Dandruff; Seborrheic eczema; Cradle cap ... The exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. It may be due to a combination of factors: Oil gland activity Yeasts, called malassezia, which live on the ...
Gupta, Aditya K; Versteeg, Sarah G
Facial seborrheic dermatitis (SD), a chronic inflammatory skin condition, can impact quality of life, and relapses can be frequent. Three broad categories of agents are used to treat SD: antifungal agents, keratolytics, and corticosteroids. Topical therapies are the first line of defense in treating this condition. Our objective was to critically review the published literature on topical treatments for facial SD. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane library databases for original clinical studies evaluating topical treatments for SD. We then conducted both a critical analysis of the selected studies by grading the evidence and a qualitative comparison of results among and within studies. A total of 32 studies were eligible for inclusion, encompassing 18 topical treatments for facial SD. Pimecrolimus, the focus of seven of the 32 eligible studies, was the most commonly studied topical treatment. Promiseb ® , desonide, mometasone furoate, and pimecrolimus were found to be effective topical treatments for facial SD, as they had the lowest recurrence rate, highest clearance rate, and the lowest severity scores (e.g., erythema, scaling, and pruritus), respectively. Ciclopirox olamine, ketoconazole, lithium (gluconate and succinate), and tacrolimus are also strongly recommended (level A recommendations) topical treatments for facial SD, as they are consistently effective across high-quality trials (randomized controlled trials).
Sampaio, Ana Luisa Sobral Bittencourt; Mameri, Angela Cristina Akel; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Nunes, Amanda Pedreira; Carneiro, Sueli Coelho da Silva
Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing erythematous scaly skin disease, the prevalence of which is around 1 to 3% of the general population in the United States. It has two incidence peaks, the first in the first three months of life and the second beginning at puberty and reaching its apex at 40 to 60 years of age. The prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis is higher in HIV-positive individuals and the condition tends to be more intense and refractory to treatment in these patients. Neurological disorders and other chronic diseases are also associated with the onset of seborrheic dermatitis. The currently accepted theory on the pathogenesis of this disease advocates that yeast of Malassezia spp., present on the skin surface of susceptible individuals, leads to a non-immunogenic irritation due to the production of unsaturated fatty acids deposited on the skin surface. This article provides a review of the literature on seborrheic dermatitis, focusing on immunogenetics, the clinical forms of the disease and its treatment.
Berk, Thomas; Scheinfeld, Noah
Abstract Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition, characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches. It may be associated with pruritus, and it primarily affects sebum-rich areas, such as the scalp, face, upper chest, and back. Although its pathogenesis is not completely understood, some postulate that the condition results from colonization of the skin of affected individuals with species of the genus Malassezia (formerly, Pityrosporum). A variety of treatment modalities are available, including eradication of the fungus, reducing or treating the inflammatory process, and decreasing sebum production. PMID:20592880
Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Kralj, Martina; Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra; Lakoš Jukić, Ines
Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder clinically characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches. The prevalence of adult seborrheic dermatitis is estimated at 5%. Although the exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis has yet to be understood, Malassezia yeasts, hormones (androgens), sebum levels and immune response are known to play important roles in its development. Additional factors including drugs, winter temperatures and stress may exacerbate seborrheic dermatitis. A variety of treatment modalities are available, including antifungal agents, topical low-potency steroids and calcineurin inhibitors (immunomodulators). This review summarizes current knowledge on the etiopathogenesis and therapy of adult seborrheic dermatitis.
Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192
An, Qian; Sun, Meng; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhang, Li; Zhai, Jin-Long; Hong, Yu-Xiao; Song, Bing; Chen, Hong-Duo; Gao, Xing-Hua
Background: Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common inflammatory skin condition. The etiology is unclear, although overgrowth of Malassezia on the skin has been suggested to cause SD. This study investigated whether colonization with Staphylococcus plays a role in facial SD, which was not well addressed previously. Methods: The study was conducted from September 1, 2011 to February 20, 2012 in the First Hospital of China Medical University. In the first phase, the study evaluated the level of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the number of colony-forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus in defined skin areas of SD patients who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive (HIV [+] SD [+] group, n = 13), classical SD (HIV [−] SD [+] group, n = 24) patients, HIV seropositive-non-SD (HIV [+] SD [−] group, n = 16) patients, and healthy volunteers (HIV [−] SD [−] group, n = 16). In the second phase, we enrolled another cohort of HIV (−) SD (+) patients who applied topical fusidic acid (n = 15), tacrolimus (n = 16), or moisturizer (n = 12). Changes in the Seborrheic Dermatitis Area Severity Index (SDASI), TEWL, and Staphylococcus density were evaluated 2 weeks later. Comparisons of each index were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least significant difference method. Results: The level of TEWL was greater through lesional sites in the HIV (+) SD (+) group than that in HIV (+) SD (−) and HIV (−) SD (−) groups (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.873–47.071, P < 0.001 and 95% CI: 28.755–55.936, P < 0.001, respectively). The number of CFU of Staphylococcus was greater in the HIV (+) SD (+) group than that in HIV (+) SD (−) and HIV (−) SD (−) groups (95% CI: 37.487–142.744, P = 0.001 and 95% CI: 54.936–156.400, P < 0.001, respectively). TEWL was significantly more improved in patients treated with tacrolimus and fusidic acid than that in those treated with moisturizers (95% CI: 7.560–38.987, P = 0.004 and 95% CI: 4.659–37
Zisova, Lilia G
Malassezia spp. are medically important dimorphic, lipophilic yeasts that form part of the normal cutaneous microflora of human. Seborrheic dermatitis is a multifactor disease that needs endogenous and exogenous predisposing factors for its development. Presence of these factors leads to reproduction of the saprophytic opportunistic pathogen Malassezia spp. and development of a disease. The inflammatory reaction against the yeast Malassezia is considered basic in the etiology of the seborrheic dermatitis. The pathogenesis and exact mechanisms via which these yeasts cause inflammation are still not fully elucidated. They are rather complex and subject of controversy in literature. Most probably Malassezia spp. cause seborrheic dermatitis by involving and combining both nonummune and immune mechanisms (nonspecific and specific). Which of these mechanisms will dominate in any single case depends on the number and virulence of the yeasts as well as on the microorganism reactivity. In the recent years a great interest have been aroused by the epidemiological investigations. Depending on the geographical place of the countries different Malassezia species in seborrheic dermatitis dominate in the different countries. In view of the etiology and pathogenesis of the seborrheic dermatitis comprehensive antifungal preparations have been recently introduced and are nowadays the basic therapeutic resource in the treatment of this disease.
Chosidow, O; Maurette, C; Dupuy, P
Topical ketoconazole (KC) is considered a standard treatment for seborrheic dermatitis. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study, we demonstrated that antifungal ciclopiroxolamine (CIC) 1% cream was effective in mild to moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis. We report here the results of a randomized, open-labeled clinical study comparing CIC 1% cream and KC 2% foaming gel in patients with mild to moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis, using a non-inferiority trial design. Three hundred and three patients were enrolled, 154 patients in the CIC group and 149 patients in the KC group, and comprised the study population for intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis. The per protocol (PP) population comprised a total of 282 patients, 147 in the CIC group and 135 in the KC group. Patients were randomly allocated to apply either the CIC 1% cream twice a day for 28 days maximum (initial phase), followed by once a day for another 28 days (maintenance phase); or the KC 2% foaming gel twice a week at the initial phase, followed by once a week during the maintenance phase. Test lesions were defined as lesions localized to the nasolabial folds, alae nasi, and/or the eyebrows. The main efficacy parameter (endpoint) was the proportion of patients who presented a complete disappearance of both erythema and scaling on test lesions and pruritus on all lesions at the end of the initial phase (28 days or less). At baseline, both treatment groups were comparable in terms of demographic data and lesional status. At the end of the initial phase, responders were found to be non-inferior with CIC treatment compared with KC treatment in both study populations (ITT population: 37% CIC responders and 34% KC responders; in the PP population: 39 and 36% responders, respectively). The 95% confidence interval limit for differences were -7.99-13.56 in the ITT population, and -8.06-14.5 in the PP population. At the end of the maintenance phase, treatment response to CIC was greater than to KC in
Gupta, A K; Bluhm, R
Seborrheic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease, affecting between 1% and 3% of immunocompetent adults. While its cause is unknown, a number of predisposing factors have been reported, including the implications of Malassezia yeasts. Various treatment options are available, such as ciclopirox shampoo, which combines anti-Malassezia activity with an anti-inflammatory action. This agent has been shown to be an effective and safe treatment for seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp.
Schmidt, Jennifer A
Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, recurring skin disorder that has no cure.Current clinical research has implicated Malassezia yeast in the etiology. Using a clear, concise clinical picture and a thorough patient history, even the novice NP can formulate an effective treatment plan.
Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: An Intra-subject Controlled Trial Examining Treated vs. Untreated Skin Utilizing Clinical Features and Erythema-directed Digital Photography.
Dall'Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo; Micali, Giuseppe
To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis.
Borda, Luis J.; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C.
Seborrheic Dermatitis (SD) and dandruff are of a continuous spectrum of the same disease that affects the seborrheic areas of the body. Dandruff is restricted to the scalp, and involves itchy, flaking skin without visible inflammation. SD can affect the scalp as well as other seborrheic areas, and involves itchy and flaking or scaling skin, inflammation and pruritus. Various intrinsic and environmental factors, such as sebaceous secretions, skin surface fungal colonization, individual susceptibility, and interactions between these factors, all contribute to the pathogenesis of SD and dandruff. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on SD and dandruff, including epidemiology, burden of disease, clinical presentations and diagnosis, treatment, genetic studies in humans and animal models, and predisposing factors. Genetic and biochemical studies and investigations in animal models provide further insight on the pathophysiology and strategies for better treatment. PMID:27148560
Gupta, Aditya K; Nicol, Karyn A
Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic superficial fungal infection of the skin, particularly affecting sites rich in sebaceous glands. Although the precise etiology of seborrheic dermatitis is uncertain, yeasts of the genus Malassezia are known to play a causative role. Ciclopirox is a broad-spectrum, hydroxypyridone-derived, synthetic antifungal agent, which also has anti-inflammatory properties. Ciclopirox is effective both in vitro and in vivo against Malassezia yeasts, making it a valuable option for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Varying frequencies and concentrations of ciclopirox shampoo have been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp.
... dermatitis of the scalp? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Your doctor can usually tell whether ... bring psoriasis under better control. With Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Sasseville D. Seborrheic dermatitis in adolescents ...
Wananukul, Siriwan; Chindamporn, Ariya; Yumyourn, Poomjit; Payungporn, Sunchai; Samathi, Chanchuree; Poovorawan, Yong
Our objective was to study both incidence and various strains of Malassezia in infantile seborrheic dermatitis (ISD). Sixty infants between 2 weeks and 2 years old with clinical diagnosis of ISD at the Department of Pediatrics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from May 2002 to April 2003 were recruited. Malassezia spp. were isolated from cultured skin samples of the patients, genomic DNA was extracted and the ITS1 rDNA region was amplified. The PCR product was examined by agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA sequences were determined. The ITS1 sequences were also subjected to phylogenetic analysis and species identification. ISD is most commonly found in infants below the age of 2 months (64%), followed by those between 2 and 4 months (28%) old. Cultures yielded yeast-like colonies in 15 specimens. PCR yielded 200-bp products (Candida) in 3 patients and 300-bp products (Malassezia furfur) in 12 patients (18%). Sugar fermentation using API 20C aux performed on the three 200-bp PCR products yielded Candida species. M. furfur was the only Malassezia recovered from skin scrapings of children with ISD.
Malassezia species, organisms normally colonizing the skin surface, are thought to play a role as either the cause or an exacerbating factor in a number of skin conditions, including pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis (SD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). Using a non-cultural PCR method, we analyzed Malassezia spp. extracted from the skin surface of SD and AD patients. The species most commonly detected in both patient groups were M. globosa and M. restricta, and the number of Malassezia spp. In these patients was higher than in healthy subjects. After a topical application of 2% ketoconazole cream, changes in the population of Malassezia spp. in 20 intractable cases of AD were recorded. The addition of the 2% ketoconazole cream to the standard topical treatments was found to have reduced the Malassezia spp. population by 90%, and showed a clinical efficacy rate of 70%. Furthermore, a combination of azole agents and tacrolimus produced a synergistic anti-fungal effect against Malassezia spp. in vitro. A clinical trial using this drug combination conducted on the face and neck of patients with intractable AD showed a 66.6% efficacy rate in both the reduction of the flora and in clinical improvement. From these results it was evident that Malassezia is one of the factors exacerbating AD, and that removal of the organism results in an improvement in the clinical condition of the patient.
Dessinioti, Clio; Katsambas, Andreas
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a common skin condition seen frequently in clinical practice. The use of varying terms such as sebopsoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, seborrheic eczema, dandruff, and pityriasis capitis reflects the complex nature of this condition. Despite its frequency, much controversy remains regarding the pathogenesis of SD. This controversy extends to its classification in the spectrum of cutaneous diseases, having being classified as a form of dermatitis, a fungal disease, or an inflammatory disease, closely related with psoriasis. Some have postulated that SD is caused by Malassezia yeasts, based on the observation of their presence in affected skin and the therapeutic response to antifungal agents. Others have proposed that Malassezia is incidental to a primary inflammatory dermatosis that resulted in increased cell turnover, scaling, and inflammation in the epidermis, similar to psoriasis. The presence of host susceptibility factors, permitting the transition of M furfur to its pathogenic form, may be associated with immune response and inflammation. Metabolites produced by Malassezia species, including oleic acid, malssezin, and indole-3-carbaldehyde, have been implicated. SD also has been traditionally considered to be a form of dermatitis based on the presence of Malassezia in healthy skin, the absence the pathogenic mycelial form of Malassezia yeasts in SD, and its chronic course. As a result, proposed treatments vary, ranging from topical corticosteroids to topical antifungals and antimicrobial peptides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trznadel-Grodzka, Ewa; Błaszkowski, Marcin; Rotsztejn, Helena
The etiology of seborrheic dermatitis is not fully understood. It has been observed that a number of anascogenic yeasts of Malassezia spp. is related to the intensity of the symptoms. The aim of the study is to measure the concentration of selected inflammatory factors IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α in the serum by an immunoenzymatic method, as well as to confirm the relationship between the studied factors and the clinical condition of the patients (sex, the intensity of skin lesions according to the Scaparro scale) and, finally, to compare the results with the control group. The total number of subjects who participated in the study was 66. The control group (C) consisted of 30 volunteers (23 females and 7 males), with no clinical disorders, aged 24-65 (37.41±6.08 years). Thirty-six patients with seborrheic dermatitis (16 females and 20 males), aged 19-76 (38.61±13.77), made up the study group. The determination of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α was performed by ELISA using a Human High Sensitivity kit (Diaclone, France). Clinically, the intensity of the disease process was evaluated on the Scaparro et al. scale, as modified by Kaszuba. We observed statistically significantly higher levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ in patients with seborrheic dermatitis compared to the control group. We conclude that seborrheic dermatitis is a dermatosis characterized by a cell type immune response with an important role of IFN-γ and IL-2.
Lee, Yang Won; Byun, Hee Jin; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Dong Ha; Lim, Yun Young; Lee, Jin Woong; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kim, Donghak; Chun, Young-Jin; Mun, Seog Kyun; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Hwang, Jae Sung
Malassezia species play an important role in the pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis. In particular, M. restricta and M. globosa are considered to be the predominant organisms in seborrheic dermatitis of Western countries. However, species distribution of Malassezia in seborrheic dermatitis has not been clearly determined yet in Asia. To identify the distribution of Malassezia species on the scalp of seborrheic dermatitis patients in Korea using 26S rDNA PCR-RFLP analysis. A total of 40 seborrheic dermatitis patients and 100 normal healthy volunteers were included in this study. For the identification of Malassezia species, the scalp scales of the subjects were analyzed by 26S rDNA PCR-RFLP analysis. The most commonly identified Malassezia species were M. restricta in the seborrheic dermatitis patients, and M. globosa in the normal controls. In the seborrheic dermatitis group, M. restricta was identified in 47.5%, M. globosa in 27.5%, M. furfur in 7.5%, and M. sympodialis in 2.5% of patients. In the healthy control group, M. globosa was identified in 32.0%, M. restricta in 25.0%, M. furfur in 8.0%, M. obtusa in 6.0%, M. slooffiae in 6.0%, and M. sympodialis in 4.0% of subjects. M. restricta is considered to be the most important Malassezia species in Korean seborrheic dermatitis patients.
Lee, Yang Won; Byun, Hee Jin; Kim, Dong Ha; Lim, Yun Young; Lee, Jin Woong; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kim, Donghak; Chun, Young-Jin; Mun, Seog Kyun; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Hwang, Jae Sung
Background Malassezia species play an important role in the pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis. In particular, M. restricta and M. globosa are considered to be the predominant organisms in seborrheic dermatitis of Western countries. However, species distribution of Malassezia in seborrheic dermatitis has not been clearly determined yet in Asia. Objective To identify the distribution of Malassezia species on the scalp of seborrheic dermatitis patients in Korea using 26S rDNA PCR-RFLP analysis. Methods A total of 40 seborrheic dermatitis patients and 100 normal healthy volunteers were included in this study. For the identification of Malassezia species, the scalp scales of the subjects were analyzed by 26S rDNA PCR-RFLP analysis. Results The most commonly identified Malassezia species were M. restricta in the seborrheic dermatitis patients, and M. globosa in the normal controls. In the seborrheic dermatitis group, M. restricta was identified in 47.5%, M. globosa in 27.5%, M. furfur in 7.5%, and M. sympodialis in 2.5% of patients. In the healthy control group, M. globosa was identified in 32.0%, M. restricta in 25.0%, M. furfur in 8.0%, M. obtusa in 6.0%, M. slooffiae in 6.0%, and M. sympodialis in 4.0% of subjects. Conclusion M. restricta is considered to be the most important Malassezia species in Korean seborrheic dermatitis patients. PMID:21747613
Valentine, Mark C
Follicular accentuation in some patients with seborrheic dermatitis of the back and chest has been recognized for more than a century. The recognition of Malassezia folliculitis in recent decades has led to some confusion regarding categorization of these cases. The author proposes that there is sufficient clinical variation between the typical case of Malassezia folliculitis and patients with follicular seborrheic dermatitis to justify continued separation of these entities until further study provides more clarification.
... dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. 358.750 Section 358.750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Dermatitis, and Psoriasis § 358.750 Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established...
... dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. 358.750 Section 358.750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Dermatitis, and Psoriasis § 358.750 Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established...
Zarei-Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Zarrin, Majid; Mehdinezhad, Forough
Background and Objective Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a frequent disorder of the skin that is distinguished by the development of erythematous patches and yellow-gray scales. It is a multifactor disease that requires predisposing factors for its progress. Presence of these factors leads to reproduction of opportunistic yeast Malassezia spp. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify distribution of Malassezia species on the scalp of SD patients in Ahvaz using modified Dixons agar. Materials and Methods A total of 110 patients diagnosed with SD were sampled. The sampling was carried out by brushing the hair and collecting the dandruff in paper pockets. For identification of Malassezia species, the scalp scales were cultured in Dixons agar. A combination of different characteristics including yeast cell morphology, ability to grow on Sabouraud dextrose agar, catalase test and ability to utilize individual Tweens (20, 40, 60 & 80) were used for identification of species. Results Twenty-seven of 110 (24.5%) SD patients had positive cultures for Malassezia species of which 17 (63%) were male and 10 (37%) were female. The most commonly identified Malassezia species was M. globosa (40.7%) followed by M. pachydermatis (22.2%), M. furfur (11.1%) and M. restricta(7.4%) and Malassezia species (18.5%). Conclusion Malassezia globosa was considered to be the most important orgaism involved in cases with Seborrheic dermatitisin this study. PMID:24475335
Zarei-Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Zarrin, Majid; Mehdinezhad, Forough
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a frequent disorder of the skin that is distinguished by the development of erythematous patches and yellow-gray scales. It is a multifactor disease that requires predisposing factors for its progress. Presence of these factors leads to reproduction of opportunistic yeast Malassezia spp. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify distribution of Malassezia species on the scalp of SD patients in Ahvaz using modified Dixons agar. A total of 110 patients diagnosed with SD were sampled. The sampling was carried out by brushing the hair and collecting the dandruff in paper pockets. For identification of Malassezia species, the scalp scales were cultured in Dixons agar. A combination of different characteristics including yeast cell morphology, ability to grow on Sabouraud dextrose agar, catalase test and ability to utilize individual Tweens (20, 40, 60 & 80) were used for identification of species. Twenty-seven of 110 (24.5%) SD patients had positive cultures for Malassezia species of which 17 (63%) were male and 10 (37%) were female. The most commonly identified Malassezia species was M. globosa (40.7%) followed by M. pachydermatis (22.2%), M. furfur (11.1%) and M. restricta(7.4%) and Malassezia species (18.5%). Malassezia globosa was considered to be the most important orgaism involved in cases with Seborrheic dermatitisin this study.
Trznadel-Grodzka, Ewa; Błaszkowski, Marcin; Rotsztejn, Helena
The pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis has not been fully elucidated. A number of anascogenic yeasts of Malassezia spp. appear to be involved in the intensity of the symptoms. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the levels of selected inflammatory cytokines, IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α, in the serum after treatment with itraconazole. Sixty-six subjects were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 30 participants (23 females and 7 males) without any clinical disorders, aged 24-65 (37.41±6.08 years). Thirty-six patients with seborrheic dermatitis (16 females and 20 males), aged 19-76 (38.61±13.77), constituted the study group. The measurement of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α levels was performed by ELISA using a Human High Sensitivity kit (Diaclone, France). After six-week treatment with itraconazole administered daily at a dose of 200 mg using pulse therapy, there was remission of the disease or at least substantial clinical improvement in the patients with seborrheic dermatitis. The levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ cytokines in the study group were higher than in the control group. After the treatment the level of IFN-γ secretion in the male patients with seborrheic dermatitis significantly increased. The levels of the other studied cytokines did not significantly differ. The treatment with itraconazole had a beneficial effect on the clinical condition of the skin of the patients. IFN-γ is a cytokine whose secretion might affect the condition of the skin in seborrheic dermatitis.
Breunig, Juliano de Avelar; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Staub, Henrique Luiz
The prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis (SD) in the general population is variable in the literature. Factors associated with SD are not well understood. To verify the prevalence of scalp SD in a selected survey of male adolescents on mandatory military service and to find possible associated factors (skin color, socioeconomic level, triceps skin fold, acne, and tobacco consumption). This cross-sectional study included 18-year-old male adolescents on compulsory military service in a southern Brazilian city. Scalp SD was considered as erythema and scaling in any part of the scalp. Skin color, socioeconomic level, triceps skin fold, acne, and tabagism comprised the independent variables studied in our population. A total of 2201 adolescents entered the study. The global prevalence of scalp SD was 11%. White skin [adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) 1.42; 95% CI 1.06-1.92; P = 0.02] and triceps skin fold >19.5 mm (adjusted PR 1.56; 95% CI 1.12-2.18; P = 0.009) were significantly associated with scalp SD. The other variables were not associated with the outcome. Prevalence of scalp SD in our survey of male adolescents was 11%. The occurrence of scalp SD was associated with white skin and a higher body fat content. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.
Kamamoto, C S L; Nishikaku, A S; Gompertz, O F; Melo, A S; Hassun, K M; Bagatin, E
Malassezia spp in skin microbiome scalp has been implicated in seborrheic dermatitis pathogenesis. Thus, treatment based in antifungal combined to topical keratolitic agents have been indicated as well as oral isotretinoin as it reduces the sebum production, glandular's size and possesses anti-inflammatory properties. This randomized, comparative and therapeutic trial aimed toper form the genotypic identification of Malassezia species before and after low-dose oral isotretinoin or topical antifungal treatments for moderate to severe seborrhea and/or seborrheic dermatitis on scalp. Scales and sebum of the scalp were seeded in the middle of modified Dixon and incubated at 32°C. For genotypic identification polymerase chain reaction primers for the ITS and D1/D2 ribossomal DNA were used and followed by samples sequencing. The procedure was conducted before and after therapeutic and randomized intervention for moderate to severe seborrhea/seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp, including oral isotretinoin, 10 mg, every other day and anti-seborrheic shampoo (piroctone olamine), over six months. The M. globosa and M. restricta were the most frequent species isolated on the scalp before and after both treatments. Other non- Malassezia species were also identified. The Malassezia spp. were maintained in the scalp after both treatments that were equally effective for the control of seborrhea/seborrheic dermatitis clinical signs.
Kamamoto, C. S. L.; Nishikaku, A. S.; Gompertz, O. F.; Melo, A. S.; Hassun, K. M.; Bagatin, E.
ABSTRACT Malassezia spp in skin microbiome scalp has been implicated in seborrheic dermatitis pathogenesis. Thus, treatment based in antifungal combined to topical keratolitic agents have been indicated as well as oral isotretinoin as it reduces the sebum production, glandular's size and possesses anti-inflammatory properties. This randomized, comparative and therapeutic trial aimed toper form the genotypic identification of Malassezia species before and after low-dose oral isotretinoin or topical antifungal treatments for moderate to severe seborrhea and/or seborrheic dermatitis on scalp. Scales and sebum of the scalp were seeded in the middle of modified Dixon and incubated at 32°C. For genotypic identification polymerase chain reaction primers for the ITS and D1/D2 ribossomal DNA were used and followed by samples sequencing. The procedure was conducted before and after therapeutic and randomized intervention for moderate to severe seborrhea/seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp, including oral isotretinoin, 10 mg, every other day and anti-seborrheic shampoo (piroctone olamine), over six months. The M. globosa and M. restricta were the most frequent species isolated on the scalp before and after both treatments. Other non-Malassezia species were also identified. The Malassezia spp. were maintained in the scalp after both treatments that were equally effective for the control of seborrhea/seborrheic dermatitis clinical signs. PMID:29484095
Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Masoudnia, Sima; Raghifar, Ramin
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is an inflammatory skin disorder affecting the scalp, face, and trunk, however, there are controversies surrounding its treatment. The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of sertaconazole 2% cream with hydrocortisone 1% cream in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. In total, 138 patients suffering from seborrheic dermatitis were studied. Sixty-nine patients received local sertoconazole 2% cream and they were recommended to use the cream twice a day and for 4 weeks. To create a control group, 69 patients received hydrocortisone 1% cream twice a day for four weeks. At the time of referral, and at 2 and 4 weeks after their first visit, the patients were examined by a dermatologist to check the improvement of clinical symptoms. The mean age of patients was 36.45 +/- 13.23. The highest level of satisfaction (85.1%) was observed 28 days after sertaconazole consumption: 76.9% was recorded for the hydrocortisone group. No relapse of the disease one month after stopping treatment was observed in either the sertaconazole 2% group or the hydrocortisone 1% group. Sertaconazole 2% cream may be an excellent alternative therapeutic modality for treating seborrheic dermatitis.
Piérard, Gérald E; Ausma, Jannie; Henry, Frédérique; Vroome, Valérie; Wouters, Luc; Borgers, Marcel; Cauwenbergh, Geert; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine
Seborrheic dermatitis is considered to be a Malassezia-driven disease. Little objective information is available so far from biometrological quantitative assessments of this skin condition. Pramiconazole is a novel triazole with potent in vitro antifungal activity, especially against Malassezia spp. To study the sequential effects of pramiconazole on Malassezia, inflammation and epidermal changes. This study was performed in 2 groups of subjects suffering from seborrheic dermatitis. The first group (n = 17) remained untreated and was used as control. Clinical, mycological and biometrological assessments were performed at inclusion and during the following 2 weeks. The second group of subjects (n = 10) received a single 200-mg oral dose of pramiconazole at inclusion. Clinical, mycological and biometrological evaluations were performed before and during 1 month following the single antifungal intake. For both parts of the study, several parameters were assessed including yeast density, desquamation, erythema, itching and sebum excretion. In the control group, no significant changes were observed in any of the parameters during the observation period. The findings were markedly different in the pramiconazole-treated subjects. The yeast density was significantly improved on days 3, 7 and 28. Desquamation, erythema, itching, and the global clinical evaluation as assessed by the patients and investigators became significantly improved on days 7 and 28. A trend in decrease of scaliness was noted. No effect on sebum excretion was evidenced. In conclusion, a single 200-mg dose of pramiconazole exhibitsin vivo efficacy in controlling some important clinical aspects of seborrheic dermatitis. Following a reduction in the number of yeasts on day 3, a decrease in the severity of clinical signs and symptoms occurred from day 7 onwards. Sebum excretion appeared uninvolved in the clearing process of seborrheic dermatitis. A single 200-mg dose of pramiconazole appears to abate
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of drug products for the control of... DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Drug Products for the Control of Dandruff, Seborrheic Dermatitis, and Psoriasis § 358.750 Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of drug products for the control of... DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Drug Products for the Control of Dandruff, Seborrheic Dermatitis, and Psoriasis § 358.750 Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of drug products for the control of... DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Drug Products for the Control of Dandruff, Seborrheic Dermatitis, and Psoriasis § 358.750 Labeling of drug products for the control of dandruff, seborrheic...
Kim, Manjae; Kim, Sewoong; Hwang, Minjoo; Kim, Jihun; Je, Minkyu; Jang, Jae Eun; Lee, Dong Hun; Hwang, Jae Youn
To date, the incident rates of various skin diseases have increased due to hereditary and environmental factors including stress, irregular diet, pollution, etc. Among these skin diseases, seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis are a chronic/relapsing dermatitis involving infection and temporary alopecia. However, they typically exhibit similar symptoms, thus resulting in difficulty in discrimination between them. To prevent their associated complications and appropriate treatments for them, it is crucial to discriminate between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis with high specificity and sensitivity and further continuously/quantitatively to monitor the skin lesions during their treatment at other locations besides a hospital. Thus, we here demonstrate a mobile multispectral imaging system connected to a smartphone for selfdiagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis and further discrimination between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis on the scalp, which is the more challenging case. Using the system developed, multispectral imaging and analysis of seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis on the scalp was carried out. It was here found that the spectral signatures of seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis were discernable and thus seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp could be distinguished from psoriasis by using the system. In particular, the smartphone-based multispectral imaging and analysis moreover offered better discrimination between seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis than the RGB imaging and analysis. These results suggested that the multispectral imaging system based on a smartphone has the potential for self-diagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis with high portability and specificity.
A novel cosmetic antifungal/anti-inflammatory topical gel for the treatment of mild to moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the face: an open-label trial utilizing clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography.
Dall' Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Fusto, Carmelinda M; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Dinotta, Franco; Micali, Giuseppe
Topical cosmetic agents may play a role in the management of facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production. Advanced digital photography, equipped with technology able to provide a detailed evaluation of red skin components corresponding to vascular flare (erythema-directed digital photography), is a useful tool for evaluation of erythema in patients affected by inflammatory dermatoses. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a new cosmetic topical gel containing piroctone olamine, lactoferrin, glycero-phospho-inositol, and Aloe vera for the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis by clinical and advanced digital photography evaluation. An open-label, prospective, clinical trial was conducted on 25 patients with mild to moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis. Subjects were instructed to apply the gel twice daily for 45 days. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by measuring at baseline, at day 15 and 45 the degree of desquamation (by clinical examination) and erythema (by digital photography technology via VISIA-CR™ system equipped with RBX™), using a 5-point severity scale, and pruritus (by subject-completed Visual Analogue Scale; scale from 0 to 100 mm). Finally, at baseline and at the end of the study, IGA (Investigator Global Assessment) was performed using a 5-point severity scale (from 0 = worsening to 4 = excellent response). At the end of treatment, a significant reduction (P<0.001) of all considered parameters was observed. Moreover, an excellent response (>80% improvement) was recorded in 47.9% of patients, with no case of worsening. No signs of local intolerance were documented. The tested cosmetic topical gel was effective in treating mild to moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the face. Erythema-directed digital photography may represent a noteworthy tool for the therapeutic monitoring of facial seborrheic dermatitis and an important adjunct aid in the dermatologic clinical practice.
Paulino, Luciana Campos
The human body is inhabited by complex microbial communities, which positively impact different aspects of our health, and might also be related to the development of diseases. Progress in technologies, particularly sequencing methods and bioinformatics tools, has been crucial for the advances in this field. Microbial communities from skin can modulate immune response and protect the host against pathogens, and there are also data supporting their association with several skin conditions; including dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. For decades, they have been thought to be related to Malassezia yeasts; however, the microbial role has not been elucidated, and their etiology remains poorly understood. This review discusses the recent findings in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis and their relation to the skin microbiota. Data provided new perceptions to aid in the understanding of these skin disorders, broadening our view of their etiology and the possible roles of microbial communities in symptom development.
Amado, Yulien; Patiño-Uzcátegui, Anelvi; Cepero de García, Maria C; Tabima, Javier; Motta, Adriana; Cárdenas, Martha; Bernal, Adriana; Restrepo, Silvia; Celis, Adriana
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic, widespread skin condition, which is considered a multifactorial disease influenced, in part, by Malassezia spp. opportunistic activities, as well as various endogenous and exogenous factors. Malassezia species are lipophilic, lipid-dependent yeasts that are members of the normal mycobiota of the human skin. Their isolation from SD lesions varies around the world and the study of the relationship among factors such as gender, age, immunosuppressive condition of the patient and SD development, can lead to a better understanding of this disease. To elucidate the association of age and gender with the development of SD and to precisely determine the Malassezia species involved in the disease, samples were obtained from 134 individuals, including individuals without lesions, human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, individuals with seborrheic dermatitis, and HIV patients with seborrheic dermatitis. Malassezia spp. were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods and a phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bayesian inference. This study revealed that age and gender are not predisposing factors for SD development, and that the most frequent species of Malassezia related to SD development among the Colombian population is M. restricta. We also report the isolation of M. yamatoensis for the first time in Colombia, and propose an ITS2 secondary structure from Malassezia taxa that can be used for precise identification and to establish more robust phylogenetic relationships.
Lee, Yang Won; Lee, Shin Yung; Lee, Younghoon
Background Malassezia species (spp.) are cutaneous opportunistic pathogens and associated with various dermatological diseases including seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff and atopic dermatitis. Almost all Malassezia spp. are obligatorily lipid-dependent, which might be caused by lack of the myristic acid synthesis. Recent genome analysis of M. restricta and M. globosa suggested that the absence of a gene encoding fatty acid synthesis might be compensated by abundant genes encoding hydrolases, which produce fatty acids, and that lipases and phospholipases may play a role in virulence of the fungus. Objective The current study aimed to investigate the contribution of lipases and phospholipases in virulence of the M. restricta as being the most frequently isolated Malassezia spp. from the human skin. Methods Swap samples of two different body sites of at least 18 patients with seborrheic dermatitis were obtained and in vivo expression of lipases and phospholipases of M. restricta was analyzed by the gene specific two-step nested RT-PCR. Results The results of the current study suggest that majority of the patients display expression of lipase RES_0242. Conclusion These data imply a possible role of lipase in the host environment to produce free fatty acids for the fungus. PMID:24003273
Lee, Yang Won; Lee, Shin Yung; Lee, Younghoon; Jung, Won Hee
Malassezia species (spp.) are cutaneous opportunistic pathogens and associated with various dermatological diseases including seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff and atopic dermatitis. Almost all Malassezia spp. are obligatorily lipid-dependent, which might be caused by lack of the myristic acid synthesis. Recent genome analysis of M. restricta and M. globosa suggested that the absence of a gene encoding fatty acid synthesis might be compensated by abundant genes encoding hydrolases, which produce fatty acids, and that lipases and phospholipases may play a role in virulence of the fungus. The current study aimed to investigate the contribution of lipases and phospholipases in virulence of the M. restricta as being the most frequently isolated Malassezia spp. from the human skin. Swap samples of two different body sites of at least 18 patients with seborrheic dermatitis were obtained and in vivo expression of lipases and phospholipases of M. restricta was analyzed by the gene specific two-step nested RT-PCR. The results of the current study suggest that majority of the patients display expression of lipase RES_0242. These data imply a possible role of lipase in the host environment to produce free fatty acids for the fungus.
Zhang, Hao; Ran, Yuping; Xie, Zhen; Zhang, Ruifeng
The causes of seborrheic dermatitis (SD) are complex and incompletely understood. Among the factors, Malassezia yeasts have been reported to play a major etiological role in SD. Many previous studies adopted conventional culture methods that were disadvantaged to detect Malassezia microflora in SD patients, resulting in a low detection rate for each species and high variance in types of microflora observed. This study analyzed Malassezia microflora in SD patients by applying a transparent dressing to the lesional skin and using direct detection of fungal DNA using nested PCR. We collected samples from the lesional skin of 146 SD patients in China and extracted fungal DNA directly from the lesional samples without culture. Specific primers for each Malassezia species were designed to amplify existing yeasts in each sample. Some samples were randomly selected to culture and identified by morphological and physiologic criteria. M. globosa and M. restricta were found in 87.0 and 81.5% of seborrheic dermatitis patients, respectively, which together accounted for more than 50% of Malassezia spp. recovered in these Chinese patients. The majority of SD patients (82.9%) showed co-colonization of two or more Malassezia species. M. globosa and M. restricta predominated in Malassezia colonization in Chinese SD patients. Compared with conventional culture, non-culture-based methods may more accurately reflect Malassezia microflora constitution.
DeAngelis, Yvonne M; Gemmer, Christina M; Kaczvinsky, Joseph R; Kenneally, Dianna C; Schwartz, James R; Dawson, Thomas L
Application of new molecular and biochemical tools has greatly increased our understanding of the organisms, mechanisms, and treatments of dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. Dandruff results from at least three etiologic factors: Malassezia fungi, sebaceous secretions, and individual sensitivity. While Malassezia (formerly P. ovale) has long been a suspected cause, implicated by its presence on skin and lipophylic nature, lack of correlation between Malassezia number and the presence and severity of dandruff has remained perplexing. We have previously identified the Malassezia species correlating to dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. In this report, we show that dandruff is mediated by Malassezia metabolites, specifically irritating free fatty acids released from sebaceous triglycerides. Investigation of the toxic Malassezia free fatty acid metabolites (represented by oleic acid) reveals the component of individual susceptibility. Malassezia metabolism results in increased levels of scalp free fatty acids. Of the three etiologic factors implicated in dandruff, Malassezia, sebaceous triglycerides, and individual susceptibility, Malassezia are the easiest to control. Pyrithione zinc kills Malassezia and all other fungi, and is highly effective against the Malassezia species actually found on scalp. Reduction in fungi reduces free fatty acids, thereby reducing scalp flaking and itch.
Lorette, Gérard; Ermosilla, Valérie
Ciclopiroxolamine (CPO) and Zinc Pirythione (ZP) antifungals are efficient at treating scalp seborrheic dermatitis. This multicentre, single-blind, clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a shampoo containing the 1.5% CPO/1% ZP association compared to the vehicle shampoo and to 2% ketoconazole foaming gel in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. In 189 patients randomised to apply 1 of the 3 products twice a week for 28 days, the global lesional score, erythema, pruritus, global efficacy, quality of life (SF12 and DLQI questionnaires) and tolerance were measured at 0, 7, 14 and 28 days. The 3 products reduced lesional score, erythema and pruritus from day 7 (p < 0.0001). The 2 antifungal treatments were significantly more efficient than the vehicle in reducing lesional score, erythema and pruritus at day 14 (p < 0.0001). At day 7, the CPO/ZP shampoo was more efficient in reducing pruritus than ketoconazole gel and vehicle (p = 0.032 and p < 0.001, respectively). The global efficacy of the 2 antifungal treatments assessed at day 28 by both investigator and patient was significantly better than that of the vehicle. Only the CPO/ZP shampoo improved all DLQI questionnaire dimensions. The CPO/ZP shampoo was as rapid and efficient as ketoconazole gel in SD treatment.
Schwartz, James R; Messenger, Andrew G; Tosti, Antonella; Todd, Gail; Hordinsky, Maria; Hay, Roderick J; Wang, Xuemin; Zachariae, Claus; Kerr, Kathy M; Henry, James P; Rust, Rene C; Robinson, Michael K
Despite an increasing knowledge of dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis (D/SD), the pathophysiological understanding is still incomplete but suggests a role of Malassezia yeasts in triggering inflammatory and hyper-proliferative epidermal responses. The objective of this report is to review published literature from in vivo studies of D/SD populations to provide a more complete description of overall scalp health. New biomolecular capabilities establish a depth of pathophysiological understanding not previously achievable with traditional means of investigation. Biomarkers representing inflammation, hyper-proliferation and barrier function are all perturbed by the D/SD condition and robustly respond to therapeutic resolution. These biomarkers can be sampled noninvasively, enabling their use in routine clinical evaluations as either surrogate endpoints or complementary ones to classical signs/symptoms to broaden the etiological learning.
Dave, Vivek; Sharma, Swati; Yadav, Renu Bala; Agarwal, Udita
The aim of the present study was to develop liposomal gel containing ketoconazole and neem extract for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis in an effectual means. Azoles derivatives that are commonly used to prevent superficial fungal infections include triazole category like itraconazole. These drugs are available in the form of oral dosage that required a long period of time for treatment. Ketoconazole is available in the form of gel but is not used with any herbal extract. Neem ( Azadirachta indica) leaves show a good anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity and have great potential as a bioactive compound. The thin film hydration method was used to design an herbal liposomal preparation. The formulation was further subjected to their characterization as particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, % cumulative drug release, and anti-fungal activity and it was also characterized by the mean of their physicochemical properties such as FTIR, SEM, DSC, TGA, and AFM. The results show that the formulation of liposomes with neem extract F12 were found to be optimum on the basis of entrapment efficiency in the range 88.9 ± 0.7%, with a desired mean particle size distribution of 141.6 nm and zeta potential - 45 mV. The anti-fungal activity of liposomal formulation F12 was carried out against Aspergillus niger and Candida tropicalis by measuring the inhibition zone 8.9 and 10.2 mm, respectively. Stability of optimized formulation was best seen at refrigerated condition. Overall, these results indicated that developed liposomal gel of ketoconazole with neem extract could have great potential for seborrheic dermatitis and showed synergetic effect for the treatment.
Barak-Shinar, Deganit; Green, Lawrence J
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an herbal and zinc pyrithione shampoo and a scalp lotion (Kamedis Derma-Scalp Dandruff Therapy, Kamedis Ltd., Tel Aviv, Israel) for the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff. Design: This was an interventional, open-label, safety and efficacy study. Setting: This open-label study was conducted at Consumer Product Testing Company Inc. in Fairfield, New Jersey. At the baseline visit (Day 0), an examination of the scalp was conducted by a board-certified dermatologist. The entire scalp was evaluated for evidence of seborrheic dermatitis using the Adherent Scalp Flaking Score with a 10-point scale. Only subjects with evidence of moderate-to-greater seborrheic dermatitis or moderate-to-greater dandruff were deemed qualified for inclusion in the study. Participants: Fifty subjects were recruited and included in the study. Measurements: Study subjects were evaluated by the same dermatologist for erythema and flaking at Days 0, 14, 28, and 42 using a five-point scale for each parameter. At each time point, a total severity score was calculated based on the findings of the evaluations. Following the scalp evaluation, each subject had a standardized digital photograph taken of his or her scalp. Each subject was also asked to answer a satisfaction questionnaire regarding the product treatment enhancement and characteristics. Results: A reduction in both parameters evaluated was seen at all time points. Statistical significance was achieved at each time point when compared with the baseline visit. In addition, the subjects expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the treatment. No adverse events were reported during this study. Conclusion: The study showed that the herbal zinc pyrithione shampoo and scalp lotion provided improvement in the main symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis.
Green, Lawrence J.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an herbal and zinc pyrithione shampoo and a scalp lotion (Kamedis Derma-Scalp Dandruff Therapy, Kamedis Ltd., Tel Aviv, Israel) for the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff. Design: This was an interventional, open-label, safety and efficacy study. Setting: This open-label study was conducted at Consumer Product Testing Company Inc. in Fairfield, New Jersey. At the baseline visit (Day 0), an examination of the scalp was conducted by a board-certified dermatologist. The entire scalp was evaluated for evidence of seborrheic dermatitis using the Adherent Scalp Flaking Score with a 10-point scale. Only subjects with evidence of moderate-to-greater seborrheic dermatitis or moderate-to-greater dandruff were deemed qualified for inclusion in the study. Participants: Fifty subjects were recruited and included in the study. Measurements: Study subjects were evaluated by the same dermatologist for erythema and flaking at Days 0, 14, 28, and 42 using a five-point scale for each parameter. At each time point, a total severity score was calculated based on the findings of the evaluations. Following the scalp evaluation, each subject had a standardized digital photograph taken of his or her scalp. Each subject was also asked to answer a satisfaction questionnaire regarding the product treatment enhancement and characteristics. Results: A reduction in both parameters evaluated was seen at all time points. Statistical significance was achieved at each time point when compared with the baseline visit. In addition, the subjects expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the treatment. No adverse events were reported during this study. Conclusion: The study showed that the herbal zinc pyrithione shampoo and scalp lotion provided improvement in the main symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:29410727
Yurayart, Chompoonek; Chindamporn, Ariya; Suradhat, Sanipa; Tummaruk, Padet; Kajiwara, Susumu; Prapasarakul, Nuvee
The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of yeast associated with the degree of canine seborrheic dermatitis (SD) by anatomical sites. Fifty-seven samples were divided as 17 healthy skin, 20 with primary seborrheic dermatitis (PSD), and 20 with secondary seborrheic dermatitis (SSD). Yeast isolation and characterization were carried out based on microscopical features and biochemical properties. DNA analysis at the internal transcribed spacer I of 26S rDNA region was utilized for species confirmation. Four species of yeast consisting Malassezia pachydermatis, Malassezia furfur, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis recovered from examined dogs. M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis were isolated from all dogs, but C. tropicalis and M. furfur were recovered from 3 healthy dogs and one diseased dog, respectively. The number of M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis in diseased dogs was higher than that of healthy specimens (P<0.01). High frequency and population size of C. parapsilosis were closely associated to PSD, while those of M. pachydermatis were associated with both PSD and SSD (P<0.01). C. parapsilosis were predominant at the perianal area. This study demonstrated the co-colonization of M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis in large amounts and frequency associated with stage of disease and anatomical site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ran, Yuping; He, Xiaodan; Zhang, Hao; Dai, Yaling; Li, Lina; Bulmer, G S
This is a case of seborrheic dermatitis (SD) barbae from which Malassezia furfur (M. furfur) was isolated. The patient was a 57-year-old Dutch male, who was hospitalized for fever and weakness of extremities. He presented with symmetrical erythema with an abundance of greasy chaffy scales on his beard area. No reasons were detected for his fever following a routine search. M. furfur was identified through mycological examination, including direct microscopic examination, culture, Tween test, esculine splitting test and DNA sequencing, of samples from the skin lesions. The patient was treated with oral itraconazole capsules (200 mg, b.i.d. for 8 days, then 200 mg o.d. for 13 days), washing his scalp and face with 2% ketoconazole shampoo (once a day) and topical application of a cream containing 1% naftifine hydrochloride and 0.25% ketoconazole (b.i.d.). After treatment the fever subsided and the SD lesion gradually healed. M. furfur was not isolated again from skin scrapings and 7 days later therapy was terminated and no recurrence was noted after one week follow-up since the cessation of treatment.
Prohic, A; Kasumagic-Halilovic, E
Differences in prevalence, clinical and histological manifestations between seborrheic dermatitis (SD) in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients suggest that these two populations might also differ in a spectrum of isolated Malassezia species. The purpose of our study was to analyse the prevalence of Malassezia species in immunocompromised and non-immunocompromised patients with SD and to examine if the range of isolated yeasts varies between these two study groups. Specimens were taken from 50 patients with SD: 30 without any underlying disease and 20 with confirmed immunosuppression. The samples were obtained by scraping the skin surface of the scalp and trunk lesions of all subjects and then incubated on modified Dixon agar. The yeasts isolated were identified by their morphological and physiological properties according to Guillot et al method. In both groups, the most commonly isolated species from the scalp lesions were Malassenzia restricta and Malassenzia globosa, the later being the most common species isolated from lesional trunk skin. No significant differences were found between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients from both sampled sites. There is no difference in the distribution of Malassezia species isolated from SD lesions between immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. However, the much higher percentage of positive cultures in immunocompromised patients confirms that impaired cellular immunity may facilitate fungal survival on the skin.
