrounding areas. Yet, it is not known whether facial motion is processed by its own distinct and specialized neural machinery, and if so, what that machinery's organization might be. To address these questions, we used fMRI to monitor the brain activity of macaque monkeys while they viewed low- and high-level motion and form stimuli. We found that, beyond classical motion areas and the known face patch system, moving faces recruited a heretofore unrecognized face patch. Although all face patches displayed distinctive selectivity for face motion over object motion, only two face patches preferred naturally moving faces, while three others preferred randomized, rapidly varying sequences of facial form. This functional divide was anatomically specific, segregating dorsal from ventral face patches, thereby revealing a new organizational principle of the macaque face-processing system.

  2. Contrasting Specializations for Facial Motion Within the Macaque Face-Processing System

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Clark; Freiwald, Winrich A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Facial motion transmits rich and ethologically vital information [1, 2], but how the brain interprets this complex signal is poorly understood. Facial form is analyzed by anatomically distinct face patches in the macaque brain [3, 4], and facial motion activates these patches and surrounding areas [5, 6]. Yet it is not known whether facial motion is processed by its own distinct and specialized neural machinery, and if so, what that machinery’s organization might be. To address these questions, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to monitor the brain activity of macaque monkeys while they viewed low- and high-level motion and form stimuli. We found that, beyond classical motion areas and the known face patch system, moving faces recruited a heretofore-unrecognized face patch. Although all face patches displayed distinctive selectivity for face motion over object motion, only two face patches preferred naturally moving faces, while three others preferred randomized, rapidly varying sequences of facial form. This functional divide was anatomically specific, segregating dorsal from ventral face patches, thereby revealing a new organizational principle of the macaque face-processing system. PMID:25578903

  3. Neurophysiological impairment in emotional face processing is associated with low extraversion in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kirihara, Kenji; Kasai, Kiyoto; Tada, Mariko; Nagai, Tatsuya; Kawakubo, Yuki; Yamasaki, Syudo; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Araki, Tsuyoshi

    2012-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have low extraversion and high neuroticism. These personality traits affect the everyday life of patients with schizophrenia, making it important to investigate neurobiological basis of personality traits. In healthy people, extraversion is associated with hemodynamic responses in the amygdala and electrophysiological brain activity such as event-related potential and event-related desynchronization during emotional face processing. Patients with schizophrenia show abnormal neural activity during emotional face processing, such as an N170 amplitude reduction. However, few studies to date have reported an association between personality traits and neural activity during emotional face processing in schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined N170 during emotional face processing, and association with personality traits in patients with schizophrenia. Fifteen male patients with chronic schizophrenia and 15 healthy male subjects participated in this study. Patients with schizophrenia had reduced N170 amplitudes (p=0.007). While healthy subjects had increased N170 amplitudes in response to emotional faces compared with neutral faces (p=0.003), patients with schizophrenia showed no difference in N170 amplitudes between emotional and neutral faces (p=0.60). Reduced N170 amplitude in response to neutral faces was correlated with low extraversion scores in patients with schizophrenia (r(s)=-0.69, p=0.005). The abnormal N170 and its association with extraversion in schizophrenia were found at the right rather than the left posterior temporal electrode. An abnormal N170 in schizophrenia may reflect impairments in the structural encoding of emotional faces, and indiscrimination between emotional and neutral faces at this stage of information processing. The association between abnormal N170 amplitudes and extraversion suggests that abnormal neural activity in the early stages of emotional face processing may underlie low extraversion

  4. Normal and abnormal face selectivity of the M170 response in developmental prosopagnosics.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alison M; Duchaine, Bradley C; Nakayama, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia is a lifelong impairment in face recognition despite normal low-level visual processing. Here we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the M170 response, a component occurring approximately 170 ms after stimulus onset, in a group of five developmental prosopagnosics. In normal subjects, the M170 is "face-selective", with a consistently higher amplitude to faces than to a wide variety of other visual stimulus categories; the N170, a component recorded using event-related potentials (ERP) and thought to be analogous to the M170, also shows this "face selectivity". Two previous ERP studies with developmental prosopagnosics have found attenuation or absence of face selectivity in the N170 response of these subjects [Bentin, S., Deouell, L. Y., and Soroker, N. (1999). Selective visual streaming in face recognition: Evidence from developmental prosopagnosia. Neuroreport, 10, 823-827; Kress, T., and Daum, I. (2003). Event-related potentials reflect impaired face recognition in patients with congenital prosopagnosia. Neuroscience Letters, 352, 133-136]. Three of our developmental prosopagnosic group showed this non-selective pattern at the M170 while the remaining two prosopagnosics were indistinguishable from normal controls. Thus, impaired face recognition is not necessarily correlated with an absence of the "face-selective" M170. Furthermore, ERP recordings collected simultaneously in the two developmental prosopagnosics with seemingly selective M170s also showed N170s within the same normal selective range, demonstrating that the face-selective signals found with MEG are not due to differences between MEG and ERP. While the presence of face selectivity at these neurophysiological markers is insufficient for predicting normal behavioral performance with faces, it could help to distinguish different classes of face recognition deficits.

  5. Early stages of figure-ground segregation during perception of the face-vase.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Michael A; Martínez, Antígona; Brewer, James B; Hillyard, Steven A

    2011-04-01

    The temporal sequence of neural processes supporting figure-ground perception was investigated by recording ERPs associated with subjects' perceptions of the face-vase figure. In Experiment 1, subjects continuously reported whether they perceived the face or the vase as the foreground figure by pressing one of two buttons. Each button press triggered a probe flash to the face region, the vase region, or the borders between the two. The N170/vertex positive potential (VPP) component of the ERP elicited by probes to the face region was larger when subjects perceived the faces as figure. Preceding the N170/VPP, two additional components were identified. First, when the borders were probed, ERPs differed in amplitude as early as 110 msec after probe onset depending on subjects' figure-ground perceptions. Second, when the face or vase regions were probed, ERPs were more positive (at ∼ 150-200 msec) when that region was perceived as figure versus background. These components likely reflect an early "border ownership" stage, and a subsequent "figure-ground segregation" stage of processing. To explore the influence of attention on these stages of processing, two additional experiments were conducted. In Experiment 2, subjects selectively attended to the face or vase region, and the same early ERP components were again produced. In Experiment 3, subjects performed an identical selective attention task, but on a display lacking distinctive figure-ground borders, and neither of the early components were produced. Results from these experiments suggest sequential stages of processing underlying figure-ground perception, each which are subject to modifications by selective attention.

  6. Face recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders are both domain specific and process specific.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Sarah; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies have reported face identity recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), two fundamental question remains: 1) Is this deficit "process specific" for face memory in particular, or does it extend to perceptual discrimination of faces as well? And 2) Is the deficit "domain specific" for faces, or is it found more generally for other social or even nonsocial stimuli? The answers to these questions are important both for understanding the nature of autism and its developmental etiology, and for understanding the functional architecture of face processing in the typical brain. Here we show that children with ASD are impaired (compared to age and IQ-matched typical children) in face memory, but not face perception, demonstrating process specificity. Further, we find no deficit for either memory or perception of places or cars, indicating domain specificity. Importantly, we further showed deficits in both the perception and memory of bodies, suggesting that the relevant domain of deficit may be social rather than specifically facial. These results provide a more precise characterization of the cognitive phenotype of autism and further indicate a functional dissociation between face memory and face perception.

  7. Systematic review of ERP and fMRI studies investigating inhibitory control and error processing in people with substance dependence and behavioural addictions

    PubMed Central

    Luijten, Maartje; Machielsen, Marise W.J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Hester, Robert; de Haan, Lieuwe; Franken, Ingmar H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several current theories emphasize the role of cognitive control in addiction. The present review evaluates neural deficits in the domains of inhibitory control and error processing in individuals with substance dependence and in those showing excessive addiction-like behaviours. The combined evaluation of event-related potential (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings in the present review offers unique information on neural deficits in addicted individuals. Methods We selected 19 ERP and 22 fMRI studies using stop-signal, go/no-go or Flanker paradigms based on a search of PubMed and Embase. Results The most consistent findings in addicted individuals relative to healthy controls were lower N2, error-related negativity and error positivity amplitudes as well as hypoactivation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These neural deficits, however, were not always associated with impaired task performance. With regard to behavioural addictions, some evidence has been found for similar neural deficits; however, studies are scarce and results are not yet conclusive. Differences among the major classes of substances of abuse were identified and involve stronger neural responses to errors in individuals with alcohol dependence versus weaker neural responses to errors in other substance-dependent populations. Limitations Task design and analysis techniques vary across studies, thereby reducing comparability among studies and the potential of clinical use of these measures. Conclusion Current addiction theories were supported by identifying consistent abnormalities in prefrontal brain function in individuals with addiction. An integrative model is proposed, suggesting that neural deficits in the dorsal ACC may constitute a hallmark neurocognitive deficit underlying addictive behaviours, such as loss of control. PMID:24359877

  8. Beyond the core face-processing network: Intracerebral stimulation of a face-selective area in the right anterior fusiform gyrus elicits transient prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jacques; Rossion, Bruno; Brissart, Hélène; Frismand, Solène; Jacques, Corentin; Hossu, Gabriela; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Vespignani, Hervé; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Maillard, Louis

    2015-11-01

    According to neuropsychological evidence, a distributed network of regions of the ventral visual pathway - from the lateral occipital cortex to the temporal pole - supports face recognition. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have generally confined ventral face-selective areas to the posterior section of the occipito-temporal cortex, i.e., the inferior occipital gyrus occipital face area (OFA) and the posterior and middle fusiform gyrus fusiform face area (FFA). There is recent evidence that intracranial electrical stimulation of these areas in the right hemisphere elicits face matching and recognition impairments (i.e., prosopagnosia) as well as perceptual face distortions. Here we report a case of transient inability to recognize faces following electrical stimulation of the right anterior fusiform gyrus, in a region located anteriorly to the FFA. There was no perceptual face distortion reported during stimulation. Although no fMRI face-selective responses were found in this region due to a severe signal drop-out as in previous studies, intracerebral face-selective event-related potentials and gamma range electrophysiological responses were found at the critical site of stimulation. These results point to a causal role in face recognition of the right anterior fusiform gyrus and more generally of face-selective areas located beyond the "core" face-processing network in the right ventral temporal cortex. It also illustrates the diagnostic value of intracerebral electrophysiological recordings and stimulation in understanding the neural basis of face recognition and visual recognition in general.