Sosa, María de los Angeles; Rojas, Florencia; Mangiaterra, Magdalena; Giusiano, Gustavo
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is considered the second most frequently dermatosis associated with the genus Malassezia but little is the knowledge about the epidemiology of this association. To determinate the prevalence of Malassezia species associated with SD and to analyse their distribution according to the location of the lesion on the body. This study was performed in Resistencia city, located in a subtropical area in northeast Argentina. In this study, 226 skin samples from patients with lesions compatible with SD were studied. Age, gender and body sites lesion were recorded. Strains were identified by PCR-RFLP. One hundred and thirty-one positive cultures were obtained. Association of 2 species was detected in 10 cases; therefore, 141 strains were isolated. Malasezzia globosa (43.3%) was the most frequent species isolated, followed by Malasezzia furfur (20.6%), Malasezzia sympodialis (17%) and Malasezzia restricta (16.3%). Three isolates of Malasezzia slooffiae (2.1%) and one of Malasezzia pachydermatis (0.7%) were obtained. Statistical significance (P<0.05) was found between M. globosa and scalp. Malasezzia restricta was isolated only in head areas. This study suggests M. globosa is the most related species to SD. The prevalence of other species is different from that reported by other authors. Only M. globosa and M. restricta presented a pattern of relationship with the body sites of the lesions. It is noteworthy is the isolation of the zoophylic species M. pachydermatis. The Malassezia genus ecology and the pathogenic role of its species are still under study. This work is a contribution to this knowledge. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Sugita, Takashi; Tajima, Mami; Takashima, Masako; Amaya, Misato; Saito, Masuyoshi; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Nishikawa, Akemi
Over the last few years, new Malassezia species have been found regularly in Japanese subjects. We isolated another new Malassezia species from a Japanese patient with seborrheic dermatitis (SD), and named it M. yamatoensis. In its physiological characteristics and the utilization of Tween by M. yamatoensis is similar to that of M. furfur and M. dermatis. It is distinguished by its growth temperature. To examine the distribution of the microorganism in the skin of patients with SD and atopic dermatitis (AD), and healthy subjects, we applied transparent dressings to the skin, and detected M. yamatoensis DNA using a non-culture-based method that consisted of nested PCR with specific primers. M. yamatoensis DNA was detected from 3 of 31 SD patients (9.7%), 5 of 36 AD patients (13.9%), and 1 of 22 healthy subjects (4.6%). Therefore, M. yamatoensis is a rare member of the cutaneous microflora.
Ionescu, M A; Baroni, A; Brambilla, L; Cannavò, S P; Cristaudo, A; Vedove, C Dalle; Frasca, M; Girolomoni, G; Gnecchi, L; Peris, K; Trifirò, C; Matta, A M; Robert, G
Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease aggravated by Malassezia species. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are part of innate immune system that can be activated by yeasts. Previous studies showed that an association of Umbelliferae extract with a lipid (TLR2-Regul™) decreases the IL-8 expression in human skin in contact with M. furfur. The aim of this study was to assess the activity of a topical formulated with TLR2-Regul™ in the prevention of seborrheic dermatitis (SD) relapses. Immune-competent SD adult patients were treated for SD (topical imidazoles or steroids). Cleared patients were randomized and received a topical containing TLR2-Regul™ (A) or its vehicle (B). Erythema, scales and pruritus were assessed during two months. The study included 115 patients, mean age 43.4, sex ratio m/f 1.5. At week 4 the relapse rate was 26% (N.=15) in group A and 43% (N.=25) in group B. At W8 the relapse rate was 21% (N.=12) in group A and 40% (N.=23) (P=0.0309). In this series of 115 adults with seborrheic dermatitis, patients treated with a topical containing TLR-Regul™ showed a significantly less relapse rate compared with the excipient group (P<0.05). TLR modulation could represent a new therapeutic approach in the prevention of seborrheic dermatitis relapses.
Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hong-Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Lee, Yang Won
Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options. This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including extract of Rosa centifolia petals and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-that exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and sebum secretion inhibitory effects, and antifungal agents for the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. Seventy-five patients were randomized into three treatment groups; new-formula shampoo, 2% ketoconazole shampoo, and 1% zinc- pyrithione shampoo. The clinical severity scores and sebum levels were assessed by the same dermatologists at baseline (week 0), and at 2 and 4 weeks after using the shampoo. User satisfaction and irritation were also assessed with the aid of a questionnaire. The efficacy of the new-formula shampoo was comparable to that of both the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo and the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. Furthermore, it was found to provide a more rapid response than the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo for mild erythema lesions and was associated with greater user satisfaction compared with the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. However, the new-formula shampoo did not exhibit the previously reported sebum inhibitory effect. Extract of R. centifolia petals or EGCG could be useful ingredients in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.
Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hong-Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong
Background Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options. Objective This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including extract of Rosa centifolia petals and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-that exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and sebum secretion inhibitory effects, and antifungal agents for the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. Methods Seventy-five patients were randomized into three treatment groups; new-formula shampoo, 2% ketoconazole shampoo, and 1% zinc- pyrithione shampoo. The clinical severity scores and sebum levels were assessed by the same dermatologists at baseline (week 0), and at 2 and 4 weeks after using the shampoo. User satisfaction and irritation were also assessed with the aid of a questionnaire. Results The efficacy of the new-formula shampoo was comparable to that of both the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo and the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. Furthermore, it was found to provide a more rapid response than the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo for mild erythema lesions and was associated with greater user satisfaction compared with the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. However, the new-formula shampoo did not exhibit the previously reported sebum inhibitory effect. Conclusion Extract of R. centifolia petals or EGCG could be useful ingredients in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:25473226
Yurayart, Chompoonek; Nuchnoul, Noppawan; Moolkum, Pornsawan; Jirasuksiri, Supitcha; Niyomtham, Waree; Chindamporn, Ariya; Kajiwara, Susumu; Prapasarakul, Nuvee
Malassezia pachydermatis and Candida parapsilosis are recognized as commensal yeasts on the skin of healthy dogs but also causative agents of eborrheic dermatitis, especially in atopic dogs. We determined and compared the susceptibility levels of yeasts isolated from dogs with and without seborrheic dermatitis (SD) using the disk diffusion method (DD) for itraconazole (ITZ), ketoconazole (KTZ), nystatin (NYS), terbinafine (TERB) and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and the broth microdilution method (BMD) for ITZ and KTZ. The reliability between the methods was assessed using an agreement analysis and linear regression. Forty-five M. pachydermatis and 28 C. parapsilosis isolates were identified based on physiological characteristics and an approved molecular analysis. By DD, all tested M. pachydermatis isolates were susceptible to ITZ, KTZ, NYS and TERB but resistant to 5-FC. Only 46 - 60% of the tested C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to KTZ, TERB and 5-FC, but ITZ and NYS were effective against all. By BMD, over 95% of M. pachydermatis isolates were susceptible to KTZ and ITZ with an MIC90 < 0.03 and 0.12 μg/ml, respectively. The frequency of KTZ- and ITZ-resistant C. parapsilosis was 29% and 7%, and the MIC90 values were 1 μg/ml and 0.5-1 μg/ml, respectively. Regarding the agreement analysis, 2.2% of minor errors were observed in M. pachydermatis and 0.2-1% of very major errors occurred among C. parapsilosis. There were no significant differences in the yeast resistance rates between dogs with and without SD. KTZ and ITZ were still efficacious for M. pachydermatis but a high rate of KTZ resistant was reported in C. parapsilosis.
Honnavar, Prasanna; Prasad, Gandham S.; Ghosh, Anup; Dogra, Sunil; Handa, Sanjeev
The majority of species within the genus Malassezia are lipophilic yeasts that colonize the skin of warm-blooded animals. Two species, Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta, are implicated in the causation of seborrheic dermatitis/dandruff (SD/D). During our survey of SD/D cases, we isolated several species of Malassezia and noticed vast variations within a few lipid-dependent species. Variations observed in the phenotypic characteristics (colony morphology, absence of catalase activity, growth at 37°C, and precipitation surrounding wells containing Tween 20 or Cremophor EL) suggested the possible presence of a novel species. Sequence divergence observed in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the D1/D2 domain, and the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region of rDNA and the TEF1 gene, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ITS2 region, and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis support the existence of a novel species. Based on phenotypic and molecular characterization of these strains, we propose a new species, namely, M. arunalokei sp. nov., and we designate NCCPF 127130 (= MTCC 12054 = CBS 13387) as the type strain. PMID:27147721
Honnavar, Prasanna; Prasad, Gandham S; Ghosh, Anup; Dogra, Sunil; Handa, Sanjeev; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M
The majority of species within the genus Malassezia are lipophilic yeasts that colonize the skin of warm-blooded animals. Two species, Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta, are implicated in the causation of seborrheic dermatitis/dandruff (SD/D). During our survey of SD/D cases, we isolated several species of Malassezia and noticed vast variations within a few lipid-dependent species. Variations observed in the phenotypic characteristics (colony morphology, absence of catalase activity, growth at 37°C, and precipitation surrounding wells containing Tween 20 or Cremophor EL) suggested the possible presence of a novel species. Sequence divergence observed in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the D1/D2 domain, and the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region of rDNA and the TEF1 gene, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ITS2 region, and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis support the existence of a novel species. Based on phenotypic and molecular characterization of these strains, we propose a new species, namely, M. arunalokei sp. nov., and we designate NCCPF 127130 (= MTCC 12054 = CBS 13387) as the type strain. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Rendic, Elizabeth; Díaz, Cristina; Fich, Félix
The yeast Malassezia spp has an established etiological role in pityriasis versicolor, folliculitis, systemic infections and onychomycosis. To assess the presence of Malassezia spp in patients with seborrheic dermatitis (SD), to find a correlation between Malassezia spp count and the severity of the disease and to compare the prevalence of the different Malassezia species in SD patients and subjects without skin lesions. Scrapings of the face from 81 patients with SD (69 males) and 79 subjects (54 males) without skin lesions were obtained for a direct microscope examination and yeast culture. The yeast Malassezia was found in 76% of SD patients and in 82% of subjects without skin lesions. There was a positive correlation between the number of yeasts found on direct examination and the clinical severity of lesions in SD patients. Although this correlation was statistically significant (P = 0.046), the degree of association (rho = 0.22) was weak. Fifty Malassezia species were identified. M globosa was found in 67% of SD patients, followed by M furfur and M sympodialis, each present in 16.5% of the SD patients. In subjects without skin lesions, the most prevalent species were M globosa (77%), followed by M sympodialis (12%), M slooffiae (7%) and M furfur (4%). The presence of the yeast Malassezia is not associated with the presence of skin lesions.
Reygagne, Pascal; Poncet, Michel; Sidou, Farzaneh; Soto, Pascale
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD), a common dermatosis associating hyperseborrhea, erythema, itching, and dandruff, has frequent scalp involvement. Malassezia furfur infection seems to play an important role in the condition's etiopathology. Treatment of SD usually consists of corticosteroids or antifungals, such as ketoconazole. The aim of this multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel-group pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% after different short-contact application times compared with its vehicle and ketoconazole foaming gel 2% in the treatment of SD of the scalp. For 4 weeks, 55 subjects received one of the following treatments twice weekly: clobetasol propionate shampoo for 2.5, 5, or 10 minutes; clobetasol propionate vehicle for 10 minutes; or ketoconazole foaming gel for 5 minutes before rinsing off. Efficacy criteria included total severity score (TSS) and individual scores of signs such as itching and global improvement. Safety included reporting of burning, overall tolerance, and adverse events. Results showed that an application of clobetasol propionate for 5 and 10 minutes provided a similar mean percentage decrease of TSS, and the mean percentage decrease of TSS for all active groups was significantly superior to that of the vehicle (P < .01). Overall and local safety were good for all treatment groups. The present pilot study demonstrated that a short-contact application of clobetasol propionate shampoo is effective and safe in the treatment of SD of the scalp.
Pedrosa, A F; Lisboa, C; Faria-Ramos, I; Silva, R M; Miranda, I M; Rodrigues, A G
Malassezia are involved in the pathogenesis of different skin diseases including pityriasis versicolor (PV) and seborrheic dermatitis (SD), but these yeasts are also important inhabitants of the skin microbiome. Culture is not performed routinely, although it may be of value in doubtful cases to support the diagnosis; culture is crucial for identification tools such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Culture is also critical to assess the number of organisms and viability and, eventually, to perform antifungal susceptibility tests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph (FM) for over-the-counter (OTC) dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products to include the combination of 1.8 percent coal tar solution and 1.5 percent menthol in a shampoo drug product to control dandruff. FDA did not receive any comments or data in response to its previously proposed rule to include this combination. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.
Schwartz, James R; Rocchetta, Heather; Asawanonda, Pravit; Luo, Fangyi; Thomas, Jennifer H
Scalp seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff (SD/D) are chronic conditions requiring long-term treatment. There is a common belief that patients frequently experience decreasing benefits over time when using a single product. This physiologic accommodation is termed tachyphylaxis. To systematically investigate the anecdotal belief that tachyphylaxis occurs in long-term treatment of SD/D using quantitative clinical assessments. An international questionnaire completed by 722 dermatologists assessed the belief of tachyphylaxis incidence with pyrithione zinc (PTZ)-based shampoos, time course, occurrence relative to active ingredients, and effect of switching products. Two double-blind, randomized, clinical evaluations were conducted, 24- and 48-week studies, whereby a 1% PTZ shampoo, a 2% PTZ shampoo, or a matched placebo control shampoo was used by each subject for the duration of the study. Dermatologists assessed the adherent scalp flaking (scale of 0-10) at baseline and at specified intervals. Sixty-four per cent of responding dermatologists believed tachyphylaxis occurred with PTZ products, and most felt that tachyphylaxis occurred within 3 months of use. Evaluation of mean treatment responses vs. placebo and individual responses as a function of study duration showed a consistent benefit for all products at all time points; therefore, no evidence for tachyphylaxis was found (within 48 weeks of treatment). No evidence for tachyphylaxis in SD/D treatment by PTZ-based shampoos was found. Compliance could explain the decreasing response rate seen over time; the solution is to choose an affordable therapeutic product that is effective long term without cosmetic trade-offs.
Tajima, Mami; Sugita, Takashi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Tsuboi, Ryoji
Malassezia species colonize the skin of normal and various pathological conditions including pityriasis versicolor (PV), seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) and atopic dermatitis (AD). To elucidate the pathogenic role of Malassezia species in SD, Malassezia microflora of 31 Japanese SD patients was analyzed using a PCR-based, culture-independent method. Nested PCR assay using the primers in the rRNA gene indicated that the major Malassezia species in SD were M. globosa and M. restricta, found in 93 and 74% of the patients, respectively. The detection rate and number of each species varied similarly in SD, PV and healthy subjects (HSs), whereas AD showed higher values. Real-time PCR assay showed that the lesional skin harbored approximately three times the population of genus Malassezia found in nonlesional skin (P<0.05), and that M. restricta is a significantly more common species than M. globosa in SD (P<0.005). Genotypic analysis of the rRNA gene showed that the M. globosa and M. restricta from SD patients fell into specific clusters, and could be distinguished from those collected from HSs, but not from those colleted from AD patients. Our results indicate that certain strains of M. restricta occur in the lesional skin of SD patients.
Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Kim, Su Na; Kim, Ah-Reum; Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Won-Seok; Lee, John Hwan; Jung, Won Hee; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong
We investigated the distribution of Malassezia yeast in 120 Chinese (20 patients from each of six cities) and 20 Korean patients with scalp seborrheic dermatitis (SD) and dandruff (SD/D) using ITS1 and ITS2 polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Bioactivity was studied by quantifying sebum lipid production by human primary sebocytes and inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8) production was studied by exposing HaCaT keratinocytes with extracts of five standard Malassezia strains; M. globosa, M. restricta, M. sympodialis, M. dermatis and M. slooffiae. M. restricta and M. globosa were the most frequently encountered species from both Chinese and Korean patients. These two Malassezia species also promoted neutral lipid synthesis although the result was not statistically significant and induced significant increase in IL-8 production among the five Malassezia species studied. The study suggests a possible role of these organisms in the pathogenesis of SD/D. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Seite, Sophie; Rougier, André; Talarico, Sergio
The success of a dandruff treatment depends not only on the ability of a shampoo to control dandruff, but also on patient compliance, which is closely linked to the cosmetic attributes of the product. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy, tolerance, and cosmetic properties of a LHA Shampoo [containing 0.1% lipohydroxy acid (LHA) and 1.3% salicylic acid] to a CPO shampoo [containing 1.5% ciclopiroxolamine (CPO), 3% salicylic acid, and 0.5% menthol] in subjects with seborrheic dermatitis (SD) of the scalp. One hundred subjects with mild to moderate scalp SD were randomized to receive either the LHA shampoo or the CPO shampoo every 2 days for 4 weeks. Efficacy and tolerance were evaluated at days 0, 14, and 28. The LHA and the CPO shampoo both decreased symptoms of scale, erythema, itching, cutaneous discomfort, and dryness from baseline to day 28. A higher percentage of patients showed improvement in the group treated with the LHA formulation than in the group treated with the CPO formulation, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. At day 28, the tolerance and the global efficacy of the LHA shampoo were significantly better (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively) than those of the CPO shampoo. Furthermore, the cosmetic acceptability was better or significantly better for all the endpoints evaluated for the LHA shampoo (P = 0.02 for cleaning, P = 0.04 for lathering). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the lipohydroxy acid shampoo evaluated in this study is a more convenient, efficient, safe, and well-tolerated cosmetic treatment for mild-to-moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp than a ciclopiroxolamine shampoo.
Kasemsarn, Pranee; Iamphonrat, Thanawan; Boonchai, Waranya
Facial dermatitis is commonly encountered in dermatologic practice. It is sometimes difficult to manage because its causative factors may be multiple and difficult to diagnose. This study was designed to identify the characteristics, patch test results, and final diagnoses of facial dermatitis patients who were referred to a contact dermatitis clinic and to identify factors associated with facial allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We retrospectively reviewed case records of facial dermatitis patients who underwent patch testing at the clinic during the period from July 2006 to June 2011. Of the 891 patients patch-tested, 244 (27.4%) had facial dermatitis. Female patients were 9.1 times more predominant than male patients. The mean ± standard deviation age of patients was 37.3 ± 14.8 years. A total of 199 (81.6%) patients demonstrated at least one positive reaction to a patch test, 66.7% of which were clinically relevant. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 45.5% of patients. Independent factors predisposing towards facial dermatitis were female sex, having a previous history of cosmetic allergy, a positive patch test reaction to hairdressing product-related allergens, and a positive allergic reaction to preservative allergens. The prevalence of facial dermatitis was 27.4%. Almost half of all patients with facial dermatitis demonstrated ACD. Factors associated with facial ACD were female gender, a history of cosmetic allergy, and positive patch test reactions to hairdressing product-related allergens and preservatives. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.
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Seité, S; Paries, J; Reygagne, P; Hamidou, Z; Jouanique, C; Perez-Pala, G; Rougier, A
Dandruff is a common scalp disorder affecting almost half of the post-pubertal population of any ethnicity and both genders. It is one of the major reasons for patients to consult a dermatologist and it is the cause of significant psychological and social distress. The aim of this open study was to evaluate the benefit of a 4-week treatment with a shampoo containing 0.1% lipohydroxyacid (LHA) and 1.3% salicylic acid on the scalp condition and on the quality of life of 275 volunteers with seborrheic dermatitis (SD) (n = 226) or light-to-moderate scalp psoriasis (SP) (n = 49). The clinical benefit of the treatment was assessed by scoring the following parameters, i.e., severity of the dermatosis, scaling, itching, excoriations, and superficial burning sensation. The impact on the quality of life was assessed using the Scalpdex, a questionnaire specially developed by Chen et al. for patients with scalp dermatitis, which includes 23 questions regarding the symptoms, functioning and emotions affected by scalp dermatosis. The shampoo used in this study was well tolerated. After a 4-week treatment, dermatologists noticed a significant clinical improvement of all the scalp parameters evaluated (i.e., the composite lesional score was improved in 91% and 77% of the patients with SD or SP respectively). The symptoms, functioning and emotions scores of quality of life were also significantly improved in relation to the improvement of scalp condition. This study not only allowed a better understanding of the SD and SP patient's profile but also demonstrated that the shampoo evaluated is a convenient, efficient, safe, and well-tolerated cosmetic treatment of SD and light-to-moderate SP improving greatly the quality of life of the treated patients.
Soares, Renan Cardoso; Zani, Marcelo Bergamin; Arruda, Ana Carolina Belini Bazán; de Arruda, Lucia Helena Fávaro; Paulino, Luciana Campos
Malassezia yeasts are part of the resident cutaneous microbiota, and are also associated with skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis (SD). The role these fungi play in skin diseases and why they are pathogenic for only some individuals remain unclear. This study aimed to characterize Malassezia microbiota from different body sites in healthy and SD subjects from Brazil. Scalp and forehead samples from healthy, mild SD and severe SD subjects were collected. Non-scalp lesions from severe SD patients were also sampled. 5.8S rDNA/ITS2 amplicons from Malassezia sp. were analyzed by RFLP and sequencing. Results indicate that Malassezia microbiota did not group according to health condition or body area. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three groups of sequences did not cluster together with any formally described species, suggesting that they might belong to potential new species. One of them was found in high proportions in scalp samples. A large variety of Malassezia subtypes were detected, indicating intra-specific diversity. Higher M. globosa proportions were found in non-scalp lesions from severe SD subjects compared with other areas, suggesting closer association of this species with SD lesions from areas other than scalp. Our results show the first panorama of Malassezia microbiota in Brazilian subjects using molecular techniques and provide new perspectives for further studies to elucidate the association between Malassezia microbiota and skin diseases. PMID:25695430
Soares, Renan Cardoso; Zani, Marcelo Bergamin; Arruda, Ana Carolina Belini Bazán; Arruda, Lucia Helena Fávaro de; Paulino, Luciana Campos
Malassezia yeasts are part of the resident cutaneous microbiota, and are also associated with skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis (SD). The role these fungi play in skin diseases and why they are pathogenic for only some individuals remain unclear. This study aimed to characterize Malassezia microbiota from different body sites in healthy and SD subjects from Brazil. Scalp and forehead samples from healthy, mild SD and severe SD subjects were collected. Non-scalp lesions from severe SD patients were also sampled. 5.8S rDNA/ITS2 amplicons from Malassezia sp. were analyzed by RFLP and sequencing. Results indicate that Malassezia microbiota did not group according to health condition or body area. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three groups of sequences did not cluster together with any formally described species, suggesting that they might belong to potential new species. One of them was found in high proportions in scalp samples. A large variety of Malassezia subtypes were detected, indicating intra-specific diversity. Higher M. globosa proportions were found in non-scalp lesions from severe SD subjects compared with other areas, suggesting closer association of this species with SD lesions from areas other than scalp. Our results show the first panorama of Malassezia microbiota in Brazilian subjects using molecular techniques and provide new perspectives for further studies to elucidate the association between Malassezia microbiota and skin diseases.
Gaitanis, George; Magiatis, Prokopios; Stathopoulou, Konstantina; Bassukas, Ioannis D; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Velegraki, Aristea; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros
Malassezia yeasts are connected with seborrheic dermatitis (SD) whereas M. furfur pathogenicity is associated with the production of bioactive indoles. In this study, the production of indoles by M. furfur isolates from healthy and diseased skin was compared, the respective HPLC patterns were analyzed, and substances that are preferentially synthesized by strains isolated from SD lesions were isolated and characterized. Malassezin, pityriacitrin, indole-3-carbaldehyde, and indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ) were isolated by HPLC from extracts of M. furfur grown in L-tryptophan agar, and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. Of these, ICZ, a potent ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), is described for the first time to our knowledge as a M. furfur metabolite. HPLC-photodiode array detection analysis of strain extracts from 7 healthy subjects and 10 SD patients showed that M. furfur isolates from only SD patients consistently produce malassezin and ICZ. This discriminatory production of AhR agonists provides initial evidence for a previously unreported mechanism triggering development of SD and indicates that the variable pathogenicity patterns recorded for M. furfur-associated SD conditions may be attributed to selective production (P<0.001) of measurable bioactive indoles.
Oh, Byung Ho; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong
Background This case-control study concerns a molecular biological method based on the data gathered from a group of Korean subjects to examine the distribution of Malassezia yeasts in seborrheic dermatitis (SD) patients. Cultures for Malassezia yeasts were taken from the foreheads, cheeks and chests of 60 patients with SD and in 60 healthy controls of equivalent age. Objective The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between certain species of Malassezia and SD. This was done by analyzing the differences in the distribution of Malassezia species in terms of age and body parts of the host with healthy controls. Methods 26S rDNA PCR-RFLP, a fast and accurate molecular biological method, was used to overcome the limits of morphological and biochemical methods. Results The positive Malassezia culture rate was 51.7% in patients with SD, which was lower than that of healthy adults (63.9%). M. restricta was dominant in patients with SD (19.5%). Likewise, M. restricta was identified as a common species (20.5%) in healthy controls. In the ages 31~40, M. restricta was found to be the most common species (31.6%) among SD patients. Conclusion According to the results of the study, the most frequently isolated species was M. restricta (19.5%) in patients with SD. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of Malassezia species between the SD patients and healthy control groups. PMID:20548904
Oh, Byung Ho; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong
This case-control study concerns a molecular biological method based on the data gathered from a group of Korean subjects to examine the distribution of Malassezia yeasts in seborrheic dermatitis (SD) patients. Cultures for Malassezia yeasts were taken from the foreheads, cheeks and chests of 60 patients with SD and in 60 healthy controls of equivalent age. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between certain species of Malassezia and SD. This was done by analyzing the differences in the distribution of Malassezia species in terms of age and body parts of the host with healthy controls. 26S rDNA PCR-RFLP, a fast and accurate molecular biological method, was used to overcome the limits of morphological and biochemical methods. The positive Malassezia culture rate was 51.7% in patients with SD, which was lower than that of healthy adults (63.9%). M. restricta was dominant in patients with SD (19.5%). Likewise, M. restricta was identified as a common species (20.5%) in healthy controls. In the ages 31~40, M. restricta was found to be the most common species (31.6%) among SD patients. According to the results of the study, the most frequently isolated species was M. restricta (19.5%) in patients with SD. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of Malassezia species between the SD patients and healthy control groups.
Dawson, Thomas L
Dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis (D/SD) share an etiology dependent upon three factors: sebum, microbial metabolism (specifically, Malassezia yeasts), and individual susceptibility. Advances in microbiological and analytical techniques permit a more detailed understanding of these etiologic factors, especially the role of Malassezia. Malassezia are lipid-dependent and demonstrate adaptation allowing them to exploit a narrow niche on sebum-rich skin. Work in our and our collaborators' laboratories has focused on understanding these adaptations by detailed analysis of biochemistry and gene expression. We have shown that Malassezia globosa and M. restricta predominate on dandruff scalp, that oleic acid alone can initiate dandruff-like desquamation, that M. globosa is the most likely initiating organism by virtue of its high lipase activity, and that an M. globosa lipase is expressed on human scalp. Considering the importance of M. globosa in D/SD (and the overall importance of commensal fungi), we have sequenced the M. globosa and M. restricta genomes. Genomic analysis indicates key adaptations to the skin environment, several of which yield important clues to the role Malassezia play in human disease. This work offers the promise of defining new treatments to D/SD that are targeted at changing the level or activities of Malassezia genes.
Zisova, Lilia G
The AIM of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of fluconazole (FungoIon) in patients with seborrheic blepharitis. Four seborrheic blepharitis patients with Malassezia spp. positive cultures on Dixon's agar were treated with fluconazole (Fungolon) (0.200) weekly for 4 weeks. The therapeutic effect of the treatment was positive in all patients--the clinical symptoms withdrew and cultures became mycologically negative. The results indicate that antifungal agents are efficient in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.
... Seborrheic kertosis. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, Coulson I, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 220. Review Date 10/24/2016 Updated by: David L. Swanson, MD, Vice Chair ...
Utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identification of infantile seborrheic dermatitis-causing Malassezia and incidence of culture-based cutaneous Malassezia microbiota of 1-month-old infants.
Yamamoto, Mikachi; Umeda, Yoshiko; Yo, Ayaka; Yamaura, Mariko; Makimura, Koichi
Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been utilized for identification of various microorganisms. Malassezia species, including Malassezia restricta, which is associated with seborrheic dermatitis, has been difficult to identify by traditional means. This study was performed to develop a system for identification of Malassezia species with MALDI-TOF-MS and to investigate the incidence and variety of cutaneous Malassezia microbiota of 1-month-old infants using this technique. A Malassezia species-specific MALDI-TOF-MS database was developed from eight standard strains, and the availability of this system was assessed using 54 clinical strains isolated from the skin of 1-month-old infants. Clinical isolates were cultured initially on CHROMagar Malassezia growth medium, and the 28S ribosomal DNA (D1/D2) sequence was analyzed for confirmatory identification. Using this database, we detected and analyzed Malassezia species in 68% and 44% of infants with and without infantile seborrheic dermatitis, respectively. The results of MALDI-TOF-MS analysis were consistent with those of rDNA sequencing identification (100% accuracy rate). To our knowledge, this is the first report of a MALDI-TOF-MS database for major skin pathogenic Malassezia species. This system is an easy, rapid and reliable method for identification of Malassezia. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Bumroongthai, K; Chetanachan, P; Niyomtham, W; Yurayart, C; Prapasarakul, N
The yeasts Malassezia (M.) pachydermatis and Candida (C.) parapsilosis are often co-isolated in case of canine seborrhea dermatitis (SD) and also are emerging as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised human beings. Increased information about how their relationship results in biofilm production and an antifungal response would be useful to inform treatment and control. This study was designed to investigate biofilm production derived from co-culture of M. pachydermatis and C. parapsilosis from dog skin and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. We demonstrated that regardless of yeast strain or origin all single and dual cultures produced biofilms within 24 hours, and the greatest amount was present after 72 hours. Biofilm production from mixed cultures was greater than for single strains (P < .05). All sessile forms of the single and dual cultures were resistant to the tested antifungals itraconazole and ketoconazole, whereas planktonic forms were susceptible. The study suggests that dual cultures produce stronger biofilms that are likely to enhance persistence in skin lesions in dogs and result in greater resistance to antifungal treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are frequently associated conditions. Aims of this study were: to determine severity of SD, presence of different species and density of Malassezia yeasts; to assess yeast lipases and phosphatases production in vitro and to compare these results between SD patients with and without PD. Methods This case–control prospective study was conducted at the Dermatology and Neurology Units, Clinical Centre of Serbia and at the National Medical Mycology Reference Laboratory, University of Belgrade Medical School, Serbia. A total of 90 patients and 70 healthy controls (HC) were investigated: 60 patients with SD (SDN) and 30 patients with SD and PD (SDP). Culture-based mycological examination was carried out on lesional skin (LS) and non-lesional skin (NLS). A yeasts density was determined by counting the Malassezia colony forming units per tape (CFU/tape). Enzymes production by isolated Malassezia was investigated. Results The most patients with SD were male (76.7%; SDP and 63.3%; SDN) and the intensity of SD was dominantly severe or moderate (76.7%; SDP and 75%; SDN). The presence of Malasseziа was high on LS in both groups (87.3%; SDP and 86.7%; SDN) (p=0.667). The highest yeasts density (mean CFU/tape=67.8) was detected on LS in 53% of SDP group and in 21.7% of SDN group (mean CFU/tape=31.9) (p < 0.01). The presence of negative cultures was lower in SDP group (13.3%) in comparison to HC and SDN groups (37% and 31.7%, respectively). Malassezia density on NLS in SDP group (mean CFU/tape=44.3) was significantly higher in comparison to SDN and HC (p=0.018). M. globosa was the most abundant species identified amongst isolates from the SDP group (42.3%) and exhibited high production of phosphatase and lipase in vitro. Conclusion From this laboratory-based study a positive correlation between SD, PD, M. globosa incidence, high yeast density and high phosphatase and lipase activity was established. Our data
Arsic Arsenijevic, Valentina S; Milobratovic, Danica; Barac, Aleksandra M; Vekic, Berislav; Marinkovic, Jelena; Kostic, Vladimir S
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are frequently associated conditions. Aims of this study were: to determine severity of SD, presence of different species and density of Malassezia yeasts; to assess yeast lipases and phosphatases production in vitro and to compare these results between SD patients with and without PD. This case-control prospective study was conducted at the Dermatology and Neurology Units, Clinical Centre of Serbia and at the National Medical Mycology Reference Laboratory, University of Belgrade Medical School, Serbia. A total of 90 patients and 70 healthy controls (HC) were investigated: 60 patients with SD (SDN) and 30 patients with SD and PD (SDP). Culture-based mycological examination was carried out on lesional skin (LS) and non-lesional skin (NLS). A yeasts density was determined by counting the Malassezia colony forming units per tape (CFU/tape). Enzymes production by isolated Malassezia was investigated. The most patients with SD were male (76.7%; SDP and 63.3%; SDN) and the intensity of SD was dominantly severe or moderate (76.7%; SDP and 75%; SDN). The presence of Malasseziа was high on LS in both groups (87.3%; SDP and 86.7%; SDN) (p=0.667).The highest yeasts density (mean CFU/tape=67.8) was detected on LS in 53% of SDP group and in 21.7% of SDN group (mean CFU/tape=31.9) (p < 0.01). The presence of negative cultures was lower in SDP group (13.3%) in comparison to HC and SDN groups (37% and 31.7%, respectively). Malassezia density on NLS in SDP group (mean CFU/tape=44.3) was significantly higher in comparison to SDN and HC (p=0.018). M. globosa was the most abundant species identified amongst isolates from the SDP group (42.3%) and exhibited high production of phosphatase and lipase in vitro. From this laboratory-based study a positive correlation between SD, PD, M. globosa incidence, high yeast density and high phosphatase and lipase activity was established. Our data lead to conclusion that local skin
Schnuch, A; Szliska, C; Uter, W
The face is exposed to many foreign substances and may thus be a site of allergic contact dermatitis. Our aim is to elucidate the spectrum of factors associated with facial dermatitis by analyzing data of patients patch tested in the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) between 1995 and 2007. In 18,572 patients the main anatomical site of dermatitis was the face. Among these, the proportion of females and of patients with past or present atopic eczema was increased, while probable occupational causation was less common than in the overall group. Cosmetic allergens, as well as nickel, were significantly more common in women than men, including fragrance mix (10.8% vs. 8.3%), p-phenylenediamine (4.0% vs. 2.8%), lanolin alcohols (3.0% vs. 2.2%), Lyral(TM) (3.1% vs. 2.0%) and bufexamac (1.8% vs. 1.1%). In comparison, only epoxy resin contact allergy was diagnosed significantly more often in men than women: In patients with airborne contact dermatitis, over-represented allergens included sesquiterpene lactone mix, compositae mix, epoxy resin, (chloro-) methylisothiazolinone and oil of turpentine. In the clinical approach to patients with facial dermatitis, occupational airborne causation should be considered in addition to non-occupational (e.g., cosmetic) allergen exposure.
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Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D; Thyssen, J P
Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observed several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. Patch test and clinical data collected in a Danish tertiary dermatology clinic in Gentofte, Herlev, Copenhagen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were analysed. The following rubber accelerators or mixtures in petrolatum from the European baseline patch test series were included: thiuram mix 1.0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (P trend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact dermatitis, hand dermatitis, age >40 years and facial dermatitis in adjusted binary logistic regression analysis. Current clinical relevance of contact allergy to thiuram mix was 59.3%. Patients with contact allergy to mercapto mix and mercaptobenzothiazole had a concomitant reaction to thiuram mix in 35.2% (19/54) and 35.4% (17/48) of the cases respectively. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent. Clinicians should be aware of the hitherto unexplored clinical association with facial dermatitis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Noncorticosteroid Combination Shampoo versus 1% Ketoconazole Shampoo for the Management of Mild-to-Moderate Seborrheic Dermatitis of the Scalp: Results from a Randomized, Investigator-Single-Blind Trial Using Clinical and Trichoscopic Evaluation
Dall'Oglio, Federica; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Verzì, Anna Elisa; Micali, Giuseppe
Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a combination noncorticosteroid, antiinflammatory/antifungal shampoo versus 1% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of mild-to-moderate scalp seborrheic dermatitis (SD). Procedures Twenty patients were randomized to using the combination shampoo (group A, 10 patients) or the 1% ketoconazole shampoo (group B, 10 patients) 3 times a week every other day for 8 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the degree of scaling and pruritus by clinical and trichoscopic examination using a 4-point scale. Additionally, a physician global assessment (PGA) was assessed at the end of the study. Results At 4 weeks, there was a significant reduction of scaling from baseline for both groups, while pruritus showed a significant reduction only for group A. After 8 weeks, there was a significant reduction of scaling and pruritus for both groups. PGA showed a complete response in 90% of the cases in both groups. Conclusions The results of our study demonstrate that the combination noncorticosteroid, antiinflammatory/antifungal shampoo represents an alternative approach to standard topical treatment for scalp SD. A noncorticosteroid shampoo may be equally safe and effective as ketoconazole shampoo for scalp SD, and trichoscopy provides accurate and reliable quantifiable data to assist in therapeutic monitoring. PMID:27171495
Noncorticosteroid Combination Shampoo versus 1% Ketoconazole Shampoo for the Management of Mild-to-Moderate Seborrheic Dermatitis of the Scalp: Results from a Randomized, Investigator-Single-Blind Trial Using Clinical and Trichoscopic Evaluation.
Dall'Oglio, Federica; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Verzì, Anna Elisa; Micali, Giuseppe
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a combination noncorticosteroid, antiinflammatory/antifungal shampoo versus 1% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of mild-to-moderate scalp seborrheic dermatitis (SD). Twenty patients were randomized to using the combination shampoo (group A, 10 patients) or the 1% ketoconazole shampoo (group B, 10 patients) 3 times a week every other day for 8 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the degree of scaling and pruritus by clinical and trichoscopic examination using a 4-point scale. Additionally, a physician global assessment (PGA) was assessed at the end of the study. At 4 weeks, there was a significant reduction of scaling from baseline for both groups, while pruritus showed a significant reduction only for group A. After 8 weeks, there was a significant reduction of scaling and pruritus for both groups. PGA showed a complete response in 90% of the cases in both groups. The results of our study demonstrate that the combination noncorticosteroid, antiinflammatory/antifungal shampoo represents an alternative approach to standard topical treatment for scalp SD. A noncorticosteroid shampoo may be equally safe and effective as ketoconazole shampoo for scalp SD, and trichoscopy provides accurate and reliable quantifiable data to assist in therapeutic monitoring.
Rajabian, Mohammad Hossain; Sodaify, Manoochehr; Aghaei, Shahin
Background Contact dermatitis, as a cutaneous complication after rhinoplasty, is of early onset, limited and transient. The cause of this dermatitis is irritant or allergic. Late onset skin complications are rare and non-inflammatory. Case presentation We are reporting an unexpected, severe allergic contact dermatitis of the face, in a young female, appearing one month following aesthetic rhinoplasty. She failed to respond to ordinary treatments for dermatitis. We did standard battery – including nitrofurazone, tincture of benzoin and hydrocortisone – patch test for the patient that showed sensitivity to benzoin and corticosteroid. Conclusions In summary we report a case of a severe allergic contact dermatitis of the face, in a 21-year-old girl who underwent corrective aesthetic rhinoplasty, appearing one month following surgical operation. We were unable to find a similar report in the medical literature. PMID:15056395
Lian, C-h; Shen, L-l; Gao, Q-y; Jiang, M; Zhao, Z-j; Zhao, J-j
The genus Malassezia is important in the aetiology of facial seborrhoeic dermatitis (FSD), which is the most common clinical type. The purpose of this study was to analyse the distribution of Malassezia species in the facial lesions of Chinese seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) patients and healthy individuals. Sixty-four isolates of Malassezia were isolated from FSD patients and 60 isolates from healthy individuals. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was used to identify the isolates. The most frequently identified Malassezia species associated with FSD was M. furfur (76.56%), followed by M. sympodialis (12.50%) and M. japonica (9.38%). The most frequently isolated species in healthy individuals were M. furfur (61.67%), followed by M. sympodialis (25.00%), M. japonica (6.67%), M. globosa (3.33%), and M. obtusa (3.33%). Overall, our study revealed that while M. furfur is the predominant Malassezia species in Chinese SD patients, there is no significant difference in the distribution of Malassezia species between Chinese SD patients and healthy individuals. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Wollina, Uwe; Chokoeva, Anastasiya; Tchernev, Georgi; Heinig, Birgit; Schönlebe, Jacqueline
Seborrheic keratosis (SK) are very common benign epidermal tumors. Giant seborrheic keratosis (GSK) is a rare variant with clinical characteristics, which leads very often to misdiagnosis. A genital site of SK is very unusual clinical manifestation and although the cause is still unknown, current literature data point to a possible pathogenetic role of chronic friction and HPV infection. The rare genital localization makes Buschke-Löwenstein tumor and verrucous carcinoma important differential diagnoses. GSK may also show some clinical features of a melanoacanthoma, which makes cutaneous melanoma as another possible differential diagnosis. The clinical diagnosis of genital GSK is often a very difficult one, because the typical clinical features of GSK disappear and the most common dermoscopic features of GSK are usually not seen in the genital region lesions. The diagnosis of GSK of the anogenital area should be made only and always after the exact histological verification and variety of differential diagnosis should be carefully considered. The treatment of GSK is primary surgically. We present a rare case of GSK with concomitant HPV infection in the anogenital region of 72-year-old patient. Surgical approach was performed with excellent outcome.
Botelho, Luciane Francisca Fernandes; Michalany, Nilceo Schwery; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Hirata, Sergio Henrique
Seborrheic keratosis is a common skin lesion which may coincidentally be associated melanocytic nevi. The authors describe a case of dysplastic nevus associated with seborrheic keratosis and discuss the clinical, dermoscopic, and histological findings of this association. They also discuss the association between seborrheic keratosis and other benign and malignant tumours. PMID:24626665
Hoeger, P H; Lee, K-H; Jautova, J; Wohlrab, J; Guettner, A; Mizutani, G; Hultsch, T
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is most prevalent in areas of reduced skin barrier reserve, like face and neck, especially in children. Treatment with topical corticosteroids (TCS) is limited due to heightened risk of treatment-associated side-effects, thus necessitating alternative AD therapies. The primary study objective was to determine the efficacy of pimecrolimus cream 1% in children with mild-moderate facial AD dependent on/intolerant of TCS. Secondary objectives included effects on overall Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI), head/neck EASI, pruritus severity and time to clearance of facial AD. A multicentre, double-blind (DB) study of < or = 6 weeks, followed by a 6-week, open-label (OL) phase was conducted. Two hundred patients (aged 2-11 years) were randomized 1:1 to pimecrolimus cream 1% (n = 99) or vehicle (n = 101) twice daily until clearance of facial AD or for a maximum of 6 weeks (DB phase). Sixteen patients receiving vehicle were allowed to switch to the OL phase at day 22. Significantly more pimecrolimus-treated vs. vehicle-treated patients were cleared/almost cleared of facial AD (Investigators' Global Assessment 0/1): 74.5% vs. 51.0%, P < 0.001 (day 43) [57.1% vs. 36.0%, P = 0.004 (day 22)]. Median time to clearance was 22.0 vs. 43.0 days (pimecrolimus vs. vehicle, respectively). Statistically significant differences for pimecrolimus vs. vehicle were also seen on head/neck EASI, overall EASI, and head/neck pruritus scores. Adverse events were mainly mild-moderate, occurring with similar frequency in both treatment groups. In children with facial dermatitis intolerant of/dependent on TCS, pimecrolimus cream 1% effectively controls eczema and pruritus and is well tolerated.
Heidenreich, Barbara; Denisova, Evygenia; Rachakonda, Sivaramakrishna; Sanmartin, Onofre; Dereani, Timo; Hosen, Ismail; Nagore, Eduardo; Kumar, Rajiv
Seborrheic keratoses are common benign epidermal lesions that are associated with increased age and sun-exposure. Those lesions despite harboring multiple somatic alterations in contrast to malignant tumors appear to be genetically stable. In order to investigate and characterize the presence of recurrent mutations, we performed exome sequencing on DNA from one seborrheic keratosis lesion and corresponding blood cells from the same patients with follow up investigation of alterations identified by exome sequencing in 24 additional lesions from as many patients. In addition we investigated alterations in all lesions at specific genes loci that included FGFR3, PIK3CA, HRAS, BRAF, CDKN2A and TERT and DHPH3 promoters. The exome sequencing data indicated three mutations per Mb of the targeted sequence. The mutational pattern depicted typical UV signature with majority of alterations being C>T and CC>TT base changes at dipyrimidinic sites. The FGFR3 mutations were the most frequent, detected in 12 of 25 (48%) lesions, followed by the PIK3CA (32%), TERT promoter (24%) and DPH3 promoter mutations (24%). TERT promoter mutations associated with increased age and were present mainly in the lesions excised from head and neck. Three lesions also carried alterations in CDKN2A. FGFR3, TERT and DPH3 expression did not correlate with mutations in the respective genes and promoters; however, increased FGFR3 transcript levels were associated with increased FOXN1 levels, a suggested positive feedback loop that stalls malignant progression. Thus, in this study we report overall mutation rate through exome sequencing and show the most frequent mutations seborrheic keratosis. PMID:28410231
Brandão, Maria Luiza; Oliveira Lima, Cíntia Maria; Moura, Heloísa Helena; Ishida, Cleide; Campos-do-Carmo, Gabriella; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia
Cutaneous melanoma may in some instances be confused with seborrheic keratosis, which is a very common neoplasia, more often mistaken for actinic keratosis and verruca vulgaris. Melanoma may clinically resemble seborrheic keratosis and should be considered as its possible clinical simulator. We report a case of melanoma with dermatoscopic characteristics of seborrheic keratosis and emphasize the importance of the dermatoscopy algorithm in differentiating between a melanocytic and a non-melanocytic lesion, of the excisional biopsy for the establishment of the diagnosis of cutaneous tumors, and of the histopathologic examination in all surgically removed samples.
Fowler, Joseph F
Rosacea is a chronic skin disorder associated with flushing, erythema, dryness, burning and stinging, and inflammatory papules and pustules. New treatments available or in development target the inflammatory and erythematous components of the disease. These agents include the selective α2 receptor agonist brimonidine, the topical agents ivermectin cream 1% and azelaic acid foam 15%, and use of tetracyclinetype antibiotics, which affect the cathelicidin pathway. Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(supp6):S107-S109. 2016 published by Frontline Medical Communications.
Thakur, Jagdeep S; Thakur, Anamika; Chauhan, C G S; Diwana, Vijay K; Chauhan, D C
Seborrheic keratosis of the penis is a rare entity. It has been mistaken as genital warts and differentiation is only made on histopathology. We are reporting a case presenting as multiple giant polypoidal lesions on the penile skin for the last 20 years. Seborrheic keratosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pedunculated lesions of the penis. The histopathology after shave excision will be diagnostic. PMID:19967020
Jovanović, Marina; Poljacki, Mirjana
Compositae dermatitis is an allergic contact dermatitis caused by plant species of the Compositae family. The first report of a cutaneous reaction to the Chrysanthemum genus was made by Howe JS in 1887. In 1895 Maiden JH reported about skin lesions among men working with Tagetes minuta. Case reports of contact allergic-ragweed dermatitis appeared in the American literature as early as 1919. The North American feverfew--Parthenium Hysterophorus was brought to India from America in 1956 and it caused thousands of cases of so-called parthenium dermatitis. Ragweed and parthenium dermatitis became prototypes for the classic, so-called "airborne" Compositae dermatitis, that affects primarily exposed skin surfaces, and produces a universal erythroderma. The frequency of contact allergy to Compositae in Europe is higher than previously believed. It occurs most frequently in middle-aged and elderly persons, but also in all age groups. During the two past decades a more equal sex ratio has been established. The prevalence varies from 0.7-1.4% in the general population, up to 4.5% among occupationally exposed persons. Compositae allergy is among the top ten contact sensitivities in Europe. In North Europe plants were the cause of 4.4% cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS: Among cultivated Compositae plants, Chrysanthemum is considered to be a major sensitizer in Europe (60%). Among the edible types, it is lettuce--Lactuca sativa and endive Cichorium endivia (20-30%), and wild-growing feverfew--Tanace--tum parthenium (70-90%), tansy--Tanacetum vulgare (54%), and dandelion--Taraxacum officinale (65%). Sesquiterpene lactones are the main sensitizers of the Compositae family. Other components, thiophenes and acetylenes are said to elicit only phytophotodermatitis, but recent studies have demonstrated that some thiophenes and benzofuran derivates possess not only phototoxic activity, but also sensitizing properties. Photosensitivity is
Kim, Ji Hyun; Bae, Hyoung Won; Lee, Kwang Kil; Kim, Tae Im
Seborrheic keratosis is a benign epithelial neoplasia that occurs mainly in the skin of the eyelids and face. We describe a case of seborrheic keratosis of the conjunctiva confirmed by histopathology. A 72-year-old man presented with a recurrent conjunctival mass involving the nasal side of his right eye. Clinically, a diagnosis of conjunctival papilloma was made, and a mass excision was performed. The histopathological analysis evidenced a conjunctival-covering epithelium with papillomatous changes and irregular acanthosis, at the expense of a proliferation of basaloid cells. In addition, the lesion exhibited multiple pseudohorn cysts containing keratin. With the above findings, a diagnosis of conjunctival seborrheic keratosis was established. The occurrence of seborrheic keratosis on the conjunctiva is rare. In this case, seborrheic keratosis was confirmed by pathologic report despite its similar appearance with papilloma. Seborrheic keratosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of conjunctival lesions. PMID:20046694
Anan, Takashi; Fukumoto, Takaya; Kimura, Tetsunori
Seborrheic keratosis with basal clear cells (SKBCC) is an extremely rare histopathological variant of seborrheic keratosis that has histological similarities to melanoma in situ. We herein report two cases of SKBCC and provide the first description of the dermoscopic features of this condition, in addition to the histopathological findings. Both of the two lesions showed typical histological architectures of seborrheic keratosis with rows or focal clusters of monomorphic clear cells with abundant pale cytoplasm and small round nucleus in the basal layer. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that most clear cells were positive for high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE12) in a peripheral pattern but were negative tor Melan-A. Dermoscopy revealed typical features of ordinary seborrheic keratosis, while unfortunately did not reflect the presence of basal clear cells. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Yurdakul, Cüneyt; Güçer, Hasan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim
Malignant tumour development within a seborrheic keratosis (SK) is extremely rare. Though the most commonly developed malignant tumour is the basal cell carcinoma (BCC), other tumour types have also been reported in literature. Herein, we will report a superficial type BCC case developed within SK localized in hairy skin of a 78-year-old female patient. In immunohistochemical evaluation, diffuse positive staining with CK19 and over-expression in p53 compared with non-neoplastic areas were determined in neoplastic basaloid islands. It is always not easy to differentiate especially superficial type BCC cases from non-neoplastic epithelium of SK with histopathological evaluation. As far as this reason we believe that in difficult differentiation of these 2 lesions, in order to show the differentiation in basal epithelium, immunohistochemical evaluation may be helpful. PMID:25177624
Lakshmi, Chembolli; Srinivas, C. R.; Pillai, Suma B.; Shanthakumari, S.
Parthenium dermatitis is a widespread and distressing dermatoses in rural and urban India caused by the air borne allergen of the Compositae weed Parthenium hysterophorus. Parthenium dermatitis has been thought to be mediated solely by type IV hypersensitivity, but recently a combined immediate (type I) and delayed (type IV) hypersensitivity mechanism has been postulated in the initiation and perpetuation of parthenium dermatitis, especially in sensitized subjects with an atopic diathesis. Initially, the exposed sites of the body are involved. Later in the course of the disease, unexposed sites may get involved. Various clinical presentations have been described in parthenium dermatitis. Typically, it presents as an air borne contact dermatitis (ABCD) involving the eyelids and nasolabial folds Other presentations include a photodermatitis (essentially a pseudo photodermatitis), atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis, hand dermatitis. Photosensitive lichenoid dermatitis and prurigo nodularis are rarer presentations. Uncommon presentations have been described in parthenium dermatitis. They include prurigo nodularis-like lesions and photosensitive lichenoid eruption. Three cases are presented, two of whom presented as polymorphic-like lesions and one as prurigo nodularis. All three patch tested positive to parthenium on Day 2. Prick testing was positive in two of the three patients. Parthenium dermatitis mimicking polymorphic light eruption has not been reported. Histopathology revealed vasculitis in the lesional skin in two of the patients. Although leukocytoclastic vasculitis has been reported earlier from the prick-tested site, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of vasculitis in lesional skin of parthenium dermatitis. PMID:23130236
Smith, Suzanne M; Nedorost, Susan T
The term "dermatitis" can be defined narrowly or broadly, clinically or histologically. A common and costly condition, dermatitis is underresourced compared to other chronic skin conditions. The lack of a collectively understood definition of dermatitis and its subcategories could be the primary barrier. To investigate how dermatologists define the term "dermatitis" and determine if a consensus on the definition of this term and other related terms exists. A seven-question survey of dermatologists nationwide was conducted. Of respondents (n = 122), half consider dermatitis to be any inflammation of the skin. Nearly half (47.5%) use the term interchangeably with "eczema." Virtually all (> 96%) endorse the subcategory "atopic" under the terms "dermatitis" and "eczema," but the subcategories "contact," "drug hypersensitivity," and "occupational" are more highly endorsed under the term "dermatitis" than under the term "eczema." Over half (55.7%) personally consider "dermatitis" to have a broad meaning, and even more (62.3%) believe that dermatologists as a whole define the term broadly. There is a lack of consensus among experts in defining dermatitis, eczema, and their related subcategories.
Detection of feline herpes virus 1 via polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in cats with ulcerative facial dermatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex reaction patterns and mosquito bite hypersensitivity.
Persico, Paola; Roccabianca, Paola; Corona, Antonio; Vercelli, Antonella; Cornegliani, Luisa
Ulcerative dermatitis caused by feline herpes virus 1 (FHV-1) is an uncommon disease characterized by cutaneous ulcers secondary to epidermal, adnexal and dermal necrosis. Differential diagnoses for FHV-1 lesions include, but are not limited to, mosquito bite hypersensitivity and eosinophilic granuloma complex. Histopathological diagnosis of FHV-1 dermatitis is based on the detection of the intranuclear inclusion bodies. In cases where intranuclear inclusions are missing but clinical and histological findings are compatible with FHV-1 dermatitis, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCRs have been used. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the presence of FHV-1 by IHC and PCR in skin biopsies and compared the results of the two tests. Sixty-four skin biopsy specimens from cats with compatible lesions were reviewed and tested via PCR and IHC for evidence of FHV-1. Polymerase chain reaction was positive in 12 of 64 biopsies; PCR and IHC were positive only in two of 64 biopsies, and these cases were considered true positive cases. The higher number of PCR-positive cases was possibly attributed to amplification of viral DNA from a live attenuated vaccination, but a previous FHV-1 infection with subsequent amplification of latently inserted FHV-1 could not be excluded. If clinical signs and histopathology suggest FHV-1 infection in the absence of typical inclusion bodies, IHC is the preferred diagnostic test; PCR may be useful for initial screening, but due to false positives is not sufficient for a definitive diagnosis. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2011 ESVD and ACVD.
Larsen, W G
The most common reaction to fragrance materials seen by practicing dermatologists is allergic contact dermatitis. Photodermatitis is occasionally seen, as is contact urticaria, irritation, and depigmentation. Fragrances are the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis due to cosmetics. The fragrance mixture can cause false-positive reactions; therefore, it is more desirable to test with a separate series of fragrance materials.
Making a definitive diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis (SK) can be challenging for the naked eye due to its wide variation in clinical features. Fortunately, however, most cases of SK exhibit the typical dermoscopic findings of fissures and ridges, hairpin vessels with white halo, comedo-like openings, and milia-like cysts, all of which are helpful to distinguish SK from melanoma, melanocytic nevus, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and other skin tumors. Histopathologically, these dermoscopic characteristics correspond to papillomatous surface of the epidermis, enlarged capillaries of the dermal papillae, pseudohorn cysts in the epidermis opened to the surface of the lesion and intraepidermal cysts, respectively. Clinicians should bear in mind that the clonal type of SK dermoscopically mimics melanoma and BCC by the presence of globule-like structures, while regressing SK exhibits a granular pattern that is similar to the peppering found in melanoma. Furthermore, milia-like cysts alone are insufficient for a conclusive diagnosis of SK because melanoma in rare cases displays cysts along with other SK-like dermoscopic findings. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Cheung, Melody J.; Taher, Muba; Lauzon, Gilles J.
OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical recognition and current management strategies for four types of acneiform facial eruptions common in young women: acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Many randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) have studied treatments for acne vulgaris over the years. Treatment recommendations for rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis are based predominantly on comparison and open-label studies (level II evidence) as well as expert opinion and consensus statements (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Young women with acneiform facial eruptions often present in primary care. Differentiating between morphologically similar conditions is often difficult. Accurate diagnosis is important because treatment approaches are different for each disease. CONCLUSION Careful visual assessment with an appreciation for subtle morphologic differences and associated clinical factors will help with diagnosis of these common acneiform facial eruptions and lead to appropriate management. PMID:15856972
Roh, Nam Kyung; Hahn, Hyung Jin; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom
Background Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is one of the most common epidermal tumors of the skin. However, only a few large-scale clinicohistopathological investigations have been conducted on SK or on the possible correlation between histopathological SK subtype and location. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and histopathological features of a relatively large number of cases of diagnosed SK. Methods Two hundred and seventy-one pathology slides of skin tissue from patients with clinically diagnosed SK and 206 cases of biopsy-proven SK were analyzed. The biopsy-proven cases of SK were assessed for histopathological subclassification. The demographic, clinical, and histopathological data of the patients were collected for analysis of associated factors. Results The most frequent histopathological subtype was the acanthotic type, followed by mixed, hyperkeratotic, melanoacanthoma, clonal, irritated, and adenoid types; an unexpectedly high percentage (9.2%) of the melanoacanthoma variant was observed. The adenoid type was more common in sun-exposed sites than in sun-protected sites (p=0.028). Premalignant and malignant entities together represented almost one-quarter (24.2%) of the clinicopathological mismatch cases (i.e., mismatch between the clinical and histopathological diagnoses). Regarding the location of SK development, the frequency of mismatch for the sun-exposed areas was significantly higher than that for sun-protected areas (p=0.043). Conclusion The adenoid type was more common in sun-exposed sites. Biopsy sampling should be performed for lesions situated in sun-exposed areas to exclude other premalignant or malignant diseases. PMID:27081260
Guo, A; Chen, J; Yang, C; Ding, Y; Zeng, Q; Tan, L
Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is one of the most common skin tumors seen by dermatologists. It should be differentiated with many diseases, especially skin tumors. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been applied for evaluation of SK. There are a few studies that describe the RCM of SK. The aim of the study was to find the challenge of diagnosing seborrheic keratosis by reflectance confocal microscopy. A total of 390 patients with a clinical suspicious diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis were enrolled in this study, and lesions from each patient were imaged with RCM. Thirty-seven of these patients performed a biopsy in order to be given a histological diagnosis. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of RCM diagnosis and histological diagnosis, and then found the RCM characteristics of biopsy-proven lesions. According to RCM images, 258 of 390 (66.2%) patients were diagnosed with SK, 97 of 390 (24.9%) patients could not be diagnosed by the dermatologist according to RCM. Of all 37 biopsied lesions, 23 were SK, 6 were actinic keratosis, 2 were basal cell carcinoma, and 2 were squamous cell carcinoma. It is challenge to diagnose seborrheic keratosis by reflectance confocal microscopy. It may due to the variable clinical and RCM appearances of SK, and limited depth of RCM. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 35. Usatine RP, Riojas M. Diagnosis and management of contact dermatitis. Am Fam Physician . 2010;82( ...
... for Authors Information for Reviewers Human & Animal Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive ... Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an intensely itchy skin eruption. It usually shows up in young adults, and is more common in men and people ...
Agulló-Pérez, Alfredo-Daniel; Hervella-Garcés, Marcos; Oscoz-Jaime, Saioa; Azcona-Rodríguez, Maialen; Larrea-García, Mónica; Yanguas-Bayona, Juan-Ignacio
Perianal complaints are often consulted in dermatology clinics, and in many cases, a conclusive diagnosis is not easily made. The aim of this study was to study and identify the epidemiological, clinical, and contact allergy features of patients with perianal dermatitis who attended at a contact dermatitis unit in a tertiary hospital in Spain. Adult patients with long-lasting (>4 weeks) perianal dermatitis were recruited during the past 10 years for investigation and follow-up. Every patient underwent a diagnostic workup consisting of dermatological exploration and patch tests with the standard and specific series, as well as the patients' own products. General surgical exploration was also performed in some patients. One hundred twenty-four patients were included. The MOAHLFA index was as follows: 43.5, 0, 4.8, 11.3, 1.6, 8.1, and 75. The main final diagnoses were allergic contact dermatitis (32.3%), psoriasis (24.2%), irritant contact dermatitis (17.7%), and lichen simplex (neurodermatitis) (10%). Eighty-one patients (66.1%) showed 1 or more positive reactions, and in 52 patients (43%), positive reactions relevant to the present disease were found. Contact allergy in patients with long-lasting perianal complaints is frequent. It is mandatory for these patients to be referred to a dermatologist for an adequate evaluation and patch testing. Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone seems as the most common allergen implicated in perianal contact dermatitis.
Kerr, A C; Muller, F; Ferguson, J; Dawe, R S
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen was used in humans in the 1980s, before its withdrawal due to adverse effects. It re-emerged for veterinary uses, for which it is still widely prescribed, in the 1990s. There has been one previous report published of photoallergic contact dermatitis (PACD) in a pharmaceutical factory worker exposed to carprofen. Investigation of carprofen as a cause of PACD in pharmaceutical factory workers presenting with facial dermatitis. Photopatch testing to carprofen dilutions in two pharmaceutical factory workers and three healthy volunteer controls using the European consensus methodology. This was followed by testing of eight further employees, referred by occupational health services, in the same factory. The index patient suspected a problem with carprofen and was found to have PACD to carprofen. The second patient presented with a widespread, although especially photoexposed site, dermatitis and was initially labelled as having an 'unclassified dermatitis'. Only subsequently was her exposure (indirect; she did not work in the packaging section of the factory like the first patient) to carprofen recognized and testing confirmed both contact allergy and PACD to carprofen. One of three healthy volunteer controls had an active photoallergy sensitization event to carprofen starting 10 days after photopatch testing. Three of eight factory employees subsequently referred because of skin problems had carprofen PACD. Carprofen is a potent photoallergen. These cases emphasize the importance of photopatch testing, and considering agents not included in standard series, when investigating patients presenting with a photoexposed site dermatitis.
DeFazio, Jennifer; Zalaudek, Iris; Busam, Klaus J.; Cota, Carlo; Marghoob, Ashfaq
Clinical observations and an expanding knowledge of cell-to-cell communication have led us to speculate that the finding of a melanocytic nevus in conjunction with a seborrheic keratosis is more than a coincidental collision of two lesions. Here we present five cases demonstrating dermoscopic features of both melanocytic lesions and seborrheic keratoses with corresponding histology. Four cases demonstrate dermoscopic features of a melanocytic nevus and seborrheic keratosis, and the final case a melanoma arising in association with a seborrheic keratosis. PMID:23785597
Seborrhoeic dermatitis affects at least 10% of the population. Malassezia (Pityrosporum) ovale is thought to be the causative organism, and causes inflammation by still poorly defined mechanisms. Seborrhoeic dermatitis tends to relapse after treatment. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp in adults? What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and body in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bifonazole, emollients, ketoconazole, lithium succinate, selenium sulphide, tar shampoo, terbinafine, and topical corticosteroids (betamethasone valerate, clobetasol propionate, clobetasone butyrate, hydrocortisone, mometasone furoate).
Powell, R F; Palmer, S M; Palmer, C H; Smith, E B
A mild dermatitis probably due to Cheyletiella yasguri was observed in 2 persons whose pet dog was infested with this parasite. Cheyletiella mites differ morphologically from sarcoptic mites, which cause canine and human scabies. Treatment of man and dog with 1% gamma benzene hexachloride is usually successful in clearing this condition.
... ulcers; Ulcers - venous; Venous ulcer; Venous insufficiency - stasis dermatitis; Vein - stasis dermatitis ... veins. Some people with venous insufficiency develop stasis dermatitis. Blood pools in the veins of the lower ...
Multicenter, double-blind, parallel group study investigating the non-inferiority of efficacy and safety of a 2% miconazole nitrate shampoo in comparison with a 2% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp.
Buechner, Stanislaw A
This study investigated the non-inferiority of efficacy and tolerance of 2% miconazole nitrate shampoo in comparison with 2% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. A randomized, double-blind, comparative, parallel group, multicenter study was done. A total of 274 patients (145 miconazole, 129 ketoconazole) were enrolled. Treatment was twice-weekly for 4 weeks. Safety and efficacy assessments were made at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Assessments included symptoms of erythema, itching, scaling ['Symptom Scale of Seborrhoeic Dermatitis' (SSSD)], disease severity and global change [Clinical Global Impressions (CGIs) and Patient Global Impressions (PGIs)]. Miconazole shampoo is at least as effective and safe as ketoconazole shampoo in treating scalp seborrheic dermatitis scalp.
Rajabi, Parvin; Adibi, Neda; Nematollahi, Pardis; Heidarpour, Mitra; Eftekhari, Mehdi; Siadat, Amir Hossein
Background: Seborrheic keratosis is a common, benign skin tumor. Numerous reports have shown its possibility of malignant transformation. This study was designed to demonstrate the occurrence of concomitant seborrheic keratosis and skin cancers. Materials and Methods: Data was retrospectively reviewed from all patients with a diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis in pathology department of Alzahra Hospital and a private pathology laboratory in Isfahan, Iran over a 4-year period. We classified all demographic data and associated dysplasia or Bowen's disease and analyzed them by student-t or chi-square tests. Results: From all 429 specimens, 5 (1.2%) were found to be associated with Bowen's disease and one (0.2%) with mild dysplasia in squamous epithelium. All cases arose within the clinically, atypical seborrheic keratosis. More men were affected with lesions alone and with malignancy (230/423 (54.4%) and 5/6 (83.3%), respectively) compared to women. The average age of patients suffering from lesions with and without associated malignancy was 57 and 54 years, respectively. The common site of lesion alone was head and neck but lesions with malignancy involved lower extremities. The two lesions were significantly different in site of occurrence (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Generally, although the association between seborrheic keratosis and skin malignancy appears to be accidental, it must always be in mind. Therefore, histopathologic examination of all seborrheic keratosis should be considered, especially when seborrheic keratosis has atypical clinical manifestations. PMID:23267371
Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk
The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.
... to be applied and left on the skin or scalp. (4) Salicylic acid, 1.8 to 3 percent. (5) Selenium sulfide, 1 percent. (6) Selenium sulfide, micronized, 0.6 percent. (7) Sulfur, 2 to 5 percent. (b) Active...) Pyrithione zinc, 0.1 to 0.25 percent when formulated to be applied and left on the skin or scalp. (4...
... to be applied and left on the skin or scalp. (4) Salicylic acid, 1.8 to 3 percent. (5) Selenium sulfide, 1 percent. (6) Selenium sulfide, micronized, 0.6 percent. (7) Sulfur, 2 to 5 percent. (b) Active...) Pyrithione zinc, 0.1 to 0.25 percent when formulated to be applied and left on the skin or scalp. (4...
... to be applied and left on the skin or scalp. (4) Salicylic acid, 1.8 to 3 percent. (5) Selenium sulfide, 1 percent. (6) Selenium sulfide, micronized, 0.6 percent. (7) Sulfur, 2 to 5 percent. (b) Active...) Pyrithione zinc, 0.1 to 0.25 percent when formulated to be applied and left on the skin or scalp. (4...
Schad, Karin; Nobbe, Stephan; French, Lars E; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara
Furniture components can cause contact allergies. In the last years several cases of eczema after sofa contact have been reported. Typically the skin lesions develop on the back, the buttocks, the dorsal aspects of the thighs and arms and are often very resistant to topical corticoid therapy. Dimethylfumarate (DMF) is postulated to be the causative agent for this Type IV hypersensitivity reaction. DMF is an antimicrobial substance, which is used in asian upholstered furniture industry amongst others. We report the case of a 65-year old patient with generalised severely itching maculopapular, partly eczematous skin lesions on the buttocks, back, abdomen and arms. The resistance to therapy, several relapses after discharge from hospital as well as the detailed history lead us to the tentative diagnosis. The sofa dermatitis was proven by positive patch testing with furniture material and dimethylfumarate. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.
Repertinger, Susan; Wang, Jeff; Adickes, Edward; Sarma, Deba P
Background Seborrheic keratosis is a very common benign skin tumor in man. Melanoma is rare but is the most dreaded of all malignant skin tumors. A melanoma arising in a seborrheic keratosis is distinctly rare. We are reporting such a case occurring in an 86-year-old man. Case presentation An-86-year-old male with a history of multiple actinic keratoses and seborrheic keratoses of the head and trunk presented with a mid-back skin lesion. The lesion was poorly circumscribed, flat, and gray, with a pink-tan, well-circumscribed scaly nodule within it. The biopsied lesion was composed of the usual features of hyperkeratotic seborrheic keratosis, but with focal atypical melanocytic proliferation with nesting along the dermal-epidermal junction. We interpreted this lesion as a melanoma in-situ arising within a seborrheic keratosis. Conclusion It is not uncommon for many physicians to remove a typical seborrheic keratosis without a confirmatory microscopic confirmation. We urge that all such lesions be examined by the pathologist to avoid missing another concomitant malignant lesion such as melanoma which needs adequate resection and close follow-up. PMID:18947402
Anand, Murthy S; Krishnamurthy, Shantha; Ravindranath, Suvarna; Ranganathan, Jyothi
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, clinically aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin; MCC is 40 times less common as compared to melanoma. The most frequently reported sites have been the head and neck, extremities, and trunk. Potential mimics include malignant melanoma, lymphoma, or metastatic small cell (neuroendocrine) carcinomas. Histopathology of MCC resembles small cell carcinoma both morphologically and on IHC. The possible cell of origin was proposed as the Merkel cell, which functions as a mechanoreceptor. It has a high chance of local recurrence, regional and distant spread. In recent times, Merkel cell polyomavirus has been implicated as the causative agent for this tumor. The same agent has a reported etiologic association with other skin lesions, including seborrheic keratosis.
This picture shows a skin inflammation (dermatitis) caused by contact with a material that causes an allergic reaction in this person. Contact dermatitis is a relatively common condition, and can be caused ...
Weidinger, Stephan; Novak, Natalija
Atopic dermatitis (also known as atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is characterised by intense itching and recurrent eczematous lesions. Although it most often starts in infancy and affects two of ten children, it is also highly prevalent in adults. It is the leading non-fatal health burden attributable to skin diseases, inflicts a substantial psychosocial burden on patients and their relatives, and increases the risk of food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and mental health disorders. Originally regarded as a childhood disorder mediated by an imbalance towards a T-helper-2 response and exaggerated IgE responses to allergens, it is now recognised as a lifelong disposition with variable clinical manifestations and expressivity, in which defects of the epidermal barrier are central. Present prevention and treatment focus on restoration of epidermal barrier function, which is best achieved through the use of emollients. Topical corticosteroids are still the first-line therapy for acute flares, but they are also used proactively along with topical calcineurin inhibitors to maintain remission. Non-specific immunosuppressive drugs are used in severe refractory cases, but targeted disease-modifying drugs are being developed. We need to improve understanding of the heterogeneity of the disease and its subtypes, the role of atopy and autoimmunity, the mechanisms behind disease-associated itch, and the comparative effectiveness and safety of therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E
Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Fonacier, Luz; Spiewak, Radoslaw
Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis cannot be assumed as atopic without further testing. Patch testing should at least be considered in cases of chronic or recurrent eczema regardless of the working diagnosis.
Haas, N; Vogt, R; Sterry, W
The name of flagellate dermatitis originates from self-flagellating medieval people. This dermatitis is not rare as a drug eruption following bleomycin therapy. An identical skin eruption caused by the mushroom shiitake Lentinus edodes is more common but reported mostly from Japan. We saw a 67-year-old patient who presented with the typical linear scratch marks after a dinner in a Chinese restaurant. The basic mechanism is a toxic epidermal damage. Since it is not clear why the dermatitis does not occur frequently since Shiitake is the second most popular mushroom in the world, we discuss possible cofactors that may trigger the toxic reaction.
Holcomb, Zachary E; Van Noord, Megan G; Atwater, Amber Reck
Allergic contact dermatitis related to cosmetic use can result from allergens not routinely evaluated by standard patch test protocols. Propyl, octyl, and dodecyl gallates are commonly used antioxidant preservatives with reports of associated allergic contact dermatitis in the literature. The objectives of this review were to investigate the role of gallates in allergic contact dermatitis and to explore products containing these preservatives. A systematic review of the literature through April 2016 was performed to explore cases of reported gallate allergy. Food and cosmetic product databases were searched for products containing gallates. Seventy-four cases of gallate contact allergy have been reported. In addition, a variety of commercially available cosmetic products and foods contain gallate chemicals. Propyl gallate is the most commonly reported gallate contact allergen and often causes facial and/or hand dermatitis.
Segura, Sonia; Aguilera, Paula; Scalvenzi, Massimiliano; Longo, Caterina; Barreiro, Alicia; Broganelli, Paolo; Cavicchini, Stefano; Llambrich, Alex; Zaballos, Pedro; Thomas, Luc; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Zalaudek, Iris
Importance Melanomas that clinically mimic seborrheic keratosis (SK) can delay diagnosis and adequate treatment. However, little is known about the value of dermoscopy in recognizing these difficult-to-diagnose melanomas. Objective To describe the dermoscopic features of SK-like melanomas to understand their clinical morphology. Design, Setting, and Participants This observational retrospective study used 134 clinical and dermoscopic images of histopathologically proven melanomas in 134 patients treated in 9 skin cancer centers in Spain, France, Italy, and Austria. Without knowledge that the definite diagnosis for all the lesions was melanoma, 2 dermoscopy-trained observers evaluated the clinical descriptions and 48 dermoscopic features (including all melanocytic and nonmelanocytic criteria) of all 134 images and classified each dermoscopically as SK or not SK. The total dermoscopy score and the 7-point checklist score were assessed. Images of the lesions and patient data were collected from July 15, 2013, through July 31, 2014. Main Outcomes and Measures Frequencies of specific morphologic patterns of (clinically and dermoscopically) SK-like melanomas, patient demographics, and interobserver agreement of criteria were evaluated. Results Of the 134 cases collected from 72 men and 61 women, all of whom were white and who had a mean (SD) age of 55.6 (17.5) years, 110 (82.1%) revealed dermoscopic features suggestive of melanoma, including pigment network (74 [55.2%]), blue-white veil (72 [53.7%]), globules and dots (68 [50.7%]), pseudopods or streaks (47 [35.1%]), and blue-black sign (43 [32.3%]). The remaining 24 cases (17.9%) were considered likely SKs, even by dermoscopy. Overall, lesions showed a scaly and hyperkeratotic surface (45 [33.6%]), yellowish keratin (42 [31.3%]), comedo-like openings (41 [30.5%]), and milia-like cysts (30 [22.4%]). The entire sample achieved a mean (SD) total dermoscopy score of 4.7 (1.6) and a 7-point checklist score of 4.4 (2
Canine atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by typical clinical signs and affecting up to 10 % of dogs aged from 1 to 3 years. The diagnosis is mainly clinical and the treatment is complex. This canine form may offer a good model of human atopic dermatitis, as the two diseases show many pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic similarities.
Mahmoudi, E; Saeidi, M; Marashi, MA; Moafi, A; Mahmoodi, V; Zeinolabedini Zamani, M
Background and Purpose: Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent superficial dermatitis in which Malassezia species play an important role. There are different Malassezia species, which have been recently reported to be resistant to common antifungals. Natural sources can be useful alternatives to reduce the emergence of this resistance. Kombucha tea is believed to have potential antimicrobial properties. Regarding this, the present study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of Kombucha tea ethyl acetate fraction (KEAF) against Malassezia species obtained from the patients with seborrheic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 clinical isolates were identified by direct microscopic examination and Tween assimilation, and then confirmed by DNA sequencing of ITS regions for Malassezia species. Kombucha tea was fractionated using ethyl acetate (1:2 v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microdilution assay was used to evaluate the anti-Malssezia activity of KEAF at three concentrations of 10, 40, and 80 mg/mL. Results: The results of the DNA sequence analysis indicated that M. furfur (39.13%) was the predominant species, followed by M. globosa (30.43%), M. sloofie (13.04%), M. sympodialis (13.04%), and M. restricta (4.34%), respectively. Furthermore, KEAF showed inhibitory activity against Malassezia species. Accordingly, KEAF had the lowest and highest MIC value against M. sloofie and M. restricta, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the extract was equivalent to that of ketoconazole at 4.8 µg/mL. Conclusion: The findings of the current study highlighted the antifungal properties of KEAF. Therefore, this extract can be promoted as complementary medicine for the treatment of the infections caused by Malassezia. PMID:28959793
Mahmoudi, E; Saeidi, M; Marashi, M A; Moafi, A; Mahmoodi, V; Zeinolabedini Zamani, M
Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent superficial dermatitis in which Malassezia species play an important role. There are different Malassezia species, which have been recently reported to be resistant to common antifungals. Natural sources can be useful alternatives to reduce the emergence of this resistance. Kombucha tea is believed to have potential antimicrobial properties. Regarding this, the present study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of Kombucha tea ethyl acetate fraction (KEAF) against Malassezia species obtained from the patients with seborrheic dermatitis. A total of 23 clinical isolates were identified by direct microscopic examination and Tween assimilation, and then confirmed by DNA sequencing of ITS regions for Malassezia species. Kombucha tea was fractionated using ethyl acetate (1:2 v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microdilution assay was used to evaluate the anti- Malssezia activity of KEAF at three concentrations of 10, 40, and 80 mg/mL. The results of the DNA sequence analysis indicated that M. furfur (39.13%) was the predominant species, followed by M. globosa (30.43%), M. sloofie (13.04%), M. sympodialis (13.04%), and M. restricta (4.34%), respectively. Furthermore, KEAF showed inhibitory activity against Malassezia species. Accordingly, KEAF had the lowest and highest MIC value against M. sloofie and M. restricta , respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the extract was equivalent to that of ketoconazole at 4.8 µg/mL. The findings of the current study highlighted the antifungal properties of KEAF. Therefore, this extract can be promoted as complementary medicine for the treatment of the infections caused by Malassezia .
Stanimirović, Andrija; Skerlev, Mihael; Culav-Košćak, Ivana; Kovačević, Maja
Paederus dermatitis is a distinct variant of acute irritant contact dermatitis caused by mucocutaneous contact with the specific toxin of an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. It is characterized by the sudden onset of erythema and vesiculobullous lesions on exposed skin, with special predilection for the periorbital region. Paederus species have been mostly identified in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Central/South America. We report a 51-year-old woman who experienced 4 recurrences of periorbital erythema and edema in the previous year. No consistent etiology could be established at the beginning. Only after taking a detailed medical history was it discovered that 1 year before our examination, the patient had traveled to Kenya, where she had experienced contact with the insect. This fact led us to the diagnosis of Paederus dermatitis. After appropriate treatment, a complete regression was observed over a 3-week period.
Facial palsy is a daily challenge for the clinicians. Determining whether facial nerve palsy is peripheral or central is a key step in the diagnosis. Central nervous lesions can give facial palsy which may be easily differentiated from peripheral palsy. The next question is the peripheral facial paralysis idiopathic or symptomatic. A good knowledge of anatomy of facial nerve is helpful. A structure approach is given to identify additional features that distinguish symptomatic facial palsy from idiopathic one. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is idiopathic one, or Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The most common cause of symptomatic peripheral facial palsy is Ramsay-Hunt syndrome. Early identification of symptomatic facial palsy is important because of often worst outcome and different management. The prognosis of Bell's palsy is on the whole favorable and is improved with a prompt tapering course of prednisone. In Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, an antiviral therapy is added along with prednisone. We also discussed of current treatment recommendations. We will review short and long term complications of peripheral facial palsy.
Goon, Anthony Teik Jin; Goh, Chee Leok
Occupational and recreational plant exposure on the skin is fairly common. Plant products and extracts are commonly used and found extensively in the environment. Adverse reactions to plants and their products are also fairly common. However, making the diagnosis of contact dermatitis from plants and plant extracts is not always simple and straightforward. Phytodermatitis refers to inflammation of the skin caused by a plant. The clinical patterns may be allergic phytodermatitis, photophytodermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, pharmacological injury, and mechanical injury. In this article, we will focus mainly on allergy contact dermatitis from plants or allergic phytodermatitis occurring in Asia. PMID:22345775
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Stricklin, S M; Stoecker, W V; Oliviero, M C; Rabinovitz, H S; Mahajan, S K
Seborrheic keratoses are the most common skin lesions known to contain small white or yellow structures called milia-like cysts (MLCs). Varied appearances can sometimes make it difficult to differentiate benign lesions from malignant lesions such as melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer found in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine the statistical occurrence of MLCs in benign vs. malignant lesions. A medical student with 10 months experience in examining approximately 1000 dermoscopy images and a dermoscopy-naïve observer analysed contact non-polarized dermoscopy images of 221 malignant melanomas and 175 seborrheic keratoses for presence of MLCs. The observers found two different types of MLCs present: large ones described as cloudy and smaller ones described as starry. Starry MLCs were found to be prevalent in both seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. Cloudy MLCs, however, were found to have 99.1% specificity for seborrheic keratoses among this group of seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. Cloudy MLCs can be a useful tool for differentiating between seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Stricklin, S.M.; Stoecker, W.V.; Oliviero, M.C.; Rabinovitz, H.S.; Mahajan, S.K.
Background Seborrheic keratoses are the most common skin lesions known to contain small white or yellow structures called milia-like cysts (MLCs). Varied appearances can sometimes make it difficult to differentiate benign lesions from malignant lesions such as melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer found in humans. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the statistical occurrence of MLCs in benign vs. malignant lesions. Methods A medical student with 10 months experience in examining approximately 1000 dermoscopy images and a dermoscopy-naïve observer analysed contact non-polarized dermoscopy images of 221 malignant melanomas and 175 seborrheic keratoses for presence of MLCs. Results The observers found two different types of MLCs present: large ones described as cloudy and smaller ones described as starry. Starry MLCs were found to be prevalent in both seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. Cloudy MLCs, however, were found to have 99.1% specificity for seborrheic keratoses among this group of seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. Conclusion Cloudy MLCs can be a useful tool for differentiating between seborrheic keratoses and melanomas. Received: 18 June 2010; Accepted: 27 October 2010 PMID:21923811
Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison
Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.
Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D
Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.
Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni
Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520
Lushniak, Boris D
The dermatologist should be aware of the many facets of occupational skin diseases, which can be caused by physical, chemical, and biological insults. The most common manifestation of occupational skin diseases is contact dermatitis (both irritant and allergic). Three factors point out the importance of occupational skin diseases as diseases that have a public health impact: 1) occupational skin diseases are common; 2) they often have a poor prognosis; and 3) they result in a noteworthy economic impact for society and for an individual. They are also diseases amenable to public health interventions. Specific industries and exposures may put a worker at risk of occupational contact dermatitis. The accuracy of the diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis is related to the skill level, experience, and knowledge of the medical professional who makes the diagnosis and confirms the relationship with a workplace exposure. Prevention of occupational contact dermatitis is important, and a variety of prevention strategies are available.
Frimat, Paul; Boughattas, Wided; Even, Dorothée
Atopic dermatitis is often exacerbated by the working environment. In order to reduce the risk of allergy, young people must receive better medical guidance when they choose a career. This is all the more relevant for young atopic patients.
... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...
Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.
Among 250 workers engaged on wet sandpapering of primer paint on car bodies 65 developed a contact dermatitis. The average latent period before dermatitis developed was 4·6 months: only 60% of the patients made a completely satisfactory recovery. The average duration of dermatitis was 5·3 months. Two thirds of the men used one of two barrier creams supplied, while one third used none. Routine patch testing showed that the majority was allergic to chromate. It was found that a primer paint contained zinc chromate, which had been introduced into the paint by the manufacturers shortly before the first cases occurred. Removal of chromate from the paint resulted in a prompt cessation of new cases of dermatitis. Images PMID:14046155
Anderson, Bryan E; Miller, Christopher J; Adams, David R
The stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a common weed that can cause a wide range of cutaneous reactions. Contact with the hairs or spines on the stems and leaves of the stinging nettle causes the release of several biologically active substances. The released chemicals act to cause itching, dermatitis, and urticaria within moments of contact. Extracts from the stinging nettle may provide therapeutic value for some inflammatory medical conditions. There is no standard treatment for stinging nettle dermatitis.
Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen
Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.
Barilla, Steven; Felix, Kayla; Jorizzo, Joseph L
As with other inflammatory skin disorders, atopic dermatitis has a tendency to cause stress and also be exacerbated by it. Patients with atopic dermatitis have several disease-associated stressors, some of which include physical discomfort due to itching and altered appearance due to flare-ups. These stressors have been shown to effect patients psychosocially by altering sleep patterns, decreasing self-esteem and interfering with interpersonal relationships. In combination with its direct effect on patients, atopic dermatitis also causes stress for parents and caregivers. Studies suggest that atopic dermatitis is strongly correlated with co-sleeping habits, which can negatively impact the health and mood of parents or caregivers. It has also been reported to interfere with the formation of a strong mother-child relationship. In order to optimize treatment for patients with atopic dermatitis, it is important to note the impact that it has on quality of life. By implementing patient counseling, sleep-targeted therapies, and the use of quality of life (QoL) indices, atopic dermatitis patients and caregivers have the potential to experience greater satisfaction with treatment.
Lihachev, Alexey; Lihacova, Ilze; Plorina, Emilija V.; Lange, Marta; Derjabo, Alexander; Spigulis, Janis
A clinical trial on the autofluorescence imaging of skin lesions comprising 16 dermatologically confirmed pigmented nevi, 15 seborrheic keratosis, 2 dysplastic nevi, histologically confirmed 17 basal cell carcinomas and 1 melanoma was performed. The autofluorescence spatial properties of the skin lesions were acquired by smartphone RGB camera under 405 nm LED excitation. The diagnostic criterion is based on the calculation of the mean autofluorescence intensity of the examined lesion in the spectral range of 515 nm–700 nm. The proposed methodology is able to differentiate seborrheic keratosis from basal cell carcinoma, pigmented nevi and melanoma. The sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method was estimated as being close to 100%. The proposed methodology and potential clinical applications are discussed in this article. PMID:29675324
Lihachev, Alexey; Lihacova, Ilze; Plorina, Emilija V; Lange, Marta; Derjabo, Alexander; Spigulis, Janis
A clinical trial on the autofluorescence imaging of skin lesions comprising 16 dermatologically confirmed pigmented nevi, 15 seborrheic keratosis, 2 dysplastic nevi, histologically confirmed 17 basal cell carcinomas and 1 melanoma was performed. The autofluorescence spatial properties of the skin lesions were acquired by smartphone RGB camera under 405 nm LED excitation. The diagnostic criterion is based on the calculation of the mean autofluorescence intensity of the examined lesion in the spectral range of 515 nm-700 nm. The proposed methodology is able to differentiate seborrheic keratosis from basal cell carcinoma, pigmented nevi and melanoma. The sensitivity and specificity of the proposed method was estimated as being close to 100%. The proposed methodology and potential clinical applications are discussed in this article.
Sugarman, Jeffrey L; Hersh, Adam L; Okamura, Tessie; Howard, Renee; Frieden, Ilona J
In order to assess the clinical characteristics and impact of group A streptococcal infection in children with atopic dermatitis, a retrospective review was performed in children diagnosed with atopic dermatitis who had a skin culture. Culture results and clinical characteristics of those with group A streptococcus were compared with those with Staphlococcus aureus. Infection with group A streptococcus was present in 16%; infection with Staphlococcus aureus was present in 72%, and 14% had mixed cultures. Patients infected with group A streptococcus were more likely to be febrile, to have facial and periorbital involvement, and to be hospitalized compared with those infected with Staphlococcus aureus alone (p ≤ 0.01 for all comparisons). Bacteremia and cellulitis were significantly more common in those infected with group A streptococcus than in those infected with Staphlococcus aureus. Retrospective design and review of only those patients receiving bacterial cultures may select for greater severity than in the general atopic dermatitis population. Group A streptococcus appears to be a significant skin pathogen infecting children with atopic dermatitis. Children with atopic dermatitis and group A streptococcal infection are more likely to have invasive disease and complications than those infected with Staphlococcus aureus alone. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman
Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Takayama, Ryoko; Ansai, Shin-Ichi; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Matsuda, Yoko; Naito, Zenya; Kawana, Seiji
Lumican, a member of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family, regulates the assembly and diameter of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix of various tissues. The lumican expression correlates with pathological conditions and the growth and metastasis of various malignancies. In cutaneous neoplasms, the lumican expression is lower in advanced-stage malignant melanomas that invade the dermis than in early-stage melanomas. Furthermore, we have recently reported that the expression pattern of lumican is different from that of actinic keratosis and the Bowen disease. Lumican is positive in the poroid cells of intraepidermal sweat ducts; therefore, we examined the expression patterns of lumican in acanthotic-type seborrheic keratosis and Pinkus-type poroma followed by clonal-type seborrheic keratosis and hidroacanthoma simplex. The neoplastic cells of acanthotic-type seborrheic keratosis exhibited positive immunostaining in only 1 of 31 cases (3.23%), whereas the poroid cells of Pinkus-type poroma exhibited positive immunoreactivity in 26 of 28 patients (92.8%). In the hidroacanthoma simplex cases, lumican was expressed in poroid cells forming intraepidermal nests in 22 of 28 patients (78.6%), whereas the neoplastic cells in most cases of clonal-type seborrheic keratosis were negative for lumican. In some seborrheic keratosis cases that were positive for lumican in neoplastic cells, lumican was observed in squamoid cells but not in basaloid cells. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the immunoreactivity of lumican in seborrheic keratosis and in basaloid cells. These findings suggest that lumican is a potent differential diagnostic marker that distinguishes hidroacanthoma simplex from clonal-type seborrheic keratosis.
Hirobe, Sachiko; Otsuka, Risa; Iioka, Hiroshi; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Asada, Hideo; Okada, Naoki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku
Pigmented lesions such as of seborrheic keratosis and senile lentigo, which are commonly seen on skin of people>50years of age, are considered unattractive and disfiguring because of their negative psychological impact. Drug therapy using all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is an attractive option for self-treatment at home. We have developed an ATRA-loaded microneedle patch (ATRA-MN) and confirmed the pharmacological effects of ATRA-MN application in mice. Here, we describe a clinical study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ATRA-MN in subjects with seborrheic keratosis or senile lentigo. ATRA-MN was applied to the lesion site of each subject for 6h once per week for 4weeks. The skin irritation reaction was scored to assess adverse reactions and blood tests were performed to evaluate the presence of systemic adverse reactions. To assess the treatment effect using ATRA-MN, the desquamation and whitening ability of the investigational skin was observed. Desquamation of the stratum corneum was observed following four ATRA-MN applications at 1-week intervals, but ATRA-MN applications did not induce severe local or systemic adverse effects. These results showed that ATRA-MN treatment is promising as a safe and effective therapy for seborrheic keratosis and senile lentigo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conic, Ruzica Z; Napekoski, Karl; Schuetz, Heidi; Piliang, Melissa; Bergfeld, Wilma; Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha
Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are common skin neoplasms considered to be benign. Reports of associated squamous cell carcinoma arising within seborrheic keratosis (SCC-SK) have been described. To describe the histopathologic characteristics of SCC-SK and identify predisposing factors in formation of these rare lesions. There were 162 cases of SCC-SK in a span of a decade (2003-2014). All of the histopathologic specimens and medical records were reviewed. Data from these patients were compared to a control group with seborrheic keratosis who were matched by age, sex, and location of lesion from the same time period (n = 162). SCC-SK has the classic histopathologic features of SK, such as hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, papillomatosis, and pseudohorn cysts. The areas of squamous cell carcinoma were characterized by areas of squamous dysplasia (100%), hypogranulosis (79.6%), squamous eddies (79.6%), solar elastosis (80.9%), and brown pigmentation (59.9%). Patients with a history of immunosuppression had an increased risk for developing SCC-SK (19% vs 3%; P < .01), particularly when inhibition was transplant-associated (10% vs 0%; P < .01). This was a single center, retrospective study. SCC-SK occurs more often in elderly men with a history of immunosuppression associated with organ transplants. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ghosh, Rajarshi; Gopalkrishnan, Kulandaswamy
The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the incidence of facial fractures along with age, gender predilection, etiology, commonest site, associated dental injuries, and any complications of patients operated in Craniofacial Unit of SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital. This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of OMFS, SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad from January 2003 to December 2013. Data were recorded for the cause of injury, age and gender distribution, frequency and type of injury, localization and frequency of soft tissue injuries, dentoalveolar trauma, facial bone fractures, complications, concomitant injuries, and different treatment protocols.All the data were analyzed using statistical analysis that is chi-squared test. A total of 1146 patients reported at our unit with facial fractures during these 10 years. Males accounted for a higher frequency of facial fractures (88.8%). Mandible was the commonest bone to be fractured among all the facial bones (71.2%). Maxillary central incisors were the most common teeth to be injured (33.8%) and avulsion was the most common type of injury (44.6%). Commonest postoperative complication was plate infection (11%) leading to plate removal. Other injuries associated with facial fractures were rib fractures, head injuries, upper and lower limb fractures, etc., among these rib fractures were seen most frequently (21.6%). This study was performed to compare the different etiologic factors leading to diverse facial fracture patterns. By statistical analysis of this record the authors come to know about the relationship of facial fractures with gender, age, associated comorbidities, etc.
Sartorelli, P; Kezic, S; Larese Filon, F; John, S M
Occupational dermatitis is among the most frequent occupational diseases. Dermal exposure risk affects many professional categories such as healthcare workers, hairdressers, bakers, cleaning and kitchen employees. The economical burden of occupational dermatitis (OD) is huge (greater than 5 billion Euro per year in Europe), comprising direct costs (treatment, compensation), as well as indirect costs due to sick leave and lack of productivity. A scientifically based preventive program consisting of skin protection during work, cleaning and skin care after work has generally been recommended to prevent occupational contact dermatitis. However the rate of reported occupational skin diseases seems unchanged in the recent years. In cases of impaired skin condition the secondary prevention (i.e. therapeutic treatment by dermatologists and health-educational intervention seminars) is fundamental. For cases of occupational dermatoses in which these outpatient prevention measures are not successful, interdisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation measures have been developed (tertiary individual prevention). In the past years, various pilot-concepts to improve occupational dermatitis prevention have been successfully put into practice focussing on interdisciplinary (dermatological and educational) skin protection training programmes for high-risk professions. Currently a multi-step intervention approach is implemented which is aiming at offering quick preventive help at all levels of severity of occupational contact dermatitis. Recent data reveals that there are reliable evidence-based options for multidisciplinary prevention and patient management of occupational dermatitis using a combined approach by a network of clinics, practices and statutory social insurance bodies. At this stage, it seemed reasonable to form a European joint initiative for skin prevention. Recently a European network of preventive dermatology (European Initiative for the Prevention of Occupational Skin
Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda
Contact dermatitis--irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and protein contact dermatitis--are the most common occupational skin diseases, most often localized to the hands. Contact urticaria is rarer The main occupational irritants are wet work, detergents and disinfectants, cutting oils, and solvents. The main occupational allergens are rubber additives, metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt), plastics (epoxy resins, acrylic), biocides and plants. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, medical history and allergy testing. For a number of irritating or sensitizing agents, irritant or allergic dermatitis can be notified as occupational diseases. The two main prevention measures are reducing skin contact with irritants and complete avoidance of skin contact with offending allergens.
Little, Anthony C
Facial attractiveness has important social consequences. Despite a widespread belief that beauty cannot be defined, in fact, there is considerable agreement across individuals and cultures on what is found attractive. By considering that attraction and mate choice are critical components of evolutionary selection, we can better understand the importance of beauty. There are many traits that are linked to facial attractiveness in humans and each may in some way impart benefits to individuals who act on their preferences. If a trait is reliably associated with some benefit to the perceiver, then we would expect individuals in a population to find that trait attractive. Such an approach has highlighted face traits such as age, health, symmetry, and averageness, which are proposed to be associated with benefits and so associated with facial attractiveness. This view may postulate that some traits will be universally attractive; however, this does not preclude variation. Indeed, it would be surprising if there existed a template of a perfect face that was not affected by experience, environment, context, or the specific needs of an individual. Research on facial attractiveness has documented how various face traits are associated with attractiveness and various factors that impact on an individual's judgments of facial attractiveness. Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces. A fuller understanding of facial beauty will come with an understanding of how these various factors interact with each other. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:621-634. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1316 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Our understanding of the physiopathology of atopic dermatitis has much improved over the recent years. Epidermal barrier alterations are integrated into 2 theories called inside out and outside in. They are related to complex immune abnormalities. Understanding their mechanism makes it possible to foresee new therapeutics. Moreover, environmental biodiversity, the diversity of cutaneous microbiota and genetic predispositions in atopic dermatitis lead to a new, more comprehensive theory, « the biodiversity theory », integrating epigenetics. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.
Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni
The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.
Affes, M; Ben Salah, S; Makni, F; Sellami, H; Ayadi, A
The lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia are opportunistic microorganisms of the skin microflora but they can be agents of various dermatomycoses. The aim of this study was to perform molecular identification of the commonly isolated Malassezia species from various dermatomycoses in our region. Thirty strains of Malassezia were isolated from different dermatologic affections: pityriasis versicolor (17), dandruff (5), seborrheic dermatitis (4), onyxis (2), folliculitis (1) and blepharitis (1). These species were identified by their morphological features and biochemical characterisation. The molecular identification was achieved by amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region by simple PCR. PCR technique was used for molecular characterisation of four Malassezia species: Malassezia globosa (270 bp), Malassezia furfur (230 bp), Malassezia sympodialis (190 bp) and Malassezia restricta (320 bp). We have detected the association between M. furfur and M. sympodialis in 16% and confirmed presumptive identification in 70% of the cases. The phenotypic identification based on microscopic and physiological method is difficult and time consuming. The application of a simple PCR method provides a sensitive and rapid identification system for Malassezia species, which may be applied in epidemiological surveys and routine practice.
Peeters, N; Lemkens, P; Leach, R; Gemels B; Schepers, S; Lemmens, W
Facial trauma. Patients with facial trauma must be assessed in a systematic way so as to avoid missing any injury. Severe and disfiguring facial injuries can be distracting. However, clinicians must first focus on the basics of trauma care, following the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system of care. Maxillofacial trauma occurs in a significant number of severely injured patients. Life- and sight-threatening injuries must be excluded during the primary and secondary surveys. Special attention must be paid to sight-threatening injuries in stabilized patients through early referral to an appropriate specialist or the early initiation of emergency care treatment. The gold standard for the radiographic evaluation of facial injuries is computed tomography (CT) imaging. Nasal fractures are the most frequent isolated facial fractures. Isolated nasal fractures are principally diagnosed through history and clinical examination. Closed reduction is the most frequently performed treatment for isolated nasal fractures, with a fractured nasal septum as a predictor of failure. Ear, nose and throat surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons and ophthalmologists must all develop an adequate treatment plan for patients with complex maxillofacial trauma.
... ivy is caused by an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these ... person doesn't have to come in direct contact with the leaves, roots, or branches of Rhus plants to get the rash. One can get it from contaminated clothing. Even ...
Berke, Rebecca; Singh, Arshdeep; Guralnick, Mark
Atopic dermatitis, also known as atopic eczema, is a chronic pruritic skin condition affecting approximately 17.8 million persons in the United States. It can lead to significant morbidity. A simplified version of the U.K. Working Party's Diagnostic Criteria can help make the diagnosis. Asking about the presence and frequency of symptoms can allow physicians to grade the severity of the disease and response to treatment. Management consists of relieving symptoms and lengthening time between flare-ups. Regular, liberal use of emollients is recommended. The primary pharmacologic treatment is topical corticosteroids. Twice-daily or more frequent application has not been shown to be more effective than once-daily application. A maintenance regimen of topical corticosteroids may reduce relapse rates in patients who have recurrent moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. Pimecrolimus and tacrolimus are calcineurin inhibitors that are recommended as second-line treatment for persons with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis and who are at risk of atrophy from topical corticosteroids. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a boxed warning about a possible link between these medications and skin malignancies and lymphoma, studies have not demonstrated a clear link. Topical and oral antibiotics may be used to treat secondary bacterial infections, but are not effective in preventing atopic dermatitis flare-ups. The effectiveness of alternative therapies, such as Chinese herbal preparations, homeopathy, hypnotherapy/biofeedback, and massage therapy, has not been established.
Draelos, Zoe Diana
Prior to 1962, some of the most versatile drugs in dermatology were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) solely on the basis of safety. One of these is the combination 10% sodium sulfacetamide and 5% sulfur. Sodium sulfacetamide possesses anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties while sulfur is a nonspecific antibacterial and antifungal. A new emollient foam formulation of 10% sodium sulfacetamide and 5% sulfur allows a thinner application film and leaves behind no residue on hair bearing or non-hair bearing skin. The sulfur smell is also more quickly dissipated with reduced irritation. This uncontrolled, observational, prospective, open-label, single site, eight-week study enrolled 24 subjects (eight with rosacea, eight with seborrheic dermatitis, eight with acne vulgaris) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this novel foam formulation. At eight weeks, statistically significant improvement was seen in inflammatory rosacea lesion counts and the signs of seborrheic dermatitis. A 50% reduction was noted in the total acne lesion counts. These findings confirm the versatility of an emollient 10% sodium sulfacetamide and 5% sulfur foam.
Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624
Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299
... a physical, speech, or occupational therapist. If facial paralysis from Bell palsy lasts for more than 6 to 12 months, plastic surgery may be recommended to help the eye close and improve the appearance of the face. Alternative Names Paralysis of the face Images Ptosis, drooping of the ...
Knopp, Eleanor; Watsky, Kalman
We present the case of a 42-year-old woman with intractable eyelid dermatitis. Patch testing revealed sensitization to 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine (DMAPA). DMAPA is an important etiology of allergic contact dermatitis of the eyelids and face but is easily missed even with expanded-series patch testing. We also review the most common causative allergens in eyelid dermatitis cited in the literature over the past decade. DMAPA is a reagent used in the formation of cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), a common additive to liquid soaps, shampoos, and other cleansing products because of its utility as a surfactant. Beginning in the 1980s, reports of allergy to CAPB surfaced in the literature. Ultimately, a majority of patch testing studies have shown that clinical allergy to CAPB-containing products actually reflects allergy to contaminant DMAPA in most cases. Amidoamine, another intermediate in the formation of CAPB, may also be implicated through a proposed mechanism of conversion to DMAPA in the skin. When patch-testing for eyelid and facial dermatitis, it is crucial to test with DMAPA directly, not just with CAPB; unlike commercial-grade CAPB, the CAPB in patch test kits is ultrapure and does not contain contaminant DMAPA. PMID:19134437
Lohmann, Wolfgang; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard; Bohle, Rainer M.; Dreyer, Thomas
Autofluorescence measurements on human tissue have revealed a decrease in intensity in malignant tumors and an increase in the healthy region adjacent to the tumor. This latter event might serve as a protective wall against the invasive tumor cells. The composition of this wall is still unknown. Antioxidants such as NADH might be involved. In the case of seborrheic keratosis (wart), the intensity is increased in the pigmented spots. Care must be taken, therefore, when warts are attached to malignant tumors. The resulting value is, then, not indicative for the condition of the system.
... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).
Dermatitis, Atopic; Dermatitis; Eczema; Skin Diseases; Skin Diseases, Genetic; Genetic Diseases, Inborn; Skin Diseases, Eczematous; Hypersensitivity; Hypersensitivity, Immediate; Immune System Diseases
Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A
Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.
Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie
Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.
Simpson, Eric; Udkoff, Jeremy; Borok, Jenna; Tom, Wynnis; Beck, Lisa; Eichenfield, Lawrence F
Crisaborole and dupilumab represent the first 2 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies for atopic dermatitis (AD) in more than 15 years, and there are many promising drugs currently in development. This new wave of therapeutics capitalizes on the large body of work clarifying the pathogenesis of AD over the last several decades. In particular, type 2 cytokine-driven inflammation and skin barrier dysfunction are key processes underlying AD pathogenesis. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.
Clinical comparison of human and canine atopic dermatitis using human diagnostic criteria (Japanese Dermatological Association, 2009): proposal of provisional diagnostic criteria for canine atopic dermatitis.
Terada, Yuri; Nagata, Masahiko; Murayama, Nobuo; Nanko, Hiroko; Furue, Masutaka
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease encountered in both humans and dogs. Canine AD can be used in the analysis of naturally occurring AD; however, details of clinical comparison have been lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare those clinical features using the human diagnostic criteria (Japanese Dermatological Association, 2009). Fifty-one dogs with canine AD were evaluated by the human criteria. Prior to this study, canine AD was basically diagnosed by the fulfillment of two authentic canine AD criteria and a positive reaction against Dermatophagoides farinae in serum immunoglobulin E levels and/or in intradermal tests. Among the human AD criteria items, behavior corresponding to pruritus was observed in all 51 dogs. Skin lesions corresponding to eczematous dermatitis were seen in 50 dogs, and symmetrical distribution of skin lesions was noted in all 51 dogs. A chronic or chronically relapsing course was observed in 50 dogs. Based on these results, the concordance rate for the criteria was 96% (49/51). Differential diagnoses of AD were also investigated in the same manner. The concordance rate for the criteria was 0% (0/69) in scabies, 2% (1/50) in pyoderma, 0% (0/50) in demodicosis, 0% (0/9) in cutaneous lymphoma, 0% (0/2) in ichthyosis, 25% (2/7) in flea allergy, 48% (24/50) in seborrheic dermatitis and 75% (3/4) in food allergy. Canine AD is thus indicated as a valuable counterpart to human AD in clinical aspects. In addition, the human AD criteria could be applicable, with some modification, as provisional diagnostic criteria for canine AD. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Leggat, Peter A; Smith, Derek R
Dermatitis is a common problem both in the workplace and in the general community. Airline personnel represent a novel occupational group as they are also exposed to a wide range of potential chemical irritants and other aggravating factors, such as low relative humidity and airborne pollutants. Common skin irritants include dielectric fluids from electrodischarge machining, 'prepreg' materials and sealants in aircraft manufacture, kerosene and various jet-fuel components. Commercial jet fuel is a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and there is potential for dermal exposure among refueling and maintenance crew. Low relative humidity appears to exacerbate dermatitis amongst aircrew, especially on longer flight durations. Pilots may also be exposed to additional skin irritants outside of the cabin environment, such as ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid or jet fuel, all of which may be encountered during routine inspections of aircraft before and after flight. Given these factors, preventive measures must carefully consider the undoubted potential for contact with irritants and allergens, which may lead to dermatitis in airline personnel.
Lembo, Serena; Lembo, Claudio; Patruno, Cataldo; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio
Contact eczema to foods, spices, and food additives can occur in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Pizza is one of the most eaten foods in every continent, and pizza making is a common work in many countries. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the causes of contact dermatitis in pizza makers in Naples. We performed an observational study in 45 pizza makers: all the enrolled subjects had to answer a questionnaire designed to detect personal history of respiratory or cutaneous allergy, atopy; work characteristics and timing were also investigated. Every subject attended the dermatology clinic for a complete skin examination, and when needed, patients were patch tested using the Italian baseline series of haptens integrated with an arbitrary pizza makers series. Our results reported that 13.3% of the enrolled pizza makers (6/45) presented hand eczema, and that 8.9% (4/45) were affected by occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diallyl disulfide and ammonium persulfate were the responsible substances. Performing patch tests in pizza makers and food handlers affected by hand contact dermatitis is useful. We propose a specific series of haptens for this wide working category.
Aquino, Marcella; Rosner, Greg
Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) traditionally refers to a skin condition where an individual who is cutaneously sensitized to an allergen will subsequently react to that same allergen or a cross reacting allergen via a different route. It occurs to allergens including metals, medications, and foods. The exact pathophysiology underlying this disease remains unknown, although it appears to be mediated by type 4 hypersensitivity reactions and possibly type 3 hypersensitivity reactions. The p-I concept (pharmacologic interaction with immunoreceptors) hypothesized that drugs are able to bind directly to a T cell receptor without first being presented by MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules and without prior metabolism, which would help explain why SCD can be seen on first exposure to medications. Nomenclature remains a challenge as SCD can be subcategorized using terms such as ACDS (allergic contact dermatitis syndrome) and its four clinical stages, Baboon syndrome, and SDRIFE (symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema), which share many overlapping features. Food allergens may be responsible for uncontrolled or persistent symptoms in patients with contact dermatitis who do not respond to topical avoidance. With medications, symptoms may be induced by topical application versus systemic administration. Patch testing (PT) may be beneficial in diagnosing SCD caused by metals and many topical medications including corticosteroids, antimicrobials (ampicillin, bacitracin, erythromycin, neomycin, nystatin), NSAIDs (diclofenac, ibuprofen), anesthetics, and antihistamines (chlorphenamine, piperazine). Current treatment options include topical steroids and oral antihistamines for symptom relief and dietary avoidance to causative foods or metals.
Carazo, Juan Luis Anguita; Morera, Blanca Sáenz de San Pedro; Colom, Luis Palacios; Gálvez Lozano, José Manuel
Ethyl chloride (EC) or chloroethane (C2H5Cl) is a volatile halogenated hydrocarbon. Reports of contact sensitivity to this gas are infrequent considering its widespread use as a local anesthetic, and it may have a relatively low sensitization potential. Benzocaine is another local anesthetic derivative of the ethyl ester of para-aminobenzoic acid, previously reported as a causative agent of delayed hypersensitivity reactions. We present a patient who developed a generalized itching dermatitis after the application of a medical aerosol containing EC, as well as facial angioedema and tongue swelling after the local application of benzocaine. Patch-test results were positive for EC "as is" (++), benzocaine 5% in petrolatum (++), and caine mix (+++) at 96 hours (day 4). The possibility of cross-sensitization between both drugs would not have been chemically plausible. We report the first published clinical case of contact allergic dermatitis from two chemically unrelated local anesthetics (EC and benzocaine) in the same patient.
Dorfman, Claire O; Barros, Mark A; Zaenglein, Andrea L
Allergic contact dermatitis from various components of toilet seats has been well described. We report a case of a young boy presenting with an atypical pattern of dermatitis who was found to be allergic to his training toilet seat. This case highlights the importance of recognizing this diagnosis and the role of potty seats as the causative factor. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Seborrheic inclusion cyst (SIC) is a very rare variant of epidermal cyst of the skin. SIC shows seborrheic keratosis (SK)-like lesion in epidermal cyst. SIC is extremely rare; only 6 case reports have been published in the English literature. However, no immunohistochemical study of SIC has been reported. A 41-year-old Japanese man noticed a subcutaneous tumor in the neck. Physical examination showed slightly mobile tumor in the subcutaneous tissue, and total excision was performed. Grossly, the tumor (1 x 1 x 0.8 cm) was cyst containing atheromatous keratin. Microscopically, the lesion is a cyst containing keratins. About one half of the cyst showed features of epidermal cyst consisting of mature squamous epithelium with granular layers. The other one half showed SK-like epidermal proliferation. The SK-like area showed basaloid cell proliferation with pseudohorn cysts. No significant atypia was noted. Many eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were noted in the SK-like area. Immunohistochemically, the SK-like area was positive for pancytokeratin AE1/3, pancytokeratin CAM5.2, p63, and Ki-67 (labeling=8%) and HPV, but negative for p53. The pathological diagnosis was SIC.
Hagemann, Tobias; Schlütter-Böhmer, Brigitte; Allam, Jean-Pierre; Bieber, Thomas; Novak, Natalija
Topical 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxide (minoxidil) solution has been widely used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia for over 15 years now and the substance is currently approved for this indication in 2% and 5% formulation. Typical side effects of this topical treatment include irritative dermatitis going along with pruritus, erythema, scaling and dryness, which occur especially at the onset of the therapy. In some cases, allergic contact dermatitis or exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis has been reported. While most of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis described in the literature showed a positive sensitization to the vehicle substance propylene glycol evaluated by patch testing, reactions to the active ingredient minoxidil are rare. Here, we report a case of allergic sensitization to minoxidil, which we evaluated and differentiated from an irritative reaction by a combination of patch testing and lymphocyte transformation test. The differentiation of allergic and irritative adverse effects and the identification of the causative allergen are of major relevance for the proceeding and adjustment of the therapy. Patients with sensitizations against propylene glycol are candidates for preparations with alternative solvents but can proceed treatment with minoxidil. In contrast, patients with allergies to the active ingredient itself are no longer candidates for treatment with minoxidil and should undergo alternative therapeutic options.
Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M
Allergic contact dermatitis commonly occurs on the face. Facial cleansing wipes may be an underrecognized source of allergens. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in facial wet wipes. Ingredient lists from name brand and generic facial wipes from 4 large retailers were analyzed. In the 178 facial wipes examined, a total of 485 ingredients were identified (average, 16.7 ingredients per wipe). Excluding botanicals, the top 15 potentially allergenic ingredients were glycerin (64.0%), fragrance (63.5%), phenoxyethanol (53.9%), citric acid (51.1%), disodium EDTA (44.4%), sorbic acid derivatives (39.3%), tocopherol derivatives (38.8%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (32.6%), glyceryl stearate (31.5%), sodium citrate (29.8%), glucosides (27.5%), cetearyl alcohol (25.8%), propylene glycol (25.3%), sodium benzoate (24.2%), and ceteareth-20 (23.6%)/parabens (23.6%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (2.2%) and methylchloroisothiazolinone (1.1%) were uncommon. The top potential allergens of botanical origin included Aloe barbadensis (41.0%), chamomile extracts (27.0%), tea extracts (21.3%), Cucumis sativus (20.2%), and Hamamelis virginiana (10.7%). Many potential allergens are present in facial wet wipes, including fragrances, preservatives, botanicals, glucosides, and propylene glycol.
Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H
Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Roberts, D F; Abdullah, N; Marks, J; Shuster, S
In a dermatoglyphic study of 101 patients with dermatitis herpetiformis, comparison was made with their normal relatives and several random normal series. The results of the several comparisons are quite consistent, considering the nature of the data, for the all point to an attenuation of qualitative and quantitative digital and palmar traits in the patients. It is argued that these differences are associated with the disease itself, and that some of the female relatives have an inherited tendency to the disorder, but do not express it. The findings suggest the involvement of genetic factors in the aetiology, and possibly intrauterine environmental influences as well.
Detrixhe, A; Nikkels, A F; Dezfoulian, B
Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is an exceptional condition affecting young women of childbearing age with a high prevalence during the third decade of life. The diagnosis should be confirmed using an intradermal skin test to progesterone, during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. APD represents an early manifestation of autoimmune disease. A case of APD is presented who after curative treatment did not develop other autoimmune diseases during a 6-year follow-up. Dermatologists, gynecologists and obstetricians should be aware of this rare but highly invalidating entity.
Yanong, Roy P E; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Curtis, Eric; Klinger, Ruth Ellen; Cichra, Mary E; Berzins, Ilze K
Three varieties of a popular African cichlid aquarium species, Pseudotropheus zebra, from 2 tropical fish farms in east central Florida were submitted for diagnostic evaluation because of the development of multifocal green lesions. The percentage of infected fish in these populations varied from 5 to 60%. Fish were otherwise clinically normal. Microscopic examination of fresh and fixed lesions confirmed algal dermatitis, with light invasion of several internal organs in each group. A different alga was identified from each farm. Fish from farm A were infected with Chlorochytrium spp, whereas fish from farm B were infected with Scenedesmus spp. Because of the numbers of fish involved, bath treatments to remove the algae from affected fish from farm B were attempted, with different dosages of several common algaecides including copper sulfate pentahydrate, diuron, and sodium chloride. However, none of these treatments were successful, possibly because of the location of the algae under the scales and within the dermis, and also because of the sequestering effect of the granulomatous response. To our knowledge, this is the first report of algal dermatitis in ornamental cichlids, as well as the first report of Scenedesmus spp infection in any fish.
Stephany, Mathew Paul; Chung, Stella; Handler, Marc Zachary; Handler, Nancy Stefanie; Handler, Glenn A; Schwartz, Robert A
Shiitake mushroom dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms. Symptoms include linear erythematous eruptions with papules, papulovesicles or plaques, and severe pruritus. It is likely caused by lentinan, a heat-inactivated beta-glucan polysaccharide. Cases were initially reported in Japan but have now been documented in other Asian countries, North America, South America, and Europe, as this mushroom is now cultivated and consumed worldwide. Shiitake mushroom dermatitis may result from mushroom ingestion or from handling, which can result in an allergic contact dermatitis.
Pigatto, P D
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction. The gold standard for diagnosis is patch testing. The prevalence of positive patch tests in referred patients with suspected ACD ranges from 27 to 95.6%. The relationship between ACD and atopic dermatitis (AD) is complicated with conflicting reports of prevalence in the literature; however, in a patient with dermatitis not responding to traditional therapies, or with new areas of involvement, ACD should be considered as part of the work-up.
Pesce, C; Scalora, S
Seborrheic keratosis (SK) consists of a localized proliferation of basaloid keratinocytes, often accompanied by hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation. In irritated SK, these features are associated with areas of squamous differentiation with larger keratinocytes and squamous cell eddies. This work is concerned with the evaluation of apoptosis, as demonstrated by the TUNEL method, in the different varieties of SK. Apoptosis was highly expressed in the areas of squamous differentiation of irritated SK, but only mildly increased in the other varieties of SK. These data support the hypothesis that apoptosis has a role in the squamous differentiation of irritated SK. In consideration also of previous data showing that irritated SK is associated with downregulation of EGF-R expression and 125I-EGF binding, we postulate that the morphologic features of irritated SK could correspond to an involution phase of the disease, characterized by altered cell balance with inadequate cell renewal and increased cell loss.
Matsumura, Yumi; Miyachi, Yoshiki
Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis is a pruritic eruption that preferentially involves the face. It is characterized by well-demarcated erythema, extending peripherally with a central clearing and pigmentation, together with sterile pustules lining the periphery. We describe five cases of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis with pruritic papules and erythema on seborrheic areas of the face, which lacked the typical features of classic eosinophilic pustular folliculitis--pustules and peripheral extension--but showed eosinophilic infiltration of the hair follicles, histologically. The eruption quickly responded to oral indomethacin except for one case that responded to tranilast and one case that was associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, with recurrences in defined areas of the face. Our findings in these cases suggest that eosinophilic pustular folliculitis may vary in clinical appearance.
Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.
The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)
Mihan, Richard; Ayres, Samuel
A disease of the skin, not hitherto described, is caused by pressure or tension on the skin from the wearing of tight-fitting stretch garments such as “stretch bras,” “stretch girdles” and “stretch socks.” The condition is not due to chemical sensitization of fabrics, dyes or other additives but is of mechanical origin. The eruption may assume various clinical forms and may be characterized by a nondescript erythematous and eczematous appearance or may consist of an exaggeration, in the areas covered by the stretch garment, of already existing dermatosis such as lichen planus, psoriasis, acne vulgaris, discoid lupus erythematosus or atopic dermatitis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:5639939
Lee, Chieh-Chi; Wu, Yu-Hung
Thermal sulfur baths are a form of balneotherapy promoted in many cultures for improvement of skin conditions; however, certain uncommon skin problems may occur after bathing in hot sulfur springs. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with multiple confluent, punched-out, round ulcers with peripheral erythema on the thighs and shins after bathing in a hot sulfur spring. Histopathologic examination revealed homogeneous coagulation necrosis of the epidermis and papillary dermis. Tissue cultures showed no evidence of a microbial infection. The histopathologic findings and clinical course were consistent with a superficial second-degree burn. When patients present with these findings, sulfur spring dermatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Moreover, the patient's clinical history is crucial for correct diagnosis.
Simpson, Eric L
The negative impact of atopic dermatitis (AD) often extends beyond the skin. Children with AD experience increased rates of infectious, mental health, and allergic diseases compared to their non-atopic peers. The mechanisms underlying these associations remain elusive. New insights from genetic and epidermal research pinpoint the skin barrier as a primary initiator of AD. Epicutaneous sensitization represents an intriguing new model which links a disrupted skin barrier to the later development of IgE-mediated diseases in patients with AD. Recent epidemiological studies have identified new comorbidities linked to AD as well, including several mental health disorders and obesity. This manuscript reviews the recent literature regarding both classic and newly described AD comorbidities.
Matsumoto, Kenji; Shimanouchi, Yasuhiro; Kawakubo, Keiichi; Oishi, Naobumi; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Futamura, Kyoko; Saito, Hirohisa
Physiological and pathological skin eruptions are commonly encountered in neonates in our clinical practice. However, the types of skin eruptions that are associated with the subsequent development of atopic dermatitis and the mechanisms of these associations remain uncertain. A total of 105 newborn babies with normal delivery were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. The cord blood eosinophil count was measured and the neonates were examined at 1 month of age and followed until 8 years of age. At 1 month of age, infantile eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, intertrigo and diaper dermatitis were diagnosed in a total of 29, 7, 14 and 24 neonates, respectively. No association was found among the prevalences of these eruptions. Neonates with infantile eczema had a significantly higher number and ratio of eosinophils in the cord blood (eosinophil count: 670.8 +/- 67.8 vs. 349.0 +/- 30.3/microl, p < 0.0001; eosinophil ratio: 5.12 +/- 0.53 vs. 2.61 +/- 0.22%, p < 0.0001, for the presence and the absence of infantile eczema, respectively). In contrast, no such tendency was found for any other skin eruptions. In neonates with infantile eczema at 1 month of age, the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis had been made significantly earlier and the prevalence of wheezing illness was significantly higher than in those without infantile eczema until 2 years of age. Infantile eczema, but not other skin eruptions, precedes the development of atopic dermatitis and wheezing illness during early infancy, presumably because of the activation of eosinophils before birth. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Boyette, Jennings R
Facial trauma in children differs from adults. The growing facial skeleton presents several challenges to the reconstructive surgeon. A thorough understanding of the patterns of facial growth and development is needed to form an individualized treatment strategy. A proper diagnosis must be made and treatment options weighed against the risk of causing further harm to facial development. This article focuses on the management of facial fractures in children. Discussed are common fracture patterns based on the development of the facial structure, initial management, diagnostic strategies, new concepts and old controversies regarding radiologic examinations, conservative versus operative intervention, risks of growth impairment, and resorbable fixation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hanifin, J M
Atopic dermatitis is clearly characterized by altered cutaneous physiologic responses. There is a tendency to acral vasoconstriction. Rubbing causes skin pallor and white dermographism. Vascular instability is demonstrated by responses to cholinergic agents, histamine, and nicotinates. Psychophysiologic studies demonstrate exaggerated vasodilator responses to emotional stress with consequent pruritus and scratching. The itch threshold is low, duration is prolonged, and nighttime scratching movements may be frequent or almost continuous. Regardless of the inciting trigger factors, the scratching causes the damage and the severe dermatitis. Thermal as well as emotional stimuli to sweating cause severe itching in AD, yet the concept of a miliaria-type, poral occlusion mechanism remains unproven. Some studies suggest actually increased sweating along with erythema and pruritus during acute flares of AD. The concept of sweat-borne allergens causing skin reactions during sweating is interesting but has never been proven. Studies of sweat responses to pharmacologic agents have produced conflicting data, and attempts to link these responses to Szentivanyi's beta-adrenergic blockade theory are not convincing. The numerous variables of climate, season, sex, age, and habitus affect sweating greatly. Future studies must carefully control for each of these factors before pharmacologically induced sweat responses can be interpreted clearly. A number of lines of evidence suggest involvement of histamine and other mediators in the evolution of erythema, pruritus, and scratching in AD. Flares of the condition have been reproducibly evoked by only two incitants: experimental emotional stress interviews and specific food challenge in selected sensitive individuals. In the latter, increased plasma histamine has been demonstrated, presumably generated by antigen/IgE stimulated degranulation of mast cells in the gut and/or skin. The demonstrated increased histamine releasability of
Bourgeault, Emilie; Bujold, Janie; Doucet, Marie-Eve
Oestrogen dermatitis is a rare disorder characterised by cyclical eruptions in association with a woman's menstrual cycle. A 43-year-old woman with an 8-year history of cyclical inguinal dermatitis, with a negative patch test, was tested with intradermal progesterone and oestrogen. Intradermal testing was positive for oestrogen only. In a female patient with cyclical dermatitis, it is important to consider oestrogen or progesterone dermatitis in the differential diagnosis.
Hamann, Dathan; Ridpath, Alyson; Fernandez Faith, Esteban
Consort dermatitis refers to an allergic contact dermatitis caused by transfer from an intimate contact to a sensitized patient. Although close contact with other humans most commonly provokes consort dermatitis, pets have been the source in a minority of cases. We present a unique case of transfer dermatitis from a patient's cat litter to her forearms. Pediatric dermatologists should be aware of the possibility of consort or "transfer" allergic contact dermatitis from pets. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bonness, Sonja; Bieber, Thomas
Atopic dermatitis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease and there are numerous publications on this topic. This review will focus on developments in understanding the molecular basis of atopic dermatitis while considering the genetic background, skin barrier impairment, immune system deviation and microbial superinfections. Atopic dermatitis is a complex genetic disease in which gene-gene and gene-environment interactions play a key role. Surprisingly some genetic regions of interest were found to be overlapping with loci identified to play a role in another very common inflammatory skin disease, psoriasis, while no overlap has so far been observed with asthma. Impairment of the skin barrier followed by antigens trespassing seems to play an important role, favouring sensitization via transepidermal penetration which is the focus of current investigations. Superinfections by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus due to a weak innate defence seem to be significant in atopic dermatitis as they elicit a strong inflammatory response. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a high incidence in school children and adults. Disease pathogenesis is complex and the background is multifactorial, making the underlying predispositions elusive. Understanding new pathogenic pathways may lead to the development of new drugs with enhanced benefit for the patient.
Hussain, Zahid; Sahudin, Shariza; Thu, Hnin Ei; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Kumolosasi, Endang
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), T lymphocytes, and mast cells. The key factors responsible for the pathophysiology of this disease are immunological disorders and defects in epidermal barrier properties. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance, and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological disorder. Preventive interventions such as educational programs, avoidance of allergens, and exclusive care toward the skin could play a partial role in suppressing the symptoms. Based on the available clinical evidence, topical corticosteroids (TCs) are among the most commonly prescribed agents; however, these should be selected with care. In cases of steroid phobia, persistent adverse effects or chronic use, topical calcineurin inhibitors can be considered as a promising adjunct to TCs. Recent advances in the pharmacotherapeutic paradigm of atopic diseases exploring the therapeutic dominance of nanocarrier-mediated delivery is also discussed in this evidence-based review with regard to the treatment of AD. The present review summarizes the available clinical evidence, highlighting the current and emerging trends in the treatment of AD and providing evidence-based recommendations for the clinicians and health care professionals. Available evidence for the management of pediatric and adult atopic dermatitis (AD; atopic eczema) of all severities is explored. The management of other types of dermatitis, such as irritant contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, neurodermatitis, perioral dermatitis, stasis dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis are outside the scope of current review article. The presented studies were appraised using a unified system called the "Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT)", which was developed by the editors of several US family medicine and primary care journals
Sokumbi, Olayemi; Comfere, Nneka I; McEvoy, Marian T; Peters, Margot S
Bullous artefactual dermatoses are rare and may be induced by various techniques, including chemicals, heat, or electrical current. Proving a factitial etiology and identifying the mechanism of injury may be difficult. We describe the clinical features and histopathology of 2 patients with bullous disease induced by electrical current or heat. Physical examination in both patients demonstrated geometrically shaped tense bullae. Skin biopsies revealed epidermal necrosis overlying a pauci-inflammatory subepidermal cleft, with homogenization of underlying superficial dermal collagen. In 1 of the 2 patients, there was prominent vertical elongation of keratinocyte nuclei and also of cytoplasmic processes. Direct immunofluorescence study of skin plus testing of serum by indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for BP180 and BP230 antibodies revealed no evidence for immunobullous disease in either patient. Vertical elongation of keratinocyte nuclei, often attributed to a polarization effect of electrical current, is characteristic of electrical burn but also may be induced by thermal injury. These 2 patients highlight the importance of histopathology in confirming a diagnosis of bullous dermatitis artefacta.
Gómez-de la Fuente, E
Atopic dermatitis has become a health problem in our setting due to its rising prevalence, impact on quality of life, associated costs, and role in the progression to other atopic diseases. Furthermore, atopic dermatitis has no definitive cure and therefore preventive measures are important. In this article, we review the latest advances in both primary prevention (reduction of the incidence of atopic dermatitis) and secondary prevention (reduction of associated morbidity and reduction of the atopic march). We analyze the different preventive strategies available, including modification of the immune system through microbial exposure, induction of immune tolerance through antigen exposure, and restoration of skin barrier function to halt the atopic march. Dermatologists need to be familiar with these strategies in order to apply them where necessary and to accurately inform patients and their relatives to prevent misguided or inappropriate actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Long, D; Thiboutot, D M; Majeski, J T; Vasily, D B; Helm, K F
Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is an uncommon systemic disorder involving the cutaneous and musculoskeletal systems. The eruption may mimic other dermatoses including granuloma annulare, erythema chronicum migrans, and the inflammatory stage of morphea. Key histopathologic characteristics, along with clinical correlation, allow accurate diagnosis. We describe the clinical, serologic, and histologic features in three patients with interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis. Skin biopsy specimens were examined and correlated with the clinical and laboratory findings. Erythematous, annular, indurated plaques on the extremities were present in two women. An erythematous, papular eruption on the head and neck was present in a third patient. All patients had myalgia and migratory polyarthralgias of the extremities along with various serologic abnormalities. Histologic examination revealed a dense lymphohistiocytic interstitial infiltrate involving primarily the reticular dermis. Foci of necrobiotic collagen were present. Vasculitis was absent. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is unique multisystem disease with variable cutaneous expression. Abnormal serologic findings indicate a possible connection to collagen vascular disease.
Laguna, C; de la Cuadra, J; Martín-González, B; Zaragoza, V; Martínez-Casimiro, L; Alegre, V
Contact dermatitis to cosmetics is a common problem in the general population, although its prevalence appears to be underestimated. We reviewed cases of allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics diagnosed in our dermatology department over a 7-year period with a view to identifying the allergens responsible, the frequency of occurrence of these allergens, and the cosmetic products implicated. Using the database of the skin allergy department, we undertook a search of all cases of allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics diagnosed in our department from January 2000 through October 2007. In this period, patch tests were carried out on 2,485 patients, of whom 740 were diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis and the cause was cosmetics in 202 of these patients (170 women and 32 men), who accounted for 27.3 % of all cases. A total of 315 positive results were found for 46 different allergens. Allergens most often responsible for contact dermatitis in a cosmetics user were methylisothiazolinone (19 %), paraphenylenediamine (15.2 %), and fragrance mixtures (7.8 %). Acrylates were the most common allergens in cases of occupational disease. Half of the positive results were obtained with the standard battery of the Spanish Group for Research Into Dermatitis and Skin Allergies (GEIDAC). The cosmetic products most often implicated among cosmetics users were hair dyes (18.5 %), gels/soaps (15.7 %), and moisturizers (12.7 %). Most patients affected were women. Preservatives, paraphenylenediamine, and fragrances were the most frequently detected cosmetic allergens, in line with previous reports in the literature. Finally, in order to detect new cosmetic allergens, cooperation between physicians and cosmetics producers is needed.
Several arguments are raised attributing to aeroallergens an important role in atopic dermatitis. The aeroallergens that penetrate the epidermis could be fixed by IgE on the Langerhans cells and then induce a cellular mediator reaction comparable to that of allergic contact eczema. Patch tests have been developed to evaluate the role of aeroallergens (dust mites, animal dander, etc.). Preventive anti-dust mites measures in the home of atopic patients are recommended. Eviction of domestic animals (cat, dog, etc.) or avoidance measures for animal dander in the home can produce improvement in atopic dermatitis. Oral specific immunotherapy is being validated as a treatment for this disease.
Gallego, H; Lewis, E J; Crutchfield, C E
Two patients developed an irritant dermatitis of the axillae shortly after using an over-the-counter "natural deodorant crystal" product containing alum. We discuss this previously unreported, untoward reaction to alum, an ancient agent with newfound popularity as an alternative health product.
Chen, Fu-Juan; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Yong-Hua; Fan, Yi-Ming
Dermatitis palmaris sicca (DPS) is a common dry-fissured palmar dermatitis in Asian women. It may be an irritant contact dermatitis, but the immunophenotype of the cells in its infiltrate is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of inflammatory cells in the pathogenesis of DPS. Patch testing was done in 68 patients with DPS, 87 subjects with hand eczema, and 31 healthy subjects. Immunophenotyping of cutaneous inflammatory cells was performed in 8 patients with DPS, 10 subjects with hand eczema, and 8 healthy individuals. Positive patch rates were higher in patients with DPS and those with hand eczema compared with healthy controls, but strong positive (++ or +++) reactions in DPS were fewer compared with hand eczema. Density of CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD68 cells in skin lesions of DPS and hand eczema was significantly higher than that in normal skin. Sparse CD20 cells were present only in hand eczema. Compared with hand eczema, the number of CD3, CD8, CD68, and dermal CD1a cells decreased, but epidermal CD1a cells and CD4/CD8 ratio increased in DPS. The absolute lack of CD20 cells and relative scarcity of dermal CD8 and CD1a cells in skin lesions might be insufficient to induce contact hypersensitivity, so DPS may be an irritant but not allergic contact dermatitis.
Agarwal, Shilpa; Ehrlich, Alison
Peristomal dermatoses commonly afflict the area around stoma openings in ostomy patients. These complications, however, are often unreported by patients and remain untreated for years, thus affecting maintenance and recovery from the surgery. These dermatoses can have chemical, mechanical, irritant, bacterial, immunologic, or disease-related etiologies. Examples of common forms of dermatitis that occur peristomally include fecal or urine irritant contact dermatitis, chronic papillomatous dermatitis, mechanical dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis. This article summarizes various skin irritations that can occur after an ostomy and also reviews previously published reports of peristomal allergic contact dermatitis. In addition, the clinical importance of identifying these dermatoses (most important, their effects on the patient's quality of life), risk factors for the skin irritations, the importance of patch testing, treatment of stoma dermatitis, and the importance of patient education and patient-doctor communication are also discussed.
Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis
We present the case of a patient with facial dermatitis caused by sensitization to cocamidopropyl betaine. The patient also had positive patch-test reactions to cocamidoamine, 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine, and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine. The presence of 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine as an impurity in all of these substances can be hypothesized to explain these simultaneous reactions.
Isaksson, Marléne; Möller, Halvor; Pontén, Ann
A golfer presented with facial and hand eczema. He had exacerbations of his hand eczema prior to golf tournaments. Being an authorized golf club repairman, he had been working with a two-part glue containing an epoxy resin (ER) based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and the hardener diethylenetriamine (DETA) for approximately 4 years before he developed any skin problems. He was patch-tested with the standard, which contains an ER based on DGEBA (DGEBA-R), epoxy (containing DETA), and rubber glove series and had positive reactions to DGEBA-R only. Other work materials (a latex glove, a golf glove made of leather, and part of the handle of his own golf club "as is" and in a methyl tert-butyl ether extract) were tested, with negative results. Allergic contact dermatitis from ER affects the skin by direct contact; the dermatitis is usually localized to the hands and forearms. If the face and eyelids are involved, the dermatitis may be due to exposure to airborne hardeners or reactive diluents, exposure to airborne dust from residual monomers, or ectopic allergic reactions. Our repairman had sandpapered an old glued surface, which may have led to possible airborne dust formation, thus explaining the facial eczema. Therefore, a worker with contact allergy to ER may continue working provided the skin is protected from contamination.
Berk, David R; Hurt, Mark A; Reese, Lester T; Wagner, Laura; Bayliss, Susan J
Milia have rarely been reported as a complication of severe allergic contact dermatitis. To our knowledge, milia have not previously been associated with poison ivy dermatitis. We present two cases of milia after allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy.
Fan, W X; Zhao, B
Patch tests were performed according to the European Standard Allergens (ESA) in 204 cases suspected of contact dermatitis. The reaction was positive in 58.33% of the cases. The common allergens were nickel (15.7%), fragrance mix (11.8%) p-phenylenediamine (8.8%), colophony (6.9%), benzocaine (6.4%), formaldehyde (5.9%), black rubber mix (4.9%), cobalt (4.4%), balsam of Peru (3.9%), potassium dichromate (3.4%), thiuram mix (2.9%) and mercapto mix (2.9%). In 85 cases of negative reaction to the European Standard Allergens, 36 were patch tested to suspected agents based on the individual case histories, of which 21 positively reacted. The common sensitizing agents were ampicillin and thiomersal. Of 204 cases, 107 were cases of facial contact dermatitis. Patch tests showed that the most common allergens were p-phenylenediamine (15.9%), nickel (13.1%) and fragrance mix (14.95%).
Kim, Won-Jeong; Lee, Won-Ku; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum
Sometimes the clinical differentiation between verruca plana (VP) and VP-like seborrheic keratosis (SK) could be challenged. However, there have been no studies on this issue to date. The aim of this study was to elucidate clinical and dermoscopic differences between these two diseases, and also to suggest a diagnostic algorithm of VP and VP-like SK without skin biopsy. The patients who had lesions clinically considered as VP or VP-like SK were the target of our study. We took clinical and dermoscopic photos with informed consent and conducted a questionnaire. All patients had their diagnoses confirmed by biopsy. Thirty-three patients were enrolled in our study. Seventeen patients were finally diagnosed with VP (51.5%) and 16 patients with VP-like SK (48.5%). In clinical findings, VP-like SK showed significantly more scattered distribution than VP (P = 0.039), which exhibited more clustered or grouped distribution (P = 0.039). In dermoscopic findings, brain-like appearance was more commonly observed in VP-like SK (P = 0.003) whereas VP showed more red dots or globular vessels (P = 0.017) and even-colored light brown to yellow patch (P < 0.001). Sex, onset age, the size of each lesion, location, color and shape showed no significant differences between them (P > 0.05). Based on our results, we suggest a diagnostic algorithm using Koebner's phenomenon, dermoscopic findings, distribution of each lesion and biopsy for multiple VP-like lesions in adults, and we think it will be a very useful diagnostic tool in daily clinical dermatological practice. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Patrizi, A; Neri, I; Marzaduri, S; Fiorillo, L
Napkin or diaper dermatitis (DD) is an inflammatory cutaneous eruption limited to the diaper area and common in the first 2 years of life. A number of clinical variants of DD have been identified. We report a new variant of DD characterized by papyraceous skin, brownish discoloration and predilection for the depth of folds. 15 infants and toddlers affected by this peculiar type of DD were evaluated regarding duration, localization, morphology and evolution of their dermatosis. This variant of DD was mainly confined to the depth of inguinal and gluteal folds and invariably associated with severe xerosis with papyraceous and glazed skin. The patients were healthy and asymptomatic and all laboratory investigations performed were normal. All patients were frequently changed and thoroughly washed with synthetic detergents with acid pH. DD improved rapidly with reduced frequency of washing and discontinuation of liquid detergents. We conclude that this condition is a type of irritant contact dermatitis from excessive use of lipid acid detergents.
Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.
Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries. PMID:22550459
Potgieser, Adriaan R E; van Dijk, J Marc C; Elting, Jan Willem J; de Koning-Tijssen, Marina A J
Facial tics and spasms are socially incapacitating, but effective treatment is often available. The clinical picture is sufficient for distinguishing between the different diseases that cause this affliction.We describe three cases of patients with facial tics or spasms: one case of tics, which are familiar to many physicians; one case of blepharospasms; and one case of hemifacial spasms. We discuss the differential diagnosis and the treatment possibilities for facial tics and spasms. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, because of the associated social incapacitation. Botulin toxin should be considered as a treatment option for facial tics and a curative neurosurgical intervention should be considered for hemifacial spasms.
... to many different facial muscles. These muscles control facial expression. The coordinated activity of this nerve and these ... involves a weakness of the muscles responsible for facial expression and side-to-side eye movement. Moebius syndrome ...
Briant, D; Brouder, G
Poison ivy dermatitis is an acute self-limiting problem of two or three weeks' duration that can cause significant discomfort. Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac cause more cases of allergic contact dermatitis than all the other contact allergens combined. Treatment of poison ivy dermatitis depends on the severity of the reaction. The nurse practitioner can manage the majority of poison ivy cases. However, if there is systemic involvement, a physician consultation is necessary. The patient can best be assisted by assessing the severity of the dermatitis, prescribing an appropriate supportive therapy and teaching preventive measures.
Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce
Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McKeever, P J; Allen, S K
Cheyletiella sp mites were isolated from 8 cats with pruritic dermatitis characterized by erythematous papules or increased scaling. Lesions cleared after treatments with malathion (dips) or pyrethrin (shampoos).
Loranger, Camille; Alfalah, Maisa; Ferrier Le Bouedec, Marie-Christine; Sasseville, Denis
Ecologically sound because they are synthesized from natural and renewable sources, the mild surfactants alkyl glucosides are being rediscovered by the cosmetic industry. They are currently found in rinse-off products such as shampoos, liquid cleansers, and shower gels, but also in leave-on products that include moisturizers, deodorants, and sunscreens. During the past 15 years, numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis have been published, mostly to lauryl and decyl glucosides, and these compounds are considered emergent allergens. Interestingly, the sunscreen Tinosorb M contains decyl glucoside as a hidden allergen, and most cases of allergic contact dermatitis reported to this sunscreen ingredient are probably due to sensitization to decyl glucoside. This article will review the chemistry of alkyl glucosides, their sources of exposure, as well as their cutaneous adverse effects reported in the literature and encountered in various patch testing centers.
Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella
Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.
Kramer, Owen N; Strom, Mark A; Ladizinski, Barry; Lio, Peter A
Fred Wise (1881-1950) and Marion Sulzberger (1895-1983) are often credited with introducing the term atopic dermatitis to dermatology in 1933. This definition was based on atopy, a term first created by Arthur Coca (1875-1959) and Robert Cooke (1880-1960) in 1923, when they recognized an association between allergic rhinitis and asthma. Despite its recent introduction into our medical lexicon, historical precursors of atopic dermatitis date back to at least as early as 69-140 ce. In this contribution, we highlight both the prominent individuals credited with shaping the disorder into our current interpretation and the suspected historical precursors of this disease and reported treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frimat, P; Fantoni-Quinton, S
Occupational dermatitis is very common with considerable social and economic implications. Routine screening for occupational factors is essential since it may be necessary to introduce preventive measures and compensation could be due to the patient. The general practitioner may be assisted either by the occupational therapist or by specialised services to help the patient take the administrative steps necessary in order to identify a professional disease.
The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.
Raidal, S R
This report describes an outbreak of Staphylococcal dermatitis which occurred in commercial Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with a history and clinico-pathological evidence suggestive of pantothenic acid deficiency. The flock had a low hatchability rate (40 to 43%) and a high percentage (50%) of dead-in-shell embryos. Approximately 5 to 15% of the grower flock developed crusty facial scabs and conjunctivitis from 4 days of age. Culture of eyelid skin yielded pure growths of non-haemolytic, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. Histological examination revealed a generalised hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis of feathers, feather follicles and non-follicular skin. There was invasion of feather follicles by cocci and focal areas of suppurative exudative dermatitis and subcutaneous abscesses particularly in the eyelids and commissures of the beak. Clinical signs were alleviated by treatment with amoxycillin and a change in ration formulation.
Ardeshirpour, Farhad; Shaye, David A; Hilger, Peter A
Posttraumatic soft-tissue injuries of the face are often the most lasting sequelae of facial trauma. The disfigurement of posttraumatic scarring lies in both their physical deformity and psychosocial ramifications. This review outlines a variety of techniques to improve facial scars and limit their lasting effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tate, James R; Tollefson, Travis T
Facial paralysis often has a significant emotional impact on patients. Along with the myriad of new surgical techniques in managing facial paralysis comes the challenge of selecting the most effective procedure for the patient. This review delineates common surgical techniques and reviews state-of-the-art techniques. The options for dynamic reanimation of the paralyzed face must be examined in the context of several patient factors, including age, overall health, and patient desires. The best functional results are obtained with direct facial nerve anastomosis and interpositional nerve grafts. In long-standing facial paralysis, temporalis muscle transfer gives a dependable and quick result. Microvascular free tissue transfer is a reliable technique with reanimation potential whose results continue to improve as microsurgical expertise increases. Postoperative results can be improved with ancillary soft tissue procedures, as well as botulinum toxin. The paper provides an overview of recent advances in facial reanimation, including preoperative assessment, surgical reconstruction options, and postoperative management.
Dhar, S; Kanwar, A J; Deodhar, S D
Antinuclear antibody (ANA) was assayed in 76 children with atopic dermatitis (AD) of which 46 were males and 30 females. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 12 years (mean 3.4 years). Age at onset of AD ranged from 2 months to 5.5 years (mean 1.9 years) and its duration ranged from 4 months to 4 years (mean 1.2 years). While facial lesions were present in 56 (73.3%) patients, 49 (64.5%) patients had predominant involvement of extensors. As per severity score designed by Rajka and Langerland, 31 (40.8%), 42 (55.3%) and 3 (3.9%) patients had mild, moderate and severe diseases respectively. History of photosensitivity was present in 6 (7.9%) patients. Serum samples were positive for ANA in a very low titre (1:20) in 2/6 patients with facial lesions. However LE cell, rheumatoid factor and C-reactive proteins were negative and serum complement levels were within normal limits.