  9. Neural Tuning Size in a Model of Primate Visual Processing Accounts for Three Key Markers of Holistic Face Processing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheston; Poggio, Tomaso

    2016-01-01

    Faces are an important and unique class of visual stimuli, and have been of interest to neuroscientists for many years. Faces are known to elicit certain characteristic behavioral markers, collectively labeled "holistic processing", while non-face objects are not processed holistically. However, little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. The main aim of this computational simulation work is to investigate the neural mechanisms that make face processing holistic. Using a model of primate visual processing, we show that a single key factor, "neural tuning size", is able to account for three important markers of holistic face processing: the Composite Face Effect (CFE), Face Inversion Effect (FIE) and Whole-Part Effect (WPE). Our proof-of-principle specifies the precise neurophysiological property that corresponds to the poorly-understood notion of holism, and shows that this one neural property controls three classic behavioral markers of holism. Our work is consistent with neurophysiological evidence, and makes further testable predictions. Overall, we provide a parsimonious account of holistic face processing, connecting computation, behavior and neurophysiology.

  10. Neural and cognitive face-selective markers: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Yovel, Galit

    2016-03-01

    Faces elicit robust and selective neural responses in the primate brain. These neural responses have been investigated with functional MRI and EEG in numerous studies, which have reported face-selective activations in the occipital-temporal cortex and an electrophysiological face-selective response that peaks 170 ms after stimulus onset at occipital-temporal sites. Evidence for face-selective processes has also been consistently reported in cognitive studies, which investigated the face inversion effect, the composite face effect and the left visual field (LVF) superiority. These cognitive effects indicate that the perceptual representation that we generate for faces differs from the representation that is generated for inverted faces or non-face objects. In this review, I will show that the fMRI and ERP face-selective responses are strongly associated with these three well-established behavioral face-selective measures. I will further review studies that examined the relationship between fMRI and EEG face-selective measures suggesting that they are strongly linked. Taken together these studies imply that a holistic representation of a face is generated at 170 ms after stimulus onset over the right hemisphere. These findings, which reveal a strong link between the various and complementary cognitive and neural measures of face processing, allow to characterize where, when and how faces are represented during the first 200 ms of face processing.

  11. Context counts! social anxiety modulates the processing of fearful faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Dirk; Meister, Lukas; Pause, Bettina M.

    2013-01-01

    During emotion perception, context is an important source of information. Whether contextual cues from modalities other than vision or audition influence the perception of social emotional information has not been investigated. Thus, the present study aimed at testing emotion perception and regulation in response to fearful facial expressions presented in the context of chemosensory stimuli derived from sweat of anxious individuals. In groups of high (HSA) and low socially anxious (LSA) participants we recorded the startle reflex (Experiment I), and analysed event-related potentials (ERPs; Experiment II) while they viewed anxious facial expressions in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals and chemosensory control stimuli. Results revealed that N1/P1 and N170 amplitudes were larger while late positive potential (LPP) activity was smaller for facial expressions presented in the context of the anxiety and the chemosensory control stimulus as compared to facial expressions without a chemosensory context. Furthermore, HSA participants were highly sensitive to the contextual anxiety signals. They showed enhanced motivated attention allocation (LPP, Study II), as well as larger startle responses toward faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals than did LSA participants (Study I). Chemosensory context had no effect on emotion regulation, and both LSA and HSA participants showed effective emotion regulation (Study I and II). In conclusion, both anxiety and chemosensory sport context stimuli enhanced early attention allocation and structural encoding, but diminished motivated attention allocation to the facial expressions. The current results show that visual and chemosensory information is integrated on virtually all levels of stimulus processing and that socially anxious individuals might be especially sensitive to chemosensory contextual social information. PMID:23801951

  12. Holistic processing of faces as measured by the Thatcher illusion is intact in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Laura; Brady, Nuala; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2015-05-01

    Impaired face perception in autism spectrum disorders is thought to reflect a perceptual style characterized by componential rather than configural processing of faces. This study investigated face processing in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders using the Thatcher illusion, a perceptual phenomenon exhibiting 'inversion effects' that characterize typical face processing. While previous studies used a limited range of face orientations, we measured perception of normality/grotesqueness of faces at seven orientations ranging from upright to inverted to allow for a detailed comparison of both reaction time and error by orientation profiles. We found that, like their typically developing peers, adolescents with autism spectrum disorders show strong inversion effects whereby reaction times were longer and error rates greater at inverted when compared to upright orientations. Additionally, the adolescents with autism spectrum disorders, like their peers in the typically developing group, show a marked nonlinearity in the error by orientation profile. Error is roughly constant out to 90° and then increases steeply, indicating a sudden shift from configural to local processing that reflects experience with faces in their typical orientations. These findings agree with recent reports that face perception is qualitatively similar in autistic and neurotypical groups.

  13. Revisiting the Role of Spatial Frequencies in the Holistic Processing of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Olivia S.; Richler, Jennifer J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    V. Goffaux and B. Rossion (2006) argued that holistic processing of faces is largely supported by low spatial frequencies (LSFs) but less so by high spatial frequencies (HSFs). We addressed this claim using a sequential matching task with face composites. Observers judged whether the top halves of aligned or misaligned composites were identical.…

  14. Spatial Frequency and Face Processing in Children with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deruelle, Christine; Rondan, Cecilie; Gepner, Bruno; Tardif, Carole

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to investigate possible abnormal face processing strategies in children with autistic spectrum disorders. A group of 11 children with autism was compared to two groups of normally developing children matched on verbal mental age and on chronological age. In the first experiment, participants had to recognize faces on…

  15. Detailed exploration of face-related processing in congenital prosopagnosia: 2. Functional neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Galia; Hasson, Uri; Malach, Rafael; Behrmann, Marlene

    2005-07-01

    Specific regions of the human occipito-temporal cortex are consistently activated in functional imaging studies of face processing. To understand the contribution of these regions to face processing, we examined the pattern of fMRI activation in four congenital prosopagnosic (CP) individuals who are markedly impaired at face processing despite normal vision and intelligence, and with no evidence of brain damage. These individuals evinced a normal pattern of fMRI activation in the fusiform gyrus (FFA) and in other ventral occipito-temporal areas, in response to faces, buildings, and other objects, shown both as line drawings in detection and discrimination tasks and under more naturalistic testing conditions when no task was required. CP individuals also showed normal adaptation levels in a block-design adaptation experiment and, like control subjects, exhibited evidence of global face representation in the FFA. The absence of a BOLD-behavioral correlation (profound behavioral deficit, normal face-related activation in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex) challenges existing accounts of face representation, and suggests that activation in these cortical regions per se is not sufficient to ensure intact face processing.

  16. The Development of Specialized Processing of Own-Race Faces in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kim T.; Kulkofsky, Sarah; Cashon, Cara H.; Casasola, Marianella

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined developmental changes in infants' processing of own- versus other-race faces. Caucasian American 8-month-olds (Experiment 1) and 4-month-olds (Experiment 2) were tested in a habituation-switch procedure designed to assess holistic (attending to the relationship between internal and external features of the face) versus…

  17. Face Processing and Facial Emotion Recognition in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barisnikov, Koviljka; Hippolyte, Loyse; Van der Linden, Martial

    2008-01-01

    Face processing and facial expression recognition was investigated in 17 adults with Down syndrome, and results were compared with those of a child control group matched for receptive vocabulary. On the tasks involving faces without emotional content, the adults with Down syndrome performed significantly worse than did the controls. However, their…

  18. Managing the Challenges of Leadership in ERP Implementations: An Exploratory Study of the Leadership Challenges Encountered by Project Managers Involved in ERP Implementation Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanjagi, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations are conducting more Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects in order to promote organizational efficiencies. Meanwhile, minimal research has been conducted on the leadership challenges faced by project managers during the ERP project implementations and how these challenges are managed. The existing project…

  19. Effects of visual expertise on a novel eye-size illusion: Implications for holistic face processing

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Genyue; Dong, Yan; Quinn, Paul C.; Xiao, Wen S.; Wang, Qiandong; Chen, Guowei; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of visual experience on the magnitude of a novel eye-size illusion: when the size of a face’s frame is increased or decreased but eye size is unchanged, observers judge the size of the eyes to be different from that in the original face frame. In the current study, we asked Chinese and Caucasian participants to judge eye size in different pairs of faces and measured the magnitude of the illusion when the faces were own- or other-age (adult vs. infant faces) and when the faces were own- or other-race (Chinese vs. Caucasian faces). We found an other-age effect and an other-race effect with the eye-size illusion: The illusion was more pronounced with own-race and own-age faces than with other-race and other-age faces. These findings taken together suggest that visual experience with faces influences the magnitude of this novel illusion. Extensive experience with certain face categories strengthens the illusion in the context of these categories, but lack of it reduces the magnitude of the illusion. Our results further imply that holistic processing may play an important role in engendering the eye-size illusion. PMID:26048685

  20. Co-ordinated structural and functional covariance in the adolescent brain underlies face processing performance

    PubMed Central

    Joel Shaw, Daniel; Mareček, Radek; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Bruce Pike, G.

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to process complex social cues presented by faces improves during adolescence. Using multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data collected longitudinally from a sample of 38 adolescents (17 males) when they were 10, 11.5, 13 and 15 years old, we tested the possibility that there exists parallel variations in the structural and functional development of neural systems supporting face processing. By combining measures of task-related functional connectivity and brain morphology, we reveal that both the structural covariance and functional connectivity among ‘distal’ nodes of the face-processing network engaged by ambiguous faces increase during this age range. Furthermore, we show that the trajectory of increasing functional connectivity between the distal nodes occurs in tandem with the development of their structural covariance. This demonstrates a tight coupling between functional and structural maturation within the face-processing network. Finally, we demonstrate that increased functional connectivity is associated with age-related improvements of face-processing performance, particularly in females. We suggest that our findings reflect greater integration among distal elements of the neural systems supporting the processing of facial expressions. This, in turn, might facilitate an enhanced extraction of social information from faces during a time when greater importance is placed on social interactions. PMID:26772669

  1. Co-ordinated structural and functional covariance in the adolescent brain underlies face processing performance.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel Joel; Mareček, Radek; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G Bruce; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Our ability to process complex social cues presented by faces improves during adolescence. Using multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data collected longitudinally from a sample of 38 adolescents (17 males) when they were 10, 11.5, 13 and 15 years old, we tested the possibility that there exists parallel variations in the structural and functional development of neural systems supporting face processing. By combining measures of task-related functional connectivity and brain morphology, we reveal that both the structural covariance and functional connectivity among 'distal' nodes of the face-processing network engaged by ambiguous faces increase during this age range. Furthermore, we show that the trajectory of increasing functional connectivity between the distal nodes occurs in tandem with the development of their structural covariance. This demonstrates a tight coupling between functional and structural maturation within the face-processing network. Finally, we demonstrate that increased functional connectivity is associated with age-related improvements of face-processing performance, particularly in females. We suggest that our findings reflect greater integration among distal elements of the neural systems supporting the processing of facial expressions. This, in turn, might facilitate an enhanced extraction of social information from faces during a time when greater importance is placed on social interactions.