Sokołowski, Jacek; Bartoszewicz, Robert; Morawski, Krzysztof; Jamróz, Barbara; Niemczyk, Kazimierz
Evaluation of diagnostic, surgical technique, treatment results facial nerve neurinomas and its comparison with literature was the main purpose of this study. Seven cases of patients (2005-2011) with facial nerve schwannomas were included to retrospective analysis in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw. All patients were assessed with history of the disease, physical examination, hearing tests, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, electronystagmography. Cases were observed in the direction of potential complications and recurrences. Neurinoma of the facial nerve occurred in the vertical segment (n=2), facial nerve geniculum (n=1) and the internal auditory canal (n=4). The symptoms observed in patients were analyzed: facial nerve paresis (n=3), hearing loss (n=2), dizziness (n=1). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography allowed to confirm the presence of the tumor and to assess its staging. Schwannoma of the facial nerve has been surgically removed using the middle fossa approach (n=5) and by antromastoidectomy (n=2). Anatomical continuity of the facial nerve was achieved in 3 cases. In the twelve months after surgery, facial nerve paresis was rated at level II-III° HB. There was no recurrence of the tumor in radiological observation. Facial nerve neurinoma is a rare tumor. Currently surgical techniques allow in most cases, the radical removing of the lesion and reconstruction of the VII nerve function. The rate of recurrence is low. A tumor of the facial nerve should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nerve VII paresis. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.
... men. Dandruff is usually a symptom of seborrheic dermatitis, or seborrhea. It is a skin condition that ... care provider. There is a type of seborrheic dermatitis that babies can get. It is called cradle ...
... Seborrheic Dermatitis in Children Treatment For Children Eczema & Child Development Tools for School Living Well Resources Eczema and ... Seborrheic Dermatitis in Children Treatment For Children Eczema & Child Development Tools for School Living Well Resources Eczema and ...
..., Seborrheic Dermatitis, and Psoriasis § 358.701 Scope. (a) An over-the-counter dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis drug product in a form suitable for topical application is generally recognized as safe...
Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko
Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…
Epstein, W L
Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds.
Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch.
Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes. Flagellate dermatitis is also known as a cutaneous side effect of bleomycin therapy. PMID:25097492
Lee, B W
Cheyletiella dermatitis is an infrequently reported eruption caused by an ectoparasite whose normal hosts are household pets. Fourteen cases, documented over an eight-year period, are reported. All cases were found in one practice in a small community. Typical patients are female, aged forty years or younger, who experience pruritic papules in the winter months. Cheyletiella dermatitis is not a rare problem.
Barton, Michael; Sidbury, Robert
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, pruritic skin disease characterized by an improperly functioning skin barrier and immune dysregulation. We review proposed atopic dermatitis pathomechanisms, emphasizing how these impact current perspectives on natural history, role of allergic sensitization, and future therapeutic targets. PMID:26918129
Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Sharma, Alpna D
Ever since its inception a couple of centuries ago, hand dermatitis/eczema has been in the reckoning. Idiosyncrasies continued to loom large thereafter, till it acquired its appropriate position. Dermatitis/eczema are synonymous, often used to indicate a polymorphic pattern of the inflammation of the skin, characterized by pruritus, erythema and vesiculation. A spectrum delineated into acute sub-acute and chronic dermatitis of the hands. Pompholyx, recurrent focal palmer peeling, ring, wear and tear and fingertip eczema, apron, discoid eczema, chronic acral dermatitis, gut and patchy papulosquamous eczema are its clinical variants. Occupational dermatitis/eczema may be contributory. Etiological definitions are clinched by detailed history of exogenous and endogenous factors. However, scientific confirmation of the entity is through patch testing by using available antigens.
Bernstein, David I
This article provides an overview of important practice recommendations from the recently updated Contact Dermatitis Practice Parameter. This updated parameter provides essential recommendations pertaining to clinical history, physical examination, and patch testing evaluation of patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis. In addition to providing guidance for performing and interpreting closed patch testing, the updated parameter provides concrete recommendations for assessing metal hypersensitivity in patients receiving prosthetic devices, for evaluating workers with occupational contact dermatitis, and also for addressing allergic contact dermatitis in children. Finally, the document provides practical recommendations useful for educating patients regarding avoidance of exposure to known contact sensitizers in the home and at work. The Contact Dermatitis Parameter is designed as a practical, evidence-based clinical tool to be used by allergists and dermatologists who routinely are called upon to evaluate patients with skin disorders. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arribas, M P; Soro, P; Silvestre, J F
Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually manifests as subacute or chronic dermatitis because fragrances are found in a wide range of products to which patients are repeatedly exposed. The typical patient is a middle-aged woman with dermatitis on her hands and face, although other sites may be affected depending on the allergen and the product in which it is found. The standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC) contains 4 fragrance markers: balsam of Peru, fragrance mix i, fragrance mix ii, and lyral. Testing with a specific fragrance series is recommended in patients with a positive result to any of these 4 markers. The use of a specific fragrance series and new legislation obliging manufacturers to specify the fragrances used in their products, will help to improve the management of allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Kole, Adam J; Kole, Lauren; Moran, Meena S
Nearly all women who receive radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer experience some degree of radiation dermatitis. However, evidence describing the appropriate management of radiation dermatitis is often lacking or contradictory. Here, we summarize the available literature regarding radiation dermatitis causes, the presentation and timing of symptoms, methods for dermatitis assessment and prevention, and review evidence-based management strategies. PMID:28503074
Cohen, Philip R
Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854
Collins, P; Ferguson, J
A 21-year-old woman developed an erythematous papulovesicular eruption of photo-exposed sites, following the use of an oxybenzone-containing sunscreen. Patch testing, photopatch testing, phototesting, and histology produced findings strongly suggestive of oxybenzone photoallergy. Photopatch testing with a monochromator source showed abnormal UVA responses, with evidence of immediate urticaria, and delayed-onset dermatitis. Sun-barrier use is associated with a risk of the development of contact or photocontact allergic reactions. The benzophenones are frequently used in high-protection factor sun-barrier preparations, and appear to have a particular ability to induce such responses.
Hudson, Arthur L.
Atopic (spontaneous) allergies and nonatopic (induced) allergies are often confused. The meaning of these terms is definite, but the occurrence of either (in a given individual) may depend upon his autonomic nervous system control. The evidence that allergens produce the cutaneous changes in atopic dermatitis is flimsy, and neurodermatitis would be a more appropriate term since the entity falls into that pattern of skin changes. Treatment carried out, from infancy sometimes to old age, consists of careful management of the patient in the physical and emotional spheres, avoidance of external irritation and the use of a multiplicity of anti-pruritic, anti-inflammatory and sedative agents. PMID:13955448
Hariharasubramony, Ambika; Chankramath, Sujatha; Srinivasa, Seema
Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with many dermatological disorders. It may be the cause for skin problem or may be the effect of a skin problem as skin being a visual organ. A 28-year-old female presented with multiple red lesions on the skin with unusual morphology and was diagnosed as dermatitis simulata. She gave history of multiple episodes of similar illnesses with admissions in various hospitals and being evaluated and dropping off in between treatments. After detailed psychological evaluation, patient was diagnosed as case of Munchausen syndrome. PMID:22661819
Moncada, Georgia A.
The article reviews diagnosis and treatments for facially disfigured children including craniofacial reconstruction and microsurgical techniques. Noted are associated disease processes that affect the social and intellectual outcomes of the afflicted child. (Author/DB)
Clark, James H; Burger, Peter C; Boahene, Derek Kofi; Niparko, John K
To describe the management of traumatic neuroma of the facial nerve in a child and literature review. Sixteen-month-old male subject. Radiological imaging and surgery. Facial nerve function. The patient presented at 16 months with a right facial palsy and was found to have a right facial nerve traumatic neuroma. A transmastoid, middle fossa resection of the right facial nerve lesion was undertaken with a successful facial nerve-to-hypoglossal nerve anastomosis. The facial palsy improved postoperatively. A traumatic neuroma should be considered in an infant who presents with facial palsy, even in the absence of an obvious history of trauma. The treatment of such lesion is complex in any age group but especially in young children. Symptoms, age, lesion size, growth rate, and facial nerve function determine the appropriate management.
Laureano, Ana Cristina; Schwartz, Robert A; Cohen, Philip J
Facial bacterial infections are most commonly caused by infections of the hair follicles. Wherever pilosebaceous units are found folliculitis can occur, with the most frequent bacterial culprit being Staphylococcus aureus. We review different origins of facial folliculitis, distinguishing bacterial forms from other infectious and non-infectious mimickers. We distinguish folliculitis from pseudofolliculitis and perifolliculitis. Clinical features, etiology, pathology, and management options are also discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Katayama, Ichiro; Kohno, Yoichi; Akiyama, Kazuo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Kondo, Naomi; Tamaki, Kunihiko; Kouro, Osamu
Given the importance of appropriate diagnosis and appropriate assessment of cutaneous symptoms in treatment of atopic dermatitis, the basics of treatment in this guideline are composed of (1) investigation and countermeasures of causes and exacerbating factors, (2) correction of skin dysfunctions (skin care), and (3) pharmacotherapy, as three mainstays. These are based on the disease concept that atopic dermatitis is a inflammatory cutaneous disease with eczema by atopic diathesis, multi-factorial in onset and aggravation, and accompanied by skin dysfunctions. These three points are equally important and should be appropriately combined in accordance with the symptoms of each patient. In treatment, it is important to transmit the etiological, pathological, physiological, or therapeutic information to the patient to build a favorable partnership with the patient or his/her family so that they may fully understand the treatment. This guideline discusses chiefly the basic therapy in relation to the treatment of this disease. The goal of treatment is to enable patients to lead an uninterrupted social life and to control their cutaneous symptoms so that their quality of life (QOL) may meet a satisfactory level.
Sidbury, Robert; Khorsand, Kate
Tremendous advances have been made in the field of atopic dermatitis in the past 5 years. We will explore developments in burden of disease, co-morbidities, pathogenesis, prevention, and management. The tremendous burden moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) places on families from a medical, psychosocial, and financial perspective has been characterized. Epidemiologic studies have identified intriguing new associations beyond the well-characterized "atopic march" of food allergies, asthma, and hay fever. Studies of primary prevention have gained traction including the remarkable impacts of early emollient therapy. Basic advances have simultaneously elucidated the nature of atopic inflammation, setting the stage for an explosion of new potential therapeutic targets. After a fallow period of nearly 15 years without a substantial therapeutic advance, this year has already seen two new FDA-approved treatments for AD. AD has a tremendous impact on quality of life with an underappreciated burden of disease; there are important newly described co-morbidities including ADHD and anemia; new insights into etio-pathogenesis have paved the way for novel topical therapies like crisaborole, and new systemic interventions like dupilumab.
Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.
The Facial Action Coding System (FACS)  is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284
Muler, H; Paquelin, F; Cotin, G; Luboinski, B; Henin, J M
Facial paralyses in children may be grouped under headings displaying a certain amount of individuality. Chronologically, first to be described are neonatal facial paralyses. These are common and are nearly always cured within a few days. Some of these cases are due to the mastoid being crushed at birth with or without the use of forceps. The intra-osseous pathway of the facial nerve is then affected throughout its length. However, a cure is often spontaneous. When this desirable development does not take place within three months, the nerve should be freed by decompressive surgery. The special anatomy of the facial nerve in the new-born baby makes this a delicate operation. Later, in all stages of acute otitis, acute mastoiditis or chronic otitis, facial paralysis can be seen. Treatment depends on the stage reached by the otitis: paracentesis, mastoidectomy, various scraping procedures, and, of course, antibiotherapy. The other causes of facial paralysis in children are very much less common: a frigore or viral, traumatic, occur ring in the course of acute poliomyelitis, shingles or tumours of the middle ear. To these must be added exceptional causes such as vitamin D intoxication, idiopathic hypercalcaemia and certain haemopathies.
Campana, Raffaela; Dzoro, Sheron; Mittermann, Irene; Fedenko, Elena; Elisyutina, Olga; Khaitov, Musa; Karaulov, Alexander; Valenta, Rudolf
Purpose of review Molecular allergology uses pure, mainly recombinant and structurally defined allergen molecules and allergen-derived epitopes to study mechanisms of IgE-associated allergy, to diagnose, and even predict the development of allergic manifestations and to treat and prevent IgE-associated allergies. Atopic dermatitis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease is almost always associated with IgE sensitization to allergens. However, also non-IgE-mediated pathomechanisms seem to be operative in atopic dermatitis and it is often difficult to identify the disease-causing allergens. Here we review recent work showing the usefulness of molecular allergology to study mechanisms of atopic dermatitis, for diagnosis and eventually for treatment and prevention of atopic dermatitis. Recent findings IgE sensitization to airborne, food-derived, microbial allergens, and autoallergens has been found to be associated with atopic dermatitis. Using defined allergen molecules and non-IgE-reactive allergen derivatives, evidence could be provided for the existence of IgE- and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms of inflammation in atopic dermatitis. Furthermore, effects of epicutaneous allergen administration on systemic allergen-specific immune responses have been studied. Multi-allergen tests containing micro-arrayed allergen molecules have been shown to be useful for the identification of culprit allergens in atopic dermatitis and may improve the management of atopic dermatitis by allergen-specific immunotherapy, allergen avoidance, and IgE-targeting therapies in a personalized medicine approach. Summary Molecular allergology allows for dissection of the pathomechanisms of atopic dermatitis, provides new forms of allergy diagnosis for identification of disease-causing allergens, and opens the door to new forms of management by allergen-specific and T cells-targeting or IgE-targeting interventions in a personalized medicine approach. PMID:28622169
Gladman, Aaron C
Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well.
Lim, CSH; Lim, SL; Chew, FT; Ong, TC; Deharveng, L
There have been several unconfirmed case reports of dermatitis caused by Collembola (springtails). We recently investigated two nurses with dermatitis suspected to be caused by Drepanura Schött (Collembola: Entomobryidae). IgE antibodies to Collembola proteins were not detected in sera from the nurses and skin tests with the Collembola extract and crushed whole Collembola were negative in both the nurses and volunteers. This study suggests that the springtail Drepanura may not cause human dermatitis and that other organisms and organic matter that are also found in the moist environment inhabited by Collembola might instead be responsible. PMID:19611235
Pruritus, or itch, is a common vulvar complaint that is often treated empirically as a yeast infection; however, yeast infections are just one of the many conditions that can cause vulvar itch. Ignoring other conditions can prolong pruritus unnecessarily. Atopic dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis are extremely common noninfectious causes of vulvar itch that are often underdiagnosed by nondermatologists. Identifying these conditions and treating them appropriately can significantly improve a patient's quality of life and appropriately decrease health care expenditures by preventing unnecessary additional referrals or follow-up visits and decreasing pharmaceutical costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huygens, S; Goossens, A
This review is an update of 2 previously published articles on airborne contact dermatoses. Because reports in the literature often omit the term 'airborne', 18 volumes of Contact Dermatitis (April 1991-June 2000), 8 volumes of the American Journal of Contact Dermatitis (1992 1999) and 4 volumes of La Lettre du Gerda (1996-1999) were screened, and the cases cited were classified as to history, lesion locations, sensitization sources, and other factors. Reports on airborne dermatitis are increasingly being published, sometimes in relation to specific occupational areas.
Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange
Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141
Cabanillas, Beatriz; Brehler, Ann-Christin; Novak, Natalija
Purpose of review To describe recent developments in therapies which target the molecular mechanisms in atopic dermatitis. Recent findings Current advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of atopic dermatitis are leading to the stratification of different atopic dermatitis phenotypes. New therapies offer the option to target-specific molecules involved in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis. Current new therapies under investigation aim to modulate specific inflammatory pathways associated with distinctive atopic dermatitis phenotypes, which would potentially translate into the development of personalized, targeted-specific treatments of atopic dermatitis. Summary Despite the unmet need for well tolerated, effective, and personalized treatment of atopic dermatitis, the current standard treatments of atopic dermatitis do not focus on the individual pathogenesis of the disease. The development of targeted, phenotype-specific therapies has the potential to open a new promising era of individualized treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:28582322
Li, Lin-feng; Wang, Jing
Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in hand dermatitis (HD) was studied by patch testing (PT) 105 consecutive adult HD patients and 361 cases of suspected non-hand allergic contact dermatitis (NHD). The suspected offending agents were also investigated by a questionnaire. Age and sex distribution was no different between the 2 groups. The total positivity rate of PT in the HD group was much lower than in the control group (46.7% versus 63.2%, p < 0.01, chi2-test). The most common allergens in HD were rubber mix(17.1%), p-phenylenediamine (PPD) (14.3%), fragrance mix (9.5%), nickel (9.5%), colophonium (6.7%) and potassium dichromate (2.9%), while those in the control group, in sequence, were nickel (20.5%), rubber mix (16.9%), PPD (14.1%), fragrance mix (12.7%), potassium dichromate (5.5%) and colophonium (5.0%). The positivity rate to nickel was lower in the HD group (9.5% versus 20.5%, p < 0.05, chi2-test), while there was no significant difference for the other allergens. HD was divided arbitrarily into 5 groups: (1) vesicular form, in which fine papules and vesicles can be detected. 65.7% of the HD was vesicular form and 55.1% of them were PT positive; (2) fissured form, in which dry skin with fine fissures or desquamation is seen. 8.6% of the HD was fissured form and 30% of them were PT positive; (3) hyperkeratotic form, in which the lesions are thick, hyperkeratotic plaques - 6.7% of the HD was this form and no positive reaction was found; (4) hand and foot dermatitis (HFD) - 12.4% of HD was HFD and 53.8% of them were PT positive; (5) pompholyx - 6.7% of the patients had pompholyx and one positive result to nickel was detected. The suspected offending agents were reported in only 13 (12.4%) patients. These results suggest that CHS is less common in HD than in NHD and that other factors, such as skin irritation, may play more of a role in HD. Nickel allergy is less common in HD than in NHD. CHS may play a role in more than 1/2 of vesicular form HD, HFD and in some
Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Pesonen, Maria; Suuronen, Katri
Epoxy products are among the most common causes of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin (DGEBA-R) is the most important sensitizer in epoxy systems. To describe patients with occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by epoxy products. Patients with allergic reactions to epoxy chemicals were chosen from test files (January 1991 to June 2014). Only patients with occupational contact allergy to some component of epoxy resin systems were included. We analysed patch test results, occupation, symptoms, and exposure data. We found a total of 209 cases with occupational contact allergy to epoxy chemicals. The largest occupational groups were painters (n = 41), floor layers (n = 19), electrical industry workers (n = 19), tile setters (n = 16), and aircraft industry workers (n = 15). A total of 82% of the patients reacted to DGEBA-R. Diagnosis of the DGEBA-R-negative patients required testing with m-xylylenediamine, N,N'-tetraglycidyl-4,4'-methylenedianiline, 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether, 2,4,6-tris-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F resin, N,N'-diglycidyl-4-glycidyloxyaniline, isophoronediamine, 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, diethylenetriamine, and cresyl glycidyl ether. The hands/upper extremities were most commonly affected (69%), but facial symptoms were also frequent (60%). Allergic contact dermatitis caused by to epoxy products cannot always be diagnosed by the use of commercial test substances. Workplace products need to be tested. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sundaresan, Swaminathan; Migden, Michael R; Silapunt, Sirunya
Stasis dermatitis commonly occurs in older age. It is caused by venous hypertension resulting from retrograde flow due to incompetent venous valves, valve destruction, or obstruction of the venous system. Further tissue changes arise from an inflammatory process mediated by metalloproteinases, which are up-regulated by ferric ion from extravasated red blood cells. Stasis dermatitis presents initially as poorly demarcated erythematous plaques of the lower legs bilaterally, classically involving the medial malleolus. It is one of the spectrum of cutaneous findings that may result from chronic venous insufficiency. Its mimics include cellulitis, contact dermatitis, and pigmented purpuric dermatoses. Duplex ultrasound is useful in demonstrating venous reflux when the clinical diagnosis of stasis dermatitis is inadequate. Conservative treatment involves the use of compression therapy directed at improving ambulatory venous pressure. Interventional therapy currently includes minimally invasive techniques such as endovenous thermal ablation and ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy, which have supplanted the use of open surgical techniques.
This person is sensitive to chemicals used in perfumes, and now develops a rash when the area is exposed to light (photocontact dermatitis). These perfumes include Oil of Bergamot, an oil also found ...
Levin, Cheryl; Warshaw, Erin
Protein contact dermatitis is an allergic skin reaction induced principally by proteins of either animal or plant origin. The clinical presentation is that of a chronic dermatitis, and it is often difficult to differentiate between allergic contact dermatitis and other eczematous dermatoses. One distinguishing clinical feature is that acute flares of pruritus, urticaria, edema, or vesiculation are noted minutes after contact with the causative substances. Additionally, the patch-test result is typically negative, and the scratch- or prick-test result is positive. The pathogenesis of protein contact dermatitis is unclear but may involve a type I (immunoglobulin E [IgE], immediate) hypersensitivity reaction, type IV (cell-mediated delayed) hypersensitivity reaction, and/or a delayed reaction due to IgE-bearing Langerhans' cells. Management involves avoidance of the allergen.
Hogan, Daniel; Ledet, Johnathan J
Contact dermatitis is a serious public health and dermatologic concern. The prevalence of contact dermatitis in the United States was estimated to be 13.6 per 1000 population according to the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey using physical examinations by dermatologists of a selected sample of Americans. The American Medical Care Survey estimated that for all American physicians dermatitis is the second most common dermatologic diagnosis proffered. It is essential that government, industry, and dermatologists work together to enhance regulatory methods to control and prevent contact allergy epidemics. Increased knowledge and awareness of occupational skin diseases by dermatologists and other health care professionals will assist in achieving national public health goals. This article reviews governmental regulations-some helpful for patients and workers and some not helpful for dermatologists in their quest to assist patients with contact dermatitis.
Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M
Dogs may develop a syndrome of spontaneous, inflammatory, pruritic dermatitis that shares many features with human atopic dermatitis, including a young age of onset, characteristic lesion distribution, immunoglobulin E sensitization to common environmental allergen sources, and evidence of epidermal barrier dysfunction. There are also several important differences between canine and human atopic dermatitis. Although dogs may suffer from multiple-organ hypersensitivity syndromes, there is no evidence that this species experiences the progressive evolution from cutaneous to respiratory allergy characteristic of the human atopic march. Despite the presence of epidermal barrier derangement, there is no significant association between canine atopic dermatitis and mutations in filaggrin. Finally, treatment of canine disease relies much less heavily on topical therapy than does its human counterpart, while allergy testing and allergen-specific immunotherapy provide an often essential component of effective clinical management of affected dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sood, N K; Mekkib, Berhanu; Singla, L D; Gupta, K
Out of 44 cases of dermatitis in dogs, 11 cases of parasitic origin were analyzed by cytopathology. Histopathologic examination of punch biopsies was also done for correlation with cytologic findings. Sarcoptic dermatitis was recorded in six cases, wherein, besides sarcoptic mites, neutrophils, macrophages, and plasma cells and keratinizing epithelial cells were also seen. Hematology revealed a relative neutrophilia and mild eosinophilia. Four cases of severe and generalized demodicosis complicated with bacteria and/or Malassezia sp. infection were also recorded. Histopathologically numerous Demodex sp. mites in varying stage of maturation were found damaging the hair follicles along with associated pathological changes and foreign body granulomas in one case. In addition, flea allergy dermatitis was also observed in one dog. In nutshell, cytology was found to be unequivocally effective in diagnosing parasitic dermatitis.
Michaud, Thierry; Gassia, Véronique; Belhaouari, Lakhdar
Facial expressions convey emotions that form the foundation of interpersonal relationships, and many of these emotions promote and regulate our social linkages. Hence, the facial aging symptomatological analysis and the treatment plan must of necessity include knowledge of the facial dynamics and the emotional expressions of the face. This approach aims to more closely meet patients' expectations of natural-looking results, by correcting age-related negative expressions while observing the emotional language of the face. This article will successively describe patients' expectations, the role of facial expressions in relational dynamics, the relationship between facial structures and facial expressions, and the way facial aging mimics negative expressions. Eventually, therapeutic implications for facial aging treatment will be addressed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F
Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two cases of sound-induced facial synkinesis (SFS) after facial nerve injury. As far as we know, this phenomenon has not been described in the English literature before. Patient A presented with right hemifacial palsy after lesion of the facial nerve due to skull base fracture. He reported involuntary muscle activity at the right corner of the mouth, specifically on hearing ringing keys. Patient B suffered from left hemifacial palsy following otitis media and developed involuntary muscle contraction in the facial musculature specifically on hearing clapping hands or a trumpet sound. Both patients were evaluated by means of video, audio and EMG analysis. Possible mechanisms in the pathophysiology of SFS are postulated and therapeutic options are discussed.
Contestable, James J
Occupational contact dermatitis is a ubiquitous problem. Sailors onboard U.S. Navy vessels are at high risk given the multitude of potential workplace exposures. Solvents, petrochemicals, and fuels are abundant and can cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. Symptoms of contact dermatitis can cause inability to work and, if chronic, may require a change in rating or job. Prevention of this issue requires patient education about the risks and correct personnel protective equipment. Even with preventative strategies in place, exposures and cases of contact dermatitis will occur. Treatment consists of topical steroids and immunomodulators, as well as barrier creams and emollients. The goal of treatment is to fully restore the skin's natural barrier and prevent further exposure. A classic case of jet fuel-associated contact dermatitis is reviewed. A literature review utilizing PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google Search was conducted to elucidate our understanding of this issue, current occupational health guidelines, preventative approaches, and treatments. This case report provides guidance and recommendations for providers who encounter contact dermatitis related to petrochemicals, such as jet fuel. The literature review revealed limited knowledge surrounding in vivo human skin effects of jet fuel, specifically JP-5. Even larger gaps were found in our understanding of, and guidelines for, protective modalities against jet fuel exposure and dermatitis. A case is presented to facilitate recognition of jet fuel contact dermatitis and guidance for treatment and prevention. Given our current limited knowledge and guidelines concerning protective equipment and skin protectants, multiple proposals for future studies are suggested. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Webb, Kelli G; Fowler, Joseph F
Nitromethane has wide industrial and commercial application as a polar solvent for adhesives and acrylics as well as explosive fuel. Allergic contact dermatitis to this chemical has not been described previously. The authors documented allergic contact hand dermatitis in 4 coworkers who similarly handled an adhesive solvent containing nitromethane. All 4 cases were confirmed by patch testing and resolved after allergen avoidance. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA)
Rycroft, R J; Calnan, C D
Chromate dermatitis is described in a mechanical fitter working inside boiler combustion chambers. A source of hexavalent chromate is traced to the action of the heat and alkaline fuel ash on trivalent chrome ore in parts of the refractory lining. Removal of the patient from this contact has resulted in almost complete clearing of his dermatitis, without any relapse, during a 9-month follow-up period.
Calder, A J; Rowland, D; Young, A W; Nimmo-Smith, I; Keane, J; Perrett, D I
The physical differences between facial expressions (e.g. fear) and a reference norm (e.g. a neutral expression) were altered to produce photographic-quality caricatures. In Experiment 1, participants rated caricatures of fear, happiness and sadness for their intensity of these three emotions; a second group of participants rated how 'face-like' the caricatures appeared. With increasing levels of exaggeration the caricatures were rated as more emotionally intense, but less 'face-like'. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar relationship between emotional intensity and level of caricature for six different facial expressions. Experiments 3 and 4 compared intensity ratings of facial expression caricatures prepared relative to a selection of reference norms - a neutral expression, an average expression, or a different facial expression (e.g. anger caricatured relative to fear). Each norm produced a linear relationship between caricature and rated intensity of emotion; this finding is inconsistent with two-dimensional models of the perceptual representation of facial expression. An exemplar-based multidimensional model is proposed as an alternative account.
Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea. PMID:26028914
Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea.
Difficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for exacerbation management and more recently for proactive therapy in selected cases. Topical corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy, the topical calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are preferred in certain locations. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonization and superinfection contribute to disease exacerbation and thus justify additional antimicrobial / antiseptic treatment. Systemic antihistamines (H1) may relieve pruritus but do not have sufficient effect on eczema. Adjuvant therapy includes UV irradiation preferably of UVA1 wavelength. “Eczema school” educational programs have been proven to be helpful. PMID:23663504
Cathcart, Shelley D; Theos, Amy
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease that is generally managed on an outpatient basis. However, a significant percentage of patients may develop complications severe enough to require inpatient treatment. The most common complications of AD that may require hospital admission include erythroderma, eczema herpeticum, and systemic bacterial infection. Hospital admission can also be useful for chronic and severe disease that has not responded to standard therapy or in situations where nonadherence is suspected as the cause of treatment failure. In these cases, inpatient treatment can offer an opportunity for caretaker education and allow for an objective evaluation of a patient's response to a structured treatment plan. This article will review the indications for inpatient management of AD and the therapies that can be used to acutely manage severe disease and associated complications. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed.
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed. PMID:26191377
Degos, R.; Duverne, J.; Picot, Ch.
An unusual case of radiodermatitis in a 58-yr-old woman operated on for basocellular epithelioma of the inner aspect of the right eyelid is described. Postoperative radiation treatment was given as follows: 2000-r doses of unfiltered 50-kv x rays, three times, one week apart, for a total of 6000 r. After 15 days, slight ulceration of the irradiated portion and marked dermatitis of the surrounding skin area were noted. Local application of solution and ointments provided analgesia but did not cure the condition, which spread from the cheek to nose and chin, and was accompanied by seborrhea, over a period ofmore » 16 months. Bacterial examination revealed staphylococci, which promptly responded to antibiotic (erythromycin) treatment. A similarity was noted between this patient's condition and the more common reactions of children to scalp radiation treatment for ringworm. Other cases are cited to show occasional unusual side- effects of radiation treatment, and the possibility that the present case represents a unique type of skin response to radiation is discussed. Allergy alone, it is contended, probably does not explain the reaction observed, but a bacterial infection was involved in the reaction. It is concluded that this case and the two others mentioned indicate that other factors are of importance, the nature of which needs to be determined by further study. (BBB)« less
Chang, Mary Wu; Nakrani, Radhika
Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) is a combination preservative used in personal care and household products and is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Recently, MI alone, without MCI, has been increasingly used in consumer products in attempts to minimize allergic reactions. Wet wipes are extensively tested and traditionally believed to be innocuous. MI in wet wipes ("baby wipes") has not been previously reported to cause ACD in children in the United States. Only 1 previous report of ACD in a child in Belgium has been recently reported. We report 6 children with chronic, perianal/buttock, and facial eczematous dermatitis, refractory to multiple topical and oral antibiotics and corticosteroids. All tested positive to MCI/MI on patch testing. None wore diapers. All patients had been using wet wipes containing MI (without MCI) to affected areas. Discontinuation of wipes resulted in rapid and complete resolution. This is the first report of pediatric ACD to MI in wet wipes in the United States, and the largest series to date. ACD to MI in wet wipes is frequently misdiagnosed as eczema, impetigo, or psoriasis. Wet wipes are increasingly marketed in personal care products for all ages, and MI exposure and sensitization will likely increase. Dermatitis of the perianal, buttock, facial, and hand areas with a history of wet wipe use should raise suspicion of ACD to MI and prompt appropriate patch testing. Rapid resolution occurs after the allergen exposure is eliminated. All isothiozolinones should be avoided in personal care and household products for these patients.
Why would a patient complain of "fuzzy and uncomfortable" vision with a variety of glasses? Perhaps because the practitioner has failed to take facial asymmetry into account. Methods of measuring facial asymmetry and optically correcting for it are discussed.
Jacob, Sharon E; Hamann, Dathan; Goldenberg, Alina; Connelly, Elizabeth A
Pediatric systemic allergic contact dermatitis to nickel has previously been reported in association with cocoa. We present four clinical cases of hypersensitivity temporally associated with chocolate consumption at Easter. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for foods high in nickel to provoke patients with known nickel sensitivity and systemic dermatitis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
facial recognition 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side It necessary and Identify by block number) A system for the recognition of human faces from...21 2.6 Classification Algorithms ........... ... 32 III FACIAL RECOGNITION AND AUTOMATIC TRAINING . . . 37 3.1 Facial Profile Recognition...provide a fair test of the classification system. The work of Goldstein, Harmon, and Lesk [81 indicates, however, that for facial recognition , a ten class
Cole, Patrick; Kaufman, Yoav; Hollier, Larry H.
Facial fracture management is often complex and demanding, particularly within the pediatric population. Although facial fractures in this group are uncommon relative to their incidence in adult counterparts, a thorough understanding of issues relevant to pediatric facial fracture management is critical to optimal long-term success. Here, we discuss several issues germane to pediatric facial fractures and review significant factors in their evaluation, diagnosis, and management. PMID:22110800
Yaghmaie, Pouya; Koudelka, Caroline W.; Simpson, Eric L.
Background Recent data, primarily from Europe, suggest children with atopic dermatitis may be at increased risk of developing mental health disorders. Objective We aimed to quantify the mental health burden associated with pediatric atopic dermatitis in the United States. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used analyzing data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health – a survey reporting on the health status of 92,642 non-institutionalized children ages 0-17. The lifetime prevalence of various provider-diagnosed mental health conditions was calculated for those with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Results The odds of having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly increased in children with atopic dermatitis compared to non-atopic dermatitis controls, OR 1.87 (95% CI 1.54, 2.27) even after controlling for known confounders. The adjusted odds ratios for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and autism were 1.81 (95% CI 1.33,2.46) , 1.77 (95% CI 1.36, 2.29), 1.87 (1.46, 2.39), and 3.04 (95% CI 2.13, 4.34), respectively, and these estimates were all statistically significant. A clear dose-dependent relationship was observed between the prevalence of a mental health disorder and the reported severity of the skin disease. Conclusions Our data reveal a striking association between mental health disorders and atopic dermatitis in the U.S. pediatric population. The severity of the skin disease alters the strength of the association. Prospective cohort studies are needed to verify these associations and to explore underlying mechanisms. Strategies to prevent atopic dermatitis or to aggressively treat early skin inflammation may modify the risk of developing mental health disorders in at-risk children. PMID:23245818
Gilad-Gutnick, Sharon; Harmatz, Elia Samuel; Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Yovel, Galit; Sinha, Pawan
We report here an unexpectedly robust ability of healthy human individuals ( n = 40) to recognize extremely distorted needle-like facial images, challenging the well-entrenched notion that veridical spatial configuration is necessary for extracting facial identity. In face identification tasks of parametrically compressed internal and external features, we found that the sum of performances on each cue falls significantly short of performance on full faces, despite the equal visual information available from both measures (with full faces essentially being a superposition of internal and external features). We hypothesize that this large deficit stems from the use of positional information about how the internal features are positioned relative to the external features. To test this, we systematically changed the relations between internal and external features and found preferential encoding of vertical but not horizontal spatial relationships in facial representations ( n = 20). Finally, we employ magnetoencephalography imaging ( n = 20) to demonstrate a close mapping between the behavioral psychometric curve and the amplitude of the M250 face familiarity, but not M170 face-sensitive evoked response field component, providing evidence that the M250 can be modulated by faces that are perceptually identifiable, irrespective of extreme distortions to the face's veridical configuration. We theorize that the tolerance to compressive distortions has evolved from the need to recognize faces across varying viewpoints. Our findings help clarify the important, but poorly defined, concept of facial configuration and also enable an association between behavioral performance and previously reported neural correlates of face perception.
Choi, Hyoung Ju; Shin, Sung Hee
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a facial muscle exercise program including facial massage on the facial muscle function, subjective symptoms related to paralysis and depression in patients with facial palsy. This study was a quasi-experimental research with a non-equivalent control group non-synchronized design. Participants were 70 patients with facial palsy (experimental group 35, control group 35). For the experimental group, the facial muscular exercise program including facial massage was performed 20 minutes a day, 3 times a week for two weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ²-test, Fisher's exact test and independent sample t-test with the SPSS 18.0 program. Facial muscular function of the experimental group improved significantly compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in symptoms related to paralysis between the experimental group and control group. The level of depression in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group. Results suggest that a facial muscle exercise program including facial massage is an effective nursing intervention to improve facial muscle function and decrease depression in patients with facial palsy.
Chakrabarti, Debaprasad; Roy, Mukut; Bhattacharyya, Amrit K
Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare clinical entity and presents as a diagnostic challenge. Unlike its unilateral counterpart facial diplegia is seldom secondary to Bell's palsy. Occurring at a frequency of 0.3% to 2% of all facial palsies it often indicates ominous medical conditions. Guillian-Barre syndrome needs to be considered as a differential in all given cases of facial diplegia where timely treatment would be rewarding. Here a case of bilateral facial palsy due to Guillian-Barre syndrome with atypical presentation is reported.
Hurwitz, R M; Rivera, H P; Guin, J D
A black spot in the epidermis over a blister of poison ivy dermatitis is an uncommon finding. Four patients with the phenomenon are described. Histologic and histochemical studies were made on biopsy material and the blackish deposit on the skin surface was compared with black deposits in and on leaves of the species of poison ivy. This examination revealed a yellow, amorphous substance on the stratum corneum of the lesions and a similar substance in and on leaves of the poison ivy plant, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. negundo. Associated with the pigmentary deposits there were distinct changes of acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon allergic contact dermatitis. Our findings support the view that the black material is the oleoresin of the plant, and that this substance behaves both as an irritant and an allergen.
Wang, B J; Lee, J Y; Wang, R C
Fiberglass is widely used for insulation and as a reinforcement filling material. Handling fiberglass products may induce contact dermatitis. We report on the first two cases of fiberglass dermatitis reported in Taiwan. The first patient suffered from a severe pruritic eruption two hours after repairing a roof with wave-form ceiling boards. Erythematous maculopapules were present on both hands and finger webs. The second patient was a quality controller of printed circuit boards (PRCBs). She presented with erythematous maculopapules on the face and excoriated papules and lichenified plaques on the trunk and forearms, which had been present for two years. Scrapings of the skin lesions from both patients showed fiberglass spicules of 7.5 to 8 microns in diameter. Similar fibers were detected in scrapings from the wave-form ceiling board and PRCB. Histopathology of the second case revealed spongiotic psoriasiform dermatitis. Patch tests in case 2 with the plastics and glues series, epoxy resin and scrapings from the PRCBs were all negative. Fiberglass dermatitis may be easily misdiagnosed. Clinically, it may resemble scabies, eczematous dermatitis, folliculitis, petechiae and urticaria. A high index of suspicion is essential for a correct diagnosis.
Hjorth, N; Roed-Petersen, J
The preparation of food in restaurant kitchens carries a high risk of occupational dermatoses. Analysis of 33 cases revealed four different etiological types. Simple irritant dermatitis was rare (2 cases), plain contact dermatitis was more common (6 cases). Fifteen patients had relevant patch tests and scratch tests; ten had positive scratch tests only to explain the cause of their dermatitis. The last type was termed protein contact dermatitis. The major type IV allergens incriminated were metals, onion and garlic. The major proteinaceous allergens indicated by history and test results were fish and shell-fish. Open patch tests with the incriminated foods may cause erythema or oedema on normal skin after 20 minutes. Previously eczematous, now normal looking, skin often responds with a crop of dyshidrotic vesicles preceded by erythema and itching 30 minutes after the application of an open test. Examination for specific IgE is not always positive in such cases. Inhalant allergy was rare. The results indicate that food handlers are sensitized by the protein they touch, and then react to later contact with the proteins. Protein contact dermatitis is similarly common among veterinary surgeons, while the importance in other occupational groups remains to be studied.
McFalls, Jeanne; Okon, Lauren; Cannon, Sarah; Lee, Jason B
Intradepidermal proliferation of Merkel cells without any dermal component has been interpreted as either a hyperplastic process secondary to chronic ultraviolet radiation or a neoplastic process, namely Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in situ. The recent criteria that have been proffered to diagnose MCC in situ, unfortunately, are identical to those that have been applied to Merkel cell hyperplasia in the past, posing a diagnostic quandary when faced with an intraepidermal proliferation of Merkel cells. Most previously reported cases of MCC in situ have occurred within associated epithelial lesion that includes solar (actinic) keratosis and squamous-cell carcinoma in situ. Similarly, Merkel cell hyperplasia has been reported to occur in association with a variety of epithelial lesions as well as on chronically sun-damaged skin. Herein, a case of an intraepidermal proliferation of Merkel cells within a seborrheic keratosis is presented accompanied by a discussion on whether the proliferation represents another case of Merkel cell carcinoma in situ or an incidental hyperplastic process on chronically sun-damaged skin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Glück, J; Rogala, B
Chemokines play a key role in inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate chemokine RANTES in the sera of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and to analyze the correlation between RANTES serum level and the immunological and clinical parameters of the disease. Serum levels of RANTES (ELISA; R&D Systems), total IgE and specific IgE (FEIA; Pharmacia CAP System) were estimated in 24 patients with AD, 28 patients with pollinosis (PL) and 22 healthy nonatopic subjects (HC). The division of the AD group into a pure AD (pAD) subgroup, without a coexisting respiratory allergy, and a subgroup of patients with AD and a respiratory allergy (AD+AO) was done according to Wütrich. Levels of RANTES were higher in the AD group than in the HC group and the PL group. RANTES levels did not differ among subgroups with various clinical scores and between the pAD and AD+AO subgroups. There were no correlations between levels of RANTES and total IgE. Significant positive correlations between serum levels of RANTES and Dermatophagoides farinae and cat dander-specific IgE were found in the AD group. We conclude that the serum level of chemokine RANTES differs patients with AD from patients with PL. The increase of RANTES concentration in the serum of patients with AD depends neither on a clinical picture nor an IgE system.
Holness, Dorothy Linn
This review examined recent advances in occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to OCD. There is continuing growth in our understanding of the genetic factors, particularly related to filaggrin mutations. In spite of increased understanding of irritant exposures, the prevalence of hand eczema in workers with wet work exposures remains high at approximately 20%. Patch test database surveillance systems have documented reductions in the occurrence of sensitivity to some allergens such as chromium wherein regulatory efforts have reduced workplace exposures. These surveillance data have also documented increases in sensitivity to several allergens in particular trades, serving as an effective system to identify new exposure situations or new allergens. The impact of OCD on quality of life and mental health conditions, employment and financial aspects is increasingly documented. Progress in understanding the underreporting of OCD and the underlying reasons continues. Several groups have developed robust multidisciplinary secondary and tertiary prevention programmes and the evaluations demonstrate promise. Although several recent systematic reviews have documented the evidence for various prevention strategies, there is increasing understanding of the gaps in prevention practices in actual workplaces. Understanding of the underlying genetic and environmental agents contributing to OCD is increasing. In spite of progress with reducing exposure to some allergens, the prevalence of OCD continues to be high, particularly related to wet work. New prevention programmes are being developed and evaluated and hold promise for improved outcomes.
Mikov, Ivan; Turkalj, Ivan; Jovanović, Marina
Dental professionals may be at increased risk of developing occupational allergic diseases specially to methacrylates that can permeate protective disposable gloves. We presented a case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a 28-year-old dental technician. The patient had complained of itching and cracking of fingers for 6 months. The dermatitis improved over weekends. Skin erythema and scaling were present with primarily involvement of the fingertips. Patch testing with dental series gave positive vesicular reaction to methyl methacrylate. Follow-up after 6 months of allergen avoidance showed a complete regression of dermatitis. Methacrylates serve as bases for acrylic resins which are used in prosthetics. Methyl methacrylate as a small molecular acrylate can permeate thin protective disposable gloves. Using adequate personal protective equipment, like nitrile rubber gloves, is the most important preventive measure in this occupation. Health practitioners should recognize possible occupational hazards in dentistry and implement appropriate preventive measures to protect health of workers.
Katayama, Ichiro; Kohno, Yoichi; Akiyama, Kazuo; Aihara, Michiko; Kondo, Naomi; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shoji, Shunsuke; Yamada, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Koichiro
Given the importance of appropriate diagnosis and appropriate assessment of cutaneous symptoms in treatment of atopic dermatitis, the basics of treatment in this guideline are composed of (1) investigation and coun- termeasures of causes and exacerbating factors, (2) correction of skin dysfunctions (skin care), and (3) pharmacotherapy, as three mainstays. These are based on the disease concept that atopic dermatitis is a inflammatory cutaneous disease with eczema by atopic diathesis, multi-factorial in onset and aggravation, and accompanied by skin dysfunctions. These three points are equally important and should be appropriately combined in accordance with the symptoms of each patient. In treatment, it is important to transmit the etiological, pathological, physiological, or therapeutic information to the patient to build a favorable partnership with the patient or his/her family so that they may fully understand the treatment. This guideline discusses chiefly the basic therapy in relation to the treatment of this disease. The goal of treatment is to enable patients to lead an uninterrupted social life and to control their cutaneous symptoms so that their quality of life (QOL) may meet a satisfactory level. The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the "Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008" prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the "Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2012 (ADGL2012)" prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the "Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2013" together with those for other allergic diseases. © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology.
Katayama, Ichiro; Kohno, Yoichi; Akiyama, Kazuo; Aihara, Michiko; Kondo, Naomi; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shoji, Shunsuke; Yamada, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Koichiro
Given the importance of appropriate diagnosis and appropriate assessment of cutaneous symptoms in treatment of atopic dermatitis, the basics of treatment in this guideline are composed of (1) investigation and countermeasures of causes and exacerbating factors, (2) correction of skin dysfunctions (skin care), and (3) pharmacotherapy, as three mainstays. These are based on the disease concept that atopic dermatitis is a inflammatory cutaneous disease with eczema by atopic diathesis, multi-factorial in onset and aggravation, and accompanied by skin dysfunctions. These three points are equally important and should be appropriately combined in accordance with the symptoms of each patient. In treatment, it is important to transmit the etiological, pathological, physiological, or therapeutic information to the patient to build a favorable partnership with the patient or his/her family so that they may fully understand the treatment. This guideline discusses chiefly the basic therapy in relation to the treatment of this disease. The goal of treatment is to enable patients to lead an uninterrupted social life and to control their cutaneous symptoms so that their quality of life (QOL) may meet a satisfactory level. The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the "Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008" prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the "Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2012 (ADGL2012)" prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the "Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2013" together with those for other allergic diseases.
Katayama, Ichiro; Aihara, Michiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shimojo, Naoki; Shoji, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Masami; Yamada, Hidekazu
Given the importance of appropriate diagnosis and appropriate assessment of cutaneous symptoms in treatment of atopic dermatitis, the basics of treatment in this guideline are composed of (1) investigation and countermeasures of causes and exacerbating factors, (2) correction of skin dysfunctions (skin care), and (3) pharmacotherapy, as three mainstays. These are based on the disease concept that atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with eczema by atopic diathesis, multi-factorial in onset and aggravation, and accompanied by skin dysfunctions. These three points are equally important and should be appropriately combined in accordance with the symptoms of each patient. In treatment, it is important to transmit the etiological, pathological, physiological, or therapeutic information to the patient to build a favorable partnership with the patient or his/her family so that they may fully understand the treatment. This guideline discusses chiefly the basic therapy in relation to the treatment of this disease. The goal of treatment is to enable patients to lead an uninterrupted social life and to control their cutaneous symptoms so that their quality of life (QOL) may meet a satisfactory level. The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the "Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008" prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the "Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2015 (ADGL2015)" prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the "Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2016" together with those for other allergic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe
Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.
Williford, P M; Sheretz, E F
Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy or poison oak is a common presenting complaint in the practices of many primary care physicians. While the clinical features are well described, reported treatment regimens vary in both topical and systemic therapies. We review herein the variability of presenting morphologic features of the disease and common treatment regimens, with attention given to complications of therapy. We also comment on the correct botanical designation, incidence, and immune mechanisms of the disease state and review measures to avoid allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy and poison oak.
Wise, T N; Reading, A J
A nineteen year old female with pustular eczema and dissociative spells is presented. The patient has a three year history of severe dermatitis beginning shortly after her marriage. Central dynamic issues appear to be difficulty separating from her mother and an ambivalent identification with a hostile father. The patient also describes fugue-like episodes which occur with emerging aggressive feelings. Psychological testing supported these hypotheses. The relevant literature describing the correlation between aggression and skin disease is reviewed. A final uniform formulation was tentatively proposed that this patient, in addition to a strong genetic component for atopic dermatitis, had her illness abetted by inability to cope with aggressive affects.
Breuer, K; Kapp, A
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease which often persists until adulthood. In severe cases, eczematous lesions and pruritus are resistant to therapy and result in depression, impairment of professional activities and social withdrawal. The goal of inpatient rehabilitation measures is to keep the patient involved and active in professional and social activities. Rehabilitative measures include diagnostics and medical therapy according to current guidelines, instruction in basic medical information, psychological intervention (relaxation techniques, improvement of self-confidence), dietetic measures, exercise, and social advice. Patients with atopic dermatitis often have work-related problems which should be identified as early as possible during rehabilitation.
Gallagher, Rose; Sunley, Kim
Work-related skin problems in nursing staff have risen in recent years, and inspections by the Health and Safety Executive in 2011 found a number of NHS trusts failing in their duties to prevent and manage the risks of work-related dermatitis. In response, the Royal College of Nursing issued guidelines on glove use and the prevention of contact dermatitis in nursing (RCN, 2012). These involved close collaboration between the professional and trade union parts of the RCN because failure to prevent and manage skin problems affects the safety of both staff and patients.
Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.
An outbreak of dermatitis in a car assembly factory is described; it affected 50 workers who handled rubber weatherstrips coated with an adhesive. The adhesive was found to contain para-tertiary butyl phenol (P.T.B.P.) formaldehyde resin. Of those patch tested 70% gave positive reactions to the adhesive and 65% to the resin. Improved methods of handling and personal protection succeeded in arresting the occurrence of dermatitis. Barrier creams gave no protection in these circumstances. The episode illustrates the different preventive control methods which have to be tried when dealing with a simple skin hazard which cannot be abolished. Images PMID:5904100
Cury Martins, Jade; Martins, Ciro; Aoki, Valeria; Gois, Aecio F T; Ishii, Henrique A; da Silva, Edina M K
Atopic dermatitis (AD) (or atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects children and adults and has an important impact on quality of life. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the first-line therapy for this condition; however, they can be associated with significant adverse effects when used chronically. Tacrolimus ointment (in its 2 manufactured strengths of 0.1% and 0.03%) might be an alternative treatment. Tacrolimus, together with pimecrolimus, are drugs called topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs). To assess the efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus for moderate and severe atopic dermatitis compared with other active treatments. We searched the following databases up to 3 June 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (Issue 5, 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the Global Resource of Eczema Trials (GREAT database). We searched six trials registers and checked the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials. We contacted specialists in the field for unpublished data.A separate search for adverse effects of topical tacrolimus was undertaken in MEDLINE and EMBASE on 30 July 2013. We also scrutinised the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites for adverse effects information. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of participants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (both children and adults) using topical tacrolimus at any dose, course duration, and follow-up time compared with other active treatments. Two authors independently screened and examined the full text of selected studies for compliance with eligibility criteria, risk of bias, and data extraction. Our three prespecified primary outcomes were physician's assessment, participant's self-assessment of improvement, and adverse effects. Our secondary outcomes included assessment of improvement of the disease by validated or objective measures, such as
Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Mohd Noor, Nor Farid; Basri, Rehana; Yew, Tan Fo; Wen, Tay Hui
This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18-25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects' evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05) but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1%) were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5%) short and 81 (28.3%) long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population.
This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18–25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects’ evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05) but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1%) were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5%) short and 81 (28.3%) long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. In conclusion: 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population. PMID:26562655
Picco, F; Zini, E; Nett, C; Naegeli, C; Bigler, B; Rüfenacht, S; Roosje, P; Gutzwiller, M E Ricklin; Wilhelm, S; Pfister, J; Meng, E; Favrot, C
Canine atopic dermatitis sensu stricto and food-induced allergic dermatitis are common canine skin conditions, which are often considered clinically undistinguishable. Several attempts have been made to describe populations of atopic dogs and determine breed predisposition but the results were often biased by the use of hospital populations as control group. The present study aims to describe a population of Swiss atopic and food-allergic dogs and to compare it with a data set representing more than 85% of all Swiss dogs. The study, which was carried out during 1 year in several practices and teaching hospital in Switzerland, describes a group of 259 allergic dogs, determines breed predisposition for atopic dermatitis and food-induced allergic dermatitis, compares the clinical signs and features of both conditions, and outlines the clinical picture of five frequently affected breeds.
This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.
Horák, Petr; Mikeš, Libor; Lichtenbergová, Lucie; Skála, Vladimír; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, Sara Vanessa
Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a condition caused by infective larvae (cercariae) of a species-rich group of mammalian and avian schistosomes. Over the last decade, it has been reported in areas that previously had few or no cases of dermatitis and is thus considered an emerging disease. It is obvious that avian schistosomes are responsible for the majority of reported dermatitis outbreaks around the world, and thus they are the primary focus of this review. Although they infect humans, they do not mature and usually die in the skin. Experimental infections of avian schistosomes in mice show that in previously exposed hosts, there is a strong skin immune reaction that kills the schistosome. However, penetration of larvae into naive mice can result in temporary migration from the skin. This is of particular interest because the worms are able to migrate to different organs, for example, the lungs in the case of visceral schistosomes and the central nervous system in the case of nasal schistosomes. The risk of such migration and accompanying disorders needs to be clarified for humans and animals of interest (e.g., dogs). Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
... Español [PDF – 1 page] “Hot Tub Rash” ( Pseudomonas Dermatitis / Folliculitis) If contaminated water comes in contact with a person’s skin for a long period ... rash spread at recreational water venues? Hot tub rash can occur if contaminated water comes in contact with skin for a long period of time. ...
Mikeš, Libor; Lichtenbergová, Lucie; Skála, Vladimír; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, Sara Vanessa
SUMMARY Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a condition caused by infective larvae (cercariae) of a species-rich group of mammalian and avian schistosomes. Over the last decade, it has been reported in areas that previously had few or no cases of dermatitis and is thus considered an emerging disease. It is obvious that avian schistosomes are responsible for the majority of reported dermatitis outbreaks around the world, and thus they are the primary focus of this review. Although they infect humans, they do not mature and usually die in the skin. Experimental infections of avian schistosomes in mice show that in previously exposed hosts, there is a strong skin immune reaction that kills the schistosome. However, penetration of larvae into naive mice can result in temporary migration from the skin. This is of particular interest because the worms are able to migrate to different organs, for example, the lungs in the case of visceral schistosomes and the central nervous system in the case of nasal schistosomes. The risk of such migration and accompanying disorders needs to be clarified for humans and animals of interest (e.g., dogs). Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. PMID:25567226
Mertens, Sarien; Gilissen, Liesbeth; Goossens, An
Cocamide DEA (CAS no. 68603-42-9) is a non-ionic surfactant frequently used in industrial, household and cosmetic products for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties. Contact allergy has been reported quite rarely in the past, but recently several cases were published, raising the question of an increase in the frequency of allergic dermatitis caused by this substance. To describe cocamide DEA-allergic patients and their characteristics observed in our department. Medical charts of patients, investigated between 1990 and December 2015, were retrospectively reviewed for cocamide DEA-allergy. Demographic characteristics and patch test results were analyzed. Out of 1767 patients tested, 18 (1%) presented with an allergic reaction to cocamide DEA, all of them at least with hand dermatitis. Twelve patients had (past) occupational exposure to cocamide DEA. Out of the 18 patients, 15 showed (most often) multiple positive reactions and 7 also suffered from atopic dermatitis. Cocamide DEA allergy is relatively rare, despite frequent use, and an increasing trend was not observed. Reactions to cocamidopropyl betaine and cocamide MEA only occurred in some of the subjects tested. Shampoos and liquid hand soaps/cleansers dominated as sources of exposure. All patients presented with an impaired skin barrier due to atopic and/or previous contact dermatitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zina, A M; Bedello, P G; Cane, D; Bundino, S; Benedetto, A
An outbreak of occupational dermatitis in a rubber tyre factory is reported. An unusual clinical picture was recognized. Patch tests revealed a high sensitization rate to the MBT derivative used: 2-(2'-4'dinitrophenylthio)benzothiazole. Since tests with MBT mix and dinitrophenol were negative; sensitization to a contaminant was suspected. DNCB was traced as the substance responsible.
Lopes, Sofia; Vide, Júlia; Antunes, Isabel; Azevedo, Filomena
Dermatitis neglecta is a condition affecting the skin caused by a lack of hygiene. It may be related to psychiatric and neurological disturbances. The appearance of skin lesions results from neglect, which helps distinguish this condition from other similar clinical entities. Resolution of the lesions with adequate cleansing aids a definitive diagnosis.
James, Travis; Ghaferi, Jessica; LaFond, Ann
The histologic features of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) are generally non-specific and have been described only in brief case reports. We present a case of APD and review the literature with a focus on the histologic findings described. A review of the English literature on APD was performed using PubMed and MEDLINE. A total of 39 patients, including our patient are included in this review. The most consistent histologic finding reported was a perivascular inflammatory infiltrate, being seen in 72% of cases. A non-specific or interstitial inflammatory infiltrate was described in 31% of the cases, with 41% having an eosinophilic component and 21% having a neutrophilic component mixed with the predominant lymphocytic infiltrate. Interface dermatitis was the second most common finding with 36% showing a mild to exaggerated interface dermatitis. Although histopathologic changes are non-specific, perivascular dermatitis with eosinophils and interface changes are common in APD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Donovan, Jeffrey C H; Kudla, Irena; Holness, D Linn
Auto mechanics and machinists presenting with suspected allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have traditionally been patch-tested with a standard screening tray and a specialty tray such as the Oil and Cooling Fluid Series. While this has proven useful for patch-testing the machinist, there is a need for the development of a more specific allergen testing tray for the auto mechanic. The objective of the study was to compare clinical features and patch-test results of auto mechanics and machinists with hand dermatitis to evaluate differences in allergen profiles. We performed a chart review of 33 auto mechanics and 24 machinists referred to our Occupational Contact Dermatitis Clinic from 2002 to 2005 for evaluation of hand dermatitis. With a panel of 84 allergens, 52 positive reactions were detected in 17 cases of ACD in mechanics. The profiles were different from the cases of ACD diagnosed in 10 of 24 machinists. Mechanics and machinists differ in the spectrum of occupational exposures. Patch testing with greater numbers of allergens likely identifies a larger proportion of mechanics with occupationally relevant ACD. Further study is needed to determine the most appropriate allergens to include in a clinically useful "mechanic's tray."
Barchino-Ortiz, L; Cabeza-Martínez, R; Leis-Dosil, V M; Suárez-Fernández, R M; Lázaro-Ochaita, P
Turpentine is an oleoresin obtained from various species of pine. It contains a volatile oil (oil of turpentine) which is responsible for its properties and this is the form generally used. Opportunity for contact with turpentine is widespread. It is universally used as a solvent to dissolve and thin lacquers, varnishes and paints. It is also an ingredient in many liniments and cold remedies. Turpentine is regarded as both a local irritant and a sensitizer. Cases of allergic contact dermatitis in painters, mechanics, shoe repairers and home decorators have been reported. We report a case of a non-professional painter who developed a contact allergic dermatitis due to his exposure to turpentine while doing oil-painting as a hobby. Dermatitis is one of the biggest dangers of working with art materials and occupational contact dermatitis is often detected on the hands of the painters. Solvents are indispensable and turpentine is the most important and the traditional one used in oil-painting. Contact allergy to oil of turpentine was reported to have become rare in Europe but over the last few years, increased rates of turpentine sensitization have been reported.
Desai, Harsha B; Perkins, Philip L; Procop, Gary W
A 67-year-old man, with multiple skin lesions that appeared over 2 years, had biopsies that disclosed granulomatous dermatitis with associated small yeasts. The urinary antigen test results were negative for Histoplasma infection; cultures from the biopsies did not grow any fungi or other potential pathogens. The chest roentgenogram results were normal. Morphologic examination revealed features of a Malassezia species. Broad-range fungal polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing disclosed that the infecting fungus was Malassezia sympodialis , a lipid-dependent yeast. This report supports one other case report that Malassezia species may cause granulomatous dermatitis; in the previous case, the etiologic agent was Malassezia pachydermatis , a nonlipid-dependent species. We recommend the use of lipid-supplemented culture media for specimens from patients with granulomatous dermatitis because several Malassezia species are dependent on lipid; the absence of lipid supplementation in routine cultures likely explains the negative culture results for this patient. This, to our knowledge, is the first report of granulomatous dermatitis caused by M sympodialis.
Hong, Judith; Buddenkotte, Joerg; Berger, Timothy G.; Steinhoff, Martin
Atopic dermatitis is a common, pruritic, inflammatory skin disorder. Chronic, localized, or even generalized pruritus is the diagnostic hallmark of atopic dermatitis, and its management remains a challenge for physicians. The threshold for itch and alloknesis is markedly reduced in these patients, and infections can promote exacerbation and thereby increase the itch. Modern management consists of anti-inflammatory, occasionally antiseptic, as well as antipruritic therapies to address the epidermal barrier as well as immunomodulation or infection. Mild forms of atopic dermatitis may be controlled with topical therapies, but moderate-to-severe forms often require a combination of systemic treatments consisting of antipruritic and immunosuppressive drugs, phototherapy, and topical compounds. In addition, patient education and a therapeutic regimen to help the patient cope with the itch and eczema are important adjuvant strategies for optimized long-term management. This review highlights various topical, systemic, and complementary and alternative therapies, as well as provide a therapeutic ladder for optimized long-term control of itch in atopic dermatitis. PMID:21767767
Hafner, Christian; López-Knowles, Elena; Luis, Nuno M.; Toll, Agustí; Baselga, Eulàlia; Fernández-Casado, Alex; Hernández, Silvia; Ribé, Adriana; Mentzel, Thomas; Stoehr, Robert; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand; Landthaler, Michael; Vogt, Thomas; Pujol, Ramòn M.; Hartmann, Arndt; Real, Francisco X.
Activating mutations of the p110 α subunit of PI3K (PIK3CA) oncogene have been identified in a broad spectrum of malignant tumors. However, their role in benign or preneoplastic conditions is unknown. Activating FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations are common in benign skin lesions, either as embryonic mutations in epidermal nevi (EN) or as somatic mutations in seborrheic keratoses (SK). FGFR3 mutations are also common in low-grade malignant bladder tumors, where they often occur in association with PIK3CA mutations. Therefore, we examined exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA and FGFR3 hotspot mutations in EN (n = 33) and SK (n = 62), two proliferative skin lesions lacking malignant potential. Nine of 33 (27%) EN harbored PIK3CA mutations; all cases showed the E545G substitution, which is uncommon in cancers. In EN, R248C was the only FGFR3 mutation identified. By contrast, 10 of 62 (16%) SK revealed the typical cancer-associated PIK3CA mutations E542K, E545K, and H1047R. The same lesions displayed a wide range of FGFR3 mutations. Corresponding unaffected tissue was available for four EN and two mutant SK: all control samples displayed a WT sequence, confirming the somatic nature of the mutations found in lesional tissue. Forty of 95 (42%) lesions showed at least one mutation in either gene. PIK3CA and FGFR3 mutations displayed an independent distribution; 5/95 lesions harbored mutations in both genes. Our findings suggest that, in addition to their role in cancer, oncogenic PIK3CA mutations contribute to the pathogenesis of skin tumors lacking malignant potential. The remarkable genotype–phenotype correlation as observed in this study points to a distinct etiopathogenesis of the mutations in keratinocytes occuring either during fetal development or in adult life. PMID:17673550
Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo
The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the
For over 2000 years, many artists and scientists have tried to understand or quantify the form of the perfect, ideal, or most beautiful face both in art and in vivo (life). A mathematical relationship has been consistently and repeatedly reported to be present in beautiful things. This particular relationship is the golden ratio. It is a mathematical ratio of 1.618:1 that seems to appear recurrently in beautiful things in nature as well as in other things that are seen as beautiful. Dr. Marquardt made the facial golden mask that contains and includes all of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional geometric golden elements formed from the golden ratio. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the golden facial mask. In 40 cases, the authors applied the facial golden mask to preoperative and postoperative photographs and scored each photograph on a 1 to 5 scale from the perspective of their personal aesthetic views. The score was lower when the facial deformity was severe, whereas it was higher when the face was attractive. Compared with the average scores of facial mask applied photographs and nonapplied photographs using a nonparametric test, statistical significance was not reached (P > 0.05). This implies that the facial golden mask may be used as an analytical tool. The facial golden mask is easy to apply, inexpensive, and relatively objective. Therefore, the authors introduce it as a useful facial analysis.
Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Hwang, Pil Joong; Sohn, In Ah
The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographics and treatment of facial lacerations in pediatric patients. A retrospective record-based analysis was administered on 3783 patients (<15 years of age) presenting with facial lacerations from March 2002 to February 2011. Males were injured more frequently across all age groups (65.3%) and especially in the 13- to 15-year-old group (81.3%) (P = 0.012, Pearson χ). Overall, 48.9% of injuries occurred outdoors and 45.1% in homes. Only 6.0% occurred in schools or kindergartens. Injuries that occurred in schools or kindergarten increased with the age groups (from 2.3% for 0- to 3-year-olds to 19.1% for 13- to 15-year-olds). In the age groups younger than 12 years, injury occurred more frequently on the weekend. In the 13-to 15-year-old group, however, injury occurred more frequently on weekdays (odds ratio, 2.46). Injury occurred most frequently at the times of 7 to 9 PM and least frequently from midnight to 6 AM. The most frequent cause of injury in children was by being struck or by bumping something (32.5%), followed by slip-down (31.5%). Accidents involving furniture and stairs accounted for 9% each. Accidents caused by stairs decreased with age (from 10.2% for 0-3 years of age to 5.5% for 13-15 years of age, P = 0.000, Pearson χ). In a little less than half (47.2%) of the cases, parents accompanied their children at the time of injury. In the 13- to 15-year age group, only 17.9% of the children were accompanied by their parents. Foreheads (26.4%) took the brunt of most frequent injuries, followed by the eyelids (20.6%), eyebrows including the glabella (19.7%), and chin injuries (15.7%). Only 58 cases had associated injuries. Among 3783 cases of facial lacerations, 3745 patients did not have facial bone fractures or associated injuries and were managed under local anesthesia or through dressings only. A sound knowledge about the epidemiology of lacerations might be beneficial for the prevention of pediatric
Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming
This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness.
Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming
This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness. PMID:27148111
Yahalom, R; Blinder, D; Nadel, S
Transsexualism is a gender identity disorder in which there is a strong desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex. In male-to-female transsexuals with strong masculine facial features, facial feminization surgery is performed as part of the gender reassignment. A strong association between femininity and attractiveness has been attributed to the upper third of the face and the interplay of the glabellar prominence of the forehead. Studies have shown that a certain lower jaw shape is characteristic of males with special attention to the strong square mandibular angle and chin and also suggest that the attractive female jaw is smaller with a more round shape mandibular angles and a pointy chin. Other studies have shown that feminization of the forehead through cranioplasty have the most significant impact in determining the gender of a patient. Facial feminization surgeries are procedures aimed to change the features of the male face to that of a female face. These include contouring of the forehead, brow lift, mandible angle reduction, genioplasty, rhinoplasty and a variety of soft tissue adjustments. In our maxillofacial surgery department at the Sheba Medical Center we perform forehead reshaping combining with brow lift and at the same surgery, mandibular and chin reshaping to match the remodeled upper third of the face. The forehead reshaping is done by cranioplasty with additional reduction of the glabella area by burring of the frontal bone. After reducing the frontal bossing around the superior orbital rims we manage the soft tissue to achieve the brow lift. The mandibular reshaping, is performed by intraoral approach and include contouring of the angles by osteotomy for a more round shape (rather than the manly square shape angles), as well as reshaping of the bone in the chin area in order to make it more pointy, by removing the lateral parts of the chin and in some cases performing also genioplasty reduction by AP osteotomy.
Hwang, Ui-jae; Kwon, Oh-yun; Jung, Sung-hoon; Ahn, Sun-hee; Gwak, Gyeong-tae
Abstract Background The efficacy of facial muscle exercises (FMEs) for facial rejuvenation is controversial. In the majority of previous studies, nonquantitative assessment tools were used to assess the benefits of FMEs. Objectives This study examined the effectiveness of FMEs using a Pao (MTG, Nagoya, Japan) device to quantify facial rejuvenation. Methods Fifty females were asked to perform FMEs using a Pao device for 30 seconds twice a day for 8 weeks. Facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area were measured sonographically. Facial surface distance, surface area, and volumes were determined using a laser scanning system before and after FME. Facial muscle thickness, cross-sectional area, midfacial surface distances, jawline surface distance, and lower facial surface area and volume were compared bilaterally before and after FME using a paired Student t test. Results The cross-sectional areas of the zygomaticus major and digastric muscles increased significantly (right: P < 0.001, left: P = 0.015), while the midfacial surface distances in the middle (right: P = 0.005, left: P = 0.047) and lower (right: P = 0.028, left: P = 0.019) planes as well as the jawline surface distances (right: P = 0.004, left: P = 0.003) decreased significantly after FME using the Pao device. The lower facial surface areas (right: P = 0.005, left: P = 0.006) and volumes (right: P = 0.001, left: P = 0.002) were also significantly reduced after FME using the Pao device. Conclusions FME using the Pao device can increase facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area, thus contributing to facial rejuvenation. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:29365050
Schwensen, Jakob Ferløv; Friis, Ulrik Fischer; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Johansen, Jeanne Duus
The aim of the study is to investigate risk factors for sensitization to preservatives and to examine to which extent different preservatives are registered in chemical products for occupational use in Denmark. A retrospective epidemiological observational analysis of data from a university hospital was conducted. All patients had occupational contact dermatitis and were consecutively patch tested with 11 preservatives from the European baseline series and extended patch test series during a 5-year period: 2009-2013. Information regarding the same preservatives in chemical products for occupational use ('substances and materials') registered in the Danish Product Register Database (PROBAS) was obtained. The frequency of preservative contact allergy was 14.2% (n = 141) in 995 patients with occupational contact dermatitis. Patients with preservative contact allergy had significantly more frequently facial dermatitis (19.9 versus 13.1%) and age > 40 years (71.6 versus 45.8%) than patients without preservative contact allergy, whereas atopic dermatitis was less frequently observed (12.1 versus 19.8%). Preservative contact allergy was more frequent in painters with occupational contact dermatitis as compared to non-painters with occupational contact dermatitis (p < 0.001). This was mainly caused by contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone and contact allergy to formaldehyde. Analysis of the registered substances and materials in PROBAS revealed that preservatives occurred in several product categories, e.g., 'paints and varnishes', 'cleaning agents', 'cooling agents', and 'polishing agents'. Formaldehyde and isothiazolinones were extensively registered in PROBAS. The extensive use of formaldehyde and isothiazolinones in chemical products for occupational use may be problematic for the worker. Appropriate legislation, substitution, and employee education should be prioritized.
Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E; Sommerlund, Mette; Johansen, Jeanne D
In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to isothiazolinones has reached epidemic levels. Few studies have presented data on occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones. To present demographics and examine risk factors for sensitization to methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) in combination with MI and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in Danish dermatitis patients. A retrospective epidemiological analysis of data from three Danish hospitals departments was conducted. All patients consecutively patch tested with MI, MCI/MI and BIT between 2009 and 2013 were included. MI contact allergy showed a significantly increased trend in prevalence from 1.8% in 2009 to 4.2% in 2012 (p < 0.001). Females with facial dermatitis mainly drove the increase in 2012. Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that MI sensitization was significantly associated with occupational exposures, hand and facial dermatitis, age > 40 years, and the occupational groups of tile setters/terrazzo workers, machine operators, and painters. MCI/MI contact allergy was significantly associated with the following high-risk occupations: painting, welding (blacksmiths), machine operating, and cosmetology. The occupational group of painting was frequent in the group of patients with BIT contact allergy. Several high-risk occupations for sensitization to isothiazolinones exist. Regulation on the allowed concentration of isothiazolinones, and especially MI, in both consumer products and industrial products is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chao, Mimi T.; Losee, Joseph E.
Despite recent advances in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pediatric facial fractures, little has been published on the complications of these fractures. The existing literature is highly variable regarding both the definition and the reporting of adverse events. Although the incidence of pediatric facial fractures is relative low, they are strongly associated with other serious injuries. Both the fractures and their treatment may have long-term consequence on growth and development of the immature face. This article is a selective review of the literature on facial fracture complications with special emphasis on the complications unique to pediatric patients. We also present our classification system to evaluate adverse outcomes associated with pediatric facial fractures. Prospective, long-term studies are needed to fully understand and appreciate the complexity of treating children with facial fractures and determining the true incidence, subsequent growth, and nature of their complications. PMID:22110803
Williams, Christopher G.; Dellon, A. Lee; Rosson, Gedge D.
Pain persisting for at least 6 months is defined as chronic. Chronic facial pain conditions often take on lives of their own deleteriously changing the lives of the sufferer. Although much is known about facial pain, it is clear that those physicians who treat these conditions should continue elucidating the mechanisms and defining successful treatment strategies for these life-changing conditions. This article will review many of the classic causes of chronic facial pain due to the trigeminal nerve and its branches that are amenable to surgical therapies. Testing of facial sensibility is described and its utility introduced. We will also introduce some of the current hypotheses of atypical facial pain and headaches secondary to chronic nerve compressions and will suggest possible treatment strategies. PMID:22110799
Pongpairoj, Korbkarn; Puangpet, Pailin; Thaiwat, Supitchaya; McFadden, John P
Several authors have commented upon the skills of detection required in making a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Here, we emphasise the search for clues in a systematic manner. We describe four stages as part of a systematic method for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis. Firstly, elimination (or inclusion) of non-allergic diagnoses. Secondly, perception: the pre-patch test diagnosis and the 'three scenarios' principle. Thirdly, detection: optimising the sensitivity of the patch test process. Fourthly, deduction: diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis by associating the dermatitis with the allergen exposure. We further compare and contrast the pre-patch test history and examination with the markedly different one ('microhistory' and 'microexamination') used after patch testing. The importance of knowledge of contact dermatitis literature is emphasised with a review of recent publications. Finally, we also highlight the use of contact allergy profiling as an investigative tool in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.
Favrot, C; Rostaher, A; Fischer, N
Allergies are often suspected in cats and they are mainly hypersensitivity reactions against insect bites, food- or environmental allergens. Cats, with non flea induced atopic dermatitis, normally present with one oft he following reaction patterns: miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic dermatitis, selfinduced alopecia or head and neck excoriations. None of these reaction patterns is nevertheless pathognomonic for allergic dermatitis, therefore the diagnosis is based on the one hand on the exclusion of similar diseases on the other hand on the successful response on a certain therapy. Recently a study on the clinical presentation of cats with non flea induced atopic dermatitis was published. In this study certain criteria for diagnosing atopy in cats were proposed. For therapy of allergic cats cyclosporin, glucocorticoids, antihistamines, hypoallergenic diets and allergen specific immunotherapy are used. This article should provide a recent overview on the clinical symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of feline allergic dermatitis.
Vologzhanin, D A; Bozhchenko, A A; Bala, A M
The article deals with contact dermatitis issues, that are of interest not only for dermatologists and specialists in professional pathology, but as well as for general practitioners. Issues of contact dermatitis classification, pathogenic peculiarities of the disease main forms and their basic causes are discussed. Clinical manifestations of irritative and allergic contact dermatitis are described in detail, aspects of differential diagnostics analysed. A detailed consideration is given to allergic diagnostics of contact dermatitis using application test-systems with the most common contact allergens. Main principles of contact dermatitis treatment are outlined in the article. The necessity of a complex approach to this disease therapy that requires not only external therapy, but the compliance with an appropriate treatment regimen, diet as well as application of a particular system therapy is shown. Recommendations for contact dermatitis prophylaxis are given.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) KidsHealth / For Parents / Cradle Cap ( ... many babies develop called cradle cap. About Cradle Cap Cradle cap is the common term for seborrheic ...
Gulec, Ali Ihsan; Albayrak, Hulya; Uslu, Esma; Başkan, Elife; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir
Pustular irritant contact dermatitis is rare and unusual clinic form of contact dermatitis. Dexpanthenol is the stable alcoholic analogue of pantothenic acid. It is widely used in cosmetics and topical medical products for several purposes. We present the case of 8-year-old girl with pustules over erythematous and eczematous areas on the face and neck. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported that is diagnosed as pustular irritant contact dermatitis caused by dexpanthenol.
The pathogenesis of hand dermatitis is multifactorial, and includes factors such as genetic predisposition and exposure. A high incidence rate is associated with female gender, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work. The most important risk factors for the persistence of hand dermatitis include its extent, contact allergic or atopic etiology, childhood dermatitis, and early onset (before the age of 20). The cost of illness of hand dermatitis corresponds to this seen in moderate to severe psoriasis. The diagnostic workup of hand dermatitis and its differential diagnoses requires a detailed assessment of occupational and recreational exposure. In case of possible work-related triggers, early notification of the accident insurer should be sought (via the dermatologist's report). Exposure to a contact allergen is a contributing factor in one-half of all cases of hand dermatitis. It is therefore imperative that all patients with hand dermatitis persisting for more than three months undergo patch testing. Successful and sustainable treatment of hand dermatitis starts with the proper identification and elimination of individual triggers, including the substitution of identified contact allergens and irritants, as well as optimizing preventive measures. Graded therapy taking the clinical severity into account is essential. Validated instruments may be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kim, Chulmin; Park, Kui Young; Ahn, Seohee; Kim, Dong Ha; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Moon-Beom; Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo
Background Atopic dermatitis is a global public health concern owing to its increasing prevalence and socioeconomic burden. However, few studies have assessed the economic impact of atopic dermatitis in Korea. Objective We conducted a cost analysis of atopic dermatitis and evaluated its economic impacts on individual annual disease burden, quality of life, and changes in medical expenses with respect to changes in health related-quality of life. Methods The cost analysis of atopic dermatitis was performed by reviewing the home accounting records of 32 patients. The economic impact of the disease was evaluated by analyzing questionnaires. To handle uncertainties, we compared the results with the data released by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Board on medical costs claimed by healthcare facilities. Results The direct cost of atopic dermatitis per patient during the 3-month study period was 541,280 Korean won (KRW), and expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products were 120,313 KRW. The extrapolated annual direct cost (including expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products) per patient was 2,646,372 KRW. The estimated annual indirect cost was 1,507,068 KRW. Thus, the annual cost of illness of atopic dermatitis (i.e., direct+indirect costs) was estimated to be 4,153,440 KRW. Conclusion The annual total social cost of atopic dermatitis on a national level is estimated to be 5.8 trillion KRW. PMID:26082587
Atopic dermatitis may have a very important impact on adults. Visible lesions, but especially near-permanent pruritus or sometimes pain for decades, necessarily have consequences on all aspects of everyday life, including sleep, and professional, social, family and emotional life. Financial consequences are also possible. Poorly known, stigmatisation can be real. Treatments can be very demanding. Thus, the quality of life can be greatly altered and atopic dermatitis could be a heavy burden. The psychological consequences can be major. Co-morbidity appears more and more as a major problem. Patients can therefore be caught in an infernal circle, consequences of the disease aggravating the disease. The best way out is probably to have very effective and well-tolerated treatments. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.
Trattner, Akiva; David, Michael; Lazarov, Aneta
Allergic contact dermatitis induced by the occupational use of products containing essential oils has not been studied comprehensively. The aim of the present report was to describe the characteristics, diagnosis, and outcome of 5 patients with occupational contact dermatitis because of essential oils attending our outpatient dermatology clinics over a 2-year period. These patients are added to the 11 cases reported thus far in the literature. The research shows that for proper diagnosis, patch tests with the standard series and the fragrance series should be performed, in addition to tests with the specific oils to which the patients were exposed. Patients should be instructed to avoid the allergens identified. Sensitization to essential oils has important implications for the occupational future of affected individuals.
Daveluy, Amélie; Vial, Thierry; Marty, Laurine; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Moore, Nicholas; Haramburu, Françoise
Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used topically for local secondary treatment of posttraumatic or postoperative edema. Two women had contact dermatitis, secondarily extensive, after local cutaneous use of acetazolamide under a compression panty after liposuction. The eruption disappeared after acetazolamide was stopped and local treatment administered. Cutaneous tests were positive for acetazolamide. Local allergic reactions are mentioned in the monograph on topical acetazolamide. Cases of contact dermatitis from this drug have not so far been published, but French adverse drug reaction reporting data include 10 other cases of eczema or rash at the application site. In one of these, a positive reaction was observed on readministration, and in 2 cases allergy skin tests were positive. The application of the drug under occlusion, which is contraindicated, may have contributed to spreading the lesions. Cases have also been described with another carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, dorzolamide, used in ophthalmology.
We review recent researches in neural mechanisms of facial recognition in the light of three aspects: facial discrimination and identification, recognition of facial expressions, and face perception in itself. First, it has been demonstrated that the fusiform gyrus has a main role of facial discrimination and identification. However, whether the FFA (fusiform face area) is really a special area for facial processing or not is controversial; some researchers insist that the FFA is related to 'becoming an expert' for some kinds of visual objects, including faces. Neural mechanisms of prosopagnosia would be deeply concerned to this issue. Second, the amygdala seems to be very concerned to recognition of facial expressions, especially fear. The amygdala, connected with the superior temporal sulcus and the orbitofrontal cortex, appears to operate the cortical function. The amygdala and the superior temporal sulcus are related to gaze recognition, which explains why a patient with bilateral amygdala damage could not recognize only a fear expression; the information from eyes is necessary for fear recognition. Finally, even a newborn infant can recognize a face as a face, which is congruent with the innate hypothesis of facial recognition. Some researchers speculate that the neural basis of such face perception is the subcortical network, comprised of the amygdala, the superior colliculus, and the pulvinar. This network would relate to covert recognition that prosopagnosic patients have.
Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel
Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095
Temesvári, E; Pónyai, G; Németh, I; Hidvégi, B; Sas, A; Kárpáti, S
Periocular contact dermatitis may appear as contact conjunctivitis, contact allergic and/or irritative eyelid and periorbital dermatitis, or a combination of these symptoms. The clinical symptoms may be induced by several environmental and therapeutic contact allergens. The aim of the present study was to map the eliciting contact allergens in 401 patients with periocular dermatitis (PD) by patch testing with environmental and ophthalmic contact allergens. Following the methodics of international requirements, 401 patients were tested with contact allergens of the standard environmental series, 133 of 401 patients with the Brial ophthalmic basic and supplementary series as well. Contact hypersensitivity was detected in 34.4% of the patients. Highest prevalence was seen in cases of PD without other symptoms (51.18%), in patients of PD associated with ophthalmic complaints (OC; 30.4%), and PD associated with atopic dermatitis (AD; 27.9%). In the subgroup of PD associated with seborrhoea (S) and rosacea (R), contact hypersensitivity was confirmed in 17.6%. Most frequent sensitisers were nickel sulphate (in 8.9% of the tested 401 patients), fragrance mix I (4.5%), balsam of Peru (4.0%), paraphenylendiamine (PPD) (3.7%), and thiomersal (3.5%). By testing ophthalmic allergens, contact hypersensitivity was observed in nine patients (6.7% of the tested 133 patients). The most common confirmed ophthalmic allergens were cocamidopropyl betaine, idoxuridine, phenylephrine hydrochloride, Na chromoglycinate, and papaine. Patients with symptoms of PD were tested from 1996 to 2006. The occurence of contact hypersensitivity in PD patients was in present study 34.4%. A relatively high occurrence was seen in cases of PD without other symptoms, in PD + OC and in PD + AD patients. The predominance of environmental contact allergens was remarkable: most frequent sensitizers were nickel sulphate, fragrance mix I, balsam of Peru, thiomersal, and PPD. The prevalence of contact
Worobec, S M; Hickey, T A; Kinghorn, A D; Soejarto, D D; West, D
An ornamental succulent plant sold in many plant stores in the Chicago area has been identified as Euphorbia hermentiana Lem. Open and closed patch testing using undiluted latex from this species was performed on five Caucasian volunteers. Open testing on flexor forearms resulted in irritant follicular dermatitis, while closed testing to the flexor surfaces of both upper arms in each subject produced bullae and vesiculation with residual desquamation and hyperpigmentation. Dermatological signs persisted for over a week following latex application.
Mumtaz, Sehreen; Jensen, Matthew B
A young women developed unilateral facial neuropathy 2 weeks after a motor vehicle collision involving fractures of the skull and mandible. MRI showed contrast enhancement of the facial nerve. We review the literature describing facial neuropathy after trauma and facial nerve enhancement patterns with different causes of facial neuropathy. PMID:25574155
Gittler, Julia K.; Krueger, James G.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma
Atopic dermatitis (AD), as well as irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), are common skin diseases. These diseases are characterized by skin inflammation mediated by activated innate immunity or acquired immune mechanisms. Although AD, ICD, and ACD can be encountered in pure forms by allergists and dermatologists, patients with AD often present with increased frequency of ICD and ACD. Although a disturbed barrier alone could potentiate immune reactivity in patients with AD through increased antigen penetration, additional immune mechanisms might explain the increased susceptibility of atopic patients to ICD and ACD. This review discusses cellular pathways associated with increased skin inflammation in all 3 conditions and presents mechanisms that might contribute to the increased rate of ICD and ACD in patients with AD. PMID:22939651
Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... An infant's facial nerve is also called the seventh cranial nerve. It can be damaged just before or at the time of delivery. ...
Alam, Daniel S; Chi, John J
This article describes the challenges of facial reconstruction and the role of facial transplantation in certain facial defects and injuries. This information is of value to surgeons assessing facial injuries with massive soft tissue loss or injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Foroughi, Shabnam; Thyagarajan, Ananth; Stone, Kelly D
Allergic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and urticaria are common in general pediatric practice. This review highlights several significant advances in pediatric allergy over the past year, focusing on asthma and atopic dermatitis. With increasing options for the treatment of allergic diseases, much work is now focused on methods for individualizing treatments to a patient's phenotype and genotype. Progress over the past year includes the characterization of effects of regular albuterol use in patients with genetic variations in the beta-adrenergic receptor. Maintenance asthma regimens for children in the first years of life are also an ongoing focus. The relation between upper airway allergic inflammation and asthma has continued to accumulate support and now extends to the middle ear. Environmental influences on asthma and interventions have been described, including environmental controls for asthma and the role of air pollution on lung development in children. Finally, concerns have been raised regarding the use of topical immunomodulators in young children with atopic dermatitis. Progress continues in the care of children with atopic diseases. Attention to treatment with appropriate medications, patient-individualized environmental controls, and extensive education are the keys to successfully treating atopic children. This review highlights several recent advances but is not intended to be a comprehensive review.
Švecová, Danka; Šimaljakova, Maria; Doležalová, Anna
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an effective inhibitor of mold growth. In very low concentrations, DMF is a potent sensitizer that can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). It has been identified as the agent responsible for furniture contact dermatitis in Europe. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients in Slovakia with footwear ACD associated with DMF, with regard to clinical manifestations, patch test results, and results of chemical analysis of their footwear. Nine patients with suspected footwear contact dermatitis underwent patch testing with the following allergens: samples of their own footwear, commercial DMF, the European baseline, shoe screening, textile and leather dye screening, and industrial biocides series. The results were recorded according to international guidelines. The content of DMF in footwear and anti-mold sachets was analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Acute ACD was observed in nine Caucasian female patients. All patients developed delayed sensitization, as demonstrated by positive patch testing using textile footwear lining. Seven patients were patch tested with 0.1% DMF, and all seven were positive. Chemical analysis of available footwear showed that DMF was present in very high concentrations (25-80 mg/Kg). Dimethyl fumarate is a new footwear allergen and was responsible for severe ACD in our patients. To avoid an increase in the number of cases, the already approved European preventive measures should be accepted and commonly employed. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.
Elcin, Gonca; Gülseren, Duygu; Bayraktar, Miyase; Gunalp, Serdar; Gurgan, Timur
Autoimmune estrogen dermatitis is a cyclical cutaneous eruption that occurs premenstrually and goes to the rapid resolution within a few days of menstrual cycles. The disorder has variable clinical manifestations consisting of macules, papules, vesicles, urticarial lesions, bullae, eczematous plaques, and erythema multiforme-like lesions. Herein, we present a case of a 30-year-old woman with attacks of edema and erosions involving the oral and genital mucosal sites on every first day of her menstruation period. She had also multiple endocrinological problems such as hypotroidism and infertility. To determine the sex hormon sensitivity, intradermal skin tests were performed. Based on her personal history and skin test findings, a diagnosis of autoimmune estrogen dermatitis was made. After the oophorectomy, she was free from the skin and mucosal symptoms. We propose that it is important to suspect the diagnosis of autoimmune estrogen dermatitis in patients who present with recurrent cylic eruptions and it must be kept in mind that these patients might have a concomitant infertility.
Tang, C Y; Tang, N; Stewart, M C
Anthropometric data for the purpose of spectacle frame design are scarce in the literature. Definitions of facial features to be measured with existing systems of facial measurement are often not specific enough for frame design and manufacturing. Currently, for individual frame design, experienced personnel collect data with facial rules or instruments. A new measuring system is proposed, making use of a template in the form of a spectacle frame. Upon fitting the template onto a subject, most of the measuring references can be defined. Such a system can be administered by lesser-trained personnel and can be used for researches covering a larger population.
Pulec, J L
The cost of iatrogenic facial paralysis can be high. Ways to avoid facial nerve injury during surgery and, should it occur, ways to minimize the disability and cost are discussed. These include adequate preparation and training by the surgeon, the exercise of sound judgment, the presence of high morals by the surgeon, adequate preoperative diagnosis and surgical instrumentation and thorough preoperative oral and written informed consent. Should facial nerve injury occur, immediate consultation and reparative decompression, anastomosis or grafting should be performed to obtain the best ultimate result. The value of prompt, competent, sympathetic and continuing concern offered by the surgeon to the patient cannot be over emphasized.
As with the treatment of all facial deformities, orthodontic pre-surgical preparation for facial asymmetry should aim at correcting severe occlusal discrepancies not solely on the basis of a narrow occlusal analysis but also in a way that will not disturb the proposed surgical protocol. In addition, facial asymmetries require specific adjustments, difficult to derive and to apply because of their inherent atypical morphological orientation of both alveolar and basal bony support. Three treated cases illustrate different solutions to problems posed by pathological torque: this torque must be considered with respect to proposed surgical changes, within the framework of their limitations and their possible contra-indications.
Krithika, L. B.; Venkatesh, K.; Rathore, S.; Kumar, M. Harish
Human beings exploit emotions comprehensively for conveying messages and their resolution. Emotion detection and face recognition can provide an interface between the individuals and technologies. The most successful applications of recognition analysis are recognition of faces. Many different techniques have been used to recognize the facial expressions and emotion detection handle varying poses. In this paper, we approach an efficient method to recognize the facial expressions to track face points and distances. This can automatically identify observer face movements and face expression in image. This can capture different aspects of emotion and facial expressions.
Eisenberg, E; Yaari, A; Har-Shai, Y
Chronic, burning facial pain as a result of cosmetic facial surgery has rarely been reported. During the year of 1994, two female patients presented themselves at our Pain Relief Clinic with chronic facial pain that developed following aesthetic facial surgery. One patient underwent bilateral transpalpebral surgery for removal of intraorbital fat for the correction of the exophthalmus, and the other had classical face and anterior hairline forehead lifts. Pain in both patients was similar in that it was bilateral, symmetric, burning in quality, and aggravated by external stimuli, mainly light touch. It was resistant to multiple analgesic medications, and was associated with significant depression and disability. Diagnostic local (lidocaine) and systemic (lidocaine and phentolamine) nerve blocks failed to provide relief. Psychological evaluation revealed that the two patients had clear psychosocial factors that seemed to have further compounded their pain complaints. Tricyclic antidepressants (and biofeedback training in one patient) were modestly effective and produced only partial pain relief.
Oliveira, Lorena Maria Lima de; Souza, Marcos Vilela de; Guedes, Antonio Carlos Martins; Araújo, Marcelo Grossi
Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) is the main cutaneous marker of HTLV-1 infection. This disease occurs primarily in children and should be differentiated from other eczemas, especially from atopic dermatitis. The largest series of IDH are from Jamaica and Brazil. There are an estimated 15 to 20 million infected people in the world, and Brazil is one of the endemic regions. Studies suggest that IDH in children may be a marker for the development of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) or myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM / TSP) in adulthood.
Kaiser, Jakob; Davey, Graham C L; Parkhouse, Thomas; Meeres, Jennifer; Scott, Ryan B
Do facial expressions of emotion influence us when not consciously perceived? Methods to investigate this question have typically relied on brief presentation of static images. In contrast, real facial expressions are dynamic and unfold over several seconds. Recent studies demonstrate that gaze contingent crowding (GCC) can block awareness of dynamic expressions while still inducing behavioural priming effects. The current experiment tested for the first time whether dynamic facial expressions presented using this method can induce unconscious facial activation. Videos of dynamic happy and angry expressions were presented outside participants' conscious awareness while EMG measurements captured activation of the zygomaticus major (active when smiling) and the corrugator supercilii (active when frowning). Forced-choice classification of expressions confirmed they were not consciously perceived, while EMG revealed significant differential activation of facial muscles consistent with the expressions presented. This successful demonstration opens new avenues for research examining the unconscious emotional influences of facial expressions. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression. Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress.
Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia
Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445
Singh, Geeta; Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U. S.; Hariram; Malkunje, Laxman R.; Singh, Nimisha
Background: Facial injuries in children always present a challenge in respect of their diagnosis and management. Since these children are of a growing age every care should be taken so that later the overall growth pattern of the facial skeleton in these children is not jeopardized. Purpose: To access the most feasible method for the management of facial injuries in children without hampering the facial growth. Materials and Methods: Sixty child patients with facial trauma were selected randomly for this study. On the basis of examination and investigations a suitable management approach involving rest and observation, open or closed reduction and immobilization, trans-osseous (TO) wiring, mini bone plate fixation, splinting and replantation, elevation and fixation of zygoma, etc. were carried out. Results and Conclusion: In our study fall was the predominant cause for most of the facial injuries in children. There was a 1.09% incidence of facial injuries in children up to 16 years of age amongst the total patients. The age-wise distribution of the fracture amongst groups (I, II and III) was found to be 26.67%, 51.67% and 21.67% respectively. Male to female patient ratio was 3:1. The majority of the cases of facial injuries were seen in Group II patients (6-11 years) i.e. 51.67%. The mandibular fracture was found to be the most common fracture (0.60%) followed by dentoalveolar (0.27%), mandibular + midface (0.07) and midface (0.02%) fractures. Most of the mandibular fractures were found in the parasymphysis region. Simple fracture seems to be commonest in the mandible. Most of the mandibular and midface fractures in children were amenable to conservative therapies except a few which required surgical intervention. PMID:22639504
Singh, Geeta; Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U S; Hariram; Malkunje, Laxman R; Singh, Nimisha
Facial injuries in children always present a challenge in respect of their diagnosis and management. Since these children are of a growing age every care should be taken so that later the overall growth pattern of the facial skeleton in these children is not jeopardized. To access the most feasible method for the management of facial injuries in children without hampering the facial growth. Sixty child patients with facial trauma were selected randomly for this study. On the basis of examination and investigations a suitable management approach involving rest and observation, open or closed reduction and immobilization, trans-osseous (TO) wiring, mini bone plate fixation, splinting and replantation, elevation and fixation of zygoma, etc. were carried out. In our study fall was the predominant cause for most of the facial injuries in children. There was a 1.09% incidence of facial injuries in children up to 16 years of age amongst the total patients. The age-wise distribution of the fracture amongst groups (I, II and III) was found to be 26.67%, 51.67% and 21.67% respectively. Male to female patient ratio was 3:1. The majority of the cases of facial injuries were seen in Group II patients (6-11 years) i.e. 51.67%. The mandibular fracture was found to be the most common fracture (0.60%) followed by dentoalveolar (0.27%), mandibular + midface (0.07) and midface (0.02%) fractures. Most of the mandibular fractures were found in the parasymphysis region. Simple fracture seems to be commonest in the mandible. Most of the mandibular and midface fractures in children were amenable to conservative therapies except a few which required surgical intervention.
Reactive Granulomatous Dermatitis: A Review of Palisaded Neutrophilic and Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Drug Reaction, and a Proposed Reclassification.
Rosenbach, Misha; English, Joseph C
The terms "palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis," "interstitial granulomatous dermatitis," and the subset "interstitial granulomatous drug reaction" are a source of confusion. There exists substantial overlap among the entities with few strict distinguishing features. We review the literature and highlight areas of distinction and overlap, and propose a streamlined diagnostic workup for patients presenting with this cutaneous reaction pattern. Because the systemic disease associations and requisite workup are similar, and the etiopathogenesis is poorly understood but likely similar among these entities, we propose the simplified unifying term "reactive granulomatous dermatitis" to encompass these entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yılmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Yılmaz, Tuba Sevim; Akıncı, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide
The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. © The Author(s) 2013.