  2. Functional compartmentalization and viewpoint generalization within the macaque face-processing system.

    PubMed

    Freiwald, Winrich A; Tsao, Doris Y

    2010-11-05

    Primates can recognize faces across a range of viewing conditions. Representations of individual identity should thus exist that are invariant to accidental image transformations like view direction. We targeted the recently discovered face-processing network of the macaque monkey that consists of six interconnected face-selective regions and recorded from the two middle patches (ML, middle lateral, and MF, middle fundus) and two anterior patches (AL, anterior lateral, and AM, anterior medial). We found that the anatomical position of a face patch was associated with a unique functional identity: Face patches differed qualitatively in how they represented identity across head orientations. Neurons in ML and MF were view-specific; neurons in AL were tuned to identity mirror-symmetrically across views, thus achieving partial view invariance; and neurons in AM, the most anterior face patch, achieved almost full view invariance.

  3. The eye-size illusion: psychophysical characteristics, generality, and relation to holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen S; Fu, Genyue; Quinn, Paul C; Sun, Yu-Hao; Xiao, Naiqi G; Wang, Qiandong; Chen, Guowei; Pascalis, Olivier; Damon, Fabrice; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Rakover [(2011). In Y. H. Zhang (Ed.), Advances in face image analysis: Techniques and technologies (pp. 316-333). Hershey, PA: IGI Global] observed a novel eye-size illusion: when increasing the size of a face but keeping the size of its eyes unchanged, the eyes are perceived to be smaller than in the original face. Here, we systematically manipulated the face size and found that the magnitude of this illusion linearly changed as a function of the face frame size (experiment 1). Additionally, the same magnitude of an illusion was observed for the perception of the size of the mouth when we changed the face frame but kept the mouth size constant (experiment 2). Further, when the faces and eyes were presented upside down, the magnitude of the illusion was significantly reduced in both Chinese participants (experiment 3) and Caucasian participants (experiment 4). The results suggest that the perception of eye or mouth size occurs in the relational context of the whole face; and when the face is inverted, thereby disrupting holistic processing, the magnitude of the illusion is reduced. We therefore suggest that holistic processing is involved in producing the illusion.

  4. Intersubject Variability in Fearful Face Processing: The Link Between Behavior and Neural Activation

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Tracy J.; Japee, Shruti; Ingvar, Martin; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2014-01-01

    Stimuli that signal threat show considerable variability in the extent to which they enhance behavior, even among healthy individuals. However, the neural underpinning of this behavioral variability is not well understood. By manipulating expectation of threat in an fMRI study of fearful vs. neutral face categorization, we uncovered a network of areas underlying variability in threat processing in healthy adults. We explicitly altered expectation by presenting face images at three different expectation levels: 80%, 50%, and 20%. Subjects were instructed to report as fast and as accurately as possible whether the face was fearful (signaled threat) or not. An uninformative cue preceded each face by 4 seconds (s). By taking the difference between response times (RT) to fearful compared to neutral faces, we quantified an overall fear RT bias (i.e. faster to fearful than neutral faces) for each subject. This bias correlated positively with late trial fMRI activation (8 s after the face) during unexpected fearful face trials in bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the left subgenual cingulate cortex, and the right caudate nucleus and correlated negatively with early trial fMRI activation (4 s after the cue) during expected neutral face trials in bilateral dorsal striatum and the right ventral striatum. These results demonstrate that the variability in threat processing among healthy adults is reflected not only in behavior but also in the magnitude of activation in medial prefrontal and striatal regions that appear to encode affective value. PMID:24841078

  5. Involvement of low-level visual areas in hemispheric superiority for face processing.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yul-Wan; Someya, Yoshiaki; Eriko, Yamamoto; Choi, Sang-Han; Cho, Zang-Hee; Ogawa, Seiji

    2011-05-16

    Previous studies on laterality in face processing have indicated superiority of the right hemisphere in discriminating and recognizing faces; however, the reasons for this feature are poorly understood. We employed functional MRI (fMRI) to elucidate the origin of this feature and used a paired-stimulus paradigm in which face pairs were presented unilaterally at the left or right visual hemifield of the participants. Each face in a pair was at a different position in the visual field. Refractory suppression in the fMRI response was observed bilaterally at the fusiform face area (FFA) for the same face pairs when pictures were presented in the left visual hemifield. In contrast, suppression was observed bilaterally at the FFA for the different as well as for the same face pairs when pictures were presented in the right visual hemifield. This pattern indicated inferior discrimination ability for paired stimuli presented to the right visual hemifield. These observations, along with changes in bilaterally interlocked responses at the FFA, suggest that low-level visual areas, and not high-level face areas, are strongly associated with the superiority of the right hemisphere in face processing.

  6. Processing deficits for familiar and novel faces in patients with left posterior fusiform lesions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Daniel J.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Kim, Esther; Tainturier, Marie-Josephe; Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Woollams, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Pure alexia (PA) arises from damage to the left posterior fusiform gyrus (pFG) and the striking reading disorder that defines this condition has meant that such patients are often cited as evidence for the specialisation of this region to processing of written words. There is, however, an alternative view that suggests this region is devoted to processing of high acuity foveal input, which is particularly salient for complex visual stimuli like letter strings. Previous reports have highlighted disrupted processing of non-linguistic visual stimuli after damage to the left pFG, both for familiar and unfamiliar objects and also for novel faces. This study explored the nature of face processing deficits in patients with left pFG damage. Identification of famous faces was found to be compromised in both expressive and receptive tasks. Discrimination of novel faces was also impaired, particularly for those that varied in terms of second-order spacing information, and this deficit was most apparent for the patients with the more severe reading deficits. Interestingly, discrimination of faces that varied in terms of feature identity was considerably better in these patients and it was performance in this condition that was related to the size of the length effects shown in reading. This finding complements functional imaging studies showing left pFG activation for faces varying only in spacing and frontal activation for faces varying only on features. These results suggest that the sequential part-based processing strategy that promotes the length effect in the reading of these patients also allows them to discriminate between faces on the basis of feature identity, but processing of second-order configural information is most compromised due to their left pFG lesion. This study supports a view in which the left pFG is specialised for processing of high acuity foveal visual information that supports processing of both words and faces. PMID:25837867

  7. Training with Own-Race Faces Can Improve Processing of Other-Race Faces: Evidence from Developmental Prosopagnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGutis, Joseph; DeNicola, Cristopher; Zink, Tyler; McGlinchey, Regina; Milberg, William

    2011-01-01

    Faces of one's own race are discriminated and recognized more accurately than faces of an other race (other-race effect--ORE). Studies have employed several methods to enhance individuation and recognition of other-race faces and reduce the ORE, including intensive perceptual training with other-race faces and explicitly instructing participants…

  8. How and when accentuation influences temporally selective attention and subsequent semantic processing during on-line spoken language comprehension: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-qing; Ren, Gui-qin

    2012-07-01

    An event-related brain potentials (ERP) experiment was carried out to investigate how and when accentuation influences temporally selective attention and subsequent semantic processing during on-line spoken language comprehension, and how the effect of accentuation on attention allocation and semantic processing changed with the degree of accentuation. Chinese spoken sentences were used as stimuli. The critical word in the carrier sentence was either semantically congruent or incongruent to the preceding sentence context. Meanwhile, the critical word was de-accented (DeAccent), generally accented (Accent), or greatly accented (GreatAccent). Results showed that, relative to semantically congruent words, the semantically incongruent word elicited a parietal-occipital N400 effect in the Accent condition and a broadly distributed N400 effect in the GreatAccent condition; however, no significant N400 effect was found in the DeAccent condition. Further onset analysis found that the N400 effect in the GreatAccent condition started around 50ms earlier than that in the Accent conditions. In addition, in the GreatAccent condition, the incongruent words also elicited an early negative effect in the window latency of 110-190ms after the acoustic onset of the critical word. The results indicated that, during on-line speech processing, accentuation can rapidly modulate temporally selective attention and consequently influence the depth or the speed of subsequent semantic processing; the effect of accentuation on attention allocation and semantic processing can change with the degree of accentuation gradually.

  9. Development of Effective Connectivity during Own- and Other-Race Face Processing: A Granger Causality Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guifei; Liu, Jiangang; Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Numerous developmental studies have suggested that other-race effect (ORE) in face recognition emerges as early as in infancy and develops steadily throughout childhood. However, there is very limited research on the neural mechanisms underlying this developmental ORE. The present study used Granger causality analysis (GCA) to examine the development of children's cortical networks in processing own- and other-race faces. Children were between 3 and 13 years. An old-new paradigm was used to assess their own- and other-race face recognition with ETG-4000 (Hitachi Medical Co., Japan) acquiring functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data. After preprocessing, for each participant and under each face condition, we obtained the causal map by calculating the weights of causal relations between the time courses of [oxy-Hb] of each pair of channels using GCA. To investigate further the differential causal connectivity for own-race faces and other-race faces at the group level, a repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the GCA weights for each pair of channels with the face race task (own-race face vs. other-race face) as the within-subject variable and the age as a between-subject factor (continuous variable). We found an age-related increase in functional connectivity, paralleling a similar age-related improvement in behavioral face processing ability. More importantly, we found that the significant differences in neural functional connectivity between the recognition of own-race faces and that of other-race faces were modulated by age. Thus, like the behavioral ORE, the neural ORE emerges early and undergoes a protracted developmental course.

  10. Development of Effective Connectivity during Own- and Other-Race Face Processing: A Granger Causality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guifei; Liu, Jiangang; Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Numerous developmental studies have suggested that other-race effect (ORE) in face recognition emerges as early as in infancy and develops steadily throughout childhood. However, there is very limited research on the neural mechanisms underlying this developmental ORE. The present study used Granger causality analysis (GCA) to examine the development of children's cortical networks in processing own- and other-race faces. Children were between 3 and 13 years. An old-new paradigm was used to assess their own- and other-race face recognition with ETG-4000 (Hitachi Medical Co., Japan) acquiring functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data. After preprocessing, for each participant and under each face condition, we obtained the causal map by calculating the weights of causal relations between the time courses of [oxy-Hb] of each pair of channels using GCA. To investigate further the differential causal connectivity for own-race faces and other-race faces at the group level, a repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the GCA weights for each pair of channels with the face race task (own-race face vs. other-race face) as the within-subject variable and the age as a between-subject factor (continuous variable). We found an age-related increase in functional connectivity, paralleling a similar age-related improvement in behavioral face processing ability. More importantly, we found that the significant differences in neural functional connectivity between the recognition of own-race faces and that of other-race faces were modulated by age. Thus, like the behavioral ORE, the neural ORE emerges early and undergoes a protracted developmental course. PMID:27713696

  11. How the Thatcher illusion reveals evolutionary differences in the face processing of primates.

    PubMed

    Weldon, Kimberly B; Taubert, Jessica; Smith, Carolynn L; Parr, Lisa A

    2013-09-01

    Face recognition in humans is a complex cognitive skill that requires sensitivity to unique configurations of eyes, mouth, and other facial features. The Thatcher illusion has been used to demonstrate the importance of orientation when processing configural information within faces. Transforming an upright face so that the eyes and mouth are inverted renders the face grotesque; however, when this "Thatcherized" face is inverted, the effect disappears. Due to the use of primate models in social cognition research, it is important to determine the extent to which specialized cognitive functions like face processing occur across species. To date, the Thatcher illusion has been explored in only a few species with mixed results. Here, we used computerized tasks to examine whether nonhuman primates perceive the Thatcher illusion. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys were required to discriminate between Thatcherized and unaltered faces presented upright and inverted. Our results confirm that chimpanzees perceived the Thatcher illusion, but rhesus monkeys did not, suggesting species differences in the importance of configural information in face processing. Three further experiments were conducted to understand why our results differed from previously published accounts of the Thatcher illusion in rhesus monkeys.

  12. Facing the Future: The Change Process in Restructuring Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskin, Alan E.

    1996-01-01

    Restructuring will be a major activity of many colleges and universities in the next decade, requiring difficult decisions. A proactive approach is most effective. Considerations include acknowledging the importance of leadership in the process; managing leadership; deciding on restructuring versus incremental change; managing the size and…

  13. Three Studies on Configural Face Processing by Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Lisa A.; Heintz, Matthew; Akamagwuna, Unoma

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the sensitivity of chimpanzees to facial configurations. Three studies further these findings by showing this sensitivity to be specific to second-order relational properties. In humans, this type of configural processing requires prolonged experience and enables subordinate-level discriminations of many…

  14. Impairment in face processing in autism spectrum disorder: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Greimel, Ellen; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2014-09-01

    Findings on face identity and facial emotion recognition in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are inconclusive. Moreover, little is known about the developmental trajectory of face processing skills in ASD. Taking a developmental perspective, the aim of this study was to extend previous findings on face processing skills in a sample of adolescents and adults with ASD. N = 38 adolescents and adults (13-49 years) with high-functioning ASD and n = 37 typically developing (TD) control subjects matched for age and IQ participated in the study. Moreover, n = 18 TD children between the ages of 8 and 12 were included to address the question whether face processing skills in ASD follow a delayed developmental pattern. Face processing skills were assessed using computerized tasks of face identity recognition (FR) and identification of facial emotions (IFE). ASD subjects showed impaired performance on several parameters of the FR and IFE task compared to TD control adolescents and adults. Whereas TD adolescents and adults outperformed TD children in both tasks, performance in ASD adolescents and adults was similar to the group of TD children. Within the groups of ASD and control adolescents and adults, no age-related changes in performance were found. Our findings corroborate and extend previous studies showing that ASD is characterised by broad impairments in the ability to process faces. These impairments seem to reflect a developmentally delayed pattern that remains stable throughout adolescence and adulthood.

  15. Culture differences in neural processing of faces and houses in the ventral visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Goh, Joshua O S; Leshikar, Eric D; Sutton, Bradley P; Tan, Jiat Chow; Sim, Sam K Y; Hebrank, Andrew C; Park, Denise C

    2010-06-01

    Behavioral and eye-tracking studies on cultural differences have found that while Westerners have a bias for analytic processing and attend more to face features, East Asians are more holistic and attend more to contextual scenes. In this neuroimaging study, we hypothesized that these culturally different visual processing styles would be associated with cultural differences in the selective activity of the fusiform regions for faces, and the parahippocampal and lingual regions for contextual stimuli. East Asians and Westerners passively viewed face and house stimuli during an functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. As expected, we observed more selectivity for faces in Westerners in the left fusiform face area (FFA) reflecting a more analytic processing style. Additionally, Westerners showed bilateral activity to faces in the FFA whereas East Asians showed more right lateralization. In contrast, no cultural differences were detected in the parahippocampal place area (PPA), although there was a trend for East Asians to show greater house selectivity than Westerners in the lingual landmark area, consistent with more holistic processing in East Asians. These findings demonstrate group biases in Westerners and East Asians that operate on perceptual processing in the brain and are consistent with previous eye-tracking data that show cultural biases to faces.

  16. Independence of face identity and expression processing: exploring the role of motion

    PubMed Central

    Lander, Karen; Butcher, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    According to the classic Bruce and Young (1986) model of face recognition, identity and emotional expression information from the face are processed in parallel and independently. Since this functional model was published, a growing body of research has challenged this viewpoint and instead support an interdependence view. In addition, neural models of face processing emphasize differences in terms of the processing of changeable and invariant aspects of faces. This article provides a critical appraisal of this literature and discusses the role of motion in both expression and identity recognition and the intertwined nature of identity, expression and motion processing. We conclude by discussing recent advancements in this area and research questions that still need to be addressed. PMID:25821441

  17. Accelerating Computation of DCM for ERP in MATLAB by External Function Calls to the GPU.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Jen; Hsieh, I-Fan; Chen, Chun-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to improve the performance of Dynamic Causal Modelling for Event Related Potentials (DCM for ERP) in MATLAB by using external function calls to a graphics processing unit (GPU). DCM for ERP is an advanced method for studying neuronal effective connectivity. DCM utilizes an iterative procedure, the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm, to find the optimal parameters given a set of observations and the underlying probability model. As the EM algorithm is computationally demanding and the analysis faces possible combinatorial explosion of models to be tested, we propose a parallel computing scheme using the GPU to achieve a fast estimation of DCM for ERP. The computation of DCM for ERP is dynamically partitioned and distributed to threads for parallel processing, according to the DCM model complexity and the hardware constraints. The performance efficiency of this hardware-dependent thread arrangement strategy was evaluated using the synthetic data. The experimental data were used to validate the accuracy of the proposed computing scheme and quantify the time saving in practice. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can accelerate the computation by a factor of 155 for the parallel part. For experimental data, the speedup factor is about 7 per model on average, depending on the model complexity and the data. This GPU-based implementation of DCM for ERP gives qualitatively the same results as the original MATLAB implementation does at the group level analysis. In conclusion, we believe that the proposed GPU-based implementation is very useful for users as a fast screen tool to select the most likely model and may provide implementation guidance for possible future clinical applications such as online diagnosis.

  18. Accelerating Computation of DCM for ERP in MATLAB by External Function Calls to the GPU

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Jen; Hsieh, I-Fan; Chen, Chun-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to improve the performance of Dynamic Causal Modelling for Event Related Potentials (DCM for ERP) in MATLAB by using external function calls to a graphics processing unit (GPU). DCM for ERP is an advanced method for studying neuronal effective connectivity. DCM utilizes an iterative procedure, the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm, to find the optimal parameters given a set of observations and the underlying probability model. As the EM algorithm is computationally demanding and the analysis faces possible combinatorial explosion of models to be tested, we propose a parallel computing scheme using the GPU to achieve a fast estimation of DCM for ERP. The computation of DCM for ERP is dynamically partitioned and distributed to threads for parallel processing, according to the DCM model complexity and the hardware constraints. The performance efficiency of this hardware-dependent thread arrangement strategy was evaluated using the synthetic data. The experimental data were used to validate the accuracy of the proposed computing scheme and quantify the time saving in practice. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can accelerate the computation by a factor of 155 for the parallel part. For experimental data, the speedup factor is about 7 per model on average, depending on the model complexity and the data. This GPU-based implementation of DCM for ERP gives qualitatively the same results as the original MATLAB implementation does at the group level analysis. In conclusion, we believe that the proposed GPU-based implementation is very useful for users as a fast screen tool to select the most likely model and may provide implementation guidance for possible future clinical applications such as online diagnosis. PMID:23840507

  19. Unconscious processing of facial attractiveness: invisible attractive faces orient visual attention.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shao-Min; Nieh, Chih-Hsuan; Hsieh, Po-Jang

    2016-11-16

    Past research has proven human's extraordinary ability to extract information from a face in the blink of an eye, including its emotion, gaze direction, and attractiveness. However, it remains elusive whether facial attractiveness can be processed and influences our behaviors in the complete absence of conscious awareness. Here we demonstrate unconscious processing of facial attractiveness with three distinct approaches. In Experiment 1, the time taken for faces to break interocular suppression was measured. The results showed that attractive faces enjoyed the privilege of breaking suppression and reaching consciousness earlier. In Experiment 2, we further showed that attractive faces had lower visibility thresholds, again suggesting that facial attractiveness could be processed more easily to reach consciousness. Crucially, in Experiment 3, a significant decrease of accuracy on an orientation discrimination task subsequent to an invisible attractive face showed that attractive faces, albeit suppressed and invisible, still exerted an effect by orienting attention. Taken together, for the first time, we show that facial attractiveness can be processed in the complete absence of consciousness, and an unconscious attractive face is still capable of directing our attention.

  20. Unconscious processing of facial attractiveness: invisible attractive faces orient visual attention

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Shao-Min; Nieh, Chih-Hsuan; Hsieh, Po-Jang

    2016-01-01

    Past research has proven human’s extraordinary ability to extract information from a face in the blink of an eye, including its emotion, gaze direction, and attractiveness. However, it remains elusive whether facial attractiveness can be processed and influences our behaviors in the complete absence of conscious awareness. Here we demonstrate unconscious processing of facial attractiveness with three distinct approaches. In Experiment 1, the time taken for faces to break interocular suppression was measured. The results showed that attractive faces enjoyed the privilege of breaking suppression and reaching consciousness earlier. In Experiment 2, we further showed that attractive faces had lower visibility thresholds, again suggesting that facial attractiveness could be processed more easily to reach consciousness. Crucially, in Experiment 3, a significant decrease of accuracy on an orientation discrimination task subsequent to an invisible attractive face showed that attractive faces, albeit suppressed and invisible, still exerted an effect by orienting attention. Taken together, for the first time, we show that facial attractiveness can be processed in the complete absence of consciousness, and an unconscious attractive face is still capable of directing our attention. PMID:27848992

  1. Neural networks related to dysfunctional face processing in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Rottschy, Claudia; Thommes, Johanna; Schneider, Frank; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most consistent neuropsychological findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a reduced interest in and impaired processing of human faces. We conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on 14 functional imaging studies on neural correlates of face processing enrolling a total of 164 ASD patients. Subsequently, normative whole-brain functional connectivity maps for the identified regions of significant convergence were computed for the task-independent (resting-state) and task-dependent (co-activations) state in healthy subjects. Quantitative functional decoding was performed by reference to the BrainMap database. Finally, we examined the overlap of the delineated network with the results of a previous meta-analysis on structural abnormalities in ASD as well as with brain regions involved in human action observation/imitation. We found a single cluster in the left fusiform gyrus showing significantly reduced activation during face processing in ASD across all studies. Both task-dependent and task-independent analyses indicated significant functional connectivity of this region with the temporo-occipital and lateral occipital cortex, the inferior frontal and parietal cortices, the thalamus and the amygdala. Quantitative reverse inference then indicated an association of these regions mainly with face processing, affective processing, and language-related tasks. Moreover, we found that the cortex in the region of right area V5 displaying structural changes in ASD patients showed consistent connectivity with the region showing aberrant responses in the context of face processing. Finally, this network was also implicated in the human action observation/imitation network. In summary, our findings thus suggest a functionally and structurally disturbed network of occipital regions related primarily to face (but potentially also language) processing, which interact with inferior frontal as well as limbic regions and may be the core of

  2. Using hypnosis to disrupt face processing: mirrored-self misidentification delusion and different visual media

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Michael H.; Barnier, Amanda J.; Coltheart, Max; Langdon, Robyn; Cox, Rochelle E.; Rivolta, Davide; Halligan, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Mirrored-self misidentification delusion is the belief that one’s reflection in the mirror is not oneself. This experiment used hypnotic suggestion to impair normal face processing in healthy participants and recreate key aspects of the delusion in the laboratory. From a pool of 439 participants, 22 high hypnotisable participants (“highs”) and 20 low hypnotisable participants were selected on the basis of their extreme scores on two separately administered measures of hypnotisability. These participants received a hypnotic induction and a suggestion for either impaired (i) self-face recognition or (ii) impaired recognition of all faces. Participants were tested on their ability to recognize themselves in a mirror and other visual media – including a photograph, live video, and handheld mirror – and their ability to recognize other people, including the experimenter and famous faces. Both suggestions produced impaired self-face recognition and recreated key aspects of the delusion in highs. However, only the suggestion for impaired other-face recognition disrupted recognition of other faces, albeit in a minority of highs. The findings confirm that hypnotic suggestion can disrupt face processing and recreate features of mirrored-self misidentification. The variability seen in participants’ responses also corresponds to the heterogeneity seen in clinical patients. An important direction for future research will be to examine sources of this variability within both clinical patients and the hypnotic model. PMID:24994973

  3. The Effect of Self-Referential Expectation on Emotional Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    McKendrick, Mel; Butler, Stephen H.; Grealy, Madeleine A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of self-relevance has been somewhat neglected in static face processing paradigms but may be important in understanding how emotional faces impact on attention, cognition and affect. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of self-relevant primes on processing emotional composite faces. Sentence primes created an expectation of the emotion of the face before sad, happy, neutral or composite face photos were viewed. Eye movements were recorded and subsequent responses measured the cognitive and affective impact of the emotion expressed. Results indicated that primes did not guide attention, but impacted on judgments of valence intensity and self-esteem ratings. Negative self-relevant primes led to the most negative self-esteem ratings, although the effect of the prime was qualified by salient facial features. Self-relevant expectations about the emotion of a face and subsequent attention to a face that is congruent with these expectations strengthened the affective impact of viewing the face. PMID:27175487

  4. Deficits in Letter-Speech Sound Associations but Intact Visual Conflict Processing in Dyslexia: Results from a Novel ERP-Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Bakos, Sarolta; Landerl, Karin; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    The reading and spelling deficits characteristic of developmental dyslexia (dyslexia) have been related to problems in phonological processing and in learning associations between letters and speech-sounds. Even when children with dyslexia have learned the letters and their corresponding speech sounds, letter-speech sound associations might still be less automatized compared to children with age-adequate literacy skills. In order to examine automaticity in letter-speech sound associations and to overcome some of the disadvantages associated with the frequently used visual-auditory oddball paradigm, we developed a novel electrophysiological letter-speech sound interference paradigm. This letter-speech sound interference paradigm was applied in a group of 9-year-old children with dyslexia (n = 36) and a group of typically developing (TD) children of similar age (n = 37). Participants had to indicate whether two letters look visually the same. In the incongruent condition (e.g., the letter pair A-a) there was a conflict between the visual information and the automatically activated phonological information; although the visual appearance of the two letters is different, they are both associated with the same speech sound. This conflict resulted in slower response times (RTs) in the incongruent than in the congruent (e.g., the letter pair A-e) condition. Furthermore, in the TD control group, the conflict resulted in fast and strong event-related potential (ERP) effects reflected in less negative N1 amplitudes and more positive conflict slow potentials (cSP) in the incongruent than in the congruent condition. However, the dyslexic group did not show any conflict-related ERP effects, implying that letter-speech sound associations are less automatized in this group. Furthermore, we examined general visual conflict processing in a control visual interference task, using false fonts. The conflict in this experiment was based purely on the visual similarity of the presented

  5. Deficits in Letter-Speech Sound Associations but Intact Visual Conflict Processing in Dyslexia: Results from a Novel ERP-Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Bakos, Sarolta; Landerl, Karin; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    The reading and spelling deficits characteristic of developmental dyslexia (dyslexia) have been related to problems in phonological processing and in learning associations between letters and speech-sounds. Even when children with dyslexia have learned the letters and their corresponding speech sounds, letter-speech sound associations might still be less automatized compared to children with age-adequate literacy skills. In order to examine automaticity in letter-speech sound associations and to overcome some of the disadvantages associated with the frequently used visual-auditory oddball paradigm, we developed a novel electrophysiological letter-speech sound interference paradigm. This letter-speech sound interference paradigm was applied in a group of 9-year-old children with dyslexia (n = 36) and a group of typically developing (TD) children of similar age (n = 37). Participants had to indicate whether two letters look visually the same. In the incongruent condition (e.g., the letter pair A-a) there was a conflict between the visual information and the automatically activated phonological information; although the visual appearance of the two letters is different, they are both associated with the same speech sound. This conflict resulted in slower response times (RTs) in the incongruent than in the congruent (e.g., the letter pair A-e) condition. Furthermore, in the TD control group, the conflict resulted in fast and strong event-related potential (ERP) effects reflected in less negative N1 amplitudes and more positive conflict slow potentials (cSP) in the incongruent than in the congruent condition. However, the dyslexic group did not show any conflict-related ERP effects, implying that letter-speech sound associations are less automatized in this group. Furthermore, we examined general visual conflict processing in a control visual interference task, using false fonts. The conflict in this experiment was based purely on the visual similarity of the presented

  6. N170 face specificity and face memory depend on hometown size.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin; Saville, Alyson

    2015-03-01

    Face recognition depends on visual experience in a number of different ways. Infrequent exposure to faces belonging to categories defined by species, age, or race can lead to diminished memory for and discrimination between members of those categories relative to faces belonging to categories that dominate an observer's environment. Early visual impairment can also have long-lasting and broad effects on face discrimination - just a few months of visual impairment due to congenital cataracts can lead to diminished discrimination between faces that differ in their configuration, for example (Le Grand et al., 2001). Presently, we consider a novel aspect of visual experience that may impact face recognition: The approximate amount of different faces observers encountered during their childhood. We recruited undergraduate observers from small (500-1000 individuals) and large communities (30,000-100,000 individuals) and asked them to complete a standard face memory test and a basic ERP paradigm designed to elicit a robust N170 response, including the classic face inversion effect. We predicted that growing up in a small community might lead to diminished face memory and an N170 response that was less specific to faces. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that the sheer number of faces one can interact with during their upbringing shapes their behavioral abilities and the functional architecture of face processing in the brain.

  7. Development of Emotional Face Processing in Premature and Full-Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-Valenzuela, Cintli Carolina; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Quirarte, Gina L; Harmony, Thalía

    2017-03-01

    The rate of premature births has increased in the past 2 decades. Ten percent of premature birth survivors develop motor impairment, but almost half exhibit later sensorial, cognitive, and emotional disabilities attributed to white matter injury and decreased volume of neuronal structures. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that premature and full-term infants differ in their development of emotional face processing. A comparative longitudinal study was conducted in premature and full-term infants at 4 and 8 months of age. The absolute power of the electroencephalogram was analyzed in both groups during 5 conditions of an emotional face processing task: positive, negative, neutral faces, non-face, and rest. Differences between the conditions of the task at 4 months were limited to rest versus non-rest comparisons in both groups. Eight-month-old term infants had increases ( P ≤ .05) in absolute power in the left occipital region at the frequency of 10.1 Hz and in the right occipital region at 3.5, 12.8, and 16.0 Hz when shown a positive face in comparison with a neutral face. They also showed increases in absolute power in the left occipital region at 1.9 Hz and in the right occipital region at 2.3 and 3.5 Hz with positive compared to non-face stimuli. In contrast, positive, negative, and neutral faces elicited the same responses in premature infants. In conclusion, our study provides electrophysiological evidence that emotional face processing develops differently in premature than in full-term infants, suggesting that premature birth alters mechanisms of brain development, such as the myelination process, and consequently affects complex cognitive functions.

  8. Neural correlates of masked and unmasked face emotion processing in youth with severe mood dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Laura A.; Harkins, Elizabeth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Brotman, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Reproducibility of results is important in improving the robustness of conclusions drawn from research, particularly in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this study, we aim to replicate a previous study on the neural correlates of face emotion processing above and below awareness level using an independent sample of youth with severe mood dysregulation (SMD) and healthy volunteers (HV). We collected fMRI data in 17 SMD and 20 HV, using an affective priming paradigm with masked (17 ms) and unmasked (187 ms) faces (angry, happy, neutral, blank oval). When processing masked and unmasked angry faces, SMD patients exhibited increased activation in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and superior temporal gyrus relative to HV. When processing masked and unmasked happy faces, SMD patients showed decreased activation in the insula, PHG and thalamus compared with HV. During masked face processing in general across emotions, youth with SMD showed greater ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activation relative to HV. Perturbed activation in emotion processing areas (e.g. insula, PHG, superior temporal gyrus and thalamus) manifests as hyper-sensitivity toward negative emotions and hypo-sensitivity toward positive emotions may be important in the etiology and maintenance of irritability, aggression and depressive symptoms in SMD. vmPFC dysfunction may mediate over-reactivity to face emotions associated with irritability. PMID:26137973

  9. Perceiving emotions in neutral faces: expression processing is biased by affective person knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Rabovsky, Milena; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-01-01

    According to a widely held view, basic emotions such as happiness or anger are reflected in facial expressions that are invariant and uniquely defined by specific facial muscle movements. Accordingly, expression perception should not be vulnerable to influences outside the face. Here, we test this assumption by manipulating the emotional valence of biographical knowledge associated with individual persons. Faces of well-known and initially unfamiliar persons displaying neutral expressions were associated with socially relevant negative, positive or comparatively neutral biographical information. The expressions of faces associated with negative information were classified as more negative than faces associated with neutral information. Event-related brain potential modulations in the early posterior negativity, a component taken to reflect early sensory processing of affective stimuli such as emotional facial expressions, suggest that negative affective knowledge can bias the perception of faces with neutral expressions toward subjectively displaying negative emotions. PMID:24948155

  10. Higher Education ERP: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Dave; Orgill, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Shares experiences and lessons learned by chief information officers of large universities about enterprise resource planning (ERP). Specifically, provides a framework for approaching an ERP that could save universities millions of dollars. (EV)

  11. Congenital prosopagnosia: face-blind from birth.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Marlene; Avidan, Galia

    2005-04-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia refers to the deficit in face processing that is apparent from early childhood in the absence of any underlying neurological basis and in the presence of intact sensory and intellectual function. Several such cases have been described recently and elucidating the mechanisms giving rise to this impairment should aid our understanding of the psychological and neural mechanisms mediating face processing. Fundamental questions include: What is the nature and extent of the face-processing deficit in congenital prosopagnosia? Is the deficit related to a more general perceptual deficit such as the failure to process configural information? Are any neural alterations detectable using fMRI, ERP or structural analyses of the anatomy of the ventral visual cortex? We discuss these issues in relation to the existing literature and suggest directions for future research.

  12. Electrophysiological Correlates of the Composite Face Illusion: Disentangling Perceptual and Decisional Components of Holistic Face Processing in the Human Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuefner, Dana; Jacques, Corentin; Prieto, Esther Alonso; Rossion, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    When the bottom halves of two faces differ, people's behavioral judgment of the identical top halves of those faces is impaired: they report that the top halves are different, and/or take more time than usual to provide a response. This behavioral measure is known as the composite face effect (CFE) and has traditionally been taken as evidence that…

  13. Getting to the Bottom of Face Processing. Species-Specific Inversion Effects for Faces and Behinds in Humans and Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Kret, Mariska E; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    For social species such as primates, the recognition of conspecifics is crucial for their survival. As demonstrated by the 'face inversion effect', humans are experts in recognizing faces and unlike objects, recognize their identity by processing it configurally. The human face, with its distinct features such as eye-whites, eyebrows, red lips and cheeks signals emotions, intentions, health and sexual attraction and, as we will show here, shares important features with the primate behind. Chimpanzee females show a swelling and reddening of the anogenital region around the time of ovulation. This provides an important socio-sexual signal for group members, who can identify individuals by their behinds. We hypothesized that chimpanzees process behinds configurally in a way humans process faces. In four different delayed matching-to-sample tasks with upright and inverted body parts, we show that humans demonstrate a face, but not a behind inversion effect and that chimpanzees show a behind, but no clear face inversion effect. The findings suggest an evolutionary shift in socio-sexual signalling function from behinds to faces, two hairless, symmetrical and attractive body parts, which might have attuned the human brain to process faces, and the human face to become more behind-like.

  14. Getting to the Bottom of Face Processing. Species-Specific Inversion Effects for Faces and Behinds in Humans and Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Kret, Mariska E.; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    For social species such as primates, the recognition of conspecifics is crucial for their survival. As demonstrated by the ‘face inversion effect’, humans are experts in recognizing faces and unlike objects, recognize their identity by processing it configurally. The human face, with its distinct features such as eye-whites, eyebrows, red lips and cheeks signals emotions, intentions, health and sexual attraction and, as we will show here, shares important features with the primate behind. Chimpanzee females show a swelling and reddening of the anogenital region around the time of ovulation. This provides an important socio-sexual signal for group members, who can identify individuals by their behinds. We hypothesized that chimpanzees process behinds configurally in a way humans process faces. In four different delayed matching-to-sample tasks with upright and inverted body parts, we show that humans demonstrate a face, but not a behind inversion effect and that chimpanzees show a behind, but no clear face inversion effect. The findings suggest an evolutionary shift in socio-sexual signalling function from behinds to faces, two hairless, symmetrical and attractive body parts, which might have attuned the human brain to process faces, and the human face to become more behind-like. PMID:27902685

  15. Beyond emotions: A meta-analysis of neural response within face processing system in social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Gentili, Claudio; Cristea, Ioana Alina; Angstadt, Mike; Klumpp, Heide; Tozzi, Leonardo; Phan, K Luan

    2015-01-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) experience anxiety and avoidance in face-to-face interactions. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in SAD to provide a comprehensive understanding of the neural underpinnings of face perception in this disorder. To this purpose, we adopted an innovative approach, asking authors for unpublished data. This is a common procedure for behavioral meta-analyses, which, however has never been used in neuroimaging studies. We searched Pubmed with the key words “Social Anxiety AND faces” and “Social Phobia AND faces.” Then, we selected those fMRI studies for which we were able to obtain data for the comparison between SAD and healthy controls (HC) in a face perception task, either from the published papers or from the authors themselves. In this way, we obtained 23 studies (totaling 449 SAD and 424 HC individuals). We identified significant clusters in which faces evoked a higher response in SAD in bilateral amygdala, globus pallidus, superior temporal sulcus, visual cortex, and prefrontal cortex. We also found a higher activity for HC in the lingual gyrus and in the posterior cingulate. Our findings show that altered neural response to face in SAD is not limited to emotional structures but involves a complex network. These results may have implications for the understanding of SAD pathophysiology, as they suggest that a dysfunctional face perception process may bias patient person-to-person interactions. PMID:26341469

  16. Neurophysiological Evidence for Remediation of Reward Processing Deficits in Chronic Pain and Opioid Misuse Following Treatment with Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement: Exploratory ERP Findings from a Pilot RCT

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated processing of natural rewards may be a central pathogenic process in the etiology and maintenance of prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients. This study examined whether a Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) intervention could enhance natural reward processing through training in savoring as indicated by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Participants were chronic pain patients at risk for opioid misuse who were randomized to eight weeks of MORE (n=11) or a support group control condition (n=18). ERPs to images representing naturally rewarding stimuli (e.g., beautiful landscapes, intimate couples) and neutral images were measured before and after 8 weeks of treatment. Analyses focused on the late positive potential (LPP) - an ERP response in the 400 – 1000 ms time window thought to index allocation of attention to emotional information. Treatment with MORE was associated with significant increases in LPP response to natural reward stimuli relative to neutral stimuli which were correlated with enhanced positive affective cue-responses and reductions in opioid craving from pre- to post-treatment. Findings suggest that cognitive training regimens centered on strengthening attention to natural rewards may remediate reward processing deficits underpinning addictive behavior. PMID:25385024

  17. Neurophysiological evidence for remediation of reward processing deficits in chronic pain and opioid misuse following treatment with Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement: exploratory ERP findings from a pilot RCT.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O

    2015-04-01

    Dysregulated processing of natural rewards may be a central pathogenic process in the etiology and maintenance of prescription opioid misuse and addiction among chronic pain patients. This study examined whether a Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) intervention could augment natural reward processing through training in savoring as indicated by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Participants were chronic pain patients at risk for opioid misuse who were randomized to 8 weeks of MORE (n = 11) or a support group control condition (n = 18). ERPs to images representing naturally rewarding stimuli (e.g., beautiful landscapes, intimate couples) and neutral images were measured before and after 8 weeks of treatment. Analyses focused on the late positive potential (LPP)--an ERP response in the 400-1,000 ms time window thought to index allocation of attention to emotional information. Treatment with MORE was associated with significant increases in LPP response to natural reward stimuli relative to neutral stimuli which were correlated with enhanced positive affective cue-responses and reductions in opioid craving from pre- to post-treatment. Findings suggest that cognitive training regimens centered on strengthening attention to natural rewards may remediate reward processing deficits underpinning addictive behavior.

  18. Situation-based social anxiety enhances the neural processing of faces: evidence from an intergroup context.

    PubMed

    Ofan, Renana H; Rubin, Nava; Amodio, David M

    2014-08-01

    Social anxiety is the intense fear of negative evaluation by others, and it emerges uniquely from a social situation. Given its social origin, we asked whether an anxiety-inducing social situation could enhance the processing of faces linked to the situational threat. While past research has focused on how individual differences in social anxiety relate to face processing, we tested the effect of manipulated social anxiety in the context of anxiety about appearing racially prejudiced in front of a peer. Visual processing of faces was indexed by the N170 component of the event-related potential. Participants viewed faces of Black and White males, along with nonfaces, either in private or while being monitored by the experimenter for signs of prejudice in a 'public' condition. Results revealed a difference in the N170 response to Black and Whites faces that emerged only in the public condition and only among participants high in dispositional social anxiety. These results provide new evidence that anxiety arising from the social situation modulates the earliest stages of face processing in a way that is specific to a social threat, and they shed new light on how anxiety effects on perception may contribute to the regulation of intergroup responses.

  19. Functional MRI reveals compromised neural integrity of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Galia; Behrmann, Marlene

    2009-07-14

    The summed activity of multiple nodes of a distributed cortical network supports face recognition in humans, including "core" ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC) regions, and "extended" regions outside VOTC. Many individuals with congenital prosopagnosia-an impairment in face processing-exhibit normal blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activation in the core VOTC regions. These individuals evince a reduction in the structural integrity of the white matter tracts connecting VOTC to anterior temporal and frontal cortices, part of the "extended" face network. The impairment in congenital prosopagnosia may arise, therefore, not from a dysfunction of the core VOTC areas but from a failure to propagate signals between the intact VOTC and the extended nodes of the network. Using the fMR adaptation paradigm with famous and unknown faces, we show that individuals with congenital prosopagnosia evince normal adaptation effects in VOTC, indicating sensitivity to facial identity, but show no differential activation for familiar versus unknown faces outside VOTC, particularly in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior paracingulate cortex. Normal BOLD activation in VOTC is thus insufficient to subserve intact face recognition, and disrupted information propagation between VOTC and the extended face processing network may explain the functional impairment in congenital prosopagnosia.

  20. The stimuli drive the response: an fMRI study of youth processing adult or child emotional face stimuli.

    PubMed

    Marusak, Hilary A; Carré, Justin M; Thomason, Moriah E

    2013-12-01

    Effective navigation of the social world relies on the correct interpretation of facial emotions. This may be particularly important in formative years. Critically, literature examining the emergence of face processing in youth (children and adolescents) has focused on the neural and behavioral correlates of processing adult faces, which are relationally different from youth participants, and whose facial expressions may convey different meaning than faces of their peers. During a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan, we compared concurrent neural and behavioral responses as youth (N=25) viewed validated, emotionally varied (i.e., anger, fear, happy, and neutral) adult and child face stimuli. We observed that participants made fewer errors when matching adult, compared to child, face stimuli, and that while similar brain regions were involved in processing both adult and child faces, activation in the face processing neural network was greater for adult than child faces. This was true across emotions, and also when comparing neutral adult versus neutral child faces. Additionally, a valence by stimuli-type effect was observed within the amygdala. That is, within adult face stimuli, negative and neutral face stimuli elicited the largest effects, whereas within child face stimuli, happy face stimuli elicited the largest amygdala effects. Thus, heightened engagement of the amygdala was observed for happy child and angry adult faces, which may reflect age-specific salience of select emotions in early life. This study provides evidence that the relational age of the perceived face influences neural processing in youth.

  1. How Negative Social Bias Affects Memory for Faces: An Electrical Neuroimaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; La Mastra, Francesca; Zani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    During social interactions, we make inferences about people’s personal characteristics based on their appearance. These inferences form a potential prejudice that can positively or negatively bias our interaction with them. Not much is known about the effects of negative bias on face perception and the ability to recognize people faces. This ability was investigated by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) from 128 sites in 16 volunteers. In the first session (encoding), they viewed 200 faces associated with a short fictional story that described anecdotal positive or negative characteristics about each person. In the second session (recognition), they underwent an old/new memory test, in which they had to distinguish 100 new faces from the previously shown faces. ERP data relative to the encoding phase showed a larger anterior negativity in response to negatively (vs. positively) biased faces, indicating an additional processing of faces with unpleasant social traits. In the recognition task, ERPs recorded in response to new faces elicited a larger FN400 than to old faces, and to positive than negative faces. Additionally, old faces elicited a larger Old-New parietal response than new faces, in the form of an enlarged late positive (LPC) component. An inverse solution SwLORETA (450–550 ms) indicated that remembering old faces was associated with the activation of right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), left medial temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus. Only negatively connoted faces strongly activated the limbic and parahippocampal areas and the left SFG. A dissociation was found between familiarity (modulated by negative bias) and recollection (distinguishing old from new faces). PMID:27655327

  2. Race-Based Perceptual Asymmetry in Face Processing Is Evident Early in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Angela; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Kangas, Ashley; Zieber, Nicole; Joseph, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    Adults' processing of own-race faces differs from that of other-race faces. The presence of an "other-race" feature (ORF) has been proposed as a mechanism underlying this specialization. We examined whether this mechanism, which was previously identified in adults and in 9-month-olds, is evident at 3.5 months. Caucasian 3.5-month-olds looked…

  3. Social anhedonia is associated with neural abnormalities during face emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Germine, Laura T; Garrido, Lucia; Bruce, Lori; Hooker, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Human beings are social organisms with an intrinsic desire to seek and participate in social interactions. Social anhedonia is a personality trait characterized by a reduced desire for social affiliation and reduced pleasure derived from interpersonal interactions. Abnormally high levels of social anhedonia prospectively predict the development of schizophrenia and contribute to poorer outcomes for schizophrenia patients. Despite the strong association between social anhedonia and schizophrenia, the neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in social anhedonia have not been studied and are thus poorly understood. Deficits in face emotion recognition are related to poorer social outcomes in schizophrenia, and it has been suggested that face emotion recognition deficits may be a behavioral marker for schizophrenia liability. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to see whether there are differences in the brain networks underlying basic face emotion processing in a community sample of individuals low vs. high in social anhedonia. We isolated the neural mechanisms related to face emotion processing by comparing face emotion discrimination with four other baseline conditions (identity discrimination of emotional faces, identity discrimination of neutral faces, object discrimination, and pattern discrimination). Results showed a group (high/low social anhedonia) × condition (emotion discrimination/control condition) interaction in the anterior portion of the rostral medial prefrontal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex. As predicted, high (relative to low) social anhedonia participants showed less neural activity in face emotion processing regions during emotion discrimination as compared to each control condition. The findings suggest that social anhedonia is associated with abnormalities in networks responsible for basic processes associated with social cognition, and provide a

  4. ERP (enterprise resource planning) systems can streamline healthcare business functions.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, E K; Christenson, E

    2001-05-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software applications are designed to facilitate the systemwide integration of complex processes and functions across a large enterprise consisting of many internal and external constituents. Although most currently available ERP applications generally are tailored to the needs of the manufacturing industry, many large healthcare systems are investigating these applications. Due to the significant differences between manufacturing and patient care, ERP-based systems do not easily translate to the healthcare setting. In particular, the lack of clinical standardization impedes the use of ERP systems for clinical integration. Nonetheless, an ERP-based system can help a healthcare organization integrate many functions, including patient scheduling, human resources management, workload forecasting, and management of workflow, that are not directly dependent on clinical decision making.

  5. Perception and Processing of Faces in the Human Brain Is Tuned to Typical Feature Locations

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzkopf, D. Samuel; Alvarez, Ivan; Lawson, Rebecca P.; Henriksson, Linda; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Faces are salient social stimuli whose features attract a stereotypical pattern of fixations. The implications of this gaze behavior for perception and brain activity are largely unknown. Here, we characterize and quantify a retinotopic bias implied by typical gaze behavior toward faces, which leads to eyes and mouth appearing most often in the upper and lower visual field, respectively. We found that the adult human visual system is tuned to these contingencies. In two recognition experiments, recognition performance for isolated face parts was better when they were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. The recognition cost of reversed locations was equal to ∼60% of that for whole face inversion in the same sample. Similarly, an fMRI experiment showed that patterns of activity evoked by eye and mouth stimuli in the right inferior occipital gyrus could be separated with significantly higher accuracy when these features were presented at typical, rather than reversed, visual field locations. Our findings demonstrate that human face perception is determined not only by the local position of features within a face context, but by whether features appear at the typical retinotopic location given normal gaze behavior. Such location sensitivity may reflect fine-tuning of category-specific visual processing to retinal input statistics. Our findings further suggest that retinotopic heterogeneity might play a role for face inversion effects and for the understanding of conditions affecting gaze behavior toward faces, such as autism spectrum disorders and congenital prosopagnosia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Faces attract our attention and trigger stereotypical patterns of visual fixations, concentrating on inner features, like eyes and mouth. Here we show that the visual system represents face features better when they are shown at retinal positions where they typically fall during natural vision. When facial features were shown at typical (rather

  6. FMRI analysis of contrast polarity processing in face-selective cortex in humans and monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xiaomin; Nasr, Shahin; Devaney, Kathryn J.; Holt, Daphne J.; Tootell, Roger B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Recognition is strongly impaired when the normal contrast polarity of faces is reversed. For instance, otherwise-familiar faces become very difficult to recognize when viewed as photographic negatives. Here, we used fMRI to demonstrate related properties in visual cortex: 1) fMRI responses in the human Fusiform Face Area (FFA) decreased strongly (26%) to contrast-reversed faces across a wide range of contrast levels (5.3-100% RMS contrast), in all subjects tested. In a whole brain analysis, this contrast polarity bias was largely confined to the Fusiform Face Area (FFA; p < 0.0001), with possible involvement of a left occipital face-selective region. 2) It is known that reversing facial contrast affects three image properties in parallel (absorbance, shading, and specular reflection). Here, comparison of FFA responses to those in V1 suggests that the contrast polarity bias is produced in FFA only when all three component properties were reversed simultaneously, which suggests a prominent non-linearity in FFA processing. 3) Across a wide range (180°) of illumination source angles, 3D face shapes without texture produced response constancy in FFA, without a contrast polarity bias. 4) Consistent with psychophysics, analogous fMRI biases for normal contrast polarity were not produced by non-face objects, with image statistics similar to the face stimuli. 5) Using fMRI, we also demonstrated a contrast polarity bias in awake behaving macaque monkeys, in the cortical region considered homologous to human FFA. Thus common cortical mechanisms may underlie facial contrast processing across ~ 25 million years of primate evolution. PMID:23518007

  7. Are patients with schizophrenia impaired in processing non-emotional features of human faces?

    PubMed Central

    Darke, Hayley; Peterman, Joel S.; Park, Sohee; Sundram, Suresh; Carter, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    It is known that individuals with schizophrenia exhibit signs of impaired face processing, however, the exact perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these deficits are yet to be elucidated. One possible source of confusion in the current literature is the methodological and conceptual inconsistencies that can arise from the varied treatment of different aspects of face processing relating to emotional and non-emotional aspects of face perception. This review aims to disentangle the literature by focusing on the performance of patients with schizophrenia in a range of tasks that required processing of non-emotional features of face stimuli (e.g., identity or gender). We also consider the performance of patients on non-face stimuli that share common elements such as familiarity (e.g., cars) and social relevance (e.g., gait). We conclude by exploring whether observed deficits are best considered as “face-specific” and note that further investigation is required to properly assess the potential contribution of more generalized attentional or perceptual impairments. PMID:23970872

  8. Congenital prosopagnosia: multistage anatomical and functional deficits in face processing circuitry.

    PubMed

    Dinkelacker, V; Grüter, M; Klaver, P; Grüter, T; Specht, K; Weis, S; Kennerknecht, I; Elger, C E; Fernandez, G

    2011-05-01

    Face recognition is a primary social skill which depends on a distributed neural network. A pronounced face recognition deficit in the absence of any lesion is seen in congenital prosopagnosia. This study investigating 24 congenital prosopagnosic subjects and 25 control subjects aims at elucidating its neural basis with fMRI and voxel-based morphometry. We found a comprehensive behavioral pattern, an impairment in visual recognition for faces and buildings that spared long-term memory for faces with negative valence. Anatomical analysis revealed diminished gray matter density in the bilateral lingual gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In most of these areas, gray matter density correlated with memory success. Decreased functional activation was found in the left fusiform gyrus, a crucial area for face processing, and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas activation of the medial prefrontal cortex was enhanced. Hence, our data lend strength to the hypothesis that congenital prosopagnosia is explained by network dysfunction and suggest that anatomic curtailing of visual processing in the lingual gyrus plays a substantial role. The dysfunctional circuitry further encompasses the fusiform gyrus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to their difficulties in long-term memory for complex visual information. Despite their deficits in face identity recognition, processing of emotion related information is preserved and possibly mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex. Congenital prosopagnosia may, therefore, be a blueprint of differential curtailing in networks of visual cognition.

  9. Atypical Asymmetry for Processing Human and Robot Faces in Autism Revealed by fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Corinne E.; Strother, Lars; Feil-Seifer, David J.; Hutsler, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in the visual processing of faces in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) individuals may be due to atypical brain organization and function. Studies assessing asymmetric brain function in ASD individuals have suggested that facial processing, which is known to be lateralized in neurotypical (NT) individuals, may be less lateralized in ASD. Here we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to first test this theory by comparing patterns of lateralized brain activity in homologous temporal-occipital facial processing regions during observation of faces in an ASD group and an NT group. As expected, the ASD participants showed reduced right hemisphere asymmetry for human faces, compared to the NT participants. Based on recent behavioral reports suggesting that robots can facilitate increased verbal interaction over human counterparts in ASD, we also measured responses to faces of robots to determine if these patterns of activation were lateralized in each group. In this exploratory test, both groups showed similar asymmetry patterns for the robot faces. Our findings confirm existing literature suggesting reduced asymmetry for human faces in ASD and provide a preliminary foundation for future testing of how the use of categorically different social stimuli in the clinical setting may be beneficial in this population. PMID:27389017

  10. Encoding of faces and objects into visual working memory: an event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Berti, Stefan

    2013-09-11

    Visual working memory (VWM) is an important prerequisite for cognitive functions, but little is known on whether the general perceptual processing advantage for faces also applies to VWM processes. The aim of the present study was (a) to test whether there is a general advantage for face stimuli in VWM and (b) to unravel whether this advantage is related to early sensory processing stages. To address these questions, we compared encoding of faces and complex nonfacial objects into VWM within a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) study. In detail, we tested whether the N170 ERP component - which is associated with face-specific holistic processing - is affected by memory load for faces or whether it might be involved in WM encoding of any complex object. Participants performed a same-different task with either face or watch stimuli and with two different levels of memory load. Behavioral measures show an advantage for faces on the level of VWM, mirrored in higher estimated VWM capacity (i.e. Cowan's K) for faces compared with watches. In the ERP, the N170 amplitude was enhanced for faces compared with watches. However, the N170 was not modulated by working memory load either for faces or for watches. In contrast, the P3b component was affected by memory load irrespective of the stimulus category. Taken together, the results suggest that the VWM advantage for faces is not reflected at the sensory stages of stimulus processing, but rather at later higher-level processes as reflected by the P3b component.

  11. Recognition memory for emotional faces in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Schefter, Maria; Werheid, Katja; Almkvist, Ove; Lönnqvist-Akenine, Ulrika; Kathmann, Norbert; Winblad, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the temporal course of emotional face recognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Patients and healthy controls (HC) performed a face recognition task, giving old/new responses to previously studied and novel faces displaying a negative or neutral expression. In aMCI patients, recognition accuracy was preserved for negative faces. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed disease-related changes in early perceptual components but not in ERP indices of explicit recognition. Specifically, aMCI patients showed impaired recognition effects for negative faces on the amplitudes of N170 and P2, suggesting deficient memory-related processing of negative faces at the stage of structural encoding and during an early recognition stage at which faces are individuated, respectively. Moreover, while a right-lateralized emotion effect specifically observed for correctly recognized faces on the amplitude of N170 was absent in aMCI, a similar emotion effect for successfully recognized faces on P2 was preserved in the patients, albeit with a different distribution. This suggests that in aMCI facilitated processing of successfully recognized emotional faces starts later in the processing sequence. Nonetheless, an early frontal old/new effect confined to negative faces and a parietal old/new effect unaffected by facial emotion were observed in both groups. This indicates that familiarity and conceptual priming processes may specifically contribute to recognition of negative faces in older adults and that aMCI patients can recruit the same retrieval mechanisms as controls, despite disease-related changes on early perceptual ERP components.

  12. Face Emotion Processing in Depressed Children and Adolescents with and without Comorbid Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepman, Karen; Taylor, Eric; Collishaw, Stephan; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Studies of adults with depression point to characteristic neurocognitive deficits, including differences in processing facial expressions. Few studies have examined face processing in juvenile depression, or taken account of other comorbid disorders. Three groups were compared: depressed children and adolescents with conduct disorder (n = 23),…

  13. Faculty' Technology Barriers Faced within the Framework of Quality Processes: SAU Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmas, Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine technology barriers faced by the instructors within the framework of quality processes conducted at the University of Sakarya.Therefore, technology barriers encountered in the process of teaching while using web sites developed in order to manage quality operations from a single center were examined…

  14. The Neurophysiological Correlates of Face Processing in Adults and Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kate; Hamm, Jeff P.; Kirk, Ian J.

    2005-01-01

    Past research has found evidence for face and emotional expression processing differences between individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS) and neurotypical (NT) controls at both the neurological and behavioural levels. The aim of the present study was to examine the neurophysiological basis of emotional expression processing in children and…

  15. Paying attention to my voice or yours: An ERP study with words.

    PubMed

    Conde, Tatiana; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Pinheiro, Ana P

    2015-10-01

    Self-related stimuli-such as one's own face or name-seem to be processed differently from non-self stimuli and to involve greater attentional resources, as indexed by larger amplitude of the P3 event-related potential (ERP) component. Nonetheless, the differential processing of self-related vs. non-self information using voice stimuli is still poorly understood. The present study investigated the electrophysiological correlates of processing self-generated vs. non-self voice stimuli, when they are in the focus of attention. ERP data were recorded from twenty right-handed healthy males during an oddball task comprising pre-recorded self-generated (SGV) and non-self (NSV) voice stimuli. Both voices were used as standard and deviant stimuli in distinct experimental blocks. SGV was found to elicit more negative N2 and more positive P3 in comparison with NSV. No association was found between ERP data and voice acoustic properties. These findings demonstrated an earlier and later attentional bias to self-generated relative to non-self voice stimuli. They suggest that one's own voice representation may have a greater affective salience than an unfamiliar voice, confirming the modulatory role of salience on P3.

  16. Involuntary processing of social dominance cues from bimodal face-voice displays.

    PubMed

    Peschard, Virginie; Philippot, Pierre; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2016-12-21

    Social-rank cues communicate social status or social power within and between groups. Information about social-rank is fluently processed in both visual and auditory modalities. So far, the investigation on the processing of social-rank cues has been limited to studies in which information from a single modality was assessed or manipulated. Yet, in everyday communication, multiple information channels are used to express and understand social-rank. We sought to examine the (in)voluntary nature of processing of facial and vocal signals of social-rank using a cross-modal Stroop task. In two experiments, participants were presented with face-voice pairs that were either congruent or incongruent in social-rank (i.e. social dominance). Participants' task was to label face social dominance while ignoring the voice, or label voice social dominance while ignoring the face. In both experiments, we found that face-voice incongruent stimuli were processed more slowly and less accurately than were the congruent stimuli in the face-attend and the voice-attend tasks, exhibiting classical Stroop-like effects. These findings are consistent with the functioning of a social-rank bio-behavioural system which consistently and automatically monitors one's social standing in relation to others and uses that information to guide behaviour.

  17. Testing the connections within face processing circuitry in Capgras delusion with diffusion imaging tractography

    PubMed Central

    Bobes, Maria A.; Góngora, Daylin; Valdes, Annette; Santos, Yusniel; Acosta, Yanely; Fernandez Garcia, Yuriem; Lage, Agustin; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Although Capgras delusion (CD) patients are capable of recognizing familiar faces, they present a delusional belief that some relatives have been replaced by impostors. CD has been explained as a selective disruption of a pathway processing affective values of familiar faces. To test the integrity of connections within face processing circuitry, diffusion tensor imaging was performed in a CD patient and 10 age-matched controls. Voxel-based morphometry indicated gray matter damage in right frontal areas. Tractography was used to examine two important tracts of the face processing circuitry: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and the inferior longitudinal (ILF). The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and commissural tracts were also assessed. CD patient did not differ from controls in the commissural fibers, or the SLF. Right and left ILF, and right IFOF were also equivalent to those of controls. However, the left IFOF was significantly reduced respect to controls, also showing a significant dissociation with the ILF, which represents a selective impairment in the fiber-tract connecting occipital and frontal areas. This suggests a possible involvement of the IFOF in affective processing of faces in typical observers and in covert recognition in some cases with prosopagnosia. PMID:26909325

  18. Testing the connections within face p