Barrera-Pulido, Fernando; Gomez-Cia, Tomas; Sicilia-Castro, Domingo; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto; Gacto-Sanchez, Purificacion; Hernandez-Guisado, Jose-Maria; Lagares-Borrego, Araceli; Narros-Gimenez, Rocio; Gonzalez-Padilla, Juan D.
Objectives: Update on clinical results obtained by the first worldwide facial transplantation teams as well as review of the literature concerning the main surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow-up aspects described on facial transplanted patients. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on “face transplantation” until March 2012. Results: Eighteen clinical cases were studied. The mean patient age was 37.5 years, with a higher prevalence of men. Main surgical indication was gunshot injuries (6 patients). All patients had previously undergone multiple conventional surgical reconstructive procedures which had failed. Altogether 8 transplant teams belonging to 4 countries participated. Thirteen partial face transplantations and 5 full face transplantations have been performed. Allografts are varied according to face anatomical components and the amount of skin, muscle, bone, and other tissues included, though all were grafted successfully and remained viable without significant postoperative surgical complications. The patient with the longest follow-up was 5 years. Two patients died 2 and 27 months after transplantation. Conclusions: Clinical experience has demonstrated the feasibility of facial transplantation as a valuable reconstructive option, but it still remains considered as an experimental procedure with unresolved issues to settle down. Results show that from a clinical, technical, and immunological standpoint, facial transplantation has achieved functional, aesthetic, and social rehabilitation in severely facial disfigured patients. Key words:Face transplantation, composite tissue transplantation, face allograft, facial reconstruction, outcomes and complications of face transplantation. PMID:23229268
Patel, Ashaki; Burns, Erin; Burkemper, Nicole M
Methotrexate, a folate antimetabolite, is used to treat atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although methotrexate's therapeutic efficacy has been noted in the literature, there are few data on the efficacy of methotrexate treatment for allergic contact dermatitis. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of methotrexate in treating allergic contact dermatitis at a single institution, and also to assess methotrexate efficacy in patients with chronic, unavoidable allergen exposure. We performed a retrospective chart review of 32 patients diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis by positive patch test reactions, and who received treatment with methotrexate from November 2010 to November 2014. Demographic and treatment-associated data were collected from electronic medical records. Ten patients were identified as allergen non-avoiders secondary to their occupation, and were subgrouped as such. Seventy-eight per cent (25/32) of patients showed either a partial or a complete response. Methotrexate had a comparable efficacy rate in the allergen non-avoiders subset, at 10 of 10. Of the 32 patients, 23% (5/22) had complete clearance of their dermatitis, and 1/10 of allergen non-avoiders had complete clearance of their dermatitis. Methotrexate is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for allergic contact dermatitis, and shows comparable efficacy to immunomodulatory agents such as cyclosporine and azathioprine, with robust efficacy despite persistent allergen exposure in patients with allergic contact dermatitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The prevalence of suicidal ideation in patients with mild, moderate, and severe atopic dermatitis between the age of 15 to 49 years were 0.21%, 6%, and 19.6%, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of homicide-suicidal ideation in mothers or fathers of patients (aged 0-14 years) with mild, moderate, and severe atopic dermatitis were 0.11%,…
Landis, Megan N; Keeling, James H; Yiannias, James A; Richardson, Donna M; Nordberg Linehan, Diane L; Davis, Mark D P
Peristomal dermatitis is a common problem in patients with ostomies that is a source of considerable morbidity. Irritant contact dermatitis is most common, but allergic contact dermatitis can also occur. Because of the lack of published reports on patch testing for this indication, we undertook a retrospective study of patch testing results in patients with suspected peristomal allergic contact dermatitis. We sought to describe our patch testing experience with patients referred with peristomal dermatitis. This was a retrospective review of medical records of patients with ostomies and peristomal dermatitis who underwent patch testing in the Mayo Clinic Departments of Dermatology in Jacksonville, FL; Rochester, MN; and Scottsdale, AZ, during a 10-year period (2000-2010). Ten patients with peristomal dermatitis were referred for patch testing (6 in Minnesota, 2 in Florida, and 2 in Arizona). Patients were patch tested to the materials used in their stoma devices, to the standard series, and in some cases to supplemental series. All 10 had at least one allergic patch test reaction, most commonly to stoma paste (3 of 10 patients). Retrospective nature of study via chart review is a limitation. Patch testing is a useful tool for identification of allergens in patients with peristomal dermatitis. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Nezafati, Kaveh A; Carroll, Bryan; Storrs, Frances J; Cruz, Ponciano D
The American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) is the principal organization representing the subspecialty of contact dermatitis in the United States. The aim of this study was to characterize ACDS members with respect to demographic characteristics, patch-test practices, and sentiments regarding the Society and its journal Dermatitis. We conducted cross-sectional postal and online surveys of ACDS members. More than a third of ACDS members responded to the survey, 92% of whom practice dermatology, and most of whom are community practitioners. Responders manage patients with allergic and irritant dermatitis at a similar frequency. On average, they patch test 4 patients per week using 66 allergens per patient, which often include customized trays. Almost half of these practitioners learned patch testing from their residency programs. Most of the responders read and value the Society journal, value the Contact Allergen Management Program database, and attend society meetings. The ACDS is comprised overwhelmingly of dermatologists who are primarily community-based, young relative to the start of their practices, and use the Society's resources for continuing education.
Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter
Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555
Santos, Raquel; Goossens, An
Reports on airborne dermatoses are mainly published in the context of occupational settings. Hence, in recent years, dermatologists and also occupational physicians have become increasingly aware of the airborne source of contact dermatitis, resulting mainly from exposure to irritants or allergens. However, their occurrence is still underestimated, because reports often omit the term 'airborne' in relation to dust or volatile allergens. For the present update, we screened the journals 'Contact Dermatitis' (July 2000 to December 2006); 'Dermatitis', formerly named 'American Journal of Contact Dermatitis'; 'La Lettre du Gerda' (January 2000 to December 2006); and also included relevant articles from other journals published during the same period. This resulted in an updated list of airborne dermatitis causes.
Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Glatz, Martin; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Kaplan, Daniel H.; Kong, Heidi H.; Amagai, Masayuki; Nagao, Keisuke
Summary Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization is universal in atopic dermatitis and common in cancer patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. However, the causal relationship of dysbiosis and eczema has yet to be clarified. Herein, we demonstrate that Adam17fl/flSox9-Cre mice, generated to model ADAM17-deficiency in human, developed eczematous dermatitis with naturally occurring dysbiosis, similar to that observed in atopic dermatitis. Corynebacterium mastitidis, S. aureus, and Corynebacterium bovis sequentially emerged during the onset of eczematous dermatitis, and antibiotic specific for these bacterial species almost completely reversed dysbiosis and eliminated skin inflammation. Whereas S. aureus prominently drove eczema formation, C. bovis induced robust T helper 2 cell responses. Langerhans cells were required for eliciting immune responses against S. aureus inoculation. These results characterize differential contributions of dysbiotic flora during eczema formation, and highlight the microbiota-host immunity axis as a possible target for future therapeutics in eczematous dermatitis. PMID:25902485
Nichol, K; Copes, R; Spielmann, S; Kersey, K; Eriksson, J; Holness, D L
Health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk for developing occupational skin disease (OSD) such as dermatitis primarily due to exposure to wet work. Identification of risk factors and workplace screening can help early detection of OSD to avoid the condition becoming chronic. To determine risk factors and clinical findings for hand dermatitis using a workplace screening tool. Employees at a large teaching hospital in Toronto, Canada, were invited to complete a two-part hand dermatitis screening tool. Part 1 inquired about hand hygiene practices and Part 2 comprised a visual assessment of participants' hands by a health professional and classification as (i) normal, (ii) mild dermatitis or (iii) moderate/severe dermatitis. Risk factors were determined using chi-square and Cochran-Armitage analysis on a dichotomous variable, where Yes represented either a mild or moderate/severe disease classification. There were 183 participants out of 643 eligible employees; response rate 28%. Mild or moderate/severe dermatitis was present in 72% of participants. These employees were more likely to work directly with patients, have worked longer in a health care setting, wash hands and change gloves more frequently, wear gloves for more hours per day, have a history of eczema or dermatitis and report a current rash on the hands or rash in the past 12 months. There was a high percentage of HCWs with dermatitis and risk factors for dermatitis. These findings argue for increased attention to prevention and early identification of hand dermatitis and support further testing of the workplace screening tool. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S
Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Rofoo, Fanar Fareed Hanna
The similarity of features between individuals of same ethnicity motivated the idea of this project. The idea of this project is to extract features of clear facial image and impose them on blurred facial image of same ethnic origin as an approach to enhance a blurred facial image. A database of clear images containing 30 individuals equally divided to five different ethnicities which were Arab, African, Chines, European and Indian. Software was built to perform pre-processing on images in order to align the features of clear and blurred images. And the idea was to extract features of clear facial image or template built from clear facial images using wavelet transformation to impose them on blurred image by using reverse wavelet. The results of this approach did not come well as all the features did not align together as in most cases the eyes were aligned but the nose or mouth were not aligned. Then we decided in the next approach to deal with features separately but in the result in some cases a blocky effect was present on features due to not having close matching features. In general the available small database did not help to achieve the goal results, because of the number of available individuals. The color information and features similarity could be more investigated to achieve better results by having larger database as well as improving the process of enhancement by the availability of closer matches in each ethnicity.
Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Nuchkull, Piyavadee; Varothai, Supenya
Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have increased susceptibility to irritants. Some patients have questions about types of water for bathing or skin cleansing. We studied the pH of water from various sources to give an overview for physicians to recommend patients with AD. Water from various sources was collected for measurement of the pH using a pH meter and pH-indicator strips. Bottled drinking still water had pH between 6.9 and 7.5 while the sparkling type had pH between 4.9 and 5.5. Water derived from home water filters had an approximate pH of 7.5 as same as tap water. Swimming pool water had had pH between 7.2 and 7.5 while seawater had a pH of 8. Normal saline and distilled water had pH of 5.4 and 5.7, respectively. Facial mineral water had pH between 7.5 and 8, while facial makeup removing water had an acidic pH. Normal saline, distilled water, bottled sparkling water and facial makeup removing water had similar pH to that of normal skin of normal people. However, other factors including benefits of mineral substances in the water in terms of bacteriostatic and anti-inflammation should be considered in the selection of cleansing water.
Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Varothai, Supenya
Background Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have increased susceptibility to irritants. Some patients have questions about types of water for bathing or skin cleansing. Objective We studied the pH of water from various sources to give an overview for physicians to recommend patients with AD. Methods Water from various sources was collected for measurement of the pH using a pH meter and pH-indicator strips. Results Bottled drinking still water had pH between 6.9 and 7.5 while the sparkling type had pH between 4.9 and 5.5. Water derived from home water filters had an approximate pH of 7.5 as same as tap water. Swimming pool water had had pH between 7.2 and 7.5 while seawater had a pH of 8. Normal saline and distilled water had pH of 5.4 and 5.7, respectively. Facial mineral water had pH between 7.5 and 8, while facial makeup removing water had an acidic pH. Conclusion Normal saline, distilled water, bottled sparkling water and facial makeup removing water had similar pH to that of normal skin of normal people. However, other factors including benefits of mineral substances in the water in terms of bacteriostatic and anti-inflammation should be considered in the selection of cleansing water. PMID:23956962
Achour, I; Chakroun, A; Ayedi, S; Ben Rhaiem, Z; Mnejja, M; Charfeddine, I; Hammami, B; Ghorbel, A
Idiopathic facial palsy is the most common cause of facial nerve palsy in children. Controversy exists regarding treatment options. The objectives of this study were to review the epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as the outcome of idiopathic facial palsy in children to suggest appropriate treatment. A retrospective study was conducted on children with a diagnosis of idiopathic facial palsy from 2007 to 2012. A total of 37 cases (13 males, 24 females) with a mean age of 13.9 years were included in this analysis. The mean duration between onset of Bell's palsy and consultation was 3 days. Of these patients, 78.3% had moderately severe (grade IV) or severe paralysis (grade V on the House and Brackmann grading). Twenty-seven patients were treated in an outpatient context, three patients were hospitalized, and seven patients were treated as outpatients and subsequently hospitalized. All patients received corticosteroids. Eight of them also received antiviral treatment. The complete recovery rate was 94.6% (35/37). The duration of complete recovery was 7.4 weeks. Children with idiopathic facial palsy have a very good prognosis. The complete recovery rate exceeds 90%. However, controversy exists regarding treatment options. High-quality studies have been conducted on adult populations. Medical treatment based on corticosteroids alone or combined with antiviral treatment is certainly effective in improving facial function outcomes in adults. In children, the recommendation for prescription of steroids and antiviral drugs based on adult treatment appears to be justified. Randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population are recommended to define a strategy for management of idiopathic facial paralysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie
Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR.
Karimkhani, Chante; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Dellavalle, Robert P
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition characterized by eczematous lesions, i.e. ill-demarcated erythematous patches and plaques. AD is commonly associated with elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE) and atopic disorders, such as asthma, hay fever, and food allergies. Rackemann and Mallory were some of the first to distinguish between asthma based on the presence ("extrinsic") or absence ("intrinsic") of allergy. This distinction has subsequently been applied to AD based on the presence ("extrinsic") or absence ("intrinsic") of increased IgE and atopic disease. Although the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic AD is widely used, it remains controversial.
Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kanti, Varvara
Diaper dermatitis (DD) is one of the most common skin conditions that infants suffer from and their caregivers manage in the first months post-birth. As such, questions of effective prevention and treatment of the condition often arise. Nonmedical skincare practices that support healthy skin barrier function can prevent DD manifestation or alleviate the condition in many cases. The usage of barrier emollients and improved diaper technology contributes to keeping moisture and irritants away from an infant's delicate skin. This paper addresses facts behind commonly asked questions from caregivers regarding DD and discusses effective measures to prevent and treat the condition. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hajar, Tamar; Gontijo, João Renato Vianna; Hanifin, Jon M
Atopic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease. New understanding in disease pathogenesis has led to a considerable number of promising new drugs in development. New topical agents can be especially helpful for children, providing an alternative to the need for chronic topical corticosteroid use. While many patients with mild or moderate disease can be managed with topical treatments, there are unmet needs for recalcitrant and severe cases. New and developing therapies hold promise for real advances in management of this complex disease. PMID:29641707
Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida
Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.
Bokhari, Syed Zahid Hussain; Zahid, Syeda Samina
Bell's palsy is an idiopathic, acute peripheral-nerve palsy involving the facial nerve which supplies all the muscles of facial expression. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of electro-A=acupuncture on patients with facial palsy. This study was conducted on patients with facial palsy at a private clinic at Peshawar during 1999-2009, and 49 cases were included in the study. All those cases that were within first two weeks of illness or who had related history of stroke or they had upper motor neuron lesion were not included in the study. Electroacupuncture was used as the main therapeutic technique to treat these cases. Patients were subjected to acupuncture treatment at four major points on the face for 20-25 minutes everyday for 10 days. Specific points were used for nasolabial fold and watering of the eye. After rest for a week patients were again evaluated and another course of treatment comprising of 5-10 days was sufficient in most cases. Frequency of electro-acupuncture is kept at 60-80 cycles per minute. Total number of patients studied was 49 with duration of illness as early as 3 weeks to a year and above. Cases with duration of illness from 3 weeks onward showed rapid recovery of palsy symptoms with electro-acupuncture. All cases showed recovery. Palsy of the angle of the mouth did not recover completely. Electro-acupuncture is effective in treating facial palsy cases.
Mohamed, Aboshanif; Omi, Eigo; Honda, Kohei; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Ishikawa, Kazuo
There is no technique of facial nerve reconstruction that guarantees facial function recovery up to grade III. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques. Facial nerve reconstruction was performed in 22 patients (facial nerve interpositional graft in 11 patients and hypoglossal-facial nerve transfer in another 11 patients). All patients had facial function House-Brackmann (HB) grade VI, either caused by trauma or after resection of a tumor. All patients were submitted to a primary nerve reconstruction except 7 patients, where late reconstruction was performed two weeks to four months after the initial surgery. The follow-up period was at least two years. For facial nerve interpositional graft technique, we achieved facial function HB grade III in eight patients and grade IV in three patients. Synkinesis was found in eight patients, and facial contracture with synkinesis was found in two patients. In regards to hypoglossal-facial nerve transfer using different modifications, we achieved facial function HB grade III in nine patients and grade IV in two patients. Facial contracture, synkinesis and tongue atrophy were found in three patients, and synkinesis was found in five patients. However, those who had primary direct facial-hypoglossal end-to-side anastomosis showed the best result without any neurological deficit. Among various reanimation techniques, when indicated, direct end-to-side facial-hypoglossal anastomosis through epineural suturing is the most effective technique with excellent outcomes for facial reanimation and preservation of tongue movement, particularly when performed as a primary technique. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Wang, Xin; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhou, Ping; Shen, Yi-Wei
Abstract Little is known about the classification and bacterial infection in outpatients with eczema and dermatitis in China. To investigate the prevalence of eczema and dermatitis in outpatients of dermatology clinics in China, examine classification and proportion of common types of dermatitis and the possible bacterial infection, and analyze the possible related factors. Outpatients with eczema or dermatitis from 39 tertiary hospitals of 15 provinces in mainland China from July 1 to September 30, 2014, were enrolled in this cross-sectional and multicenter study. Among 9393 enrolled outpatients, 636 patients (6.7%) were excluded because of incomplete information. The leading subtypes of dermatitis were unclassified eczema (35.5%), atopic dermatitis (13.4%), irritant dermatitis (9.2%), and widespread eczema (8.7%). Total bacterial infection rate was 52.3%, with widespread eczema, stasis dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis being the leading three (65.7%, 61.8%, and 61.4%, respectively). Clinically very likely bacterial infection has a significant positive correlation with disease duration, history of allergic disease, history of flexion dermatitis, and severe itching. Atopic dermatitis has become a common subtype of dermatitis in China. Secondary bacterial infection is common in all patients with dermatitis, and more attentions should be paid on this issue in other type of dermatitis apart from atopic dermatitis. PMID:28858126
Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Ladizinski, Barry; Saraiya, Ami; Lee, Kachiu C; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy; Maibach, Howard
To provide information from a literature review about the prevention, recognition, and treatment for contact dermatitis. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify signs and symptoms of and diagnostic measures for contact dermatitis.2. Identify causes and risks for contact dermatitis.3. Select appropriate treatment for contact dermatitis and its prevention. Contact dermatitis to wound care products is a common, often neglected problem. A review was conducted to identify articles relevant to contact dermatitis.A PubMed English-language literature review was conducted for appropriate articles published between January 2000 and December 2015.Contact dermatitis is both irritant (80% of cases) or allergic (20% of cases). Frequent use of potential contact allergens and impaired barrier function of the skin can lead to rising sensitization in patients with chronic wounds. Common known allergens to avoid in wound care patients include fragrances, colophony, lanolin, and topical antibiotics.Clinicians should be cognizant of the allergens in wound care products and the potential for sensitization. All medical devices, including wound dressings, adhesives, and bandages, should be labeled with their complete ingredients, and manufacturers should be encouraged to remove common allergens from wound care products, including topical creams, ointments, and dressings.
Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H.; Alt, David P.; Nally, Jarlath E.
Simple Summary Digital dermatitis causes lameness in cattle. Numerous studies have identified multiple bacteria associated with these painful lesions. Several types of a spiral shaped bacteria, Treponema species, are thought to play a role in disease development. Little is known about the immune response to bacteria involved in digital dermatitis. Local inflammatory cells can contribute to the non-healing nature of the disease. Animal models of infection are required to develop effective vaccines and treatments. Abstract Globally; digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined; the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous species of treponemes; in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. The goal of this review article is to provide an overview of the current literature; focusing on discussion of the polybacterial nature of the digital dermatitis disease complex and host immune response. Several phylotypes of treponemes have been identified; some of which correlate with location in the lesion and some with stages of lesion development. Local innate immune responses may contribute to the proliferative, inflammatory conditions that perpetuate digital dermatitis lesions. While serum antibody is produced to bacterial antigens in the lesions, little is known about cellular-based immunity. Studies are still required to delineate the pathogenic traits of treponemes associated with digital dermatitis; and other host factors that mediate pathology and protection of digital dermatitis lesions. PMID:26569318
Atopic dermatitis is common and in its severe form is devastating. This chronic inflammatory dermatosis is part of the atopic syndrome, which includes asthma, food allergies, and hay fever and is known to be associated with mental health disorders. In line with psoriasis, several recent observational studies using national survey and linkage data have suggested a link between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease. The atopic dermatitis field can benefit from the past experiences in psoriasis research and should not follow the same path, but, rather, aim for a more comprehensive approach from the beginning. A recent German consortium studying links between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease first screened a large claims database, followed by analyses of more deeply phenotyped (birth) cohorts with longitudinal data. In addition, genetic and metabolic analyses assessing the predisposition of patients with atopic dermatitis for cardiovascular disease were performed. Overall, the association between atopic dermatitis and cardiovascular disease was at most modest, but in more refined cohorts the cardiovascular risk profile and genetic architecture was comparable. A more integrated approach could create clarity about the clinical relevance of cardiovascular disease in individuals with atopic dermatitis sooner, avoid speculation that affects patient care, and save scientific resources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Duncan, J S; Angell, J W; Carter, S D; Evans, N J; Sullivan, L E; Grove-White, D H
The novel sheep disease, contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) was first described in the UK in 1997. The disease is characterised by severe lameness associated with initial inflammation at the coronary band, followed by progressive separation of the hoof capsule from the underlying tissue. On microbiological examination, treponeme bacteria have been frequently isolated from cases of CODD, including treponemes phylogenetically identical to those associated with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD). Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum have also been isolated from CODD lesions although their role in the pathogenesis remains uncertain. While epidemiological data indicate that the prevalence of CODD is increasing in the UK, the routes of transmission and associated risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. Evidenced-based treatment trials indicate that parenteral administration of long-acting amoxicillin is an efficacious treatment for CODD, while anecdotal evidence suggests other antibiotics, given locally and/or parenterally, may also be beneficial. Further microbiological and epidemiological research is urgently required to develop sustainable control strategies, including the development of vaccines and appropriate biosecurity and farm management protocols. In this review current knowledge of the clinical, aetiological, and epidemiological aspects of CODD is assessed as well as approaches to its control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goldenberg, Alina; Mousdicas, Nico; Silverberg, Nanette; Powell, Douglas; Pelletier, Janice L; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Zippin, Jonathan; Fonacier, Luz; Tosti, Antonella; Lawley, Leslie; Wu Chang, Mary; Scheman, Andrew; Kleiner, Gary; Williams, Judith; Watsky, Kalman; Dunnick, Cory A; Frederickson, Rachel; Matiz, Catalina; Chaney, Keri; Estes, Tracy S; Botto, Nina; Draper, Michelle; Kircik, Leon; Lugo-Somolinos, Aida; Machler, Brian; Jacob, Sharon E
Little is known about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in US children. More widespread diagnostic confirmation through epicutaneous patch testing is needed. The aim was to quantify patch test results from providers evaluating US children. The study is a retrospective analysis of deidentified patch test results of children aged 18 years or younger, entered by participating providers in the Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry, during the first year of data collection (2015-2016). One thousand one hundred forty-two cases from 34 US states, entered by 84 providers, were analyzed. Sixty-five percent of cases had one or more positive patch test (PPT), with 48% of cases having 1 or more relevant positive patch test (RPPT). The most common PPT allergens were nickel (22%), fragrance mix I (11%), cobalt (9.1%), balsam of Peru (8.4%), neomycin (7.2%), propylene glycol (6.8%), cocamidopropyl betaine (6.4%), bacitracin (6.2%), formaldehyde (5.7%), and gold (5.7%). This US database provides multidisciplinary information on pediatric ACD, rates of PPT, and relevant RPPT reactions, validating the high rates of pediatric ACD previously reported in the literature. The registry database is the largest comprehensive collection of US-only pediatric patch test cases on which future research can be built. Continued collaboration between patients, health care providers, manufacturers, and policy makers is needed to decrease the most common allergens in pediatric consumer products.
Eguchi-Coe, Yuko; Valentine, Beth A; Gorman, Elena; Villarroel, Aurora
Histopathology submissions from 28 goats with dermatological disease were identified in an archival search of pathology files. Microscopic sections of skin biopsy specimens were examined for the presence of Malassezia spp. organisms. Six cases with many Malassezia yeasts were identified histopathologically. Based on the extent of clinical disease, three cases were regarded as localized and three were generalized infections. Clinical findings included alopecia with dry seborrhoea (four cases), greasy seborrhoea (one case), and no clinical findings specific to localized Malassezia infection when concurrent bacterial infection was present (one case). Mild pruritus was reported in two cases of generalized infection. No breed predilection was apparent. Three cases were male and three were female. Malassezia dermatitis occurred in goats from 10 months to 13 years of age. Three of six cases had concurrent bacterial infection. Skin lesions resolved following topical antifungal therapy in the two goats that were treated. Histopathological findings in all cases were severe follicular and epidermal orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with minimal epithelial change and mild superficial perivascular to interstitial nonsuppurative inflammation. Numerous budding yeasts were visible within the stratum corneum of all cases; however, Malassezia was not isolated in the three cases in which culture was attempted. Based upon these findings, the authors suggest that the diagnosis Malassezia dermatitis in goats is most likely to be made by cytological examination of skin impressions or by examination of skin biopsy samples. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2011 ESVD and ACVD.
Mattei, O; Di Martino, T; Ferraro, P
With regard to health care workers the irritative contact dermatitis represents about the 80% of all the dermopathies in sanitary staff whereas the allergic contact dermatitis covers approximately the 20% of the professional dermatoses. In our study 4 cases of allergy to latex in hospital nurses are presented; the clinical history is described for each of them as well as the resulting judgment of suitability to the specific work. In general population the allergy to latex is estimated to be approximately 1-6%; in sanitary staff it rises to 5-12%. We have to observe that not all the sensitive subjects show symptoms of allergy. Actually the 4 cases described represent less than 1% of the surveyed group. The sensitization is likely to be so reduced also thanks to the application of preventive guide-lines such as the one proposed by NIOSH. In Italy the criteria in preventing allergic reactions to latex are illustrated in a consensus document issued by a study-team from Italian Association of the Health Workers.
Osinka, Katarzyna; Dumycz, Karolina; Kwiek, Bartłomiej; Feleszko, Wojciech
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases. The number of people affected by AD is relatively high and seems to be rising. Although mild and moderate forms of the disease can be well controlled by the use of emollients, topical corticosteroids, and topical calcineurin inhibitors, treatment of severe is still a huge challenge. The new hope is biologic drugs, magic bullets in allergy, targeted at different points of the complex pathomechanism of inflammation in AD. In this review, novel biologic therapies are discussed, including recombinant monoclonal antibodies directed against various interleukin pathways (such as IL-4, IL-13, TSLP, IL-31, and IL-12/23), on immunoglobulin E, molecules acting as T cells, B cells, etc. Of biological drugs, the most promising seems to be anti-IL-4/IL-13 therapy (dupilumab-the biological agent) and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor (crisaborole-a small molecule). A deep understanding of the AD pathomechanism provides a new perspective for tailor-made treatment of severe atopic dermatitis.
Lodi, A; Mancini, L L; Ambonati, M; Coassini, A; Ravanelli, G; Crosti, C
Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a very important skin disease both for its high frequency and for its social and economic implications. The aim of our work is to evaluate the epidemiology of occupational contact dermatitis in a north-Italian population and the possibility of a correct etiological diagnosis using the patch test standard series of GIRDCA (Italian Group of Resarch on Contact Dermatitis). We patch tested 1,565 out-patients affected by dermatitis with standard series GIRDCA and with other specific professional haptens. The manifestations were suspected of being of occupational origin by a dermatologist on the basis of clinical and anamnestic data. Of all the recorded professions we have considered only the more numerically significant: food industry, building industry, textile industry, employees, cleaners, hospital personnel, hairdressers, housewives, mechanics and metallurgists. Sixty-nine percent of contact dermatitis was found in women, the hairdressers had the greatest number of patients in the younger group (68.7% in the 11-20 years age group) and the textile industry workers in older group (100% in the 41-50 years age group). A positive allergological anamnesis emerged in 32.3% of allergic contact dermatitis. Irritant contact dermatitis (10.6%) was more frequent than allergic contact dermatitis (8.4%). The hands are the most common localization (94. 4%). The allergen with the highest frequency of positive reactions is p-phenylenediamine (25.3%). We discuss the frequency of positives to various groups of allergens in each profession and the principal means of contact. Because of the frequency of this type of occupational skin disease, we stress the importance of prevention. The standard series GIRDCA was found to be adequate for recognizing occupational contact dermatitis in most of our patients (74%).
Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Seiji; Takahashi, Hisanori; Tange, Akira; Kikuchi, Kohki
This study deals with a method to realize automatic contour extraction of facial features such as eyebrows, eyes and mouth for the time-wise frontal face with various facial expressions. Because Snakes which is one of the most famous methods used to extract contours, has several disadvantages, we propose a new method to overcome these issues. We define the elastic contour model in order to hold the contour shape and then determine the elastic energy acquired by the amount of modification of the elastic contour model. Also we utilize the image energy obtained by brightness differences of the control points on the elastic contour model. Applying the dynamic programming method, we determine the contour position where the total value of the elastic energy and the image energy becomes minimum. Employing 1/30s time-wise facial frontal images changing from neutral to one of six typical facial expressions obtained from 20 subjects, we have estimated our method and find it enables high accuracy automatic contour extraction of facial features.
DeKoven, Joel G; Yu, Ashley M
Few published reports have described occupational contact dermatitis from proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure in the literature. We present an additional case of a 58-year-old male pharmaceutical worker with an occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis to PPIs confirmed by patch testing. This is a novel report of workplace exposure to dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole PPIs with resultant clinical contact allergy and relevant positive patch test results to these 2 agents. A literature review of all previously reported cases of occupational contact dermatitis to PPI is summarized. The case also emphasizes the importance of even minute exposures when considering workplace accommodation.
Handa, Sanjeev; De, Dipankar; Mahajan, Rahul
The increasing recognition of occupational origin of airborne contact dermatitis has brought the focus on the variety of irritants, which can present with this typical morphological picture. At the same time, airborne allergic contact dermatitis secondary to plant antigens, especially to Compositae family, continues to be rampant in many parts of the world, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The recognition of the contactant may be difficult to ascertain and the treatment may be even more difficult. The present review focuses on the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic issues in airborne contact dermatitis. PMID:22345774
Atopic dermatitis is defined as a chronically relapsing skin disease resulting from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. It usually occurs during early childhood and shows typical clinical manifestations, depending on the patient's age. In cases of chronic atopic dermatitis, negative effects on professional and social activities and participation have to be expected. To counteract or overcome these threatening impairments in the different facets of life, prescribing inpatient rehabilitative measures should be considered early. Dermatological rehabilitation according to guidelines guarantees an interdisciplinary and multimodal treatment of atopic dermatitis.
Takeuchi, Yusuke Leo; Christen-Zaech, Stéphanie
Atopic dermatitis is the most frequent dermatosis in childhood. Numerous studies underscored the central role of skin barrier alterations in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory skin lesions. The management of atopic dermatitis has to be multidimensional. It combines among others some daily local care and a sporadic topical anti-inflammatory treatment during the acute flare-ups. The objective of this article is to summarize, in light of the recent European guidelines, the general principles of management of atopic dermatitis, for the general practitioner.
Adler, A I; Altman, J
To investigate an outbreak of gram-negative folliculitis in relation to a common exposure, mud wrestling, and identify risk factors for dermatitis among those who mud wrestled. Case-control study. University of Washington, Seattle. Two college-residence groups of students. Cultures from affected students and from mud similar to that used for wrestling yielded Enterobacteriaceae. The odds ratio associated with mud wrestling was 79.5 (95% confidence interval, 13.9 to 895.4). Increased time spent wrestling was associated with increased risk. Skin trauma during wrestling or immersion in the mud increased the risk of infection (odds ratio, 23.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 1440.4). Mud wrestling is one cause of pustular follicular dermatitis. Trauma to the skin may be a necessary cofactor for the development of infection.
Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K
Summary Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions. PMID:27014952
Park, Joon Soo; Lee, Min Jung; Chung, Ki Hun; Ko, Dong Kyun; Chung, Hyun
Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis is an iatrogenic disease induced by so-called live bee acupuncture therapy, which applies the honeybee (Apis cerana) stinger directly into the lesion to treat various diseases in Korea. We present two cases of live bee acupuncture dermatitis and review previously published articles about this disease. We classify this entity into three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. The acute stage is an inflammatory reaction, such as anaphylaxis or urticaria. In the chronic stage, a foreign body granuloma may develop from the remaining stingers, similar to that of a bee sting reaction. However, in the subacute stage, unlike bee stings, we see the characteristic histological "flame" figures resulting from eosinophilic stimulation induced by excessive bee venom exposure. We consider this stage to be different from the adverse skin reaction of accidental bee sting. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This publication is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to direct and support instruction in vocational cosmetology programs in the State of Oklahoma. It contains seven units for the facial specialty: identifying enemies of the skin, using aromatherapy on the skin, giving facials without the aid of machines, giving facials with the aid…
Moderate-to-Severe Atopic Dermatitis; Dermatitis, Dermatitis Atopic; Eczema, Skin Diseases, Skin; Diseases Genetic, Genetic; Diseases Inborn, Skin; Disease, Eczematous Skin; Hypersensitivity, Immediate; Hypersensitivity, Immune System Diseases; Dermatitis, Atopic
Florkiewicz, Brittany; Skollar, Gabriella; Reichard, Ulrich H
Facial expressions are an important component of primate communication that functions to transmit social information and modulate intentions and motivations. Chimpanzees and macaques, for example, produce a variety of facial expressions when communicating with conspecifics. Hylobatids also produce various facial expressions; however, the origin and function of these facial expressions are still largely unclear. It has been suggested that larger facial expression repertoires may have evolved in the context of social complexity, but this link has yet to be tested at a broader empirical basis. The social complexity hypothesis offers a possible explanation for the evolution of complex communicative signals such as facial expressions, because as the complexity of an individual's social environment increases so does the need for communicative signals. We used an intraspecies, pair-focused study design to test the link between facial expressions and sociality within hylobatids, specifically the strength of pair-bonds. The current study compared 206 hr of video and 103 hr of focal animal data for ten hylobatid pairs from three genera (Nomascus, Hoolock, and Hylobates) living at the Gibbon Conservation Center. Using video footage, we explored 5,969 facial expressions along three dimensions: repertoire use, repertoire breadth, and facial expression synchrony [FES]. We then used focal animal data to compare dimensions of facial expressiveness to pair bond strength and behavioral synchrony. Hylobatids in our study overlapped in only half of their facial expressions (50%) with the only other detailed, quantitative study of hylobatid facial expressions, while 27 facial expressions were uniquely observed in our study animals. Taken together, hylobatids have a large facial expression repertoire of at least 80 unique facial expressions. Contrary to our prediction, facial repertoire composition was not significantly correlated with pair bond strength, rates of territorial synchrony
Landers, Maeran; Law, Sandra; Storrs, Frances J
There is little literature regarding conventional patch tests and photopatch tests to oxybenzone resulting in both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. A patient was patch-tested and photopatch-tested to various sunscreen chemicals. Both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were observed with oxybenzone. The positive patch tests were also photoaccentuated. Oxybenzone, a common sunscreen allergen, can result in both contact urticaria and delayed-type hypersensitivity on both conventional patch testing and photopatch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to sunscreen chemicals has traditionally included contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis. Due to the recognition of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its esters as sensitizers, the presence of benzophenones in "PABA-free" sunscreens has become more prevalent, especially in sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SPF) greater than 8. In our patient, immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were seen to oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-benzoyl-5-methoxyphenol, benzophenone-3, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567, EUSORB 228, Spectra-Sorb UV-9, Uvinul M-40) upon conventional patch testing and photopatch testing.
Kadivar, Salmon; Belsito, Donald V
Contact dermatitides occur commonly among health care workers (HCWs). To contrast the atopic status and incidence, location, and final diagnosis of skin diseases afflicting HCWs versus non-HCWs (NHCWs) evaluated for suspicion of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD); and among the population diagnosed with ACD, to compare the incidence and occupational relatedness of allergens found in HCWs with the rates observed in NHCWs. Between July 1, 1994, and May 30, 2014, 2611 patients underwent patch testing by the senior author. Of these, 165 were classified as HCWs based on their primary occupation. Statistical analysis was done using a χ test. Health care workers were more likely than NHCWs to be women and to have hand dermatitis. Women, but not men, HCWs suffered more irritant contact dermatitis. Health care workers had significantly more work-related ACD, especially to formaldehyde, quaternium-15, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, cocamide diethanolamine (DEA), thiuram mix, carba mix, thimerosal, benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde, and bacitracin. Only patients suspected of having ACD were tested. Our population was geographically limited to metropolitan Kansas City, MO and metropolitan New York, NY. Health care workers suffer more from occupational ACD, especially of the hands, than do NHCWs, including to allergens not present on available standard allergen series.
Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo
Background: Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Methods: Rat models of facial nerve cut (FC), facial nerve end to end anastomosis (FF), facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy (FG), and control (Ctrl) were established. Apex nasi amesiality observation, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays were employed to investigate the function and mechanism. Results: In apex nasi amesiality observation, it was found apex nasi amesiality of FG group was partly recovered. Additionally, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays revealed that facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy could transfer nerve impulse and express AChR which was better than facial nerve cut and worse than facial nerve end to end anastomosis. Conclusions: The present study indicated that great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy is a substantial solution for facial lesion repair, as it is efficiently preventing facial muscles atrophy by generating neurotransmitter like ACh. PMID:26550216
Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo
Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Rat models of facial nerve cut (FC), facial nerve end to end anastomosis (FF), facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy (FG), and control (Ctrl) were established. Apex nasi amesiality observation, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays were employed to investigate the function and mechanism. In apex nasi amesiality observation, it was found apex nasi amesiality of FG group was partly recovered. Additionally, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays revealed that facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy could transfer nerve impulse and express AChR which was better than facial nerve cut and worse than facial nerve end to end anastomosis. The present study indicated that great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy is a substantial solution for facial lesion repair, as it is efficiently preventing facial muscles atrophy by generating neurotransmitter like ACh.
Darlenski, Razvigor; Kazandjieva, Jana; Tsankov, Nikolai; Fluhr, Joachim W
The aim of the study was to disclose interactions between epidermal barrier, skin irritation and sensitization in healthy and diseased skin. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration (SCH) were assessed in adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), rosacea and healthy controls. A 4-h patch test with seven concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate was performed to determine the irritant threshold (IT). Contact sensitization pattern was revealed by patch testing with European baseline series. Subjects with a lower IT had higher TEWL values and lower SCH. Subjects with positive allergic reactions had significantly lower IT. In AD, epidermal barrier deterioration was detected on both volar forearm and nasolabial fold, while in rosacea, impeded skin physiology parameters were observed on the facial skin only, suggesting that barrier impediment is restricted to the face in rosacea, in contrast with AD where the abnormal skin physiology is generalized. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.
Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…
... poison ivy. The stems and leaves of these plants produce a chemical that’s likely to cause allergies. ... even pets—that come into contact with these plants. Mild cases of allergic contact dermatitis usually disappear ...
Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is an emerging disease with increasing economic importance. This experiment was undertaken to describe symptoms, patholgocial changes and diagnosis of GD and to study their immunopathology and cytokine expression alterations. In addition to description of symptoms, pathol...
Admani, Shehla; Hill, Hannah; Jacob, Sharon E
Children are at risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances. Personal hygiene products, even those labeled hypoallergenic or considered all natural, may be a significant source of fragrance exposure in this population. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Isoda, Kenichi; Seki, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yosuke; Umeda, Koji; Nishizaka, Takahiro; Tanabe, Hisateru; Takagi, Yutaka; Ishida, Koichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi
Acne is a common skin disease that involves the seborrheic area of the face and results from the obstruction of hair follicles followed by inflammation. Careful face washing helps to improve and prevent acne; however, intensive washing has a risk of inducing skin barrier impairment and dry skin, especially in sensitive skin. We hypothesized that skin care combining mild skin cleansing and intensive moisturizing ("combination skin care") may be effective in the care of acne in subjects with dry skin and/or sensitive skin. We developed a combination skin care with a weakly acidic foaming facial skin cleanser based on a mild detergent, an aqueous lotion with eucalyptus extract and a moisturizing gel containing pseudo-ceramide and eucalyptus extract. To optimize an ideal facial skin care system for mild acne on sensitive skin, we performed a 4-week clinical trial with 29 post-adolescent Japanese women with mild acne with dry and sensitive skin. The acne significantly decreased after this trial accompanied by the improvement of dry skin, a significantly increased endogenous ceramide level in the stratum corneum and an elongated alkyl chain length of the non-hydroxy acyl sphingosine type ceramide. No adverse events due to the test samples were observed. Based on diagnosis by a dermatologist, 97% of the subjects found the combination skin care to be "useful" or "slightly useful". Based on these findings, the combined use of a facial skin cleanser and moisturizers is safe and effective for the care of acne in post-adolescent Japanese women with sensitive skin. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Schalock, Peter C; Dunnick, Cory A; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce; Warshaw, Erin; Mowad, Christen
The American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergen Series was introduced in 2012. After 4 years of use, changes in our recommended allergens are necessary. For the updated series, we have reordered the first 4 panels to approximately mirror the current TRUE Test and removed parthenolide, triclosan, glutaraldehyde, and jasmine. Polymyxin B, lavender, sodium benzoate, ethylhexylglycerin, and benzoic acid are new additions to the American Contact Dermatitis Society series.
Bandmann, H J; Agathos, M
In the present report the case of a toxic ulcerous contact dermatitis (cement burns) by pre-fabricated concrete is described. This can be clearly distinguished by anamnesis, findings and development from the allergic and cumulative-toxic contact dermatitis caused by cement and related substances. It is pointed out, that in the few cases of "cement burns" made known up to now, pre-fabricated concrete was always the triggering agent.
Friedman, Joëlle Y; Reed, Shelby D; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Kahler, Kristijan H; Walter, Emmanuel B; Schulman, Kevin A
Background We sought to elicit preference weights from parents for health states corresponding to children with various levels of severity of atopic dermatitis. We also evaluated the hypothesis that parents with children who had been diagnosed with atopic dermatitis would assign different preferences to the health state scenarios compared with parents who did not have a child with atopic dermatitis. Methods Subjects were parents of children aged 3 months to 18 years. The sample was derived from the General Panel, Mommies Sub-Panel, and Chronic Illness Sub-Panel of Harris Interactive. Participants rated health scenarios for atopic dermatitis, asthma, and eyeglasses on a visual analog scale, imagining a child was experiencing the described state. Results A total of 3539 parents completed the survey. Twenty-nine percent had a child with a history of atopic dermatitis. Mean preference scores for atopic dermatitis were as follows: mild, 91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.7 to 91.5); mild/moderate, 84 (95%CI, 83.5 to 84.4); moderate, 73 (95%CI, 72.5 to 73.6); moderate/severe, 61 (95%CI, 60.6 to 61.8); severe, 49 (95% CI, 48.7 to 50.1); asthma, 58 (95%CI, 57.4 to 58.8); and eyeglasses, 87(95%CI, 86.3 to 87.4). Conclusions Parents perceive that atopic dermatitis has a negative effect on quality of life that increases with disease severity. Estimates of parents' preferences can provide physicians with insight into the value that parents place on their children's treatment and can be used to evaluate new medical therapies for atopic dermatitis. PMID:15491500
Ashworth, J; Rycroft, R J; Waddy, R S; Irvine, D
A detailed survey of skin complaints amongst 114 airline employees working in a new warehouse revealed 26 cases of skin problems which originated during the 2 1/2 year operation. A clinical survey of broadly the same population confirmed 14 cases from 98 employees as chronic irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. The work involved the reception, unpackaging, inspection, repackaging and dispatch of aircraft parts. The source of the skin irritation was not to be found in the work itself. Rather, the presence among the employees of two severe cases of non-occupational eczema, combined with the idea that incoming aircraft parts from foreign countries might be 'dirty' in some way, had caused a heightened perception of a risk of skin disease, and the frequency of hand washing had increased as a result. Over-frequent hand washing in a few employees had resulted in precisely what the warehouse staff had been trying to avoid.
Le Coz, Christophe-J; Leclere, Jean-Marie; Arnoult, Elisabeth; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Pons-Guiraud, Annick; Vigan, Martine
We report 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis of the eyelids due to mascara. Allergy occurred in women aged 17-34 years, between September 1999 and June 2001. The main ingredient responsible for allergy was shellac, which gave positive patch test reactions in 5/5 patients. This resinous substance is mainly used in cosmetics, food and industry. The exact nature of the hapten remains unknown, and its presence and level in shellac can vary with the source and the treatments applied to it. One patient was also sensitized to quaternium-22, a quaternary ammonium compound in the cosmetic. These reports underline the rôle of networks, such as REVIDAL-GERDA, in monitoring the emergence of contact allergens and disseminating such information among the medical community.
Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Congedo, Maurizio; Foti, Caterina
Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD. PMID:25973433
González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S
Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko
To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system.
Kosins, Aaron M; Hurvitz, Keith A; Evans, Gregory Rd; Wirth, Garrett A
Facial paralysis presents a significant and challenging reconstructive problem for plastic surgeons. An aesthetically pleasing and acceptable outcome requires not only good surgical skills and techniques, but also knowledge of facial nerve anatomy and an understanding of the causes of facial paralysis.The loss of the ability to move the face has both social and functional consequences for the patient. At the Facial Palsy Clinic in Edinburgh, Scotland, 22,954 patients were surveyed, and over 50% were found to have a considerable degree of psychological distress and social withdrawal as a consequence of their facial paralysis. Functionally, patients present with unilateral or bilateral loss of voluntary and nonvoluntary facial muscle movements. Signs and symptoms can include an asymmetric smile, synkinesis, epiphora or dry eye, abnormal blink, problems with speech articulation, drooling, hyperacusis, change in taste and facial pain.With respect to facial paralysis, surgeons tend to focus on the surgical, or 'hands-on', aspect. However, it is believed that an understanding of the disease process is equally (if not more) important to a successful surgical outcome. The purpose of the present review is to describe the anatomy and diagnostic patterns of the facial nerve, and the epidemiology and common causes of facial paralysis, including clinical features and diagnosis. Treatment options for paralysis are vast, and may include nerve decompression, facial reanimation surgery and botulinum toxin injection, but these are beyond the scope of the present paper.
Kunz, Miriam; Rainville, Pierre; Lautenbacher, Stefan
The operant model of chronic pain posits that nonverbal pain behavior, such as facial expressions, is sensitive to reinforcement, but experimental evidence supporting this assumption is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate in a healthy population a) whether facial pain behavior can indeed be operantly conditioned using a discriminative reinforcement schedule to increase and decrease facial pain behavior and b) to what extent these changes affect pain experience indexed by self-ratings. In the experimental group (n = 29), the participants were reinforced every time that they showed pain-indicative facial behavior (up-conditioning) or a neutral expression (down-conditioning) in response to painful heat stimulation. Once facial pain behavior was successfully up- or down-conditioned, respectively (which occurred in 72% of participants), facial pain displays and self-report ratings were assessed. In addition, a control group (n = 11) was used that was yoked to the reinforcement plans of the experimental group. During the conditioning phases, reinforcement led to significant changes in facial pain behavior in the majority of the experimental group (p < .001) but not in the yoked control group (p > .136). Fine-grained analyses of facial muscle movements revealed a similar picture. Furthermore, the decline in facial pain displays (as observed during down-conditioning) strongly predicted changes in pain ratings (R(2) = 0.329). These results suggest that a) facial pain displays are sensitive to reinforcement and b) that changes in facial pain displays can affect self-report ratings.
Kosins, Aaron M; Hurvitz, Keith A; Evans, Gregory RD; Wirth, Garrett A
Facial paralysis presents a significant and challenging reconstructive problem for plastic surgeons. An aesthetically pleasing and acceptable outcome requires not only good surgical skills and techniques, but also knowledge of facial nerve anatomy and an understanding of the causes of facial paralysis. The loss of the ability to move the face has both social and functional consequences for the patient. At the Facial Palsy Clinic in Edinburgh, Scotland, 22,954 patients were surveyed, and over 50% were found to have a considerable degree of psychological distress and social withdrawal as a consequence of their facial paralysis. Functionally, patients present with unilateral or bilateral loss of voluntary and nonvoluntary facial muscle movements. Signs and symptoms can include an asymmetric smile, synkinesis, epiphora or dry eye, abnormal blink, problems with speech articulation, drooling, hyperacusis, change in taste and facial pain. With respect to facial paralysis, surgeons tend to focus on the surgical, or ‘hands-on’, aspect. However, it is believed that an understanding of the disease process is equally (if not more) important to a successful surgical outcome. The purpose of the present review is to describe the anatomy and diagnostic patterns of the facial nerve, and the epidemiology and common causes of facial paralysis, including clinical features and diagnosis. Treatment options for paralysis are vast, and may include nerve decompression, facial reanimation surgery and botulinum toxin injection, but these are beyond the scope of the present paper. PMID:19554190
Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph
Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin  was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists . Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.
Crivelli, Carlos; Fridlund, Alan J
Based on modern theories of signal evolution and animal communication, the behavioral ecology view of facial displays (BECV) reconceives our 'facial expressions of emotion' as social tools that serve as lead signs to contingent action in social negotiation. BECV offers an externalist, functionalist view of facial displays that is not bound to Western conceptions about either expressions or emotions. It easily accommodates recent findings of diversity in facial displays, their public context-dependency, and the curious but common occurrence of solitary facial behavior. Finally, BECV restores continuity of human facial behavior research with modern functional accounts of non-human communication, and provides a non-mentalistic account of facial displays well-suited to new developments in artificial intelligence and social robotics. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Gupta, Sachin; Mends, Francine; Hagiwara, Mari; Fatterpekar, Girish; Roehm, Pamela C.
Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell's palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers. PMID:23766904
Gosnell, Amy L; Schmotzer, Brian; Nedorost, Susan T
Patients with allergic contact dermatitis to 1 antigen have been shown to be at increased risk of developing delayed type hypersensitivity reactions to additional antigens. Both environmental and genetic factors likely influence the risk of sensitization. The aim of this study was to determine whether polysensitization occurs at a higher frequency than would be expected based on chance and whether polysensitization occurs more often in subsets of patients with hand involvement and atopic dermatitis. From a database of patch test results from a single practitioner, the probability of having positive reactions to 3 or more unrelated allergens was calculated under the assumption that positive reactions are independent and compared with the observed proportion having positive reactions to 3 or more unrelated allergens. The analysis was repeated excluding patients with leg involvement as a proxy for venous insufficiency dermatitis. The proportion of patients from the polysensitized and nonpolysensitized cohorts with either hand involvement or a history of atopic dermatitis was also calculated. Polysensitization occurs more often than expected based on chance. Polysensitized patients were more likely to have hand dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis was not significantly associated with polysensitization in this analysis. Polysensitized individuals may represent a phenotype with increased genetic susceptibility to sensitization.
Gutierrez, Daniel; Schowalter, Michael K; Piliang, Melissa P; Fernandez, Anthony P
Dermatitis artefacta is a psycho-cutaneous disorder characterized by self-inflicted cutaneous injuries, often in association with an underlying psychiatric disorder or as a response to external stressors. Cutaneous lesions suggestive of dermatitis artefacta are dependent on the means of injury and thus may be morphologically variable, but typically have geometric shapes, spare hard-to-reach anatomic areas, and are present in variable stages of evolution at any specific time. Although a dermatologist may be suspicious of dermatitis artefacta in a given patient, making a definitive diagnosis is extremely challenging. Patients often clinically evade questioning and deny creating skin lesions, and histopathologic evaluation of lesional biopsies usually reveals non-specific epidermal and dermal changes and inflammation. Thus, identification of clues that lend support to a diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta would be welcomed by both clinicians and pathologists. Here we present a case of dermatitis artefacta with a unique, yet previously reported, histopathological finding of multinucleated keratinocytes within the epidermis. Although probably uncommon and dependent on the etiology of cutaneous injury, we believe this finding is important for dermatopathologists to be aware of as a potential diagnostic clue when evaluating biopsies in patients suspected to have dermatitis artefacta. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ventura, M T; Dagnello, M; Matino, M G; Di Corato, R; Giuliano, G; Tursi, A
Over the last few years, changes in cutaneous homoeostasis resulting from sports activities have been reported. In particular, alterations in sweating mechanisms, the hydrolipid barrier, and surface bacterial flora, together with exposure to atmospheric conditions and the need to use medicaments, detergents, and other topical substances, predispose subjects to allergic contact dermatitis. To evaluate the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis in a group of young people practising sports activities. Patch tests were performed to confirm the diagnosis of irritant or allergic dermatitis; in addition, the radioallergoabsorbent test (RAST) to latex was evaluated in the group studied. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by thiourams (23.3%) and mercaptobenzothiazole (20.9%) was prevalent. Other haptens, such as benzocaine and nickel, which are contained in clothing, equipment, topical medicaments, and creams used for massage, were also allergenic. In two cases, RAST positivity to latex was registered. -The results suggest that close contact with sports equipment may increase the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis. Students practising certain sports may have "professional" allergic contact dermatitis to additives used in the production of rubber.
Julián-Gónzalez, Rolando Elias; Orozco-Covarrubias, Luz; Durán-McKinster, Carola; Palacios-Lopez, Carolina; Ruiz-Maldonado, Ramon; Sáez-de-Ocariz, Marimar
The common manifestations of atopic dermatitis (AD) appear sequentially with involvement of the cheeks in infancy, flexural extremities in childhood, and hands in adulthood. Although less common clinical manifestations are well described, they have not been the subject of epidemiologic studies to describe their prevalence in specific age groups. This observational, cross-sectional, comparative study included 131 children younger than 18 of both sexes with AD who attended the clinics of the Dermatology Department of the National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City. Patients were examined to determine the presence of infrequent clinical manifestations of AD during infancy, preschool and school age, and adolescence and stratified according to sex, age, and number of clinical signs. A chi-square test was used to detect differences according to age and sex. Logistic regression analysis was also performed. The main findings according to age were genital dermatitis and papular-lichenoid dermatitis variant in infants; atopic feet, prurigo-like, nummular pattern, and erythroderma in preschool and school-aged children; and eyelid eczema and nipple dermatitis in adolescents. The risk of development of nipple dermatitis and eyelid eczema increased with age, and the development of genital dermatitis decreased with age. The knowledge of the prevalence of less common clinical manifestations of AD according to age in different populations might be helpful in diagnosing incipient cases of AD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lee, Anthony J.; Mitchem, Dorian G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Keller, Matthew C.; Zietsch, Brendan P.
For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153
Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P
For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework.
Magembe, Anna J; Davis, Mark D P; Richardson, Donna M
Patch testing rarely is confounded by localized dermatitis induced in the area being tested (usually the back). Its occurrence renders the interpretation of patch tests impossible. To review our experience of the circumstances in which this phenomenon occurs during patch testing. We retrospectively reviewed patients with this phenomenon who underwent patch testing from January 1, 2002, through June 30, 2006. Of the 3,569 patients tested, 12 (0.34% [9 men and 3 women]) had development of this phenomenon. All patients previously had recent widespread dermatitis that was suppressed temporarily with topical corticosteroids and wet dressings at the time of patch testing. The period between control of the dermatitis and the initiation of patch testing was less than 1 week for all patients. Three patients (25%) had recently discontinued therapy with systemic corticosteroids (less than 1 week earlier). In patients with irritable skin either immediately after widespread dermatitis is controlled or after the cessation of systemic corticosteroid treatment, a flare of dermatitis induced by patch testing may render patch tests unreadable and therefore uninterpretable. To avoid this confounding occurrence, a waiting period between control of widespread dermatitis and initiation of patch testing is advised.
Ioi, H; Nakata, S; Nakasima, A; Counts, Al
The purpose of this study was to assess and determine the range of the top three most-favored facial profiles for each sex from a series of varying facial convexity, and to evaluate the clinically acceptable facial profiles for Japanese adults. Questionnaire-based study. Silhouettes of average male and female profiles were constructed from the profiles of 30 Japanese males and females with normal occlusions. Chin positions were protruded or retruded by 2 degrees , 4 degrees , 6 degrees , 8 degrees and 10 degrees , respectively, from the average profile. Forty-one orthodontists and 50 dental students were asked to select the three most-favored profiles for each sex, and they were also asked to indicate whether they would seek surgical orthodontic treatment if that image represented their own profile. For males, both the orthodontists and dental students chose the average profile as the most-favored profile. For females, both the orthodontists and dental students chose a slightly more retruded chin position as the most-favored profile. Japanese raters tended to choose class II profiles as more acceptable profiles than class III profiles for both males and females. These findings suggest that Japanese patients with class III profiles tend to seek surgical orthodontic treatment more often.
Tian, Ying-li; Kanade, Takeo; Cohn, Jeffrey F.
Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such prototypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze facial expressions based on both permanent facial features (brows, eyes, mouth) and transient facial features (deepening of facial furrows) in a nearly frontal-view face image sequence. The AFA system recognizes fine-grained changes in facial expression into action units (AUs) of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), instead of a few prototypic expressions. Multistate face and facial component models are proposed for tracking and modeling the various facial features, including lips, eyes, brows, cheeks, and furrows. During tracking, detailed parametric descriptions of the facial features are extracted. With these parameters as the inputs, a group of action units (neutral expression, six upper face AUs and 10 lower face AUs) are recognized whether they occur alone or in combinations. The system has achieved average recognition rates of 96.4 percent (95.4 percent if neutral expressions are excluded) for upper face AUs and 96.7 percent (95.6 percent with neutral expressions excluded) for lower face AUs. The generalizability of the system has been tested by using independent image databases collected and FACS-coded for ground-truth by different research teams. PMID:25210210
Feng, Guo-Dong; Gao, Zhi-Qiang; Zhai, Meng-Yao; Lü, Wei; Qi, Fang; Jiang, Hong; Zha, Yang; Shen, Peng
To study the character of facial nerve palsy due to four different auris diseases including chronic otitis media, Hunt syndrome, tumor and physical or chemical factors, and to discuss the principles of the surgical management of otogenic facial nerve palsy. The clinical characters of 24 patients with otogenic facial nerve palsy because of the four different auris diseases were retrospectively analyzed, all the cases were performed surgical management from October 1991 to March 2007. Facial nerve function was evaluated with House-Brackmann (HB) grading system. The 24 patients including 10 males and 14 females were analysis, of whom 12 cases due to cholesteatoma, 3 cases due to chronic otitis media, 3 cases due to Hunt syndrome, 2 cases resulted from acute otitis media, 2 cases due to physical or chemical factors and 2 cases due to tumor. All cases were treated with operations included facial nerve decompression, lesion resection with facial nerve decompression and lesion resection without facial nerve decompression, 1 patient's facial nerve was resected because of the tumor. According to HB grade system, I degree recovery was attained in 4 cases, while II degree in 10 cases, III degree in 6 cases, IV degree in 2 cases, V degree in 2 cases and VI degree in 1 case. Removing the lesions completely was the basic factor to the surgery of otogenic facial palsy, moreover, it was important to have facial nerve decompression soon after lesion removal.
van Genderen, Michel E; Carels, Ginette; Lonnee, Edward R; Dees, Adriaan
A 33-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman (26 weeks' gestation) presented to the emergency department. She had a 2-day history of severe itching of the scalp and steadily worsening swelling of the face over the previous 12 h, which had extended to the neck. She had no difficulty breathing. The itching and swelling had developed 3 days after she had used hair dye. The patient had no history of allergic responses to hair dye or black henna tattoos. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction was made. Permanent hair dyes are the most frequently used professional hair dyes and are most commonly based on paraphenylenediamine (PPD) or related chemicals. PPD is known to be one of the most potent allergens which cause allergic contact dermatitis. After treatment with intravenous antihistamines and steroids, the facial swelling reduced and the patient had completely recovered by the following day.
Chaudhry, Obaid; Isakson, Matthew; Franklin, Adam; Maqusi, Suhair; El Amm, Christian
After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the A-frame configuration of anterior facial buttresses, recognize the importance of restoring anterior projection in frontal sinus fractures, and describe an alternative design and donor site of pericranial flaps in frontal sinus fractures. 2. Describe the symptoms and cause of pseudo-Brown syndrome, describe the anatomy and placement of a buttress-spanning plate in nasoorbitoethmoid fractures, and identify appropriate nasal support alternatives for nasoorbitoethmoid fractures. 3. Describe the benefits and disadvantages of different lower lid approaches to the orbital floor and inferior rim, identify late exophthalmos as a complication of reconstructing the orbital floor with nonporous alloplast, and select implant type and size for correction of secondary enophthalmos. 4. Describe closed reduction of low-energy zygomatic body fractures with the Gillies approach and identify situations where internal fixation may be unnecessary, identify situations where plating the inferior orbital rim may be avoided, and select fixation points for osteosynthesis of uncomplicated displaced zygomatic fractures. 5. Understand indications and complications of use for intermaxillary screw systems, understand sequencing panfacial fractures, describe the sulcular approach to mandible fractures, and describe principles and techniques of facial reconstruction after self-inflicted firearm injuries. Treating patients with facial trauma remains a core component of plastic surgery and a significant part of the value of a plastic surgeon to a health system.
Weber, Stephen M.; Downs, Brian W.; Ferraz, Mario B.J.; Wang, Tom D.; Cook, Ted A.
Objective To describe our experience with coblation technology for facial resurfacing Methods Retrospective chart review of all patients treated with coblation at our institution Results Twenty-four patients (22 female) underwent a total of 29 coblation procedures for aging face (n = 21) or acne scarring (n = 3). The perioral region was the most frequently treated aesthetic subunit (n = 14), followed by the lower eyelid (n = 7). Five patients underwent full-face coblation. Three patients underwent a second coblation procedure for aging face while a single patient with severe acne scarring underwent 3 procedures. Repeat coblation was delayed at least 5 months (mean, 9 months). Seventeen coblation procedures (59%) were performed concurrently with procedures including, but not limited to, injection treatment, rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, or combined face/necklift; no adverse events occurred. Seven procedures, including a full-face coblation, were performed in the office under local anesthesia and oral sedation without any adverse events. Mean follow-up was 6 months (range, 1 week to 24 months). No complications were observed. All patients were satisfied with the results after their final coblation treatment. Conclusions Facial coblation is a safe and effective treatment modality for facial resurfacing. PMID:18769690
Jacob, Sharon E.; McGowan, Maria; Silverberg, Nanette B.; Pelletier, Janice L.; Fonacier, Luz; Mousdicas, Nico; Powell, Doug; Scheman, Andrew
Importance Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have a dynamic relationship not yet fully understood. Investigation has been limited thus far by a paucity of data on the overlap of these disorders in pediatric patients. Objective To use data from the Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry to elucidate the associations and sensitizations among patients with concomitant AD and ACD. Design, Setting, and Participants This retrospective case review examined 1142 patch test cases of children younger than 18 years, who were registered between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015, by 84 health care providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) from across the United States. Data were gathered electronically from multidisciplinary providers within outpatient clinics throughout the United States on pediatric patients (ages 0-18 years). Exposures All participants were patch-tested to assess sensitizations to various allergens; history of AD was noted by the patch-testing providers. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcomes were sensitization rates to various patch-tested allergens. Results A total of 1142 patients were evaluated: 189 boys (34.2%) and 363 girls (65.8%) in the AD group and 198 boys (36.1%) and 350 girls (63.9%) in the non-AD group (data on gender identification were missing for 17 patients). Compared with those without AD, patch-tested patients with AD were 1.3 years younger (10.5 vs 11.8 years; P < .001) and had longer history of dermatitis (3.5 vs 1.8 years; P < .001). Patch-tested patients designated as Asian or African American were more likely to have concurrent AD (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.20-3.10; P = .008; and OR, 4.09; 95% CI, 2.70-6.20; P <.001, respectively). Patients with AD with generalized distribution were the most likely to be patch tested (OR, 4.68; 95% CI, 3.50-6.30; P < .001). Patients with AD had different reaction profiles than those without AD, with increased
Jacob, Sharon E; McGowan, Maria; Silverberg, Nanette B; Pelletier, Janice L; Fonacier, Luz; Mousdicas, Nico; Powell, Doug; Scheman, Andrew; Goldenberg, Alina
Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have a dynamic relationship not yet fully understood. Investigation has been limited thus far by a paucity of data on the overlap of these disorders in pediatric patients. To use data from the Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry to elucidate the associations and sensitizations among patients with concomitant AD and ACD. This retrospective case review examined 1142 patch test cases of children younger than 18 years, who were registered between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015, by 84 health care providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) from across the United States. Data were gathered electronically from multidisciplinary providers within outpatient clinics throughout the United States on pediatric patients (ages 0-18 years). All participants were patch-tested to assess sensitizations to various allergens; history of AD was noted by the patch-testing providers. Primary outcomes were sensitization rates to various patch-tested allergens. A total of 1142 patients were evaluated: 189 boys (34.2%) and 363 girls (65.8%) in the AD group and 198 boys (36.1%) and 350 girls (63.9%) in the non-AD group (data on gender identification were missing for 17 patients). Compared with those without AD, patch-tested patients with AD were 1.3 years younger (10.5 vs 11.8 years; P < .001) and had longer history of dermatitis (3.5 vs 1.8 years; P < .001). Patch-tested patients designated as Asian or African American were more likely to have concurrent AD (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.20-3.10; P = .008; and OR, 4.09; 95% CI, 2.70-6.20; P <.001, respectively). Patients with AD with generalized distribution were the most likely to be patch tested (OR, 4.68; 95% CI, 3.50-6.30; P < .001). Patients with AD had different reaction profiles than those without AD, with increased frequency of reactions to cocamidopropyl betaine, wool alcohol, lanolin, tixocortol pivalate, and
Kamata, Yayoi; Kimura, Utako; Matsuda, Hironori; Tengara, Suhandy; Kamo, Atsuko; Umehara, Yoshie; Iizumi, Kyoichi; Kawasaki, Hiroaki; Suga, Yasushi; Ogawa, Hideoki; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Takamori, Kenji
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin barrier dysfunction, allergic inflammation and intractable pruritus resistant to conventional antipruritic treatments, including H 1 -antihistamines. Granzymes (Gzms) are a family of serine proteases expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells that have been shown to modulate inflammation. However, the relationship between Gzms and pathology in AD remains unclear. This study assessed the correlation between plasma GzmB levels and severity of pruritus and dermatitis, in AD patients. Plasma was collected from 46 patients with AD, 24 patients with psoriasis, and 30 healthy controls. AD severity was assessed with the scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index, psoriasis severity with the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), and degree of pruritus by visual analogue scale (VAS) score. GzmA, GzmB and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma GzmB concentrations were significantly higher in patients with AD and psoriasis than in healthy controls. Correlation analyses showed that plasma GzmB concentrations positively correlated with SCORAD and serum levels of severity markers such as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and lactate dehydrogenase in AD patients. Moreover, plasma levels of GRP, an itch-related peptide, were higher in patients with AD, positively correlating with VAS score and plasma GzmB level. In addition, plasma GzmB concentration was significantly lower in the treatment group than the untreated group with AD. Meanwhile, there were no correlations among GzmB levels, VAS score and PASI score in patients with psoriasis. In contrast to the results of plasma GzmB, plasma GzmA levels were unchanged among AD, psoriasis and healthy groups, and showed no correlations with VAS score and SCORAD index in patients with AD. Plasma GzmB levels may reflect the degree of pruritus and dermatitis in
Zhao, Yi-Jiao; Xiong, Yu-Xue; Wang, Yong
In this study, the practical accuracy (PA) of optical facial scanners for facial deformity patients in oral clinic was evaluated. Ten patients with a variety of facial deformities from oral clinical were included in the study. For each patient, a three-dimensional (3D) face model was acquired, via a high-accuracy industrial "line-laser" scanner (Faro), as the reference model and two test models were obtained, via a "stereophotography" (3dMD) and a "structured light" facial scanner (FaceScan) separately. Registration based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm was executed to overlap the test models to reference models, and "3D error" as a new measurement indicator calculated by reverse engineering software (Geomagic Studio) was used to evaluate the 3D global and partial (upper, middle, and lower parts of face) PA of each facial scanner. The respective 3D accuracy of stereophotography and structured light facial scanners obtained for facial deformities was 0.58±0.11 mm and 0.57±0.07 mm. The 3D accuracy of different facial partitions was inconsistent; the middle face had the best performance. Although the PA of two facial scanners was lower than their nominal accuracy (NA), they all met the requirement for oral clinic use.
Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M
Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.
Moriya, Jun; Tanno, Yoshihiko; Sugiura, Yoshinori
This study investigated whether sensitivity to and evaluation of facial expressions varied with repeated exposure to non-prototypical facial expressions for a short presentation time. A morphed facial expression was presented for 500 ms repeatedly, and participants were required to indicate whether each facial expression was happy or angry. We manipulated the distribution of presentations of the morphed facial expressions for each facial stimulus. Some of the individuals depicted in the facial stimuli expressed anger frequently (i.e., anger-prone individuals), while the others expressed happiness frequently (i.e., happiness-prone individuals). After being exposed to the faces of anger-prone individuals, the participants became less sensitive to those individuals' angry faces. Further, after being exposed to the faces of happiness-prone individuals, the participants became less sensitive to those individuals' happy faces. We also found a relative increase in the social desirability of happiness-prone individuals after exposure to the facial stimuli.
Axelrod, Vadim; Yovel, Galit
Most studies of face identity have excluded external facial features by either removing them or covering them with a hat. However, external facial features may modify the representation of internal facial features. Here we assessed whether the representation of face identity in the fusiform face area (FFA), which has been primarily studied for internal facial features, is modified by differences in external facial features. We presented faces in which external and internal facial features were manipulated independently. Our findings show that the FFA was sensitive to differences in external facial features, but this effect was significantly larger when the external and internal features were aligned than misaligned. We conclude that the FFA generates a holistic representation in which the internal and the external facial features are integrated. These results indicate that to better understand real-life face recognition both external and internal features should be included. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ito, Kenichi; Masuda, Takahiko; Li, Liman Man Wai
Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed.
Fattah, Adel; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ron M
Facial nerve trauma is uncommon in children, and many spontaneously recover some function; nonetheless, loss of facial nerve activity leads to functional impairment of ocular and oral sphincters and nasal orifice. In many cases, the impediment posed by facial asymmetry and reduced mimetic function more significantly affects the child's psychosocial interactions. As such, reconstruction of the facial nerve affords great benefits in quality of life. The therapeutic strategy is dependent on numerous factors, including the cause of facial nerve injury, the deficit, the prognosis for recovery, and the time elapsed since the injury. The options for treatment include a diverse range of surgical techniques including static lifts and slings, nerve repairs, nerve grafts and nerve transfers, regional, and microvascular free muscle transfer. We review our strategies for addressing facial nerve injuries in children.
Sayegh, Eli T; Kaur, Gurvinder; Ivan, Michael E; Bloch, Orin; Cheung, Steven W; Parsa, Andrew T
Facial nerve neuromas are rare benign tumors that may be initially misdiagnosed as acoustic neuromas when situated near the auditory apparatus. We describe a patient with a large cystic tumor with associated trigeminal, facial, audiovestibular, and brainstem dysfunction, which was suspicious for acoustic neuroma on preoperative neuroimaging. Intraoperative investigation revealed a facial nerve neuroma located in the cerebellopontine angle and internal acoustic canal. Gross total resection of the tumor via retrosigmoid craniotomy was curative. Transection of the facial nerve necessitated facial reanimation 4 months later via hypoglossal-facial cross-anastomosis. Clinicians should recognize the natural history, diagnostic approach, and management of this unusual and mimetic lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Takita, Yoko; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji
Addition of medical ingredients to cosmetics is prohibited. However, last year some cases of illegal cosmetics containing steroids were successfully identified. We have already reported an analytical method to detect steroids in cosmetics [Bull. Natl. Inst. Health Sci, 126, 51-56 (2008)]. In this study, we initially examined whether this method could be applied for the detection of some new steroids as target chemicals. We then used this developed method to detect steroids in cosmetics obtained from manufacturers by spot checks. These manufacturers have been advertising the effectiveness of a steroid-free cream against atopic dermatitis. The results revealed that clobetasol propionate (CP) was present in this facial moisturizing cream, which was available in the market. The steroid was extracted with methanol. After ultrasonication and centrifugation, the resulting supernatant was injected into the high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with an ODS column. The separation was achieved using a mixture of acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase. The retention times of the observed peaks were in accordance with those of some preservatives and CP. The presence of CP was also confirmed by thin-layer chromatography. The concentration of CP in the cream was approximately 0.039%. CP is a steroid that has the strongest effect as compared to those of other steroids. The cream was therefore recalled for safety reasons.
Duarte-Vogel, Sandra M; Lawson, Gregory W
Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is a genetically linked syndrome that affects the neck, torso, and facial regions of C57BL/6 mice and strains with C57BL/6 background. In this study, 96 mice with skin ulcerations in 3 different regions of the body and 40 control animals without ulcerated lesions were evaluated histologically for the presence of hair-induced inflammation in the oronasal cavity. We found that 73.5% (100 of 136) of the mice had hair-induced periodontitis, glossitis, or rhinitis regardless of the presence or absence of UD. Of those mice with UD, 93.9% had hair-induced oronasal inflammation. The mandibular incisors were the most commonly affected site (64.6%), followed by the maxillary molars (20.8%), maxillary incisors (16.7%), tongue (16.7%), nasal cavity (10.4%), and mandibular molars (7.3%). In addition, oronasal hair-induced inflammation occurred in 25% (10 of 40) of the control mice. Here we show a significant association between UD and hair-induced inflammatory lesions of the oronasal cavities. PMID:21819677
Birgfeld, Craig; Neligan, Peter
The facial nerve is one of the most commonly injured cranial nerves. Once injured, the effects on form, function, and psyche are profound. We review the anatomy of the facial nerve from the brain stem to its terminal branches. We also discuss the physical exam findings of facial nerve injury at various levels. Finally, we describe various reconstructive options for reanimating the face and restoring both form and function. PMID:22451822
Steczkowska-Klucznik, Małgorzata; Kaciński, Marek
Peripheral facial paresis is one of the most common diagnosed neuropathies in adults and also in children. Many factors can trigger facial paresis and most frequent are infectious, carcinoma and demyelinisation diseases. Very important and interesting problem is an idiopathic facial paresis (Bell's palsy). Actually the main target of scientific research is to assess the etiology (infectious, genetic, immunologic) and to find the most appropriate treatment.
a facial recognition system in the city’s Oceanfront tourist area. The system has been tested and has recently been fully implemented. Senator...Kenneth W. Stolle, the Chairman of the Virginia State Crime Commission, established a Facial Recognition Technology Sub-Committee to examine the issue of... facial recognition technology. This briefing begins by defining biometrics and discussing examples of the technology. It then explains how biometrics
Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko
In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.
Passi, Gouri Rao; Arora, Kriti; Gokhale, Narendra
Recurrent facial palsy in a patient merits investigation for underlying etiology. 8-year-old boy with erythematous itchy skin lesion and recurrent facial palsy. He had a past history of aseptic meningitis and nephrocalcinosis. Raised angiotensin converting enzyme levels, interstitial lung disease on CT chest, and non caseating granulomas on skin biopsy clinched the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Multisystem involvement and recurrent lower motor facial nerve palsy is a clinical clue for sarcoidosis.
Flament, F; Bazin, R; Piot, B
Facial clinical signs and their integration are the basis of perception than others could have from ourselves, noticeably the age they imagine we are. Facial modifications in motion and their objective measurements before and after application of skin regimen are essential to go further in evaluation capacities to describe efficacy in facial dynamics. Quantification of facial modifications vis à vis gravity will allow us to answer about 'control' of facial shape in daily activities. Standardized photographs of the faces of 30 Caucasian female subjects of various ages (24-73 year) were successively taken at upright and supine positions within a short time interval. All these pictures were therefore reframed - any bias due to facial features was avoided when evaluating one single sign - for clinical quotation by trained experts of several facial signs regarding published standardized photographic scales. For all subjects, the supine position increased facial width but not height, giving a more fuller appearance to the face. More importantly, the supine position changed the severity of facial ageing features (e.g. wrinkles) compared to an upright position and whether these features were attenuated or exacerbated depended on their facial location. Supine station mostly modifies signs of the lower half of the face whereas those of the upper half appear unchanged or slightly accentuated. These changes appear much more marked in the older groups, where some deep labial folds almost vanish. These alterations decreased the perceived ages of the subjects by an average of 3.8 years. Although preliminary, this study suggests that a 90° rotation of the facial skin vis à vis gravity induces rapid rearrangements among which changes in tensional forces within and across the face, motility of interstitial free water among underlying skin tissue and/or alterations of facial Langer lines, likely play a significant role. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Fran
Hollier, Larry H; Sharabi, Safa E; Koshy, John C; Stal, Samuel
Facial fractures are common problems encountered by the plastic surgeon. Although ubiquitous in nature, their optimal treatment requires precise knowledge of the most recent evidence-based and technologically advanced recommendations. This article discusses a variety of contemporary issues regarding facial fractures, including physical and radiologic diagnosis, treatment pearls and caveats, and the role of various synthetic materials and plating technologies for optimal facial fracture fixation.
Jacobi, A; Bender, A; Hertl, M; König, A
Dermatitis artefacta belongs to a broad spectrum of factitious diseases of lesions usually self-induced by patients. Here we report a surprisingly effective induction of blisters and thermic dermatitis by excessive abuse of common deodorant sprays. We evaluated the clinical course and outcome in three patients with dermatitis artefacta induced by deodorant spray. A 12-year-old boy only admitted the abuse of deodorant spray after psychiatric intervention. Two adults (21-year-old and 37-year-old women) had borderline personality disorder and frankly reported the urge to induce pain by spraying for at least 100 s at a short distance. Bullous dermatitis was the acute presenting sign in all patients. The bullae were found on the extensor surfaces of the extremities, with a distribution of older lesions showing erosions and scarring and fresh lesions with intact bullae with a diameter of 3-15 cm. After searching for the causative agent and removal of the deodorant spray, clinical outcome showed a healing without and with scars. Cryo-damage by abuse of common deodorant sprays seems to become a popular mechanism by which an impressive bullous dermatitis can be artificially induced. Dermatologists and psychiatrist should be aware of this method of injury. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Glatz, Martin; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Kaplan, Daniel H; Kong, Heidi H; Amagai, Masayuki; Nagao, Keisuke
Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization is universal in atopic dermatitis and common in cancer patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. However, the causal relationship of dysbiosis and eczema has yet to be clarified. Herein, we demonstrate that Adam17(fl/fl)Sox9-(Cre) mice, generated to model ADAM17-deficiency in human, developed eczematous dermatitis with naturally occurring dysbiosis, similar to that observed in atopic dermatitis. Corynebacterium mastitidis, S. aureus, and Corynebacterium bovis sequentially emerged during the onset of eczematous dermatitis, and antibiotics specific for these bacterial species almost completely reversed dysbiosis and eliminated skin inflammation. Whereas S. aureus prominently drove eczema formation, C. bovis induced robust T helper 2 cell responses. Langerhans cells were required for eliciting immune responses against S. aureus inoculation. These results characterize differential contributions of dysbiotic flora during eczema formation, and highlight the microbiota-host immunity axis as a possible target for future therapeutics in eczematous dermatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marzario, Barbara; Burrows, Dianne; Skotnicki, Sandy
Contact dermatitis to personal sporting equipment in youth is poorly studied. To review the results of patch testing 6 youth to their sporting equipment in a dermatology general private practice from 2006 to 2011. A retrospective analysis of 6 youth aged 11 to 14 who were evaluated for chronic and persistent dermatitis occurring in relation to sports equipment was conducted. All patients were subjected to epicutaneous (patch) testing, which included some or all of the following: North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACGD) series, textile series, rubber series, corticosteroid series, and raw material from the patients' own personal equipment. All cases had 1 or more positive patch test reactions to an allergen within the aforementioned series, and 3 subjects tested positive to their personal equipment in raw form. Allergic contact dermatitis, not irritant, was deemed the relevant cause of chronic dermatitis in 4 of the 6 patients due to positive reactions to epicutaneous tests and/or personal equipment. The utility of testing to patients' own sporting equipment was shown to be of additional value and should be considered when patch testing for contact allergy to sporting equipment. © The Author(s) 2015.
Loranger, Camille; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis
Aircraft building exposes workers to irritant and sensitizing products. The aim of this article was to study occupational dermatoses among aircraft workers over 25 years. The files of aerospace workers referred between 1990 and 2015 were extracted from the database of the McGill University Health Centre contact dermatitis clinic. These were subdivided according to demographics, type of work, patch testing results, and final diagnosis. Of 305 workers, 58% were 40 years or younger; one third were women. Onset of dermatitis varied from 2 months to 25 years, but 120 cases (39%) occurred during the first 3 years. Fifty-one percent of the cases involved assemblers, and 27% were composite material technicians, which were overrepresented as they constitute 10% of the workforce. Of the 305 workers, 152 suffered from allergic contact dermatitis, and 96 had irritant contact dermatitis. Of those with allergic contact dermatitis, 124 reacted to epoxy-based workplace products, but only 48 had positive patch tests to commercially available epoxy allergens. More than 60% of the cases of epoxy allergy would have been missed without testing with workplace products.
Kocak, Oguzhan; Gul, Ulker
Dental personnel have high risk of occupational contact dermatitis. The aim of this study is to detect the materials which cause contact sensitization and the frequency of contact dermatitis by using patch tests with European standard series and dental screening series in dental personnel. Between August 2008 and July 2009, 461 dental personnel working in Ankara (Turkey) were examined and age, gender, previous history of dermatitis, area of the skin affected and clinical diagnosis were noted. About 198 (43%) of the dental personnel were diagnosed contact dermatitis. Sixty-five of the dental personnel accepted to be patch tested. Dental technicians, dentists and dental nurses constitute 69.2%, 24.6% and 6.2% of patch tested 65 patients, respectively. Positive reactions to at least one allergen were detected with European standard series at 20% and with dental series at 10.8% among the dental personnel. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (12.3%), acrylates (6.1%) and para-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin (4.6%). The most common acrylate was ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (3.1%). We believe our study will be helpful to dermatologists about frequency of contact dermatitis among dental personnel and allergens that cause contact sensitivity for developing new methods to protect the personnel in dentistry against sensitization.
Hellebuyck, Tom; Martel, An; Chiers, Koen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank
Devriesea agamarum is frequently isolated from dermatitis in lizards, notably from cheilitis in spiny tailed lizards (genus Uromastyx). It was the aim of the present study to assess the role of this bacterium as a causative agent of dermatitis by fulfilling Koch's postulates. First, its association with diseased lizards was demonstrated. The bacterium was isolated from several, mainly desert dwelling squamate species showing symptoms of dermatitis and/or septicaemia. The affected lizards mainly belonged to the family of the Agamidae (genera Pogona, Uromastyx, Agama) and in one case to the Iguanidae (genus Crotaphytus). Secondly, the occurrence of D. agamarum in 66 clinically healthy bearded dragons, 21 clinically healthy Uromastyx species and 40 squamate eggshells was studied. The bacterium was isolated from the oral cavity of 10 bearded dragons but from none of the healthy Uromastyx species. Hence D. agamarum was found to be part of the oral microbiota in Pogona vitticeps. Finally, bearded dragons (P. vitticeps) were experimentally inoculated with D. agamarum by direct application of a bacterial suspension on intact and abraded skin. At the scarified skin of all inoculated lizards, dermatitis was induced from which D. agamarum was re-isolated. In conclusion, D. agamarum is a facultative pathogenic bacterium, able to cause dermatitis in agamid lizards when the integrity of the skin is breached.
Dynowski, Jarosław; Wasowska-Królikowska, Krystyna; Modzelewska-Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Tomaszewska, Monika; Funkowicz, Marzena
Atopic dermatitis is a disease of multifactorial pathogenesis. of the study was to establish the most common allergens responsible for development of atopic symptoms in children with atopic dermatitis. the study complied 36 children aged 4 months - 3 years treated in the Department of Children Allergology, Gastroenterology and Nutrition because of atopic dermatitis. With each case the patient and family history of atopy was collected and basic laboratory tests were conducted (including total IgE and specific IgE using Polly Check system). eosinophilia was found in 11/36 children, elevated total IgE level in 16/36 and specific IgE were present in 14/36 patients. 6 patients proved to have sIgE for more then one allergen. The most commonly found allergens were animal hair, and food allergens. In 22 cases in spite of obvious clinical symptoms requiring therapy at hospital, all sIgE were negative for all tested allergens. although estimating sIgE is commonly used in diagnosing atopic dermatitis, it may not be sufficient to establish complete diagnosis. It seems that animal hair and food allergens are mainly responsible for development of atopic dermatitis.
van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.
Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals with ASD remained emotionally unaffected. Thus, individuals with ASD do not experience feedback from activated facial expressions as controls do. This facial feedback-impairment enhances our understanding of the social and emotional lives of individuals with ASD. PMID:18293075
Staka, Gloria; Asllani-Hoxha, Flurije; Bimbashi, Venera
The development of an anthropometric craniofacial database is a necessary multidisciplinary proposal. The aim of this study was to establish facial anthropometric norms and to investigate into sexual dimorphism in facial variables among Kosovo Albanian adults. The sample included 204 students of Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pristina. Using direct anthropometry, a series of 8 standard facial measurements was taken on each subject with digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm (Boss, Hamburg-Germany). The normative data and percentile rankings were calculated. Gender differences in facial variables were analyzed using t- test for independent samples (p<0.05). The index of sexual dimorphism (ISD) and percentage of sexual dimorphism were calculated for each facial measurement. ormative data for all facial anthropometric measurements in males were higher than in females. Male average norms compared with the female average norms differed significantly from each other (p>0.05).The highest index of sexual dimorphism (ISD) was found for the lower facial height 1.120, for which the highest percentage of sexual dimorphism, 12.01%., was also found. The lowest ISD was found for intercanthal width, 1.022, accompanied with the lowest percentage of sexual dimorphism, 2.23%. The obtained results have established the facial anthropometric norms among Kosovo Albanian adults. Sexual dimorphism has been confirmed for each facial measurement.
Scheider, Linda; Waller, Bridget M.; Oña, Leonardo; Burrows, Anne M.; Liebal, Katja
Non-human primates use various communicative means in interactions with others. While primate gestures are commonly considered to be intentionally and flexibly used signals, facial expressions are often referred to as inflexible, automatic expressions of affective internal states. To explore whether and how non-human primates use facial expressions in specific communicative interactions, we studied five species of small apes (gibbons) by employing a newly established Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS). We found that, despite individuals often being in close proximity to each other, in social (as opposed to non-social contexts) the duration of facial expressions was significantly longer when gibbons were facing another individual compared to non-facing situations. Social contexts included grooming, agonistic interactions and play, whereas non-social contexts included resting and self-grooming. Additionally, gibbons used facial expressions while facing another individual more often in social contexts than non-social contexts where facial expressions were produced regardless of the attentional state of the partner. Also, facial expressions were more likely ‘responded to’ by the partner’s facial expressions when facing another individual than non-facing. Taken together, our results indicate that gibbons use their facial expressions differentially depending on the social context and are able to use them in a directed way in communicative interactions with other conspecifics. PMID:26978660
Brown, Jeffrey A
This article reviews the definition, etiology and evaluation, and medical and neurosurgical treatment of neuropathic facial pain. A neuropathic origin for facial pain should be considered when evaluating a patient for rhinologic surgery because of complaints of facial pain. Neuropathic facial pain is caused by vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve in the prepontine cistern and is characterized by an intermittent prickling or stabbing component or a constant burning, searing pain. Medical treatment consists of anticonvulsant medication. Neurosurgical treatment may require microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Joseph, Shannon S; Joseph, Andrew W; Douglas, Raymond S; Massry, Guy G
Facial paralysis can result in serious ocular consequences. All patients with orbicularis oculi weakness in the setting of facial nerve injury should undergo a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation. The main goal of management in these patients is to protect the ocular surface and preserve visual function. Patients with expected recovery of facial nerve function may only require temporary and conservative measures to protect the ocular surface. Patients with prolonged or unlikely recovery of facial nerve function benefit from surgical rehabilitation of the periorbital complex. Current reconstructive procedures are most commonly intended to improve coverage of the eye but cannot restore blink. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) issued by the Japanese Dermatological Association (JDA), which are basically designed for dermatologists, were first prepared in 2000 and revised in 2016. The guidelines for AD of the Japanese Society of Allergology (JSA), which are basically designed for allergologists, including internists, otorhinolaryngologists, ophthalmologists, and dermatologists, were first prepared in 2009 and revised in 2014. In this article, I review the definition, pathophysiology, etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, severity classification, examination for diagnosis and severity assessment, and treatments for AD in Japan according to these two guidelines for AD (JDA and JSA). Based on the definition and diagnostic criteria for AD of the JDA, patients meeting three basic criteria, 1) pruritus, 2) typical morphology and distribution of the eczema, and 3) chronic or chronically relapsing course, are regarded as having AD. Treatment measures for AD basically consist of drug therapy, skin care, and elimination of exacerbating factors. Drugs that potently reduce AD-related inflammation in the skin are topical corticosteroids and tacrolimus. It is most important to promptly and accurately reduce inflammation related to AD by using these topical anti-inflammatory drugs. Proactive therapy refers to a treatment method in which, after inducing remission, a topical corticosteroid or tacrolimus ointment is intermittently applied to the skin in addition to skin care with moisturizers in order to maintain remission.
Gornatti-Churria, Carlos D; Crispo, Manuela; Shivaprasad, H L; Uzal, Francisco A
Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is a disease of chickens and turkeys that causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Clostridium septicum, Clostridium perfringens type A, and occasionally Clostridium sordellii are considered the main causes of GD, although Staphylococcus aureus and other aerobic bacteria may also be involved in some cases of the disease. GD has become one of the most significant diseases of commercial turkeys in the United States. Several infectious and/or environmental immunosuppressive factors can predispose to GD. Skin lesions are considered to be the main portal of entry of the microorganism(s) involved. GD is characterized by acute onset of mortality associated with gross skin and subcutaneous tissue lesions consisting of variable amounts of serosanguineous exudate together with emphysema and hemorrhages. The underlying skeletal muscle can also be involved. Ulceration of the epidermis may be also noticed in cases complicated with S. aureus. Microscopically, necrosis of the epidermis and dermis, and subcutaneous edema and emphysema are commonly observed. Gram-positive rods can be identified within the subcutis and skeletal muscles, usually associated with minimal inflammatory infiltrate. A presumptive diagnosis of GD can be made based on history, clinical signs, and gross anatomic and microscopic lesions. However, confirmation should be based on demonstration of the causative agents by culture, PCR, immunohistochemistry, and/or fluorescent antibody tests.
Brook, I; Frazier, E H; Yeager, J K
We report the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of secondarily infected poison ivy dermatitis. The study involved retrospective review of clinical and microbiology laboratory records of patients with secondarily infected poison ivy lesions. Bacterial growth was noted in 33 specimens. Aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria only were present in 18 (55%) patients, anaerobic bacteria only in seven (21%), and mixed anaerobic-aerobic bacteria in eight (24%). Forty-five isolates were recovered (1.4 per specimen): 27 aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria, and 18 strict anaerobes. The predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (13 isolates) and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (six). The predominant anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus spp. (seven isolates), pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. (four) and Fusobacterium spp. (two). Single bacterial isolates were recovered in 18 (55%) patients, eight of which were S. aureus. Nineteen of the organisms isolated from 16 (48%) patients produced the enzyme beta-lactamase. Organisms that resided in the mucous membranes close to the lesions predominated in those infections. Enteric gram-negative rods and Bacteroides fragilis group predominated in leg and buttock lesions. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium spp. were most frequently recovered from lesions of the finger, face and neck. The polymicrobial aetiology of secondarily infected poison ivy lesions, and the association of bacterial flora with the anatomical site of the lesions, are demonstrated.
Margolis, Jacob S; Abuabara, Katrina; Bilker, Warren; Hoffstad, Ole; Margolis, David J
Importance Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common illness of childhood Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the natural history of AD and determine the persistence of symptoms over time. Design A cross-sectional and cohort study. Setting A nation-wide long-term registry of children with AD. Participants Children enrolled in the Pediatric Eczema Elective Registry (PEER). Main outcome Self-reported outcome of whether or not a child’s skin was AD symptom-free for 6 months at 6 month intervals. Results 7,157 subjects were enrolled in the PEER study for a total of 22, 550 person-years. At least 2 years of follow-up was observed for 4,248 and at least 5 years of follow-up was observed for 2,416 children. Multiple demographic and exposure variables were associated with more persistent AD. At every age (i.e. 2 to 26 years), more than 80% of PEER subjects had symptoms of AD and/or were using medication to treat their AD. It was not until age 20 years that 50% of subjects had at least one lifetime six-month symptom and treatment free period. Conclusions and Relevance Based on this large longitudinal cohort study, symptoms associated with AD appear to persist well into the second decade of a child’s life and likely longer. AD is likely a life-long illness. PMID:24696036
Al-Shobaili, Hani A.; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Alnomair, Naief; Alobead, Zeiad Abdulaziz; Rasheed, Zafar
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory skin disease. The pathogenesis of AD remains unclear, but the disease results from dysfunctions of skin barrier and immune response, where both genetic and environmental factors play a key role. Recent studies demonstrate the substantial evidences that show a strong genetic association with AD. As for example, AD patients have a positive family history and have a concordance rate in twins. Moreover, several candidate genes have now been suspected that play a central role in the genetic background of AD. In last decade advanced procedures similar to genome-wide association (GWA) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) have been applied on different population and now it has been clarified that AD is significantly associated with genes of innate/adaptive immune systems, human leukocyte antigens (HLA), cytokines, chemokines, drug-metabolizing genes or various other genes. In this review, we will highlight the recent advancements in the molecular genetics of AD, especially on possible functional relevance of genetic variants discovered to date. PMID:27004062
Rather, Irfan A; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kumar, Sanjay; Lim, Jeongheui; Paek, Woon K; Park, Yong-Ha
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, recurrent, chronic inflammatory skin disease that is a cause of considerable economic and social burden. Its prevalence varies substantially among different countries with an incidence rate proclaimed to reach up to 20% of children in developed countries and continues to escalate in developing nations. This increased rate of incidence has changed the focus of research on AD toward epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. The effects of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AD remain elusive. However, evidence from different research groups show that probiotics could have positive effect on AD treatment, if any, that depend on multiple factors, such as specific probiotic strains, time of administration (onset time), duration of exposure, and dosage. However, till date we still lack strong evidence to advocate the use of probiotics in the treatment of AD, and questions remain to be answered considering its clinical use in future. Based on updated information, the processes that facilitate the development of AD and the topic of the administration of probiotics are addressed in this review.
Zaleska, Martyna; Trojacka, Ewelina; Savitskyi, Stepan; Terlikowska-Brzósko, Agnieszka; Galus, Ryszard
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by severe itching and eczematic skin lesions. In Poland from 1.5 to 2.5 million people suffer from AD. The pathophysiologic complexity and the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes cause diagnostic and therapeutic problems and this is the basis for the division of the disease into subtypes. Heterogeneity of the disease is also confirmed in the study of the genotype of the disease. In relation with AZS more than 1000 loci in chromosomes were demonstrated. The roles of certain genes and the pathophysiology of lesions caused by their polymorphism were described. Wide spectrums of AD risk factors are: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, obesity and high and low birth weight. The quality of life in patients with AD is impaired, the disease disrupts family and professional relationships. Biological medical products are an example of an individual approach to the treatment of AD. It seems, individual approach to disease and treatment can be a successive solution to the problem.
Omidvari, Shapour; Saboori, Hojjatollah; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Jowkar, Farideh; Namaz, Soha
Although acute radiation dermatitis (ARD) is a common side-effect of radiotherapy (RT), currently there is no general consensus about its prevention or treatment of choice. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether prophylactic use of topical betamethasone 0.1% can prevent ARD caused by chest wall irradiation. Fifty-one patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer and were going to receive RT, were randomly assigned to receive topical betamethasone 0.1%, petrolatum or none during RT. The frequency and severity of ARD (measured using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria) were recorded at the end of each week during RT and two weeks after its completion. Clinical outcomes were analyzed by relevant statistical methods. All patients developed some degree of ARD, the frequency and severity of which increased with time and reached the maximum at the end of the seventh week for all groups. Patients receiving betamethasone had less severe ARD than the other two groups throughout the course of the study, but this difference was significant only at the end of the third week (p = 0.027). No significant difference was observed between the petrolatum and control arms. Prophylactic and ongoing use of topical betamethasone 0.1% during chest wall RT for breast cancer delays occurrence of ARD but does not prevent it. Petrolatum has no effect on the prevention of ARD in these patients.
Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna
Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding…