Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher
While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Sixty patients with moderate to severe atrophic facial acne scars were treated with 3-4 sessions of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing at 6-week intervals. The therapeutic response to treatment was assessed at each follow up visit and then finally 6 months after the last laser session using a quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was labelled as 'excellent' if there was >50% improvement in scar appearance and texture of skin on the grading scale while 25-50% response and <25% improvement were labelled as 'good' and 'poor' response, respectively. The overall satisfaction of the patients and any adverse reactions to the treatment were also noted. Most of the patients showed a combination of different morphological types of acne scars. At the time of final assessment 6 months after the last laser session, an excellent response was observed in 26 patients (43.3%) while 15 (25%) and 19 patients (31.7%) demonstrated a good and poor response respectively. Rolling and superficial boxcar scars responded the best while pitted scars responded the least to fractional laser monotherapy. The commonest reported adverse effect was transient erythema and crusting lasting for an average of 3-4 and 4-6 days, respectively while three patients developed post-inflammatory pigmentation lasting for 8-12 weeks. Fractional laser resurfacing as monotherapy is effective in treating acne scars especially rolling and superficial boxcar scars with minimal adverse effects.
Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher
Background: While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with moderate to severe atrophic facial acne scars were treated with 3-4 sessions of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing at 6-week intervals. The therapeutic response to treatment was assessed at each follow up visit and then finally 6 months after the last laser session using a quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was labelled as ‘excellent’ if there was >50% improvement in scar appearance and texture of skin on the grading scale while 25-50% response and <25% improvement were labelled as ‘good’ and ‘poor’ response, respectively. The overall satisfaction of the patients and any adverse reactions to the treatment were also noted. Results: Most of the patients showed a combination of different morphological types of acne scars. At the time of final assessment 6 months after the last laser session, an excellent response was observed in 26 patients (43.3%) while 15 (25%) and 19 patients (31.7%) demonstrated a good and poor response respectively. Rolling and superficial boxcar scars responded the best while pitted scars responded the least to fractional laser monotherapy. The commonest reported adverse effect was transient erythema and crusting lasting for an average of 3-4 and 4-6 days, respectively while three patients developed post-inflammatory pigmentation lasting for 8-12 weeks. Conclusions: Fractional laser resurfacing as monotherapy is effective in treating acne scars especially rolling and superficial boxcar scars with minimal
Nirmal, Balakrishnan; Pai, Sathish B; Sripathi, Handattu; Rao, Raghavendra; Prabhu, Smitha; Kudur, Mohan H; Nayak, Sudhir U K
Treatment of acne scars with ablative fractional laser resurfacing has given good improvement. But, data on Indian skin are limited. A study comparing qualitative, quantitative, and subjective assessments is also lacking. Our aim was to assess the improvement of facial acne scars with Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG) 2940 nm fractional laser resurfacing and its adverse effects in 25 patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital. All 25 patients received four treatment sessions with Er:YAG fractional laser at 1-month interval. The laser parameters were kept constant for each of the four sittings in all patients. Qualitative and quantitative assessments were done using Goodman and Barron grading. Subjective assessment in percentage of improvement was also documented 1 month after each session. Photographs were taken before each treatment session and 1 month after the final session. Two unbiased dermatologists performed independent clinical assessments by comparing the photographs. The kappa statistics was used to monitor the agreement between the dermatologists and patients. Most patients (96%) showed atleast fair improvement. Rolling and superficial box scars showed higher significant improvement when compared with ice pick and deep box scars. Patient's satisfaction of improvement was higher when compared to physician's observations. No serious adverse effects were noted with exacerbation of acne lesions forming the majority. Ablative fractional photothermolysis is both effective and safe treatment for atrophic acne scars in Indian skin.Precise evaluation of acne scar treatment can be done by taking consistent digital photographs.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Acne Scars Be Removed? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can Acne ... eliminar las cicatrices del acné? Different Types of Acne Scars from acne can seem like double punishment — ...
... Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment ... face like the eyes or lips. A facial plastic surgeon has many options for treating and improving ...
Faghihi, Gita; Nouraei, Saeid; Asilian, Ali; Keyvan, Shima; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Rakhshanpour, Mehrdad; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen
Background: A number of treatments for reducing the appearance of acne scars are available, but general guidelines for optimizing acne scar treatment do not exist. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and side effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser resurfacing combined with punch elevation with fractional CO2 laser resurfacing alone in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Materials and Methods: Forty-two Iranian subjects (age range 18–55) with Fitzpatrick skin types III to IV and moderate to severe atrophic acne scars on both cheeks received randomized split-face treatments: One side received fractional CO2 laser treatment and the other received one session of punch elevation combined with two sessions of laser fractional CO2 laser treatment, separated by an interval of 1 month. Two dermatologists independently evaluated improvement in acne scars 4 and 16 weeks after the last treatment. Side effects were also recorded after each treatment. Results: The mean ± SD age of patients was 23.4 ± 2.6 years. Clinical improvement of facial acne scarring was assessed by two dermatologists blinded to treatment conditions. No significant difference in evaluation was observed 1 month after treatment (P = 0.56). Their evaluation found that fractional CO2 laser treatment combined with punch elevation had greater efficacy than that with fractional CO2 laser treatment alone, assessed 4 months after treatment (P = 0.02). Among all side effects, coagulated crust formation and pruritus at day 3 after fractional CO2 laser treatment was significant on both treatment sides (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Concurrent use of fractional laser skin resurfacing with punch elevation offers a safe and effective approach for the treatment of acne scarring. PMID:26538695
Faghihi, Gita; Poostiyan, Nazila; Asilian, Ali; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Shahbazi, Masoom; Iraji, Fariba; Fatemi Naeini, Farahnaz; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali
There is no gold standard treatment for facial acne scars, and overall, little literature exists about the combination therapy for treatment of acne scar. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fractionated microneedle radiofrequency (FMR) vs FMR combined with subcision for the treatment of atrophic acne scars. This was a randomized, split-face clinical study of 25 patients with II-IV Fitzpatrick skin types with moderate to severe facial atrophic acne scars. Initially, standard subcision by Nokor needle was performed on one side. Two weeks after subcision, FMR treatment was performed on both cheeks of each participant. Second and third FMR treatment sessions were performed within 4-week intervals. Two-blinded dermatologists performed clinical assessments using a quartile grading scale, and patients were also asked to judge their satisfaction using a visual analog scale (VAS) scoring system. The age of the patients varied from 24 to 40 years (mean: 30.08±4.94 years). Only nine patients (36%) were males. Clinical assessment by two-blinded dermatologists showed statistically significant improvement in the combination (FMR+subcision) group (P=.009). Patient satisfaction was statistically significantly better in the combination group (P=.001). A darkening of skin phototype was associated with a decrease in patient's satisfaction VAS score (P=.07). The combination of subcision and FMR is a safe and effective modality for mixed type acne scars. Additional randomized clinical study with long-term follow-up is necessary for further evaluation of FMR in combination with other procedures. The full trial protocol can be accessed in: http://www.irct.ir/searchresult.php?keyword=%20%20IRCT2016103130597N1&id=30597&number=1&field=a&prt=1&total=1&m=1. The clinical trial registration number is IRCT2016103130597N1. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lee, Sang Ju; Kang, Jin Moon; Chung, Won Soon; Kim, Young Koo; Kim, Hei Sung
Atrophic facial scars which commonly occur after inflammatory acne vulgaris can be extremely disturbing to patients both physically and psychologically. Treatment with fractional laser devices has become increasingly popular, but there has been disappointment in terms of effectiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of ablative full-face resurfacing on atrophic acne scars in the Korean population. A total of 22 patients, aged 25-44 years, underwent a new modality of resurfacing combining both short-pulsed and dual-mode erbium:yttrium-aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser. The patients had Fitzpatrick skin types ranging from III to V. Photographs were taken before and up to 6 months after treatment. Results were evaluated for the degree of clinical improvement and any adverse events. Degree of improvement was graded using a four-point scale: poor (1) = <25%, fair (2) = 25-50%, good (3) = 51-75%, and excellent (4) = >75%. Based on the blinded photo assessments by two independent reviewers, clinically and statistically significant mean improvement of 3.41 was observed (one-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, P < 0.001). Complete wound healing occurred between 6 and 9 days. Erythema occurred in all patients and lasted longer than 3 months in two patients (9.1%). Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation occurred in ten patients (45.5%) and lasted longer than 3 months in one patient (4.5%). One patient experienced mild hypopigmentation (4.5%). Mild to moderate acne flare-up occurred in five patients (22.7%). No other adverse effects were observed. A new modality of Er:YAG laser resurfacing combining short-pulsed and dual-mode Er:YAG laser is a safe and very effective treatment modality for atrophic facial acne scars in Asians with darker skin tones.
Ardeshirpour, Farhad; Shaye, David A; Hilger, Peter A
Posttraumatic soft-tissue injuries of the face are often the most lasting sequelae of facial trauma. The disfigurement of posttraumatic scarring lies in both their physical deformity and psychosocial ramifications. This review outlines a variety of techniques to improve facial scars and limit their lasting effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chathra, Namitha; Mysore, Venkataram
Introduction: The Er:YAG laser, considered to be less effective than CO2 laser in its traditional form, in its new modulated version has variable pulse technology that is claimed to be superior to the earlier versions of the laser. Aim: The aim of the study was to check efficacy and safety of the new variable square pulse (VSP) Er:YAG laser in the management of acne scar in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 80 patients (Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V) with atrophic and hypertrophic facial acne scars. Records of the patients who had undergone four treatment sessions with VSP technology equipped with Er:YAG laser were extracted. Each patient had undergone a minimum of four sessions. Fractional mode at medium laser pulse (SP) and long pulse (LP) was employed for the depressed center of the scars to stimulate neocollagenogenesis. Short laser pulse (MSP) in nonfractionated mode was used for ablating the raised scar border and hypertrophic scars. Goodman and Baron global scarring grading system was used for qualitative and quantitative assessments. Patient’s satisfaction to the treatment and observer’s assessment of improvement (based on photographs) was graded as poor (<25% improvement), fair (25–50% improvement), good (51–75% improvement), and excellent (>75% improvement). Results: At the end of the four sessions, the number of patients in grade IV postacne scarring reduced from 16 to 2 and that in grade III from 47 to 29. The mean score significantly dropped from 36.94 to 27.5. Subjective assessment revealed that 78 of 80 patients had noticed more than 25% improvement, with 50 of them showing more than 50% improvement at the end of four sessions. Eight patients perceived an excellent response and 42 reported a good response. This is notably higher than the observer’s grading, which showed an excellent response in only 2 patients and a good response in 35. Adverse effects were limited
Chathra, Namitha; Mysore, Venkataram
The Er:YAG laser, considered to be less effective than CO 2 laser in its traditional form, in its new modulated version has variable pulse technology that is claimed to be superior to the earlier versions of the laser. The aim of the study was to check efficacy and safety of the new variable square pulse (VSP) Er:YAG laser in the management of acne scar in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V. This retrospective study consisted of 80 patients (Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V) with atrophic and hypertrophic facial acne scars. Records of the patients who had undergone four treatment sessions with VSP technology equipped with Er:YAG laser were extracted. Each patient had undergone a minimum of four sessions. Fractional mode at medium laser pulse (SP) and long pulse (LP) was employed for the depressed center of the scars to stimulate neocollagenogenesis. Short laser pulse (MSP) in nonfractionated mode was used for ablating the raised scar border and hypertrophic scars. Goodman and Baron global scarring grading system was used for qualitative and quantitative assessments. Patient's satisfaction to the treatment and observer's assessment of improvement (based on photographs) was graded as poor (<25% improvement), fair (25-50% improvement), good (51-75% improvement), and excellent (>75% improvement). At the end of the four sessions, the number of patients in grade IV postacne scarring reduced from 16 to 2 and that in grade III from 47 to 29. The mean score significantly dropped from 36.94 to 27.5. Subjective assessment revealed that 78 of 80 patients had noticed more than 25% improvement, with 50 of them showing more than 50% improvement at the end of four sessions. Eight patients perceived an excellent response and 42 reported a good response. This is notably higher than the observer's grading, which showed an excellent response in only 2 patients and a good response in 35. Adverse effects were limited to prolonged erythema (two patients), prolonged crusting
Kontochristopoulos, Georgios; Platsidaki, Eftychia
Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars. It causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. The most frequently used peeling agents are salicylic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid, Jessner solution, trichloroacetic acid, and phenol. The appropriate peel is chosen based on the patient's skin type, acne activity, and type of acne scars. Combination peels minimize side effects. In acne scars, chemical peels may be combined with other procedures to achieve better clinical results. A series of chemical peels can lead to significant improvement over a short period, leading to patient satisfaction and maintenance of clinical results. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prevention and Reduction of Atrophic Acne Scars with Adapalene 0.3%/Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% Gel in Subjects with Moderate or Severe Facial Acne: Results of a 6-Month Randomized, Vehicle-Controlled Trial Using Intra-Individual Comparison.
Dréno, Brigitte; Bissonnette, Robert; Gagné-Henley, Angélique; Barankin, Benjamin; Lynde, Charles; Kerrouche, Nabil; Tan, Jerry
Very few clinical trials have investigated the effect of topical acne treatment on scarring. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of adapalene 0.3%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel (A0.3/BPO2.5) in atrophic acne scar formation in patients with acne. In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded, vehicle-controlled study, subjects with moderate or severe facial acne (Investigator's Global Assessment [IGA] score 3 or 4; ≥ 25 inflammatory lesions; ten or more atrophic acne scars) applied A0.3/BPO2.5 or vehicle daily per half face for 24 weeks. Subjects with acne requiring systemic treatment were excluded. Assessments included investigator atrophic acne scar count, Scar Global Assessment (SGA), acne lesion count, IGA, skin roughness and skin texture, subject self-assessment of clinical acne-related scars and satisfaction questionnaire, tolerability, and safety. Included subjects (n = 67) had mainly moderate acne (92.5% IGA 3); mean scores at baseline were approximately 40 acne lesions and 12 scars per half face. By week 24, the change from baseline in total scar count was - 15.5% for A0.3/BPO2.5 versus + 14.4% for vehicle (approximately 30% difference), with a mean of 9.5 scars versus 13.3 per half face, respectively (p < 0.0001). For SGA at week 24, a total of 32.9% with A0.3/BPO2.5 versus 16.4% with vehicle (p < 0.01) were clear/almost clear. Inflammatory acne lesions decreased by 86.7% for A0.3/BPO2.5 versus 57.9% for vehicle (p < 0.0001), and 64.2 versus 19.4% of subjects, respectively, were IGA clear/almost clear (p < 0.0001) at week 24. Treatment-related AEs were reported by 20.9% for A0.3/BPO2.5 versus 9% for vehicle side, most commonly skin irritation (14.9 vs. 6%, respectively). Topical A0.3/BPO2.5 prevented and reduced atrophic scar formation. Scar count increased with vehicle (+ 14.4%) but decreased with A0.3/BPO2.5 (- 15.5%) over 24 weeks. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02735421.
Rao, Babar K.; Khokher, Sairah
Acne scars can be improved with various treatments such as topical creams, chemical peels, dermal fillers, microdermabrasion, laser, and radiofrequency devices. Some of these treatments especially lasers and deep chemical peels can have significant side effects such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker skin types. Fraxelated RF Laser devices have been reported to have lower incidence of side effects in all skin phototypes. Nine patients between ages 18 and 35 of various skin phototypes were selected from a private practice and treated with a RF fraxelated device (E-matrix) for acne scars. Outcomes were measured by physician observation, subjective feedback received by patients, and comparison of before and after photographs. In this small group of patients with various skin phototypes, fraxelated radiofrequency device improved acne scars with minimal side effects and downtime.
Long-Term Clinical and Histological Effects of a Bipolar Fractional Radiofrequency System in the Treatment of Facial Atrophic Acne Scars and Acne Vulgaris in Japanese Patients: A Series of Eight Cases.
Kaminaka, Chikako; Furukawa, Fukumi; Yamamoto, Yuki
This retrospective case series was designed to compare the long-term safety and efficacy of bipolar fractional radiofrequency (FRF) therapy as a treatment for atrophic acne scars (ASs) and acne vulgaris. Few clinical and histological studies have examined the long-term utility of bipolar FRF therapy as a treatment for ASs and acne in people with darker skin. Eight Japanese patients with ASs and mild-to-severe acne on both cheeks were treated with a bipolar FRF system (eMatrix; Syneron). Five treatment sessions with the same settings (coverage rate: 10%; peak energy: 62 mJ/pin; two passes) were carried out at 1-month intervals, and the patients were followed up for at least 1 year after the final treatment. Assessments of ASs and acne severity were performed and samples were removed for histological examination. We demonstrated that mild ASs responded better than moderate and severe ASs, and at least 50% improvement in scar severity was seen in 50% of patients after the final treatment. Six patients remained disease free at 1.5 years without the use of any additional therapies. The biopsy specimens showed a marked improvement characterized by a decrease in dermal pilosebaceous units and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates with an increase in elastin content and collagen deposition in the upper dermis. Bipolar FRF treatment showed long-term effectiveness against mild ASs and acne in Asian patients and had minimal side effects.
Baran, Utku; Li, Yuandong; Choi, Woo J.; Wang, Ruikang K.
Acne is a common skin disease in society and often leads to scarring. In this paper, we demonstrate the capabilities of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in detecting specific features of acne lesion initiation and scarring on human facial skin in vivo over 30 days. Optical microangiography (OMAG) technique made it possible to image 3D tissue microvasculature changes up to 1 mm depth in vivo without the need of exogenous contrast agents in ~10 seconds. The presented results show promise to facilitate clinical trials of treatment and prognosis of acne vulgaris by detecting cutaneous microvasculature and structural changes within human skin in vivo.
Atrophic acne scarring is an unfortunate, permanent complication of acne vulgaris, which may be associated with significant psychological distress. General dermatologists are frequently presented with the challenge of evaluating and providing treatment recommendations to patients with acne scars. This article reviews a practical, step-by-step approach to evaluating the patient with atrophic acne scars. An algorithm for providing treatment options is presented, along with pitfalls to avoid. A few select procedures that may be incorporated into a general dermatology practice are reviewed in greater detail, including filler injections, skin needling, and the punch excision. PMID:21909457
Anupama, Y G; Wahab, Afthab Jameela
Post-acne facial scarring has always been a challenge to treat. It requires multiple therapeutic modalities as single modality is not hundred percent effective. Therefore, we have combined CO 2 laser resurfacing with subcision in patients with acne scars for better results. The aim is to study the effectiveness and side effects of CO 2 laser with subcision in patients with atrophic acne scars. Fifty patients were selected for the study. Baseline grading was done with Goodman and Baron grading system. Twenty-five patients were randomly selected for subcision followed by CO 2 laser and the remaining patients were selected for CO 2 laser alone. The treatment was done for four sessions at 4-week interval. Clinical photographs were obtained for evaluation. CO 2 laser with subcision showed excellent response in grade-2 and -3 acne scars. Statistically there is a significant difference between CO 2 laser following subcision and CO 2 laser alone at 5% level (p < 0.05). Both procedures were well tolerated with minimal side effects. The highly versatile CO 2 laser is useful for treating acne scars. Subcision prior to the CO 2 laser procedure showed better improvement when compared to CO 2 laser alone. Thus, in acne scars, multiple therapeutic modalities achieve better results.
Hayashi, Nobukazu; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kawashima, Makoto
There have been very few studies on the prevalence and severity of acne scars in Japanese patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of acne scars and their impact on the quality of life (QOL) in Japanese acne patients. Acne scars were classified as mini-scars (atrophic scars of ≥0.5 and <2 mm in diameter) atrophic scars (≥2 mm in diameter), and hypertrophic scars. The severity of acne and acne scars were evaluated. The background of patients and their QOL in relation to acne were assessed. Of 240 subjects, 218 (90.8%) had scars. All patients with scars had mini-scars; 61.2% and 14.2% of 240 had atrophic scars and hypertrophic scars, respectively. Severe scarring was found in patients who had experienced severe acne symptoms, although 15.0% of patients with scars had experienced only mild acne symptoms. The total Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly higher in patients with scars than in patients without scars (5.9 ± 4.4 vs 4.2 ± 4.1). Almost all the patients had small atrophic scars with a diameter of 0.5 or more and less than 2 mm, which we have termed "mini-scars". Acne scars had a negative impact on patient QOL. Early initiation of treatment is recommended to avoid acne scars. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Amini, Mohammad; Vasefi, Fartash; Valdebran, Manuel; Huang, Kevin; Zhang, Haomiao; Kemp, William; MacKinnon, Nicholas
A smartphone mobile medical application is presented, that provides analysis of the health of skin on the face using a smartphone image and cloud-based image processing techniques. The mobile application employs the use of the camera to capture a front face image of a subject, after which the captured image is spatially calibrated based on fiducial points such as position of the iris of the eye. A facial recognition algorithm is used to identify features of the human face image, to normalize the image, and to define facial regions of interest (ROI) for acne assessment. We identify acne lesions and classify them into two categories: those that are papules and those that are pustules. Automated facial acne assessment was validated by performing tests on images of 60 digital human models and 10 real human face images. The application was able to identify 92% of acne lesions within five facial ROIs. The classification accuracy for separating papules from pustules was 98%. Combined with in-app documentation of treatment, lifestyle factors, and automated facial acne assessment, the app can be used in both cosmetic and clinical dermatology. It allows users to quantitatively self-measure acne severity and treatment efficacy on an ongoing basis to help them manage their chronic facial acne.
Elcin, Gonca; Yalici-Armagan, Basak
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fractional carbon dioxide laser for the treatment of acne scars. Thirty-one participants, 15 female and 16 male, whose mean age was 34.84 ± 10.94 years, were included in this prospective study. The study took place between 2012 and 2016. Participants were evaluated with the "ECCA Grading Scale" before the first session, 3 months (short-term evaluation) and 3 years after the last session (long-term evaluation). Participants received two or three treatment sessions at 4-week intervals, with a 10,600 nm fractional carbon dioxide laser with pulse energies ranging between 100 and 160 mJ, 120 spot type, 75-100 spot/cm 2 density, and 30 W power. Self-assessments by the participants were done 3 months and 3 years after the last session. The mean ECCA score was 107.90 ± 39.38 before the first session, and 82.17 ± 36.23 at the time of short-term evaluation (p = 0.000). The grade of improvement at the short-term evaluation was as follows: no improvement, mild, moderate, and significant improvement for 7 (22.6%), 11 (35.5%), 9 (29%), and 4 (12.9%) of the participants, respectively. Regarding self-assessments, 80.6 and 61.3% of the participants rated themselves as having at least mild improvement at the short-term and the long-term follow-up periods, respectively. The results of this study suggest that fractional carbon dioxide laser is an efficient treatment option for acne scars. Furthermore, self-assessment results show that more than half of the participants still experience at least mild improvement at the end of 3 years.
Park, Seon Yong; Park, Mi Youn; Suh, Dae Hun; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Min, Seonguk; Lee, Sang Joo; Lee, Weon Ju; Lee, Mi Woo; Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kang, Hoon; Lee, Jee Bum; Ro, Young Suck; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kim, Kwang Joong; Kim, Nack In
Although acne scar is a permanent sequela that may be induced by improper management of active acne lesion, patient behavior patterns and awareness regarding acne are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify awareness and behavioral patterns concerning acne and acne scar of people having acne and differences between those with and without acne scars. The survey was performed via smartphone application for 900 participants in their second to fourth decade having current or previous acne lesions. They were further categorized into two groups based on the presence of acne scar (scar and scarless groups) with no statistical difference in demographic composition. The mean age of all participants was 24.6 ± 5.3. The scar group had a longer disease duration (4.9 years) than those of the scarless group (2.2 years). Participants in the scar group thought that acne scarring affected psychosocial aspects more negatively compared with those in the scarless group. Participants in the scarless group visited dermatology clinics earlier than those in the scar group. In the scar group, 62.1% of participants have never had their acne scars treated medically. Most (88.6%) participants from both groups believed that non-dermatologic treatment caused side effects or aggravated their acne. Participants with acne scars tended to treat their acne and acne scars improperly, which could negatively affect their daily lives. Acne scars are sequelae of acne and should be regarded as a distinct disease entity, requiring a patient's early visit to dermatologic clinics. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.
Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sinha, Surabhi; Sarkar, Rashmi
Many clinicians have used glycolic acid (GA) peels for facial acne, scarring, and hyperpigmentation, mainly in lighter skin types. Salicylic-mandelic acid combination peels (SMPs) are a newer modality, and there have been no well-controlled studies comparing them with other conventional agents. To compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of 35% GA peels and 20% salicylic-10% mandelic acid peels in active acne and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation. Forty-four patients with facial acne and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation were divided into two groups, with one receiving GA peels and the other SMPs at fortnightly intervals for six sessions. The treating physician performed objective evaluation of treatment outcomes. The patients, the treating physician, and an independent observer made subjective assessments. Side effects of both agents were also noted. Both the agents were effective, but SMPs had a higher efficacy for most active acne lesions (p<.001) and hyperpigmentation (p<.001). Side effects were also lesser with SMPs. Both the agents were effective and safe in Indian patients, with SMPs being better for active acne and post-acne hyperpigmentation.
Tan, Jerry; Kang, Sewon; Leyden, James
Although there have been few formal studies, scarring is a known bothersome companion of acne vulgaris. We performed a prospective study of subjects consulting a dermatologist for active acne to assess the frequency of acne scarring. Investigators performed a short questionnaire on all acne patients seen at their office for one consecutive 5-day work week to assess scar frequency. Additionally, the first four subjects with acne scars identified were enrolled for a second phase (scar cohort) of the study during which the investigator collected further medical history and performed a clinical evaluation and the patient completed a self-administered questionnaire about scar perceptions and impact on quality of life. A total of 1,972 subjects were evaluated by 120 investigators. Among these, 43 percent (n=843) had acne scarring. Subjects with acne scars were significantly more likely to have severe or very severe acne (P less than .01); however, 69% of the subjects with acne scars had mild or moderate acne at the time of the study visit. Risk factors correlated with increased likelihood of scarring were acne severity, time between acne onset and first effective treatment, relapsing acne, and male gender. Treatments that can completely resolve acne scars are not yet available - prevention and early treatment remain a primary strategy against scars. It is vital for clinicians who manage individuals with acne to institute effective therapy as early as possible, since treatment delay is a key modifiable risk factor for scarring.
McGoldrick, Rory Boyd; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Azzopardi, Ernest Anthony; Murison, Maxwell
The formation of a wide range of excessive scars following various skin injuries is a natural consequence of healing. Scars resulting from surgery or trauma affect approximately 100 million people per annum in the developed world and can have profound physical, aesthetic, psychological and social consequences. Thus, scar treatment is a priority for patient and physician alike. Laser treatment plays an important role in scar management with additional support from ancillary modalities. Subsequent to part 1: Burns scars, part 2 focuses on our strategies and literature review of treatment of keloid, hypertrophic, pigmented and acne scars where lasers are used in conjunction with other measures, and illustrated with case studies. PMID:29799579
Chemical peeling with both alpha and beta hydroxy acids has been used to improve acne scarring with pigmentation. Lactic acid, a mild alpha hydroxy acid, has been used in the treatment of various dermatological indications but no study is reported in acne scarring with pigmentation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of full strength pure lactic acid 92% (pH 2.0) chemical peel in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin. Seven patients, Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V, in age group 20-30 years with superficial acne scarring were enrolled in the study. Chemical peeling was done with lactic acid at an interval of 2 weeks to a maximum of four peels. Pre- and post-peel clinical photographs were taken at every session. Patients were followed every month for 3 months after the last peel to evaluate the effects. At the end of 3 months, there was definite improvement in the texture, pigmentation, and appearance of the treated skin, with lightening of scars. Significant improvement (greater than 75% clearance of lesions) occurred in one patient (14.28%), good improvement (51-75% clearance) in three patients (42.84%), moderate improvement (26-50% clearance) in two patients (28.57%), and mild improvement (1-25% clearance) in one patient (14.28%). © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
You, Hi-Jin; Kim, Deok-Woo; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Park, Seung-Ha
Acne scars are common and cause cosmetic problems. There is a multitude of treatment options for acne scars, including dermabrasion, chemical peeling, and fillers, but the advent of laser technology has greatly improved the treatment of acne scars. Although several laser systems are available, studies comparing their efficacy are limited. This study compares the results of treatments using resurfacing (carbon dioxide, CO2; erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, Er:YAG) versus fractional (nonablative fractional laser, NAFL; ablative fractional laser, AFL) lasers. A retrospective photographic analysis of 58 patients who underwent laser treatment for facial atrophic acne scars was performed. Clinical improvement was assessed by six blinded investigators with a scale graded from 0 to 10. Adverse events were also noted. Mean improvement scores of the CO2, Er:YAG, NAFL, and AFL groups were 6.0, 5.8, 2.2, and 5.2, respectively. The NAFL group showed a significantly lower score than the other groups. The mean number of treatments was significantly greater in the fractional laser groups than in the resurfacing laser groups. The resurfacing laser groups had a prolonged recovery period and high risk of complications. The Er:YAG laser caused less erythema or pigmentation compared to the CO2 laser. Although the CO2 laser, Er:YAG laser, and AFL improved the acne scars, the CO2 laser had a greater downtime. Three consecutive AFL treatments are as effective as a single treatment with resurfacing lasers, with shorter social downtime periods and less adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alexis, Andrew F; Coley, Marcelyn K; Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Luke, Janiene D; Shah, Sejal K; Argobi, Yahya A; Nodzenski, Michael; Veledar, Emir; Alam, Murad
There is a paucity of studies investigating laser resurfacing in Fitzpatrick skin phototypes (SPT) IV to VI. To assess the efficacy and safety of fractional nonablative laser resurfacing in the treatment of acne scarring in patients with SPT IV to VI. The authors conducted a randomized, investigator-blinded and rater-blinded, split-face comparative study of adults with SPT IV to VI and facial acne scars treated with 2 different density settings and the same fluence. Quantitative global scarring grading system (QGSGS) scores were significantly improved from baseline at 16 and 24 weeks (p = .0277). Improvements in QGSGS scores after higher and lower density treatments were statistically similar (p = .96). The live-blinded dermatologist, the blinded dermatologist photoraters, and the patients rated scars as being significantly more improved by visual analog scale at weeks 16 and 24 compared with baseline (p < .001) for both treatment densities. Five of 7 and 3 of 7 patients in the higher and lower density group, respectively, experienced mild or moderate hyperpigmentation as an investigator observed site reaction. The nonablative 1550-nm fractional laser is safe and efficacious in treating acne scaring in Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI. Self-limited postinflammatory hyperpigmentation was a common occurrence, especially with higher treatment densities.
Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F
Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Cachafeiro, Thais Hofmann; Escobar, Gabriela Fortes; Maldonado, Gabriela; Cestari, Tania Ferreira
The "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Postacne Scarring" was developed in English for acne scar grading, based on the number and severity of each type of scar. The aims of this study were to translate this scale into Brazilian Portuguese and verify its reliability and validity. The study followed five steps: Translation, Expert Panel, Back Translation, Approval of authors and Validation. The translated scale showed high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability, confirming its reproducibility. Therefore, it has been validated for our population and can be recommended as a reliable instrument to assess acne scarring. PMID:25184939
Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K; Arora, Pooja; Khurana, Nita
Though fractional lasers are widely used for acne scars, very little clinical or histological data based on the objective clinical assessment or the depth of penetration of lasers on in vivo facial tissue are available. The depth probably is the most important aspect that predicts the improvement in acne scars but the studies on histology have little uniformity in terms of substrate (tissue) used, processing and stains used. The variability of the laser setting (dose, pulses and density) makes comparison of the studies difficult. It is easier to compare the end results, histological depth and clinical results. We analysed all the published clinical and histological studies on fractional lasers in acne scars and analysed the data, both clinical and histological, by statistical software to decipher their significance. On statistical analysis, the depth was found to be variable with the 1550-nm lasers achieving a depth of 679 μm versus 10,600 nm (895 μm) and 2940 nm (837 μm) lasers. The mean depth of penetration (in μm) in relation to the energy used, in millijoules (mj), varies depending on the laser studied. This was statistically found to be 12.9–28.5 for Er:glass, 3–54.38 for Er:YAG and 6.28–53.66 for CO2. The subjective clinical improvement was a modest 46%. The lack of objective evaluation of clinical improvement and scar-specific assessment with the lack of appropriate in vivo studies is a case for combining conventional modalities like subcision, punch excision and needling with fractional lasers to achieve optimal results. PMID:23060702
Stoddard, Marie Alexia; Herrmann, Jennifer; Moy, Lauren; Moy, Ronald
BACKGROUND: Atrophic scarring in skin of color is a common, permanent, and distressing result of uncontrolled acne vulgaris. Ablative lasers and chemical peels are frequently used to improve the appearance of atrophic scars, primarily through the stimulation of collagen and elastin; however, these treatment modalities are associated with risks, such as dyspigmentation and hypertrophic scarring, especially in patients with darker skin.
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of topically applied synthetic epidermal growth factor (EGF) serum in reducing the appearance of atrophic acne scars in skin of color.
METHODS: A single-center clinical trial was performed on twelve healthy men and women (average age 32.5) with Fitzpatrick Type IV-V skin and evidence of facial grade II-IV atrophic acne scars. Subjects applied topical EGF serum to the full-face twice daily for 12 weeks. Scar improvement was investigated at each visit using an Investigator Global Assessment (IGA), a Goodman grade, clinical photography, and patient self-assessment.
RESULTS: Eleven subjects completed the trial. Compared to baseline, there was an improvement in mean IGA score from 3.36 (SEM = 0.15) to 2.18 (SEM = 0.33). Mean Goodman grade was reduced from 2.73 (SEM = 0.19) to 2.55 (SEM = 0.21). Of the eleven pairs of before and after photographs, nine were correctly chosen as the post-treatment image by a blind investigator. On self-assessment, 81% reported a "good" to "excellent" improvement in their scars compared to baseline (P = 0.004).
CONCLUSION: Topical EGF may improve the appearance of atrophic acne scars in skin of color. Additional, larger studies should be conducted to better characterize improvement.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(4):322-326..
Faghihi, Gita; Keyvan, Shima; Asilian, Ali; Nouraei, Saeid; Behfar, Shadi; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohamad Ali
Autologous platelet-rich plasma has recently attracted significant attention throughout the medical field for its wound-healing ability. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional laser therapy in the treatment of acne scarring. Sixteen patients (12 women and 4 men) who underwent split-face therapy were analyzed in this study. They received ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with intradermal platelet-rich plasma treatment on one half of their face and ablative fractional carbon dioxide laser with intradermal normal saline on the other half. The injections were administered immediately after laser therapy. The treatment sessions were repeated after an interval of one month. The clinical response was assessed based on patient satisfaction and the objective evaluation of serial photographs by two blinded dermatologists at baseline, 1 month after the first treatment session and 4 months after the second. The adverse effects including erythema and edema were scored by participants on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 15 and 30 after each session. Overall clinical improvement of acne scars was higher on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser treated side but the difference was not statistically significant either 1 month after the first treatment session (P = 0.15) or 4 months after the second (P = 0.23). In addition, adverse effects (erythema and edema) on the platelet-rich plasma-fractional carbon dioxide laser-treated side were more severe and of longer duration. Small sample size, absence of all skin phototypes within the study group and lack of objective methods for the evaluation of response to treatment and adverse effects were the limitations. This study demonstrated that adding platelet-rich plasma to fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment did not produce any statistically significant synergistic effects and also resulted in more severe side effects and longer downtime.
Whang, K K; Lee, M
Acne scars cannot be effectively corrected by a single treatment modality because of their widely varied depth and width. We assessed the effectiveness of staged combinations of several surgical modalities in the treatment of acne scars. Focal chemical peeling, carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, scar excision, punch grafting, and dermabrasion were used. Initially, focal chemical peeling was performed on all patients and then CO2 laser, scar excision, and punch grafts were used for deep scars. Finally, dermabrasion was done for the remaining scars. Seventy-five percent of patients showed excellent or good results. The degree of improvement increased as the follow-up periods and number of focal chemical peeling procedures increased and as the 3-staged operation progressed. A 3-staged operation is effective in the treatment of patients with various types of acne scars.
Min, Seonguk; Park, Seon Yong; Yoon, Ji Young; Suh, Dae Hun
Fractional microneedling radiofrequency (FMR) is one of the promising methods in acne treatment. Moreover, bipolar radiofrequency (BR) generates heat thereby which induces neocollagenosis. FMR may have the potential to be a safe and effective treatment for the patients both with acne and acne scar. This study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of FMR and BR in acne and acne scar treatment. Furthermore, mechanism of the FMR treatment was investigated through skin tissues obtained from subjects. Twenty subjects with mild-to-moderate acne and acne scars were treated in a split-face manner with FMR and BR. Two sessions of treatment was done 4 weeks apart in a total 12-week prospective single-blind, randomized clinical trial. Clinical assessment and sebum measurement were carried out for the evaluation of efficacy and safety. Skin tissues were acquired for investigation of molecular changes. FMR was more effective for acne scar especially in icepick and boxcar scar compared to BR. Both inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased by 80 and 65 % in the FMR-treated side at the final visit of 12 weeks, respectively. FMR treatment resulted in significant reduction of sebum excretion. Both treatments showed no severe adverse effects other than erythema. The FMR showed superior efficacy in acne and acne scar compared with BR. Increased expression of TGFβ and collagen I and decreased expression of NF-κB, IL-8 are suggested to involve in the improvement of acne scar and acne lesion by FMR.
Acne scars can cause emotional and psychosocial disturbance to the patient. Various modalities have been used for the treatment of acne scars like punch excision, subcision, peels, microdermabrasion, unfractionated and fractioned lasers. The latest in the treatment armamentarium is microneedling. Acne scars commonly coexist with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. A combination of microneedling and glycolic acid (GA) peels was found to give excellent results in the treatment of such scars. The aim was to study the efficacy of a combination of microneedling with glycolic peel for the treatment of acne scars in pigmented skin. Thirty patients in the age group of 20-40 years with atrophic box type or rolling scars with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation were chosen for the study. Two groups were made. The first group comprised of 30 patients in whom only microneedling was performed once in 6 weeks for five sessions. In the second group of 30 patients, a combination of microneedling and 35% GA peels was carried out. Patients from both groups were evaluated on the basis of Echelle d'Evaluation clinique des Cicatrices d'acné classification. Based on the objective scoring and its statistical analysis, there was significant improvement in superficial and moderately deep scars (grade 1-3). There was also improvement in skin texture, reduction in postacne pigmentation in the second group. Microneedling is a simple, inexpensive office procedure with no downtime. It is safe in Indian skin (skin types III-IV). The combined sequential treatment with GA peel caused a significant improvement in the acne scars without increasing morbidity. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lu, Lingyi; Lai, Huiying; Pan, Zhanyan; Hu, Tingting; Hou, Xiaoxiao; Cao, Ke; Ju, Qiang
ABSTRACT Objective: This study was designed to study the clinical and histopathological characteristics of patients with the scarring folliculitis type acne inversa in Chinese population. Methods: A total of 21 patients with acne inversa and 6 controls without known dermatological disease were recruited from outpatient department of dermatology and orthopedic surgery. Two-millimeter punch biopsies were taken from 8 patients with acne inversa and 6 controls, fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with haematoxylin and eosin prior to histopathological analysis. Results: There were 12 patients (57.14%) belonging to the scarring folliculitis type presented with double comedones, papules, nodules, depressed scars, and were mainly Hurley stage I (66.67%). Many of the scarring folliculitis type were smokers (58.33%), some had a history of occupational exposure (41.67%) and some were overweight (50%), the mean BMI of which is 25.18±3.16 kg/m2. Histopathological changes such as perifollicular inflammation can be observed in scarring folliculitis type of acne inversa and controls as well. However, epidermal hyperplasia, follicular hyperplasia, sebaceous gland disappearance, destruction of hair follicle and sebaceous gland, collagen hyperplasia, perivascular inflammation, granulomatous inflammation, Micro thrombus were only seen in scarring folliculitis type. The mean surface area in patients (8073.36±15798.43 μm2) was smaller than that in controls (302059.08±502813.78 μm2), with statistically significant difference. (P = 0.024). Conclusion: The scarring folliculitis type in acne inversa in Chinese population could be characterized by depressed scars, double-ended comedones, epidermal cysts and had high proportion of smokers, or occupational exposure with lower Hurley stage, as well as diminished sebaceous gland. Further studies are needed to clarify the relations between the clinical subtypes of acne inversa and their corresponding genetypes. PMID
Magnani, Lauren Rose; Schweiger, Eric S
This review examines the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 lasers for the treatment of atrophic scarring secondary to acne vulgaris. We reviewed 20 papers published between 2008 and 2013 that conducted clinical studies using fractional CO2 lasers to treat atrophic scarring. We discuss the prevalence and pathogenesis of acne scarring, as well as the laser mechanism. The histologic findings are included to highlight the ability of these lasers to induce the collagen reorganization and formation that improves scar appearance. We considered the number of treatments and different laser settings to determine which methods achieve optimal outcomes. We noted unique treatment regimens that yielded superior results. An overview of adverse effects is included to identify the most common ones. We concluded that more studies need to be done using uniform treatment parameters and reporting in order to establish which fractional CO2 laser treatment approaches allow for the greatest scar improvement.
Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun
The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p -values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion.
Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun
Background The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. Objective To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Methods Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Results Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p-values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. Conclusion In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion. PMID:27746642
Zhou, Bing-Rong; Zhang, Ting; Bin Jameel, Afzaal Ahmed; Xu, Yang; Xu, Yan; Guo, Shi-Lei; Wang, Ying; Permatasari, Felicia; Luo, Dan
To evaluate the effects of conditioned medium of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC-CM) on efficacy and side effects after fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing (FxCR) when treating subjects with facial atrophic acne scars or with skin rejuvenation needs. Twenty-two subjects were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups. Nine subjects were included in skin rejuvenation group and thirteen subjects were included in acne scar group, and all subjects underwent three sessions of FxCR. ADSC-CM was applied on FxCR site of one randomly selected face side. Evaluations were done at baseline, 1 week after first treatment, and 1 month after each treatment. The outcome assessments included subjective satisfaction scale; blinded clinical assessment; and the biophysical parameters of roughness, elasticity, skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and the erythema and melanin index. Biopsies taken from one subject in skin rejuvenation group were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and Gomori's aldehyde fuchsin staining. ADSC-CM combined with FxCR increased subject satisfaction, elasticity, skin hydration, and skin elasticity and decreased TEWL, roughness, and the melanin index in both acne scars and skin rejuvenation groups. Histologic analysis showed that ADSC-CM increased dermal collagen density, elastin density, and arranged them in order. ADSC-CM with FxCR is a good combination therapy for treating atrophic acne scars and skin rejuvenation. JSPH2012-082 - Registered 14 Feb 2012.
Phothong, Weeranut; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Sathaworawong, Angkana; Manuskiatti, Woraphong
Bipolar fractional radiofrequency (FRF) device was firstly FDA-approved for treating atrophic acne scar in 2008 through the process of dermal coagulation and minimal epidermal ablation. The average energy at 60 mJ/pin was widely used to treat atrophic acne scars. However, the higher energy was delivered, the deeper ablation and coagulation were found. At present, the new generation of a device with bipolar FRF technology with electrode-pin tip was developed to maximize ability to deliver energy up to 100 mJ/pin. The objective of the study was to explore and compare the efficacy of utilizing high energy (100 mJ/pin) and moderate energy (60 mJ/pin) of bipolar fractional radiofrequency in treatment of atrophic acne scar in Asians. This is a split-face, double-blinded, randomized control trial, pilot study by using parallel group design technique. Thirty healthy subjects with Fitzpatrick skin phototype III-IV diagnosed as atrophic acne scares were enrolled. All subjects received four monthly sessions of bipolar FRF treatment. Left and right facial sides of individual patients were randomly assigned for different energy (high energy at 100 mJ/pin versus moderate energy at 60 mJ/pin). Acne scars improvement was blinded graded by dermatologist using global acne scarring score (GASS) which was subjectively evaluated at baseline, 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. Objective scar analysis was also done using UVA-light video camera to measure scar volume, skin smoothness, and wrinkle at baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up after the last treatment. Side effects including pain, erythema, swelling, and crusting were also recorded. Thirty subjects completed the study with full 4-treatment course. The mean GASS of high energy side and moderate energy side was significantly reduced at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up visits. At 1 month follow-visit, high energy side demonstrated significant improvement compared with moderate energy side (p = 0.03). Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation
Hoogewerf, Cornelis J; van Baar, Margriet E; Middelkoop, Esther; van Loey, Nancy E
The face is central to our identity and provides our most expressive means of communication. Currently, the role of facial scarring in relation to self-esteem is unclear and the value of self-reported scar assessment is insufficiently understood. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to assess the extent of agreement between patients' ratings and observers' ratings of facial scar characteristics; and (2) to examine if patients' and observers' scar characteristics ratings, or the differences, are associated with the patients' self-esteem. A prospective study was conducted including patients with facial burns. Patients completed the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale 3 months post-burn. Ninety-four subjects were included, 76 (81%) men and mean percentage TBSA burned was 12.4 (SD 10.4; range 1-50). Subject's and observer's assessment were significantly positively correlated and were identical in 53% of the cases. Subjects' assessments and discrepancy scores on the scar characteristic surface roughness were associated with self-esteem in multiple regression analysis. The majority of the patients scored the quality of facial scars in a similar way as the professionals. Furthermore, facial scarring appeared only moderately associated with self-esteem. However, our study suggests that using both patients' and professionals' scar assessments provides more useful information regarding the patients' well-being relative to focussing on the separate assessments only. In particular a discrepancy between the patients' and professionals' view on surface roughness might be an early indication of psychological difficulties and a call for further clinical attention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Gao, Yunqing; Liu, Songhao; Zhang, You; Liu, T. C.
Since 1989, we have cured 367 persons of facial acne of different course by using direct irradiation of high-power CO2 laser combing with operative therapy of low-power CO2 laser. The cure rate is 100 percent. In this paper, we stated the therapeutic approach. It was shown that this therapeutic approach is simple and effective, and its recurrence rate is zero. There are no cicatrices after healing. It is easy to accept it, and is worthy of extension.
Tierney, Emily P
Fractional photothermolysis has been reported in the literature to improve pigmentary and textural changes associated with acne scarring. To review the literature for the treatment of acne scarring using nonablative fractional laser (NAFL) and ablative fractional laser (AFL) resurfacing. Review of the Medline literature evaluating NAFL and AFL for acne scarring. NAFL and AFL are safe and effective treatments for acne scarring. It is likely that the controlled, limited dermal heating of fractional resurfacing initiates a cascade of events in which normalization of the collagenesis-collagenolysis cycle occurs. We present the results of a patient treated using a novel dual-spot-size AFL device. Three months after the final treatment, the patient reported 75% improvement in acne scarring and 63% overall improvement in photoaging. Fractionated resurfacing for the treatment of acne scarring is associated with lesser risks of side effects of prolonged erythema and risks of delayed-onset dyspigmentation and scarring which complicate traditional ablative laser resurfacing approaches. We present herein preliminary data suggesting that a dual-spot-size AFL device presents novel advantages of improving texture and pigmentation in acne scarring and photoaging. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.
Chan, Nicola P Y; Ho, Stephanie G Y; Yeung, Chi K; Shek, Samantha Y N; Chan, Henry H
Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) is a new modality for photorejuvenation and acne scars which combines carbon dioxide (CO₂) laser ablation with fractional photothermolysis. The objective is to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of a new fractional CO₂ ablative device (Fraxel Re:pair) for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians. Nine patients underwent one full-face treatment. The energy levels ranged from 30-70 mJ with coverage between 30% and 45%. Improvement in skin texture, laxity, wrinkles, enlarged pores, overall pigmentation irregularity, and adverse effects were assessed up to 6 months post-treatment. Standardized photographs using the Canfield Visia CR system® were assessed by two independent observers. Subjective improvement was assessed by patient questionnaires. Nine Chinese patients (skin types III and IV, mean age 44.8) were included. Statistically significant improvements were seen for skin texture, skin laxity, wrinkles, enlarged pores, and acne scars. The post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation rate was 55.5% and 11.1% at 1 and 6 months post-treatment, respectively. Eighty-six percent of patients were overall satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment. Ablative fractional CO₂ laser resurfacing was overall safe and effective for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians. However, in view of the high post-inflammatory rate and the statistically significant but only mild to moderate improvement after a single treatment as observed in this study, there is a need to review the current role of fractional ablative CO₂ laser treatment as compared to fractional non-ablative for skin rejuvenation and acne scar treatment in Asians. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Kim, B Y; Choi, J W; Park, K C; Youn, S W
Enlarged facial pores have been esthetic problems and have become a matter of cosmetic concern. Several factors are supposed to be related to the enlargement of facial pores, although scientific evaluations were not performed yet. To assess the correlation between facial pores and possible relating factors such as age, gender, sebum secretion, skin elasticity, and the presence of acne, using objective bioengineering instruments. Sixty volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, participated in this study. Various parameters of facial pores were assessed using the Robo Skin Analyzer. The facial sebum secretion and skin elasticity were measured using the Sebumeter and the Cutometer, respectively. These data were compared and correlated to examine the possible relationship between facial pores and age, sebum secretion and skin elasticity, according to gender and the presence of acne. Male gender and the existence of acne were correlated with higher number of facial pores. Sebum secretion levels showed positive correlation with facial pores. The R7 parameter of skin elasticity was negatively correlated with facial pores, suggesting increased facial pores with decreased skin elasticity. However, the age and the severity of acne did not show a definite relationship with facial pores. Male, increased sebum and decreased skin elasticity were mostly correlated with facial pore development. Further studies on population with various demographic profiles and more severe acne may be helpful to elucidate the potential effect of aging and acne severity on facial pores. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Kang, Liyang; Liu, Jiaoyan; An, Rujun; Huang, Jinhua; Huang, Hui; Yi, Qifeng
To understand the influential factors for depression in patients with facial acne vulgaris and to provide scientific evidence for a comprehensive and systematic treatment for acne vulgaris. A total of 287 outpatients with facial acne vulgaris, who visited the dermatology of the Third Xiangya Hospital, were surveyed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The data was collected by Epidata software (version 3.1) and processed by SPSS software package (version 18.0). The influential factors for the depression of outpatients with facial acne vulgaris were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression. A total of 181 patients with facial acne vulgaris showed various degrees of depression (BDI score≥5) and the rate was 63.1%. The symptoms for depression included sad and pessimistic attitude as well as the decreased attention to others (social withdrawal). The influential factors for mild, moderate or severe depression were gender, the degree and the course of acne. Female patients were more likely to suffer mild, moderate or severe depression (OR=3.62, 2.63, respectively); the risk of depression in acne patients was increased with the increase in degree of the severity (OR=2.31, 4.51, respectively); the patients with the acne course more than a year were more likely to show mild depression than those with a course less than a year (OR=4.30, 7.44, respectively). The patients with acne course more than 3 years were more likely to show moderate or severe depression compared to those with a course less than a year (OR=3.60). Most of facial acne patients show a different degree of depression. The acne course is longer in female patients. The more severe the acne vulgaris is, the more suffering of the depression is. Psychological care should be considered to improve the treatment and quality of life.
Shi, Chao; Zhu, Jianyu; Yang, Degang
ABSTRACT Most keloids are clinically observed as solid nodules or claw-like extensions. However, they appear hypoechoic on ultrasound images and are therefore easily confused with liquid features such as blood or vessels. The pathological manifestations of typical keloids also include prominent, thick blood vessels. The existing classification of scars fails to reflect the natural history of keloids. The outer characteristics of a typical keloid include bright red hyperplasia with abundant vessels, suggesting the importance of vascular components in the process of scar formation and prompting consideration of the role of inflammation in the development of granular hyperplasia. Additionally, we further considered the potential effectiveness of oral isotretinoin for severe keloids secondary to severe acne. We also explored different principles and applications related to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), pulsed dye laser (PDL), and CO2 laser treatments for scars. PMID:29707102
Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Faghihi, Gita; Jaffary, Fariba; Haftbaradaran, Elaheh; Hoseini, Sayed Mohsen; Mazaheri, Nafiseh
Acne is a very common skin disease in which scars are seen in 95% of the patients. Although numerous treatments have been recommended, researchers are still searching for a single modality to treat the complication due to its variety in shape and depth. We compared the effects of fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser alone and in combination with subcision in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. This clinical trial study was performed in Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center (Isfahan, Iran) during 2011-2012. Eligible patients with atrophic acne scars were treated with fractional CO 2 laser alone (five sessions with 3-week interval) on the right side of the face and fractional CO 2 laser plus subcision (one session using both with four sessions of fractional CO 2 laser, with 3-week interval) on the left side. The subjects were visited 1, 2, and 6 months after the treatment. Patient satisfaction rate was analyzed using SPSS 20 software. The average of recovery rate was 54.7% using the combination method and 43.0% using laser alone ( P < 0.001). The mean patient satisfaction was significantly higher with the combination method than laser alone (6.6 ± 1.2 vs. 5.2 ± 1.8; P < 0.001). Bruising was only seen with the combination method and lasted for 1 week in 57.0% and for 2 weeks in 43.0%. Erythema was seen in both methods. Postinflammatory pigmentation and hyperpigmentation were associated with combination method. No persistent side effects were seen after 6 months. Using a combination of subcision and laser had suitable results regarding scar recovery and satisfaction rate.
Dalpizzol, Mariana; Weber, Magda B; Mattiazzi, Anna Paula F; Manzoni, Ana Paula D
Many therapies involving varying degrees of complexity have been used to treat acne scars, but none is considered the gold standard treatment. A comparative evaluation of 88% phenol and 90% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) applied using the chemical reconstruction of skin scars (CROSS) technique. A nonrandomized, single-blinded self-controlled clinical trial was conducted among patients with ice pick-type and boxcar-type atrophic acne scars. Using 88% phenol on the left hemiface and 90% TCA on the right hemiface was adopted as the standard practice of the CROSS technique. The dermatological quality of life index (DLQI) questionnaire, acne scar grading scale Échelle d´Evaluation Clinique des Cicatrices d'Acne (ECCA), and evaluation of improvement were performed pretreatment and post-treatment. Regarding ECCA, significant differences were found in pretreatment and post-treatment (p < .001). Regarding tolerance to pain, it was found that the discomfort felt with 90% TCA was significantly less than that felt with 88% phenol (p = .020). Regarding the quality of life measured with the DLQI, the results showed that the mean score in post-treatment assessment was significantly lower than that in the pretreatment assessment (p < .05). Hypochromia and enlargement scar were only seen after the use of 90% TCA. This study confirmed the efficacy of both TCA and phenol for treating such scars, with less severe complications from the use of phenol.
Bianchi, Francesca A; Roccia, Fabio; Fiorini, Paola; Berrone, Sid
In this prospective study, we used the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) to evaluate the outcome of the healing process of posttraumatic and surgical facial scars that were treated with self-drying silicone gel, by both the patient and the observer. In our division, the application of base cream and massage represents the standard management of facial scars after suture removal. In the current study, 15 patients (7 men and 8 women) with facial scars were treated with self-drying silicone gel that was applied without massage, and 15 patients (8 men and 7 women) were treated with base cream and massage. Both groups underwent a clinical evaluation of facial scars by POSAS at the time of suture removal (T0) and after 2 months of treatment (T1). The patient rated scar pain, itch, color, stiffness, thickness, and surface (Patient Scale), and the observer rated scar vascularity, pigmentation, thickness, relief, pliability, and surface area (Observer Scale [OS]). The Patient Scale reported the greatest improvement in the items color, stiffness, and thickness. Itch was the only item that worsened in the group self-drying silicone gel. The OS primarily reported an improvement in the items vascularization, pigmentation, and pliability. The only item in the OS that underwent no change from T0 to T1 was surface area. The POSAS revealed satisfactory healing of posttraumatic and surgical facial scars that were treated with self-drying silicone gel.
Hasson, Ariel; Romero, William A
The treatment of atrophic scars is difficult and dermal filler materials provide a simple alternative with immediate results. Esthélis® is an injectable non-animal crosslinked hyaluronic acid of Swiss origin characterized by a polydense cohesive matrix (CPM®) which produces a gel of uniform consistency with better biointegration to the tissues and a longer duration. To evaluate Esthélis in the treatment of atrophic scars. Twelve patients aged 18-56 years with facial atrophic scars caused by acne vulgaris, dog bite, piercing, basal cell carcinoma and leishmaniasis were treated with Esthélis. The injection technique was linear threading, serial puncture or a combination of both. Clinical efficacy was assessed independently by the authors and by patients immediately, one week and one month after the injection. Adverse events were registered. Authors described the results as moderate (27%), good (57%) and excellent (17%), immediately, one week and one month after the injection. Patients evaluated the cosmetic improvement as good (42%) or excellent (58%) one month after the treatment. Pain during the injection was described as slight or moderate. Only mild erythema was observed immediately after injection, which spontaneously resolved within few hours. Esthélis showed good or excellent results in most patients with atrophic scars, and these were perceived as even better when patients evaluated the cosmetic improvement. The best results were observed in patients with more deforming scars such as surgical scars or trauma.
Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko
To clarify the relationship between major cutaneous microorganisms (Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus and Malassezia spp.) and acne vulgaris (acne), we examined the microbiota quantitatively in the follicular contents of inflammatory acne and on the facial skin of patients with acne. Fifteen Japanese untreated acne outpatients were studied. The follicular contents from inflammatory acne lesions of the face were collected using a comedo extractor. The skin surface samples were obtained by the swab method from 10 cm(2) of facial skin. The microbiota was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. The microbiota in follicular contents was similar to that on the skin surface, namely, there were large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. Moreover, the number of Malassezia spp. on the skin surface was correlated with that of inflammatory acne and that in follicular contents. This study clarified that there are large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. in follicular contents. These results suggest the possibility that not only Propionibacterium acnes but also other cutaneous resident microorganisms are related to acne. Particularly, we considered that Malassezia spp. is closely related. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.
... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...
Eltayeb, Amel Salah; Ahmad, Abdelnasir Gafar; Elbeshir, Elnour Ibrahim
Facial necrotizing fasciitis is extremely rare. Most of the cases reported in literature are related to dental, sinus, tonsillar and salivary glands causes, but rarely as consequence of skin infection. We report a unique case of lower lip cellulitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as angioedema and subsequently progressed into lower lip necrotizing fasciitis. This is a case report of necrotizing fasciitis involving the lower lip as a consequence of infected skin acne in a 19 year old black female. The patient had been diagnosed earlier as a case of angioedema by a physician and treated accordingly. She was mildly anemic, hyponatremic and hypokalemic. Treatment was started immediately by incision, drainage and full debridement of the whole necrotic tissue. Triple antibiotic therapy was administered and daily irrigation and dressing were performed until full recovery. Complete healing occurred within a month by secondary intention. This case demonstrates the misdiagnosis of a lip swelling leading to the development of labiofacial necrotizing fasciitis, a serious and life threatening condition. Lip angioedema is a common condition; however, lip fasciitis is rare. A broad differential diagnosis in case of lower lip swelling is essential to avoid inappropriate treatment delay.
Schomacker, Kevin T.; Basilavecchio, Lisa D.; Plugis, Jessica M.; Bhawalkar, Jayant D.
Background and Objectives Fractional treatment with a dual wavelength 1,064 and 532 nm picosecond‐domain laser, delivering a 10 × 10 array of highly focused beamlets via a holographic optic, was investigated for the treatment of acne scars. Study Twenty‐seven of 31 subjects completed the study, 19 were treated using 1,064 nm and 8 were treated at 532 nm, all having four‐monthly treatments. Blinded evaluation of digital images by three physician evaluators comparing pre‐ and 3‐month post‐treatment images measured efficacy using a 10‐point scale. Subject self‐assessment of treatment effects were also recorded. Safety was measured by recording subject discomfort scores and adverse effects. Results Blinded reviewers correctly identified the baseline image in 61 of the 81 image sets (75%), and baseline acne scar scores were 1.8 ± 0.7 and 1.8 ± 0.5 for the 1,064 and 532 nm cohorts, and decreased to 1.1 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001) and 1.1 ± 0.0 (P < 0.005), respectively. Post‐treatment erythema, mild edema, and petechiae were the only side effects noted. Conclusion The 1,064 and 532 nm picosecond‐domain laser incorporating a 10 × 10 holographic beam‐splitting handpiece was found to be safe and effective for the treatment of facial acne scars. The treatments were well tolerated and the subjects experienced little to no downtime. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:796–802, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:28960395
Zhao, Donghong; Ma, Xinrong; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Lingfeng; Zhu, Baozhen
This study explored the feasibility and clinical efficacy of expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma. From March 2000 to April 2011, 13 cases of facial cicatrices left by radiotherapy of hemangioma have been treated with implantation surgery of facial skin dilator under local anesthesia. After water flood expansion for 1-2 months, resection of facial scar was performed, and wound repairing with expansion flap transfer was done. Thirteen patients were followed up from 5 months to 3 years. All patients tolerated flap transfer well; no contracture occurred during the facial expansion flap transfer. The incision scar was not obvious, and its color and texture were identical to surrounding skin. In conclusion, the use of expanded flap transfer to repair the facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma is advantageous due to its simplicity, flexibility, and large area of repairing. This method does not affect the subsequent facial appearance.
Kuhn-Régnier, Sarah; Mangana, Joanna; Kerl, Katrin; Kamarachev, Jivko; French, Lars E; Cozzio, Antonio; Navarini, Alexander A
Solid facial edema (SFE) is a rare complication of acne vulgaris. To examine the clinical features of acne patients with solid facial edema, and to give an overview on the outcome of previous topical and systemic treatments in the cases so far published. We report two cases from Switzerland, both young men with initially papulopustular acne resistant to topical retinoids. Both cases responded to oral isotretinoin, in one case combined with oral steroids. Our cases show a strikingly similar clinical appearance to the cases described by Connelly and Winkelmann in 1985 (Connelly MG, Winkelmann RK. Solid facial edema as a complication of acne vulgaris. Arch Dermatol. 1985;121(1):87), as well as to cases of Morbihan's disease that occurs as a rare complication of rosacea. Even 30 years after, the cause of the edema remains unknown. In two of the original four cases, a potential triggering factor was identified such as facial trauma or insect bites; however, our two patients did not report such occurrencies. The rare cases of solid facial edema in both acne and rosacea might hold the key to understanding the specific inflammatory pattern that creates both persisting inflammation and disturbed fluid homeostasis which can occur as a slightly different presentation in dermatomyositis, angioedema, Heerfordt's syndrome and other conditions.
Shen, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jiachi; Yan, Chenjun; Zhou, Hong
In this paper, we present a new automatic diagnosis method for facial acne vulgaris which is based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). To overcome the shortcomings of previous methods which were the inability to classify enough types of acne vulgaris. The core of our method is to extract features of images based on CNNs and achieve classification by classifier. A binary-classifier of skin-and-non-skin is used to detect skin area and a seven-classifier is used to achieve the classification task of facial acne vulgaris and healthy skin. In the experiments, we compare the effectiveness of our CNN and the VGG16 neural network which is pre-trained on the ImageNet data set. We use a ROC curve to evaluate the performance of binary-classifier and use a normalized confusion matrix to evaluate the performance of seven-classifier. The results of our experiments show that the pre-trained VGG16 neural network is effective in extracting features from facial acne vulgaris images. And the features are very useful for the follow-up classifiers. Finally, we try applying the classifiers both based on the pre-trained VGG16 neural network to assist doctors in facial acne vulgaris diagnosis.
Politi, Yael; Levi, Assi; Lapidoth, Moshe
Acne scars are a common result of in ammatory acne, affecting many patients worldwide. Among which, atrophic scars are the most prevalent form, presenting as dermal depressions caused by inflammatory degeneration of dermal collagen. Mid-infrared laser skin interaction is characterized by its modest absorption in water and nite penetration to the mid-dermis. Since collagen is a desirable laser target, 1540-nm wavelength is amenable for collagen remodeling within the depressed area of atrophic scars. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of acne scars treatment using an integrated cooling-vacuum-assisted 1540 nm Erbium: Glass Laser. This interventional prospective study included 25 volunteers (10 men, 15 women) with post acne atrophic scars. Patients were treated with a mid-infrared non-fractional 1540 nm Er:Glass laser (Alma Lasers Ltd. Caesarea, Israel) with integrat- ed cooling- vacuum assisted technology. Acne scars were exposed to 3 stacked laser pulses (400-600 mJ/pulse, 4 mm spot size, frequency of 3 Hz). Patients underwent 3-6 treatment sessions with a 2-3 week interval and were followed-up 1 month and 3 months after the last treatment. Clinical photographs were taken by high resolution digital camera before and after treatment. Clinical evaluation was performed by two independent dermatologists and results were graded on a scale of 0 (exacerbation) to 4 (76%-100% improvement). Patients' and physicians' satisfaction were also recorded (on a 1-5 scale). Pain perception and adverse effects were evaluated as well. Almost all patients (24/25) demonstrated a moderate to significant improvement. Average improvement was 3.9 and 4.1 points on the quartile scale used for outcome assessment 1 and 3 months following the last session, respectively. Patient satisfaction rate was 4.2. Side effects were minimal and transient: erythema, mild transient vesicles, and mild pain or inconvenience. CONCLUSION Cooling-Vacuum-Assisted mid-infrared non-fractional Er:Glass 1540 nm laser
Acne is a common skin disease that causes pimples. Pimples form when hair follicles under your skin ... neck, back, chest, and shoulders. Anyone can get acne, but it is common in teenagers and young ...
Hoogewerf, Cornelis Johannes; van Baar, Margriet Elisabeth; Middelkoop, Esther; van Loey, Nancy Elisa
This study assessed the role of self-reported facial scar severity as a possible influencing factor on self-esteem and depressive symptoms in patients with facial burns. A prospective multicentre cohort study with a 6 months follow-up was conducted including 132 patients with facial burns. Patients completed the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the relations between depressive symptoms, self-esteem and scar severity. The model showed that patient-rated facial scar severity was not predictive for self-esteem and depressive symptoms six months post-burn. There was, however, a significant relationship between early depressive symptoms and both patient-rated facial scar severity and subsequent self-esteem. The variables in the model accounted for 37% of the variance in depressive symptoms six months post-burn and the model provided a moderately well-fitting representation of the data. The study suggests that self-esteem and depressive symptoms were not affected by self-reported facial scar severity but that earlier depressive symptoms were indicative for a more severe self-reported facial scar rating. Therefore, routine psychological screening during hospitalisation is recommended in order to identify patients at risk and to optimise their treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, Jae Yang; Lee, Eo Gin; Yoon, Moon Soo; Lee, Hee Jung
Microneedle fractional radiofrequency has been reported to be effective for improving wrinkles, enlarged pores and various scars. Sublative fractional radiofrequency has been shown to induce both fractional ablation of epidermis and upper dermal remodelling, which had rejuvenation effects in photoaged skin. Both modalities may have the potential synergy to improve acne scars. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined microneedle and sublative fractional radiofrequency for acne scars in Asian skin. Twenty subjects comprised 11 males and 9 females (mean age 23.65 ± 2.94, skin phototype III-IV) with moderate to severe acne scars. The subjects received three consecutive combined microneedle and sublative fractional radiofrequency at 4-week intervals over 12 weeks. Both blinded dermatologists and subjects assessed the clinical improvement based on the standardized photography and questionnaires, respectively. The quartile grading scale was utilized and defined as follows: grade 1, 0-25% improvement; grade 2, 26-50% improvement; grade 3, 51-75% improvement and grade 4, 76-100% improvement. All 20 subjects were assessed to have grade 2 or more clinical improvement by physicians; four (20%) had grade 4, 10 (50%) had grade 3, and six (30%) had grade 2 improvement. The subjects' grading also showed a good concordance as indicated by Kappa index of 0.695. The mean duration of post-therapy crusting was 5.2 days and post-therapy erythema lasted 2.5 days. Combined microneedle and sublative fractional radiofrequency can have a positive therapeutic effect with no serious complications and may provide a new therapeutic approach on acne scars in Asians. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Kyuseok; Kim, Kwan-Il; Lee, Junhee
Due to increasing interest from acne patients concerned about the side effects associated with conventional therapies, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been suggested as a new therapeutic modality for acne vulgaris. Herbal medicine is one of these CAM treatments. Cheongsangbangpoong-tang (CBT) is a common herbal formula used in patients with acne vulgaris in the clinical practice of Korean Medicine (KM). However, despite the common use of CBT in clinical practice, the current level of evidence is insufficient to support an inhibitory effect of CBT on inflammatory acne lesions and facial heat. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the inhibitory effect of CBT on both inflammatory acne lesions and facial heat. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, and placebo-controlled trial will be conducted. Fifty-six participants with acne vulgaris will be randomized into one of two groups: the CBT or placebo groups. After randomization, participants will be prescribed either CBT or placebo three times a day at a dose of 5 g after meals for 8 weeks. The following outcome measurements will be used in the examination of subjects: the mean percentage change and the count change of the inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions, the temperature of facial points on digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI), serum cortisol, serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), visual analogue scale (VAS), investigator global assessment (IGA), and severity score on the Korean Acne Grading System (KAGS) from baseline to the end of the trial. This trial will provide evidence regarding the inhibitory effect of CBT on inflammatory acne lesions and facial heat. The findings of this trial may have important implications for the more widespread use of CBT for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The trial is registered with the Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS), Republic of Korea: KCT0001468 .
Hashim, Peter W; Chen, Tinley; Harper, Julie C; Kircik, Leon H
Azelaic acid demonstrates anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-comedogenic, and anti-microbial effects. Azelaic acid 20% cream is currently approved for the treatment of acne vulgaris, and azelaic acid 15% foam has recently been approved for rosacea. Given the favorable tolerability profile of foam preparations, it is reasonable to assume that azelaic acid 15% foam could serve as a viable treatment option for facial acne. To examine the efficacy and safety of azelaic acid 15% foam in the treatment of moderate-to-severe facial acne Methods: Twenty subjects with moderate-to-severe facial acne vulgaris were enrolled in this two-center, open-label pilot study. All study subjects were treated with azelaic acid 15% foam for 16 weeks. Efficacy analyses were based on the change in facial investigator global assessment (FIGA) and changes in total, inflammatory, non-inflammatory lesion counts between baseline and week 16. There was a significant reduction in FIGA scores from baseline to week 16 (p = .0004), with 84% of subjects experiencing at least a 1 grade improvement, and 63% of subjects achieving a final grade of Clear or Almost Clear. All subjects experienced reductions in inflammatory and total lesion counts by week 16, and 89% of subjects experienced reductions in non-inflammatory lesions. Azelaic acid 15% foam was well tolerated, with almost all instances of erythema, dryness, peeling, oiliness, pruritus, and burning being of mild or trace degree, and most adverse effects resolving by the end of the study. Azelaic acid 15% foam is effective and safe in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris. Given the convenience of foam vehicles, azelaic acid 15% foam should be considered as a viable treatment option for this condition. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(6):641-645.
Hazarika, Neirita; Archana, M
Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Females (56%), 15–20 year olds (61%), facial lesions (60%), and Grade II acne (70%) were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10) interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment. PMID:27688440
... squeezing existing pimples. Scrubbing your skin too harshly. Chocolate, dirt, and sexual activity do not cause acne. ... of Sun ExposureIt is important to know the benefits and dangers of sun exposure.How to Protect ...
... may contain benzoyl peroxide, sulfur, resorcinol, adapalene, or salicylic acid. They work by killing bacteria, drying up skin ... Prescription formulas of benzoyl peroxide, sulfur, resorcinol, or salicylic acid Topical azelaic acid For women whose acne is ...
... Sweating Bad breath Acne Hair care Douching Makeup Tanning Tattoos and piercing Cosmetic surgery Points about shoes ... at your pimples Scrubbing your skin too hard Tanning Stress Wearing things that press against your skin, ...
Hwang, Young Ji; Lee, Yu Na; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong
Background Although ablative fractional resurfacing is known to be effective against photoaging and acne scars, studies on its efficacy, safety and changes in the skin characteristics of Asians are limited. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of carbon dioxide fractional laser (CO2FL) in Koreans treated for wrinkles and acne scars, and to define the changes in skin characteristics during recovery period. Methods We administered one session of CO2FL on 10 acne scar patients and 14 wrinkles patients with skin types IV and V. The surveillance of efficacy and side effects along with the measurement of biophysical properties was carried out before 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after treatment. Results Using a non-invasive method, skin barrier damage, erythema and bronzing of skin during the recovery period were assessed, and all of the items eventually returned to the pre-treatment level. Skin elasticity was measured in the wrinkle group, and the statistically significant effect was sustained throughout the next three months. The outcome of treatment was found to be better than 'moderate improvement' in both the acne scar and wrinkle groups. Further, there were no serious side effects three months post-procedure. Conclusion CO2 FL is thought to be an effective and safe method for treating moderate to severe acne scars and wrinkles in Asians. PMID:24371392
Hwang, Young Ji; Lee, Yu Na; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong
Although ablative fractional resurfacing is known to be effective against photoaging and acne scars, studies on its efficacy, safety and changes in the skin characteristics of Asians are limited. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of carbon dioxide fractional laser (CO2FL) in Koreans treated for wrinkles and acne scars, and to define the changes in skin characteristics during recovery period. We administered one session of CO2FL on 10 acne scar patients and 14 wrinkles patients with skin types IV and V. The surveillance of efficacy and side effects along with the measurement of biophysical properties was carried out before 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after treatment. Using a non-invasive method, skin barrier damage, erythema and bronzing of skin during the recovery period were assessed, and all of the items eventually returned to the pre-treatment level. Skin elasticity was measured in the wrinkle group, and the statistically significant effect was sustained throughout the next three months. The outcome of treatment was found to be better than 'moderate improvement' in both the acne scar and wrinkle groups. Further, there were no serious side effects three months post-procedure. CO2 FL is thought to be an effective and safe method for treating moderate to severe acne scars and wrinkles in Asians.
Scarring has major psychological and physical repercussions--for example, scarring on the face and visible regions of the body can be very distressing for the patient, whether it is simple acne scars or large, raised surgical or traumatic scars. This article discusses the process of scar formation, the differences between scars and proposes a number of ways in which the nurse can manage scars.
Leheta, Tahra Mohamed; Abdel Hay, Rania Mounir; El Garem, Yehia Farouk
Deep peeling using phenol and percutaneous collagen induction (PCI) are used in treating acne scars. To compare deep peeling using phenol and PCI combined with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 20% in treating atrophic acne scars. 24 patients with post-acne atrophic scars were randomly divided into two groups; group 1 was subjected to one session of deep peeling using phenol, and group 2 was subjected to four sessions of PCI combined with TCA 20%. As a secondary outcome measure, side effects were recorded and patients were asked to assess their % of improvement by a questionnaire completed 8 months after the procedure. Scar severity scores improved by a mean of 75.12% (p < 0.001) in group 1 and a mean of 69.43% (p < 0.001) in group 2. Comparing the degree of improvement in different types of scars, within the same group after treatment, revealed a significant highest degree of improvement in the rolling type (p = 0.005) in group 2. Deep peeling using phenol and PCI with TCA 20% were effective in treating post-acne atrophic scars.
Kawata, Ariane K.; Daniels, Selena R.; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T.; Callender, Valerie D.
Objective: Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Participants: Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. Results: A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. Conclusion: Results highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome. PMID:24578779
Ma, X J; Li, W Y; Liu, C H; Li, Y
To explore the aesthetic reconstruction strategy for postburn facial scar and its clinical effect. Three hundred and forty-two patients with postburn facial scars were hospitalized from January 2000 to December 2015. Local expanded flap or deltopectoral expanded flap was used for reconstruction according to the location and size of the facial scar. The forehead expanded flap could be chosen for the scar in dorsum nasi or inferior eyelid. The local expanded flap was chosen when the scar width was smaller than 5 cm in cheek, chin, and marginal mandible region. The expanded deltopectoral flap was chosen when the scar width was larger than 5 cm in cheek, chin, and marginal mandible region or the scar contracture was too serious to cause displacement of lips, nose, or eyelid, and the wound width was larger than 5 cm after release. The facial scars of 82 patients, with size ranged from 6.0 cm×2.5 cm to 15.0 cm×10.0 cm, were reconstructed with expanded local flaps. The facial scars of 260 patients, with size ranged from 8.0 cm×7.0 cm to 38.0 cm×13.0 cm, were reconstructed with expanded deltopectoral flaps. After expansion of 2 to 6 months, the facial scars were excised and completely released first of all. The transfer way of local flap and size of deltopectoral flap with pedicle were designed according to the size and shape of the wound. Three weeks after transfer of deltopectoral flap, flap delay procedure was conducted. One week later, the pedicle was severed from the flap to reconstruct the remaining scar. Anti-scar medicine, laser therapy, and elasticized fabric were used postoperatively on the scars in both donor and recipient sites. During the postoperative follow-up for 3 to 12 months, the flaps of 40 out of 82 cases reconstructed with expanded local flaps were in good color and texture. Before 2008, mild scar hyperplasia was observed in the incision of 19 patients; with application of laser after 2008, the number of patients with scar hyperplasia was
Admani, Shehla; Gertner, Jeffrey W; Grosman, Amanda; Shumaker, Peter R; Uebelhoer, Nathan S; Krakowski, Andrew C
The treatment of disfiguring and disabling scars remains a field of active study, reinvigorated with recent advances in techniques and technologies. A variety of approaches can be utilized depending on scar characteristics, location, degree of tissue loss, and associated contractures. Just as traumatic scars can be complex and heterogeneous, the corresponding paradigm for treatment must also be flexible and multimodal for optimal improvement. This report describes a 3-year-old girl with a "mixed" (atrophic/hypertrophic), violaceous, contracted facial scar from a dog bite. It was treated with a novel approach utilizing a multidisciplinary pediatric scar team to combine autologous fat grafting, ablative fractional laser resurfacing, pulsed-dye laser, and laser-assisted delivery of a corticosteroid as concurrent, multimodal therapy to optimize the outcome. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.
Balbin, Jessie R.; Dela Cruz, Jennifer C.; Camba, Clarisse O.; Gozo, Angelo D.; Jimenez, Sheena Mariz B.; Tribiana, Aivje C.
Acne vulgaris, commonly called as acne, is a skin problem that occurs when oil and dead skin cells clog up in a person's pores. This is because hormones change which makes the skin oilier. The problem is people really do not know the real assessment of sensitivity of their skin in terms of fluid development on their faces that tends to develop acne vulgaris, thus having more complications. This research aims to assess Acne Vulgaris using luminescent visualization system through optical imaging and integration of image processing algorithms. Specifically, this research aims to design a prototype for facial fluid analysis using luminescent visualization system through optical imaging and integration of fluorescent imaging system, and to classify different facial fluids present in each person. Throughout the process, some structures and layers of the face will be excluded, leaving only a mapped facial structure with acne regions. Facial fluid regions are distinguished from the acne region as they are characterized differently.
Kant, S B; Colla, C; Van den Kerckhove, E; Van der Hulst, R R W J; Piatkowski de Grzymala, A
Treatment of facial hypertrophic scars and deformities has developed from the use of elastic fabric hoods to transparent facemasks. The clinical effects of these masks have been described. However, the psychological impact of wearing such a mask is not well documented. The aim of this study was to assess patients' satisfaction with their current facial appearance, to assess the end result of facemask therapy, and to assess the decision to have undergone facemask therapy by means of four different FACE-Q questionnaires. Out of the eligible 87 patients who completed the facemask therapy between January 2012 and November 2017, 42 filled out the questionnaires. These patients wore a custom-fabricated facemask because of facial hypertrophic scars and severe postsurgical facial irregularities. Patients who wore the mask 12 to 16 hours per day were significantly more satisfied with the end result compared with those who wore it 4 to 8 hours daily. Also, patients who wore the mask 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 hours each day were more satisfied to have undergone therapy compared with those who wore it 4 to 8 hours daily. Furthermore, patients who finished therapy 3 to 4 years and 4 to 5 years ago reported a significant higher satisfaction with facial appearance compared with those who completed therapy in a time period shorter than 1 year ago. Patients who finished therapy 3 to 4 years ago reported higher satisfaction with their facial appearance compared with those who finished therapy 2 to 3 years ago. Additionally, the Patient and Observer Scar Assessments Score (POSAS) showed a significant reduction between start and end of therapy. This study shows facemask therapy to result in long-lasting stable results. It also shows a longer daily wearing of the facemask to result in the highest satisfaction according to patients. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Lee, Sang Jun; Suh, Dong Hye; Chang, Ka Yeon; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Tae In; Jeong, Ki-Heon; Shin, Min Kyung; Song, Kye Yong
Various modalities have been used to treat acne scars. CO 2 fractional laser is an effective and commonly used treatment. CO 2 gas injection into the dermis by needle with high pressure can cause fibrotic collagen breakage, producing the effects of subcision. CO 2 also stimulates collagen synthesis by increasing neovascularization and releasing oxygen. This study evaluated the efficacy and the safety of the combined treatment with CO 2 gas subcision and CO 2 fractional laser for acne scars. Fourteen patients with acne scars were treated with three sessions of CO 2 gas subcision at 2-week intervals and two sessions of fractional laser at 4-week interval. The clinical improvement was assessed using a 4-point scale. For histologic analysis, punch biopsy was performed before and after treatment in 10 patients. All patients experienced clinical improvements. Excellent, marked, moderate, and mild response was achieved in 1 (7%), 8 (57%), 4 (29%), and 1 patient (7%), respectively. Histologic evaluation of the biopsy specimens showed increased dermal collagen with dermal thickening and elastic fiber straightening in the reticular dermis after the treatment. The combination therapy with CO 2 gas subcision and fractional laser was satisfactory and safe for treating acne scars. Abbreviation and acronym: CO 2 : Carbon dioxide GAS: Global assessment scale H&E: hematoxylin and eosin; SD: standard deviation.
Elsaie, Mohamed L; Ibrahim, Shady M; Saudi, Wael
Introduction: Non-ablative fractional erbium-doped glass 1540 nm and fractional ablative 10600 nm carbon dioxide lasers are regarded as effective modalities for treating acne atrophic scars. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of fractional CO 2 laser and fractional nonablative 1540 nm erbium doped glass laser in treating post acne atrophic scars in Egyptian patients. Methods: Fifty-eight patients complaining of moderate and severe acne atrophic scars were randomly divided into 2 groups of 29 patients each. Both groups were subjected to 4 treatment sessions with 3 weeks interval and were followed up for 3 months. In group A, enrolled patient sreceived C2 laser, while in group B, patients were treated with 1540 nm erbium glass fractional laser. Results: Clinical assessment revealed that the mean grades of progress and improvement were higher with fractional 10600 nm CO2 laser but with non-significant difference between both treatments ( P = 0.1). The overall patients' satisfaction with both lasers were not significantly different ( P = 0.44). Conclusion: Both fractional ablative CO2 and fractional non-ablative erbium glass lasers are good modalities for treating acne scars with a high efficacy and safety profile and good patient satisfaction. The fractional ablative laser showed higher efficacy while non-ablative laser offered less pain and shorter downtime.
Akinboro, Adeolu Oladayo; Ezejiofor, Ogochukwu Ifeanyi; Olanrewaju, Fatai Olatunde; Oripelaye, Mufutau Muphy; Olabode, Olatunde Peter; Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward; Onayemi, Emmanuel Olaniyi
Acne and facial post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation are relatively common clinical conditions among adolescents and young adults, and inflict psychosocial injuries on sufferers. To document the psychosocial and self-esteem implications of acne and facial hyperpigmentation on newly admitted undergraduates. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 undergraduates. Demographics and clinical characteristics were obtained and acne was graded using the US Food and Drug Administration 5-category global system of acne classification. Participants completed the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES), and data were analyzed using SPSS 20. Mean age of acne onset was 16.24 ± 3.32 years. There were 168 (84.0%) cases categorized as almost clear, 24 (12.0%) as mild acne, 4 (2.0%) as moderate acne and 4 (2.0%) as severe acne. Acne with facial hyperpigmentation, compared to acne without hyperpigmentation, was associated with significant level of anxiety in 30 participants (26.5% vs 10.3%, p =0.004) and emotional distress in 40 (35.4% vs 10.3%, p <0.001). Acne severity correlated with total CADI score but not with total RSES score. Quality of life (QoL) was significantly reduced among acne patients with facial hyperpigmentation (1.77±1.62, vs 1.07±1.02, p <0.001) compared to those without hyperpigmentation. Acne and facial hyperpigmentation was associated with social life interference, avoidance of public facilities, poor body image and self-esteem and perception of worse disease. There was no association between gender and QoL but acne was related to a reduction of self-worth. Low self-esteem was present in 1.5%, and severe acne was associated with an occasional feeling of uselessness in the male gender. Acne with facial hyperpigmentation induces poorer QoL and self-esteem is impaired only in severe acne. Beyond the medical treatment of acne, dermatologists should routinely assess the QoL and give attention to treatment of facial
Akinboro, Adeolu Oladayo; Ezejiofor, Ogochukwu Ifeanyi; Olanrewaju, Fatai Olatunde; Oripelaye, Mufutau Muphy; Olabode, Olatunde Peter; Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward; Onayemi, Emmanuel Olaniyi
Background Acne and facial post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation are relatively common clinical conditions among adolescents and young adults, and inflict psychosocial injuries on sufferers. Objective To document the psychosocial and self-esteem implications of acne and facial hyperpigmentation on newly admitted undergraduates. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 undergraduates. Demographics and clinical characteristics were obtained and acne was graded using the US Food and Drug Administration 5-category global system of acne classification. Participants completed the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES), and data were analyzed using SPSS 20. Results Mean age of acne onset was 16.24 ± 3.32 years. There were 168 (84.0%) cases categorized as almost clear, 24 (12.0%) as mild acne, 4 (2.0%) as moderate acne and 4 (2.0%) as severe acne. Acne with facial hyperpigmentation, compared to acne without hyperpigmentation, was associated with significant level of anxiety in 30 participants (26.5% vs 10.3%, p=0.004) and emotional distress in 40 (35.4% vs 10.3%, p<0.001). Acne severity correlated with total CADI score but not with total RSES score. Quality of life (QoL) was significantly reduced among acne patients with facial hyperpigmentation (1.77±1.62, vs 1.07±1.02, p<0.001) compared to those without hyperpigmentation. Acne and facial hyperpigmentation was associated with social life interference, avoidance of public facilities, poor body image and self-esteem and perception of worse disease. There was no association between gender and QoL but acne was related to a reduction of self-worth. Low self-esteem was present in 1.5%, and severe acne was associated with an occasional feeling of uselessness in the male gender. Conclusion Acne with facial hyperpigmentation induces poorer QoL and self-esteem is impaired only in severe acne. Beyond the medical treatment of acne, dermatologists should routinely
Patidar, Monika V; Deshmukh, Ashish Ramchandra; Khedkar, Maruti Yadav
Background: Acne vulgaris is the most common disease of the skin affecting adolescents and young adults causing psychological distress. The combination of antibiotic resistance, adverse effects of topical and systemic anti acne medications and desire for high tech approaches have all led to new enthusiasm for light based acne treatment. Intense pulse light (IPL) therapy has three modes of action in acne vulgaris i.e., photochemical, photo thermal and photo immunological. Aims: (1) to study efficacy of IPL therapy in facial acne vulgaris. (2) To compare two fluences - one normal and other subnormal on right and left side of face respectively. Methods: (Including settings and design and statistical analysis used). Total 45 patients in age group 16 to 28 years with inflammatory facial acne vulgaris were included in prospective study. Baseline data for each patient was recorded. All patients were given 4 sittings of IPL at 2 weeks interval and were followed for 2 months every 2 weeks. Fluence used was 35J/cm2 on right and 20J/cm2 on left side. Percentage reduction in lesion count was calculated at each sitting and follow up and graded as mild (0-25%), moderate (26-50%), good (51-75%) and excellent (76-100%). Side effects were noted. The results were analysed using Mann-Whitney Test. Results: On right side, excellent results were achieved in 10(22%), good in 22(49%) and moderate in 13(29%) patients. On left side excellent were results achieved in 7(15%), good in 19(42%) and moderate in 16(43%) patients. There was no statically significant difference noted in efficacy of two fluences used in treatment of facial acne vulgaris. Conclusions: IPL is a effective and safe option for inflammatory acne vulgaris with minimal reversible side effects. Subnormal fluence is as effective as normal fluence in Indian skin. PMID:27688446
Patidar, Monika V; Deshmukh, Ashish Ramchandra; Khedkar, Maruti Yadav
Acne vulgaris is the most common disease of the skin affecting adolescents and young adults causing psychological distress. The combination of antibiotic resistance, adverse effects of topical and systemic anti acne medications and desire for high tech approaches have all led to new enthusiasm for light based acne treatment. Intense pulse light (IPL) therapy has three modes of action in acne vulgaris i.e., photochemical, photo thermal and photo immunological. (1) to study efficacy of IPL therapy in facial acne vulgaris. (2) To compare two fluences - one normal and other subnormal on right and left side of face respectively. (Including settings and design and statistical analysis used). Total 45 patients in age group 16 to 28 years with inflammatory facial acne vulgaris were included in prospective study. Baseline data for each patient was recorded. All patients were given 4 sittings of IPL at 2 weeks interval and were followed for 2 months every 2 weeks. Fluence used was 35J/cm(2) on right and 20J/cm(2) on left side. Percentage reduction in lesion count was calculated at each sitting and follow up and graded as mild (0-25%), moderate (26-50%), good (51-75%) and excellent (76-100%). Side effects were noted. The results were analysed using Mann-Whitney Test. On right side, excellent results were achieved in 10(22%), good in 22(49%) and moderate in 13(29%) patients. On left side excellent were results achieved in 7(15%), good in 19(42%) and moderate in 16(43%) patients. There was no statically significant difference noted in efficacy of two fluences used in treatment of facial acne vulgaris. IPL is a effective and safe option for inflammatory acne vulgaris with minimal reversible side effects. Subnormal fluence is as effective as normal fluence in Indian skin.
Wei, Y T; Fu, J F; Li-Tsang, Z H P
Facial scar and deformation caused by burn injury severely affect physical and psychological well-being of pediatric burn patients, which needs medical workers and pediatric burn patients' family members to pay much attention to and to perform early rehabilitation treatment. Pressure therapy is an important rehabilitative strategy for pediatric burn patients with facial scar, mainly including wearing headgears and transparent pressure facemasks, which have their own features. To achieve better treatment results, pressure therapy should be chosen according to specific condition of pediatric burn patients and combined with other assistant therapies. Successful rehabilitation for pediatric burn patients relies on cooperation of both family members of pediatric burn patients and society. Rehabilitation knowledge should be provided to parents of pediatric burn patients to acquire their full support and cooperation in order to achieve best therapeutic effects and ultimately to rebuild physical and psychological well-being of pediatric burn patients.
Adjuvant alternative treatment with chemical peeling and subsequent iontophoresis for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, erosion with inflamed red papules and non-inflamed atrophic scars in acne vulgaris.
Kurokawa, Ichiro; Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira
The standard management of acne vulgaris in Japan includes a combination of topical treatment with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and BPO/clindamycin (CLDM), topical adapalene and systemic antimicrobials. However, the treatment of therapy-resistant complications such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), erosions with inflamed red papules and atrophic scars has not been established. We performed chemical peeling with glycolic acid and iontophoresis with ascorbyl 2-phosphate 6-palmitate and DL-α-tocopherol phosphate for the treatment of PIH, erosions with inflamed red papules and non-inflamed atrophic scars in 31 patients with acne vulgaris (mild to severe severity), and evaluated the efficacy and safety of these interventions. In most of cases, there was remarkable improvement in PIH and erosions with inflamed red papules after treatment. There was also some improvement in non-inflamed atrophic scars without erythema. Mild redness and irritation was observed in four cases as adverse reactions. Early initial treatment of PIH and erosions with red papules by chemical peeling and iontophoresis is an effective and safe method to prevent the formation of atrophic scars in patients with acne vulgaris. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Kalra, G S; Bedi, Mitesh; Barala, Vipin Kumar
Background: Large post burn scars are a very difficult problem to treat. Available methods include skin grafts and tissue expansion. The reconstructive method used should be tailored according to individual patient rather than following a textbook approach in each. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done of cases with extensive facial burn scars in whom secondary reconstruction was done with either free parascapular flap cover or tissue expansion and flap advancement following facial burn scar excision by a single surgeon (GSK) in Department of Burns, Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Results: A total of 15 patients with free parascapular flap and 15 patients with tissue expansion followed by flap advancement were analyzed in the group. There were no free flap failures, but 2 patients required skin graft at donor site. In patients undergoing tissue expansion, minor complication was noted in 1 patient. Conclusion: Tissue expansion is a useful technique in reconstruction of post burn scars, but has its limitations, especially in patients with extensive burns in head and neck region with limited local tissue availability. Parascapular free flap may provide a good alternative option for reconstruction in such cases. PMID:28804686
Zhang, Zhen; Fei, Ye; Chen, Xiangdong; Lu, Wenli; Chen, Jinan
No studies have compared fractional microplasma radio frequency (RF) technology with the carbon dioxide fractional laser system (CO2 FS) in the treatment of atrophic acne scars in the same patient. To compare the efficacy and safety of fractional microplasma RF with CO2 FS in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. Thirty-three Asian patients received three sessions of a randomized split-face treatment of fractional microplasma RF or CO2 FS. Both modalities had a roughly equivalent effect. Échelle d'Évaluation Clinique Des Cicatrices d'Acné scores were significantly lower after fractional microplasma RF (from 51.1 ± 14.2 to 22.3 ± 8.6, 56.4% improvement) and CO2 FS (from 48.8 ± 15.1 to 19.9 ± 7.9, 59.2% improvement) treatments. There was no statistically significant difference between the two therapies. Twelve subjects (36.4%) experienced postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) after 30 of 99 treatment sessions (30.3%) on the CO2 FS side and no PIH was observed on the fractional microplasma RF sides. Both modalities have good effects on treating atrophic scars. PIH was not seen with the fractional microplasma RF, which might make it a better choice for patients with darker skin. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wei, Yating; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Yan, Gang; Wu, Shixue; Liu, Wenjun; Ji, Gang; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P
Deep facial burns leave conspicuous scar to the patients and affect their quality of life. Transparent facemask has been adopted for the prevention and treatment of facial hypertrophic scars for decades. Recently, with the advancement of 3D printing, the transparent facemask could facilitate the fitting of the facial contour. However, the effectiveness of the device and its biomechanical characteristics on pressure management of hypertrophic scar would need more objective evaluation. A biomechanical model of the transparent 3D-printed facemask was established through finite element analysis. Ten patients with extensive deep facial burns within 6 months were recruited for clinical study using 3D-printed facemask designed according to biomechanical model, and the interface pressure was measured on each patient. The patients in the treatment group (n=5) was provided with the 3D-printed transparent face mask soon after initial scar assessment, while the delayed treatment group (n=5) began the treatment one month after the initial scar assessment. The scar assessment was performed one month post intervention for both groups. The biomechanical modeling showed that the 3D, computer-generated facemask resulted in unbalanced pressure if design modifications were not incorporated to address these issues. The interface pressure between the facemask and patient's face was optimized through individualized design adjustments and the addition of silicone lining. After optimization of pressure through additional lining, the mean thickness and hardness of the scars of all 10 patients were decreased significantly after 1-month of intervention. In the delayed treatment group, the mean thickness of the scars was increased within the month without intervention, but it was also decreased after intervention. Facemask design and the silicone lining are important to ensure adequate compression pressure of 3D-printed transparent facemask. The intervention using the 3D-printed facemask
Wei, Yating; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Liu, Jun; Xie, Lihua; Yue, Shukai
Facial burns could create serious scar problems resulting disfigurement particularly on children. The conventional methods of producing transparent face masks for scar control remains complex and require dexterous skills of experienced clinician and patients' compliance during fitting. In this study, we adopted a portable 3D scanning and Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to produce 3D-printed transparent facemasks. Its efficacy was tested on two children with facial burns resulting hypertrophic scars. This study adopted a longitudinal case follow up research design. Two children with facial burns were recruited in the study upon consent. Their facial features were scanned with a portable 3D scanner and then edited and converted to the target files: the customized printable facemask files. The transparent facemask was directly printed out on the transparent biocompatible material followed by adding the medical grade silicone gel to provide extra pressure on the scar site. The facemasks were fitted to the patients with elastic straps connecting the printed anchoring bolts. Both children and family were instructed to wear the facemask for at least 20h per day and they were assessed before treatment, one month and three months after treatment on the facial scar conditions. At the one-month and three-month assessments after treatment, a decrease in average scar thickness was shown and the facial appearance was satisfactory. The 3D-printed facemasks were well fitted on both patients. The treatment was well-tolerated and no complication was reported. 3D-printed transparent facemask is convenient and efficient to fabricate, and is suitable for treating pediatric facial hypertrophic scars after burn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Aysal, Bilge Kagan; Yapici, Abdulkerim; Bayram, Yalcin; Zor, Fatih
Facial nerve is the main cranial nerve for the innervation of facial expression muscles. Main trunk of facial nerve passes approximately 1 to 2 cm deep to tragal pointer. In some patients, where a patient has multiple operations, fibrosis due to previous operations may change the natural anatomy and direction of the branches of facial nerve. A 22-year-old male patient had 2 operations for mandibular reconstruction after gunshot wound. During the second operation, there was a possible injury to the marginal mandibular nerve and a nerve stimulator was used intraoperatively to monitor the nerve at the tragal pointer because the excitability of the distal segments remains intact for 24 to 48 hours after nerve injuries. Thus, using a nerve stimulator at the operational site may lead to false-positive muscle movements in case of injuries. Using the nerve stimulator to stimulate the main trunk at the tragal point may help to distinguish the presence of possible injuries. A reliable method for intraoperative facial nerve monitoring in a scarred operational site was introduced in this letter.
Liu, Huaxu; Dang, Yongyan; Wang, Zhan; Ma, Li; Ren, Qiushi
The 1450-nm diode laser has been found to be effective for the treatment of inflammatory acne in USA, Europe and Japan. However, there is no report on its efficacy in Chinese acne vulgaris patients. We conduct this pilot study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the 1450-nm diode laser in the treatment of inflammatory facial acne vulgaris in Chinese patients. Nineteen patients with inflammatory facial acne were treated with the 1450-nm diode laser at 4- to 6-week intervals. Clinical photographs and lesion counts were obtained at baseline and after each treatment. Subjective evaluation of response to treatment and pain was assessed using a questionnaire. In our study, clinical improvement was seen in all patients and was generally dramatic. Lesion counts decreased 34% after one treatment (p<0.01), 56% after two treatments (p<0.01), and 81% after three treatments (p<0.01). However, the treatment-related pain was comparatively hard to be tolerated in Chinese patitents, and the other main adverse effect was the hyper-pigmentation after treatments (36.84%, 7/19).
Min, Seong U K; Choi, Yu Sung; Lee, Dong Hun; Yoon, Mi Young; Suh, Dae Hun
Nonablative laser is gaining popularity because of the low risk of complications, especially in patients with darker skin. To compare the efficacy and safety of a long-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and a combined 585/1,064-nm laser for the treatment of acne scars. Nineteen patients with mild to moderate atrophic acne scars received four long-pulse Nd:YAG laser or combined 585/1,064-nm laser treatment sessions at fortnightly intervals. Treatments were administered randomly in a split-face manner. Acne scars showed mild to moderate improvement, with significant Echelle d'évaluation clinique des cicatrices d'acné (ECCA) score reductions, after both treatments. Although intermodality differences were not significant, combined 585/1,064-nm laser was more effective for deep boxcar scars. In patients with combined 585/1,064-nm laser-treated sides that improved more than long-pulse Nd:YAG laser-treated sides, ECCA scores were significantly lower for combined 585/1,064-nm laser treatment. Histologic evaluations revealed significantly greater collagen deposition, although there was no significant difference between the two modalities. Patient satisfaction scores concurred with physicians' evaluations. Both lasers ameliorated acne scarring with minimal downtime. In light of this finding, optimal outcomes might be achieved when laser treatment types are chosen after considering individual scar type and response.
Lucky, Anne W
To quantitatively document the presence and extent of a late luteal (premenstrual) acne flare in adult women. Case series. Subjects were recruited from a general community dermatology practice and by advertising. Adult women 18 to 44 years old with normal periods who were receiving no treatment for their acne. Acne lesion counts were surveyed over the follicular and luteal phases of 2 full menstrual cycles. Most (63%) of these women showed a 25% premenstrual increase in the number of inflammatory acne lesions. This is the first quantitative documentation of the presence and degree of premenstrual acne flares in adult women.
Elman, Monica; Harth, Yoram
collagen remodeling effect. Clinical studies of the multisource fractional RF application have shown significant effects on wrinkles reduction and deep atrophic acne scars after 1-3 treatment sessions.
Elman, Monica; Harth, Yoram
long term collagen remodeling effect. Clinical studies of the multisource fractional RF application have shown significant effects on wrinkles reduction and deep atrophic acne scars after 1–3 treatment sessions. PMID:24155523
Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos
It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.
Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta; Dessinioti, Clio; Feldman, Steven R; Zouboulis, Christos C
Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease - rather than a natural part of the life cycle as colloquially viewed - of the pilosebaceous unit (comprising the hair follicle, hair shaft and sebaceous gland) and is among the most common dermatological conditions worldwide. Some of the key mechanisms involved in the development of acne include disturbed sebaceous gland activity associated with hyperseborrhoea (that is, increased sebum production) and alterations in sebum fatty acid composition, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinization, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Grading of acne involves lesion counting and photographic methods. However, there is a lack of consensus on the exact grading criteria, which hampers the conduction and comparison of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating treatments. Prevention of acne relies on the successful management of modifiable risk factors, such as underlying systemic diseases and lifestyle factors. Several treatments are available, but guidelines suffer from a lack of data to make evidence-based recommendations. In addition, the complex combination treatment regimens required to target different aspects of acne pathophysiology lead to poor adherence, which undermines treatment success. Acne commonly causes scarring and reduces the quality of life of patients. New treatment options with a shift towards targeting the early processes involved in acne development instead of suppressing the effects of end products will enhance our ability to improve the outcomes for patients with acne.
Millar, Keith; Bell, Aileen; Bowman, Adrian; Brown, Denise; Lo, Tsz-Wai; Siebert, Paul; Simmons, David; Ayoub, Ashraf
Objective : Objective measure of scarring and three-dimensional (3D) facial asymmetry after surgical correction of unilateral cleft lip (UCL) and unilateral cleft lip (UCLP). It was hypothesized that the degree of scarring or asymmetry would be correlated with poorer psychological function. Design : In a cross-sectional design, children underwent 3D imaging of the face and completed standardized assessments of self-esteem, depression, and state and trait anxiety. Parents rated children's adjustment with a standard scale. Setting : Glasgow Dental School, School of Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences. Patients : Fifty-one children aged 10 years with UCLP and 43 with UCL were recruited from the cohort treated with the surgical protocol of the CLEFTSIS managed clinical network in Scotland. Methods : Objective assessment to determine the luminance and redness of the scar and facial asymmetry. Depression, anxiety, and a self-esteem assessment battery were used for the psychological analysis. Results : Cleft cases showed superior psychological adjustment when compared with normative data. Prevalence of depression matched the population norm. The visibility of the scar (luminance ratio) was significantly correlated with lower self-esteem and higher trait anxiety in UCLP children (P = .004). Similar but nonsignificant trends were seen in the UCL group. Parental ratings of poorer adjustment also correlated with greater luminance of the scar. Conclusions : The objectively defined degree of postoperative cleft scarring was associated with subclinical symptoms of anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem.
Meier, Larissa; Stange, Rainer; Michalsen, Andreas; Uehleke, Bernhard
External application of clay facial masks is a cosmetic procedure generally used to reduce skin lesions and to improve overall skin condition. Collecting pilot data about self-treatment with clay jojoba oil masks on participants with acne-prone, lesioned skin and acne. Open, prospective, observational pilot study: Participants received written information, instructions, and questionnaires without direct contact with the study physician. For 6 weeks, they applied the masks 2-3 times per week. The primary outcome is the difference of skin lesions: baseline vs. after 6 weeks. 194 participants (192 female, 2 male, mean age (± SE) (32.3 ± 0.7 years) returned questionnaires and diaries. 133 of these participants returned complete and precise lesion counts (per-protocol (PP) collective). A 54% mean reduction in total lesion count was observed after 6 weeks of treatment with clay facial mask. Both inflammatory and non-inflammatory skin lesions were reduced significantly after treatment compared to baseline: Median counts (MC) of pustules per affected participant were reduced from 7.0 ± 0.9 to 3.0 ± 0.5 (mean individual reduction (MIR) = 49.4%), the MC of the papules from 3.5 ± 2.2 to 1.0 ± 0.4 (MIR = 57.3%), the MC of cysts from 2.0 ± 0.8 to 0.5 ± 0.4 (MIR = 68.6%) and the MC of comedones from 26.5 ± 6.3 to 16.0 ± 4.0 (MIR = 39.1%). DLQI-average score decreased from 5.0 ± 4.5 (mean ± SE) before to 2.1 ± 2.8 after treatment. The present study gives preliminary evidence that healing clay jojoba oil facial masks can be effective treatment for lesioned skin and mild acne vulgaris. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Yaaghoobian, Barmak; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh
Background and aims Skin rejuvenation is one of high demand cosmetic interventions in Iran. Fractional CO2 Laser is a high power ablative laser which has variety of utilization in medicine including treatment of acne scars and rejuvenation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of Fractional CO2 Laser in comparison with other methods of rejuvenation and acne scar treatment. Methods A systematic database search including Medline (via OVID and PubMed), EMBASE, CINHAL, Cochrane Library, CRD, SCOPUS and Web of Science conducted. After screening search results, selected publications appraised by CASP and Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias and eligible studies included in the systematic review. In economic evaluation, all costs and benefits analyzed from Iran ministry of health's perspective. Results From 2667 publications, two randomized control trials were eligible and included in the study. The affectivity and complications of Fractional CO2 laser were comparable with Er: YAG but Fractional CO2 laser was 14.7% (P=0.01) more effective than Q-Switched ND: YAG laser. Cost affectivity of this method was the same as other alternative lasers. Conclusions Fractional CO2 laser is an effective and safe method for curing several kinds of skin. Never the less there was not sufficient evidence to support its advantage. This device has equal or lower price in comparison to competent technologies except for the non- fractional ablative Co2 laser that has the same or lower price and comparable effects.
Ansari, Fereshteh; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Yaaghoobian, Barmak
Fractional CO 2 has many indications in medicine including in treatment of acne scars and rejuvenation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of Fractional CO 2 Laser in comparison with other methods of rejuvenation and acne scar treatment. Several databases including Medline, OVID, EMBASE, CINHAL, SCOPUS, Web of science, CRD, and Cochrane were searched. After conducting the search and evaluation of selected publications, critical appraisal was done and eligible studies were accepted for inclusion in the systematic review. From 2667 identified publications two of the trials were eligible. The effectiveness and complications of Fractional CO 2 laser were comparable with Er:YAG but Fractional CO 2 laser was 14.7% (p = 0.01) more effective than Q-Switched ND:YAG laser. Cost affectivity of this method was the same as other alternative lasers. In conclusion Fractional CO 2 laser is an effective and safe method for curing of several kinds of skin diseases. Nevertheless there was not sufficient evidence to support its advantage. This device has equal or lower price in comparison to competent technologies except for the non- fractional ablative CO 2 laser that has the same or lower price and comparable effects.
Ma, Xianjie; Li, Yang; Li, Weiyang; Liu, Chaohua; Peng, Pai; Song, Baoqiang; Xia, Wensen; Yi, Chenggang; Lu, Kaihua; Su, Yingjun
The scars of face and scalp caused by burning often show as 1 large facial-scalp scar. The deltopectoral flap was recognized as one of the first choices for the facial scar reconstruction. However, this flap cannot cross the level of zygomatic arch traditionally when it was transferred with pedicle. When the flap reconstructed the facial-scalp scars with expanded random scalp flap, another flap was often needed to reconstruct the remaining temple and forehead scars. The authors reviewed 24 patients of large facial-scalp scars reconstructed by expanded pedicled deltopectoral flap and scalp flap with several technique improvements. The seaming scar between the deltopectoral flap and scalp flap in the temple region formed the new hairline. The technique improvements included ligation of the perforating branches of the transverse cervical artery and thoracoacromial artery when dissecting the pocket, the partial bolster compressive dressing to the distal part of the flap and dividing the pedicle partly as a delaying procedure before dividing the pedicle completely. Good skin compliance, normal contours, and emotional expression were noted. There were complications including expander exposure in 3 patients, stretch marks in 5 patients, flap tip necrosis in 2 patients, and mild postoperative hypertrophic scars in 3 patients. In conclusion, the expanded pedicled deltopectoral flap can enlarge the reconstructive territory in face successfully with the technique improvements. The combination of the expanded pedicled deltopectoral flap and scalp flap is a reliable and excellent reconstructive option for large postburn facial-scalp scars.
Connolly, Deirdre; Vu, Ha Linh; Mariwalla, Kavita
Acne vulgaris is a ubiquitous problem affecting 80 percent of people ages 11 to 30 years, with many patients experiencing some degree of scarring. This review focuses on atrophic scars, the most common type of acne scar. We briefly address the cellular sequelae that lead to scar formation and the initial evaluation of patients with acne scars. We then discuss an algorithmic approach to the treatment of acne scarring based on the classification of scars into erythematous and atrophic types. Lastly, we discuss the future treatment of acne scars and ongoing clinical trials. PMID:29344322
Barikbin, Behrooz; Saadat, Nelda; Akbari, Zahra; Yousefi, Maryam; Toossi, Parviz
Despite their prevalence, there is a paucity of information in the medical literature on the treatment of atrophic chickenpox scars. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of using the chemical reconstruction of skin scar technique for the treatment of atrophic facial chickenpox scars. One hundred patients (mean age 23 years; Fitzpatrick skin types II-IV) were treated with focal chemical peeling with 70% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) for a maximum of six sessions. Improvement rate, frequency of adverse events and patient satisfaction were assessed. Five hundred thirty-three peeling sessions in 100 consecutive patients were performed. Final assessment at 12-week follow-up visit after the last treatment revealed improvement in 95% of patients: mild improvement in 12 cases, moderate improvement in 42 cases, and marked improvement in 41 cases. The appearance of scars did not change in five patients. Seventy-nine patients expressed moderate to high satisfaction with the results. Post-treatment side effects were mild and transient, resolving gradually within the study period. Focal peeling with high-concentration TCA appears to be a safe and effective alternative in the treatment of atrophic facial chickenpox scars. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
El-Domyati, Moetaz; Abdel-Wahab, Hossam; Hossam, Aliaa
Minimally invasive procedures provide effective, safe, relatively long-lasting, and natural results without large damage to the skin. A combination treatment is considered an approach that includes at least 2 different and unrelated modalities. This study aims to evaluate the use and effectiveness of some combined minimally invasive procedures for management of acne scarring. Twenty-four volunteers with postacne atrophic scars were randomly divided into 3 equal groups according to performed procedure on each side of the face (microneedling by dermaroller alone or combined with platelet-rich plasma [PRP] or trichloroacetic acid [TCA] 15% peeling) and received 6 bi-weekly sessions of treatment. Photography and punch biopsies were taken before and after 3 months of treatment for clinical, histological, and histometrical evaluation. Combined treatment of dermaroller and PRP or dermaroller and TCA 15% showed significant improvement when compared with dermaroller alone (P = .015 and .011 respectively). Epidermal thickness showed statistically significant increase in studied groups, mainly after dermaroller and TCA 15%. Moreover, the 3 studied groups showed more organized collagen bundles and newly formed collagen formation and markedly decreased abnormal elastic fibers. Based on the clinical, histometrical, and histochemical assessment, inspite that most volunteers showed significant improvement after treatment, however, the combined use of dermaroller and TCA 15% was more effective in postacne atrophic scars than the use of dermaroller and PRP or dermaroller only. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Oji, Tomito; Hayashi, Akiteru; Ogino, Akihiro; Onishi, Kiyoshi
Lengthening temporalis myoplasty is a faster and less invasive alternative to free muscle transfer for smile reconstruction. However, it requires a nasolabial fold incision, which leaves a midfacial scar. Based on esthetic considerations, a modified approach, involving an extended lazy-S (parotidectomy) incision instead of a nasolabial fold incision, was developed. A cadaveric study involving 10 hemifaces was conducted. From February 2013 to March 2016, the modified lengthening temporalis myoplasty procedure was employed in 10 patients. The results were graded from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent) according to the Terzis grading system. The excursion of the oral commissure was also measured. The extended lazy-S incision provides easy and safe access to the coronoid process and good visibility. The patients' mean age was 56.5 years, and the mean duration of the postoperative follow-up period was 22.2 months. The patients' underlying conditions included acoustic neuroma (n = 2), Bell palsy (n = 3), congenital conditions (n = 2), brain infarction (n = 1), Ramsay Hunt syndrome (n = 1), and malignant parotid lymphoma (n = 1). One patient suffered a surgical site infection, which was successfully treated with irrigation. All the patients achieved improvements in smile symmetry: 2, 5, and 3 patients obtained excellent, good, and moderate results, respectively. The excursion of the oral commissure ranged from 5 to 10 mm. The modified lengthening temporalis myoplasty procedure provides satisfactory functional outcomes without causing significant complications. It does not leave a facial scar and is a preferable option, especially for young and female patients, and patients who have undergone ablative surgery involving the parotid region.
Thuangtong, Rattapon; Tangjaturonrusamee, Chinmanat; Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Ditre, Chérie M
Acne patients experience not only a medical disease but also an aesthetic condition, and this latter complication greatly motivates patients to seek out the best treatment regimen to hasten improvement in their appearance. The available clinical procedures for acne treatment include salicylic acid 30% peel and pneumatic broadband light (PBBL). The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of salicylic acid 30% peel and PBBL treatments in patients with mild to moderately severe facial acne vulgaris. Twelve patients were recruited for a 12-week prospective, single-blind, randomized, split-face study. Patients were treated with a salicylic acid 30% peel on one side of the face and PBBL treatment was administered on the opposite side of the face for 6 consecutive weeks without other acne treatments. At every visit, treatment evaluations were performed using a modified Global Acne Grading Score (mGAGS), acne quality of life (QOL) questionnaire, Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale (WBPRS) assessments, and clinical photography. Improvement in acne symptoms was observed for both treatment procedures without significant differences and with minimal side effects. Salicylic acid 30% peel and PBBL were well tolerated in our study, and both clinical procedures were efficacious and well-tolerated by the patients.
Isoda, Kenichi; Seki, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yosuke; Umeda, Koji; Nishizaka, Takahiro; Tanabe, Hisateru; Takagi, Yutaka; Ishida, Koichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi
Acne is a common skin disease that involves the seborrheic area of the face and results from the obstruction of hair follicles followed by inflammation. Careful face washing helps to improve and prevent acne; however, intensive washing has a risk of inducing skin barrier impairment and dry skin, especially in sensitive skin. We hypothesized that skin care combining mild skin cleansing and intensive moisturizing ("combination skin care") may be effective in the care of acne in subjects with dry skin and/or sensitive skin. We developed a combination skin care with a weakly acidic foaming facial skin cleanser based on a mild detergent, an aqueous lotion with eucalyptus extract and a moisturizing gel containing pseudo-ceramide and eucalyptus extract. To optimize an ideal facial skin care system for mild acne on sensitive skin, we performed a 4-week clinical trial with 29 post-adolescent Japanese women with mild acne with dry and sensitive skin. The acne significantly decreased after this trial accompanied by the improvement of dry skin, a significantly increased endogenous ceramide level in the stratum corneum and an elongated alkyl chain length of the non-hydroxy acyl sphingosine type ceramide. No adverse events due to the test samples were observed. Based on diagnosis by a dermatologist, 97% of the subjects found the combination skin care to be "useful" or "slightly useful". Based on these findings, the combined use of a facial skin cleanser and moisturizers is safe and effective for the care of acne in post-adolescent Japanese women with sensitive skin. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Kessler, Edward; Flanagan, Katherine; Chia, Christina; Rogers, Cynthia; Glaser, Dee Anna
Chemical peels are used as adjuvants for treatment of facial acne. No well-controlled studies have compared alpha- and beta-hydroxy acid peels in the treatment of mild to moderately severe facial acne. To compare the efficacy of alpha- and beta-hydroxy acid chemical peels in the treatment of mild to moderately severe facial acne vulgaris. Twenty patients were recruited in this split-face, double-blind, randomized, controlled study. An alpha-hydroxy acid (30% glycolic acid) was applied to one-half of the face and a beta-hydroxy acid peel (30% salicylic acid) was applied contralaterally every 2 weeks for a total of six treatments. A blinded evaluator performed quantitative assessment of papules and pustules. Both chemical peels were significantly effective by the second treatment (p<.05) and there were no significant differences in effectiveness between the two peels. At 2 months posttreatment, the salicylic acid peel had sustained effectiveness. More adverse events were reported with the glycolic acid peel after the initial treatment. The glycolic acid and salicylic acid peels were similarly effective. The salicylic acid peel had sustained effectiveness and fewer side effects. Alpha- and beta-hydroxy acid peels both offer successful adjunctive treatment of facial acne vulgaris.
Comparison between Er:YAG laser and bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared diode laser for the treatment of acne scars: Differential expression of fibrogenetic biomolecules may be associated with differences in efficacy between ablative and non-ablative laser treatment.
Min, Seonguk; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Yoon, Ji Young; Suh, Dae Hun
Fractional Er:YAG minimizes the risk associated with skin ablation. Infrared diode laser and radiofrequency have suggested comparable improvements in acne scar. We compared the clinical efficacy of Er:YAG laser and bipolar radiofrequency combined with diode laser (BRDL) for the treatment of acne scars. Moreover, acute molecular changes of cytokine profile associated with wound healing have been evaluated to suggest mechanisms of improvement of acne scar. Twenty-four subjects with mild-to-moderate acne scars were treated in a split-face manner with Er:YAG and BRDL, with two treatment sessions, 4 weeks apart. Objective and subjective assessments were done at baseline, 1, 3, 7 days after each treatment and 4 weeks after last treatment. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained at baseline, 1, 3, 7, 28 days after one session of treatment for investigation of molecular profile of acute skin changes by laser treatment. Investigator's Global Assessment representing the improvement degree shows 2.1 (50%) in fractional Er:YAG and 1.2 (25%) in BRDL. Er:YAG induced the later and higher peak expression of TGFβs and collagenases, whereas BRDL induced earlier and lower expression of TGFβ and collagenases, relatively. PPARγ dropped rapidly after a peak in Er:YAG-treated side, which is associated with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) expression. We observed higher expression of TIMP after Er:YAG treatment compared with BRDL by immunohistochemistry, which may be associated with the expression of upregulation of collagen fibers. The superior efficacy of Er:YAG to BRDL in the treatment of acne scars may be associated with higher expression of collagen which is associated with differential expression of TGFβs, collagenases, PPARγ, and TIMP. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:341-347, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hazarika, Neirita; Rajaprabha, Radha K
Background and Aims: Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of adolescents, often extending into adulthood. Psychosocial impact of acne on health-related quality of life (QoL) has been identified, but it remains under-evaluated, especially in Indian patients. This study was aimed to assess the impact of acne and its sequelae on the QoL. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based, prospective, cross-sectional study done between June and November 2014 on 114 consenting patients above 15 years of age with acne vulgaris. Acne vulgaris and its sequelae were graded, and QoL was assessed by using Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Most cases (64%) were between 15 and 20 years. Females (57%) outnumbered males. Facial lesions (61.4%) and grade II acne were most common. Mean DLQI score was 7.22. DLQI scores were statistically influenced by the age of the patient, duration and grade of acne, acne scar, and postacne hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: This study showed significant impairment of QoL in acne patients. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris are important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment. PMID:27057015
Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...
The face is the most common location of acne. Here, there are 4 to 6 millimeter red ( ... scars and fistulous tract formation (connecting passages). Severe acne may have a profound psychological impact and may ...
Whitney, Kristen M; Ditre, Chérie M
Clinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s) for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne? Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients. Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of child-bearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral. PMID:21691566
Wortsman, Ximena; Claveria, Pedro; Valenzuela, Fernando; Molina, Maria Teresa; Wortsman, Jacobo
The purpose of this study was to assess the sonographic morphology of the clinical and subclinical pathology of facial acne vulgaris. We studied patients with facial acne vulgaris diagnosed by certified dermatologists, and using a standardized protocol for sonographic examinations, we sequentially described the sonographic pathomorphologic characteristics. Lesions of particular interest to the referring clinician were also analyzed separately. Additionally, acne involvement was staged clinically and sonographically (SOS-Acne) using morphologic definitions of the relevant lesions and predefined scoring systems for gradation of the severity of acne lesions. A total of 245 acne lesions in 20 consecutive patients were studied. Sonographic abnormalities consisted of pseudocysts, folliculitis, fistulas, and calcinosis. Most conditions were subclinical and mostly due to lesion extensions deep into the dermis and hypodermis (52% of pseudocysts and 68% of fistulas). The statistical concordance between acne severity scores assigned by two separate clinicians was strong (κ = 0.8020), but the corresponding sonographic scores generally showed more severe and clinically occult involvement. Facial acne vulgaris often involves deeper tissues, beyond the reach of the spatially restricted clinical examination; these subclinical conditions can be detected and defined with sonography. Additionally, acne vulgaris is amenable to sonographic scoring.
Introduction Acne vulgaris affects over 80% of teenagers, and persists beyond the age of 25 years in 3% of men and 12% of women. Typical lesions of acne include comedones, inflammatory papules, and pustules. Nodules and cysts occur in more severe acne and can cause scarring and psychological distress. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of topical and oral treatments in people with acne vulgaris? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: topical treatments (adapalene, azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin [alone or plus zinc]; isotretinoin, tetracycline, tretinoin); and oral treatments (doxycycline, isotretinoin, lymecycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline). PMID:21477388
Purdy, Sarah; de Berker, David
Acne vulgaris affects over 80% of teenagers, and persists beyond the age of 25 years in 3% of men and 12% of women. Typical lesions of acne include comedones, inflammatory papules, and pustules. Nodules and cysts occur in more severe acne and can cause scarring and psychological distress. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of topical and oral treatments in people with acne vulgaris? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: topical treatments (adapalene, azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin [alone or plus zinc]; isotretinoin, tetracycline, tretinoin); and oral treatments (doxycycline, isotretinoin, lymecycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline).
Xu, Xinghua; Zheng, Yi; Zhao, Zigang; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Pengxiang; Li, Chengxin
Acne vulgaris is a prevalent skin disorder impairing both physical and psychosocial health. This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined with minocycline in moderate to severe facial acne and influence on quality of life (QOL). Ninety-five patients with moderate to severe facial acne (Investigator Global Assessment [IGA] score 3-4) were randomly treated with PDT and minocycline (n = 48) or minocycline alone (n = 47). All patients took minocycline hydrochloride 100 mg/d for 4 weeks, whereas patients in the minocycline plus PDT group also received 4 times PDT treatment 1 week apart. IGA score, lesion counts, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and safety evaluation were performed before treatment and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after enrolment. There were no statistically significant differences in characteristics between 2 treatment groups at baseline. Minocycline plus PDT treatment led to a greater mean percentage reduction from baseline in lesion counts versus minocycline alone at 8 weeks for both inflammatory (-74.4% vs -53.3%; P < .001) and noninflammatory lesions (-61.7% vs -42.4%; P < .001). More patients treated with minocycline plus PDT achieved IGA score <2 at study end (week 8: 30/48 vs 20/47; P < .05). Patients treated with minocycline plus PDT got significant lower DLQI at 8 weeks (4.4 vs 6.3; P < .001). Adverse events were mild and manageable. Compared with minocycline alone, the combination of PDT with minocycline significantly improved clinical efficacy and QOL in moderate to severe facial acne patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Shim, Hyung-Sup; Jun, Dai-Won; Kim, Sang-Wha; Jung, Sung-No; Kwon, Ho
Purpose. Early postoperative fractional laser treatment has been used to reduce scarring in many institutions, but the most effective energy parameters have not yet been established. This study sought to determine effective parameters in the treatment of facial laceration scars. Methods. From September 2012 to September 2013, 57 patients were enrolled according to the study. To compare the low and high fluence parameters of 1,550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser treatment, we virtually divided the scar of each individual patient in half, and each half was treated with a high and low fluence setting, respectively. A total of four treatment sessions were performed at one-month intervals and clinical photographs were taken at every visit. Results. Results were assessed using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) and global assessment of the two portions of each individual scar. Final evaluation revealed that the portions treated with high fluence parameter showed greater difference compared to pretreatment VSS scores and global assessment values, indicating favorable cosmetic results. Conclusion. We compared the effects of high fluence and low fluence 1,550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser treatment for facial scarring in the early postoperative period and revealed that the high fluence parameter was more effective for scar management. PMID:26236738
Franchi, G; Neiva-Vaz, C; Picard, A; Vazquez, M-P
Cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers have gained rapid acceptance for treating facial wrinkles, deep tissue folds and sunken areas due to aging. This study evaluates, in addition to space-filling properties, their effects on softness and elasticity as a secondary effect, following injection of 3 commercially available cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers (15mg/mL, 17,5mg/mL and 20mg/mL) in patients presenting with congenital or acquired facial malformations. We started injecting gels of cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers in those cases in 2013; we performed 46 sessions of injections in 32 patients, aged from 13-32. Clinical assessment was performed by the patient himself and by a plastic surgeon, 15 days after injections and 6-18 months later. Cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers offered very subtle cosmetic results and supplemented surgery with a very high level of satisfaction of the patients. When injected in fibrosis, the first session enhanced softness and elasticity; the second session enhanced the volume. Cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers fill sunken areas and better softness and elasticity of scar tissues. In addition to their well-understood space-filling function, as a secondary effect, the authors demonstrate that cross-linked hyaluronic acid-based fillers improve softness and elasticity of scarring tissues. Many experimental studies support our observations, showing that cross-linked hyaluronic acid stimulates the production of several extra-cellular matrix components, including dermal collagen and elastin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Yue; Wan, Miaojian; Chen, Haiyan; Ye, Congxiu; Zhao, Yue; Yi, Jinling; Xia, Yue; Lai, Wei
Acne pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes inflammation. Combining active ingredients targeting multiple components of acne pathogenesis may yield optimal outcomes. This study investigates the safety and efficacy of an antioxidant optimized topical salicylic acid (SA) 1.5% cream containing natural skin penetration enhancers in combination with antioxidant activity for treatment of facial acne. A total of 20 patients with facial acne, aged 19-32 years (2 males, 18 females; mean age 26.1 ± 3.2), were enrolled. Patients were treated with topical 1.5% SA cream and instructed to apply the cream as a thin film over the affected area twice daily (in the morning and evening) for 4 weeks. Inflammatory severity, numbers of papules and pustules were evaluated by investigators at day 0 and weekly, and patients ranked their improvement. In all, 95% of patients improved: 20% had complete clearing, 30% had significantly improved, 15% had moderate improvement, 30% had mild improved, and there was no response in 5% of the patients by 4 weeks of treatment. No side effects were observed. This study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of this optimized topical 1.5% SA cream containing natural skin penetration enhancers in combination with antioxidant activity when applied twice daily for the reduction of facial acne; in particular, it is most effective for mild-to-moderate acne. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Combination of platelet rich plasma in fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment increased clinical efficacy of for acne scar by enhancement of collagen production and modulation of laser-induced inflammation.
Min, Seonguk; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Suh, Dae Hun
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) which contains large amounts of growth factors has been tried to enhance therapeutic efficacy of laser treatment for acne scar with unknown underlying mechanism. The present study was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanism of increased clinical efficacy of PRP when combined with fractional laser treatment for treating acne scars. Subjects with mild to moderate acne scars were treated with two sessions of fractional CO 2 laser therapy given with and without co-administration of PRP. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained at baseline, 1, 3, 7, and 28 days for investigation of molecular profiles associated with skin changes produced by laser plus PRP treatment. The PRP treatment increased clinical efficacy with decreased severity of adverse effects such as erythema, swelling and oozing. Productions of TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 proteins were more highly elevated on the PRP-treated side of the face compared to the control side at day 28. Furthermore, PRP-treated side showed significant increase of c-myc, TIMP, and HGF expression. Experimental fibroblast culture model was also used. PRP administration after laser irradiation increased expressions of p-Akt, TGFβ1, TGFβ3, β-catenin, collagen 1, and collagen 3 in both dose-dependent and time dependent manners in fibroblast. Moreover, we acquired clinical and histological data through randomized control clinical trial. Taken together with human study results combined with the data from cell experiments we suggest that PRP treatment increased fibrogenetic molecules induced by fractional CO 2 laser, which have association with clinical effect. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:302-310, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rodan, Katie; Fields, Kathy; Falla, Timothy J
Background Acne vulgaris (acne) is the most common skin disorder producing physical and emotional scars that can persist for years. An estimated 83% of acne sufferers self-treat, but there is lack of studies documenting the effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) acne treatment products. Objective This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of an OTC, 3-step, anti-acne skincare regimen in treating acne and improving the appearance of red/inflamed facial skin. Methods This 6-week, open-label clinical study included both genders aged between 12 and 35 years with mild-to-moderate acne. All subjects were required to have an acne score of 1–3 (Cook’s acne grading scale: 0=clear to 7=very severe) and a moderate redness score of ≥2 (0=none and 4=severe). Subjects completed a 3-step facial treatment regimen every morning and evening using an OTC cleanser, toner, and acne treatment. Evaluations for effectiveness and safety were done at baseline and weeks 2, 4, and 6 using digital photographs (Visia-CR® digital imaging system) of the face and analyzed using Image-Pro® software for the grading of acne, red/inflamed skin, and the number and type of lesions. Results Thirty subjects (12 males and 18 females) were enrolled (mean age of 19 years; range 12–34 years). This skincare regimen resulted in statistically significant improvements in acne grading scores after 2 weeks of use, with mean scores continuing to improve after 4 and 6 weeks of use (P<0.001). Statistically significant improvements from baseline in red/inflamed skin, open and closed comedones, and papules were detected at all time points and for nodules at week 6, compared to their respective baselines (P<0.05). Conclusion This clinical study demonstrated the effectiveness of an OTC 3-step, anti-acne skincare regimen in significantly improving acne and the overall appearance of skin in the majority of subjects who had mild-to-moderate acne. PMID:28115862
Rodan, Katie; Fields, Kathy; Falla, Timothy J
Acne vulgaris (acne) is the most common skin disorder producing physical and emotional scars that can persist for years. An estimated 83% of acne sufferers self-treat, but there is lack of studies documenting the effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) acne treatment products. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of an OTC, 3-step, anti-acne skincare regimen in treating acne and improving the appearance of red/inflamed facial skin. This 6-week, open-label clinical study included both genders aged between 12 and 35 years with mild-to-moderate acne. All subjects were required to have an acne score of 1-3 (Cook's acne grading scale: 0=clear to 7=very severe) and a moderate redness score of ≥2 (0=none and 4=severe). Subjects completed a 3-step facial treatment regimen every morning and evening using an OTC cleanser, toner, and acne treatment. Evaluations for effectiveness and safety were done at baseline and weeks 2, 4, and 6 using digital photographs (Visia-CR ® digital imaging system) of the face and analyzed using Image-Pro ® software for the grading of acne, red/inflamed skin, and the number and type of lesions. Thirty subjects (12 males and 18 females) were enrolled (mean age of 19 years; range 12-34 years). This skincare regimen resulted in statistically significant improvements in acne grading scores after 2 weeks of use, with mean scores continuing to improve after 4 and 6 weeks of use ( P <0.001). Statistically significant improvements from baseline in red/inflamed skin, open and closed comedones, and papules were detected at all time points and for nodules at week 6, compared to their respective baselines ( P <0.05). This clinical study demonstrated the effectiveness of an OTC 3-step, anti-acne skincare regimen in significantly improving acne and the overall appearance of skin in the majority of subjects who had mild-to-moderate acne.
Novel device-based acne treatments: comparison of a 1450-nm diode laser and microneedling radiofrequency on mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris and seborrhoea in Korean patients through a 20-week prospective, randomized, split-face study.
Kwon, H H; Park, H Y; Choi, S C; Bae, Y; Jung, J Y; Park, G-H
While device-based acne treatments are widely applied for patients not tolerating conventional medications, related controlled studies have been still limited. Recently, non-ablative 1450-nm diode laser (DL) and fractional microneedling radiofrequency (FMR) have been effectively used for acne, in addition to well-recognized dermal remodelling effects. To compare the clinical course of acne treatment between DL and FMR. Twenty-five Korean patients with mild-to-moderate facial acne completed treatments with DL and FMR through a 20-week, randomized split-face study. One randomly assigned half side of each patient's face received DL and the other side by FMR. Treatments were scheduled to receive three consecutive sessions at 4-week intervals. Objective assessments including revised Leeds grades, lesion counts, sebum output measurements, and patients' subjective satisfaction were investigated. Both DL and FMR demonstrated steady improvement of acne and seborrhoea during treatment sessions. While results between two devices were similar during treatment sessions, FMR was superior to DL in the 12-week follow-up. Patients' subjective assessments for seborrhoea improvement were similar between two devices, while those for acne, skin texture, and acne scars were more satisfactory for FMR. For safety profile, no significant difference was observed between two regimens, while mild postinflammatory hyperpigmentation was observed only in DL side. Both DL and FMR demonstrated efficacies for acne and seborrhoea, with reasonable safety profile. FMR was more effective than DL for the long-term maintenance, and subjective assessments for texture and scar improvements. Therefore, a few sessions of these devices would be a viable option for acne treatments. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Kircik, Leon H
This 12-week, single-center, investigator-blinded, randomized, parallel-design study assessed the safety and efficacy of tretinoin microsphere gel 0.04% delivered by pump (TMG PUMP) to tazarotene cream 0.05% (TAZ) in mild-to-moderate facial acne vulgaris. Efficacy measurements included investigator global assessment (IGA), lesion counts, and subject self-assessment of acne signs and symptoms. Efficacy was generally comparable between treatment groups, although TMG PUMP provided more rapid results in several parameters. IGA showed a more rapid mean change from baseline at week 4 in the TMG PUMP group (-0.18 versus -0.05 in the TAZ subjects). TMG PUMP yielded more rapid improvement in papules. At week 4, the mean percentage change from baseline in open comedones was statistically significant at -64% in the TMG PUMP group (P=0.0039, within group) versus -19% in the TAZ group (not statistically significant within the group; P=0.1875). Skin dryness, peeling and pruritus were significantly less in the TMG PUMP group as early as week 4. Adverse events related to study treatment were rare in both groups and all resolved upon discontinuation of study medication.
Weber, Stephen M.; Downs, Brian W.; Ferraz, Mario B.J.; Wang, Tom D.; Cook, Ted A.
Objective To describe our experience with coblation technology for facial resurfacing Methods Retrospective chart review of all patients treated with coblation at our institution Results Twenty-four patients (22 female) underwent a total of 29 coblation procedures for aging face (n = 21) or acne scarring (n = 3). The perioral region was the most frequently treated aesthetic subunit (n = 14), followed by the lower eyelid (n = 7). Five patients underwent full-face coblation. Three patients underwent a second coblation procedure for aging face while a single patient with severe acne scarring underwent 3 procedures. Repeat coblation was delayed at least 5 months (mean, 9 months). Seventeen coblation procedures (59%) were performed concurrently with procedures including, but not limited to, injection treatment, rhinoplasty, blepharoplasty, or combined face/necklift; no adverse events occurred. Seven procedures, including a full-face coblation, were performed in the office under local anesthesia and oral sedation without any adverse events. Mean follow-up was 6 months (range, 1 week to 24 months). No complications were observed. All patients were satisfied with the results after their final coblation treatment. Conclusions Facial coblation is a safe and effective treatment modality for facial resurfacing. PMID:18769690
Zeichner, Joshua A; Wong, Vicky; Linkner, Rita V; Haddican, Madelaine
Combination therapy using medications with complementary mechanisms of action is the standard of care in treating acne. We report results of a clinical trial evaluating the use of a fixed-dose tretinoin 0.025%/clindamycin phosphate 1.2% (T/CP) gel in combination with a benzoyl peroxide 6% foaming cloth compared with T/CP alone for facial acne. At week 12, the combination therapy group showed a trend toward greater efficacy compared with T/CP alone. There was a high success rate observed in the study, which may be attributable to the large percentage of adult female acne patients enrolled. Cutaneous adverse events were not statistically different in using combination therapy compared with T/CP alone.
Maiti, Rituparna; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar; Ashique Rahman, M A; Srinivasan, Anand; Parida, Sansita; Hota, Debasish
Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial disorder which is ideally treated with combination therapy with topical retinoids and antibiotics. The present study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of tazarotene plus clindamycin against adapalene plus clindamycin in facial acne vulgaris. This study is a randomized, open-label, parallel design clinical trial conducted on 60 patients with facial acne at the outpatient dermatology department in a tertiary healthcare center. The main outcome measures were change in the acne lesion count, Investigator's Static Global Assessment (ISGA) score, Global Acne Grading System (GAGS) score, and Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (Acne-QoL) at the end of 4 weeks of therapy. After randomization one group (n = 30) received tazarotene 0.1% plus clindamycin 1% gel and another group (n = 30) received adapalene 0.1% plus clindamycin 1% gel for 1 month. At follow-up, all the parameter were reassessed. In both treatment regimens the total number of facial acne lesions decreased significantly. The difference in the change in the total count between the two combination regimens was also significant [6.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91-11.09, p = 0.007]. A ≥50% reduction in the total lesion count from the baseline levels was achieved by 71% of patients in the tazarotene plus clindamycin group and 22% of patients in the adapalene plus clindamycin group (p = 0.0012). The difference in the change of inflammatory (p = 0.017) and non-inflammatory (p = 0.039) lesion counts in the tazarotene plus clindamycin group were significantly higher than the adapalene plus clindamycin group. The difference in change of the GAGS score was also significantly higher in the tazarotene plus clindamycin group (p = 0.003). The ISGA score improved in 17 patients in the tazarotene plus clindamycin group versusnine patients in the adapalene plus clindamycin group (p = 0.04). The change of total quality-of-life score was found to be
Ershova, Ekaterina Y.; Karimova, Lubov N.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Loschenov, Victor B.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Patients with acne were treated with ALA plus red light. Ten percent water solution of ALA was applied with 1,5-2 h occlusion and then 18-45 J/cm2 630 nm light was given. Bacterial endogenous porphyrins fluorescence also was used for acne therapy. Treatment control and diagnostics was realized by fluorescence spectra and fluorescence image. Light sources and diagnostic systems were used: semiconductor laser (λ=630 nm, Pmax=1W), (LPhT-630-01-BIOSPEC); LED system for PDT and diagnostics with fluorescent imager (λ=635 nm, P=2W, p=50 mW/cm2), (UFPh-630-01-BIOSPEC); high sensitivity CCD video camera with narrow-band wavelength filter (central wavelength 630 nm); laser electronic spectrum analyzer for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy monitoring (LESA-01-BIOSPEC). Protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) and endogenous porphyrins concentrations were measured by fluorescence at wavelength, correspondingly, 700 nm and 650 nm. It was shown that topical ALA is converted into PP IX in hair follicles, sebaceous glands and acne scars. The amount of resulting PP IX is sufficient for effective PDT. There was good clinical response and considerable clearance of acne lesion. ALA-PDT also had good cosmetic effect in treatment acne scars. PDT with ALA and red light assist in opening corked pores, destroying Propionibacterium acnes and decreasing sebum secretion. PDT treatment associated with several adverse effects: oedema and/or erytema for 3-5 days after PDT, epidermal exfoliation from 5th to 10th day and slight pigmentation during 1 month after PDT. ALA-PDT is effective for acne and can be used despite several side effects.
Abas, Fazly Salleh; Kaffenberger, Benjamin; Bikowski, Joseph; Gurcan, Metin N.
Acne is a common skin condition present predominantly in the adolescent population, but may continue into adulthood. Scarring occurs commonly as a sequel to severe inflammatory acne. The presence of acne and resultant scars are more than cosmetic, with a significant potential to alter quality of life and even job prospects. The psychosocial effects of acne and scars can be disturbing and may be a risk factor for serious psychological concerns. Treatment efficacy is generally determined based on an invalidated gestalt by the physician and patient. However, the validated assessment of acne can be challenging and time consuming. Acne can be classified into several morphologies including closed comedones (whiteheads), open comedones (blackheads), papules, pustules, cysts (nodules) and scars. For a validated assessment, the different morphologies need to be counted independently, a method that is far too time consuming considering the limited time available for a consultation. However, it is practical to record and analyze images since dermatologists can validate the severity of acne within seconds after uploading an image. This paper covers the processes of region-ofinterest determination using entropy-based filtering and thresholding as well acne lesion feature extraction. Feature extraction methods using discrete wavelet frames and gray-level co-occurence matrix were presented and their effectiveness in separating the six major acne lesion classes were discussed. Several classifiers were used to test the extracted features. Correct classification accuracy as high as 85.5% was achieved using the binary classification tree with fourteen principle components used as descriptors. Further studies are underway to further improve the algorithm performance and validate it on a larger database.
Garg, Shilpa; Dahiya, Naveen; Gupta, Somesh
Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods. PMID:24761092
As'adi, Kamran; Emami, Seyed Abolhassan; Salehi, Seyed Hamid; Shoar, Saeed
Tissue expansion has evolved reconstruction surgery by providing a great source of additional tissue for large skin defects. Nevertheless, wide application of tissue expander reconstruction is challenging due to high complication rates and uncertainty about final outcomes. Recently, endoscopy has shown promise in reconstructive surgeries using tissue expander placement. This study aimed to compare outcomes between open and endoscopic-assisted neck tissue expander placement in reconstruction of post-burn facial scar deformities. Through a randomized clinical trial, 63 patients with facial burn scars were assigned to an open group or endoscopic group for placement of 81 tissue expanders. The complication rate, operative time, length of hospital stay, and time to full expansion were compared between the two groups. Thirty-one patients were assigned to the open group and 32 patients to the endoscopic group. The average operative time was significantly reduced in the endoscopic group compared with the open group (42.2 ± 3.6, 56.5 ± 4.5 min, p < 0.05). The complication rate was significantly lower in the endoscopic group than the open group (6 vs. 16, p < 0.05). Hospital stay was also significantly diminished from 26.3 ± 7.7 h in open group to 7.4 ± 4.5 h in endoscopic group (p < 0.0001). There was a significant reduction in time to full expansion in the endoscopic group as compared with the open group (93.5 ± 10.2 vs. 112.1 ± 14.2 days, p = 0.002). Endoscopic neck tissue expander placement significantly reduced operative time, the postoperative complication rate, length of hospital stay, and time to achieve full expansion and allowed early initiation of expansion and remote placement of the port in relation to the expander pocket. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to
Randomized, Double-Blind, Split-Face Study Evaluating Fractional Ablative Erbium:YAG Laser-Mediated Trans-Epidermal Delivery of Cosmetic Actives and a Novel Acoustic Pressure Wave Ultrasound Technology for the Treatment of Skin Aging, Melasma, and Acne Scars.
Fractional laser resurfacing enhances trans-epidermal delivery (TED), however laser penetration depths >250- μm fail to substantively increase drug delivery. Evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel acoustic pressure wave ultrasound device following fractional ablative Er:YAG 2940-nm laser (FELR) and topical agents for rhytids, melasma, and acne scars. Randomized, blinded, parallel group split-face side-by-side, controlled study evaluating FELR and topical anti-aging and anti-pigment agents to entire face succeeded by ultrasound to randomized side. Fifteen subjects were enrolled to three treatment arms:rhytids, melasma, and acne scars. Two monthly treatments were administered with 1, 3, and 6 month follow-up. Efficacy was assessed by Comprehensive Grading Scale of Rhytids, Laxity, and Photoaging by Investigator and two blinded physician evaluators. Subject assessments, digital photographs, and reflectance spectroscopic analyses were obtained. Rhytid severity was reduced from a mean of 3.25 to 2.60 on the 4-point grading scale. Spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated increases in lightness (L*) and reductions in redness (a*) and pigment (b*), with greater improvements on the ultrasound side as compared to FELR and topicals alone. Moderate erythema post-treatment resolved in 7 days and no serious adverse events were observed. In this randomized, paired split-face clinical study, FELR-facilitated TED of topical anti-aging actives with ultrasound treatment is safe and effective with improvement in rhytids, melasma, and acne scars. Statistically significant greater improvement in pigment levels was observed on the ultrasound side as compared to FELR-TED and topical agents alone.
Gutiérrez-Díaz, E; Montero-Rodríguez, M; Mencía-Gutiérrez, E; Fernández-González, M C; Pérez-Blázquez, E
To report a case of Propionibacterium acnes endophthalmitis in a patient with an Ahmed glaucoma valve. A nine-year-old boy with bilateral congenital glaucoma, with an Ahmed glaucoma valve implanted in the left eye, had recurrent conjunctival dehiscence and endophthalmitis. Vitreous cultures demonstrated the presence of Propionibacterium acnes. This is the first reported case of Propionibacterium acnes endophthalmitis in an Ahmed glaucoma valve and the second one in a glaucoma drainage device. We strongly recommend using a patch graft to prevent and treat tube exposure. Conjunctival grafts may be useful to close the conjunctiva when there is marked scarring to prevent patch exposure and melting or extrusion.
Vasily, D B; Breen, P C; Miller, O F
Acne keloidalis nuchae (folliculitis keloidalis or dermatitis papillaris capillitii) is a chronic, deep, scarring folliculitis of the nuchal area. Therapeutic measures such as oral and topical antibiotics, intralesional injections of fluorinated adrenocorticosteroids, and radiotherapy are sometimes effective in controlling this condition. A case of refractory acne keloidalis is presented to show the curative possibility of aggressive surgical therapy.
Jorizzo, Joseph; Grossman, Rachel; Nighland, Marge
Facial acne is common in adolescents and can have a significant psychosocial impact. Treatments prescribed should not add stress by causing excessive localized irritation. To determine whether the lowest concentration of tretinoin microsphere gel (TMG) currently available (0.04%) provides an acceptable balance of efficacy and tolerability for adolescents with moderate facial acne. The findings of 2 multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trials of TMG 0.04% applied once nightly for 12 weeks in 245 adolescents ages 11 to 16 years with moderate facial acne were combined. Patients were evaluated via changes in acne lesion counts and the occurrence of cutaneous and other adverse effects. Tretinoin microsphere gel 0.04% reduced total, noninflammatory, and inflammatory lesion counts to a significantly greater extent than the vehicle gel at 12 weeks (P<.000005). The mean percentage reductions in noninflammatory and inflammatory lesion counts at 12 weeks in females were 45.0% and 51.4%, respectively; and in males, 20.5% and 36.7%, respectively. Tretinoin microsphere gel 0.04% was tolerated well, with over 70% of patients experiencing no cutaneous adverse events (AEs). Tretinoin microsphere gel 0.04% is effective in significantly reducing all types of acne lesions in adolescents with moderate facial acne ages 11 to 16 years, and has a low incidence of cutaneous AEs.
Darji, Kavita; Varade, Reena; West, Daniel; Armbrecht, Eric S.
Background: Acne vulgaris is a common, often socially distressing skin condition primarily seen in young adults. Quality of life studies have shown that people with acne are more introverted with increased social setting anxiety compared to a control group. Unfortunately, patients with acne may have residual postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, amplifying impaired psychosocial effects. Objective: To quantify the impact of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in patients with acne using a psychometric scale. Design: A clinic-based survey was conducted among US adults with facial acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Outcomes included age, race, gender, and acne-related quality of life. A board-certified dermatologist rated each patient’s acne severity and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Setting: Dermatology clinic, Anheuser Busch Institute and Des Peres Hospital, Saint Louis, Missouri. Participants: 48 subjects (25 patients with acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation; 23 with acne only). Measurements: Acne Quality of Life survey, dermatologist rating of acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation severity. Results: Subjects with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation reported statistically significant poorer mean scores on the Acne Quality of Life survey than subjects with acne only. Sixty percent of patients with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation had a “very markedly” impact to at least one aspect of the Acne Quality of Life survey scale compared to none of the acne only patients. There was no association between provider-reported hyperpigmentation severity and psychosocial impact. No differences in psychosocial impact were noted between males and females. Conclusion: Patients with acne and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation had poorer quality-of-life scores compared to patients with only acne. Having postinflammatory hyperpigmentation with acne negatively impacted self-perceptions and social/emotional functioning, especially in groups. PMID
Lehrhoff, Stephanie; Yost, John; Robinson, Maria; Patel, Rishi; Sanchez, Miguel
We present a unique case of S. marcescens folliculitis of the trunk in a 46-year-old woman with a history of facial acne vulgaris during her teen years. Her eruption occurred at the time of elective ambulatory surgery when she was treated with pre and post-operative antibiotics. The diagnosis of S. marcescens folliculitis was made on the basis of histopathologic features and tissue culture of a skin biopsy specimen of a pustule after her eruption was unresponsive to conventional treatment for inflammatory acne vulgaris. The history and pathophysiology of gram-negative folliculitis in the setting of acne vulgaris is reviewed.
Dessinioti, Clio; Katsambas, Andreas
The human commensal bacterium Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) resides in the pilosebaceous duct of the skin. It has been long implicated in the pathogenesis of acne, although its exact role in the development of inflammatory acne lesions and in the formation of the microcomedo in the early stages of acne remains controversial. The worldwide prevalence of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes is increasing, with rates varying in different parts of the world. The reason for the difference in the antibiotic resistance patterns of P. acnes among different countries is not clear, although it may be attributed to different antibiotic prescribing habits, concomitant use of topical agents (retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, or other antibiotics), varying methods of bacterial sampling, or even different P. acnes populations. Although the relative abundances of P. acnes may be similar among patients with acne and individuals without acne, P. acnes populations and the presence of P. acnes biofilms differ, with different potential virulence properties and antimicrobial resistance patterns. Implications of the use of antibiotics and of antimicrobial resistance in patients with acne include the decreased efficacy of antibiotic treatments for acne, and the possible emergence of other resistant bacterial species via selective pressure by antibiotic use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... for Educators Search English Español Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can I Prevent Acne? Print en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...
Sharma, Mohit; Wakure, Abhijeet
Most surgical patients end up with a scar and most of these would want at least some improvement in the appearance of the scar. Using sound techniques for wound closure surgeons can, to a certain extent, prevent suboptimal scars. This article reviews the principles of prevention and treatment of suboptimal scars. Surgical techniques of scar revision, i.e., Z plasty, W plasty, and geometrical broken line closure are described. Post-operative care and other adjuvant therapies of scars are described. A short description of dermabrasion and lasers for management of scars is given. It is hoped that this review helps the surgeon to formulate a comprehensive plan for management of scars of these patients. PMID:24516292
Leyden, James J; Sniukiene, Vilma; Berk, David R; Kaoukhov, Alexandre
There is a need for new oral antibiotics for acne with improved safety profiles and targeted antibacterial spectra. Sarecycline is a novel, tetracycline-class antibiotic specifically designed for acne, offering a narrow spectrum of activity compared with currently available tetracyclines, including less activity against enteric Gram-negative bacteria. This phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses of sarecycline for moderate to severe facial acne vulgaris. In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients aged 12 to 45 years were randomized to once-daily sarecycline 0.75 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, 3.0 mg/kg, or placebo. Efficacy analyses included change from baseline in inflammatory and noninflammatory lesion counts at week 12, with between-group comparisons using analysis of covariance. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), clinical laboratories, vital signs, electrocardiograms, and physical examinations. Overall, 285 randomized patients received at least one dose of study drug. At week 12, sarecycline 1.5 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg groups demonstrated significantly reduced inflammatory lesions from baseline (52.7% and 51.8%, respectively) versus placebo (38.3%; P=0.02 and P=0.03, respectively). Sarecycline was safe and well tolerated, with similar gastrointestinal AE rates in sarecycline and placebo groups. Vertigo and photosensitivity AEs occurred in less than 1% of patients when pooling sarecycline groups; no vulvovaginal candidiasis AEs occurred. Discontinuation rates due to AEs were low. No serious AEs occurred. Once-daily sarecycline 1.5 mg/kg significantly reduced inflammatory lesions versus placebo and was safe and well tolerated with low rates of AEs, including gastrointestinal AEs. Sarecycline 3.0 mg/kg did not result in additional efficacy versus 1.5 mg/kg. Sarecycline may represent a novel, once-daily treatment for patients with moderate to severe acne. It offers a narrow antibacterial spectrum relative to other
Burns often result in extensive scars which can change the body aesthetically and/ or functionally. Rapid scarring is a sign of a good prognosis. Preventative actions such as hydration, compression, massage, posture and splints help to prevent or contain the negative evolution of pathological scars.
Bari, Arfan Ul; Iqbal, Zafar; Rahman, Simeen Ber
Chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure that may have some potentially undesirable side-effects. The present study is directed towards safety concerns associated with superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses. The study was a non-comparative and a prospective one. Two hundred and sixty-eight patients of either sex, aged between 10 to 60 years, undergoing superficial chemical peeling for various facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, freckles, post-inflammatory scars/pigmentation, actinic keratoses, plane facial warts, etc.) were included in the study. Eight weekly peeling sessions were carried out in each patient. Tolerance to the procedure and any undesirable effects noted during these sessions were recorded. Almost all the patients tolerated the procedure well. Mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema were quite common but the incidence of major side-effects was very low and these too, were easily manageable. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side-effects between facial dermatoses (melasma, acne and other pigmentary disorders). Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is a well tolerated and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses.
Pestoni Porvén, Carmela; Vieira Dos Santos, Vanessa; Del Pozo Losada, Jesus
Nodulocystic acne is prone to scarring and difficult to treat with treatments other than oral isotretinoin. The aim of this article is to discuss the role of a single session of a fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser combined with a topical treatment with a tretinoin and antibiotic gel for a month as a successful treatment to improve nodulocystic acne and chronic microcystic acne. Two cases were involved: the first with nodulocystic acne lesions that persisted after oral retinoids and the second with chronic microcystic acne resistant to topical treatments. After only one session of treatment with the CO 2 laser and the topical treatment, a complete healing of the nodulocystic acne lesions was observed with minimal secondary effects. The microcystic acne showed great improvement. No other topical or oral treatment was needed. This treatment could be a safe and effective treatment for nodulocystic acne lesions and microcystic acne when other treatments fail. More studies should be performed to confirm our results.
Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit
The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.
Cirigliano, Marcela; Gwazdauskas, Jennifer A; Gonzalez, Pablo
Objective: To compare the first two weeks of tolerability of clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel versus adapalene/benzoyl peroxide gel followed by six weeks of open-label clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel therapy in subjects with mild-to-moderate acne who participated in two eight-week, identically designed, clinical studies. Methods: Using a split-face method, patients received both clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel and adapalene/benzoyl peroxide gel once daily for two weeks (allocation to the right or left side of the face was randomized) in an investigator-blinded fashion. Patients then went on to receive a further six weeks of open-label, full-face clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel. The primary outcome was to compare signs and symptoms of tolerability during the first two weeks of treatment using an investigator-assessed 4-point rating scale. Secondary endpoints included assessment of acne severity (Investigator Static Global Assessment and lesion counts), quality of life, product acceptability/preference, and patient assessments of tolerability and safety. Results: Of the 76 subjects enrolled in the two studies, 72 completed them. Overall both products were well tolerated, but mean scores for erythema, dryness, and peeling were significantly higher with adapalene/benzoyl peroxide gel than with clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel at both Weeks 1 and 2 (p<0.03). Patients also rated clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel significantly more tolerable than adapalene/benzoyl peroxide gel for redness, dryness, burning, itching, and scaling at Weeks 1 and 2 (p 0.0073). Mean Investigator Static Global Assessment score improved with both products during the first two weeks of treatment and continued to show significant improvement versus baseline when treatment with clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gel was continued for a further six weeks (p<0.001 at Week 8). Lesion counts improved throughout the study with significant reductions from baseline occurring at Weeks 5 and 8 (p<0.0001 for
Jasson, Fiona; Nagy, Istvan; Knol, Anne Chantal; Zuliani, Thomas; Khammari, Amir; Dréno, Brigitte
Acne is a chronic inflammatory illness of the pilosebaceous follicle where innate immunity plays a central role. In acne, the density of Propionibacterium acnes is increased in the pilosebaceous unit. We hypothesized that the severity of acne is not only dependent on the proliferation of P. acnes but also dependent on the pro-inflammatory potential of P. acnes strains and consequently constitutes potential triggering factor for acne scarring. We investigated pro-inflammatory potential of five different strains of P. acnes and P. avidum in skin explants and the preventive effect of zinc gluconate. The expression of immune markers was studied by immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR and ELISA. P. acnes strains modulate differently the expression of immune markers both at gene and at protein levels. P. acnes type III had the highest pro-inflammatory potential by up-regulating the expression of PAR-2, TNF-alpha, MMP-13 and TIMP-2, whereas P. avidum had the weakest by up-regulating only MMP-13 and TIMP-2. Preincubation of zinc gluconate, which is a modulator of innate immunity, down-regulates the expression of most immune markers induced by P. acnes, PAR-2, TIMP-2, up-regulates MMP-1, TIMP-1. Our results demonstrate that different P. acnes strains have different inflammatory potential targeting markers of cutaneous innate immunity, and that inflammatory potential can be down-regulated by zinc gluconate. As such, the inflammatory potential of P. acnes strains on acne skin may influence the severity of inflammatory acne lesions and scars. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Amr, Mostafa; Kaliyadan, Feroze; Shams, Tarek
Skin disorders such as acne, which have significant cosmetic implications, can affect the self-perception of cutaneous body image. There are many scales which measure self-perception of cutaneous body image. We evaluated the use of a simple Cutaneous Body Image (CBI) scale to assess self-perception of body image in a sample of young Arab patients affected with acne. A total of 70 patients with acne answered the CBI questionnaire. The CBI score was correlated with the severity of acne and acne scarring, gender, and history of retinoids use. There was no statistically significant correlation between CBI and the other parameters - gender, acne/acne scarring severity, and use of retinoids. Our study suggests that cutaneous body image perception in Arab patients with acne was not dependent on variables like gender and severity of acne or acne scarring. A simple CBI scale alone is not a sufficiently reliable tool to assess self-perception of body image in patients with acne vulgaris.
Sidle, Douglas M; Decker, Jennifer R
Scars after facial trauma or surgery can be a source of distress for patients, and facial plastic surgeons are frequently called upon to help manage them. Although no technique can remove a scar, numerous treatment modalities have been developed to improve facial scar appearance with varying levels of invasiveness. This article reviews techniques that camouflage scars without surgical intervention. Topical scar treatments, camouflage cosmetics, use of hairstyling and glasses, and facial prosthetics are discussed. In addition, professional counseling is provided on selection and application of topical cosmetics for use as part of an office practice. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Pei-Feng; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Lin, Ya-Ching; Two, Aimee; Shu, Chih-Wen; Huang, Chun-Ming
Acne vulgaris, a multi-factorial disease, is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting an estimated 80% of Americans at some point during their lives. The gram-positive and anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacterium has been implicated in acne inflammation and pathogenesis. Therapies for acne vulgaris using antibiotics generally lack bacterial specificity, promote the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, and cause adverse effects. Immunotherapy against P. acnes or its antigens (sialidase and CAMP factor) has been demonstrated to be effective in mice, attenuating P. acnes-induced inflammation; thus, this method may be applied to develop a potential vaccine targeting P. acnes for acne vulgaris treatment. This review summarizes reports describing the role of P. acnes in the pathogenesis of acne and various immunotherapy-based approaches targeting P. acnes, suggesting the potential effectiveness of immunotherapy for acne vulgaris as well as P. acnes-associated diseases.
Muthupalaniappen, L; Tan, H C; Puah, J W D; Apipi, M; Sohaimi, A E; Mahat, N F; Rafee, N M
Acne is a common skin disorder which can cause physical scaring and impact the quality of life. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, severity and the risk factors for developing acne among medical students in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). A cross sectional study among UKM medical students from academic year 1 to 5 was conducted from July 2011 to May 2012. A total of 361 students were selected by stratified cluster sampling method. Baseline data of the students, risk factors, height and weight were recorded. Acne severity was graded using the Comprehensive Acne Severity Scale (CASS). The prevalence of acne among medical students is 68.1% (n=246). Males and females were almost equally affected (1:1.1). Majority students with acne were graded as almost clear (55.7%, n=137), mild (35.0%, n=86), moderate (7.7%, n=19), and severe (1.6%, n=4). More than half of them had developed acne scars (59.0%, n= 213). Males were found to be at higher risk of developing acne compared to females (p<0.05, OR=4.734; 95%CL=2.726-8.222). They are also at higher risk of developing moderate and severe grades of acne compared to females (p=0.001). The odds for developing acne was higher when mother (p=0.029; OR=1.752; 95%CL=1.058-2.902) or father (p=0.027; OR=1.852; 95%CL=1.072-3.201) had acne. When both parents were affected by acne the odds of developing acne was 3 times. (p=0.025; OR=3.056; 95%CL=1.153-8.094). This study shows that the prevalence of acne among medical students is high. Hence, it is important to identify those at risk and provide optimal treatment to prevent scarring and possible low self esteem among these future doctors.
Kamamoto, Cristhine de Souza Leão; Hassun, Karime Marques; Bagatin, Ediléia; Tomimori, Jane
BACKGROUND many studies about the psychosocial impact of acne have been reported in international medical literature describing quality of life as a relevant clinical outcome. It is well known that the patient's perception about the disease may be different from the physician's evaluation. Therefore, it is important to use validated instruments that turn the patient's subjective opinion into objective information. OBJECTIVES to translate into Brazilian-Portuguese language and to culturally adapt a quality of life questionnaire, the Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (Acne-QoL), as well as to evaluate its reliability and validity. METHODS measurement properties were assessed: 1) validity: comparison between severity and Acne-QoL domain scores, correlations between acne duration and Acne-QoL domain scores, and correlation between Acne-QoL domain scores and SF-36 components; 2) internal consistency: Cronbach's α coefficient; 3) test-retest reproducibility: intraclass correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon test. RESULTS Eighty subjects with a mean age of 20.5 ± 4.8 years presenting mild (33.8%), moderate (36.2%) and severe (30%) facial acne were enrolled. Acne-QoL domain scores were similar among the different acne severity groups except for role-social domain. Subjects with shorter acne duration presented significant higher scores. Acne-QoL domains showed significant correlations, both between themselves and with SF-36 role-social and mental health components. Internal consistency (0.925-0.952) and test-retest reproducibility were considered acceptable (0.768-0.836). CONCLUSIONS the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Acne-QoL is a reliable and valid satisfactory outcome measure to be used in facial acne studies. PMID:24626652
Ramos-e-Silva, M; Ramos-e-Silva, S; Carneiro, S
This review focuses on the subject of acne in women, a disease that is increasingly common and that can also affect men. Adult acne differs from the type of acne that occurs in teenagers, and it may persist beyond adolescence or have its onset at an older age (adult-onset acne or late acne). Acne can have a negative impact on the quality of life of patients at any age, leading to a negative body image and decrease in self-esteem, and in older patients it can result in discrimination in the workplace and in other social environments. Acne in women must be understood as a specific problem, and here we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, psychology and treatment of this very prevalent problem. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.
Scharschmidt, D.; Algermissen, Bernd; Willms-Jones, J.-C.; Philipp, Carsten M.; Berlien, Hans-Peter
Different laser systems and techniques are used for the treatment of hypertrophic scars, keloids and acne scars. Significant criteria in selecting a suitable laser system are the scar's vascularization, age and diameter. Flashlamp- pumped dye-lasers, CO2-lasers with scanner, Argon and Nd:YAG-lasers are used. Telangiectatic scars respond well to argon lasers, erythematous scars and keloids to dye-laser treatment. Using interstitial Nd:YAG-laser vaporization, scars with a cross-section over 1 cm can generally be reduced. For the treatment of atrophic and acne scars good cosmetic results are achieved with a CO2-laser/scanner system, which allows a precise ablation of the upper dermis with low risk of side-effects.
Gan, Cheng; Fan, Jincai; Liu, Liqiang; Tian, Jia; Jiao, Hu; Chen, Wenlin; Fu, Siqi; Feng, Suyun
The expanded forehead flap, using temporal pedicles, has been employed extensively in facial reconstruction. To overcome the disadvantages of the traditional dual temporal pedicles, such as the limited transfer range and the short length of the flap, the distal supercharging technique can be applied to lengthen the flap and extend the transfer range, especially in the cases with a past temporal burn injury. This article aims to present an application of the distal supercharged expanded forehead flap procedure for hemi-facial reconstruction and discuss the haemodynamics of the expanded forehead flap. The tissue expander implantation and the following forehead tissue expansion were performed regularly. When the forehead skin expansion was completed, an expanded forehead flap was created and transferred to the damaged facial area with one distal temporal vessel pedicle that was anastomosed with facial vessels in a supercharged way. All patients were analysed retrospectively. From September 2009 to September 2011, eight male patients and one female patient were treated using this method. Their flaps size ranged from 20 cm × 8 cm to 30 cm × 11 cm and no flap loss occurred. Patients came in for follow-ups 9-16 months after the procedures. All the patients were satisfied with the results. The supercharging expanded forehead flap procedure can provide reliable flap vascularity due to its elastic transferring abilities. By using a distal supercharging technique, we can lengthen and widen the flap to tailor it to the defect, while also minimising the donor defect in the patients with a past temporal injury. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hammer-Hansen, Niels; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Rødgaard, Jes Christian
Scarring is an expected result of trauma to the skin. Scars are a heterogenic group varying from small white non elevated scars to hypertrophic scars and keloids. Many different algorithms for scar prophylaxis and treatment have been presented in the literature. We discuss different types of scar formation and recently published evidence-based guidelines in regards to prophylaxis and treatment of scars written by 24 experts on scar management.
Duquia, Rodrigo P; de Almeida, Hiram L; Breunig, Juliano A; Souzat, Paulo R M; Göellner, Caroline D
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease affecting more than 85% of adolescents and often continuing into adulthood. Population-based studies to assess the patterns and severity of acne have not been achieved. The aim of this study was to assess the most common patterns of facial and trunk acne in young (18-year-old) men in a representative sample of male adolescents in a city in southern Brazil and to investigate the severity of inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions in these individuals. In Brazil, military service is compulsory for all males. Every adolescent male must report to his military service headquarters to submit to a medical screening examination. The study included 2201 adolescents, each of whom underwent a skin examination conducted by a dermatologist to identify and quantify all non-inflammatory (comedones) and inflammatory (papules, pustules, and nodules) lesions. Non-inflammatory lesions (comedones) were observed on 1487 individuals, and inflammatory lesions (papules and pustules) were noted on 1497 individuals. The most common patterns of facial acne were the full-face, bilateral malar and frontal mentonian distributions. This is the first population-based study to evaluate patterns of acne. Facial involvement was very prevalent, and the frontal region was found to dominate patterns of distribution of acne vulgaris. Comedonian acne of the face was much more intense and affected the entire face. In inflammatory facial acne, the majority of the study subjects exhibited up to five lesions in the region under study. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.
Yu, H J; Lee, S K; Son, S J; Kim, Y S; Yang, H Y; Kim, J H
Steroid acne is a folliculitis that can result from systemic or topical administration of steroid, and has been described as showing a similar clinical picture to Pityrosporum folliculitis, but there have been few reports about the incidence of Pityrosporum ovale and the effect of antimycotic drugs in steroid acne and other acneiform eruptions. Our purpose was to describe the association between steroid acne and P. ovale, and to confirm the superior efficacy of oral antifungal drugs over anti-acne drugs in the treatment of steroid acne. The history, clinical features direct microscopy, histopathologic analysis, and therapeutic results of 125 cases with steroid acne or other acneiform eruptions were described and compared. Over 80% of patients with acneiform eruption receiving systemic steroid revealed significant numbers of P. ovale in the lesional follicle. Furthermore, oral antifungal drug (itraconazole) showed significantly better clinical and mycologic effects than any other group of medications used in this study. Steroid acne and other acneiform eruptions showing discrete follicular papules and/or pustules localized to the upper trunk and acneiform facial skin lesions associated with multiple acneiform lesions on the body in the summer period should be suspected as Pityrosporum folliculitis. In addition, oral antifungal drugs recommended for Pityrosporum folliculitis; however, it will require a larger case-control study to confirm the superiority of antifungal therapy over anti-acne treatment.
Parry, Ingrid; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David
Special emphasis is placed on the clinical management of facial scarring because of the profound physical and psychological impact of facial burns. Noninvasive methods of facial scar management include pressure therapy, silicone, massage, and facial exercises. Early implementation of these scar management techniques after a burn injury is typically accepted as standard burn rehabilitation practice, however, little data exist to support this practice. This study evaluated the timing of common noninvasive scar management interventions after facial skin grafting in children and the impact on outcome, as measured by scar assessment and need for facial reconstructive surgery. A retrospective review of 138 patients who underwent excision and grafting of the face and subsequent noninvasive scar management during a 10-year time frame was conducted. Regression analyses were used to show that earlier application of silicone was significantly related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale scores, specifically in the subscales of vascularity and pigmentation. Early use of pressure therapy and implementation of facial exercises were also related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale vascularity scores. No relationship was found between timing of the interventions and facial reconstructive outcome. Early use of silicone, pressure therapy, and exercise may improve scar outcome and accelerate time to scar maturity.
Greenwood, R; Fenwick, P B; Cunliffe, W J
The severity of acne and rate of excretion of sebum were assessed in 243 patients with epilepsy taking various anticonvulsants who were in hospital long term and in matched controls derived from a normal population of 2176 people. Neither the prevalence of acne nor the sebum excretion rate significantly increased in the patients compared with the controls or in patients taking phenytoin compared with those not. It is concluded that anticonvulsant treatment does not cause acne. PMID:6227369
Cheung, Melody J.; Taher, Muba; Lauzon, Gilles J.
OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical recognition and current management strategies for four types of acneiform facial eruptions common in young women: acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Many randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) have studied treatments for acne vulgaris over the years. Treatment recommendations for rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis are based predominantly on comparison and open-label studies (level II evidence) as well as expert opinion and consensus statements (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Young women with acneiform facial eruptions often present in primary care. Differentiating between morphologically similar conditions is often difficult. Accurate diagnosis is important because treatment approaches are different for each disease. CONCLUSION Careful visual assessment with an appreciation for subtle morphologic differences and associated clinical factors will help with diagnosis of these common acneiform facial eruptions and lead to appropriate management. PMID:15856972
Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.
Hoffman, Lauren K; Del Rosso, James Q; Kircik, Leon H
INTRODUCTION: Truncal acne is often associated with facial acne, but there are fewer options for an effective topical treatment on the trunk. Given the advent of foam formulations with enhanced percutaneous absorption and convenient application due to easy spreadability on skin, the previously held idea that effective treatment of truncal acne requires oral treatment is challenged. Azelaic acid cream has been previously approved for acne vulgaris, thus azelaic acid foam may be a viable treatment option for truncal acne.
STUDY DESIGN: A single-center, open label pilot study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of azelaic acid 15% foam as a treatment modality for moderate truncal acne. Use for facial acne was also allowed and monitored during the study.
RESULTS: Twice-daily application of azelaic acid 15% foam to affected areas resulted in a 1-grade reduction in truncal investigator global assessment (IGA) scores in nearly all patients (16/18). Eight out of 18 patients (44%) were rated as Clear or Almost Clear in the trunk by the end of the study. There were also improvements in facial IGA scores; 9 of 18 patients (50%) exhibited a 1-grade improvement in IGA scores and 11 of 18 were Clear or Almost Clear by the end of the study. A significant reduction in lesion counts was found throughout the study and the medication was well tolerated.
CONCUSION: Azelaic acid 15% foam was effective in treating moderate truncal acne and facial acne in this pilot study. Given the efficacy and convenience of the foam vehicle, azelaic acid may be considered as a viable option for treatment of acne vulgaris, including on the trunk. Further studies are suggested in a larger population of patients, including adult females with acne.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(6):534-538..
Elshahat, Ahmed; Lashin, Riham
Facial scaring is considered one of the most difficult cosmetic problems for any plastic surgeon to solve. The condition is more difficult if the direction of the scar is not parallel to relaxed skin tension lines. Attempts to manage this difficult situation included revisions using geometric designs, Z plasties or W plasties to camouflage the straight line visible scaring. The use of long-lasting resorbable sutures was tried too. Recently, the use of botulinum toxin during revision improved the results. Fractional CO2 lasers, microfat grafts, and platelet-rich plasma were added to the armamentarium. The scar is least visible if placed in the junction between the facial subunits. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of the subunit principle to improve the results of scar revision. Four patients were included in this study. Tissue expansion of the intact part of the subunit allowed shifting the scar to the junction between the affected subunit and the adjacent one. Tissue expansion, delivery of the expanders, and advancement of the flaps were successful in all patients. The fact that this is a 2-stage procedure and sacrifices some of the intact skin from the affected facial subunit, makes this technique reserved to patients with ugly facial scars who are ambitious to improve their appearance.
Rehn, L M H; Meririnne, E; Höök-Nikanne, J; Isometsä, E; Henriksson, M
To investigate the association among acne, depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in Finnish male military conscripts. Consecutive 165 acne patients and 150 patients with mild knee symptoms for comparison were enrolled in the study conducted in the Central Military Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. They filled out the following questionnaires: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The Leeds acne grading scale was used to estimate the severity of acne. Sixteen (9.7%) acne patients and 20 (13.3%) comparison patients had at least moderate level of depressive symptoms (BDI score 10; P > 0.05, between groups). Suicidal ideation (BDI suicidal item score 1) was reported by 24 (14.5%) acne patients and 16 (10.7%) comparison patients (P > 0.05, between groups). When comparing the mild facial acne patients (Leeds score 0-3) with those with moderate-severe facial acne (Leeds score 4), there were no statistical differences in depressive symptoms (9.5% vs. 10.0%) or suicidal ideation (13.7% vs. 15.7%). No linear relationship was observed between the BDI and facial Leeds scores (P > 0.05). Risk factors for suicidal ideation among the acne patients were depression and alcohol risk use. Young male patients with acne do not suffer more depressive symptoms or suicidal ideation than patients with mild knee symptoms, and the severity of acne is not associated with the presence of depressive symptoms. The risk factors for suicidal ideation among acne patients seem to be similar to those found in the general population.
Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ioannovich, John; Al-Amm, Christian A; El-Musa, Kusai A; Dham, Ruwayda
Following traumatic or surgical injury to the skin, wounds do not heal by tissue regeneration but rather by scar formation. Though healing is definitely a welcomed event, the resultant scar, very often, is not aesthetically pleasing, and not infrequently, may be pathologic causing serious deformities and contractures. Management of problematic scars continues to be a frustrating endeavor with less than optimal results. Prophylactic methods of wound management to minimize serious scarring are being developed. In a previously published study, we have demonstrated improved healing of split thickness skin graft donor sites following treatment with Moist Exposed Burn Ointment (MEBO, Julphar Gulf Pharmaceutical Industries, Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE). At present, we are reporting the results of a comparative clinical prospective study evaluating scar quality following primary healing of elective surgical and traumatic facial wounds with prophylactic MEBO application, topical antibiotic ointment application, and no topical therapy at all. Scars were evaluated according to the Visual Analogue Scale for scar assessment. Statistical analysis of scar assessment scores demonstrated marked prevention of unfavorable scars with improved cosmetic results following MEBO prophylactic therapy.
Grange, F; Mitschler, A; Genestier, S; Guillaume, J C
The occurrence of acne in dialysed renal failure patients has rarely been reported and the clinical characteristics and therapeutic issues rarely studied in these patients. Two men and two women, 33 to 56 years-old, with chronic renal failure and no past history of acne, developed severe acne under dialysis. The acne was excoriated in all cases and associated with prurigo-like lesions and intense pruritus, which made diagnosis difficult. Acne was profuse on the face and the trunk, but also on the neck (1 case) and the upper limbs (2 cases). No patient was taking acne-inducing substances. Various to therapies attempting to control pruritus were ineffective. However, anti-acne treatments (cyclines associated with local tretinoin in 1 case and oral isotreninoin in 3 cases) led to complete regression of the acne, pruritus and the prurigo-like lesions without relapse after a follow-up time of 4 months to 2 years. Pruritus is frequent during renal failure. However, the occurrence of unexplained acne has only rarely been reported. Our patients' clinical picture was original, characterized by the late development, under dialysis, of severe and pruriginous acne, the pathogenesis of which is unknown. Because of the clinical and therapeutic implications (impaired quality of life, pigmentation or scarring and remarkable efficacy of oral isotretinoin) this clinical picture merits more attention, and the modalities for the prescription of isotretinoin in this context should be defined.
Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that moisturizers can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. Moisturizers contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many moisturizers claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those moisturizers. Fifty-two moisturizers for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the moisturizer products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its moisturizer property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting moisturizers for acne patients. PMID:24847408
Scheithauer, Marc Oliver; Rettinger, Gerhard
The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance. Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors. Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:22073066
Lakshmi, Chembolli; Swarnalakshimi, Selvaraj
Klinefelter syndrome (KFS) is the most common non-heritable sex chromosome anomaly caused by nondisjunction during cell division and contains two or more X chromosomes. More than two third of all cases are homogenous (47XXY) and the remaining are mosaic (46XY/47XXY). Lower limb ulcers are frequently observed and attributed to impaired fibrinolysis. A case of KFS with post acne scars and leg ulcers is presented. The rarity of acne in this syndrome is explained by the phenomenon of mosaicism. PMID:26538700
Lakshmi, Chembolli; Swarnalakshimi, Selvaraj
Klinefelter syndrome (KFS) is the most common non-heritable sex chromosome anomaly caused by nondisjunction during cell division and contains two or more X chromosomes. More than two third of all cases are homogenous (47XXY) and the remaining are mosaic (46XY/47XXY). Lower limb ulcers are frequently observed and attributed to impaired fibrinolysis. A case of KFS with post acne scars and leg ulcers is presented. The rarity of acne in this syndrome is explained by the phenomenon of mosaicism.
Kim, Sang Tae; Lee, Kang Hoon; Sim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Kee Suck; Jang, Min Soo
Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a novel radiofrequency technique that uses insulated microneedles to deliver energy to the deep dermis at the point of penetration without destruction of the epidermis. It has been used for the treatment of various dermatological conditions including wrinkles, atrophic scars and hypertrophic scars. There have been few studies evaluating the efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne, and none measuring objective parameters like the number of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions or sebum excretion levels. The safety and efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedling in the treatment of acne vulgaris was investigated. In a prospective clinical trial, 25 patients with moderate to severe acne were treated with fractional radiofrequency microneedling. The procedure was carried out three times at 1-month intervals. Acne lesion count, subjective satisfaction score, sebum excretion level and adverse effects were assessed at baseline and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the first treatment as well as 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the last treatment. Number of acne lesions (inflammatory and non-inflammatory) decreased. Sebum excretion and subjective satisfaction were more favorable at every time point compared with the baseline values (P < 0.05). Inflammatory lesions responded better than non-inflammatory lesions (P < 0.05). Adverse effects such as pinpoint bleeding, pain and erythema were noted, but were transient and not severe enough to stop treatment. Fractional radiofrequency microneedling is a safe and effective treatment for acne vulgaris. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Bari, Arfan Ul; Iqbal, Zafar; Rahman, Simeen Ber
To determine the effectiveness of salicylic acid chemical peeling in common dermatological conditions affecting face in people with predominant Fitzpatrick skin type IV and V. An interventional, quasi-experimental study. Military Hospital, Rawalpindi and PAF Hospital, Sargodha, from July 2002 to June 2003. A total of 167 patients of either gender, aged between 13 to 60 years, having some facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, freckles, fine lines and wrinkles, post-inflammatory scars, actinic keratoses, and plane facial warts) were included. A series of eight weekly hospital based peeling sessions was conducted in all patients under standardized conditions with 30% salicylic acid. Clinical improvement in different disorders was evaluated by change in MASI score, decrease in the size of affected area and % reduction in lesions count. McNemar test was applied for data analysis. Majority of the patients showed moderate to excellent response. There was 35% to 63% improvement (p<0.05) in all dermatoses. Significant side effects, as feared in Asian skins were not observed. Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is an effective and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses.
Kombaté, Koussake; Mouhari-Toure, Abas; Saka, Bayaki; Akakpo, Abla Séfako; Maboudou, Akouavi; Pitché, Palokinam; Tchangaï-Walla, Kissem
This study aims at describing the clinical characteristics of patients with acne using skin bleaching (SB) products. This is a prospective study conducted over 8 months in three dermatology departments and one private clinic. All patients examined for acne were included in the study. The study included 119 patients examined for acne from March to October 2010. Among them 48 (40.7%) did SB. Hydroquinone was the first product used for SB (26 of 48), followed by topical corticosteroids (17 of 48). The elementary lesions were papules (99.2%), comedos (36.1%), pustules (63.9%), pigmentation (26.1%), scars (21%), and nodules (20.2%). The extent of acne on the face was observed in all patients (100%). The lesions were extensive among 43.7% of the patients. The extent of acne lesions was not statistically associated with SB. Other body areas concerned were the chest (20.2%), back, and shoulders (41.2%). The relative risk of having lesions on the back and/or shoulders when the patient practiced SB was 2.71 (CI: 1.08-6.84), which is significant. The study suggests that the back and shoulders can be the main areas for acne lesions associated with the practice of SB. The influence of different types of product is unclear. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.
Lee, Ho-Sup; Kim, Il-Hwan
Salicylic acid peels have been introduced as a useful modality in acne treatment. Few studies have examined its efficacy and safety, especially in darker skin. To assess the efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peels as a treatment for acne vulgaris in Asian patients. Thirty-five Korean patients with facial acne were treated with 30% salicylic acid peels biweekly for 12 weeks. Lesion counts and Dr. Cunliffe's score were assessed by a blinded evaluator. Safety assessments and patient's evaluations were also recorded. Both inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesion counts were decreased in proportion to the duration of treatment. Dr. Cunliffe's acne grade was statistically significantly decreased after treatment. The side effects were tolerable in most cases, and all patients were pleased with their peel results. Stratum corneum hydration, skin surface lipid, skin pH, and transepidermal water loss were unchanged from baseline levels. Salicylic acid peels are an effective and safe therapy for acne vulgaris in Asian patients.
Lee, Tae Wan; Kim, Jin Chul; Hwang, Sung Joo
Adhesive hydrogel patches containing Triclosan (TS) were prepared as an anti-acne dosage form. Sodium polyacrylate and carboxymethylcellulose (sodium salt) were used as matrix polymers, and Al(3+), produced by the reaction of dihydroxy aluminum aminoacetate and L(+)-tartaric acid, was employed as a crosslinking agent for the negatively charged polymers. The crosslinking reactions were done at 25, 40 and 50 degrees C for predetermined time intervals. The semi-solid gels were obtained only when the reaction period was more than 12 h, but the polymer gels were fluidic with a shorter reaction. The swelling ratios increased as the reaction period was prolonged and the reaction temperature increased, indicating that the degree of the crosslinking is proportional to the reaction period and the temperature. On a scanning electron microphotograph, the crosslinked gel exhibited a honeycomb-like structure having pores of a few micrometers. The adhesive force of a patch, which could be easily attached to and peeled off facial skin, was 45.5 gmf and it increased by adding poly acrylic acid into the patch formulations. Propionibacterium acnes (ATCC 6919) growth inhibition area around the patch was not significant on an agar plate when TS content was 0.01 wt.%, but the antibacterial activity was apparent when the content was 0.05 wt.%. In vitro permeation revealed that up to 5 wt.% of Transcutol (TC) content in patch, TC, a permeation enhancer, significantly increased the amount of TS transported into hairless mouse skins but it did not substantially accelerate TS transportation into the receptors of Franz diffusion cells. Since our patches for the treatment of acne was aimed to localize TS into skins, TC content of 5 wt.% seems to be adequate for the dermal delivery of TS. The model patches in this study would be applicable to facial skins for the treatment of acne.
Viruses specifically infecting bacteria, or bacteriophages, are the most common biological entity in the biosphere. As such, they greatly influence bacteria, both in terms of enhancing their virulence and in terms of killing them. Since the first identification of bacteriophages in the beginning of the 20th century, researchers have been fascinated by these microorganisms and their ability to eradicate bacteria. In this review, we will cover the history of the Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage research and point out how bacteriophage research has been an important part of the research on P. acnes itself. We will further discuss recent findings from phage genome sequencing and the identification of phage sequence signatures in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Finally, the potential to use P. acnes bacteriophages as a therapeutic strategy to combat P. acnes-associated diseases will be discussed. PMID:23691509
Goh, Michelle S Y; Magee, Jill; Chong, Alvin H
A 27-year-old man presented with a 10-year history of scarring alopecia on the vertex of the scalp associated with follicular crusting and pustule formation, and a papular eruption on the posterior neck. Additionally, there was keratosis pilaris on the cheeks, eyebrows and thighs. Histology from the vertex showed scarring with a mixed perifollicular inflammatory infiltrate and foci of acute suppurative folliculitis. With clinical correlation, the diagnosis of keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans and concurrent acne keloidalis nuchae was made. The association of keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans with acne keloidalis nuchae has not previously been described. The patient responded to treatment with oral isotretinoin 20 mg (0.25 mg/kg) daily for 12 months.
Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith
Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3)
Al-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Hameed, Ayad; Murugaiah, Chandrika
Acne vulgaris is an extremely common condition affecting the pilosebaceous unit of the skin and characterized by presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, cysts, which might result in permanent scars. Acne vulgaris commonly involve adolescents and young age groups. Active acne vulgaris is usually associated with several complications like hyper or hypopigmentation, scar formation and skin disfigurement. Previous studies have targeted the efficiency and safety of local and systemic agents in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. Superficial chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure which might cause some potentially undesirable adverse events. This study was conducted to review the efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. It is a structured review of an earlier seven articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The clinical assessments were based on pretreatment and post-treatment comparisons and the role of superficial chemical peeling in reduction of papules, pustules and comedones in active acne vulgaris. This study showed that almost all patients tolerated well the chemical peeling procedures despite a mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema have been reported; also the incidence of major adverse events was very low and easily manageable. In conclusion, chemical peeling with glycolic acid is a well-tolerated and safe treatment modality in active acne vulgaris while salicylic acid peels is a more convenient for treatment of darker skin patients and it showed significant and earlier improvement than glycolic acid PMID:28538881
Al-Talib, Hassanain; Al-Khateeb, Alyaa; Hameed, Ayad; Murugaiah, Chandrika
Acne vulgaris is an extremely common condition affecting the pilosebaceous unit of the skin and characterized by presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, cysts, which might result in permanent scars. Acne vulgaris commonly involve adolescents and young age groups. Active acne vulgaris is usually associated with several complications like hyper or hypopigmentation, scar formation and skin disfigurement. Previous studies have targeted the efficiency and safety of local and systemic agents in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. Superficial chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure which might cause some potentially undesirable adverse events. This study was conducted to review the efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. It is a structured review of an earlier seven articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The clinical assessments were based on pretreatment and post-treatment comparisons and the role of superficial chemical peeling in reduction of papules, pustules and comedones in active acne vulgaris. This study showed that almost all patients tolerated well the chemical peeling procedures despite a mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema have been reported; also the incidence of major adverse events was very low and easily manageable. In conclusion, chemical peeling with glycolic acid is a well-tolerated and safe treatment modality in active acne vulgaris while salicylic acid peels is a more convenient for treatment of darker skin patients and it showed significant and earlier improvement than glycolic acid.
Na, Kiyong; Oh, Sang Ho
Acne keloidalis nuchae, a type of folliculitis involving the back of the neck, is common in black men, although rare cases have been reported in patients of other ethnicities. We analyzed the clinicopathological features of acne keloidalis nuchae in 17 Asians. Patients’ age at the time of presentation ranged from 20 to 69 years. Most patients experienced the disease over 2 years (range, 3 months–20 years); follow-up data were available for 11 (65%) patients (range, 2–95 months). Nine (53%) patients had comorbidities, but none had a history of other skin disease or a family history of acne keloidalis nuchae. Macroscopically, seven (41%) patients had multiple erythematous pustulopapular lesions, and 10 (59%) had a single large plaque. Histopathologically, deep scarring folliculitis containing naked hair shafts was identified. In all cases, inflammation was most severe in the upper two-thirds of the dermis, and the differences in pustulopapular and plaque lesions were more prominent in the peri-inflammation area. Of the seven patients with plaque lesions treated with steroids alone or steroids and cryotherapy, three experienced plaque reduction. Acne keloidalis nuchae occurring in Asian patients frequently present with typical clinicopathological features, and therefore in spite of very low incidence the diagnosis of this disease entity should be considered in idiopathic scarring folliculitis of the posterior neck. PMID:29240822
... are benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, glycolic acid, and salicylic acid. Prescription acne medications include tretinoin, adapalene, dapsone, and ... ACOG) recommends topical benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, topical salicylic acid and glycolic acid for treatment of acne in ...
Lucky, A W; Biro, F M; Simbartl, L A; Morrison, J A; Sorg, N W
The objectives of this study were to determine which factors in early pubertal girls might be predictive of later, severe facial acne. The study was a 5-year longitudinal cohort study, with yearly visits from 1987 through 1991, in a volunteer sample of 439 black and 432 white fourth- and fifth-grade girls with consent from their legal guardians. The subjects were recruited from public and parochial schools in Cincinnati, Ohio. The degree of facial acne was classified annually as mild, moderate, or severe. Blood samples were obtained at the first, third, and fifth years of the study. Using the acne status during the fifth year of the study as the outcome variable, we determined the contributions from the prior acne status and the serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone, free testosterone (FT), estradiol (E2), progesterone, and testosterone-estrogen binding globulin (TEBG) and compared the results at various ages and at times before and after menarche. No racial differences in acne or hormone levels were found. There was a progressive increase in the number of acne lesions with age and maturation. The girls exhibited many more comedonal than inflammatory acne lesions, regardless of age. The girls in whom severe acne developed by the fifth year of the study had significantly more comedones and inflammatory lesions than girls with mild or moderate acne, as early as age 10 years, approximately 2 h years before menarche, a time when their degree of acne was mild. Girls with mild comedonal acne had significantly later onset of menarche (12.5 compared with 12.2 years) than girls with severe comedonal acne. Girls in whom severe comedonal acne developed had significantly higher levels of serum DHEAS and, in a longitudinal analysis, somewhat higher levels of testosterone and FT in comparison with girls who had mild or moderate comedonal acne. Serum E2, testosterone/E2, progesterone, and TEBG values were no different in girls with severe compared
Cestone, Enza; Michelotti, Angela; Zanoletti, Valentina; Zanardi, Andrea; Mantegazza, Raffaella; Dossena, Maurizia
General skincare measures such as the use of moisturisers and products containing adequate photoprotection are important components of acne patients' management to complement the pharmacological regimen. Acne RA-1,2 is a novel dermato-cosmetic product which contains selective photofilters and active ingredients against the multifactorial pathophysiology of acne. To evaluate the tolerability of Acne RA-1,2 and its effect on the clinical signs of acne. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized 40 adult patients with 10-25 comedones per half face to once-daily application of Acne RA-1,2 or placebo for 8 weeks. Evaluations after 4 and 8 weeks included the number of comedones, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum production, and tolerability. In the Acne RA-1,2 group, there was a significant 35% decrease in the mean number of comedones from 26 at baseline to 17 at Week 8 (P<.001), a 7% significant reduction in TEWL (9.32 to 8.66 g/h/m 2 ; P<.001), and a 24% significant reduction in sebum production (154.8 to 117.6 μg/cm 2 ; P<.001). The reductions in TEWL and sebum production were significantly greater than those in the placebo group at Weeks 4 and 8 (P<0.05). There were no adverse events. Acne RA-1,2 was well tolerated and effective at reducing comedones and sebum production and improving epidermal barrier function. These results suggest that Acne RA-1,2 is useful against acne-prone facial skin, particularly as it targets sebum production, which topical pharmacological acne therapies do not address. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lee, Kyung Real; Lee, Eo Gin; Lee, Hee Jung; Yoon, Moon Soo
A minimally invasive fractional radiofrequency microneedle (FRM) device has been used in skin rejuvenation and acne scars, and a recent pilot study demonstrated the positive therapeutic effect on acne. We evaluated the efficacy of FRM device for acne vulgaris in Asians and conducted objective measurement to assess its effect on sebum production. Twenty Korean patients with acne vulgaris received a single full-face FRM treatment. Outcome assessments included standardized photography, physician's global assessment, patient's satisfaction scores, acne lesion count, and objective measurements of casual sebum level (CSL) and sebum excretion rate (SER). They were evaluated at baseline and 2, 4, 8 weeks after the treatment. After a single FRM treatment, the CSL and the SER showed 30-60% and 70-80% reduction, respectively, at week 2 (P < 0.01), and remained below the baseline level until week 8. Physician's global improvement scores for acne severity and acne lesion count also revealed clinical improvement with maximum efficacy at week 2, but returned to the baseline in most patients by week 8. Patients' satisfaction scores (0-4) were above 2 on average, and adverse effects were minimal. This prospective study demonstrated the sebosuppressive effect from a single FRM treatment, but its therapeutic efficacy in acne requires further evaluation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lim, Hee-Sun; Chun, Seung-Min; Soung, Min-Gyu; Kim, Jenny; Kim, Seong-Jin
Antimicrobial peptides are considered as a potential alternative to antibiotic treatment in acne vulgaris because the development of a resistant strain of Propionibacterium acnes is problematic. Granulysin can be regarded as an ideal substance with which to treat acne because it has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was performed to explore the effectiveness of granulysin-derived peptides (GDPs) in killing P. acnes in vitro under a standard microbiologic assay and to evaluate their potential use in a topical agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Twenty different peptides based on the known sequence of a GDP were synthesized and tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity. Thirty patients with facial acne vulgaris were instructed to apply a topical formulation containing synthetic GDP to acne lesions twice per day for 12 weeks. A newly synthesized peptide in which aspartic acid was substituted with arginine, and methionine was substituted with cysteine, showed the highest antimicrobial activity against P. acnes. Moreover, it was effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vitro. After treatment with the topical formulation containing 50 ppm of synthetic peptide for 12 weeks, a significant reduction in the number of pustules was observed, regardless of the increase in the number of comedones. In addition, a significant reduction in the clinical grade of acne based on the Korean Acne Grading System (KAGS) was evident. Synthesized GDP shows strong antimicrobial activity against P. acnes in vitro. The clinical improvement observed suggests a topical formulation containing the GDP has therapeutic potential for the improvement of inflammatory-type acne vulgaris by its antimicrobial activity. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.
Serna-Tamayo, Cristian; Janniger, Camila K; Micali, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Robert A
Acne may present in neonates, infants, and small children. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris are not considered to be rare. The presentation of acne in this patient population sometimes represents virilization and may portend later development of severe adolescent acne. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris must be distinguished from other cutaneous disorders seen in newborns and infants. Infantile acne tends to be more pleomorphic and inflammatory, thus requiring more vigorous therapy than neonatal acne.
article title: Burn Scars Across Southern California ... California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated in these ... and Nov 18, 2003 Images: California Burn Scars location: United States region: ...
Chen, Kee-Hsin; Tam, Ka-Wai; Chen, I-Fan; Huang, Shihping Kevin; Tzeng, Pei-Chuan; Wang, Hsian-Jenn; Chen, Chiehfeng Cliff
Laser resurfacing is used to minimize wrinkles, solar scars and sequelae of acne. Purpose of the systematic review was to compare resurfacing outcomes of CO 2 laser and erbium: yttrium aluminium garnet (erb:YAG) laser therapies. Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases were searched until 9 April 2015 using the following terms: laser, carbon dioxide/CO 2 , facial wrinkles, rhytides and erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet/erbium:YAG/Er:YAG. Two-armed controlled split faced studies that compared CO 2 laser and erbium:YAG laser in patients with mild-to-moderate facial wrinkles or rhytides were included. The pooled data in this study and findings of other studies support the greater efficacy with the CO 2 laser in improving facial wrinkles, but the erb:YAG laser was associated with a better complication profile compared with the CO 2 laser. Except one case of hypopigmentation, other complications (i.e., erythema, hyperpigmentation and crusting) and their rates were reported by studies examining both lasers. In general, the CO 2 laser appeared to be more efficacious then the erb:YAG laser in treating facial wrinkles. Both lasers treatments were well tolerated.
Bergman, Hagit; Tsai, Kenneth Y; Seo, Su-Jean; Kvedar, Joseph C; Watson, Alice J
Digital imaging of dermatology patients is a novel approach to remote data collection. A number of assessment tools have been developed to grade acne severity and to track clinical progress over time. Although these tools have been validated when used in a face-to-face setting, their efficacy and reliability when used to assess digital images have not been examined. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether specific assessment tools designed to grade acne during face-to-face visits can be applied to the evaluation of digital images. The secondary purpose was to ascertain whether images obtained by subjects are of adequate quality to allow such assessments to be made. Three hundred (300) digital images of patients with mild to moderate facial inflammatory acne from an ongoing randomized-controlled study were included in this analysis. These images were obtained from 20 patients and consisted of sets of 3 images taken over time. Of these images, 120 images were captured by subjects themselves and 180 were taken by study staff. Subjects were asked to retake their photographs if the initial images were deemed of poor quality by study staff. Images were evaluated by two dermatologists-in-training using validated acne assessment measures: Total Inflammatory Lesion Count, Leeds technique, and the Investigator's Global Assessment. Reliability of raters was evaluated using correlation coefficients and kappa statistics. Of the different acne assessment measures tested, the inter-rater reliability was highest for the total inflammatory lesion count (r = 0.871), but low for the Leeds technique (kappa = 0.381) and global assessment (kappa = 0.3119). Raters were able to evaluate over 89% of all images using each type of acne assessment measure despite the fact that images obtained by study staff were of higher quality than those obtained by patients (p < 0.001). Several existing clinical assessment measures can be used to evaluate digital images obtained from
Goel, Arun; Shrivastava, Prabhat
The mortality and morbidity from burns have diminished tremendously over the last six to seven decades. However, these do not truly reflect whether the victim could go back to society as a useful person or not and lead a normal life because of the inevitable post-burn scars, contractures and other deformities which collectively have aesthetic and functional considerations. This article gives an overview of the post-burn scars and scar contractures, especially their prevention, minimisation and principles of management. PMID:21321660
Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming
Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four
Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming
Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014,Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four trials in two meta-analyses, with two trials in each meta-analysis. The categories of CAM included
Tan, Jerry; Wolfe, Barat; Weiss, Jonathan; Stein-Gold, Linda; Bikowski, Joseph; Del Rosso, James; Webster, Guy F; Lucky, Anne; Thiboutot, Diane; Wilkin, Jonathan; Leyden, James; Chren, Mary-Margaret
There are multiple global scales for acne severity grading but no singular standard. Our objective was to determine the essential clinical components (content items) and features (property-related items) for an acne global grading scale for use in research and clinical practice using an iterative method, the Delphi process. Ten acne experts were invited to participate in a Web-based Delphi survey comprising 3 iterative rounds of questions. In round 1, the experts identified the following clinical components (primary acne lesions, number of lesions, extent, regional involvement, secondary lesions, and patient experiences) and features (clinimetric properties, ease of use, categorization of severity based on photographs or text, and acceptance by all stakeholders). In round 2, consensus for inclusion in the scale was established for primary lesions, number, sites, and extent; as well as clinimetric properties and ease of use. In round 3, consensus for inclusion was further established for categorization and acceptance. Patient experiences were excluded and no consensus was achieved for secondary lesions. The Delphi panel consisted solely of the United States (U.S.)-based acne experts. Using an established method for achieving consensus, experts in acne vulgaris concluded that an ideal acne global grading scale would comprise the essential clinical components of primary acne lesions, their quantity, extent, and facial and extrafacial sites of involvement; with features of clinimetric properties, categorization, efficiency, and acceptance. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of
Erol, O Onur; Gurlek, Ali; Agaoglu, Galip; Topcuoglu, Ela; Oz, Hayat
Keloids and hypertrophic scars are extremely disturbing to patients, both physically and psychologically. This study prospectively assessed the safety and efficacy of intense pulsed light (IPL) on scars originating from burns, trauma, surgery, and acne. Hypertrophic scars in 109 patients, originating from surgical incisions (n = 55), traumatic cuts (traffic accidents) (n = 24), acne scars (n = 6), keloids (n = 5), and burns (n = 19), were treated using an IPL Quantum device. Treatment was administered at 2-4-week intervals, and patients received an average of 8 treatments (range = 6-24). Using digital photographs, Changes in scar appearance were assessed by two physicians who were blinded to the study patients and treatments. The photographs were graded on a scale of 0 to 4 (none, minimal, moderate, good, excellent) for improvement in overall clinical appearance and reduction in height, erythema, and hardness. An overall clinical improvement in the appearance of scars and reductions in height, erythema, and hardness were seen in the majority of the patients (92.5%). Improvement was excellent in 31.2% of the patients, good in 25.7%, moderate in 34%, and minimal in 9.1%. Over half the patients had good or excellent improvement. In the preventive IPL treatment group, 65% had good to excellent improvement in clinical appearance. Patient satisfaction was very high. This study suggests that IPL is effective not only in improving the appearance of hypertrophic scars and keloids regardless of their origin, but also in reducing the height, redness, and hardness of scars.
... Issues Subscribe January 2010 Print this issue Understanding Acne How to Banish Breakouts Send us your comments ... Protect Your Skin from Sun Damage Wise Choices Acne Flare-ups The exact cause of acne is ...
Kim, Kwan-Il; Nam, Hae Jeong; Kim, Mia; Lee, Junhee; Kim, Kyuseok
The incidence of preadolescent acne among women is increasing. Acne deteriorates the quality of life; conventional treatment options are limited and have not been effective against acne, particularly acne associated with menstruation. Despite evidence that acne associated with menstruation abnormalities naturally improves when menstruation recovers to normal, there have only been few studies on the effects of dysmenorrhea treatment on acne. Therefore- we designed this study to assess the effects of gyejibokryung-hwan (GBH) and dangguijagyag-san (DJS), which are widely used in dysmenorrhea treatment, on acne associated with menstruation cycle. This is a protocol for a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled and multicenter trial. One hundred and sixteen participants with dysmenorrhea accompanied by acne vulgaris will be recruited at three centers and randomized into two groups, the herbal treatment group and placebo group. The participants will receive GBH or DJS based on pattern identification or placebo granules thrice daily for 8 weeks, with an 8-week follow up. The primary outcome will be the mean percentage change in the count of inflammatory acne lesions. The secondary outcomes would be based on dysmenorrhea numeric rating scale, verbal multidimensional scoring system for dysmenorrhea, acne numeric rating scale, investigator's static global assessment scale of facial acne vulgaris, and safety testing. Adverse events will also be reported. The effects of GBH or DJS used in dysmenorrhea treatment on acne associated with the menstrual cycle will be evaluated. The findings of this trial will provide evidence regarding the effect of herbal medicine in improving acne vulgaris associated with menstruation in women. Korean Clinical Trial Registry ( http://cris.nih.go.kr ; registration number: KCT0002259). Date of registration: March 10, 2017.
Abo El-Fetoh, Nagah M; Alenezi, Naif G; Alshamari, Nasser G; Alenezi, Omar G
Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Small, noninflamed acne lesions may not be more than a slight nuisance, but, in individuals with more severe inflammatory disease, pain, social embarrassment, and both physical and psychological scarring can be life altering. Despite its high prevalence, no previous community-based studies have been conducted in Arar, northern border of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, addressing this issue. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of acne vulgaris, to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of cases, and to determine the aggravating factors and the psychological impact of acne vulgaris in a representative sample of secondary school male students in Arar city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This was a cross-sectional study. A multistage systematic random sampling technique was followed. A total of 400 male students during the academic year 2015-2016 were included in the study. Data were collected by means of personal interview and filling-in a questionnaire. The overall prevalence of acne vulgaris was 53.5%. The mean age of onset was 15.0±1.2 years. Positive family history of acne vulgaris was found in 46.7% of cases. The skin was greasy in 61.7% of cases. Acne site was the face in 67.3%, the back in 4.7%, and both in 28% of the cases. More than half (54.2%) of the cases had first-degree acne. Students mentioned several factors affecting the appearance of acne; 59.8% of cases reported a relation of increased acne appearance with the cleanliness of the skin, 35.5% reported relation with consumption of fatty meals, 24.2% with eating chocolate, 23.3% with consumption of spicy food, 12.1% with excess intake of cola drinks, 31.8% with heavy smoking, and 60.7% reported increased acne appearance in summer months. Acne was highly prevalent among secondary school male students in Arar city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several risk factors increased the appearance of acne, including
Lee, Yongsoo; Kim, Wooram
The application of laser treatments beginning on the day of stitch removal has been demonstrated to improve scar quality. However, there are few guidelines for the treatment of immature scars (ISs), which are defined as "scars whose features are not yet expressed." The purpose of this study was to extract information about early combination laser treatment (CLT) beyond what is currently known by analyzing 33 pairs of pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs of ISs. Two hundred fifty medical records of patients with scars were reviewed, and 33 scars were included in the study. The included scars were treated with vascular lasers (585 or 532 nm) followed by 1550-nm fractional lasers from May 2014 to July 2015 (fewer than 52 days after stitch removal, Fitzpatrick's skin types III-IV, mean age = 16.0 years). Blinded evaluators (one plastic surgeon and two dermatologists) evaluated the pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs. The pre-treatment photographs were scored on a spectrum from "0," when no difference with the surrounding unaffected skin was observed, to "100," when the worst scarring was present. The pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs were compared, and the results were graded on a spectrum from 0, when no difference between the pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs was observed, to 100, when no difference was observed between the post-treatment skin and the surrounding unaffected skin. Statistical analyses were performed with PASW 17.0, SPSS Korea, Seoul, Korea (p < 0.05). The improvement scores (ImS) and weighted scores (Wtd: i.e., weighted according to the pre-treatment scores) were used as dependent variables. The average improvement score was 87.98 (median = 90). Seventeen cases were scored as 100-point improvements. The facial and non-facial scars exhibited differences in the ImS and Wtd scores. The Wtd scores were negatively correlated with the temporal gap (in days) between stitch removal and the beginning of CLT. No
Zhou, Maosong; Xie, Hongfu; Cheng, Lin; Li, Ji
To evaluate the clinical characteristics and epidermal barrier function of papulopustular rosacea by comparing with acne vulgaris. Four hundred and sixty-three papulopustular rosacea patients and four hundred and twelve acne vulgaris patients were selected for the study in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from March 2015 to May 2016. They were analyzed for major facial lesions, self-conscious symptoms and epidermal barrier function. Erythema, burning, dryness and itching presented in papulopustular rosacea patients were significantly higher than that in acne vulgaris patients ( P <0.001). The clinical scores of erythema, burning, dryness and itching in papulopustular rosacea patients were significantly higher than those in acne vulgaris patients ( P <0.001). The water content of the stratum cornuem and skin surface lipid level were both significantly lower in papulopustular rosacea patients than that of the acne vulgaris patients ( P <0.001) and healthy subjects ( P <0.001); Water content of the stratum cornuem and skin surface lipid level were higher in acne vulgaris patients in comparison with that of healthy subjects ( P >0.05, P <0.001; respectively). Transepidermal water loss was significantly higher in papulopustular rosacea patients than that of acne vulgaris patients and healthy subjects ( P <0.001); transepidermal water loss was lower in skin of acne vulgaris patients than that of healthy subjects ( P <0.001). Erythema, burning, dryness and itching are the characteristics of papulopustular rosacea, which makes it different from acne vulgaris. The epidermal barrier function was damaged in papulopustular rosacea patients while not impaired in that of acne vulgaris patients.
Romano-Bertrand, S; Beretta, M; Jean-Pierre, H; Frapier, J-M; Calvet, B; Parer, S; Jumas-Bilak, E
Propionibacterium acnes belongs to the normal skin microbiota, but it is also responsible for acne vulgaris and causes serious infections such as endocarditis and surgical site infections (SSI). The P. acnes population is structured into phylogenetic groups, with phylotype I being associated with acne. Herein, we explore the link between phylotypes and clinical origins in a collection of P. acnes isolated from different body sites, involved in deep infections or healthcare-associated infections (HAI), with particular emphasis on strains from cardiac SSI. Cardiac SSI have been further studied in terms of P. acnes population dynamics during the care pathway. The recA and tly genes phylotypes were compared to hemolytic behavior, susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, and clinical origins. An original approach of recA polymerase chain reaction temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE) was developed and applied for the direct identification of P. acnes phylotypes in surgical samples, in order to assess their temporal dynamics during the surgical course. Our results underlined the preferential involvement of IA-2/IB and II phylogroups in HAI and SSI. Unlike IA and II, type IA-2/IB presented a gradual increase with the depth of sampling in the peroperative phase of cardiac surgery. Phylotypes IA and IA-2/IB were both predominant in scar tissues and on postoperative skin, suggesting a specific predisposition to recolonize skin. Particular association of the phylotype IA-2/IB with SSI and its propensity to colonize wounds in cardiac surgery was observed. We assumed that the follow-up of P. acnes phylotypes during pathological processes could give new clues for P. acnes pathogenicity.
Masanovic, Marguerite Guillot
Physical therapy consists notably of hand or mechanical massages, pressure therapy using various fabrics or splints, cryotherapy, laser therapy, etc. It forms part of the range of therapies used to treat pathological scars, including medical and surgical treatment. While the results are often satisfactory for hypertrophic scars, they remain uncertain for major keloids.
... scar can be removed completely. The degree of improvement will depend on variables such as the direction and size of the scar, the age of the person, skin type and color, and hereditary factors that may precondition the extent of the healing process.
Puig, Lluis; Guerra-Tapia, Aurora; Conejo-Mir, Julián; Toribio, Jaime; Berasategui, Carmen; Zsolt, Ilonka
Several acne grading systems have been described, but consensus is lacking on which shows superiority. A standardized system would facilitate therapeutic decisions and the analysis of clinical trial data. To assess the feasibility, reliability, validity and sensitivity to change of the Spanish Acne Severity Scale (EGAE). A Spanish, multicentre, prospective, observational study was performed in patients with facial, back or chest acne assessed using EGAE, Leeds Revised Acne Grading system (LRAG) and lesion count. Clinicians answered 4 questions regarding EGAE use and time employed. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 5±1 weeks. Four additional blinded observers, all dermatologists, evaluated patients' pictures using EGAE and LRAG. In total, 349 acne locations were assessed in 328 patients. Of the dermatologists, 95.6% (CI: 92.9-97.5%) reported that EGAE was easy to use, and 75% used it in <3 minutes. Interobserver reliability of the EGAE scale was shown by a Kendall's W of 0.773 (p<0.001). EGAE and LRAG scales showed a high correlation (Spearman's correlation>0.85; p<0.001). EGAE mean score in treatment-compliant patients was significantly lower at follow-up than at baseline (2.14 vs. 1.57, p<0.001, Cohen's d=0.35).The pre-post-treatment difference in EGAE mean score in non-compliant patients was not significant (1.44 vs. 1.32, p<0.102) and Cohen's d was lower (0.19) than in compliant patients. The use of EGAE to evaluate acne grade in daily clinical dermatological practice in Spanish centres has shown feasibility, high interobserver reliability, concurrent validity and sensitivity to detect treatment effects.
Mayr-Kanhäuser, Sigrid; Kränke, Birger; Aberer, Werner
With the increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms in acne lesions, the search for alternative treatment methods has become important. We studied the efficacy of a combination of the antiseptic substances octenidine dihydrochloride and 2-phenoxyethanol (O/P) in mild to moderate inflammatory acne vulgaris. Thirty patients were instructed to apply O/P once or twice daily for a 6-week treatment period. Determination of efficacy included the numerical documentation of inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions within defined regions of the face by the investigator, and photodocumentation of the clinical picture as well as the fluorescence pattern under Wood's light. Twenty-four patients completed the study. The number of papules and pustules decreased more than 50% in seventeen and nineteen patients, respectively. Acne lesions worsened in only one patient. Mild adverse reactions (erythema, burning, and scaling) were seen in two patients. Therefore, O/P was highly effective in treating inflammatory lesions of facial acne, but there was no essential efficacy in the non-inflammatory primary acne lesions. Topical O/P is a good and cost-effective alternative in the treatment of mild to moderate inflammatory acne lesions and may allow reduced application of anti-acne antibiotics to prevent development of resistance.
Bae, Byung Gi; Park, Chang Ook; Shin, Hyoseung; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Yun Sun; Lee, Sang Ju; Chung, Kee Yang; Lee, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Ju Hee
Salicylic acid was recently formulated in a hydroethanolic vehicle at a concentration of 20% to 30%. Salicylic acid has strong comedolytic effects because of its lipophilic nature. To compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of salicylic acid peels with those of Jessner's solution peels in patients with acne vulgaris. Thirteen patients (13 men; mean age 22.6, range 20-28) with facial acne were enrolled. Jessner's solution was applied to one side of each patient's face and 30% salicylic acid to the other in three sessions at 2-week intervals. A blinded investigator counted noninflammatory and inflammatory lesions before treatment and 2 weeks after each treatment. Inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesion counts decreased in proportion to the duration of treatment. Inflammatory acne lesion counts did not differ significantly between salicylic acid and Jessner's solution peels, although in terms of noninflammatory acne lesion counts, sites treated with salicylic acid showed significant improvement (p = .04), whereas those treated with Jessner's solution did not. We found that 30% salicylic acid peels were effective for inflammatory acne and more effective than Jessner's solution peels for treating noninflammatory acne. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hall, G S; Pratt-Rippin, K; Meisler, D M; Washington, J A; Roussel, T J; Miller, D
We established growth curves for Propionibacterium acnes isolates recovered from eyes with chronic postoperative endophthalmitis. The growth curve plotted the average of the duplicate bacterial concentration against time. The generation time for P. acnes calculated from the growth curves was approximately 5.1 hours. The growth of P. acnes is slower than other anaerobic bacteria. This may account for its delayed appearance in culture of ocular specimens. It may also explain treatment failure if the concentration of an antibiotic injected into the vitreous does not remain at an effective level during the critical replicative phase of the organism.
Micali, G; Dall'Oglio, F; Tedeschi, A; Lacarrubba, F
Erythema-directed digital photography is a novel method for evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of topical acne treatments. Here, we describe three case reports in which erythema-directed digital photography was used to evaluate acne before and after up to 12 weeks of treatment with clindamycin 1%/tretinoin 0.025% (Clin-RA). Erythema-directed digital photography was used to evaluate acne in three patients with mild-to-moderate facial acne, two of whom had refused to continue previous topical acne treatment (benzoyl peroxide 5% and clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 5%) due to persistent irritation. Acne lesions and erythema were evaluated using standard clinical photography and erythema-directed digital photography (VISIA-CR ™ system) before and after 8-12 weeks of treatment with Clin-RA. Erythema-directed digital photography revealed background erythema from previous topical acne treatments that was not evident from standard clinical photographs and allowed a better visualization of both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. In all patients, there was a clear improvement in background erythema and a reduction in acne lesions following treatment with Clin-RA. This study has demonstrated for the first time that erythema-directed digital photography can enhance the evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of topical acne treatments. These cases show that Clin-RA was associated with improved efficacy and tolerability vs previous treatments with topical monotherapy (benzoyl peroxide 5%) or a topical fixed-dose combination (clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 5%). © 2018 The Authors. Skin Research and Technology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Okoro, Emeka O; Ogunbiyi, Adebola O; George, Adekunle O; Subulade, Mobolaji O
Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous units that affects 85% of the world's population aged 11-30 years. Diet is believed to affect the severity of acne vulgaris. This study was designed to identify possible associations of diet with acne vulgaris in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in Ibadan in 2011. Students were interviewed for demographic data, history of acne, and frequency of intake of specific foods in the previous 12 months. Each participant was examined for facial acne. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each participant. Data for 464 students were analyzed. The mean ± standard deviation age of all subjects was 13.6 ± 3.6 years, and the mean BMI was 17.8 kg/m(2) . A total of 299 (64.4%) students were found to have acne vulgaris. Frequencies of intake of various foods varied widely. Prevalences of acne were higher among those who reported an at least daily intake of milk as beverage (72.6% vs. 62.0%; P = 0.035), corn (76.6% vs. 62.3%; P = 0.016), fried beef (75.0% vs. 62.1%; P = 0.042), and cake (77.8% vs. 62.3%; P = 0.012), and less common among those students who reported an at least daily intake of bananas (55.3% vs. 67.6%; P = 0.032). The present findings suggest associations between some foods and acne in the Nigerian context. An interventional dietary study will be required to further ascertain the effects of these foods on acne vulgaris. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.
... to the skin both skin cells and connective tissue cells (fibroblasts) begin multiplying to repair the damage. A scar is made up of 'connective tissue', gristle-like fibers deposited in the skin by ...
Assaf, Hanan A.; Abdel-Maged, Wafaa M.; Elsadek, Bakheet E. M.; Adly, Mohamed A.; Ali, Soher A.
Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, has an important role in cell cycle regulation. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a polypeptide hormone with wide range of biologic effects including stimulation of lipogenesis in sebaceous glands. Their overexpression in some fibrotic disorders suggests a possible implication of both IGF-I and survivin in the pathogenesis of acne and/or acne scars. The current study aimed to assess and correlate serum levels of IGF-I and survivin in patients with active acne vulgaris and postinflammatory acne scars and to evaluate their lesional expressions in comparison to healthy controls. Serum IGF-I and survivin were estimated using commercially available ELISA kits and their tissues expressions were investigated using Western blotting. Our findings suggest that IGF-I and survivin could play potential roles in the pathogenesis of active acne vulgaris and more importantly in postinflammatory acne scars with significant positive correlation coefficient between serum levels of IGF-I and survivin which support IGF-I-/PI3K-/AKT-mediated downregulation of nuclear expression of FoxO transcription factors resulting in enhanced survivin expression. PMID:27803511
Assaf, Hanan A; Abdel-Maged, Wafaa M; Elsadek, Bakheet E M; Hassan, Mohammed H; Adly, Mohamed A; Ali, Soher A
Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, has an important role in cell cycle regulation. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a polypeptide hormone with wide range of biologic effects including stimulation of lipogenesis in sebaceous glands. Their overexpression in some fibrotic disorders suggests a possible implication of both IGF-I and survivin in the pathogenesis of acne and/or acne scars. The current study aimed to assess and correlate serum levels of IGF-I and survivin in patients with active acne vulgaris and postinflammatory acne scars and to evaluate their lesional expressions in comparison to healthy controls. Serum IGF-I and survivin were estimated using commercially available ELISA kits and their tissues expressions were investigated using Western blotting. Our findings suggest that IGF-I and survivin could play potential roles in the pathogenesis of active acne vulgaris and more importantly in postinflammatory acne scars with significant positive correlation coefficient between serum levels of IGF-I and survivin which support IGF-I-/PI3K-/AKT-mediated downregulation of nuclear expression of FoxO transcription factors resulting in enhanced survivin expression.
The phototoxic and photoallergy potential of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/ tretinoin 0.025% gel for facial acne: results of two single-center, evaluator-blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled phase 1 studies in healthy volunteers.
Murray, John; Potts, Aaron
A fixed-dose combination of clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025% gel (VELTIN® (clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin) 1.2%/0.025% Gel [VELTIN]) (clindamycin/tretinoin gel) is currently available for the once-daily topical treatment of acne. Two-phase I studies were conducted to evaluate the phototoxic and photoallergic potential of clindamycin/tretinoin gel. Study 1 (phototoxic) (n=37) and Study 2 (photoallergic) (n=58) were single-center, evaluator-blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled, phase 1 studies conducted in healthy volunteers. In Study 1, clindamycin/tretinoin gel patches, vehicle gel patches and blank patches (no gel) were applied concurrently for 24 hours to naïve sites. After patch removal, sites were irradiated with 16 joules/cm2 of ultraviolet A light (UVA) then 0.75 minimal erythema dose (MED) of UVA/ultraviolet B light (UVB), the same irradiation protocol followed by 15 joules/cm2 of visible light (VIS), or served as non-irradiated controls. Study 2 examined the effect of repeated drug exposure and involved an induction period (6 repeat phases at the same body sites during which clindamycin/tretinoin gel and vehicle gel patches were applied for 24 hours, removed and sites irradiated with UVB +/- VIS), followed by a rest period (10 to 17 days), then a challenge period that used the protocol described for Study 1. In both studies, inflammatory responses and other cutaneous effects were evaluated at 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours after patch removal. No subject experienced any adverse events in Study 1 (phototoxic). One subject in Study 2 (photoallergic) experienced AEs (diffuse erythema; mild application site irritation at one each of UV/VIS-irradiated clindamycin/tretinoin gel and vehicle gel patch sites) considered definitely related to study product that resulted in discontinuation from the study. Data from Study 1 and the challenge phase from Study 2 showed most subjects had no visible inflammatory reaction to clindamycin/tretinoin gel after
Zaenglein, Andrea L
Physical and emotional scarring are equally important burdens of acne vulgaris in patients of any age. Effective therapeutic regimens are readily available, and the consistent and correct use of these medications results in effective disease management, reduced risk for scarring, as well as improvement in various factors that affect quality of life. Nevertheless, adherence to treatment recommendations generally is poor. Clinicians can help improve adherence with a variety of strategies, including counseling, education, and choosing treatment options that are most consistent with a patient's lifestyle. Semin Cutan Med Surg 34(supp5):S92-S94 © 2015 published by Frontline Medical Communications. 2015 published by Frontline Medical Communications.
Aslan Bayhan, Seray; Bayhan, Hasan Ali; Çölgeçen, Emine; Gürdal, Canan
To assess the ocular side effects during topical retinoid-antibiotic combination treatment in patients with facial acne vulgaris. Forty-three patients applying topical isotretinoin+erythromycin combination (isotrexin gel, GlaxoSmithKline) once daily for the treatment of acne vulgaris were enrolled. Full ophthalmologic examination, Schirmer test (with topical anesthesia), fluorescein break-up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining and tear osmolarity measurement with the TearLab system (TearLab Corporation) were carried out before and at the end of the first month of the treatment. For evaluation of symptoms participants completed the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire at each visit. The mean age of the patients was 23.16±3.03 (18-30) years. Mean tear osmolarity increased significantly from 282.09±8.95 mOsm/L at baseline to 300.39±16.65 mOsm/L after the treatment (p<0.001). BUT decreased from an average of 11.93±1.12s at baseline to 6.65±3.03s at the end of the first month (p<0.001). The OSDI score worsened significantly (5.41±3.65 vs 21.53±12.95, p<0.001) and punctate epitheliopathy was seen in 51% of eyes after the treatment. The average Schirmer values were 13.09±1.90 and 12.41±2.44mm/5min before and at the end of the first month of the treatment, respectively (p=0.117). The findings of this study indicate that topical retinoid-antibiotic combination treatment causes significant signs and symptoms of dry eye. Patients receiving topical treatment for acne should be evaluated regularly to ensure the timely detection and treatment of pathologic signs on the ocular surface. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alexis, Andrew F; Burgess, Cheryl; Callender, Valerie D; Herzog, Jo L; Roberts, Wendy E; Schweiger, Eric S; Stockton, Toni C; Gallagher, Conor J
Topical dapsone gel, 5% is approved for treatment of acne vulgaris but has not been studied specifically in women with skin of color (SOC; Fitzpatrick skin types IV, V, or VI). Evaluate safety and efficacy of dapsone gel, 5% applied topically twice daily for 12 weeks in women with SOC. Females with SOC aged 18 years and older with facial acne participated in a multicenter, open-label, single-group, 12-week pilot study of twice-daily monotherapy with dapsone gel, 5%. The investigator-rated 5-point Global Acne Assessment Score (GAAS) was used to assess efficacy. The impact of acne on subjects was assessed using the validated Acne Symptom and Impact Scale (ASIS). The study enrolled and treated 68 women with SOC and facial acne. GAAS decreased significantly from baseline to week 12 (mean, -1.2 [95% CI, -1.4, -1.0]; P<.001), a 39.0% improvement. Overall, 42.9% of subjects were responders based on a GAAS of 0 or 1 at week 12. Subjects also experienced significant reductions in mean total lesions (52% decrease), inflammatory lesions (65%), and comedo counts (41%; all P<.001). Dapsone gel, 5% monotherapy was associated with significant improvement in subject-assessed acne signs (P<.001) and impact on quality of life (QOL; P<.001), based on ASIS. Dapsone gel, 5% used twice daily was well tolerated, with no treatment-related adverse events. The local dermal tolerability scores tended to remain stable or decrease from baseline to week 12. Monotherapy with dapsone gel, 5% administered twice daily was safe and effective for treatment of facial acne in women with SOC. Significant improvement in overall acne severity and both inflammatory lesions and comedones was observed. Further, study subjects reported considerable improvement in both acne signs and impact on QOL.
Lookingbill, D P; Abrams, B B; Ellis, C N; Jegasothy, B V; Lucky, A W; Ortiz-Ferrer, L C; Savin, R C; Shupack, J L; Stiller, M J; Zone, J J
Because acne is androgen dependent, antiandrogen therapy might improve the condition. Inocoterone acetate (RU 882) is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen that binds to the androgen receptor and has antiandrogenic activity in animal models. To test its topical effect on acne, 126 male subjects with facial acne completed a 16-week, multi-center, double-blind study in which the twice-daily application of a 10% solution of inocoterone was compared with vehicle solution. Baseline and monthly examinations included acne lesion counts and general and endocrine laboratory tests. Inflammatory papules and pustules showed greater reduction in the inocoterone-treated subjects than in the subjects treated with vehicle. This difference achieved statistical significance by week 12 (24% reduction vs 10%) and week 16 (26% reduction vs 13%) and, with longitudinal analysis, throughout the course of the study. Global assessments and changes in comedo counts and sebum excretion rates were not significantly different between the groups. No serious adverse reactions were encountered. In this double-blind study of 126 male subjects with acne, a topical solution of the antiandrogen inocoterone, compared with vehicle, produced a modest but statistically significant reduction in the number of inflammatory acne lesions.
Patiño, O; Novick, C; Merlo, A; Benaim, F
Various attempts have been made to intervene with the formation of hypertrophic scarring (HTS) or to ameliorate it once it has developed, but none have yet proved effective. Massage therapy is routinely used by therapists for the treatment of various conditions, and there have been reports of increased scar pliability and decreased scar banding with the use of massage. This study examines the use of friction massage over a 3-month period in a group of 30 pediatric patients with HTS. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either therapeutic massage sessions of 10 minutes per day in combination with treatment with pressure garments or they were treated with pressure garments alone. A modified Vancouver Burn Scar Assessment Scale was used to measure the characteristics of the identified scars (10 cm by 10 cm) before and after the implementation of massage therapy. The study failed to demonstrate any appreciable effects of massage therapy on the vascularity, pliability, and height of the HTS studied, although there were reports of a decrease in pruritus in some patients. Further studies, with prolonged treatment intervals, are necessary to conclusively demonstrate the ineffectiveness of this therapy for HTS.
Kasch, M C
This paper will review the physiology of scar formation including the properties of wound healing and scar remodeling. A clinical scar management program that includes evaluation of scar adhesions and use of a variety of therapy interventions to minimize the formation of scar will be described. Use of compression, massage, splints and functional activities is included in this program. The information is applicable for the general occupational therapist who sees patients with hand dysfunction as well as a therapist specializing in hand rehabilitation. Every therapist who treats hand trauma must be familiar with the sequence and the properties of scar formation in order to reestablish tendon gliding and facilitate early remodeling of scar tissue. Many treatment techniques can be directed toward scar adhesions and no one method is totally effective when used alone; used together, these techniques can positively influence scar formation and restore maximal hand function.
Ault, P; Plaza, A; Paratz, J
Scar massage is used in burn units globally to improve functional and cosmetic outcomes of hypertrophic scarring following a burn, however, the evidence to support this therapy is unknown. To review the literature and assess the efficacy of scar massage in hypertrophic burn scars. MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were searched using the key words "burn", "burn injury", "thermal injury" and "scar", "hypertrophic scar" and "massage", "manipulation", "soft tissue mobilisation", "soft tissue manipulation". The articles were scored by the assessors using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale and outcome measures on range of motion (ROM), cosmesis (vascularity, pliability, height), pain scores, pruritus, and psychological measures of depression and anxiety were extracted. Eight publications were included in the review with 258 human participants and 15 animal subjects who received scar massage following a thermal injury resulting in hypertrophic scarring. Outcome measures that demonstrated that scar massage was effective included scar thickness as measured with ultrasonography (p=0.001; g=-0.512); depression (Centre for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression [CES-D]) (p=0.031; g=-0.555); pain as measured with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) (p=0.000; g=-1.133) and scar characteristics including vascularity (p=0.000; g=-1.837), pliability (p=0.000; g=-1.270) and scar height (p=0.000; g=-2.054). Outcome measures that trended towards significance included a decrease in pruritus (p=0.095; g=-1.157). It appears that there is preliminary evidence to suggest that scar massage may be effective to decrease scar height, vascularity, pliability, pain, pruritus and depression in hypertrophic burns scaring. This review reflects the poor quality of evidence and lack of consistent and valid scar assessment tools. Controlled, clinical trials are needed to develop evidence-based guidelines for scar massage in hypertrophic burns scarring. Copyright © 2017
Nedomansky, Jakob; Weiss, Doris; Willinger, Birgit; Nickl, Stefanie; Steininger, Christoph
Acne inversa (AI) is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease. It occurs in intertriginous areas of the skin and causes pain, drainage, malodor and scar formation. While supposedly caused by an autoimmune reaction, bacterial superinfection is a secondary event in the disease process. A unique case of a 43-year-old male patient suffering from a recurring AI lesion in the left axilla was retrospectively analysed. A swab revealed Actinomyces neuii as the only agent growing in the lesion. The patient was then treated with Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid 3 × 1 g until he was cleared for surgical excision. The intraoperative swab was negative for A. neuii. Antibiotics were prescribed for another 4 weeks and the patient has remained relapse free for more than 12 months now. Primary cutaneous Actinomycosis is a rare entity and the combination of AI and Actinomycosis has never been reported before. Failure to detect superinfections of AI lesions with slow-growing pathogens like Actinomyces spp. might contribute to high recurrence rates after immunosuppressive therapy of AI. The present case underlines the potentially multifactorial pathogenesis of the disease and the importance of considering and treating potential infections before initiating immunosuppressive regimens for AI patients.
Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; de Lima, Brunno Zeni; de Souza, Monique Carolina Meira do Rosário; Miot, Hélio Amante
BACKGROUND Acne vulgaris has an important genetic predisposition, as well as keratosis pilaris. Clinical observations suggest that patients with keratosis pilaris have less frequent or less severe acne breakouts; however, we found no studies on this regard OBJECTIVE To determine if the presence of keratosis pilaris is associated with lower prevalence and severity of acne. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with dermatology outpatients aged between 14 and 35 years. We evaluated history and clinical grade of acne, demographic variables, history of atopy, smoking, and use of hormonal contraceptives. Two groups were defined by the presence or absence of moderate to severe keratosis pilaris on the arms and were compared by bivariate analysis and by conditional multiple logistic regression. RESULTS We included 158 patients (66% women), with a median age of 23±11 years. Twenty-six percent of them had keratosis pilaris, which was associated with a history of atopy (odds ratio [OR]=2.80 [1.36 to 5.75]; p<0.01). Acne was present in 66% of subjects, and was related to family history of acne (OR=5.75 [2.47 to 13.37]; p<0.01). In bivariate and multivariate analysis, the group with keratosis pilaris had a less frequent history of acne (OR=0.32 [0.14 to 0.70]; p<0.01). CONCLUSION The presence of moderate to severe keratosis pilaris on the arms was associated with lower prevalence of acne vulgaris and lower severity of facial lesions in adolescents and young adults. PMID:24626653
Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Lima, Brunno Zeni de; Souza, Monique Carolina Meira do Rosário de; Miot, Hélio Amante
Acne vulgaris has an important genetic predisposition, as well as keratosis pilaris. Clinical observations suggest that patients with keratosis pilaris have less frequent or less severe acne breakouts; however, we found no studies on this regard To determine if the presence of keratosis pilaris is associated with lower prevalence and severity of acne. A cross-sectional study was conducted with dermatology outpatients aged between 14 and 35 years. We evaluated history and clinical grade of acne, demographic variables, history of atopy, smoking, and use of hormonal contraceptives. Two groups were defined by the presence or absence of moderate to severe keratosis pilaris on the arms and were compared by bivariate analysis and by conditional multiple logistic regression. We included 158 patients (66% women), with a median age of 23 ± 11 years. Twenty-six percent of them had keratosis pilaris, which was associated with a history of atopy (odds ratio [OR]=2.80 [1.36 to 5.75]; p<0.01). Acne was present in 66% of subjects, and was related to family history of acne (OR=5.75 [2.47 to 13.37]; p<0.01). In bivariate and multivariate analysis, the group with keratosis pilaris had a less frequent history of acne (OR=0.32 [0.14 to 0.70]; p<0.01). The presence of moderate to severe keratosis pilaris on the arms was associated with lower prevalence of acne vulgaris and lower severity of facial lesions in adolescents and young adults.
Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Izzo, Rosanna; Donnarumma, Marianna; Marasca, Claudio; Monfrecola, Giuseppe
To evaluate adherence to therapy in acne patients using mobile phones and Short Message Service (SMS) to communicate. 160 patients were randomly assigned to two groups: the SMS group received 2 text messages twice a day for a period of 12 weeks; the control group did not receive any messages. Before and after 12 weeks, the following evaluations were performed in all patients: digital photographs, the Global Acne Grading System, the Dermatology Life Quality Index, the Cardiff Acne Disability Index, the doctor-patient relationship evaluated through the Patient-Doctor Depth-of-Relationship Scale, and the adherence to treatment evaluated by asking patients how many days a week they had followed the therapy. For statistical analysis we used Student's t test. The SMS group had a better improvement of all parameters compared to the control group. Adherence and compliance are higher for patients who are included in a strategy of control.
Shalita, Alan R.; Harth, Yoram; Elman, Monica; Slatkine, Michael; Talpalariu, Gerry; Rosenberg, Yitzhak; Korman, Avner; Klein, Arieh
Propionibacterium. acnes is a Gram positive, microaerophilic bacterium which takes a part in the pathogenesis of inflammatory acne. P. acnes is capable to produce high amounts endogenic porphyrins with no need of any trigger molecules. Light in the violet-blue range (407-420 nm) has been shown to exhibit a phototoxic effect on Propionibacterium acnes when irradiated in vitro. The purpose of our study was to test the clinical effects of a high intensity narrowband blue light source on papulo pustular acne. A total of 35 patients in 3 centers were treated twice a week with a high intensity metal halide lamp illuminating the entire face (20x20 cm2) or the back with visible light in the 407-420 nm range at an intensity of 90 mW/cm2 (CureLight Ltd.) for a total of 4 weeks. UV is totally cut off. In each treatment the patient was exposed to light for 8-15 minutes. After 8 treatments, 80% of the patients with mild to moderate papulo-pustular acne showed significant improvement at reducing the numbers of non- inflammatory, inflammatory and total facial lesions. Inflammatory lesion count decrease by a mean of 68%. No side effects to the treatment were noticed. In conclusion, full face or back illumination with the high intensity pure blue light we used exhibits a rapid significant decrease in acne lesions counts in 8 biweekly treatments.
A skin scar is the sign of tissue repair following damage to the skin. Once formed, it follows a process of maturation which, after several months, results in a mature scar. This can be pathological with functional and/or aesthetic consequences. It is important to assess the scar as it matures in order to adapt the treatment to its evolution.
Claudel, J P; Auffret, N; Leccia, M T; Poli, F; Dréno, B
Acne is an inflammatory and multifactorial skin disease. Different external and internal factors, including air pollution, aggressive skincare products, medication, mechanical, hormonal and familial factors and, more recently, lifestyle and stress, have been suggested as having an impact on acne. Moreover, for many years nutrition was believed to cause or worsen acne. Over the last decades, however, it has become a dermatological doctrine that there is no direct association between diet and acne. Even if recent research has allowed to identify certain nutritional elements and behaviour that may impact on acne, including the excessive intake of dairy products and hyperglycaemic food, modern lifestyle nutrition, obesity and eating disorders, knowledge about the role of nutrition in the physiopathology of acne still remains sparse and hypotheses and myths continue to dominate the debate. Thus, further clinical and translational research is necessary to investigate and confirm the association between nutrition and acne. © 2018 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Ozdarska, Katarzyna; Osucha, Karolina; Savitskyi, Stepan; Malejczyk, Jacek; Galus, Ryszard
Acne vulgaris is one of the most common dermatologic condition especially among adolescents. Acne is related to excess sebum production by sebaceous glands, inflammation both within and adjacent to the comedones, hyperproliferation of Propionibacterium acnes. Some of investigations show association between acne and diet. Milk increases the level of IGF-1 leading to the synthesis of androgen-mediated increases sebum production. Chocolate predispose to hyperglycemia and insulinemia which aggravate of acne vulgaris. High levels of omega-6 fatty acids have been associated with increase of acne in contrast to omega-3 fatty acids, which decrease inflammation. Food have huge impact on development and severity of acne and may exert beneficial effect in the treatment of this disorder.
Block, Lisa; Gosain, Ankush; King, Timothy W.
Significance: There are ∼12 million traumatic lacerations treated in the United States emergency rooms each year, 250 million surgical incisions created worldwide every year, and 11 million burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment worldwide. In the United States, over $20 billion dollars per year are spent on the treatment and management of scars. Recent Advances: Investigations into the management of scar therapies over the last decade have advanced our understanding related to the care of cutaneous scars. Scar treatment methods are presented including topical, intralesional, and mechanical therapies in addition to cryotherapy, radiotherapy, and laser therapy. Critical Issues: Current treatment options for scars have significant limitations. This review presents the current and emerging therapies available for scar management and the scientific evidence for scar management is discussed. Future Directions: Based upon our new understanding of scar formation, innovative scar therapies are being developed. Additional research on the basic science of scar formation will lead to additional advances and novel therapies for the treatment of cutaneous scars. PMID:26487979
Rabello, Felipe Bettini; Souza, Cleyton Dias; Júnior, Jayme Adriano Farina
Scar formation is a consequence of the wound healing process that occurs when body tissues are damaged by a physical injury. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are pathological scars resulting from abnormal responses to trauma and can be itchy and painful, causing serious functional and cosmetic disability. The current review will focus on the definition of hypertrophic scars, distinguishing them from keloids and on the various methods for treating hypertrophic scarring that have been described in the literature, including treatments with clearly proven efficiency and therapies with doubtful benefits. Numerous methods have been described for the treatment of abnormal scars, but to date, the optimal treatment method has not been established. This review will explore the differences between different types of nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars, focusing on the indications, uses, mechanisms of action, associations and efficacies of the following therapies: silicone, pressure garments, onion extract, intralesional corticoid injections and bleomycin. PMID:25141117
Toyoda, Masahiko; Morohashi, Masaaki
There is ample clinical evidence suggesting that the nervous system such as emotional stress can influence the course of acne. We examined possible participation of cutaneous neurogenic factors including neuropeptides, neuropeptide-degrading enzymes and neurotrophic factors, in association with inflammation in the pathogenesis of acne. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that substance P (SP)-immunoreactive nerve fibers were in close apposition to the sebaceous glands, and that neutral endopeptidase (NEP) was expressed in the germinative cells of the sebaceous glands in the skin from acne patients. Nerve growth factor showed immunoreactivity only within the germinative cells. In addition, an increase in the number of mast cells and a strong expression of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 on the postcapillary venules were observed in adjacent areas to the sebaceous glands. In vitro, the levels and the expression of stem cell factor by fibroblasts were upregulated by SP. When organ-cultured normal skin specimens were exposed to SP, we observed significant increases in the sizes of the sebaceous glands and in the number of sebum vacuoles in sebaceous cells. Furthermore, supplementation of SP to organ-cultured skin induced expression of NEP, and we demonstrated the subcellular localization of NEP in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus within the sebaceous germinative cells using preembedding immunoelectron microscopy. These findings suggest that SP may stimulate lipogenesis of the sebaceous glands which may be followed by proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, and may yield a potent influence on the sebaceous glands by provocation of inflammatory reactions via mast cells. Thus, cutaneous neurogenic factors should contribute to onset and/or exacerbation of acne inflammation. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
Dong, Yiyun; Zhou, Guoyu; Chen, Jinan; Shen, Lingyue; Jianxin, Zhao; Xu, Qing; Zhu, Yulan
This study investigated the efficacy and safety of a newly designed LED device used in photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy of moderate to severe acne vulgaris in Chinese patients. Forty-six patients with moderate to severe facial acne showing high degrees of fluorescence by ultraviolet light examination were illuminated during ALA-PDT with two wavelengths of light (543-548 nm, and 630±6 nm, respectively) after 2 h of incubation with ALA. Each patient received treatment once every 30 days for two or three sessions. Two independent investigators assigned an acne severity score at baseline, one week after each treatment, as well as 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the completion of treatment. Adverse effects were recorded during and after each treatment. All patients rated their satisfaction with the results of treatment at a 12-week follow up visit. The ALA-PDL treatment regimen showed an overall effectiveness rate of 89.13% (41/46 patients). Some degree of clinical efficacy was seen in 71.42%, 86.67%, and 95.83% of patients with grades IV, V, and VI acne, respectively, and the rate of clinical effectiveness increased with increasing acne severity. When compared with baseline scores, significant reductions in acne scores were obtained at 8, and 12 weeks after completion of treatment. Maximum efficacy was shown at the 12 week follow up. No severe adverse events were observed. ALA-PDT administered with the newly designed LED device was an effective treatment for moderate to severe acne vulgaris, and side effects were mild and reversible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Song, Byong Han; Lee, Dong Hun; Kim, Byung Chul; Ku, Sang Hyeon; Park, Eun Joo; Kwon, In Ho; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong
Chlorophyll-a is a novel photosensitizer recently tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris. We sought to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of chlorophyll-a photodynamic therapy used for acne treatment. Subjects with acne on both sides of the face were included. Eight treatment sessions were performed over a 4-week duration. Half of the face was irradiated using a blue and red light-emitting diode after topical application of chlorophyll-lipoid complex. The other half underwent only light-emitting diode phototherapy. The lesion counts and acne severity were assessed by a blinded examiner. Sebum secretion, safety, and histologic changes were also evaluated. In total, 24 subjects completed the study. Facial acne improved on both treated sides. On the chlorophyll-a photodynamic therapy-treated side, there were significant reductions in acne lesion counts, acne severity grades, and sebum levels compared with the side treated with light-emitting diode phototherapy alone. The side effects were tolerable in all the cases. All the subjects were of Asian descent with darker skin types, which may limit the generalizability of the study. A chlorophyll-a arm alone is absent, as is a no-treatment arm. We suggest that chlorophyll-a photodynamic therapy for the treatment of acne vulgaris can be effective and safe with minimal side effects. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) also known as folliculitis keloidalis nuchae (FKN) is a chronic form of scarring folliculitis seen mostly in men of African descent. The term AKN is commonly used even though the condition is not a keloid, and the affected individuals do not have a tendency to develop keloids in other areas of the body. It is seen in post pubertal men and is rare after the age of 55 years. A few cases have been reported in females. which has been classified as a primary cicatricial alopecia since the exact cause of acne keloidalis (AK) remains unknown. However, a few inciting agents have been suggested which include androgens, inflammation, infection, trauma, genetics, and ingrowing hairs. AK shares some similar features with other forms of cicatricial alopecia and may occur together. Papules, pustules, and sometimes tumorous masses in the nuchal or occipital regions of the scalp hence the name “bumps” evolved in the environment. Despite its common occurrence, only a few seek help in hospital when lesions start to unsightly affect the individual’s quality of life. The presences of the keloidal lesions are more stressful compared to the resulting alopecia. Various attempts to reduce the bumps with corrosives, acids, and car engine oils lead to larger lesions or unsightly scars. Active lesions produce bleeding during haircuts. This is worrisome as a couple of individuals with active AK share shaving instruments at the barber shop and are at risk of acquiring or transmitting blood-borne infections. There is an urgent need to encourage safe shaving habits and treatment of lesions at onset so as to prevent unsightly lesions. PMID:28008278
Yun, In Sik; Yoo, Han-Su; Kim, Yong Oock; Rah, Dong Kyun
In Asians, facial scars, even fine surgical scars, often can be conspicuous and uncomfortable. The authors used a topical silicone gel containing vitamin C on facial scars for the purpose of making the scar less distinct. The study enrolled 80 patients. For the experimental group, the topical silicone gel mixture containing vitamin C was applied from the time of stitch removal to 6 months after the operation. The control group did not undergo any adjunctive treatment. Each participant was evaluated using the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) as well as erythema and melanin indices by spectrophotometer. With the modified VSS, the experimental group showed a significant decrease in scar elevation (p = 0.026) and erythema (p = 0.025). The hypo- or hyperpigmentation of the scars was more normalized in the experimental group. In the measured results via spectrophotometer, the experimental group showed a significant decrease in the melanin index (p = 0.045). The erythema index showed a statistically significant difference between the time of stitch removal and 6 months after the operation in the experiment group only. Topical use of silicone gel containing vitamin C has the effect of improving the appearance of fine surgical scars in Asian facial skin. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Acne Keloidalis Nuchae; NdYag Laser; AKN; Acne Keloidalis; AK; Dermatitis Papillaris Capillitii; Folliculitis Keloidalis Nuchae; Sycosis Nuchae; Acne Keloid; Keloidal Folliculitis; Lichen Keloidalis Nuchae; Folliculitis Nuchae Scleroticans; Sycosis Framboesiformis
Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Bulushi, Taimoor
Cutaneous scarring is common after trauma, surgery and infection and occurs when normal skin tissue is replaced by fibroblastic tissue during the healing process. The pathophysiology of scar formation is not yet fully understood, although the degree of tension across the wound edges and the speed of cell growth are believed to play central roles. Prevention of scars is essential and can be achieved by attention to surgical techniques and the use of measures to reduce cell growth. Grading and classifying scars is important to determine available treatment strategies. This article presents an overview of the current therapies available for the prevention and treatment of scars. It is intended to be a practical guide for surgeons and other health professionals involved with and interested in scar management. PMID:26909210
Commander, Sarah Jane; Chamata, Edward; Cox, Joshua; Dickey, Ryan M.; Lee, Edward I.
Postoperative scar appearance is often a significant concern among patients, with many seeking advice from their surgeons regarding scar minimization. Numerous products are available that claim to decrease postoperative scar formation and improve wound healing. These products attempt to create an ideal environment for wound healing by targeting the three phases of wound healing: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. With that said, preoperative interventions, such as lifestyle modifications and optimization of medical comorbidities, and intraoperative interventions, such as adherence to meticulous operative techniques, are equally important for ideal scarring. In this article, the authors review the available options in postoperative scar management, addressing the benefits of multimodal perioperative intervention. Although numerous treatments exist, no single modality has been proven superior over others. Therefore, each patient should receive a personalized treatment regimen to optimize scar management. PMID:27478420
Chambers, Christopher B; Moe, Kristen S
Periorbital scarring with eyelid retraction can have serious visual effects and can lead to loss of vision or even loss of the eye. Understanding of eyelid anatomy and the delicate balance of its structural supports is critical for the identification of the eyelid disorder responsible for the cicatrix and helps to guide treatment. The 2-finger test and lateral distraction of the lid can also be of significant help in proper diagnosis of the underlying disorder. Proper reconstruction with respect to the anterior and posterior lamellae helps to ensure a favorable outcome. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Żaczek, Maciej; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Łusiak-Szelchowska, Marzanna; Górski, Andrzej
Propionibacterium acnes is associated with purulent skin infections, and it poses a global problem for both patients and doctors. Acne vulgaris (acne) remains a problem due to its chronic character and difficulty of treatment, as well as its large impact on patients' quality of life. Due to the chronic course of the disease, treatment is long lasting, and often ineffective. Currently there are data regarding isolation of P. acnes phages, and there have been numerous studies on phage killing of P. acnes, but no data are available on phage application specifically in acne treatment. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge on the phages active against P. acnes described so far and their potential application in the treatment of acne associated with P. acnes. The treatment of acne with phages may be important in order to reduce the overuse of antibiotics, which are currently the main acne treatment. However, more detailed studies are first needed to understand phage functioning in the skin microbiome and the possibility to use phages to combat P. acnes. PMID:28228751
Kul'chitskaia, D B; Orekhova, E M; Vasil'eva, E S
Laser Doppler flowmetry discovered microcirculatory disorders in acne patients. Affected are arterioles as well as capillaries and venules. Combination of magnetotherapy with medication improves microcirculation in acne patients. More marked positive changes occurred in the microcirculatory system due to combined treatment compared to medication therapy only. Thus, laser Doppler flowmetry is a new, noninvasive method of assessing microcirculation in acne patients and can serve an objective criterion of treatment efficacy.
Hermsmeier, Maiko; Sawant, Tanvee; Lac, Diana; Yamamoto, Akira; Chen, Xin; Nagavarapu, Usha; Evans, Conor L.; Chan, Kin Foong
Minocycline is an antibiotic regularly prescribed to treat acne vulgaris. The only commercially available minocycline comes in an oral dosage form, which often results in systemic adverse effects. A topical minocycline composition (BPX-01) was developed to provide localized and targeted delivery to the epidermis and pilosebaceous unit where acne-related bacteria, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), reside. As minocycline is a known fluorophore, fluorescence microscopy was performed to investigate its potential use in visualizing minocycline distribution within tissues. BPX-01 with various concentrations of minocycline, was applied topically to freshly excised human facial skin specimens. Spatial distribution of minocycline and its fluorescence intensity within the stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis, and pilosebaceous unit were assessed. The resulting fluorescence intensity data as a function of minocycline concentration may indicate clinically relevant therapeutic doses of topical BPX-01 needed to kill P. acnes and reduce inflammation for successful clinical outcomes.
Kadler, Benjamin K.; Mehta, Saurabh S.; Funk, Lennard
Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated as a cause of infection following shoulder surgery, may occur up to 2 years after the index operation and has been shown to be responsible for up to 56% of shoulder infections after orthopedic implant. Male patients within the population undergoing shoulder surgery are particularly at risk, especially if their shoulder surgery involved prosthesis or was posttraumatic. P. acnes infection can be difficult to diagnose clinically and laboratory techniques require prolonged and specialized cultures. Usual inflammatory markers are not raised in infection with this low virulence organism. Delayed diagnosis with P. acnes infection can result in significant morbidity prior to prosthesis failure. Early diagnosis of P. acnes infection and appropriate treatment can improve clinical outcomes. It is important to be aware of P. acnes infection in shoulder surgery, to evaluate risk factors, to recognize the signs of P. acnes infection, and to promptly initiate treatment. The signs and symptoms of P. acnes infection are described and discussed. Data were collected from PubMed™, Web of Science, and the NICE Evidence Healthcare Databases - AMED (Ovid), BNI (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), Embase (Ovid), HMIC: DH-Data and Kings Fund (Ovid), Medline (Ovid), and PsycINFO (Ovid). The search terms used were “P. acnes,” “infection,” “shoulder,” and “surgery.” In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the prevention and management of P. acnes infection following shoulder surgery. PMID:26622132
Costa, Adilson; Lage, Denise; Moisés, Thaís Abdalla
Numerous studies were published over the last 50 years to investigate whether diet is associated with the etiology of acne. Although older studies well known by dermatologists that refute the association between acne and diet exist, their scientific foundation is weak. New articles have recently brought to light evidence contrary to previous findings. Therefore, we would like to investigate whether diet, directly or indirectly, influences one or more of the four fundamental etiopathogenic pillars of acne: (1) hyperproliferation of basal keratinocytes, (2) increase of sebaceous production, (3) colonization by Propionibacterium acnes, and (4) inflammation.
Del Rosso, James Q
Topical agents, including retinoids and antibiotics, are commonly used to treat acne vulgaris (AV) and remain as components of acne treatment guidelines. Approved topical combination formulations offer the advantages of established efficacy, decreased frequency of application, and improved convenience for patients. This article discusses both clindamycin phosphate (CP) and tretinoin (Tret) as components of a topical aqueous-based combination gel that has been shown to be effective, safe, and well tolerated for treatment of facial AV. Clinically relevant considerations with use of this treatment are also discussed, including therapeutic advantages and potential limitations.
Facial palsy is a daily challenge for the clinicians. Determining whether facial nerve palsy is peripheral or central is a key step in the diagnosis. Central nervous lesions can give facial palsy which may be easily differentiated from peripheral palsy. The next question is the peripheral facial paralysis idiopathic or symptomatic. A good knowledge of anatomy of facial nerve is helpful. A structure approach is given to identify additional features that distinguish symptomatic facial palsy from idiopathic one. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is idiopathic one, or Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The most common cause of symptomatic peripheral facial palsy is Ramsay-Hunt syndrome. Early identification of symptomatic facial palsy is important because of often worst outcome and different management. The prognosis of Bell's palsy is on the whole favorable and is improved with a prompt tapering course of prednisone. In Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, an antiviral therapy is added along with prednisone. We also discussed of current treatment recommendations. We will review short and long term complications of peripheral facial palsy.
Wang, Shen; Mi, Jing; Li, Qingfeng; Jin, Rui; Dong, Jiying
Laser and other energy devices are emerging, minimally invasive treatments for scars. Among the various techniques, fractional microplasma radiofrequency technology (FMRT) has proven to be an effective treatment option for various types of scars and skin conditions such as rhytids, striae distensae, and hyperpigmentation. This prospective clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FMRT for treating non-hypertrophic post-burn scars in the Asian population. All patients underwent three to five treatment sessions at various intervals of 8-16 weeks. The Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scales (POSAS)  were used to evaluate changes in burn scars pre-and post-FMRT treatment. A total of 95 patients completed the study. The overall response rate was 86.3% (82/95). The total POSAS scores before and after 6 months of treatment were 53.41 ± 6.28 and 46.35 ± 5.30, respectively. There was statistically significant improvement in scar color, thickness, and pliability. There was no improvement in vascularization, pain, or itching. Complications included prolonged post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, acne eruption, herpes simplex eruption, and abnormal hair growth. No severe adverse events, such as acute skin infection, hypertrophic scarring, or depigmentation, were observed. FMRT is an efficacious, safe treatment for non-hypertrophic burn scars in the Asian population. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:563-569, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dekio, Itaru; Culak, Renata; Misra, Raju; Gaulton, Tom; Fang, Min; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Rajendram, Dunstan; Gharbia, Saheer E; Shah, Haroun N
Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes subsp. nov. and Propionibacterium acnes subsp. elongatum subsp. nov. are described. These emanate from the three known phylotypes of P. acnes, designated types I, II and III. Electron microscopy confirmed the filamentous cell shape of type III, showing a striking difference from types I/II, which were short rods. Biochemical tests indicated that, in types I/II, either the pyruvate, l-pyrrolidonyl arylamidase or d-ribose 2 test was positive, whereas all of these were negative among type III strains. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectra, which profile mainly their ribosomal proteins, were different between these two groups. Surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) spectra of all phylotypes revealed a specific protein biomarker that was overexpressed in type III strains compared with types I/II only when grown aerobically. Reference strains had high whole-genome similarity between types I (>91 %) and II (>75 %), but a considerably lower level of 72 % similarity with type III. recA and gyrB sequence dendrograms confirmed the distant relatedness of type III, indicating the presence of two distinct centres of variation within the species P. acnes. On the other hand, cellular fatty acid profiles and 16S rRNA gene sequence relatedness (>99.3 %) circumscribed the species. Thus, we propose two subspecies, Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes subsp. nov. for types I/II and Propionibacterium acnes subsp. elongatum subsp. nov. for type III. The type strain of Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes is NCTC 737T ( = ATCC 6919T = JCM 6425T = DSM 1897T = CCUG 1794T), while the type strain of Propionibacterium acnes subsp. elongatum is K124T ( = NCTC 13655T = JCM 18919T).
Graber, Emmy M.
Acne is a common dermatological disorder that most frequently affects adolescents; however, individuals may be affected at all ages. Many people who suffer from acne seek treatment from both prescription and over-the-counter acne medications. Due to convenience, lower cost, and difficulty getting an appointment with a dermatologist, the use of over-the-counter acne treatments is on the rise. As the plethora of over-the-counter acne treatment options can be overwhelming, it is important that dermatologists are well-versed on this subject to provide appropriate information about treatment regimens and potential drug interactions and that their patients see them as well-informed. This article reviews the efficacy of various over-the-counter acne treatments based on the current literature. A thorough literature review revealed there are many types of over-the-counter acne treatments and each are designed to target at least one of the pathogenic pathways that are reported to be involved in the development of acne lesions. Many of the key over-the-counter ingredients are incorporated in different formulations to broaden the spectrum and consumer appeal of available products. Unfortunately, many over-the-counter products are not well-supported by clinical studies, with a conspicuous absence of double-blind or investigator-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies. Most studies that do exist on over-the-counter acne products are often funded by the manufacturer. Use of over-the-counter acne treatments is a mainstay in our society and it is important that dermatologists are knowledgeable about the different options, including potential benefits and limitations. Overall, over-the-counter acne therapies can be classified into the following five major groups: cleansers, leave-on products, mechanical treatments, essential oils, and vitamins. PMID:22808307
The Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne Group recommends retinoid-based combination therapy as first-line therapy and the preferred treatment approach for almost all acne patients except those with the most severe disease. Clindamycin 1% (as clindamycin phosphate 1.2%)/tretinoin 0.025% (Clin-RA) is a new fixed-dose retinoid-based combination therapy. The aqueous-based gel formulation of Clin-RA was designed to minimize skin irritation and optimize adherence with the therapy. It contains both solubilized and crystalline tretinoin which allows the retinoid to be slowly released onto the skin surface and decreases the potential for cutaneous irritation. A pooled analysis of three pivotal studies involving 4550 acne patients showed that Clin-RA is well tolerated and effective at treating both inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions. The onset of action of Clin-RA is rapid occurring within 2 weeks of treatment initiation. It is not associated with acne flaring or an increase in clindamycin-resistant Propionibacterium acnes counts. Clin-RA is considered as effective as adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 2.5%, whereas Clin-RA has a more favourable tolerability profile. Clin-RA may be more effective than clindamycin 1%/BPO 5% at treating non-inflammatory acne lesions since the latter does not contain a retinoid to target comedones. Clin-RA is also easy for patients to handle and apply, and has the advantage of not containing BPO which can bleach hair and fabrics. Taken together, the profile of Clin-RA suggests Clin-RA to be a first-line treatment for patients with facial acne. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Baker, Richard; Urso-Baiarda, Fulvio; Linge, Claire; Grobbelaar, Adriaan
Cutaneous scarring can cause patients symptoms ranging from the psychological to physical pain. Although the process of normal scarring is well described the ultimate cause of pathological scarring remains unknown. Similarly, exactly how early gestation fetuses can heal scarlessly remains unsolved. These questions are crucial in the search for a preventative or curative antiscarring agent. Such a discovery would be of enormous medical and commercial importance, not least because it may have application in other tissues. In the clinical context the assessment of scars is becoming more sophisticated and new physical, medical and surgical therapies are being introduced. This review aims to summarise some of the recent developments in scarring research for non-specialists and specialists alike. PMID:20585482
Background Acne is considered a cosmetic nuisance in Malaysia since no insurance coverage is provided for its treatment. Its psychological impact is unknown. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the impact of acne on quality of life and its relationship with severity. Methods A cross-sectional study using the Cardiff acne disability index (CADI) and Global Acne Grading System for acne severity grading was done in three government-run dermatology clinics in Sarawak, Malaysia. Results The study cohort of 200 patients had a mean CADI score of 5.1. Most of the patients (59.5%) had mild CADI impairment, with the domain of feelings most affected. Patients with a family income <1,000 United States Dollor/month had a higher mean CADI (mean 5.5 vs. 4.4; p=0.04). Females, indigenous groups, and patients with tertiary education tended to have more severe CADI impairment (p>0.05). The correlation between CADI and mild acne severity was low (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.35; p<0.001) but became insignificant for moderate and severe acne. Conclusion Acne impairment in Sarawak was moderate and must be addressed. It should be viewed as a psychologically disabling disease requiring optimal management and resource allocation. PMID:22577265
Yap, Felix Boon-Bin
Acne is considered a cosmetic nuisance in Malaysia since no insurance coverage is provided for its treatment. Its psychological impact is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of acne on quality of life and its relationship with severity. A cross-sectional study using the Cardiff acne disability index (CADI) and Global Acne Grading System for acne severity grading was done in three government-run dermatology clinics in Sarawak, Malaysia. The study cohort of 200 patients had a mean CADI score of 5.1. Most of the patients (59.5%) had mild CADI impairment, with the domain of feelings most affected. Patients with a family income <1,000 United States Dollor/month had a higher mean CADI (mean 5.5 vs. 4.4; p=0.04). Females, indigenous groups, and patients with tertiary education tended to have more severe CADI impairment (p>0.05). The correlation between CADI and mild acne severity was low (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.35; p<0.001) but became insignificant for moderate and severe acne. Acne impairment in Sarawak was moderate and must be addressed. It should be viewed as a psychologically disabling disease requiring optimal management and resource allocation.
Describes five types of acne and stresses the importance of appropriate treatment. Some dermatologists believe diet is critical in improving acne. Other treatments include the use of drying lotions and soaps, astringents, abrasive cleansers, prescription drugs, face peels, and dermabrasion. (SM)
von Laffert, M; Stadie, V; Wohlrab, J; Marsch, W C
Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa is a chronic, inflammatory, scarring disease in the terminal hair follicle and apocrine gland-bearing areas (skin folds). There is considerable histological evidence that perifolliculitis and follicular hyperkeratosis precede the rupture of the follicle. The timing of the epithelial hyperplasia at the infundibula of inflamed terminal follicles has not yet been clarified. To clarify the early histopathological life of lesions ('chronology') in hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa, focusing on the terminal follicle structure and its surrounding tissue (hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia of follicular epithelium, perifolliculitis and rupture). In total, 485 operative specimens obtained from 128 patients with diagnosed hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (all surgically treated by wide excision) were examined histologically. Two to five histological preparations (total 485) per operation area (total 196) were prepared by multiple slicing. Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa showed a heterogeneous histological pattern: hyperkeratosis of the terminal follicles (89%), hyperplasia of follicular epithelium (80%), pronounced perifolliculitis (68%) and follicle rupture (24%). Perifolliculitis, follicular hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia occurred prior to the rupture of the follicle. Other histological criteria were: subepidermal cellular inflammatory infiltrate (82%), epidermal psoriasiform hyperplasia (56%), pronounced acute dermal inflammation (28%), pronounced chronic dermal inflammation (49%), and involvement of apocrine glands (52%) and subcutis (31%). Infundibular hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia of the follicular epithelium and perifolliculitis are major histopathological characteristics of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa. These apparently precede rupture of the follicle. In particular, hyperplasia of the follicular epithelium probably marks the beginning of sinus formation, which usually spreads horizontally. Psoriasiform hyperplasia
The prolonged debilitation, loss of income, and decrement in quality of life caused by vocal fold scar is exacerbated by our inability to successfully treat this difficult problem. As technology focuses on developing innovative treatments, we need to fully appreciate and understand the mechanisms giving rise to glottal scar, on both a macroscopic and microscopic level. This review examines recent literature pertaining to the gross and molecular mechanisms which give rise to vocal fold scar. Mechanisms of vocal fold scar production have been examined in both macroscopic and microscopic detail. Trauma and injury involving any aspect of the lamina propria, particularly the deeper layers, may result in epithelial tethering and scar formation. At the molecular level, early inflammatory cytokines activate and recruit fibroblasts which then drive the fibrotic cascade. Transforming growth factor-β enhances fibrosis and is balanced by tissue matrix metalloproteinases and hepatocyte growth factor activity. Molecular signaling offers novel opportunities to intervene in scar formation. New work investigating the cause of vocal fold scar identifies complex molecular processes leading to fibrosis in the lamina propria. Improved mechanistic understanding offers insight into prevention strategies and possible targets for antifibrotic therapies that may help prevent or treat this debilitating condition.
Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ling-Lin; Su, Lina; Guo, Ming-Xia; Huang, Zheng
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)- medicated photodynamic therapy (ALA PDT) for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Methods: Sixteen Chinese patients with moderate to severe facial acne were treated with 1-3 courses of ALA PDT. ALA cream (3%) was freshly prepared and applied to acne lesions for 3-4 h. The lesions were irradiated by a 635 nm diode laser at dose levels of 60 - 80 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2. Clinical assessments were conducted before and after treatment up to 3 months. Results: All patents showed response to ALA PDT. Complete clearance was seen in 10 patients (62.5%) and partial clearance in 6 patients (37.5%). One case showed recurrence after complete clearance at 2 months and another two showed recurrence after complete clearance at 3 months. However, the number of new lesions were significantly reduced. Adverse effects were minimal. Conclusions: The results of this preliminary clinical study is encouraging. ALA PDT is a simple, safe and useful therapeutic option for the treatment of moderate to severe acne. Further studies to evaluate the treatment with a larger number of patients and for a longer period of follow-up are needed.
Abdel Meguid, Azza Mahfouz; Elaziz Ahmed Attallah, Dalia Abd; Omar, Howida
Treatment options for acne include chemical peeling. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) has been used for treating acne. The ability of TCA to diminish corneocyte cohesion and keratinocyte plugging addresses this mode of treatment. Salicylic acid is an excellent keratolytic agent. It is believed to function through solubilization of intercellular cement, thereby reducing corneocyte adhesion. Comparing the therapeutic efficacy of TCA 25% peels with those of salicylic acid 30% in patients with acne vulgaris. Twenty patients, Fitzpatrick skin Types III to V with facial acne, were enrolled. Twenty-five percent of TCA was applied to the right half of the face and 30% salicylic acid to the left half at 2-week interval for 2 months. Total improvement was more frequent with salicylic acid peeling (95%) versus (85%) with TCA. Total comedones improvement was more frequent with TCA peeling (80%) versus (70%) with salicylic acid. Improvement of inflammatory lesions was more frequent among the side treated with salicylic acid (85%) versus (80%) with TCA peeling. However, the results did not reach the statistical significance level. Trichloroacetic acid is more superior in treating comedonal lesions, whereas salicylic is more superior in treating inflammatory lesions, without significant different between their results.
Monfrecola, Giuseppe; Cacciapuoti, Sara; Capasso, Claudia; Delfino, Mario; Fabbrocini, Gabriella
Background A novel face compact cream (FCC) containing a new patented formulation was recently developed to provide acne patients with cosmetic camouflage for their lesions and to have beneficial effects on the multifactorial components of the disease. This pilot investigation aimed to evaluate the real-life tolerability, potential for comedogenicity and covering effect provided by this FCC. Methods This single-center study evaluated the FCC applied once daily for 28 days in 20 females with facial acne. Tolerability was assessed by rating skin reactions on a scale from 1 =absent to 4 =evident. Comedogenicity potential was evaluated by determining the number of facial acne lesions before and after use of the FCC. The covering effect was rated in ten patients 30 minutes after application on a scale from 1 =none to 5 =excellent. Patients rated their opinions on the FCC on day 28 using a questionnaire. Results Assessment of tolerability on days 0, 14, and 28 showed that skin reactions, including erythema, edema, dryness, desquamation, tight feeling, itching, and burning, were absent in all patients. The FCC was noncomedogenic and provided a significant 15.8% reduction in facial acne lesions after 28 days (P<0.001). The FCC provided a good covering effect 30 minutes after application in 80% of patients. All patients (100%) were satisfied with the FCC, with 90% agreeing that the FCC was effective and 80% stating that the FCC improved their skin. Conclusion The FCC was positively perceived, well tolerated, noncomedogenic, and provided an effective covering of acne in this small group of female patients with 1 month of follow-up. PMID:27785082
Monfrecola, Giuseppe; Cacciapuoti, Sara; Capasso, Claudia; Delfino, Mario; Fabbrocini, Gabriella
A novel face compact cream (FCC) containing a new patented formulation was recently developed to provide acne patients with cosmetic camouflage for their lesions and to have beneficial effects on the multifactorial components of the disease. This pilot investigation aimed to evaluate the real-life tolerability, potential for comedogenicity and covering effect provided by this FCC. This single-center study evaluated the FCC applied once daily for 28 days in 20 females with facial acne. Tolerability was assessed by rating skin reactions on a scale from 1 =absent to 4 =evident. Comedogenicity potential was evaluated by determining the number of facial acne lesions before and after use of the FCC. The covering effect was rated in ten patients 30 minutes after application on a scale from 1 =none to 5 =excellent. Patients rated their opinions on the FCC on day 28 using a questionnaire. Assessment of tolerability on days 0, 14, and 28 showed that skin reactions, including erythema, edema, dryness, desquamation, tight feeling, itching, and burning, were absent in all patients. The FCC was noncomedogenic and provided a significant 15.8% reduction in facial acne lesions after 28 days ( P <0.001). The FCC provided a good covering effect 30 minutes after application in 80% of patients. All patients (100%) were satisfied with the FCC, with 90% agreeing that the FCC was effective and 80% stating that the FCC improved their skin. The FCC was positively perceived, well tolerated, noncomedogenic, and provided an effective covering of acne in this small group of female patients with 1 month of follow-up.
Efficacy and safety of a ceramide containing moisturizer followed by fixed-dose clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel in the morning in combination with a ceramide containing moisturizer followed by tretinoin 0.05% gel in the evening for the treatment of facial acne vulgaris.
Zeichner, Joshua A; Patel, Rita V; Haddican, Madelaine; Wong, Vicky
Combination therapy addressing multiple pathogenic factors should be used to achieve optimal outcomes in treating acne. The following study demonstrated both safety and efficacy of fixed-dose clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% in the morning with micronized tretinoin 0.05% gel in the evening. Both products were applied to the skin following the use of a ceramide containing moisturizing lotion.
Brush fires consumed nearly 750,000 acres across Southern California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated in these false-color images from NASA Terra spacecraft.
Acne is the result of excessive grease on the skin. The successful treatment of acne depends essentially on the degreasing of the skin to an extent which produces peeling, which is the observable index of adequate treatment. The use of antibiotics is supplementary to degreasing and peeling. Degreasing is best achieved by thrice daily washing with Neutrogena acne cleansing soap, followed by the application of a benzoyl peroxide preparation of a suitable strength. If necessary, further degreasing can be achieved by cleansing with isopropyl alcohol after washing with the Neutrogena soap. PMID:2941579
Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Hebert, Adelaide A; Schachner, Lawrence; Paller, Amy S; Rossi, Ana Beatris; Lucky, Anne W
Although acne vulgaris is common in preadolescents (<13 yrs), few acne treatments are currently approved for children. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of tretinoin microsphere gel (TMG) 0.04% pump in children aged 9-11 with acne vulgaris. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled pilot study, patients applied TMG 0.04% pump or vehicle once daily to the face for 12 weeks. Efficacy measures were changes in facial lesion counts, Investigator Global Evaluation of acne severity using two scales, and Investigator Global Assessment of Improvement from baseline to week 12. Of the 110 patients enrolled, 55 received TMG 0.04% pump, and 55 received vehicle. At week 12, there was significantly greater improvement in the least-squares mean change in noninflammatory lesions with TMG 0.04% than with vehicle (-19.9 vs -9.7, p = 0.04) and a significant difference in Investigator Global Assessment of improvement at week 12 between the children treated with TMG 0.04% pump and those treated with vehicle (p = 0.02), but there were no discernible differences in static acne severity scales. Change from baseline in signs and symptoms of cutaneous irritation were similar between the active and vehicle arms at week 12. This study demonstrated statistically significant differences in the reduction of noninflammatory lesions between TMG 0.04% pump and vehicle in patients aged 9-11 with acne vulgaris. Additional studies are warranted to further characterize the safety and efficacy of TMG 0.04% pump for the treatment of acne in the preadolescent population. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Han, X D; Oon, H H; Goh, C L
Acne vulgaris commonly affects adolescents. But recent reports suggest a rising prevalence of post-adolescence acne. While there are few reports on post-adolescence acne, there are even fewer reports comparing adolescence acne and post-adolescence. Epidemiological data of adolescence (<25 years) and post-adolescence (≥25 years) acne patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2013 in a tertiary dermatology referral centre was analysed. From the pool of patients seen in 2010, 80 adolescence and 84 post-adolescence acne patients' epidemiological characteristics and treatment responses were analysed. During the 10-year study period, there was an increase in the number and proportion of acne cases. In 2004, 4447 (5.77%) of all new diagnoses made were of acne vulgaris. The proportion rose to 5723 (8.13%) in 2013. There were consistently more female than male acne patients. The proportion of post-adolescent cases remained constant at about 30% of all acne patients seen. Mean age of acne vulgaris patients decreased from 23.1 years in 2004 to 22.6 years in 2013. In the subgroup analysis, there were more males than females with adolescence acne (61.3% vs. 38.8%, P < 0.01) and more females with post-adolescence acne (69.0% vs. 31.0%, P < 0.01). Thirty-four (40.5%) post-adolescence acne patients had acne from adolescence persisting into adulthood. Comedonal acne was more prevalent in the adolescence acne patients (58.8% vs. 40.5%, P = 0.019), whereas cystic acne was more prevalent in post-adolescence patients (18.1% vs. 7.5%, P = 0.044). Systemic retinoids were more often used for treatment in the adolescence acne patients than post-adolescence acne patients (23.8% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.027). Acne predominantly affects adolescents but post-adolescence acne is not uncommon. For post-adolescence acne, females predominate over males. Inflammatory and cystic acne tends to be more predominant in post-adolescence acne patients, whereas comedonal acne is more often seen in adolescence acne
Tan, Xi; Al-Dabagh, Amir; Davis, Scott A; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Chang, Jongwha; Feldman, Steven R
Acne vulgaris is a common chronic disease that may require long-term treatment. Medication adherence is critical to acne management; non-adherence is a common reason for treatment failure and can lead to poor quality of life. The aim of the study was to examine medication adherence, healthcare costs, and utilization associated with acne drugs among acne patients in the USA. This was a retrospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2007 using the Marketscan Medicaid Database, a national healthcare claims database. The study followed acne patients aged 0-64 years for 90 days after the first acne drug prescription to measure acne medication adherence, acne-related outpatient visits, and total acne-related healthcare costs. Adherence was measured among different acne drug classes using medication possession ratio (MPR). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to assess the outcomes. The study included 24,438 eligible patients, of whom 89.39 % were under 18 years old. The average adherence rate to acne drugs (MPR) was 0.34, and only 11.74 % of the patients were adherent (MPR ≥0.80). Patients with drug refills had a higher adherence rate (MPR = 0.74) than who those without refills (MPR = 0.27). Factors significantly associated with adherence were age, comorbidity, gender, number of drug refills and number of drug classes used. Patients were more adherent to oral retinoids than any other acne drug classes (MPR = 0.78, 57 % adherent). Patients were less adherent to oral antibiotics (MPR = 0.21) and topical retinoids (MPR = 0.31). After controlling for medication use behavior, the use of oral antibiotics decreased the number of acne-related outpatient visits by 50.9 % (p < 0.001) and lowered acne-related total costs by 51.7 % (p < 0.001). Medication non-adherence is generally prevalent among young acne patients enrolled in Medicaid. The combination of a topical retinoid and an antibiotic agent may be a good choice given their associated healthcare
Sinagra, Jo-Linda; Capitanio, Bruno
Acne is a multifactorial skin disorder frequently observed during adolescence with different grades of severity. Multiple factors centering on sebum secretion are implicated in acne pathogenesis. Despite the recognized role of sebum, its compositional complexity and limited analytical approaches have hampered investigation of alterations specifically associated with acne. To examine the profiles of lipid distribution in acne sebum, 61 adolescents (29 males and 32 females) were enrolled in this study. Seventeen subjects presented no apparent clinical signs of acne. The 44 affected individuals were clinically classified as mild (13 individuals), moderate (19 individuals), and severe (12 individuals) acne. Sebum was sampled from the forehead with SebutapeTM adhesive patches. Profiles of neutral lipids were acquired with rapid-resolution reversed-phase/HPLC-TOF/MS in positive ion mode. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses led to the identification of lipid species with significantly different levels between healthy and acne sebum. The majority of differentiating lipid species were diacylglycerols (DGs), followed by fatty acyls, sterols, and prenols. Overall, the data indicated an association between the clinical grading of acne and sebaceous lipid fingerprints and highlighted DGs as more abundant in sebum from adolescents affected with acne. PMID:27127078
Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L
Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial
Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman
Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ghosh, Rajarshi; Gopalkrishnan, Kulandaswamy
The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the incidence of facial fractures along with age, gender predilection, etiology, commonest site, associated dental injuries, and any complications of patients operated in Craniofacial Unit of SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital. This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of OMFS, SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad from January 2003 to December 2013. Data were recorded for the cause of injury, age and gender distribution, frequency and type of injury, localization and frequency of soft tissue injuries, dentoalveolar trauma, facial bone fractures, complications, concomitant injuries, and different treatment protocols.All the data were analyzed using statistical analysis that is chi-squared test. A total of 1146 patients reported at our unit with facial fractures during these 10 years. Males accounted for a higher frequency of facial fractures (88.8%). Mandible was the commonest bone to be fractured among all the facial bones (71.2%). Maxillary central incisors were the most common teeth to be injured (33.8%) and avulsion was the most common type of injury (44.6%). Commonest postoperative complication was plate infection (11%) leading to plate removal. Other injuries associated with facial fractures were rib fractures, head injuries, upper and lower limb fractures, etc., among these rib fractures were seen most frequently (21.6%). This study was performed to compare the different etiologic factors leading to diverse facial fracture patterns. By statistical analysis of this record the authors come to know about the relationship of facial fractures with gender, age, associated comorbidities, etc.
Hensley, David; Meckfessel, Matthew H
The epidemiology and demographic profile of acne vulgaris has evolved over the past several decades, with a noted earlier onset occurring in patients as young as 7 years of age. The combination of a foaming facial wash and a facial moisturizer with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 is an over-the-counter cleansing and moisturizing regimen for acne-prone skin that has been shown to be safe and tolerable in subjects 12 years of age and older. To assess the tolerability of this skin care regimen in children ages 7 to 11 years with acne-prone skin. This was an open-label, single-center study that investigated the safety and tolerability of these products in subjects 7 to 11 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01909713). Subjects used the foaming wash twice daily and the SPF 30 moisturizer once daily. Subjects were assessed for cutaneous tolerability, and satisfaction at baseline and weeks 1 and 3. Thirty-five subjects enrolled and completed the study. The cutaneous tolerability score of most subjects was none when assessed by the investigator and subject or legally authorized representative at weeks 1 and 3. The products were well tolerated and a positive impression for cosmetic acceptability was reported for both products by the study population on the questionnaire. This study supports the use of a skin care regimen comprising a wash and a moisturizer in acne-prone patients as young as 7 years old since these products were safe, well tolerated, and liked by subjects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... free," "noncomedogenic," or "nonacnegenic." When you wash your face, take the time to remove all of your makeup. If you use hair sprays or gels, try to keep them away from your face because they can clog pores. If you have ...
... a cream or lotion with benzoyl peroxide, resorcinol, salicylic acid, or sulfur. Benzoyl peroxide works to reduce oil made by the glands. Resorcinol, salicylic acid, and sulfur help breakdown whiteheads and blackheads. If ...
Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.
Liu, Yale; Zeng, Weihui; Hu, Die; Jha, Smita; Ge, Qin; Geng, Songmei; Xiao, Shengxiang; Hu, Guanglei; Wang, Xiaoxiao
We evaluated the short-term and long-term effects of the 1550 nm erbium:glass (Er:glass) fractional laser in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris. Forty-five (9 male and 36 female) acne patients were treated 4 times at 4-week intervals with the following parameters: 169 spot density and 15-30 mJ/cm(2) fluence. There was no control group. The laser spots were adjustable (maximum overlap: 20%) according to the treatment area, and delivered in rows in order to cover all the face. Clinical photographs were taken. The IGA scores and lesion counts were performed for each treatment. Their current state was obtained by phone call follow-up to determine the long-term effect and photographs were offered by themselves or taken in hospital. After four treatments, all patients had an obvious reduction of lesion counts and IGA score and the peak lesion counts decreased to 67.7% after the initial four treatment sessions. For long-term effect, 8 patients lost follow-up, hence 37 patients were followed-up. 8 patients were 2-year follow up, 27 at the 1-year follow-up, and all patients at the half-year follow-up. The mean percent reduction was 72% at the half-year follow-up, 79 at the 1-year follow-up and 75% at the 2-year follow-up. Side effects and complications were limited to transient erythema and edema, and few patients suffered from transient acne flare-ups and sensitivity. All patients responded that their skin was less prone to oiliness. In conclusion, acne can be successfully treated by 1550 nm Er:glass fractional laser, with few side effects and prolonged acne clearing.
Borelli, C; Merk, K; Plewig, G; Degitz, K
In recent years, a number of studies have evaluated the treatment of acne using electromagnetic waves, such as lasers, photodynamic therapy, visible light or radio waves. While the efficacy of laser treatment is still uncertain, photodynamic therapy shows promising results, but with marked side-effects, as destruction of sebaceous glands. Treatment with blue light (405-420 nm wavelength) also appears effective and can be regarded as an treatment option for inflammatory acne.
Pei, Susan; Inamadar, Arun C.; Adya, Keshavmurthy A.; Tsoukas, Maria M.
The use of light and laser in the treatment of acne is increasing as these modalities are safe, effective, and associated with no or minimal complications when used appropriately. These light and laser sources are also being used in combination with pharmacological and/or physical measures to synergize their effects and optimize the therapeutic outcome. This review focuses on optical devices used in treating acne and serves to delineate the current application of various methods, including their utility and efficacy. PMID:26009707
Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Suh, Dae Hun
Recent progress has steadily reported the existence of the diverse strains of Propionibacterium acnes, and these studies have contributed to the elucidation of their contradictory roles between normal commensals and pathogens. In this review, the authors aimed to provide an update on the recent understanding of research about P. acnes strain diversity and acne, analyzing the potential implications for clinical applications. Before the era of genomic research, P. acnes was known to be distinguished based on serological agglutination tests, cell wall sugar analysis, or fermentation traits. Since the complete genome sequence of P. acnes was first deciphered, genetic studies based on sequence data have expanded with the introduction of more refined and precise DNA-based typing methods, including multilocus sequence typing and metagenomics. These sophisticated techniques have revealed that P. acnes consists of phylogenetically distinct cluster groups with various pathogenic traits, including elicitation of inflammation, protein secretome profile, and unique distribution patterns in various skin loci. In following large-scale studies from patients' acne samples have revealed that specific sequence types are included within the phylogenetic divisions and further suggested that particular P. acnes strains play an etiologic role in acne while others are associated with health, providing a firm platform for evidential-based research into the exact role of this organism in acne. We strongly believe that future research would provide fruitful results in not only clarifying the apparent controversy with respect to roles of P. acnes but also developing therapeutic drugs by pinpointing specific targets of the pathogenic strain only. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.
Vera, Nora; Patel, Nupur; Cardwell, Leah A; Saleem, Mohammed; Feldman, Steven R
The incidence of adult acne is increasing worldwide. Despite clinical overlap with conventional acne, it has distinct features. Areas covered: A literature search of English-language review articles, randomized control studies and retrospective studies conducted over the past 30 years was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Search terms included acne, adult, topical medication, oral medication and skin of color. We highlight important clinical features and treatment modalities pertinent to the evaluation and management of adult acne. Given the relative dearth of literature detailing treatment options specific to adult acne, we offer expert opinion regarding management of the condition especially in special populations such as skin of color and pregnancy. Expert Opinion: It is unclear whether adult acne represents a distinct entity or a continuum of adolescent disease. Providers may opt to use topical medication as first-line, but should have a low threshold for switching to systemic therapy given the magnitude of psychosocial and emotional burden associated with the condition.
Ludwig, I H
PURPOSE: Patients with overcorrected strabismus (and several patients with undercorrection after extraocular muscle resection) underwent exploration of previously operated muscles, with the intention of advancing their tendons to prevent the need for surgery on additional muscles. Unexpectedly, it was found that, in many cases, an elongated scar segment of variable length was interposed between the muscle and its insertion site on the sclera. Laboratory investigations were carried out to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) and to create an animal model of the disorder. METHODS: Lengthened scars were repaired on 198 muscles during 134 procedures performed on 123 patients. The scars consisted of amorphous connective tissue interposed between the globe and normal tendon. Repair was accomplished by excision of the scar and reattachment of the muscle to sclera, using absorbable sutures in 64 cases and nonabsorbable sutures in 70 cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on 82 clinical specimens, and tissue culture studies were performed on 7 specimens. To develop an animal model, 10 New Zealand white rabbits underwent bilateral superior rectus resection. Half of the eyes received sub-Tenon's injections of collagenase over the operative site during weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6 postoperatively; the other half received saline solution injections on the same schedule. At 10 weeks, half the sites were studied histologically, and the other half underwent collagen creep analysis. In a second study, the use of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures was compared in the rabbit model. RESULTS: In the clinical cases, the mean length of the elongated scar segments was 4.2 mm. A total of 105 of the 134 repair procedures were judged successful. Thirty-one procedures resulted in recurrence of the original overcorrection; 7 of these had documented restretches. Factors that distinguished patients with stretched scars from patients with classic slipped muscles included minimal or no
Little, Anthony C
Facial attractiveness has important social consequences. Despite a widespread belief that beauty cannot be defined, in fact, there is considerable agreement across individuals and cultures on what is found attractive. By considering that attraction and mate choice are critical components of evolutionary selection, we can better understand the importance of beauty. There are many traits that are linked to facial attractiveness in humans and each may in some way impart benefits to individuals who act on their preferences. If a trait is reliably associated with some benefit to the perceiver, then we would expect individuals in a population to find that trait attractive. Such an approach has highlighted face traits such as age, health, symmetry, and averageness, which are proposed to be associated with benefits and so associated with facial attractiveness. This view may postulate that some traits will be universally attractive; however, this does not preclude variation. Indeed, it would be surprising if there existed a template of a perfect face that was not affected by experience, environment, context, or the specific needs of an individual. Research on facial attractiveness has documented how various face traits are associated with attractiveness and various factors that impact on an individual's judgments of facial attractiveness. Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces. A fuller understanding of facial beauty will come with an understanding of how these various factors interact with each other. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:621-634. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1316 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yangqun, Li; Yong, Tang; Wen, Chen; Zhe, Yang; Muxin, Zhao; Lisi, Xu; Chunmei, Hu; Yuanyuan, Liu; Ning, Ma; Jun, Feng; Weixin, Wang
To investigate the application of pedicled expanded flaps for the reconstruction of facial soft tissue defects. The expanded skin flaps, pedicled with orbicularis oculi muscle, submental artery, the branch of facial artery, superficial temporal artery, interior upper arm artery, had similar texture and color as facial soft tissue. The pedicled expanded flaps have repaired the facial soft tissue defects. Between Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2013, 157 cases with facial soft tissue defects were reconstructed by pedicled expanded flaps. Epidermal necrosis happened at the distal end of 8 expanded flaps, pedicled with interior upper arm artery(4 cases), orbicularis oculi muscle(3 cases) and submental artery(1 case), which healed spontaneously after dressing. All the other flaps survived completely with similar color and inconspicuous scar. 112 cases were followed up for 8 months to 8 years. Satisfactory results were achieved in 75 cases. 37 cases with hypertrophic scar at incisions need secondary operation. Island pedicled expanded flap with similar texture and color as facial soft tissue is suitable for facial soft tissue defects. The facial extra-incision and large dog-ear deformity could be avoided.
Dayal, Surabhi; Amrani, Ashish; Sahu, Priyadarshini; Jain, Vijay Kumar
Chemical peeling is a well-identified therapeutic modality for acne vulgaris (AV). Jessner's solution (JS) is a known peeling agent for acne since more than 100 years. Salicylic acid (SA) peel is a well-established peeling agent for acne. There is paucity of literature comparing the current peeling agents of choice, that is, SA with the older peeling agents, that is, JS for acne. To compare the efficacy and safety of 30% SA vs. JS peels in treatment of mild-to-moderate facial acne in Indian patients. A total of 40 patients with mild-to-moderate AV were enrolled for 12 weeks and were randomly divided into two groups: group 1, 30% SA peels and group 2, JS peels were performed 2 weeks apart with total of six peels in 12-week duration. Clinical improvement was assessed objectively using Michaelsson acne scores (MAS) and clinical photographs. Side effects were observed at each visit. At the end of therapy, improvement in MAS and percentage decrease in MAS were significantly higher in group 1 as compared to group 2. Likewise, decrease in mean comedone counts in group 1 was significantly higher as compared to group 2. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the decrease in mean papule and pustule counts between the two groups. Both the groups tolerated the peels well. Thus, 30% SA peels were more effective than JS peels in treatment of noninflammatory lesions, that is, comedones and in overall improvement of mild-to-moderate facial acne vulgaris. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Peeters, N; Lemkens, P; Leach, R; Gemels B; Schepers, S; Lemmens, W
Facial trauma. Patients with facial trauma must be assessed in a systematic way so as to avoid missing any injury. Severe and disfiguring facial injuries can be distracting. However, clinicians must first focus on the basics of trauma care, following the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system of care. Maxillofacial trauma occurs in a significant number of severely injured patients. Life- and sight-threatening injuries must be excluded during the primary and secondary surveys. Special attention must be paid to sight-threatening injuries in stabilized patients through early referral to an appropriate specialist or the early initiation of emergency care treatment. The gold standard for the radiographic evaluation of facial injuries is computed tomography (CT) imaging. Nasal fractures are the most frequent isolated facial fractures. Isolated nasal fractures are principally diagnosed through history and clinical examination. Closed reduction is the most frequently performed treatment for isolated nasal fractures, with a fractured nasal septum as a predictor of failure. Ear, nose and throat surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons and ophthalmologists must all develop an adequate treatment plan for patients with complex maxillofacial trauma.
Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J.
Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.
Toscano; de Aguiar MA; Ozorio De Almeida AM
We propose a picture of Wigner function scars as a sequence of concentric rings along a two-dimensional surface inside a periodic orbit. This is verified for a two-dimensional plane that contains a classical hyperbolic orbit of a Hamiltonian system with 2 degrees of freedom. The stationary wave functions are the familiar mixture of scarred and random waves, but the spectral average of the Wigner functions in part of the plane is nearly that of a harmonic oscillator and individual states are also remarkably regular. These results are interpreted in terms of the semiclassical picture of chords and centers.
Lin, Pei-Jung; Guo, Yuh-Cherng; Lin, Jan-You; Chang, Yu-Tang
Surgical excision is thought to be the standard treatment of choice for lymphatic malformations. However, when the lesions are limited to the face only, surgical scar and facial nerve injury may impair cosmetics and facial expression. Sclerotherapy, an injection of a sclerosing agent directly through the skin into a lesion, is an alternative method. By evaluating facial nerve conduction, we observed the long-term effect of facial lymphatic malformations after intralesional injection of OK-432 and correlated the findings with anatomic outcomes. One 12-year-old boy with a lesion over the right-side preauricular area adjacent to the main trunk of facial nerve and the other 5-year-old boy with a lesion in the left-sided cheek involving the buccinator muscle were enrolled. The follow-up data of more than one year, including clinical appearance, computed tomography (CT) scan and facial nerve evaluation were collected. The facial nerve conduction study was normal in both cases. Blink reflex in both children revealed normal results as well. Complete resolution was noted on outward appearance and CT scan. The neurophysiologic data were compatible with good anatomic and functional outcomes. Our report suggests that the inflammatory reaction of OK-432 did not interfere with adjacent facial nerve conduction.
Lomholt, H B; Scholz, C F P; Brüggemann, H; Tettelin, H; Kilian, M
Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes is assumed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne. To examine if clones with distinct virulence properties are associated with acne. Multiple C. acnes isolates from follicles and surface skin of patients with moderate to severe acne and healthy controls were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. To determine if CC18 isolates from acne patients differ from those of controls in the possession of virulence genes or lack of genes conducive to a harmonious coexistence the full genomes of dominating CC18 follicular clones from six patients and five controls were sequenced. Individuals carried one to ten clones simultaneously. The dominating C. acnes clones in follicles from acne patients were exclusively from the phylogenetic clade I-1a and all belonged to clonal complex CC18 with the exception of one patient dominated by the worldwide-disseminated and often antibiotic resistant clone ST3. The clonal composition of healthy follicles showed a more heterogeneous pattern with follicles dominated by clones representing the phylogenetic clades I-1a, I-1b, I-2 and II. Comparison of follicular CC18 gene contents, allelic versions of putative virulence genes and their promoter regions, and 54 variable-length intragenic and inter-genic homopolymeric tracts showed extensive conservation and no difference associated with the clinical origin of isolates. The study supports that C. acnes strains from clonal complex CC18 and the often antibiotic resistant clone ST3 are associated with acne and suggests that susceptibility of the host rather than differences within these clones may determine the clinical outcome of colonization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keloids and hypertrophic scars are caused by cutaneous injury and irritation, including trauma, insect bite, burn, surgery, vaccination, skin piercing, acne, folliculitis, chicken pox, and herpes zoster infection. Notably, superficial injuries that do not reach the reticular dermis never cause keloidal and hypertrophic scarring. This suggests that these pathological scars are due to injury to this skin layer and the subsequent aberrant wound healing therein. The latter is characterized by continuous and histologically localized inflammation. As a result, the reticular layer of keloids and hypertrophic scars contains inflammatory cells, increased numbers of fibroblasts, newly formed blood vessels, and collagen deposits. Moreover, proinflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α are upregulated in keloid tissues, which suggests that, in patients with keloids, proinflammatory genes in the skin are sensitive to trauma. This may promote chronic inflammation, which in turn may cause the invasive growth of keloids. In addition, the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in pathological scars suggests that, rather than being skin tumors, keloids and hypertrophic scars are inflammatory disorders of skin, specifically inflammatory disorders of the reticular dermis. Various external and internal post-wounding stimuli may promote reticular inflammation. The nature of these stimuli most likely shapes the characteristics, quantity, and course of keloids and hypertrophic scars. Specifically, it is likely that the intensity, frequency, and duration of these stimuli determine how quickly the scars appear, the direction and speed of growth, and the intensity of symptoms. These proinflammatory stimuli include a variety of local, systemic, and genetic factors. These observations together suggest that the clinical differences between keloids and hypertrophic scars merely reflect differences in the intensity, frequency, and duration of
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that affects over 40 million people in the United States alone. The main cause of acne vulgaris is Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), resides deep in the pores and follicles of the skin in order to feed on oil produced by the sebaceous glands. The liposome is a lipid based nanoparticle with numerous advantages over free drug molecules as an acne treatment alternative. Bare liposomes loaded with lauric acid (LipoLA) were found to show strong antimicrobial activity against P. acnes while generating minimal toxicity. However, the platform is limited by the spontaneous tendency of liposomes to fuse with each other. Attaching nanoparticles to the surface of liposomes can overcome this challenge by providing steric repulsion and reduce surface tension. Thus, carboxyl-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuC) were attached to the surface of liposomes (AuC-liposomes) loaded with doxycycline, a general tetracycline antibiotic. These particles were found to have a diameter of 120 nm and a zeta potential of 20.0 mV. Both fluorescent and antimicrobial studies demonstrated that based on electrostatic interaction, negatively charged AuC attached to the liposome's positively charged surface and stabilized liposomes in a neutral pH environment (pH = 7.4). Upon entering the skin's acidic environment (pH = 4), AuC detached from the liposome's surface and liposomes could fuse with P. acnes residing in the pores. Furthermore, toxicity studies showed that AuC-liposomes did not induce any significant toxicity, while two of the leading over-the-counter therapies, benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, generated substantial skin irritation.
Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Soflaee, Maedeh
Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. Mean serum level of zinc in acne patients and controls was 81.31 ± 17.63 μg/dl and 82.63 ± 17.49 μg/dl, respectively. Although the mean serum zinc level was lower in acne group, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.598). There was a correlation between serum zinc levels with severity and type of acne lesions. The results of our study suggest that zinc levels may be related to the severity and type of acne lesions in patients with acne vulgaris. Relative decrease of serum zinc level in acne patients suggests a role for zinc in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. PMID:25157359
Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Maleki, Nasrollah; Soflaee, Maedeh
Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. Mean serum level of zinc in acne patients and controls was 81.31 ± 17.63 μg/dl and 82.63 ± 17.49 μg/dl, respectively. Although the mean serum zinc level was lower in acne group, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.598). There was a correlation between serum zinc levels with severity and type of acne lesions. The results of our study suggest that zinc levels may be related to the severity and type of acne lesions in patients with acne vulgaris. Relative decrease of serum zinc level in acne patients suggests a role for zinc in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.
Ju, Qiang; Zouboulis, Christos C; Xia, Longqing
Environmental pollutants can result in a variant of acne called 'chloracne'. Chloracne is caused by systemic exposure to certain halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons 'chloracnegens', and is considered to be one of the most sensitive indicators of systemic poisoning by these compounds. Dioxin is the most potent environmental chloracnegen. Most cases of chloracne have resulted from occupational and non-occupational exposures, non-occupational chloracne mainly resulted from contaminated industrial wastes and contaminated food products. Non-inflammatory comedones and straw-colored cysts are the primary clinical manifestation of chloracne. Increasing of cysts in number is a signal of aggravation of chloracne. Generalized lesions can appear on the face, neck, trunk, exterimities, genitalia, axillary and other areas. Course of chloracne is chronic. Severity of chloracne is related to dosage of exposed chloracnegens, chloracnegenic potency and individual susceptibility. Histopathology of chloracne is characterized mainly by hyperplasia of epidermal cell, while follicular and sebaceous gland are taken placed by keratinized epidermal cell. The pathogenesis of chloracne maybe related to the imbalance of epidermal stem cell. Chloracne appears to be resistant to all tested forms of treatment. The only way to control chloracne is to prevent exposure to chloracnegens.
Zouboulis, Christos C; Xia, Longqing
Environmental pollutants can result in a variant of acne called ‘chloracne’. Chloracne is caused by systemic exposure to certain halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons ‘chloracnegens’, and is considered to be one of the most sensitive indicators of systemic poisoning by these compounds. Dioxin is the most potent environmental chloracnegen. Most cases of chloracne have resulted from occupational and non-occupational exposures, non-occupational chloracne mainly resulted from contaminated industrial wastes and contaminated food products. Non-inflammatory comedones and straw-colored cysts are the primary clinical manifestation of chloracne. Increasing of cysts in number is a signal of aggravation of chloracne. Generalized lesions can appear on the face, neck, trunk, exterimities, genitalia, axillary and other areas. Course of chloracne is chronic. Severity of chloracne is related to dosage of exposed chloracnegens, chloracnegenic potency and individual susceptibility. Histopathology of chloracne is characterized mainly by hyperplasia of epidermal cell, while follicular and sebaceous gland are taken placed by keratinized epidermal cell. The pathogenesis of chloracne maybe related to the imbalance of epidermal stem cell. Chloracne appears to be resistant to all tested forms of treatment. The only way to control chloracne is to prevent exposure to chloracnegens. PMID:20436879
Baldwin, Hillary E.; Cook-Bolden, Fran E.; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Friedlander, Sheila F.; Rodriguez, David A.
Acne vulgaris (acne) is a common affliction in adolescence and is a growing problem in adult women. Despite an increasing awareness of acne in the adult female population, there is a lack of good prospective studies assessing the severity, distribution, and differential response to treatment in this group. The long-held dogma that acne in adult women develops on the lower one-third of the face has been recently challenged, and here the authors critically review data from available literature. Moreover, while adult female acne has traditionally been defined as disease in women over age 25, it is the authors’ experience that this group is subdivided into women ages 25 to 44 years, separate from perimenopausal patients, ages 45 years and up. While there is no data specifically comparing these two groups, the authors will review the existing data and provide practical recommendations based on our experience in treating these groups of patients. Finally, while there is a lack of data on this subject, it is the group’s opinion that adherence to medication regimens is likely higher in women than men, which influences therapeutic outcomes. PMID:28210380
Koenig, Karsten; Teschke, M.; Eick, Stephen G.; Pfister, W.; Meyer, Herbert; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen
We report on photodynamically induced inactivation of the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) using endogenous as well as exogenous photosensitizers and red light sources. P. acnes is involved in the pathogenesis of the skin disease acne vulgaris. The skin bacterium is able to synthesize the metal-free fluorescent porphyrins protoporphyrin IX (PP) and coproporphyrin (CP) as shown by in situ spectrally-resolved detection of natural autofluorescence of human skin and bacteria colonies. These naturally occurring intracellular porphyrins act as efficient endogenous photosensitizers. Inactivation of P. acnes suspensions was achieved by irradiation with He-Ne laser light in the red spectral region (632.8 nm). We monitored the photodynamically-induced death of single bacteria using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, the photo-induced inactivation was calculated by CFU (colony forming units) determination. We found 633 nm-induced inactivation (60 mW, 0.12 cm2 exposure area, 1 hour irradiation) of 72% in the case of non-incubated bacteria based on the destructive effect of singlet oxygen produced by red light excited endogenous porphyrins and subsequent energy transfer to molecular oxygen. In order to achieve a nearly complete inactivation within one exposure procedure, the exogenous photosensitizer Methylene Blue (Mb) was added. Far red exposure of Mb-labeled bacteria using a krypton ion laser at 647 nm and 676 nm resulted in 99% inactivation.
Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David H; Moche, Jason; Preminger, Aviva
To report a new technique for unilateral brow suspension for facial paralysis that is minimally invasive, limits supraciliary scar formation, does not require specialized endoscopic equipment or expertise, and has proved to be equal to direct brow suspension in durability and symmetry. Retrospective survey of a case series of 23 patients between January 1997 and December 2000. Metropolitan tertiary care center. Patients with head and neck tumors and brow ptosis caused by facial nerve paralysis. The results of the procedure were determined using the following 3-tier rating system: outstanding (excellent elevation and symmetry); acceptable (good elevation and fair symmetry); and unacceptable (loss of elevation). The results were considered outstanding in 12 patients, acceptable in 9 patients, and unacceptable in only 1 patient. One patient developed a hematoma, and 1 patient required a secondary adjustment. The technique has proved to be superior to standard brow suspension procedures with regard to scar formation and equal with respect to facial symmetry and suspension. These results have caused us to abandon direct brow suspension and to use this minimally invasive method in all cases of brow ptosis due to facial paralysis.
... a physical, speech, or occupational therapist. If facial paralysis from Bell palsy lasts for more than 6 to 12 months, plastic surgery may be recommended to help the eye close and improve the appearance of the face. Alternative Names Paralysis of the face Images Ptosis, drooping of the ...
Ge, Yiping; Guo, Lifang; Wu, Qiuju; Zhang, Mengli; Zeng, Rong; Lin, Tong
A 755nm picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array has been reported for the treatment of acne scar and photoaging with clinical ef cacy. In this study, we evaluated the application of the 755nm picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array for facial photoaging in Chinese. Ten subjects with moderate facial photoaging were enrolled in a prospective, evaluator-blinded, open-label, and split-face trial to assess the ef cacy and safety of the 755nm picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array for facial photoaging. Each subject received a series of four treatment sessions on the right side of the face at two-week intervals. The left side of the face served as the control side. Blinded evaluation of baseline, pre-treatment, and two-month follow-up visit was performed by two independent dermatologists on a 5-point global photoaging scale (GPS) and a 6/8-point Asian photographic scale (APS). Adverse events and discomfort associated with the treatment were also assessed. Signi cant improvement in photoaged tissue was observed on the treated side of the face, with a mean GPS score decrease from 2.67 to 1.44 at the two-month follow-up visit. A greater improvement in wrinkles was observed (2.78 vs 1.89; P less than 0.05) when com- pared to the improvement in pigmentation (2.67 vs 2.11; P less than 0.05). No changes were observed on the control side. Treatment results improved gradually throughout the treatment program and continued to the two-month follow up. In addition, skin tightening was perceived in all subjects, and shallower nasolabial folds were observed in 60% of the subjects on the treated side of face. Moderate pain and transient erythema were observed as the two main discomforts associated with the treatment. The 755nm picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array is efficacious and safe for rejuvenation of photodamaged facial tissue in Chinese. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1390-1396..
Best, Amy R; Shipchandler, Taha Z; Cordes, Susan R
Assess long-term patient satisfaction with conventional thyroidectomy scars and the impact of thyroidectomy scars on patient quality of life. Validated survey administration and retrospective review of clinical and demographic data. Patients who underwent conventional thyroidectomy through years 2000 to 2010 were identified and administered the validated Patient Scar Assessment Questionnaire. Mean satisfaction, appearance and scar-consciousness scores were determined. Thirty-seven patients also measured the length of their current scar. Patient demographic and operative data were collected retrospectively from the medical record. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and independent samples t testing. Sixty of 69 patients perceived the appearance of their scar to be "good" or "excellent." Sixty-three patients (91.3%) were satisfied with all scar outcomes; 67 (97.1%) were satisfied with the overall appearance of their scar. Mean total satisfaction score was 17.3 (<26 indicates a high level of satisfaction). Fifty-six (81.2%) were "not at all" self-conscious of their scar; 65 (94.2%) reported no attempt to hide their scar. Seven patients (10.1%) indicated any likelihood of pursuing scar revision. Females had significantly higher total satisfaction scores, consciousness scores, and satisfaction with appearance scores. The effect of perceived scar length was significant for scar-consciousness, not patient satisfaction. The majority of patients were satisfied with their thyroidectomy scar appearance. Few patients reported a desire to hide the scar or pursue revision. Women were more likely to be dissatisfied than men. Length may play a role in scar consciousness. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1247-1252, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...
Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Tabatabaie, Hossein; Ajami, Marjan; Habibey, Rouhollah; Shizarpour, Mohammad; Babakoohi, Shahab; Rahshenas, Makan; Firooz, Alireza
Acne vulgaris is a common problem, particularly among adolescents, which is usually resistant to monotherapy. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a combination of azelaic acid (AA) 5% and erythromycin 2% gel (AzE) compared with AA 20% or erythromycin 2% gels in facial acne vulgaris. We conducted a 12-week, multicenter, randomized double-blind study on 147 patients with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. Four treatment group were determined (placebo, erythromycin, AA and AzE) and followed in 4-week intervals for 12 weeks, except the placebo group which was changed to routine treatment after 4 weeks. The combination of AA 5% and erythromycin 2% gel significantly reduced the number of papules, pustules and comedones compared with placebo (p < 0.001), erythromycin 2% (p < 0.01) or AA 20% (p < 0.05). The incidence of adverse effects observed in patients treated with AzE (27%) was less than that with erythromycin 2% (54%) and AA 20% (45%). The combination of AA 5% and erythromycin 2% produced more potent therapeutic effects in comparison with erythromycin 2% or AA 20% alone, and with fewer side effects.
Potter, Kathryn; Konda, Sailesh; Ren, Vicky Zhen; Wang, Apphia Lihan; Srinivasan, Aditya; Chilukuri, Suneel
Surgical management of benign or malignant cutaneous tumors may result in noticeable scars that are of great concern to patients, regardless of sex, age, or ethnicity. Techniques to optimize surgical scars are discussed in this three-part review. Part 2 focuses on scar revision for hypertrophic and keloids scars. Scar revision options for hypertrophic and keloid scars include corticosteroids, bleomycin, fluorouracil, verapamil, avotermin, hydrogel scaffold, nonablative fractional lasers, ablative and fractional ablative lasers, pulsed dye laser (PDL), flurandrenolide tape, imiquimod, onion extract, silicone, and scar massage.
van Valen, Richard; de Lind van Wijngaarden, Robert A F; Verkaik, Nelianne J; Mokhles, Mostafa M; Bogers, Ad J J C
To study the characteristics of patients with Propionibacterium acnes prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) who required surgery. A single-centre retrospective cohort study was conducted during a 7-year period. Patients with definite infective P. acnes endocarditis, according to the modified Duke criteria, were included. An extended culture protocol was applied. Information on medical health status, surgery, antibiotic treatment and mortality was obtained. Thirteen patients fulfilled the criteria for P. acnes endocarditis (0.53% of 2466 patients with valve replacement in a 7-year period). All patients were male and had a previous valve replacement. The health status of patients was poor at diagnosis of P. acnes PVE. Most patients (11 of 13, 85%) were admitted with signs of heart failure due to a significant paravalvular leak; 2 of 13 (15%) patients presented with septic emboli. Twelve patients needed redo surgery, whereas one could be treated with antibiotic therapy only. The time between the index surgery and presentation with P. acnes PVE varied between 5 and 135 months (median 26.5 months). Replacement and reconstruction of the dysfunctional valve and affected anatomical structures was mainly performed with a mechanical valve (n = 5, 42%) or a (bio-) Bentall prosthesis (n = 6, 50%). Antibiotic therapy consisted of penicillin with or without rifampicin for 6 weeks after surgery. The mortality in this series was low (n = 1, 8%) and no recurrent endocarditis was found during a median follow-up of 38 months. Propionibacterium acnes PVE is a rare complication after valve surgery. Redo surgery is often required. Treatment of the dysfunctional prosthetic aortic valve most often consists of root replacement, in combination with antibiotic therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Banzon, J M; Rehm, S J; Gordon, S M; Hussain, S T; Pettersson, G B; Shrestha, N K
Propionibacterium acnes remains a rare cause of infective endocarditis (IE). It is challenging to diagnose due to the organism's fastidious nature and the indolent presentation of the disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation and management of P. acnes IE with an emphasis on the methods of diagnosis. We identified patients from the Cleveland Clinic Infective Endocarditis Registry who were admitted from 2007 to 2015 with definite IE by Duke Criteria. Propionibacterium acnes was defined as the causative pathogen if it was identified in at least two culture specimens, or identified with at least two different modalities: blood culture, valve culture, valve sequencing or histopathological demonstration of microorganisms. We identified 24 cases of P. acnes IE, 23 (96%) of which were either prosthetic valve endocarditis or IE on an annuloplasty ring. Invasive disease (71%) and embolic complications (29%) were common. All but one patient underwent surgery. Propionibacterium acnes was identified in 12.5% of routine blood cultures, 75% of blood cultures with extended incubation, 55% of valve cultures, and 95% of valve sequencing specimens. In 11 of 24 patients (46%), no causative pathogen would have been identified without valve sequencing. Propionibacterium acnes almost exclusively causes prosthetic valve endocarditis and patients often present with advanced disease. The organism may not be readily cultured, and extended cultures appear to be necessary. In patients who have undergone surgery, valve sequencing is most reliable in establishing the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chung, Yoon Jae; Koo, Mun Geun; Lee, Soo Hyang
Medial epicanthoplasty is a common aesthetic surgery in Asia to remove the epicanthal fold. With increasing use of this surgery, unsatisfactory results have grown. Several methods have been developed to correct it. However, there are limitations in restoration if the patient has a severe scar or does not have enough skin for reconstruction. By aggressively removing scar tissue, the authors present a better reverse redraping epicanthoplasty. The procedure was performed on 512 patients who had complications of medial epicanthoplasty from May 2011 to October 2015. The mean age was 31.3 years. Those who had already undergone reconstruction were 15.4% (n = 79). Of these, 68 patients received a V-Y flap and the rest had V-Y modification surgery. After the design, the skin-muscle flap was dissected and elevated. The upper and lower eyelid skin was pulled medially. The previous scar tissue was widely excised while removing skin excess, and the new epicanthal fold was created without a rectangular shape. The mean interepicanthal distance has been increased from 32.8 to 36.6 mm. The mean lengthening effect is 3.8 mm. Lacrimal lake exposure, fierce and narrow appearance, and incomplete medial eyelid closure were improved. Medial epicanthoplasty is a common cosmetic surgery in the Asian population. A demand for an effective reconstructive method has grown in association with higher complication rates. The authors have better results to make a natural epicanthal fold through aggressive scar removal in the reverse redraping epicanthoplasty. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
de Vilder, Saskia J.; Rosser, Nick J.; Brain, Matthew J.
We characterise and analyse the detachment (scar) surfaces of rockfalls to understand the mechanisms that underpin their failure. Rockfall scars are variously weathered and comprised of both discontinuity release surfaces and surfaces indicative of fracturing through zones of previously intact rock, known as rock bridges. The presence of rock bridges and pre-existing discontinuities is challenging to quantify due to the difficulty in determining discontinuity persistence below the surface of a rock slope. Rock bridges form an important control in holding blocks onto rockslopes, with their frequency, extent and location commonly modelled from the surface exposure of daylighting discontinuities. We explore an alternative approach to assessing their role, by characterising failure scars. We analyse a database of multiple rockfall scar surfaces detailing the areal extent, shape, and location of broken rock bridges and weathered surfaces. Terrestrial laser scanning and gigapixel imagery were combined to record the detailed texture and surface morphology. From this, scar surfaces were mapped via automated classification based on RGB pixel values. Our analysis of the resulting data from scars on the North Yorkshire coast (UK) indicates a wide variation in both weathering and rock bridge properties, controlled by lithology and associated rock mass structure. Importantly, the proportion of rock bridges in a rockfall failure surface does not increase with failure size. Rather larger failures display fracturing through multiple rock bridges, and in contrast smaller failures fracture occurs only through a single critical rock bridge. This holds implications for how failure mechanisms change with rockfall size and shape. Additionally, the location of rock bridges with respect to the geometry of an incipient rockfall is shown to determine failure mode. Weathering can occur both along discontinuity surfaces and previously broken rock bridges, indicating the sequential stages of
Paithankar, Dilip Y; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Farinelli, William A; Kositratna, Garuna; Blomgren, Richard D; Meyer, Todd J; Faupel, Linda J; Kauvar, Arielle N B; Lloyd, Jenifer R; Cheung, Wang L; Owczarek, Witold D; Suwalska, Anna M; Kochanska, Katarzyna B; Nawrocka, Agnieszka K; Paluchowska, Elwira B; Podolec, Katarzyna M; Pirowska, Magdalena M; Wojas-Pelc, Anna B; Anderson, R Rox
The pathophysiology of acne vulgaris depends on active sebaceous glands, implying that selective destruction of sebaceous glands could be an effective treatment. We hypothesized that light-absorbing microparticles could be delivered into sebaceous glands, enabling local injury by optical pulses. A suspension of topically applied gold-coated silica microparticles exhibiting plasmon resonance with strong absorption at 800 nm was delivered into human pre-auricular and swine sebaceous glands in vivo, using mechanical vibration. After exposure to 10–50 J cm−2, 30 milliseconds, 800 nm diode laser pulses, microscopy revealed preferential thermal injury to sebaceous follicles and glands, consistent with predictions from a computational model. Inflammation was mild; gold particles were not retained in swine skin 1 month after treatment, and uptake in other organs was negligible. Two independent prospective randomized controlled clinical trials were performed for treatment of moderate-to-severe facial acne, using unblinded and blinded assessments of disease severity. Each trial showed clinically and statistically significant improvement of inflammatory acne following three treatments given 1–2 weeks apart. In Trial 2, inflammatory lesions were significantly reduced at 12 weeks (P=0.015) and 16 weeks (P=0.04) compared with sham treatments. Optical microparticles enable selective photothermolysis of sebaceous glands. This appears to be a well-tolerated, effective treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:25748556
Ash, Caerwyn; Harrison, Anna; Drew, Samantha; Whittall, Rebecca
The treatment of acne vulgaris poses a challenge to the dermatologist, and the disease causes emotional anxiety for the patient. The treatment of acne vulgaris may be well-suited to home-use applications, where sufferers may be too embarrassed to seek medical treatment. This randomized controlled study is designed to quantify the effectiveness of using a blue light device in a therapy combined with proprietary creams, in the investigation of a self-treatment regimen. A total of 41 adults with mild-to-moderate facial inflammatory acne were recruited. The subjects were randomly assigned to combination blue light therapy (n = 26) or control (n = 15). Photography was used for qualitative assessment of lesion counts, at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. All subjects in the treatment cohort achieved a reduction in their inflammatory lesion counts after 12 weeks. The mean inflammatory lesion counts reduced by 50.02% in the treatment cohort, and increased by 2.45% in the control cohort. The reduction in inflammatory lesions was typically observable at week-3, and maximal between weeks 8 and 12. The treatment is free of pain and side-effects. The blue light device offers a valuable alternative to antibiotics and potentially irritating topical treatments. Blue light phototherapy, using a narrow-band LED light source, appears to be a safe and effective additional therapy for mild to moderate acne.
Richardson, WJ; Clarke, SA; Quinn, TA; Holmes, JW
Once myocardium dies during a heart attack, it is replaced by scar tissue over the course of several weeks. The size, location, composition, structure and mechanical properties of the healing scar are all critical determinants of the fate of patients who survive the initial infarction. While the central importance of scar structure in determining pump function and remodeling has long been recognized, it has proven remarkably difficult to design therapies that improve heart function or limit remodeling by modifying scar structure. Many exciting new therapies are under development, but predicting their long-term effects requires a detailed understanding of how infarct scar forms, how its properties impact left ventricular function and remodeling, and how changes in scar structure and properties feed back to affect not only heart mechanics but also electrical conduction, reflex hemodynamic compensations, and the ongoing process of scar formation itself. In this article, we outline the scar formation process following an MI, discuss interpretation of standard measures of heart function in the setting of a healing infarct, then present implications of infarct scar geometry and structure for both mechanical and electrical function of the heart and summarize experiences to date with therapeutic interventions that aim to modify scar geometry and structure. One important conclusion that emerges from the studies reviewed here is that computational modeling is an essential tool for integrating the wealth of information required to understand this complex system and predict the impact of novel therapies on scar healing, heart function, and remodeling following myocardial infarction. PMID:26426470
Ericson, Marica B.; Horfelt, Camilla; Cheng, Elaine; Larsson, Frida; Larko, Olle; Wennberg, Ann-Marie
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive alternative treatment for patients with acne because of its efficiency and few side effects. Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) are bacteria present in the skin, which produce endogenous porphyrins that act as photosensitisers. In addition, application of aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester (mALA) results in increased accumulation of porphyrins in the pilosebaceous units. This makes it possible to treat acne with PDT. This initial study investigates the possibility of fluorescence imaging as assessment tool in adjunct to PDT of patients with acne. Twenty-four patients with acne on the cheeks have been treated with PDT with and without mALA. Fluorescence images have been obtained before and after treatment. The clinical acne score was assessed as base line before PDT, and at every follow up visit. Additionally the amount of P.acnes was determined. The clinical evaluation showed a general improvement of acne, even though no difference between treatment with and without mALA was observed. By performing texture analysis and multivariate data analsysis on the fluorescence images, the extracted texture features were found to correlate with the corresponding clinical assessment (67%) and amount of P.acnes (72%). The analysis showed that features describing the highly fluorescent pores could be related to the clinical assessment. This result suggests that fluorescence imaging can be used as an objective assessment of acne, but further improvement of the technique is possible, for example by including colour images.
Cassuto, Daniel; Emanuelli, Guglielmo
Unsightly scars often are the only reminder of a previous surgical or traumatic wound. Surgical or ablative scar revision is sought by patients, sometimes unnecessarily. When the aesthetic drawback is mainly a result of hypervascularity or hyperpigmentation, these problems can be specifically targeted with a wavelength that is well absorbed by the two above mentioned chromophores. Some degree of epidermal tightening can also be achieved, which is sometimes useful in slightly atrophic scars. The average improvement after 2-3 sessions was 81% (75%-100%) clearance, as judged by an independent observer who reviewed pre- and post-treatment photographs. No undesired effects were reported. All our patients were satisfied and required no further treatment. Selective photothermolysis by means of a long pulsed frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (DioLite 532, IRIDEX Corporation, Mountain View, CA, USA) was used to eliminate the unsightly vascular and pigmented components of 23 mature scars (scars older than 2 years) in 22 consecutive patients. Energy densities of 17-22 j/cm2 were used with a 500 micron spot, or 65-90 j/cm2 with a 200 micron spot. overall scar clearance averaged 81% after 2.4 treatments. Facial scars showed the best clearance averaging 94% after 2 treatments. Inframammary scars were the most difficult to clear averaging 46%. Postoperative undesired effects were immediate erythema and swelling that subsided within 2-10 hours and microcrusting on 19/22 (88%) patients that resolved within one week. No other temporary or permanent undesired effects such as purpura, hypo- or hyperpigmentation were noticed, even in patients with darker skin types.
Brackman, G; Forier, K; Al Quntar, A A A; De Canck, E; Enk, C D; Srebnik, M; Braeckmans, K; Coenye, T
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of two thiazolidinedione derivatives on Propionibacterium acnes biofilm formation in vitro and to assess their effect on the susceptibility of P. acnes biofilms towards antimicrobials. The compounds were shown to have a moderate to strong antibiofilm activity when used in subinhibitory concentrations. These compounds do not affect P. acnes attachment but lead to increased dispersal of biofilm cells. This dispersal results in an increased killing of the P. acnes biofilm cells by conventional antimicrobials. The antibiofilm effect and the effect on biofilm susceptibility of the thiazolidinedione-derived quorum sensing inhibitors were clearly demonstrated. Propionibacterium acnes infections are difficult to treat due to the presence of biofilms at the infection site and the associated resistance towards conventional antimicrobials. Our results indicate that these thiazolidinedione derivatives can be promising leads used for the treatment of P. acnes infections and as anti-acne drugs. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Szmurło, Agnieszka; Sińska, Beata
The relationship between diet and acne is highly controversial. Several studies during the last decade have led dermatologists to reflect on a potential link between diet and acne. This article presents the latest findings on a potential impact that diet can have on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The association between diet and acne can no longer be dismissed. Compelling evidence shows that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamin A, zinc and iodine remain to be elucidated. The question of what the impact of diet is on the course of acne vulgaris still remains unclear. PMID:27279815
Uysal, Gulsum; Sahin, Yılmaz; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Ferahbas, Ayten; Uludag, Semih Zeki; Aygen, Ercan; Kelestimur, Fahrettin
Acne is not solely a cosmetic problem. The clinical importance of acne in the estimation of androgen excess disorders is controversial. Recently, the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored third PCOS Consensus Workshop Group suggested that acne is not commonly associated with hyperandrogenemia and therefore should not be regarded as evidence of hyperandrogenemia. Our aim was to investigate whether acne is a sign of androgen excess disorder or not. This is a cross sectional study that was performed in a university hospital involving 207 women, aged between 18 and 45 years, suffering mainly from acne. The women were assigned as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), idiopathic hirsutism (IH), idiopathic hyperandrogenemia (IHA). Women with acne associated with any of the androgen excess disorders mentioned above were named as hyperandrogenemia associated acne (HAA). Women with acne but without hirsutism and hyperandrogenemia and having ovulatory cycles were named as "isolated acne". Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, total testosterone and lipid levels were measured. Acne score was similar between the women with isolated acne and HAA. The most common cause for acne was PCOS and only 28% of the women had isolated acne. 114 (55%) women had at least one raised serum androgen level. In this study, 72% of acneic women had clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenemia. In contrast to the suggestion of ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored third PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, our data indicate that the presence of androgen excess disorders should be evaluated in women presenting with acne. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Systemic isotretinoin remains the most efficacious treatment for severe acne as well as many cases of more moderate disease that are unresponsive to other treatment modalities. The current chapter outlines the mechanisms behind the excellent efficacy, describes how to optimize treatment, reviews the recommended guidelines for monitoring and summarizes adverse effects. PMID:20436884
Welp, K; Gieler, U
25 male patients suffering from acne vulgaris were examined by means of endocrinological, morphological, and 5 psychometric procedures in order to check the correlations and interactions between the psychological and dermatological aspects of the disease. In comparison with a control group, the acne patients did not show any striking endocrinological abnormalities; we found no correlation between the extensiveness of the lesions and the level of DHEA sulphate. All the psychological tests yielded results deviating from those achieved by the representative controls, but they were comparable with those of other patients suffering from psychosomatic diseases. The individual feeling of being "disfigured" found its expression in self-consciousness, lack of trust in his/her own body, as well as the clinically relevant difference between his/her conception of self and the ideal of self. During times of enhanced psychosocial strains subjectively assumed by the patients, the lesions increased and the patients were disturbed in social interaction and communication. Surprisingly, we did not find any correlation between the clinical status and significant psychometric findings. Our results show that in acne vulgaris, the individual experience of wanting physical attractiveness, associated with a predominantly neurotic depressive personal structure, may play a central part in a disturbed process of interaction with the environment and suggest the influence of psychic factors in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.
Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Odoevskaya, Olga D.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.
The near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation due to its high penetration depth is widely used in phototherapy. In application to skin appendages a high selectivity of laser treatment is needed to prevent light action on surrounding tissues. Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye may provide a high selectivity of treatment due to effective ICG uploading by a target and its narrow band of considerable absorption just at the wavelength of the NIR diode laser. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the NIR diode laser phototherapy in combination with topical application of ICG suggested for soft and thermal treatment of acne vulgaris. 28 volunteers with facile or back-located acne were enrolled. Skin sites of subjects were stained by ICG and irradiated by NIR laser-diode light (803 or 809 nm). Untreated, only stained and only light irradiated skin areas served as controls. For soft acne treatment, the low-intensity (803 nm, 10 - 50 mW/cm2, 5-10 min) or the medium-intensity (809 nm, 150 - 190 mW/cm2, 15 min) protocols were used. The single and multiple (up to 8-9) treatments were provided. The individual acne lesions were photothermally treated at 18 W/cm2 (803 nm, 0.5 sec) without skin surface cooling or at 200 W/cm2 (809 nm, 0.5 sec) with cooling. The results of the observations during 1-2 months after the completion of the treatment have shown that only in the case of the multiple-wise treatment a combined action of ICG and NIR irradiation reduces inflammation and improves skin state during a month without any side effects. At high power densities (up to 200 W/cm2) ICG stained acne inflammatory elements were destructed for light exposures of 0.5 sec. Based on the concept that hair follicle, especially sebaceous gland, can be intensively and selectively stained by ICG due to dye diffusion through pilosebaceous canal and its fast uptake by living microorganisms, by vital keratinocytes of epithelium of the canal and sebaceous duct, and by rapidly proliferating
Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Tang, De-chu C.; Zhang, Liangfang; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming
Background In the progression of acne vulgaris, the disruption of follicular epithelia by an over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) permits the bacteria to spread and become in contact with various skin and immune cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We have demonstrated in the present study that the Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson (CAMP) factor of P. acnes is a secretory protein with co-hemolytic activity with sphingomyelinase that can confer cytotoxicity to HaCaT keratinocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages. The CAMP factor from bacteria and acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) from the host cells were simultaneously present in the culture supernatant only when the cells were co-cultured with P. acnes. Either anti-CAMP factor serum or desipramine, a selective ASMase inhibitor, significantly abrogated the P. acnes-induced cell death of HaCaT and RAW264.7 cells. Intradermal injection of ICR mouse ears with live P. acnes induced considerable ear inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and an increase in cellular soluble ASMase. Suppression of ASMase by systemic treatment with desipramine significantly reduced inflammatory reaction induced by intradermal injection with P. acnes, suggesting the contribution of host ASMase in P. acnes-induced inflammatory reaction in vivo. Vaccination of mice with CAMP factor elicited a protective immunity against P. acnes-induced ear inflammation, indicating the involvement of CAMP factor in P. acnes-induced inflammation. Most notably, suppression of both bacterial CAMP factor and host ASMase using vaccination and specific antibody injection, respectively, cooperatively alleviated P. acnes-induced inflammation. Conclusions/Significance These findings envision a novel infectious mechanism by which P. acnes CAMP factor may hijack host ASMase to amplify bacterial virulence to degrade and invade host cells. This work has identified both CAMP factor and ASMase as potential molecular targets for the development of drugs and vaccines against
Del Rosso, James Q.; Gold, Michael; Rueda, Maria José; Brandt, Staci; Winkelman, Warren J.
Optimal management of acne vulgaris requires incorporation of several components including patient education, selection of a rational therapeutic regimen, dedicated adherence with the program by the patient, and integration of proper skin care. Unfortunately, the latter component is often overlooked or not emphasized strongly enough to the patient. Proper skin care may reduce potential irritation that can be associated with topical acne medications and prevents the patient from unknowingly using skin care products that can actually sabotage their treatment. This article reviews the effectiveness, skin tolerability, safety, and patient satisfaction of an open label study in which a specified skin care regimen is used in combination with topical therapy. The study was designed to mirror “real world” management of facial acne vulgaris clinical practice. The skin care regimen used in this study included a brand foam wash and a brand moisturizer with SPF 30 photoprotection, both of which contain ingredients that are included to provide benefits for acne-prone and acne-affected skin. PMID:25610521
Bettoli, Vincenzo; Zauli, Stefania; Borghi, Alessandro; Toni, Giulia; Ricci, Michela; Bertoldi, Alberto M; Virgili, Annarosa
A correct therapeutic management of acne should include a maintenance therapy to prevent recurrences after discontinuing a successful treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate efficacy and safety of a 12-month maintenance treatment with a product, based on Retinsphere technology that combines retinol encapsulated in glycospheres and hydroxypinacolone retinoate (Biretix gel®), to control acne relapse after a treatment with oral isotretinoin (O.I.). The study consisted of 2 phases: active treatment phase (AP) and maintenance phase (MP). In the AP, 40 consecutive patients with moderate facial acne were treated with O.I. until acne remission. Then, the patients entered in the MP and were treated with Biretix gel® once-daily for 12 months. The efficacy parameter was the relapse rate during MP. Thirty-nine patients completed the study. Relapse appeared in 6 patients (15.38%). The new product with Retinsphere technology was well tolerated and none of the subjects complained of adverse events. Our findings seems to provide favorable evidence of the efficacy and the safety of this new product in the maintenance treatment after O.I. in patient with moderate acne. The efficacy is maintain for a period as long as a year after O.I. suspension.
Tziotzios, Christos; Profyris, Christos; Sterling, Jane
The evidence base underpinning most traditional scar reduction approaches is limited, but some of the novel strategies are promising and accumulating. We review a number of commonly adopted strategies for scar reduction. The outlined novel agents are paradigmatic of the value of translational medical research and are likely to change the scenery in the much neglected but recently revived field of scar reduction therapeutics. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Su, Qi; Grabowski, Maria; Weindl, Günther
Propionibacterium acnes has been considered as a crucial contributor to the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. The interaction between P. acnes and the host is mainly mediated by Toll like receptor (TLR) 2 recognition. TLR2 homodimers recognize P. acnes in mice, but here we describe the prerequisite of TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 heterodimers in human cells for P. acnes recognition. P. acnes-induced NF-κB and AP-1activation observed in HEK hTLR2-transfected but not control cells confirmed the specificity of TLR2 recognition. The activation was blocked by neutralizing antibodies against TLR2, TLR1 and TLR6, as well as the TLR2 antagonist CU-CPT22, which showed no selectivity towards human TLR2 heterodimers. The combination of anti-TLR1 and anti-TLR6 antibodies completely abrogated activation by P. acnes. In primary human keratinocytes, P. acnes-increased NF-κB phosphorylation was inhibited by anti-TLR6 and anti-TLR2 antibodies. Furthermore, P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses were impaired by anti-TLR2 neutralizing antibodies and fully blocked by CU-CPT22. Our study suggests species-specific recognition of P. acnes by TLR2 heterodimers which can be exploited therapeutically by small molecules targeting TLR2 for the control of inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Fischer, Natalie; Mak, Tim N.; Shinohara, Debika Biswal; Sfanos, Karen S.; Meyer, Thomas F.
Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes various niches of the human body, particularly the sebaceous follicles of the skin. Over the last years a role of this common skin bacterium as an opportunistic pathogen has been explored. Persistence of P. acnes in host tissue has been associated with chronic inflammation and disease development, for example, in prostate pathologies. This study investigated the intracellular fate of P. acnes in macrophages after phagocytosis. In a mouse model of P. acnes-induced chronic prostatic inflammation, the bacterium could be detected in prostate-infiltrating macrophages at 2 weeks postinfection. Further studies performed in the human macrophage cell line THP-1 revealed intracellular survival and persistence of P. acnes but no intracellular replication or escape from the host cell. Confocal analyses of phagosome acidification and maturation were performed. Acidification of P. acnes-containing phagosomes was observed at 6 h postinfection but then lost again, indicative of cytosolic escape of P. acnes or intraphagosomal pH neutralization. No colocalization with the lysosomal markers LAMP1 and cathepsin D was observed, implying that the P. acnes-containing phagosome does not fuse with lysosomes. Our findings give first insights into the intracellular fate of P. acnes; its persistency is likely to be important for the development of P. acnes-associated inflammatory diseases. PMID:23862148
Lee, Chia-Jung; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung
Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes ( P . acnes ) and Staphylococcus aureus , and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In this study, we found that pomegranate extract (PG-E) significantly reduced P . acnes -induced edema in Wistar rat ears. Therefore, an evaluation platform using multiple pathogenic mechanisms of acne was established to explore the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. Results showed that PG-E inhibited bacterial growth and lipase activity. Through a bioguided-fractionation-isolation system, four hydrolysable tannins, punicalagin ( 1 ), punicalin ( 2 ), strictinin A ( 3 ), and granatin B ( 4 ), were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 had greater anti-bacterial activities and anti-testosterone-induced HaCaT proliferative effects than the others. Compounds 1 , 3 , and 4 displayed lipase inhibitory effects. Compound 4 decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and downregulated prostaglandin E₂ production in heat-killed P . acnes -treated RAW 246.7 cells. In conclusion, PG-E is abundant in hydrolysable tannins that display multiple anti-acne capacities, including anti-bacterial, anti-lipase, anti-keratinocyte proliferation, and anti-inflammatory actions. Hence, PG-E has great potential in the application of anti-acne and skin-care products, and punicalagin ( 1 ), the most effective component in PG-E, can be employed as a quality control marker.
Lee, Chia-Jung; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung
Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Staphylococcus aureus, and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In this study, we found that pomegranate extract (PG-E) significantly reduced P. acnes-induced edema in Wistar rat ears. Therefore, an evaluation platform using multiple pathogenic mechanisms of acne was established to explore the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. Results showed that PG-E inhibited bacterial growth and lipase activity. Through a bioguided-fractionation-isolation system, four hydrolysable tannins, punicalagin (1), punicalin (2), strictinin A (3), and granatin B (4), were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 had greater anti-bacterial activities and anti-testosterone-induced HaCaT proliferative effects than the others. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 displayed lipase inhibitory effects. Compound 4 decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and downregulated prostaglandin E2 production in heat-killed P. acnes-treated RAW 246.7 cells. In conclusion, PG-E is abundant in hydrolysable tannins that display multiple anti-acne capacities, including anti-bacterial, anti-lipase, anti-keratinocyte proliferation, and anti-inflammatory actions. Hence, PG-E has great potential in the application of anti-acne and skin-care products, and punicalagin (1), the most effective component in PG-E, can be employed as a quality control marker. PMID:28085116
Westra, I; Verhaegen, P D H M; Ibrahim Korkmaz, H; Braam, K I; Kaspers, G J L; Niessen, H W M; Niessen, F B
Very little is known about histological aspects of paediatric scars and the possible role of the immune system during their formation. In this study, the histology thoracic scars caused by the placement of an implantable central venous access device in children who underwent treatment for cancer was assessed. The amount and type of collagen, the collagen orientation, the type of elastic fibres, the vascularsation, and the count of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes were analysed. The severity of scarring was assessed using the Vancouver scar scale (VSS). To evaluate the role of the immune system on scar severity and histology, the scars of children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were compared with the scars of children suffering from other types of childhood cancer. Our results showed an extremely random orientation of the collagen fibres of the paediatric scars with a mean collagen orientation index of 0.22 (standard deviation (SD) 0.10, zero indicating a perfectly random orientation and a perfectly parallel orientation). A lower collagen orientation index was seen in scars with a lower VSS score (VSS score <3: 0.19 versus VSS score ≥3 0.29, p=0.037). A higher total VSS score, resembling a worse scar, was assessed to the scars in the non-ALL group compared with the children with ALL (mean ALL: 0.91 (0-3) versus mean non-ALL: 2.50 (0-6), p=0.037). To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating a wide array of histological aspects in paediatric scars. Compared with adult scars, an extremely random collagen orientation was found (0.22 in children versus 0.41 and 0.46 adult normotrophic and hypertrophic scars, respectively). A lower collagen orientation index was found in scars with a lower VSS score. In addition, less severe scarring was measured in children suffering from ALL compared with children suffering from other types of childhood cancer. This suggests that the immune system could play a role in the development of
Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Tomida, Shuta; Li, Huiying
The human skin harbors a diverse community of bacteria, including the Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes. P. acnes has historically been linked to the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, a common skin disease affecting over 80% of all adolescents in the US. To gain insight into potential P. acnes pathogenic mechanisms, we previously sequenced the complete genome of a P. acnes strain HL096PA1 that is highly associated with acne. In this study, we compared its genome to the first published complete genome KPA171202. HL096PA1 harbors a linear plasmid, pIMPLE-HL096PA1. This is the first described P. acnes plasmid. We also observed a five-fold increase of pseudogenes in HL096PA1, several of which encode proteins in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In addition, our analysis revealed a few island-like genomic regions that are unique to HL096PA1 and a large genomic inversion spanning the ribosomal operons. Together, these findings offer a basis for understanding P. acnes virulent properties, host adaptation mechanisms, and its potential role in acne pathogenesis at the strain level. Furthermore, the plasmid identified in HL096PA1 may potentially provide a new opportunity for P. acnes genetic manipulation and targeted therapy against specific disease-associated strains. PMID:23762865
The potential of various biological agents to reduce or prevent excessive scar formation has now been evaluated in numerous in-vitro studies, experimental animal models and preliminary clinical trials, in some cases with particularly promising results. Perhaps prominent among this group of biological agents, and, to some degree, possibly representing marketed compounds already being used 'off label' to manage excessive scarring, are the tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist etanercept, and immune-response modifiers such as IFNalpha2b and imiquimod. Additional assessment of these novel agents is now justified with a view to reducing or preventing hypertrophic scars, keloid scars and the recurrence of post-excision keloid lesions.
Beogo, R; Guiébré, Y M C; Sérémé, M; Ouoba, K; Zwetyenga, N
A keloid scar is a benign proliferative lesion of dermic collagen. It is predominant in black skin patients. It is most commonly located on the head and neck. Skin trauma and a genetic predisposition may be responsible for the keloid scar. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of keloid scar is still unclear, and no currently available treatment is 100% effective. The authors had for aim to review the current data on keloid scar pathogenesis and treatment for an optimal management of this condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sorkin, Michael; Cholok, David; Levi, Benjamin
Unimpaired hand function is critical in almost all activities of daily living. Burn injury can result in hypertrophic scar formation that can lead to debilitating functional deficits and poor aesthetic outcomes. Initial algorithms of acute burn management involve early debridement and skin grafting and early mobilization to prevent formation of hypertrophic scarring and ultimately digit contractures. While non-operative modalities in the early phase of scar maturation are critical to minimize hypertrophic scar formation, surgical management is often indicated in order to restore hand function. The essential tenant of operative scar management is release of tension, which can often be achieved through local tissue rearrangement. Laser therapy has emerged as a central pillar of subsequent scar rehabilitation with several modalities that address scar texture, color, pruritis and thickness. These can be utilized in conjunction with local corticosteroid treatment and other emerging modalities to modulate the scar and achieve optimal hand function. These treatment tools provide an effective resource for the reconstructive surgeon to treat hypertrophic hand scars. PMID:28363297
Rasheed, Arun; Shama, Shaik Neelufar; Joy, Jyothi Mulanjananiyil; Reddy, Bobbu Sravya; Roja, Chirra
The moisture content present in human skin makes it look young and the use of moisturizer results in fastening the moisture with a surface film of oil. Acne vulgaris is one of the most commonly seen diseases among the youth. The present study is focused on the use of herbs as moisturizer for acne treatment. The anti-acne moisturizer was formulated from herbal crude extracts and investigated the physico-chemical parameters as well as antibacterial activity of the formulation. The study revealed that ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ocimum sanctum, Azadiracta indica and Green tea possessed the potential for inhibiting acne. It was observed that the optimal formula of anti-acne moisturizer was satisfactorily effective to control acne inducing bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus epidermis and Propionibacterium. The physico-chemical parameters of the formulation were also optimal with no signs of irritation.
Jeon, Jinseong; Mok, Hyuck Jun; Choi, Youngwoo; Park, Seung Cheol; Jo, Hunho; Her, Jin; Han, Jin-Kwan; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Ban, Changill
Extracellular vesicle (EV) has been reported to conduct critical pathophysiological functions as an emerging mode of communication in bacteria. Recently, Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobic Gram-positive human commensal found in the skin and gastrointestinal tract, has drawn increasing attention as an underestimated pathogen in a variety of diseases. For the comprehensive understanding of P. acnes, here we report the isolation of P. acnes EVs for the first time and identification of 252 vesicular proteins with high confidence using triplicate LC-MS/MS analyses. Comprehensive proteomic profiling reveals that P. acnes EVs harbor various proteins involved in biochemical processes, antibiotic resistance, bacterial competition, cell adherence, virulence, and immunogenicity. We believe that this report will provide valuable information for investigating the biological role of P. acnes EVs and effective targets for developing clinical applications against P. acnes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Handler, Marc Z; Bloom, Bradley S; Goldberg, David J
Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic complaint with a multifactorial cause. Traditionally, antibiotics and retinoids have been used to manage the condition; patient compliance has been an ongoing issue. A variety of energy-based devices have been reported to be effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris. To review and summarize the current literature specific to treatment of acne vulgaris with energy-based devices. A review of the current literature of energy-based devices used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Although limited randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acne have been performed, significant clinical improvement of acne vulgaris, especially of inflammatory lesions, has been demonstrated with a variety of energy-based devices. Newer approaches may lead to even better results.
Kaur, Sarabjit; Verma, Poonam; Sangwan, Ankita; Dayal, Surabhi; Jain, Vijay Kumar
Acne vulgaris is usually considered as a skin disorder that primarily affects adolescents reaching a peak at the age of 14–17 years in females and 16–19 years in males. However, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that a significant number of female patients aged >25 years experience acne. As it is regarded as a disease of teenagers, adults are more apprehensive and experience social anxiety. Hence, adult onset acne has become a matter of concern. PMID:27512185
ABSTRACT Because both acne vulgaris and folliculitis can present as inflammatory erythematous papules, pustules or nodules, they are often hard to distinguish. The importance to distinguish between these 2 shall be stressed as their pathogenesis and therapies are different and misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis may lead to improper treatment. We will introduce several special types of folliculitis that should be differentiated from acne to increase our knowledge of the disorders with an acne-like manifestation. PMID:29484091
Tuchina, Elena S.; Tuchin, Valery V.
Acne is a genetic, hormonal disease characterized by overproduction of oil by the sebaceous glands, plugging of the sebaceous glands to form micro- and macro- comedons and, finally, action of skin bacteria on oil trapped underneath the skin to red inflammatory cystic lesions. It was shown, that Propionibacterium acnes, the bacteria responsible for acne, was rather subjected to action of red and infrared radiation. The effect of the given radiation amplified at this bacteria by various solutions of photosensitizes.
Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohamad Ali; Ajami, Marjan; Jaffary, Fariba; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Firooz, Alireza
Acne vulgaris, an inflammatory skin disease with different clinical appearances, is a common problem in most adolescents. It seems that using combinations of topical agents can decrease resistance to the treatment and improve the efficacy. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of azelaic acid (AA) 5% and clindamycin (Clin) 2% combination (AA-Clin) on mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. The efficacy and safety of 12-week treatment with AA-Clin in patients with mild-to-moderate facial acne vulgaris were evaluated by a multicenter, randomized, and double-blind study. A total of 88 male and 62 female patients were randomly assigned to one of these treatments: AA 5%, Clin 2%, and combination of them. Every 4 weeks, total inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions were counted, acne severity index (ASI) was calculated, and patient satisfaction was recorded. Treatment for 12 weeks with combination gel significantly reduced the total lesion number compared with baseline (p < 0.01), as well as Clin 2% or AA 5% treatment groups (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). The percentage of reduction in ASI in combination treated group (64.16 ± 6.01) was significantly more than those in the Clin 2% (47.73 ± 6.62, p < 0.05) and 5% AA (32.46 ± 5.27, p < 0.01) groups after 12 weeks. Among the patients in the AA-Clin group, 75.86% of males were satisfied or very satisfied and 85.71% of females were satisfied or very satisfied. This trend was significant in comparison to the number of patients who were satisfied with AA 5% or Clin 2% treatment (p < 0.01). Seven patients in AA-Clin group (incidence = 22%) showed adverse effects that were not statistically significant compared to treatment with individual active ingredients. The profound reduction in lesion count and ASI by combination therapy with AA-Clin gel in comparison to individual treatment with 5% AA or Clin 2% suggested the combination formula as an effective alternative in treatment of acne vulgaris.
Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.
The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)
Leyden, James; Shalita, Alan; Hordinsky, Maria; Swinyer, Leonard; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Weber, Margaret E
Acne is a multifactorial disease in which androgens appear to play an important role. A low-dose oral contraceptive containing 20 microg of ethinyl estradiol and 100 microg of levonorgestrel (EE/LNG) has been shown to improve biochemical markers of androgenicity. Lowering bioavailable androgens may improve acne. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a low-dose oral contraceptive containing 20 microg of EE and 100 microg of LNG for the treatment of moderate acne. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, healthy female subjects (n = 371; >/=14 years old) with regular menstrual cycles and moderate facial acne were randomly assigned to receive EE/LNG or placebo for 6 cycles of 28 days. Acne lesion counts and clinician global assessment were performed at the end of each cycle. Patient self-assessments were collected and biochemical markers of androgenicity were also measured. At the end of the study, the number of inflammatory and total lesions was significantly lower with EE/LNG compared with placebo (P <.05). Patients in the EE/LNG group also had significantly better scores for clinician global and patient self-assessments than those in the placebo group (P <.05). Biochemical markers of androgenicity improved during EE/LNG treatment compared with placebo and baseline values. A low-dose oral contraceptive containing EE/LNG is effective and safe for the treatment of moderate acne.
Kocur, I; Baráková, D; Kuchynka, P; Fiser, I
There is a report of three cases of chronic postoperative endophthalmitis following cataract operations. In two patients there was proven Propionibacterium acnes. There is presented a technique to obtain specimens for microbiological examination and an overview of clinical experience in treatment of the mentioned less common types of endophthalmitis. Early surgical treatment as well as intraocular injection of vancomycin can help to restore a good visual acuity despite of longlasting inflammation.
McDowell, Andrew; Barnard, Emma; Liu, Jared; Li, Huiying; Patrick, Sheila
Recently, it has been proposed that strains of Propionibacterium acnes from the type III genetic division should be classified as P. acnessubsp. elongatum subsp. nov., with strains from the type I and II divisions collectively classified as P. acnessubsp. acnes subsp. nov. Under such a taxonomic re-appraisal, we believe that types I and II should also have their own separate rank of subspecies. In support of this, we describe a polyphasic taxonomic study based on the analysis of publicly available multilocus and whole-genome sequence datasets, alongside a systematic review of previously published phylogenetic, genomic, phenotypic and clinical data. Strains of types I and II form highly distinct clades on the basis of multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and whole-genome phylogenetic reconstructions. In silico or digital DNA-DNA similarity values also fall within the 70-80 % boundary recommended for bacterial subspecies. Furthermore, we see important differences in genome content, including the presence of an active CRISPR/Cas system in type II strains, but not type I, and evidence for increasing linkage equilibrium within the separate divisions. Key biochemical differences include positive test results for β-haemolytic, neuraminidase and sorbitol fermentation activities with type I strains, but not type II. We now propose that type I strains should be classified as P. acnessubsp. acnes subsp. nov., and type II as P. acnessubsp. defendens subsp. nov. The type strain of P. acnessubsp. acnes subsp. nov. is NCTC 737T (=ATCC 6919T=JCM 6425T=DSM 1897T=CCUG 1794T), while the type strain of P. acnessubsp. defendens subsp. nov. is ATCC 11828 (=JCM 6473=CCUG 6369).
Gharamti, Amal A; Kanafani, Zeina A
Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes), a Gram-positive biofilm-forming rod implicated in acne vulgaris, is increasingly recognized for its role in implant-associated infections. The diagnosis of C. acnes implant-associated infections remains challenging. The optimal treatment is a combination of both surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the different types of implant-associated infections caused by C. acnes. We also highlight the clinical manifestations pertaining to the various sites of infection, and identify several risk factors previously reported in the literature. We then cover the diagnostic laboratory markers, such as IL-6 and AD-1, optimizing C. acnes recovery in culture, and the specific molecular techniques. Finally, we examine the various effective antibiotic regimens and identify some preventive methods against C. acnes infections. Expert commentary: Biomarkers such as IL-6 and AD-1 should be further investigated for the diagnosis of C. acnes implant-associated infections. The use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and other molecular techniques should be further explored in this setting. Longer incubation periods should be requested whenever C. acnes infection is suspected. If the clinical suspicion is high, sonication of the excised implant should be encouraged. Research should focus on developing effective anti-biofilm agents. Finally, preventive methods such as hair removal prior to surgery should be further explored.
Davidovici, Batya B; Wolf, Ronni
Acne is the most prevalent skin condition. It has a substantial effect on the quality of life of teenagers worldwide. Among acne patients from different societies and cultures, diet is uniformly regarded as a major cause in the pathogenesis of acne. We reviewed the up-to-date literature regarding acne and culprit foods such as dairy products, chocolate, and fatty foods. Unfortunately, after reviewing the existing data, there are no answers but there are definitely more questions, because there is no clear proof about whether these issues are facts or misconceptions. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Campisano, Andrea; Ometto, Lino; Compant, Stéphane; Pancher, Michael; Antonielli, Livio; Yousaf, Sohail; Varotto, Claudio; Anfora, Gianfranco; Pertot, Ilaria; Sessitsch, Angela; Rota-Stabelli, Omar
Here, we report the surprising and, to our knowledge, unique example of horizontal interkingdom transfer of a human opportunistic pathogen (Propionibacterium acnes) to a crop plant (the domesticated grapevine Vitis vinifera L.). Humans, like most organisms, have established a long-lasting cohabitation with a variety of microbes, including pathogens and gut-associated bacteria. Studies which have investigated the dynamics of such associations revealed numerous cases of bacterial host switches from domestic animals to humans. Much less is, however, known about the exchange of microbial symbionts between humans and plants. Fluorescent in situ hybridization localized P. acnes in the bark, in xylem fibers, and, more interestingly, inside pith tissues. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses suggest that the establishment of the grapevine-associated P. acnes as obligate endophyte is compatible with a recent transfer event, likely during the Neolithic, when grapevine was domesticated.
Veraldi, Stefano; Barbareschi, Mauro; Benardon, Susanna; Schianchi, Rossana
The most frequent side effect of topical retinoids is irritant contact dermatitis. It occurs in approximately 85% of patients; the percentage can reach up to 95% in patients treated with tretinoin. Severity of this dermatitis is moderate to severe in approximately 20% of patients. However, 15% of patients stop the treatment with tretinoin because of skin irritation. The authors used tretinoin as short contact therapy (SCT) in mild to moderate acne, in order to try to reduce the incidence and severity of irritant contact dermatitis. They present the final results of a sponsor-free, pilot, open, multicenter study. Seventy-four patients were treated with 0.05% tretinoin cream. It was applied once daily for 30 min. Treatment duration ranged from 8 to 32 weeks (mean duration: 12 weeks). Acne severity and treatment efficacy were evaluated by means of the Global Acne Grading System. A significant clinical improvement (≥50% from baseline) was observed in 41 patients (55.4%). Thirteen patients (17.6%) developed a mild skin irritation. Four patients (5.4%) stopped the treatment because of severe skin irritation. Efficacy of tretinoin used as SCT seems to be superimposable to that of tretinoin used according to standard modality. Tolerability of SCT with tretinoin is very good. This tolerability allows a high adherence of patients to the treatment and it markedly improves compliance.
Jaspers, Mariëlle E H; Brouwer, Katrien M; van Trier, Antoine J M; Groot, Marloes L; Middelkoop, Esther; van Zuijlen, Paul P M
Nowadays, patients normally survive severe traumas such as burn injuries and necrotizing fasciitis. Large skin defects can be closed but the scars remain. Scars may become adherent to underlying structures when the subcutical fat layer is damaged. Autologous fat grafting provides the possibility of reconstructing a functional sliding layer underneath the scar. Autologous fat grafting is becoming increasingly popular for scar treatment, although large studies using validated evaluation tools are lacking. The authors therefore objectified the effectiveness of single-treatment autologous fat grafting on scar pliability using validated scar measurement tools. Forty patients with adherent scars receiving single-treatment autologous fat grafting were measured preoperatively and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome parameter was scar pliability, measured using the Cutometer. Scar quality was also evaluated by the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale and the DSM II ColorMeter. To prevent selection bias, measurements were performed following a standardized algorithm. The Cutometer parameters elasticity and maximal extension improved 22.5 percent (p < 0.001) and 15.6 percent (p = 0.001), respectively. Total Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale scores improved from 3.6 to 2.9 on the observer scale, and from 5.1 to 3.8 on the patient scale (both p < 0.001). Color differences between the scar and normal skin remained unaltered. For the first time, the effect of autologous fat grafting on functional scar parameters was ascertained using a comprehensive scar evaluation protocol. The improved scar pliability supports the authors' hypothesis that the function of the subcutis can be restored to a certain extent by single-treatment autologous fat grafting. Therapeutic, IV.
Nakano, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Arai, Satoru; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei
Dermcidin (DCD), an antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria such as Propionibacterum acnes, is expressed constitutively in sweat in the absence of stimulation due to injury or inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between DCD expression and acne vulgaris associated with P. acnes. The antimicrobial activity of recombinant full-length DCD (50 μg/ml) was 97% against Escherichia coli and 100% against Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial activity against P. acnes ranged from 68% at 50 μg/ml DCD to 83% at 270 μg/ml DCD. DCD concentration in sweat from patients with acne vulgaris (median 9.8 μg/ml, range 6.9-95.3 μg/ml) was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (median 136.7 μg/ml, range 45.4-201.6 μg/ml) (p = 0.001). DCD demonstrated concentration-dependent, but partial, microbicidal activity against P. acnes. These results suggest that reduced DCD concentration in sweat in patients with inflammatory acne may permit proliferation of P. acnes in pilosebaceous units, resulting in progression of inflammatory acne.
Luukko, Perttu J. J.; Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Kaplan, Lev; Heller, Eric J.; Räsänen, Esa
We discover and characterise strong quantum scars, or quantum eigenstates resembling classical periodic orbits, in two-dimensional quantum wells perturbed by local impurities. These scars are not explained by ordinary scar theory, which would require the existence of short, moderately unstable periodic orbits in the perturbed system. Instead, they are supported by classical resonances in the unperturbed system and the resulting quantum near-degeneracy. Even in the case of a large number of randomly scattered impurities, the scars prefer distinct orientations that extremise the overlap with the impurities. We demonstrate that these preferred orientations can be used for highly efficient transport of quantum wave packets across the perturbed potential landscape. Assisted by the scars, wave-packet recurrences are significantly stronger than in the unperturbed system. Together with the controllability of the preferred orientations, this property may be very useful for quantum transport applications. PMID:27892510
Davidson, Andrew J; Insall, Robert H
The SCAR/WAVE complex drives the actin polymerisation that underlies protrusion of the front of the cell and thus drives migration. However, it is not understood how the activity of SCAR/WAVE is regulated to generate the infinite range of cellular shape changes observed during cell motility. What are the relative roles of the subunits of the SCAR/WAVE complex? What signaling molecules do they interact with? And how does the complex integrate all this information in order to control the temporal and spatial polymerisation of actin during protrusion formation? Unfortunately, the interdependence of SCAR complex members has made genetic dissection hard. In our recent paper,(1) we describe stabilization of the Dictyostelium SCAR complex by a small fragment of Abi. Here we summarize the main findings and discuss how this approach can help reveal the inner workings of this impenetrable complex.
Luukko, Perttu J. J.; Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Kaplan, Lev; Heller, Eric J.; Räsänen, Esa
We discover and characterise strong quantum scars, or quantum eigenstates resembling classical periodic orbits, in two-dimensional quantum wells perturbed by local impurities. These scars are not explained by ordinary scar theory, which would require the existence of short, moderately unstable periodic orbits in the perturbed system. Instead, they are supported by classical resonances in the unperturbed system and the resulting quantum near-degeneracy. Even in the case of a large number of randomly scattered impurities, the scars prefer distinct orientations that extremise the overlap with the impurities. We demonstrate that these preferred orientations can be used for highly efficient transport of quantum wave packets across the perturbed potential landscape. Assisted by the scars, wave-packet recurrences are significantly stronger than in the unperturbed system. Together with the controllability of the preferred orientations, this property may be very useful for quantum transport applications.
Luukko, Perttu J J; Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Kaplan, Lev; Heller, Eric J; Räsänen, Esa
We discover and characterise strong quantum scars, or quantum eigenstates resembling classical periodic orbits, in two-dimensional quantum wells perturbed by local impurities. These scars are not explained by ordinary scar theory, which would require the existence of short, moderately unstable periodic orbits in the perturbed system. Instead, they are supported by classical resonances in the unperturbed system and the resulting quantum near-degeneracy. Even in the case of a large number of randomly scattered impurities, the scars prefer distinct orientations that extremise the overlap with the impurities. We demonstrate that these preferred orientations can be used for highly efficient transport of quantum wave packets across the perturbed potential landscape. Assisted by the scars, wave-packet recurrences are significantly stronger than in the unperturbed system. Together with the controllability of the preferred orientations, this property may be very useful for quantum transport applications.
Double-blinded, vehicle-controlled proof of concept study to investigate the recurrence of inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesions using tretinoin gel (microsphere) 0.04% in male patients after oral isotretinoin use.
Vender, Reid; Vender, Ronald
Background. Although isotretinoin orally is commonly used for moderate to severe or scarring acne, it is not a cure. Unfortunately recurrence is unpredictable and varies within the acne population. Objectives. Using a proof of concept study, determine the recurrence of acne after isotretinoin use in male patients. Methods. Twenty males aged 18-45 years old were enrolled. Subjects successfully completed a treatment of acne vulgaris with oral isotretinoin (120-150 mg/kg/course). Subjects were randomized 1 to 1. The study duration was 24 weeks. The primary endpoint measured was the absolute change in lesion counts from baseline to weeks 16 and 24. Local tolerability assessments were measured. Results. There were favorable changes in all outcomes measured. Overall, there was a 38.7% lower lesion count with tretinoin 0.04% microsphere gel use versus vehicle. The active product was well tolerated with great patient satisfaction. There were no significant safety issues. The limitations included the low number of patients enrolled, average age, and percentage of patients lost to follow-up. Conclusion. In summary, the results favored tretinoin 0.04% microsphere gel in the prevention of recurrent acne after isotretinoin use in male patients over 18 years old over a six-month period.
Azelaic acid (AzA) 15% gel is approved for the treatment of rosacea in the US, but also has approval for the treatment of acne vulgaris in many European countries where it has demonstrated success. Two randomized, multicenter, controlled clinical trials compared the effects of AzA 15% gel with those of topical benzoyl peroxide 5% or topical clindamycin 1%, all using a twice-daily dosing regimen. The primary endpoint in the intent-to-treat analysis was a reduction in inflammatory papules and pustules. AzA 15% gel resulted in a 70% to 71% median reduction of facial papules and pustules compared with a 77% reduction with benzoyl peroxide 5% gel and a 63% reduction with clindamycin. AzA 15% gel was well-tolerated. In addition, a 1-year European observational study conducted by dermatologists in private practice evaluated the safety and efficacy of AzA 15% gel used as monotherapy or in combination with other agents in more than 1200 patients with acne. Most physicians (81.9%) described an improvement in patients' symptoms after an average of 34.6 days, and 93.9% of physicians reported patient improvement after an average of 73.1 days. Both physicians and patients assessed AzA 15% gel to be effective with 74% of patients being "very satisfied" at the end of therapy. AzA 15% gel was considered "well-tolerated" or "very well-tolerated" by 95.7% of patients. The majority of patients were more satisfied with AzA than with previous therapies. AzA 15% gel represents a new therapeutic option for the treatment of acne vulgaris.
Akarsu, Sevgi; Fetil, Emel; Yücel, Filiz; Gül, Eylem; Güneş, Ali T
Clindamycin phosphate (CDP), benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and salicylic acid (SA) are known to be effective acne therapy agents depending on their anti-inflammatory and comedolytic properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of the addition of SA treatment to CDP and BPO (SA and CDP + BPO) and compare it with CDP + BPO in patients with mild to moderate facial acne vulgaris. Forty-nine patients were enrolled in a 12 week prospective, single-blind, randomized, comparative clinical study. Efficacy was assessed by lesion counts, global improvement, quality of life index and measurements of skin barrier functions. Local side effects were also evaluated. Both combinations were effective in reducing total lesion (TL), inflammatory lesion (IL) and non-inflammatory lesion (NIL) counts. There were statistically significant differences between treatment groups for reductions in NIL counts beyond 2 weeks, IL counts and TL counts throughout the all study weeks, and global improvement scores evaluated by patients and investigator at the end of the study in favor of SA and CDP + BPO treatment when compared to CDP + BPO treatment. Both combinations significantly decreased stratum corneum hydration, although skin sebum values decreased with SA and CDP + BPO treatment. These combinations were also well tolerated except significantly higher frequency of mild to moderate transient dryness in patients applied SA and CDP + BPO. The addition of SA to CDP + BPO treatment demonstrated significantly better and faster results in terms of reductions in acne lesion counts and well tolerated except for higher frequency of mild to moderate transient dryness. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the...
Yuan, Ye; Zhou, Zezhu; Jiao, Yucheng; Li, Changwei; Zheng, Yuehuan; Lin, Yazhou; Xiao, Jiaqi; Chen, Zhe; Cao, Peng
Purpose . Low-virulence anaerobic bacteria, especially the Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) , have been thought to be a new pathogeny for a series of disc diseases. However, until now, there has been no histological evidence to confirm this link. The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of P. acnes in nonpyogenic intervertebral discs via histological observation. Method . Degenerated intervertebral discs were harvested from 76 patients with low back pain and/or sciatica but without any symptoms of discitis or spondylodiscitis. The samples were cultured under anaerobic conditions and then examined using 16S rDNA PCR to screen for P. acnes . Samples found to be positive for P. acnes were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and modified Brown-Brenn staining and observed under a microscope. Results . Here, 16 intervertebral discs were found to be positive for P. acnes via 16S rDNA PCR and the prevalence was 21.05% (16/76). Among them, 7 samples had visible microbes stained with HE and modified Brown-Brenn staining. Morphological examination showed the bacteria to be Gram-positive and rod-shaped, so they were considered P. acnes . Conclusion . P. acnes is capable of colonizing some degenerated intervertebral discs without causing discitis, and its presence could be further confirmed by histological evidence. Targeting these bacteria may be a promising therapy method for some disc diseases.
Lim, Sung A; Na, Kyung-Sun; Joo, Choun-Ki
Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal bacteria whose pathogenicity in infectious keratitis is unclear. In this study, we report infectious keratitis cultured with P. acnes and evaluate its clinical characteristics. All cases of infectious keratitis submitted to the microbiology laboratory of St. Mary's Hospital of Seoul between January 2013 and April 2014 were reviewed. Nonpretreated cases that were positive for P. acnes were identified, and clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were studied. Of 132 cultures submitted to the microbiology laboratory, 89 (67.4%) were positive for growth, and a total of 16 (17.9%) of the 89 cases yielded P. acnes in culture medium. Infectious keratitis that was positive for P. acnes was generally small (62.5%) with deep stromal infiltration (81.25%) and a peripheral location (56.25%). The average incubation period was 11.06±5.76 days, and the average time to reepithelialization was 23.50+13.52 days. All the cases of P. acnes evaluated in this report responded well to medical treatment. Infectious keratitis with P. acnes is not uncommon and can be confused with other Gram-positive cocci. Thus, P. acnes should be suspected in small-sized keratitis with an unusually long incubation period.
Lynn, Darren D; Umari, Tamara; Dunnick, Cory A; Dellavalle, Robert P
Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15-19-year olds) remains lacking. To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15-19-year olds) and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Database summary study. Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons) associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous opportunities for enhanced patient care. To that end, we highlight some of the effective and promising treatments currently available and address important factors, such as sex, nationality, genetics, pathophysiology, and diet, as they relate to acne vulgaris in late adolescence.
Klaz, Itay; Kochba, Ilan; Shohat, Tzipora; Zarka, Salman; Brenner, Sarah
As the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne remains unclear, we examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and severe acne in a large cohort of young men. Trained nurses interviewed subjects upon discharge from compulsory military service, regarding family history, habits, and tobacco smoking habits. Data was correlated with severe acne status, as diagnosed and coded by board-certified dermatologists. In total, 27,083 male subjects participated in the study from 1983 to 2003, of which 237 (0.88%) had severe acne, 11,718 (43.27%) were active smokers, and 15,365 (56.73%) were nonsmokers at the time of interviews. Active smokers showed a significantly lower prevalence of severe acne (0.71%) than nonsmokers (1.01%) (P = 0.0078). An inverse dose-dependent relationship between severe acne prevalence and daily cigarette consumption became significant from 21 cigarettes a day (chi2 and trend test: P < 0.0001), odds ratio: 0.2 (95% CI: 0.06-0.63). The study did not aim to establish a temporal correlation, and passive smoking and acne treatments were not measured. Previous in vitro and clinical studies strongly support an association with nicotine. We suggest a trial with topical nicotine treatment for acne to further investigate this association.
Boyette, Jennings R
Facial trauma in children differs from adults. The growing facial skeleton presents several challenges to the reconstructive surgeon. A thorough understanding of the patterns of facial growth and development is needed to form an individualized treatment strategy. A proper diagnosis must be made and treatment options weighed against the risk of causing further harm to facial development. This article focuses on the management of facial fractures in children. Discussed are common fracture patterns based on the development of the facial structure, initial management, diagnostic strategies, new concepts and old controversies regarding radiologic examinations, conservative versus operative intervention, risks of growth impairment, and resorbable fixation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sophorolipids (SLs) are known to possess antimicrobial properties towards many species (particularly Gram-positive, or Gram+) of bacteria. However, they can only be exerted if the SLs can be introduced to the bacterial cells in an acceptable manner. Propionibacterium acnes is the common bacterial ...
Aubin, G G; Portillo, M E; Trampuz, A; Corvec, S
Propionibacterium acnes colonizes the lipid-rich sebaceous glands of the skin. This preferential anaerobic bacterium is easily identified if cultures are prolonged. It is involved in the inflammation process of acne, but until recently, it was neglected in other clinical presentations. Despite a reported low virulence, the new genomic, transcriptomic, and phylogenetic studies have allowed better understanding of this pathogen's importance that causes many chronic and recurrent infections, including orthopedic and cardiac prosthetic, and breast or eye implant-infections. These infections, facilitated by the ability of P. acnes to produce a biofilm, require using anti-biofilm active antibiotics such as rifampicin. The antibiogram of P. acnes is not systematically performed in microbiology laboratories because of its susceptibility to a wide range of antibiotics. However, in the last 10 years, the rate of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has increased, especially for macrolides and tetracyclines. Recently, rpoB gene mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin have been also reported. Thus in case of a biofilm growth mode, the therapeutic strategy should be discussed, according to the resistance phylotype and phenotype so as to optimize the treatment of these severe infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Momeni, Mahnoush; Hafezi, Farhad; Rahbar, Hossein; Karimi, Hamid
To study the efficacy of silicone gel applied to hypertrophic burn scars, in reducing scar interference with normal function and improving cosmesis. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 38 people with hypertrophic burn scars. Each scar was divided into two segments; silicone gel sheet was applied randomly to one of the two and placebo to the other. Participants were seen again after 1 and 4 months. Their data and wound characteristics were collected using the Vancouver scar scale. The median age of participants was 22 years (1.5-60 years) and 16 were male; 4 did not attend follow-up and were excluded from the study. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. Although after 1 month all scar scale measures were lower in treated areas, only the vascularity scale was significantly different between the two areas. After 4 months, all scale measures were significantly lower in the silicone gel group than in the control group, except for the pain score. Silicone gel is an effective treatment for hypertrophic burn scars.
Khorasani, Hooman; Zheng, Zhong; Nguyen, Calvin; Zara, Janette; Zhang, Xinli; Wang, Joyce; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia
Analysis of collagen architecture is essential to wound healing research. However, to date no consistent methodologies exist for quantitatively assessing dermal collagen architecture in scars. In this study, we developed a standardized approach for quantitative analysis of scar collagen morphology by confocal microscopy using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. Full-thickness wounds were created on adult mice, closed by primary intention, and harvested at 14 days after wounding for morphometrics and standard Fourier transform-based scar analysis as well as fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. In addition, transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate collagen ultrastructure. We demonstrated that fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis were superior to Fourier transform analysis in discriminating scar versus unwounded tissue in a wild-type mouse model. To fully test the robustness of this scar analysis approach, a fibromodulin-null mouse model that heals with increased scar was also used. Fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis effectively discriminated unwounded fibromodulin-null versus wild-type skin as well as healing fibromodulin-null versus wild-type wounds, whereas Fourier transform analysis failed to do so. Furthermore, fractal dimension and lacunarity data also correlated well with transmission electron microscopy collagen ultrastructure analysis, adding to their validity. These results demonstrate that fractal dimension and lacunarity are more sensitive than Fourier transform analysis for quantification of scar morphology. PMID:21281794
Bae, Seong Hwan
Analysis of scars in various conditions is essential, but no consensus had been reached on the scar assessment scale to select for a given condition. We reviewed papers to determine the scar assessment scale selected depending on the scar condition and treatment method. We searched PubMed for articles published since 2000 with the contents of the scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale with a Journal Citation Report impact factor >0.5. Among them, 96 articles that conducted a scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale were reviewed and analyzed. The scar assessment scales were identified and organized by various criteria. Among the types of scar assessment scales, the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) was found to be the most frequently used scale. As for the assessment of newly developed operative scars, the POSAS was most used. Meanwhile, for categories depending on the treatment methods for preexisting scars, the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) was used in 6 studies following a laser treatment, the POSAS was used in 7 studies following surgical treatment, and the POSAS was used in 7 studies following a conservative treatment. Within the 12 categories of scar status, the VSS showed the highest frequency in 6 categories and the POSAS showed the highest frequency in the other 6 categories. According to our reviews, the POSAS and VSS are the most frequently used scar assessment scales. In the future, an optimal, universal scar scoring system is needed in order to better evaluate and treat pathologic scarring. PMID:24665417
Kircik, Leon H
Topical tretinoin has been a standard treatment for acne vulgaris for more than 4 decades. While tretinoin has demonstrated proven efficacy in the treatment of acne lesions, it also is associated with the potential for skin irritation. Newer formulations have been designed to optimize both the drug concentration and the delivery vehicle with the aim to enable clinicians to provide increasingly effective acne treatment that minimizes irritation. These therapies include formulations with varying concentrations of tretinoin and vehicles that utilize a microsponge delivery system, hydrogels and micronized tretinoin, or propolymers. The purpose of this review is to evaluate different formulations and combinations of tretinoin in the treatment of acne vulgaris. While these advanced formulations were designed for controlled release of active ingredient, and have the potential to reduce cutaneous irritation relative to standard tretinoin cream and gel formulations, there is a need for comparative studies to evaluate the relative benefits of each of these advanced tretinoin formulations in optimizing acne treatment.
Keri, Jonette; Shiman, Michael
Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that can affect individuals from childhood to adulthood, most often occurring in the teenage years. Acne can have a significant physical, emotional, and social impact on an individual. Many different treatment options are available for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Commonly used topical treatments include benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, sulfur and sodium sulfacetamide, azelaic acid, and retinoids. Systemic treatment is frequently used and includes the use of systemic antibiotics, oral contraceptives, antiandrogens, and retinoids. Other treatment modalities exist such as the use of superficial chemical peels as well as using laser and light devices for the treatment of acne. With the multitude of treatment options and the rapidly expanding newer technologies available to clinicians, it is important to review and be aware of the current literature and studies regarding the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:21436973
Tyner, Harmony; Patel, Robin
The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of combined culture of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus on biofilm formation under different oxygen concentrations. We measured planktonic growth and biofilm formation of P. acnes and S. aureus alone and together under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both P. acnes and S. aureus grew under anaerobic conditions. When grown under anaerobic conditions, P. acnes with or without S. aureus formed a denser biomass biofilm than did S. aureus alone. Viable S. aureus was recovered from a16-day old combined P. acnes and S. aureus biofilm, but not a monomicrobial S. aureus biofilm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koller, R; Kargül, G; Giovanoli, P; Meissl, G; Frey, M
In the present study the faciometer(R) is introduced in order to quantify the ranges of mimic movements observed after surgical treatment of facial burns. This instrument which consists of calipers and an electronic display was introduced in 1994 in order to measure the extent of facial palsy during reconstructive procedures. The study group consisted of 23 patients, who had been operated on for facial burns. The distances between standardised stable and moving points in the face were determined after mimic movements such as lifting of the eyebrows, maximum showing of the teeth and pursing of the lips. These distances were expressed as a percentage of the distance at rest. For comparison the scars were classified according to the Vancouver Scar Scale. In all patients the functional results after burn trauma in the face and, in some cases, asymmetries at rest could be objectified. Depending upon the severity of scarring, the distance between tragus and mouth was shortened between 0 and 19% after maximal showing of the teeth. In general the mouth region showed more functional deficits than the forehead. Comparing different manners of treatment, it could be objectively demonstrated that the results after deep burns requiring skin grafts were worse than those observed after more superficial lesions and other methods of coverage. The application of keratinocytes to close the burn showed highly variable results.
Bláha, J; Pondĕlicek, I
The cosmetic and functional result in postburn scar deformities is influenced by following factors: 1. The type of patient's central nervous system and his response to burn injury. 2. Depth and site of burn areas. 3. Early excision and grafting. 4. Infection complications, their severity and location. 5. Fixation of dressings should be done using elastic materials and applied for so long until stabilisation of scars is completed. Elastic materials should be combined with rigid pressure and pressure massage. 6. Congenital predisposition of the patient to hypertrophic scarring.
Malik, A S; Humayun, J; Kamel, N; Yap, F B-B
More than 99% acne patients suffer from acne vulgaris. While diagnosing the severity of acne vulgaris lesions, dermatologists have observed inter-rater and intra-rater variability in diagnosis results. This is because during assessment, identifying lesion types and their counting is a tedious job for dermatologists. To make the assessment job objective and easier for dermatologists, an automated system based on image processing methods is proposed in this study. There are two main objectives: (i) to develop an algorithm for the enhancement of various acne vulgaris lesions; and (ii) to develop a method for the segmentation of enhanced acne vulgaris lesions. For the first objective, an algorithm is developed based on the theory of high dynamic range (HDR) images. The proposed algorithm uses local rank transform to generate the HDR images from a single acne image followed by the log transformation. Then, segmentation is performed by clustering the pixels based on Mahalanobis distance of each pixel from spectral models of acne vulgaris lesions. Two metrics are used to evaluate the enhancement of acne vulgaris lesions, i.e., contrast improvement factor (CIF) and image contrast normalization (ICN). The proposed algorithm is compared with two other methods. The proposed enhancement algorithm shows better result than both the other methods based on CIF and ICN. In addition, sensitivity and specificity are calculated for the segmentation results. The proposed segmentation method shows higher sensitivity and specificity than other methods. This article specifically discusses the contrast enhancement and segmentation for automated diagnosis system of acne vulgaris lesions. The results are promising that can be used for further classification of acne vulgaris lesions for final grading of the lesions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Al-Natour, Sahar H.
INTRODUCTION: Although acne vulgaris is common in adolescents, information on their understanding of acne is minimal. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the perceptions and beliefs of Saudi youth on acne. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred twenty-nine male students (aged 13–22 years) from 6 secondary schools in the Eastern Saudi Arabia completed a self-reported questionnaire on knowledge, causation, exacerbating and relieving factors of acne. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15.0. Results of subjects with acne, a family history of acne, and parents' educational levels were compared. Differences between the analyzed groups were assessed by a Chi-square test; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Over half (58.9%) of the participants considered acne a transient condition not requiring therapy. Only 13.1% knew that the proper treatment of acne could take a long time, even several years. Over half (52%) thought acne can be treated from the first or after few visits to the doctor. Popular sources of information were television/radio (47.7%), friends (45.6%), and the internet (38%). Only 23.4% indicated school as a source of knowledge. Reported causal factors included scratching (88.5%) and squeezing (82.1%) of pimples, poor hygiene (83.9%), poor dietary habits (71.5%), and stress (54.1%). Ameliorating factors included frequent washing of the face (52.9%), exercise (41.1%), sunbathing (24.1%), and drinking of mineral water (21%). The correlations of these facts are discussed. CONCLUSION: Results of this study point out that misconceptions of acne are widespread among Saudi youth. A health education program is needed to improve the understanding of the condition. PMID:28163574
Sacchidanand, Sarvajnamurthy Aradhya; Lahiri, Koushik; Godse, Kiran; Patwardhan, Narendra Gajanan; Ganjoo, Anil; Kharkar, Rajendra; Narayanan, Varsha; Borade, Dhammraj; D’souza, Lyndon
Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that involves the pathogenesis of four major factors, such as androgen-induced increased sebum secretion, altered keratinization, colonization of Propionibacterium acnes, and inflammation. Several acne mono-treatment and combination treatment regimens are available and prescribed in the Indian market, ranging from retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), anti-infectives, and other miscellaneous agents. Although standard guidelines and recommendations overview the management of mild, moderate, and severe acne, relevance and positioning of each category of pharmacotherapy available in Indian market are still unexplained. The present article discusses the available topical and oral acne therapies and the challenges associated with the overall management of acne in India and suggestions and recommendations by the Indian dermatologists. The experts opined that among topical therapies, the combination therapies are preferred over monotherapy due to associated lower efficacy, poor tolerability, safety issues, adverse effects, and emerging bacterial resistance. Retinoids are preferred in comedonal acne and as maintenance therapy. In case of poor response, combination therapies BPO-retinoid or retinoid-antibacterials in papulopustular acne and retinoid-BPO or BPO-antibacterials in pustular-nodular acne are recommended. Oral agents are generally recommended for severe acne. Low-dose retinoids are economical and have better patient acceptance. Antibiotics should be prescribed till the inflammation is clinically visible. Antiandrogen therapy should be given to women with high androgen levels and are added to regimen to regularize the menstrual cycle. In late-onset hyperandrogenism, oral corticosteroids should be used. The experts recommended that an early initiation of therapy is directly proportional to effective therapeutic outcomes and prevent complications. PMID:28794543
Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Maleki, Masoud; Esmaily, Habibollah; Moghimi, Hamid Reza
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Unfortunately, it can lead to unsightly atrophic scars with limited treatment options. Fractional CO2 laser is accepted for treatment of atrophic acne scars and recently has been used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, so we planned to use fractional CO2 laser on leishmaniasis scar. We conducted this study on 60 leishmaniasis scars on the face of 40 patients. The lesions were treated by a fractional CO2 laser with beam size of 120 μm, with energy of 50-90 mJ, and 50-100 spots/cm(2) density with two passes in three monthly sessions. Evaluation was done in the first and second months after the first treatment and 3 and 6 months after the last treatment. Digital photography was performed at each visit. Assessment of improvement rate by patient and physician was rated separately as follows: no improvement (0%), mild (<25%), moderate (25-50%), good (51-75%), and excellent (76-100%). Based on patients' opinion, in the first and second follow-up, 48.3 and 90% of them reported moderate to excellent healing, respectively (p < 0.001). In 3 and 6 months follow-up after the end of the experiment, most of the patients (88.3 and 95%, respectively) reported moderate to excellent healing of scars. Based on two observers' opinion, healing in the first follow-up in most of the patients (65%) was mild to moderate and 33% were reported as having no healing. In the second follow-up, only 5% of the patients were reported with no healing and 60% were reported as having moderate healing (p < 0.001). In 3 and 6 months follow-up, most of the patients (95 and 96.6%) were reported as having moderate to excellent healing (p = <0.001). Our results underlined the high efficacy of fractional CO2 laser for leishmaniasis scar. No significant adverse effects were noted.
Faghihi, Gita; Rakhshanpour, Mehrdad; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali
Background: Acne vulgaris, a common human skin condition, is an inflammatory disease characterized by comedones, papules, nodules and possibly scarring. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a combination of 5% dapsone gel plus oral isotretinoin in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, study was carried out on patients with moderate to severe acne. The patients were randomly divided in two groups: (dapsone gel and vehicle gel). All Patients were administered oral isotretinoin 20 mg daily and topical gel twice a day for 8 weeks. The Global Acne Assessment Score (GAAS), the number lesions and side-effects were documented at base line and weeks 4, 8 and 12. Results: A total of 58 patients (age range: 18-25 years) were included in our study. The number of lesions was significantly lower in the dapsone-treated group at all follow-up visits (P < 0.001). The mean GAAS score in the dapsone-treated group and in the Placebo-treated group decreased, but there was no statistical difference in two groups (P < 0.001). The side-effects on the dapsone-treated group were a mild burning sensation in 7 patients (24.13%), mild erythema of the skin and mild dryness in 4 (13.79%) and 3 (10.34%) cases respectively (P < 0.001). In our study, adverse effects were common but they were minor and tolerable. No clinically significant changes in laboratory parameters were observed (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Dapsone gel was an effective medication for patients who received isotretinoin for acne vulgaris treatment resulting in a significant reduction of the number of lesions. PMID:25250291
Mehta, M; Branford, O A; Rolfe, K J
Though survival rate following severe thermal injuries has improved, the incidence and treatment of scarring have not improved at the same speed. This review discusses the formation of scars and in particular the formation of hypertrophic scars. Further, though there is as yet no gold standard treatment for the prevention or treatment of scarring, a brief overview is included. A number of natural therapeutics have shown beneficial effects both in vivo and in vitro with the potential of becoming clinical therapeutics in the future. These natural therapeutics include both plant-based products such as resveratrol, quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate as examples and includes the non-plant-based therapeutic honey. The review also includes potential mechanism of action for the therapeutics, any recorded adverse events and current administration of the therapeutics used. This review discusses a number of potential 'treatments' that may reduce or even prevent scarring particularly hypertrophic scarring, which is associated with thermal injuries without compromising wound repair.
Ioannides, D; Rigopoulos, D; Katsambas, A
Topical application of isotretinoin and adapalene has proved effective in treating acne vulgaris. Both drugs demonstrate therapeutic advantages and less irritancy over tretinoin, the most widely used treatment for acne. They both act as retinoid agonists, but differ in their affinity profile for nuclear and cytosolic retinoic acid receptors. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of adapalene gel 0.1% and isotretinoin gel 0.05% in the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face, in a randomized open-label clinical trial. Eighty patients were enrolled and were instructed to apply adapalene gel 0.1% or isotretinoin gel 0.05% once daily over a 12-week treatment period. Efficacy determination included noninflammatory and inflammatory lesion counts by the investigator and global evaluation of improvement. Cutaneous tolerance was assessed by determining erythema, scaling and burning with pruritus. Adapalene and isotretinoin gels were highly effective in treating facial acne. Adapalene gel produced greater reductions in noninflammatory and inflammatory lesion counts than did isotretinoin gel, but differences between treatments were not statistically significant. Adapalene gel was significantly better tolerated than isotretinoin gel during the whole treatment period. The two gels studied demonstrated comparable efficacy. When adapalene and isotretinoin were compared, significantly lower skin irritation was noted with adapalene, indicating that adapalene may begin a new era of treatment with low-irritant retinoids.
Min, Jin Hong; Park, Kyung Hye; Choi, Hong Lak; Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Ji Han; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Byung Kook; Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Taek Gu
A suture line placed with the same direction as the relaxed skin tension line leads to good healing, but a suture line with over 30 degrees of angle from the relaxed skin tension line leads to longer healing time and more prominent scarring. W-plasty is widely used to change the direction of the scar or to divide it into several split scars. In this study, we applied W-plasty to patients with facial lacerations in the emergency department. From June 2012 to December 2014, 35 patients underwent simple repair or W-plasty for facial lacerations. Patients in the simple repair group underwent resection following a thermal margin, and the W-plasty group was resected within a pre-designed margin of W-shaped laceration. We assessed prognosis using the Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale (SBSES) after 10 days (short-term) and six months (long-term), respectively, following suture removal. Among 35 patients, 15 (42.9%) underwent simple debridement and 20 (57.1%) underwent W-plasty. In the W-plasty group, there was no difference between short-term and long-term follow-up showing high SBSES, but in the simple debridement group, long-term follow-up SBSES significantly decreased. W-plasty SBSES was higher than simple debridement at short-term as well as long-term follow-up. We experienced good results of direct W-plasty application at six-month long-term follow-up. Therefore, W-plasty application is more effective in reducing scar appearance than a simple debridement method for facial laceration patients with an angle of 30 degrees or more to the relaxed skin tension line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yağmur, Çağlayan; Ak, Sertaç; Engin, Murat Sinan; Evin, Nuh; Kelahmetoğlu, Osman; Akbaş, Hayati; Demir, Ahmet
Open and closed approaches for rhinoplasty have individual advantages and disadvantages; however, the resultant columellar scar of the open approach is directly considered as a disadvantage. This study focuses on the columellar scar awareness and its implications on overall satisfaction of the patients after open rhinoplasty. A total of 91 patients who have undergone open rhinoplasty were included in this study. A written questionnaire algorithm consisting of 4 sequential questions was applied. Except for the first question [Do you have any scar(s) caused by any trauma, operation or any other reason on your face?], every question was answered on a scale from 1 to 5. The respondents were given the 25-question "Modified Body Cathexis Scale (MBCS)"and their scars graded using the "Columellar Scar Assessment Scale" (CSAS). The data were statistically interpreted. Of the 91 open rhinoplasty patients, 12 of them responded with a "yes" to the first question reporting their columellar scars. There was no significant difference with regards to patient satisfaction regarding these patients (p > 0.05). However, those who reported the scar yielded a significantly lower MBCS scores. 9 patients declared that they exerted effort to conceal their scars. Those who concealed their scars and those who did not yielded a significant difference in patient satisfaction. The CSAS scores of those who reported the columellar scar were significantly higher than those who did not. Our study suggests that MBSC can be a valuable tool for determining the impact of outcomes from the patient's standpoint, and awareness of the columellar scar is not related to patient satisfaction but with bodily perception. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Ichioka, Shigeru; Ando, Taichi; Shibata, Masahiro; Sekiya, Naomi; Nakatsuka, Takashi
The oxygen consumption of keloids and hypertrophic scars has never been quantitatively presented, although abnormal metabolic conditions must be associated with their pathophysiology. We invented an original measurement system equipped with a Clark oxygen electrode for ex vivo samples. The measurement of a mouse wound-healing model revealed immature repairing tissues consumed more oxygen than mature tissues. This finding is in accord with the current thinking and supported the validity of our measurement system. The analysis of fresh human samples clearly demonstrated the high oxygen consumption rate of keloid hypertrophic scars and the comparatively low consumption of mature scars. A high oxygen consuming potential, as well as insufficient oxygen diffusion, may possibly contribute to the pathophysiology of keloids and hypertrophic scars.
The Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) team analyzed six major topics: (1) aerodynamics, (2) stability and control, (3) propulsion, (4) environmental factor, (5) airframe structures and materials, and (6) design integration.
... 18 months to fully mature. Will applications of vitamin E to the scar help? Many people believe that there are special healing qualities to vitamin E, aloe vera, or cocoa butter. In fact, there ...
Joish, Vijay N; Boklage, Susan; Lynen, Richard; Schmidt, Anja; Lin, Jay
Acne is a common dermatologic condition that extends into middle age, particularly among women, and is associated with substantial healthcare resource utilization. Drospirenone (DRSP), a synthetic progestin, has anti-androgenic activity, and women using DRSP 3.0 mg/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 0.02 mg as a 24/4 regimen (DRSP/EE-24/4) for contraception also may use it for treatment of moderate acne. The study used a US national healthcare database to assess acne-related healthcare resource utilization among women aged 18-45 years before (pre-index) and after (post-index) initiation of DRSP/EE-24/4. Resource utilization and costs were evaluated by age group (18-25, 26-35, or 36-45 years) and by type of acne medication (systemic antibiotic, topical, or anti-androgen). Data for 1340 women were evaluated. Overall, drug costs, medical costs, and total costs were decreased by 38%, 37%, and 37%, respectively (p<0.0001 for all) between the pre-index and post-index periods; significant differences were evident across age groups and acne medication categories. Total costs were significantly decreased for patients (41%) and healthcare plans (36%; p<0.0001 for both) overall and across age groups and drug classes. Acne-related claims and number of days using acne medication were reduced (by 37% each; p<0.0001 for both). The study was retrospective in design and had a limited follow-up period. Database limitations restricted assessment of medication compliance and adherence. DRSP/EE-24/4 use was associated with substantial reductions in acne-related healthcare resource utilization, and reductions occurred regardless of age or type of acne medication. DRSP/EE-24/4 therefore represents a cost-effective option for the treatment of acne among women using DRSP/EE-24/4 for oral contraception.
Seo, I.; Tseng, S. H.; Cula, G. O.; Bargo, P. R.; Kollias, N.
The activity of certain bacteria in skin is known to correlate to the presence of porphyrins. In particular the presence of coproporphyrin produced by P.acnes inside plugged pores has been correlated to acne vulgaris. Another porphyrin encountered in skin is protoporphyrin IX, which is produced by the body in the pathway for production of heme. In the present work, a fluorescence spectroscopy system was developed to measure the characteristic spectrum and quantify the two types of porphyrins commonly present in human facial skin. The system is comprised of a Xe lamp both for fluorescence excitation and broadband light source for diffuse reflectance measurements. A computer-controlled filter wheel enables acquisition of sequential spectra, first excited by blue light at 405 nm then followed by the broadband light source, at the same location. The diffuse reflectance spectrum was used to correct the fluorescence spectrum due to the presence of skin chromophores, such as blood and melanin. The resulting fluorescence spectra were employed for the quantification of porphyrin concentration in a population of healthy subjects. The results show great variability on the concentration of these porphyrins and further studies are being conducted to correlate them with skin conditions such as inflammation and acne vulgaris.
Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain
To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008- December 2011. Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus.
Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain
Objective: To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008– December 2011. Results: Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. Conclusion: A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus. PMID:26101491
van der Wal, Martijn B A; Vloemans, Jos F P M; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; van de Ven, Peter; van Unen, Ella; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Middelkoop, Esther
Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in relation to the depth, etiology of the burn wound and age of the patient. Burn scars of 474 patients were subjected to a scar assessment protocol 3, 6, and 12 months postburn. Three different age groups were defined (≤5, 5-18, and ≥18 years). The observer part of the patient and observer scar assessment scale revealed a significant (p < 0.001) improvement in scar quality at 12 months compared with the 3- and 6-month data. Predictors for severe scarring are depth of the wound (p < 0.001) and total body surface area burned (p < 0.001). Etiology (p = 0.753) and age (p > 0.230) have no significant influence on scar quality when corrected for sex, total body surface area burned, time, and age or etiology, respectively. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.
Amici, J M; Chaussade, V
Scarring is the response elicited by the skin surface to injury and loss of tissue material. Wound healing takes place through a complex natural repair system consisting of vascular, inflammatory and proliferative phenomena, followed by a remodelling and cell apoptosis phase. This incredible repair system is inevitable, but sometimes unpredictable due to individual differences based on multiple factors. The scar is the objective criterion of a skin surgery, both for the patient and the dermsurgeon. It is therefore crucial to establish with the patient during the preoperative consultation, the size and positioning of the expected scar, taking into account the oncologic, anatomic and surgical constraints. Scars can ideally blend into normal skin, but may also give rise to various abnormalities. We can manage and prevent these abnormalities by mastering initial inflammation, that may induce hyperpigmentation and hypertrophy. Early massage using cortocosteroid topic or anti-inflammatory moisturizers may be effective. Random individual scarring may be minimized by a dynamic personalized accompanying scarring. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.
Son, Daegu; Harijan, Aram
Management of incisional scar is intimately connected to stages of wound healing. The management of an elective surgery patient begins with a thorough informed consent process in which the patient is made aware of personal and clinical circumstances that cannot be modified, such as age, ethnicity, and previous history of hypertrophic scars. In scar prevention, the single most important modifiable factor is wound tension during the proliferative and remodeling phases, and this is determined by the choice of incision design. Traditional incisions most often follow relaxed skin tension lines, but no such lines exist in high surface tension areas. If such incisions are unavoidable, the patient must be informed of this ahead of time. The management of a surgical incision does not end when the sutures are removed. Surgical scar care should be continued for one year. Patient participation is paramount in obtaining the optimal outcome. Postoperative visits should screen for signs of scar hypertrophy and has a dual purpose of continued patient education and reinforcement of proper care. Early intervention is a key to control hyperplastic response. Hypertrophic scars that do not improve by 6 months are keloids and should be managed aggressively with intralesional steroid injections and alternate modalities.
Willows, Brooke M; Ilyas, Muneeb; Sharma, Amit
Burn scars are associated with significant morbidity ranging from contractures, pruritus, and disfigurement to psychosocial impairment. Traditional therapies include silicone gel, compression garments, corticosteroid injections, massage therapy, and surgical procedures, however, newer and advanced therapies for the treatment of burn scars have been developed. Lasers, specifically ablative fractional lasers, show potential for the treatment of burn scars. Both MeSH and keyword searches of the PubMed, Medline and Embase databases were performed and relevant articles were read in full for the compilation of this review. Fifty-one relevant observational studies, clinical trials, and systematic reviews published in English from 2006 to 2016 were reviewed and summarized. Laser therapy is effective for the treatment of burn scar appearance, including measures such as pigmentation, vascularity, pliability, and thickness. Ablative fractional laser therapy, in particular, shows significant potential for the release of contractures allowing for improved range of motion of affected joints. Patients may benefit from the use of lasers in the treatment of burn scars, and the safety profile of lasers allows the benefits of treatment to outweigh the risks. Laser therapy should be included in burn scar treatment protocols as an adjuvant therapy to traditional interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Horswell, B B
The surgery and management of scars is a protracted and staged process that includes preparation of the skin through hygienic measures, scar softening (if indicated) with steroids, massage and pressure dressings, skilled execution of the surgical plan, and thorough postoperative wound care. This process generally covers a 1-year period for the various stages mentioned. Many general host and local skin factors will directly affect the final revision result. The two most important indirect factors that the surgeon must endeavor to control are optimal patient preparation and cutaneous health, and patient compliance with, and an ability to carry out, those wound care measures that the surgeon prescribes. Keloid and burn contracture scars represent two entities that are complicated and challenging to treat owing to their abnormal morphophysiologic features. Management of these scars is prolonged, and the patient must understand that the ultimate result will usually be a compromise. New grafting techniques, such as cultured autodermal grafts, offer improved initial management of burn wounds that may subsequently optimize scar revision in these patients. Keloids, and to a lesser extent hypertrophic scars, require steroid injections, pressure treatment, careful surgery, and protracted wound support and pressure treatment (exceeding 6 months) after surgery.
Vocal fold scarring still remains a therapeutic challenge, with the most problematic issue being the histologic changes that are primarily responsible for altering the viscoelasticity of the vocal fold mucosa. Optimal treatment for vocal fold scarring has not yet been established. To restore or regenerate damaged vocal folds, it is important to investigate the changes to the layer structure of the lamina propria. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine may provide new strategies for the prevention and treatment of vocal fold scarring. Recent developments in this field are reviewed in the present article. Histologic studies have revealed that hyaluronic acid, fibronectin, decorin, and various other extracellular matrix components, as well as collagen, may contribute to determining the vibratory properties of the vocal fold mucosa. Changes of these molecules are thought to affect the viscoelasticity of the scarred vocal folds. Based on such histologic findings, innovative approaches have been developed, including administration of hyaluronic acid into injured or scarred vocal folds. Other strategies that have recently shown advances include growth factor therapy and cell therapy using stem cells or mature fibroblasts. The effects of these new treatments have not fully been confirmed clinically, but there seems to be great therapeutic potential in such regenerative medical strategies. Recent research has revealed the detailed histologic and rheologic changes related to vocal fold scarring. Based on these findings, various new therapeutic strategies have been developed in animal models using tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, no clinical trials have been performed, and more studies are necessary to establish the optimum modality.
Mushtaq, Jameel; Walker, Abigail; Hunter, Ben
High-pressure paint injection injuries are relatively rare industrial accidents and almost exclusively occur on the non-dominant hand. A rarely documented complication of these injuries is the formation of a foreign body granuloma. We report a case of a 33-year-old man presenting with extensive facial scarring and progressive right paranasal swelling 7 years after a high-pressure paint injury. After imaging investigations, an excision of the mass and revision of scarring was performed. Access to the mass was gained indirectly through existing scarring over the nose to ensure an aesthetic result. Histological analysis revealed a florid granulomatous foreign body reaction to retained paint. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a facial high-pressure paint injury with consequent formation of a foreign body granuloma. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Yazmalar, Levent; Çelepkolu, Tahsin; Batmaz, İbrahim; Sariyildiz, Mustafa Akif; Sula, Bilal; Alpayci, Mahmut; An, İsa; Burkan, Yahya Kemal; Uçak, Haydar; Çevik, Remzi
This study aims to investigate the frequency of fibromyalgia syndrome and to specify fibromyalgia syndrome-associated clinical symptoms in patients with acne vulgaris. Eighty-eight patients (28 males, 60 females; mean age 23.2±5.1 years; range 18 to 40 years) with acne vulgaris and age, sex- and body mass index-similar 76 healthy controls (14 males, 62 females; mean age 24.5±2.9 years; range 18 to 35 years) were included. Acne vulgaris was evaluated by using the Global Acne Scale, while Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to evaluate anxiety. Fibromyalgia-associated pain, sleep disturbance, anxiety, and menstrual cycle disturbance were significantly more frequent in patients with acne vulgaris than controls. Also, the severity of anxiety and the number of tender points were significantly higher in the acne vulgaris patients than controls. This study indicates that patients with acne vulgaris have increased frequency of fibromyalgia syndrome than healthy controls (21.6% versus 5.3%, respectively).
Shin, Thuzar M; Bordeaux, Jeremy S
Many surgeons recommend postoperative scar massage to improve aesthetic outcome, although scar massage regimens vary greatly. To review the regimens and efficacy of scar massage. PubMed was searched using the following key words: "massage" in combination with "scar," or "linear," "hypertrophic," "keloid," "diasta*," "atrophic." Information on study type, scar type, number of patients, scar location, time to onset of massage therapy, treatment protocol, treatment duration, outcomes measured, and response to treatment was tabulated. Ten publications including 144 patients who received scar massage were examined in this review. Time to treatment onset ranged from after suture removal to longer than 2 years. Treatment protocols ranged from 10 minutes twice daily to 30 minutes twice weekly. Treatment duration varied from one treatment to 6 months. Overall, 65 patients (45.7%) experienced clinical improvement based on Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale score, Vancouver Scar Scale score, range of motion, pruritus, pain, mood, depression, or anxiety. Of 30 surgical scars treated with massage, 27 (90%) had improved appearance or Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale score. The evidence for the use of scar massage is weak, regimens used are varied, and outcomes measured are neither standardized nor reliably objective, although its efficacy appears to be greater in postsurgical scars than traumatic or postburn scars. Although scar massage is anecdotally effective, there is scarce scientific data in the literature to support it. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A single-center, randomized double-blind, parallel-group study to examine the safety and efficacy of 3mg drospirenone/0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol compared with placebo in the treatment of moderate truncal acne vulgaris.
Palli, Ma Beatrice Alora; Reyes-Habito, Claire Marie; Lima, Xinaida T; Kimball, Alexa B
Acne is a common disease of the face, chest and back, initially triggered by androgens. 3mg Drospirenone (DRSP)/0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol (EE), an oral contraceptive and antiandrogen, has been effective in treatment studies of facial acne in women, but investigations on its efficacy for truncal acne are limited.
In this study, we sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 3mg DRSP/0.02 mg EE versus placebo in the treatment of truncal acne in women.
Females, age 18-45, with 10 to 50 truncal acne lesions, were randomized in this double-blind study to 3mg DRSP/0.02 mg EE (n=15) or placebo (n=10) administered in a 24/4 regimen given for 24 weeks. Noninflammatory, inflammatory and total truncal acne lesion counts were assessed from baseline to endpoint and mean percent change compared. Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) and Subject Global Assessment (SGA) were assessed based on scoring scales, and the percentage of subjects rated as success with clear (score 0) or almost clear (score 1) were computed.
The 3mg DRSP/0.02 mg EE group had significant reductions in mean percent change in noninflammatory, inflammatory and total lesions by 52.1%, 53.2%, and 57.3%, respectively, compared to placebo with -9.2%, 18.2% and 17.0 %, respectively, by week 24 (p = 0.02, 0.05 and 0.02, respectively). The percentage of subjects on 3mg DRSP/ 0.02 mg EE rated as treatment success were 53.3% and 60% based on IGA and SGA respectively. The regimen was also well tolerated by patients.
3mg DRSP/ 0.02 mg EE is a safe and significantly effective treatment for moderate truncal acne.
Pariser, David; Bucko, Alicia; Fried, Richard; Jarratt, Michael T; Kempers, Steven; Kircik, Leon; Lucky, Anne W; Rafal, Elyse; Rendon, Marta; Weiss, Jonathan; Wilson, David C; Rossi, Ana Beatris; Ramaswamy, Ratna; Nighland, Marge
Topical tretinoin and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) are often prescribed in combination for the treatment of acne vulgaris; however, these products have not traditionally been administered simultaneously because of the potential for tretinoin degradation by BPO as well as the instability of tretinoin in daylight. The primary objective of this randomized, investigator-blinded, 12-week, phase 4 trial was to determine non-inferiority of a once-daily morning combination regimen of 5% BPO wash + tretinoin gel microsphere (TGM) 0.04% pump versus a sequential regimen (BPO in the morning/TGM in the evening) in patients > or = 12 years old with moderate facial acne vulgaris. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in total acne lesions; the primary safety endpoint was the change in cutaneous irritation scores. The 247 participants (mean age: 18.5 years) were randomized to either the morning/morning regimen (n = 123) or the morning/evening regimen (n = 124). The morning/morning regimen was determined to be non-inferior to the morning/evening regimen in reduction of total acne lesions. The tolerability of both regimens was comparable. The morning/morning regimen is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with moderate acne vulgaris.
Chen, Baoguo; Song, Huifeng; Gao, Quanwen; Xu, Minghuo; Chai, Jiake
Facial traumatic events are commonly encountered in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Primary reconstruction is a reliable procedure with function and aesthetic considerations. We conduct a retrospective study of the experience of reconstructing facial traumatic defects in the first stage. One hundred and thirty-two cases (aged 18-65) with facial traumatic events were recruited in the study from 2008 to 2014. Facial traumatic events included injured soft tissue, maxillofacial fractures and facial nerve rupture, which were repaired primarily. After primary reconstruction, encouraging functional and aesthetic outcomes were attained. Ten cases were re-operated to reconstruct partial nasal defect. Four patients who had trouble with disabled occluding relations sought help from dentists. Inconspicuous scar and function restoration were presented. Facial wounds should be reconstructed in the first stage as far as possible. Then, satisfactory functional and aesthetic results can be achieved. However, combined injury should be carefully considered in those traumatic cases before we carry out the reconstructive surgery on the face. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rochet, Jean-Michel; Zaoui, Affif
Burn rehabilitation main goal is to minimize the consequences of hypertrophic scars and concomitant contractures. The treatment principles rely on the association of joint posture, continuous pressure completed with range of motion to prevent joint fusion (which happens to adults but not to children). Throughout the different treatment phases and wound evolution, reassessment is necessary to review rehabilitation goals and activities. During the acute phase the alternance of positioning is prioritized in order to keep the affected extremities in antideformity position using splint or other devices. At the rehabilitation phase, treatment is focussed on active/passive range of motion (skin posture) strengthening exercises and use of dynamic splint is introduced to correct contractures. After their discharge home, patients benefit from outpatient rehab until scar maturation (approximately 18 months). The treatment consists mainly on active/passive range of motion, scar massage, strengthening exercise and endurance retraining. Also modalities (such as thermal bath and high pressure water spray) are used to address itching problems and for scar softening. Finally, reconstructive surgery can be performed to correct excessive scarring or joint contracture for better functional or cosmetic outcome.
The 8th American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) was held July 10-14, 2016 in Long Beach California, marking the first time the meeting has been held on the west coast. The meeting was coordinated by the Neutron Scattering Society of America (NSSA), and attracted 285 attendees. The meeting was chaired by NSSA vice president Patrick Woodward (the Ohio State University) assisted by NSSA president Stephan Rosenkranz (Argonne National Laboratory) together with the local organizing chair, Brent Fultz (California Institute of Technology). As in past years the Materials Research Society assisted with planning, logistics and operation of the conference. The sciencemore » program was divided into the following research areas: (a) Sources, Instrumentation, and Software; (b) Hard Condensed Matter; (c) Soft Matter; (d) Biology; (e) Materials Chemistry and Materials for Energy; (f) Engineering and Industrial Applications; and (g) Neutron Physics.« less
Lee, W L; Shalita, A R; Suntharalingam, K; Fikrig, S M
The chemoattraction of Propionibacterium acnes lipase for neutrophils and the effect of lipase inhibitor and two antibiotic agents on the chemotaxis were evaluated. Of the various fractions tested, partially purified lipase (fraction 2c) was the most active cytotaxin produced by P. acnes. Serum mediators were not required for the generation of chemotaxis by lipase in vitro. Diisopropyl phosphofluoridate at low concentration (10(-4) mM) completely inhibited lipase activity as well as polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis generated by lipase. Tetracycline hydrochloride and erythromycin base at concentrations of 10(-1) mM and 1 mM, respectively, caused 100% inhibition of PMN migration toward lipase or zymosan-activated serum. The inhibiting activity of the antibiotics was directed against cells independently of any effect on lipase. Chemotaxis by P. acnes lipase suggests a wider role for this enzyme in the inflammatory process and the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Images PMID:7054130
Jahns, Anika C; Eilers, Hinnerk; Alexeyev, Oleg A
Propionibacterium acnes is a well-known commensal of the human skin connected to acne vulgaris and joint infections. It is extensively studied in planktonic cultures in the laboratory settings but occurs naturally in biofilms. In this study we have developed an in vitro biofilm model of P. acnes and studied growth features, matrix composition, matrix penetration by fluorescent-labeled antibiotics as well as gene expression. Antibiotic susceptibility of biofilms was studied and could be enhanced by increased glucose concentrations. Biofilm cells were characterized by up-regulated stress-induced genes and up-regulation of genes coding for the potential virulence-associated CAMP factors. P. acnes can generate persister cells showing a reversible tolerance to 50 fold MIC of common antibiotics. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hoffman, Lauren K; Bhatia, Neal; Zeichner, Joshua; Kircik, Leon H
Topical treatment is the mainstay of acne therapy. The most commonly prescribed topical medications for acne include benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, and retinoids. Despite their effectiveness in treating mild to moderate acne vulgaris, these topical medications are found to be irritating, and are historically associated with poor tolerability and diminished patient adherence. Thus, choosing the right formulation that will be effective and well tolerated is essential. Novel formulations that optimize drug concentration and utilize improved delivery vehicles have helped to enhance the tolerability and efficacy, and allow for less frequent application or co-application of drugs that were previously considered incompatible. This article will review the goals of topical therapy for the treatment of acne, in addition to common therapies and their challenges. Advanced formulations and combination formulations of benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, and tretinoin will also be discussed. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(6 Suppl):s6-10.
Kelly, A. Paul; Sampson, Darlene D.
The beneficial effects of isotretinoin (Accutane) on severe nodulocystic acne and significant clinical improvement with prolonged remission are well documented in the literature; however, the subjects in these clinical studies are invariably white. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of black patients with recalcitrant nodulocystic acne to isotretinoin treatment. Ten black patients, ranging in age from 17 to 34 years, were treated for nodulocystic acne with 1 mg/kg/d of isotretinoin for 20 weeks and followed for an additional six months. Of the ten patients, eight adhered to the treatment regimen and were still in remission six months after completion of isotretinoin therapy. The differences and similarities seen between black patients and white patients with nodulocystic acne are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:2963137
Nakamura, Teruko; Furukawa, Asuka; Uchida, Keisuke; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Tamura, Tomoki; Sakonishi, Daisuke; Wada, Yuriko; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Ishige, Yuki; Minami, Junko; Akashi, Takumi
Background Sarcoidosis is caused by Th1-type immune responses to unknown agents, and is linked to the infectious agent Propionibacterium acnes. Many strains of P. acnes isolated from sarcoid lesions cause intracellular infection and autophagy may contribute to the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. We examined whether P. acnes induces autophagy. Methods Three cell lines from macrophages (Raw264.7), mesenchymal cells (MEF), and epithelial cells (HeLa) were infected by viable or heat-killed P. acnes (clinical isolate from sarcoid lymph node) at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100 or 1000 for 1 h. Extracellular bacteria were killed by washing and culturing infected cells with antibiotics. Samples were examined by colony assay, electron-microscopy, and fluorescence-microscopy with anti-LC3 and anti-LAMP1 antibodies. Autophagy-deficient (Atg5-/-) MEF cells were also used. Results Small and large (≥5 μm in diameter) LC3-positive vacuoles containing few or many P. acnes cells (LC3-positive P. acnes) were frequently found in the three cell lines when infected by viable P. acnes at MOI 1000. LC3-positive large vacuoles were mostly LAMP1-positive. A few small LC3-positive/LAMP1-negative vacuoles were consistently observed in some infected cells for 24 h postinfection. The number of LC3-positive P. acnes was decreased at MOI 100 and completely abolished when heat-killed P. acnes was used. LC3-positive P. acnes was not found in autophagy-deficient Atg5-/- cells where the rate of infection was 25.3 and 17.6 times greater than that in wild-type Atg5+/+ cells at 48 h postinfection at MOI 100 and 1000, respectively. Electron-microscopic examination revealed bacterial cells surrounded mostly by a single-membrane including the large vacuoles and sometimes a double or multi-layered membrane, with occasional undigested bacterial cells in ruptured late endosomes or in the cytoplasm. Conclusion Autophagy was induced by intracellular P. acnes infection and contributed to intracellular
Lavergne, V; Malo, M; Gaudelli, C; Laprade, M; Leduc, S; Laflamme, P; Rouleau, D M
The clinical significance of a positive culture to Propionibacterium acnes in orthopedic specimens remains unclear, whether about its role as a contaminant or a pathogen, or its impact as a coinfectant. Therefore, we performed a retrospective study to provide a more accurate description of the clinical impact of P. acnes in an orthopedic population aiming to determine: 1) if there is a clinical difference between P. acnes infection and contamination? 2) If there is a clinical difference between P. acnes monoinfection, and coinfection. There is a clinical difference between P. acnes infection and contamination. Patients were selected over a five-year period, and those with a minimum of one positive culture for P. acnes, from any intraoperative orthopedic tissue sample, were included in the study. P. acnes infection was defined as the isolation of P. acnes from≥2 specimens, or in only one specimen, in the presence of typical perioperative findings and/or local signs of infection. A total of 68 patients had a positive P. acnes culture, 35 of which were considered to be infected. The infections affected mostly males (29/35-83%), occurred mostly in shoulders (22/35-63%), and at a site already containing an orthopedic implant (32/35-91%). Local inflammatory signs were present in half of the cases when an infection was diagnosed. Coinfection with other pathogens was present in 31% of patients (11/35). When comparing patients coinfected with P. acnes, and those who were monoinfected, the latter presented less often with local inflammatory signs. Recurrence rate was 24% (8/35) and the only risk factor for recurrence was the presence of a monoinfection. This study confirms the pathogenicity of P. acnes in an orthopedic population, as it is present in multiple samples in the same patient, and because it is present in cultures from cases with clinical recurrence. Our study showed that monoinfections differ from coinfections mainly by their higher risk of recurrence
Lynn, Darren D; Umari, Tamara; Dunnick, Cory A; Dellavalle, Robert P
Importance Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds) remains lacking. Objective To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds) and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design Database summary study. Setting Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons) associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous opportunities for enhanced patient care. To that end, we highlight some of the effective and promising treatments currently available and address important factors, such as sex, nationality, genetics, pathophysiology, and diet, as they relate to acne vulgaris in late adolescence. PMID:26955297
Chen, Zhe; Cao, Peng; Zhou, Zezhu; Yuan, Ye; Jiao, Yucheng; Zheng, Yuehuan
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), an important opportunistic anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium, causes bone and joint infections, discitis and spondylodiscitis. Accumulated evidence suggested that this microbe can colonise inside intervertebral discs without causing symptoms of discitis. Epidemiological investigation shows that the prevalence ranges from 13 % to 44 %. Furthermore, colonisation by P. acnes inside nonpyogenic intervertebral discs is thought to be one pathogen causing sciatica, Modic changes and nonspecific low back pain. Specially, patients can attain significant relief of low back pain, amelioration of Modic changes and alleviation of sciatica after antibiotic therapy, indicating the role of P. acnes in these pathological changes. However, until now, there were hypotheses only to explain problems such as how P. acnes access intervertebral discs and what the exact pathological mechanism it employs during its latent infection period. In addition, research regarding diagnostic procedures and treatment strategies were also rare. Overall, the prevalence and possible pathological role that P. acnes plays inside nonpyogenic intervertebral discs is summarised in this paper.
Horneff, John G; Hsu, Jason E; Voleti, Pramod B; O'Donnell, Judith; Huffman, G Russell
Recent studies have identified Propionibacterium acnes as the causal organism in an increasing number of postoperative shoulder infections. Most reports have found a high rate of P acnes infection after open surgery, particularly shoulder arthroplasty. However, there are limited data regarding P acnes infections after shoulder arthroscopy. We prospectively collected data on all shoulder arthroscopies performed by the senior author from January 1, 2009, until April 1, 2013. Cultures were taken in all revision shoulder arthroscopy cases performed for pain, stiffness, or weakness. In addition, 2 cultures were taken from each of a cohort of 32 primary shoulder arthroscopy cases without concern for infection to determine the false-positive rate. A total of 1,591 shoulder arthroscopies were performed during this period, 68 (4.3%) of which were revision procedures performed for pain, stiffness, or weakness. A total of 20 revision arthroscopies (29.4%) had positive culture findings, and 16 (23.5%) were positive for P acnes. In the control group, 1 patient (3.2%) had P acnes growth. The rate of P acnes infection in patients undergoing revision shoulder arthroscopy is higher than previously published and should be considered in cases characterized by refractory postoperative pain and stiffness. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vyas, Amber; Kumar Sonker, Avinesh
Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of acne with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) makes direct contact with the target site before entering the systemic circulation which reduces the systemic side effect of the parenteral or oral administration of drug. The objective of the present review is to discuss the conventional delivery systems available for acne, their drawbacks, and limitations. The advantages, disadvantages, and outcome of using various carrier-based delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and so forth, are explained. This paper emphasizes approaches to overcome the drawbacks and limitations associated with the conventional system and the advances and application that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, offering the possibility of simplified dosing regimen that may improve treatment outcomes using novel delivery system. PMID:24688376
Valente Duarte de Sousa, Isabel Cristina
Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease worldwide; yet, current treatment options, although effective, are associated with unwanted side effects, chronicity, relapses and recurrences. The adequate control of the four pathogenic mechanisms, involved in the appearance of acne lesions, is paramount to treatment success. The authors discuss and evaluate the pathogenic pathways related to the mechanisms of action of novel molecules, which are currently under investigation for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The manuscript is based on comprehensive searches made through PubMed, GoogleScholar and ClinicalTrial.gov, using different combination of key words, which include acne vulgaris, pathogenesis, treatment, sebogenesis and Propionibacterium acnes. In the near future, more effective treatments with fewer side effects are expected. The use of topical antiandrogens, acetylcholine inhibitors and PPAR modulators seem to be promising options for controlling sebum production. Retinoic acid metabolism-blocking agents and IL-1α inhibitors have the potential to become legitimate alternative options to retinoid therapy in the management of infundibular dyskeratosis. Indeed, the authors believe that there will likely be a decline in the use of antibiotics for controlling P. acnes colonization and targeting the inflammation cascade.
Stewart, Thomas Jonathan; Bazergy, Carl
Background : Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory skin disorder with not as yet fully understood pathogenesis. In this controlled study, we assessed acne vulgaris patients for several possible pathogenic factors such as vitamin D deficiency, vegan diet, increased body mass index (BMI) and positive anti-transglutaminase antibody. Methods : We screened 10 years of records at a family medicine clinic for patients diagnosed with acne vulgaris. In eligible subjects, we collected data regarding 25-hydroxylvitamin D levels, BMI, dietary preference and serum IgA tissue transglutaminase levels. Controls were age- (+/- 12 months) and sex-matched patients seen during the study period without a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Results : 453 patients were given a diagnosis of acne vulgaris during the study period. Compared with controls, we found significant associations between vitamin D deficiency (<50nmol/L), and/or positive transglutaminase antibody level (>4.0U/mL) and a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Conclusions : Our study adds important information to the current body of literature in pursuit of elucidating the pathogenesis of this complex multifactorial disease.
Al-Salama, Zaina T; Deeks, Emma D
Dapsone 7.5% gel (Aczone ® ) is indicated for the once-daily topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients aged ≥12 years. Dapsone is a sulfone antibacterial with anti-inflammatory actions, which are thought to be largely responsible for its efficacy in treating acne vulgaris. In two phase III trials of 12 weeks' duration in patients aged ≥12 years with moderate acne vulgaris, once-daily dapsone 7.5% gel reduced acne severity (as per the Global Acne Assessment Score) and lesion counts versus vehicle. The benefits of dapsone 7.5% gel over vehicle were seen as early as week 2 for inflammatory lesion counts, and from week 4 or 8 for other outcomes. Dapsone 7.5% gel was well tolerated, with a low incidence of treatment-related adverse events, with the majority of adverse events being administration-site related and mild or moderate in severity. Thus, dapsone 7.5% gel is an effective and well tolerated option for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients aged ≥12 years, with the convenience of once-daily application.
Mokos, Zrinka Bukvić; Jović, Anamaria; Grgurević, Lovorka; Dumić-Čule, Ivo; Kostović, Krešimir; Čeović, Romana; Marinović, Branka
Abnormal scarring and its accompanying esthetic, functional, and psychological sequelae still pose significant challe nges. To date, there is no satisfactory prevention or treatment option for hypertrophic scars (HSs), which is mostly due to not completely comprehending the mechanisms underlying their formation. That is why the apprehension of regular and controlled physiological processes of scar formation is of utmost importance when facing hypertrophic scarring, its pathophysiology, prevention, and therapeutic approach. When treating HSs and choosing the best treatment and prevention modality, physicians can choose from a plethora of therapeutic options and many commercially available products, among which currently there is no efficient option that can successfully overcome impaired skin healing. This article reviews current therapeutic approach and emerging therapeutic strategies for the management of HSs, which should be individualized, based on an evaluation of the scar itself, patients’ expectations, and practical, evidence-based guidelines. Clinicians are encouraged to combine various prevention and treatment modalities where combination therapy that includes steroid injections, 5-fluorouracil, and pulsed-dye laser seems to be the most effective. On the other hand, the current therapeutic options are usually empirical and their results are unreliable and unpredictable. Therefore, there is an unmet need for an effective, targeted therapy and prevention, which would be based on an action or a modulation of a particular factor with clarified mechanism of action that has a beneficial effect on wound healing. As the extracellular matrix has a crucial role in cellular and extracellular events that lead to pathological scarring, targeting its components mostly by regulating bone morphogenetic proteins may throw up new therapeutic approach for reduction or prevention of HSs with functionally and cosmetically acceptable outcome. PMID:28676850
Schulz, Alexandra; Fuchs, Paul Christian; Rothermundt, Irene; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Rosenberg, Lior; Shoham, Yaron; Oberländer, Henrik; Schiefer, Jennifer
Facial burns occur frequently and depending on the injured skin layers often heal with scars which may cause permanent functional and cosmetic sequelae. Preservation of the sensitive facial skin layers, especially of the dermis is essential for scarless epithelialisation. Enzymatic debridement of deep thermal burns has already been shown to assist with preserving viable dermis. However, up to date, there are no published reports on wound healing and in the long term aesthetic outcome after enzymatic debridement of facial burns. Therefore we performed a-single centre clinical trial that included 26 subjects aged 18-78 years with facial burns clinically evaluated as deep dermal or deeper. Burns were treated either with enzymatic debridement or excisional surgical debridement. Then we compared both groups regarding debridement selectivity, wound closure and scar quality after more than 12 months. Enzymatic debridement significantly reduced time to complete wound closure after admission (19.85 days versus 42.23 days, p=0.002), and after enzymatic eschar removal (18.92 days versus 35.62 days, p=0.042). The number of procedures to complete debridement were significantly lower in the enzymatic debridement group (1.00 versus 1.77, p=0.003). 77% of facial burns that had been debrided enzymatically were found to be more superficially burned than initially estimated. Wounds undergoing autografting of any size were significantly reduced by enzymatic debridement (15% versus 77%, p=0.002). Scar quality after enzymatic debridement was superior compared to surgical debridement after 12 months regarding pigmentation (p=0.016), thickness (p=0.16), relief (p=0.10), pliability (p=0.01), surface area (p=0.004), stiffness (p=0.023), thickness (0.011) and scar irregularity (p=0.011). Regarding erythema and melanin, viscoelasticity and pliability, trans-epidermal water loss or laser tissue oxygen saturation, haemoglobin level and microcirculation we found no significant differences for
Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.
Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries. PMID:22550459
Hübner, Claudia; Wiesendahl, Wiebke; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Stangier, Ulrich; Kathmann, Norbert; Buhlmann, Ulrike
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by preoccupation with perceived flaws in one's own appearance. Several risk factors such as aesthetic perceptual sensitivity have been proposed to explain BDD's unique symptomatology. Although research on facial discrimination is limited so far, the few existing studies have produced mixed results. Thus, the purpose of this study was to further examine facial discrimination in BDD. We administered a facial discrimination paradigm, which allows to assess the ability to identify slight to strong facial changes (e.g., hair loss, acne) when presented with an original (unmodified) facial image, relative to a changed (modified) facial image. The experiment was administered in individuals with BDD, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and mentally healthy controls (32 per group, respectively). Overall, groups did not differ with respect to their ability to correctly identify facial aberrations when presented with other people's faces. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of enhanced general aesthetic perceptual sensitivity in individuals with (vs. without) BDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Unno, Mizuki; Cho, Otomi; Sugita, Takashi
The common skin disease acne vulgaris is caused by Propionibacterium acnes. A lipase secreted by this microorganism metabolizes sebum and the resulting metabolites evoke inflammation in human skin. The antifungal drug ketoconazole inhibits P. acnes lipase activity. We previously showed that the drug also inhibits the growth of P. acnes. Thus, ketoconazole may serve as an alternative treatment for acne vulgaris, which is important because the number of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes strains has been increasing. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Auffret, N; Claudel, J-P; Leccia, M-T; Poli, F; Farhi, D; Dréno, B
Acne is a concern in adults, especially in women. The specifications in current acne grading systems are not applicable to this particular population. To develop and validate a measurement tool (AFAST: adult female acne scoring tool) for acne in women by taking into account the specific locations of adult female acne, and to evaluate the impact of the photographic modalities on rating reproducibility. Six experts in dermatology rated pictures of 54 women with a phototype from I to IV during two sessions, with an interval of 24 h. They rated the acne severity on the face using the GEA scale (Score 1) together with a new scale to assess acne on the mandibular zone (Score 2). Pictures of 30 women were taken using a standardized photographic device; pictures of the other 24 women were taken by their own dermatologists during daily practice. At session 1, the inter-rater's reproducibility was good for Score 1 with an ICC of 0.77 [0.72-0.83], and excellent for Score 2 with an ICC of 0.87 [0.82-0.91]. Between sessions 1 and 2, the mean intra-rater's reproducibility was excellent for both scores with an ICC of 0.88 [0.84-0.92] for Score 1, and an ICC of 0.87 [0.78-0.92] for Score 2. Photographic modalities had no significant effect on the inter- and intra-rater's reproducibility. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that AFAST can accurately rate acne severity in women. It is a promising, easy-to-use tool for both daily practice and clinical investigation. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Potgieser, Adriaan R E; van Dijk, J Marc C; Elting, Jan Willem J; de Koning-Tijssen, Marina A J
Facial tics and spasms are socially incapacitating, but effective treatment is often available. The clinical picture is sufficient for distinguishing between the different diseases that cause this affliction.We describe three cases of patients with facial tics or spasms: one case of tics, which are familiar to many physicians; one case of blepharospasms; and one case of hemifacial spasms. We discuss the differential diagnosis and the treatment possibilities for facial tics and spasms. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, because of the associated social incapacitation. Botulin toxin should be considered as a treatment option for facial tics and a curative neurosurgical intervention should be considered for hemifacial spasms.
... to many different facial muscles. These muscles control facial expression. The coordinated activity of this nerve and these ... involves a weakness of the muscles responsible for facial expression and side-to-side eye movement. Moebius syndrome ...
Kim, Jin Sam; Hong, Joon Pio; Choi, Jong Woo; Seo, Dong Kyo; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Ho Seong
Silicone gel sheeting has been introduced to prevent scarring, but objective evidence for its usefulness in scar healing is limited. Therefore, the authors' objective was to examine the effectiveness of silicone gel sheeting by randomly applying it to only unilateral scars from a bilateral hallux valgus surgery with symmetrical closure. In a prospective randomized, blinded, intraindividual comparison study, the silicone gel sheeting was applied to 1 foot of a hallux valgus incision scar (an experiment group) for 12 weeks upon removal of the stitches, whereas the symmetrical scar from the other foot was left untreated (a control group). The scars were evaluated at 4 and 12 weeks after the silicon sheet application. The Vancouver Scar Scale was used to measure the vascularity, pigmentation, pliability, height, and length of the scars. Adverse effects were also evaluated, and they included pain, itchiness, rash, erythema, and skin softening. At weeks 4 and 12, the experiment group scored significantly better on the Vancouver Scar Scale in all items, except length (P < .05 for all except the length of scar), compared with the control group. In all items, adverse effects of the experiment group were significantly lower than those of the control group at week 12, suggesting that direct attachment of the silicone sheet does not cause adverse effects (P < .05). To the authors' knowledge, this is one of the first models to minimize bias related to scar evaluation by using symmetrical scars. The early silicone sheet application did show a significant improvement in prevention of postoperative scarring.
Hallam, M J; McNaught, K; Thomas, A N; Nduka, C
Scarring is a significant clinical problem following dermal injury. However, scars are not a single describable entity and huge phenotypic variability is evident. Quantitative, reproducible inter-observer scar assessment is essential to monitor wound healing and the effect of scar treatments. Scar colour, reflecting the biological processes occurring within a scar, is integral to any assessment. The objective of this study was to analyse scar colour using the non-invasive Eykona® Wound Measurement System (the System) as compared against the Manchester Scar Scale (MSS). Three dimensional images of 43 surgical scars were acquired post-operatively from 35 patients at 3-6 months and the colour difference between the scar and surrounding skin was calculated (giving ΔLab values). The colourimetric results were then compared against subjective MSS gradings. A significant difference in ΔLab values between MSS gradings of "slight mismatch" and "obvious mismatch" (p<0.025) and between "obvious mismatch" and "gross mismatch" (p<0.05) were noted. The System creates objective, reproducible data, without the need for any specialist expertise and compares favourably with the MSS. Greater scar numbers are required to further clinically validate this device--however, with this potential to calculate scar length, width, volume and other characteristics, it could provide a complete, objective, quantitative record of scarring throughout the wound-healing process. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yanhan; Kuo, Sherwin; Shu, Muya; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Dai, Ashley; Two, Aimee; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming
Increasing evidence demonstrates that commensal microorganisms in the human skin microbiome help fight pathogens and maintain homeostasis of the microbiome. However, it is unclear how these microorganisms maintain biological balance when one of them overgrows. The overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a commensal skin bacterium, has been associated with the progression of acne vulgaris. Our results demonstrate that skin microorganisms can mediate fermentation of glycerol, which is naturally produced in skin, to enhance their inhibitory effects on P. acnes growth. The skin microorganisms, most of which have been identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), in the microbiome of human fingerprints can ferment glycerol and create inhibition zones to repel a colony of overgrown P. acnes. Succinic acid, one of four short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) detected in fermented media by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, effectively inhibits the growth of P. acnes in vitro and in vivo. Both intralesional injection and topical application of succinic acid to P. acnes-induced lesions markedly suppress the P. acnes-induced inflammation in mice. We demonstrate for the first time that bacterial members in the skin microbiome can undergo fermentation to rein in the overgrowth of P. acnes. The concept of bacterial interference between P. acnes and S. epidermidis via fermentation can be applied to develop probiotics against acne vulgaris and other skin diseases. In addition, it will open up an entirely new area of study for the biological function of the skin microbiome in promoting human health. PMID:24265031
Lekwuttikarn, Ramrada; Tempark, Therdpong; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Wananukul, Siriwan
The high prevalence of acne vulgaris in teenagers has increased comorbidities. Lasers offer alternative options for acne treatment because they have rapid action, low systemic adverse effects, and do not require everyday treatment. To study the efficacy and patients' satisfaction of 595-nm pulse dye laser (PDL) treatment of acne vulgaris and acne erythema in adolescents and early adulthood, we designed a blocked-randomized, split-faced 595-nm PDL (fluence 8 J/cm 3 pulse duration 10 ms, spot size 7 mm, 2 session every 2 weeks) study in patients with mild to moderate acne by comparing the laser-treated and non-treated side. The acne lesion counts, acne erythema grading, and acne severity grading were evaluated at baseline and 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Thirty patients were recruited. The results showed no statistically significant difference except the papule count at week 4 which was -1.828 on the treated side and 0.103 on the non-treated side of the face, P-value 0.0018. There was no statistically significant difference of acne severity grading and acne erythema grading between both sides of the face. The mean scores of patients' satisfaction on the laser-treated side were 75, 81, and 81%, respectively. The PDL treatment in this study reveals no significant improvement in acne therapy; however, the patients were satisfied with this laser treatment. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.
Tan, H-H; Tan, A W H; Barkham, T; Yan, X-Y; Zhu, M
There are few studies on the prevalence of acne vulgaris among Asian teenagers. To determine the epidemiology of acne in teenagers in Singapore. A community-based cross-sectional study in 1045 adolescents aged 13-19 years. Of these respondents, 88% identified themselves as having acne. Eight hundred and six of these respondents were examined by a dermatologist, and 51.4% were classified as having mild acne, 40% moderate acne and 8.6% severe acne. Isolation of Propionibacterium acnes was attempted in 262 subjects. Cultures were positive in 174 subjects, giving an isolation rate of 66.4%. Antibiotic-resistant strains of P. acnes were detected in 26 isolates (14.9%). Eleven of these 26 subjects (42%) had previously been treated or were presently on antibiotic treatment for acne, but the other 58% of students who had antibiotic-resistant strains of P. acnes did not give a history of prior antibiotic therapy. Teenagers expressed psychological distress over acne, and believed that hormonal factors, diet and hygiene were important factors in causing acne. There is a need for accessible, accurate education on acne and its appropriate treatment.
Wang, Yanhan; Kao, Ming-Shan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Marito, Shinta; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming
Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid) were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne. PMID:27834859
Wang, Yanhan; Kao, Ming-Shan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Marito, Shinta; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming
Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acne s ( P. acnes ) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis ( S. epidermidis , a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes . Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis , but not P. acnes . A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes . The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis . Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid) were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes , mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis , holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne.
Mochtar, Moerbono; Murasmita, Alamanda; Irawanto, M Eko; Julianto, Indah; Kariosentono, Harijono; Waskito, Fajar
Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial disease. Recent study showed that inflammation does have a central role in the formation of both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions in acne vulgaris. There are various findings of proinflammatory cytokines related to acne vulgaris, but no previous study correlate interleukin- (IL-) 19 to acne vulgaris. This pilot study aims to look at difference in IL-19 serum concentration on degrees of severity of acne vulgaris. This is an analytical observational cross-sectional study. Sample subjects were patients with acne vulgaris who met the inclusion criteria. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) study was applied to measure IL-19 serum. Analysis test found statistically significant difference between IL-19 serum concentration of group of patients with mild acne vulgaris and that of group of patients with severe acne vulgaris. Moreover, analysis revealed significant difference between IL-19 serum concentration of group of patients with moderate acne vulgaris and that of group of patients with severe acne vulgaris. There are differences in serum levels of IL-19 on the severity of acne vulgaris. The significant difference might show that inflammation has a core role in severity of acne vulgaris, and IL-19 might potentially be related to acne vulgaris.
Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya; Fu, Victoria; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Zhang, Li; Chen, Michael; Vecchio, James; Gao, Weiwei; Huang, Chun-Ming; Zhang, Liangfang
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a Gram-positive bacterium strongly associated with acne infection. While many antimicrobial agents have been used in clinic to treat acne infection by targeting P. acnes, these existing anti-acne agents usually produce considerable side effects. Herein, the development and evaluation of liposomal lauric acids (LipoLA) is reported as a new, effective and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne infection. By incorporating lauric acids into the lipid bilayer of liposomes, it is observed that the resulting LipoLA readily fuse with bacterial membranes, causing effective killing of P. acnes by disrupting bacterial membrane structures. Using a mouse ear model, we demonstrated that the bactericidal property of LipoLA against P. acne is well preserved at physiological conditions. Topically applying LipoLA in a gel form onto the infectious sites leads to eradication of P. acnes bacteria in vivo. Further skin toxicity studies show that LipoLA does not induce acute toxicity to normal mouse skin, while benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, the two most popular over-the-counter acne medications, generate moderate to severe skin irritation within 24 h. These results suggest that LipoLA hold a high therapeutic potential for the treatment of acne infection and other P. acnes related diseases. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Nodzo, Scott R; Westrich, Geoffrey H; Henry, Michael W; Miller, Andy O
Propionibacterium acnes is a common cause of upper extremity arthroplasty infection and usually presents in an indolent subacute fashion. It is not well described how total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients infected with P acnes present. We retrospectively compared patients undergoing revision TKA for infection from P acnes and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcal aureus (MSSA) in our institutional infection database. Patients were classified as having a periprosthetic joint infection based on the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria and were excluded if they had a polymicrobial culture. Patient demographics, preoperative laboratory values, microbiology data, and synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) counts were analyzed. Sixteen patients with a P acnes and 30 with an MSSA TKA periprosthetic joint infection were identified. Median erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly higher in the MSSA group compared to the P acnes group (56.0 mm/h; interquartile range [IQR], 44.3-72.9 vs 23.0 mm/h; IQR, 18.5-52.0; respectively, P = .03) as were C-reactive protein levels (5.9 mg/dL; IQR, 3.7-26.9 vs 2.0 mg/dL; IQR, 0.5-14.0; respectively, P = .04). WBC count, synovial fluid WBC, and percentage of synovial polymorphonuclear cells were similar between groups. Mean time to culture was 8.3 ± 2.0 days in the P acnes group and 1.8 ± 0.8 days in the MSSA group. P acnes TKA infections are associated with more acute inflammatory symptoms than typically appreciated, and long hold anaerobic cultures up to 14 days are necessary to accurately identify this organism as the causative agent of TKA periprosthetic infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Shu; Liang, Weizhong; Song, Kexin; Wang, Youbin
Facial keloids commonly occur in young patients. Multiple keloid masses often converge into a large lesion on the face, representing a significant obstacle to keloid mass excision and reconstruction. We describe a new surgical method that excises the keloid mass and resurfaces the wound by saving the keloid skin as a skin flap during facial keloid treatment. Forty-five patients with facial keloids were treated in our department between January 2013 and January 2016. Multiple incisions were made along the facial esthetic line on the keloid mass. The keloid skin was dissected and elevated as a skin flap with one or two pedicles. The scar tissue in the keloid was then removed through the incision. The wound was covered with the preserved keloid skin flap and closed without tension. Radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen were applied after surgery. Patients underwent follow-up examinations 6 and 12 months after surgery. Of the 45 total patients, 32 patients were cured and seven patients were partially cured. The efficacy rate was 88.9%, and 38 patients (84.4%) were satisfied with the esthetic result. We describe an efficacious and esthetically satisfactory surgical method for managing facial keloids by preserving the keloid skin as a skin flap. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Michel, C; Tascu, S; Doya, V; Aschiéri, P; Blanc, W; Legrand, O; Mortessagne, F
Wave billiards which are chaotic in the geometrical limit are known to support nongeneric spatially localized modes called scar modes. The interaction of the scar modes with gain has been recently investigated in optics in microcavity lasers and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. Exploiting the localization properties of scar modes in their wave-analogous phase-space representation, we report experimental results of scar mode selection by gain in a doped D-shaped optical fiber.
Dunn, Lauren K; O'Neill, Jenna L; Feldman, Steven R
Acne is a significant adolescent problem and may precipitate emotional and psychological effects. The impact of acne on psychological parameters and implications for acne treatment are not fully understood. We performed a MEDLINE search using the terms "acne" and "adolescent" along with "psychological," "depression," or "psychiatric," which yielded 16 reviewed studies. Qualitative review of the selected articles revealed that the presence of acne has a significant impact on self-esteem and quality of life. Depression and other psychological disorders are more prevalent in acne patients and acne treatment may improve symptoms of these disorders. The reviewed studies were semi-quantitative analyses utilizing various standardized surveys or questionnaires. Therefore, quantitative analysis of selected studies was not possible. The presence of co-morbid psychological disorders should be considered in the treatment of acne patients and future prospective trials are needed to assess the impact of treatment on psychological outcomes.
Su, Peiqi; Chen Wee Aw, Derrick; Lee, Siew Hui; Han Sim Toh, Matthias Paul
Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition which can have a negative impact on a patient's quality of life. A survey was distributed among students at tertiary institutions. Data was collected on participants' own rating of acne grade and how acne affected their social life. A clinician on-site graded the participants' acne. Of the 429 students who participated in the survey, 59.8 % felt embarrassed or self-conscious because of their acne. There was a low but statistically significant correlation (Spearman's Correlation Coefficient = 0.471, p < 0.001) between participants' and clinicians' grading of acne. Acne vulgaris causes a considerable amount of psychosocial stress. There are unfounded beliefs surrounding acne and unawareness of treatment options available. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tate, James R; Tollefson, Travis T
Facial paralysis often has a significant emotional impact on patients. Along with the myriad of new surgical techniques in managing facial paralysis comes the challenge of selecting the most effective procedure for the patient. This review delineates common surgical techniques and reviews state-of-the-art techniques. The options for dynamic reanimation of the paralyzed face must be examined in the context of several patient factors, including age, overall health, and patient desires. The best functional results are obtained with direct facial nerve anastomosis and interpositional nerve grafts. In long-standing facial paralysis, temporalis muscle transfer gives a dependable and quick result. Microvascular free tissue transfer is a reliable technique with reanimation potential whose results continue to improve as microsurgical expertise increases. Postoperative results can be improved with ancillary soft tissue procedures, as well as botulinum toxin. The paper provides an overview of recent advances in facial reanimation, including preoperative assessment, surgical reconstruction options, and postoperative management.
Gamil, Hend D; Khater, Elsayed M; Khattab, Fathia M; Khalil, Mona A
Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving hair follicles of the neck. It is a form of keloidal scarring alopecia that is often refractory to medical or surgical management. To evaluate the efficacy of Er:YAG laser in the treatment of AKN as compared to long pulsed Nd:YAG laser. This study was conducted on 30 male patients with AKN. Their ages ranged from 19 to 47 years with a mean age of 36.87 ± 7.8 years. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 15 patients, each receiving six sessions of either Er:YAG or long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser therapy. A statistically significant decrease in the number of papules was detected at the end of therapy in both groups, with a mean of 91.8% improvement in the Er:YAG group versus 88% in the Nd:YAG group. A significant decrease in plaques count was detected only in the Er: YAG group while a significant decrease in plaques size and consistency was recorded in both groups. The Er: YAG laser proved to be a potentially effective and safe modality both in the early and late AKN lesions.
Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.
Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…
Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy. Sutherland
Fire scars result from the death of the vascular cambium resulting from excessive heating, which exposes sapwood to infection and initiates the wood decay process. In southeastern Ohio, prescribed fires in April 1995 and 1997 scarred Quercus prinus L. and Q. velutina Lam. Low-intensity fires scorched bark and produced scars, primarily on the downslope side of the stem...
Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey; Michael C. Stambaugh; Rose-Marie Muzika
Fire scar evidence in eastern North America is sparse and complex but shows promise in defining the dynamics of these fire regimes and their influence on ecosystems. We review fire scar data, methods, and limitations, and use this information to identify and examine the factors influencing fire regimes. Fire scar data from studies at more than 40 sites in Eastern North...
Sokołowski, Jacek; Bartoszewicz, Robert; Morawski, Krzysztof; Jamróz, Barbara; Niemczyk, Kazimierz
Evaluation of diagnostic, surgical technique, treatment results facial nerve neurinomas and its comparison with literature was the main purpose of this study. Seven cases of patients (2005-2011) with facial nerve schwannomas were included to retrospective analysis in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw. All patients were assessed with history of the disease, physical examination, hearing tests, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, electronystagmography. Cases were observed in the direction of potential complications and recurrences. Neurinoma of the facial nerve occurred in the vertical segment (n=2), facial nerve geniculum (n=1) and the internal auditory canal (n=4). The symptoms observed in patients were analyzed: facial nerve paresis (n=3), hearing loss (n=2), dizziness (n=1). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography allowed to confirm the presence of the tumor and to assess its staging. Schwannoma of the facial nerve has been surgically removed using the middle fossa approach (n=5) and by antromastoidectomy (n=2). Anatomical continuity of the facial nerve was achieved in 3 cases. In the twelve months after surgery, facial nerve paresis was rated at level II-III° HB. There was no recurrence of the tumor in radiological observation. Facial nerve neurinoma is a rare tumor. Currently surgical techniques allow in most cases, the radical removing of the lesion and reconstruction of the VII nerve function. The rate of recurrence is low. A tumor of the facial nerve should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nerve VII paresis. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.
Masini, F; Ricci, F; Fossati, B; Frascione, P; Capizzi, R; De Waure, C; Guerriero, C
Acne vulgaris is the most common disease of the adolescence age (70-94%). Main topical treatments for acne vulgaris are retinoids, benzoyl peroxide and antibiotics in mono or combination therapy. Topical retinoids, some antibiotics and antiseptics although effective on acne lesions, can due photosensitivity or make the skin more sensitive to the sun. Our study is aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a combination therapy with Retinaldheyde (0.1%), Glycolic acid (6%) and Efectiose (0.1%) (RGE) cream in patients affected by acne vulgaris, during the lasting period of sun exposure. We retrospectively observed 30 patients of Central Italy with mild or moderate acne between April and September. All the patients selected underwent only therapy with RGE cream once a day in the evening for 8 weeks, while in the morning they just applied SPF 50 sunscreen. We evaluate the efficacy at 30 and 60 days with the "Global Evaluation Scale" (GES) and the tolerability with a 0-3 qualitative scale. The mean GES value showed a statistically significant reduction: 1.83 (SD 0.83) at baseline 1.57 (SD 0.77) and 0.90 (SD 0.76) respectively at 30 and 60 days (p < 0.01). Side effects were very uncommon. Topical treatments with retinoids, antibiotics and antiseptics can be associated with an increased occurrence of facial dryness and erythema restricting their use in sun exposure period. RGE cream has shown a good skin tolerability and efficacy, so it can be considerate an effective maintaining therapy to treat mild to moderate acne during the sun exposure period in which retinoids, antibiotics or antiseptic treatments are not recommended.
Koltun, William; Maloney, J Michael; Marr, Joachim; Kunz, Michael
To investigate the effects of an ethinylestradiol (EE) 20 μg/drospirenone (drsp) 3mg combined oral contraceptive (COC) administered in a 24/4 regimen (24 active tablets/4 inert tablets per cycle) for the treatment of moderate acne vulgaris, based on a pooled analysis of two identically designed US studies. Healthy females (n=893) aged 14-45 years with moderate facial acne were randomised to EE 20 μg/drsp 3mg COC (n=451) or placebo (n=442) for six cycles. Primary outcome measures were mean percent change in acne lesion counts and the investigators' assessment of acne from baseline to endpoint. There were significantly greater reductions in the mean percent change from baseline to endpoint in inflammatory, non-inflammatory and total lesion counts in the EE 20 μg/drsp 3mg 24/4 COC group compared with the placebo group (P<0.0001). The odds of women in the EE 20 μg/drsp 3mg 24/4 COC group having 'clear' or 'almost clear' skin as rated by the investigators at endpoint were around three-fold greater than in the placebo group (odds ratio 3.41; 95% CI: 2.15-5.43; P<0.0001). A low-dose COC containing EE 20 μg/drsp 3mg (24/4) more effectively reduced acne lesions than placebo and demonstrated greater improvement in the investigator global assessment of acne. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Niyomkam, P; Kaewbumrung, S; Kaewnpparat, S; Panichayupakaranant, P
Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 18 Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, Stapylococcus aureus, and S. epidermidis. Thirteen plant extracts were capable of inhibiting the growth of P. acnes and S. epidermidis, while 14 plant extracts exhibited an inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Based on the broth dilution method, the ethyl acetate extract of Alpinia galanga (L.) Wild. (Zingiberaceae) rhizome showed the strongest antibacterial effect against P. acnes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 156.0 and 312.0 microg/mL, respectively. On the basis of bioassay-guided purification, the ethyl acetate extract was isolated to afford the antibacterial active compound, which was identified as 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (1'-ACA). 1'-ACA had a strong inhibitory effect on P. acnes with MIC and MBC values of 62.0 and 250.0 microg/mL, respectively. Thus, 1'-ACA was used as an indicative marker for standardization of A. galanga extract using high performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that A. galanga extract could be an interesting agent for further studies on an alternative treatment of acne.
Fluhr, Joachim W; Degitz, Klaus
Benzoyl peroxide was introduced as a basic treatment already in acne therapy 1934. The mechanism of action is the reduction of anaerobe bacteria by strong oxidation processes. No resistancies have been ever reported. BPO is available in 2.5, 5 and 10 % formulations. Its efficacy is slightly related to the strength of concentrations, but the side effect profile with burning, erythema and desquamation is increasing with concentrations. BPO 5% mostly is efficient enough to control acne of grades I to II according to the Kligman & Plewig classification. BPO my bleach clothes and hair. It is the most costeffective topical drug in acne of grades I-II. Inflammatory acne of the papular-pustular type I-II can also be treated by topical antibiotics such as erythromycin, clindamycin, and, less frequent and today not anymore recommended tetracyclines. Mechanism of action is not alone an antibacterial but anti inflammatory effect. The efficacy and penetration of the topical antibiotics between the groups are similar. Randomized studies have shown that concentrations of 2-4% are equivalent to oral tetracycline and minocycline in mild to moderate acne. Combinatory formulations with BPO and with retinoids enhance the efficacy significantly. Topical antibiotics plus BPO show less bacterial resistancies as topical antibiotics alone. Antibiotics should therefore not be used as monotherapy. Moreover gram negative folliculitis may develop. Azelaic acid is acting as an antimicrobial and can also reduce comedones. It can also be used in pregnancy and during the lactation period.
Le Moigne, M; Bulteau, S; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Gerardin, M; Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Jonville-Bera, A P; Jolliet, Pascale; Dreno, Brigitte; Victorri-Vigneau, C
The link between isotretinoin, treatment of a severe form of acne, and psychiatric disorders remains controversial, as acne itself could explain the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. This study aims at assessing the disproportionality of psychiatric adverse events reported with isotretinoin in the French National PharmacoVigilance Database, compared with other systemic acne treatments and systemic retinoids. Data were extracted from the French National PharmacoVigilance Database for systemic acne treatments, systemic retinoids and drugs used as comparators. Each report was subjected to double-blind analysis by two psychiatric experts. A disproportionality analysis was performed, calculating the number of psychiatric ADRs divided by the total number of notifications for each drug of interest. Concerning acne systemic treatments: all 71 reports of severe psychiatric disorders involved isotretinoin, the highest proportion of mild/moderate psychiatric adverse events was reported with isotretinoin (14.1%). Among systemic retinoids, the highest proportion of severe and mild/moderate psychiatric events occurred with isotretinoin and alitretinoin. Our study raises the hypothesis that psychiatric disorders associated with isotretinoin are related to a class effect of retinoids, as a signal emerges for alitretinoin. Complementary studies are necessary to estimate the risk and further determine at-risk populations.
Bowe, Whitney P.; Crerand, Canice E.; Margolis, David J.; Shalita, Alan R.
Psychosocial outcome measures, which attempt to examine acne from the patient's perspective, have become increasingly important in dermatology research. One such measure is the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. The authors' primary aim was to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in patients with acne vulgaris. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between body image disturbance and quality of life. This cross-sectional investigation included 52 consecutive acne patients presenting to an outpatient dermatology clinic. Subjects completed the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, Skindex-16, and other body image and psychosocial functioning measures. An objective assessment of acne was performed. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was internally consistent and converged with other known body image indices. Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire scores also correlated with Skindex-16 scores, confirming that quality of life and body image are related psychosocial constructs. The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire appears to be an accurate instrument that can assess appearance-related concern and impairment in patients with acne vulgaris. Limitations include a small sample size and the cross-sectional design. PMID:21779418
Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko
Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…
Brüggemann, Holger; Lomholt, Hans B.; Tettelin, Hervé; Kilian, Mogens
Propionibacterium acnes is a skin commensal that occasionally acts as an opportunistic pathogen. The population structure of this species shows three main lineages (I–III). While type I strains are mainly associated with sebaceous follicles of human skin and inflammatory acne, types II and III strains are more often associated with deep tissue infections. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in P. acnes, assessed their immunological memory, and addressed the question if such a system could account for type-specific properties of the species. A collection of 108 clinical isolates covering all known phylotypes of P. acnes was screened for the existence of CRISPR/cas loci. We found that CRISPR loci are restricted to type II P. acnes strains. Sequence analyses of the CRISPR spacers revealed that the system confers immunity to P. acnes-specific phages and to two mobile genetic elements. These elements are found almost exclusively in type I P. acnes strains. Genome sequencing of a type I P. acnes isolate revealed that one element, 54 kb in size, encodes a putative secretion/tight adherence (TAD) system. Thus, CRISPR/cas loci in P. acnes recorded the exposure of type II strains to mobile genetic elements of type I strains. The CRISPR/cas locus is deleted in type I strains, which conceivably accounts for their ability to horizontally acquire fitness or virulence traits and might indicate that type I strains constitute a younger subpopulation of P. acnes. PMID:22479553
Petersson, Frida; Kilsgård, Ola; Shannon, Oonagh
Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes, considered a part of the skin microbiota, is one of the most commonly isolated anaerobic bacteria from medical implants in contact with plasma. However, the precise interaction of C. acnes with blood cells and plasma proteins has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we have investigated the molecular interaction of C. acnes with platelets and plasma proteins. We report that the ability of C. acnes to aggregate platelets is dependent on phylotype, with a significantly lower ability amongst type IB isolates, and the interaction of specific donor-dependent plasma proteins (or concentrations thereof) with C. acnes. Pretreatment of C. acnes with plasma reduces the lag time before aggregation demonstrating that pre-deposition of plasma proteins on C. acnes is an important step in platelet aggregation. Using mass spectrometry we identified several plasma proteins deposited on C. acnes, including IgG, fibrinogen and complement factors. Inhibition of IgG, fibrinogen or complement decreased C. acnes-mediated platelet aggregation, demonstrating the importance of these plasma proteins for aggregation. The interaction of C. acnes and platelets was visualized using fluorescence microscopy, verifying the presence of IgG and fibrinogen as components of the aggregates, and co-localization of C. acnes and platelets in the aggregates. Here, we have demonstrated the ability of C. acnes to activate and aggregate platelets in a bacterium and donor-specific fashion, as well as added mechanistic insights into this interaction. PMID:29385206
Antiga, E; Verdelli, A; Bonciani, D; Bonciolini, V; Caproni, M; Fabbri, P
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the sebaceous-pilosebaceous unit. Interestingly, inflammation can be detected by histopathological examination and immuohistochemical analysis even in the apparently non-inflammatory acneic lesions, such as comedones. In the last years, it has been clearly demonstrated that acne development is linked to the combination of predisposing genetic factors and environmental triggers, among which a prominent role is played by the follicular colonization by Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). P. acnes displays several activities able to promote the development of acne skin lesions, including the promotion of follicular hyperkeratinisation, the induction of sebogenesis, and the stimulation of an inflammatory response by the secretion of proinflammatory molecules and by the activation of innate immunity, that is followed by a P. acnes-specific adaptive immune response. In addition, P. acnes-independent inflammation mediated by androgens or by a neurogenic activation, followed by the secretion in the skin of pro-inflammatory neuropeptides, can occur in acne lesions. In conclusion, acne can be considered as a model of immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease, characterized by an innate immune response that is not able to control P. acnes followed by a Th1-mediated adaptive immune response, that becomes self-maintaining independently from P. acnes itself.
Petersson, Frida; Kilsgård, Ola; Shannon, Oonagh; Lood, Rolf
Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes, considered a part of the skin microbiota, is one of the most commonly isolated anaerobic bacteria from medical implants in contact with plasma. However, the precise interaction of C. acnes with blood cells and plasma proteins has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we have investigated the molecular interaction of C. acnes with platelets and plasma proteins. We report that the ability of C. acnes to aggregate platelets is dependent on phylotype, with a significantly lower ability amongst type IB isolates, and the interaction of specific donor-dependent plasma proteins (or concentrations thereof) with C. acnes. Pretreatment of C. acnes with plasma reduces the lag time before aggregation demonstrating that pre-deposition of plasma proteins on C. acnes is an important step in platelet aggregation. Using mass spectrometry we identified several plasma proteins deposited on C. acnes, including IgG, fibrinogen and complement factors. Inhibition of IgG, fibrinogen or complement decreased C. acnes-mediated platelet aggregation, demonstrating the importance of these plasma proteins for aggregation. The interaction of C. acnes and platelets was visualized using fluorescence microscopy, verifying the presence of IgG and fibrinogen as components of the aggregates, and co-localization of C. acnes and platelets in the aggregates. Here, we have demonstrated the ability of C. acnes to activate and aggregate platelets in a bacterium and donor-specific fashion, as well as added mechanistic insights into this interaction.
Kittredge, Marina Canepa; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Sokol, Melissa S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Sennet, Laura M.
One of the most commonly used ingredients in over-the-counter acne treatments in cream, gel, and wash form is benzoyl peroxide. It is an anti-bacterial agent that kills the bacterium ("Propionibacterium acne") involved in the formation of acne. The formulation of these products is extremely difficult owing to the instability of benzoyl peroxide.…
Penna, Pete; Meckfessel, Matthew H.; Preston, Norman
Background Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disease with a high prevalence. Left untreated or inadequately treated, acne vulgaris can lead to psychological and physical scarring, as well as to unnecessary medical expenses. Oral isotretinoin is an effective treatment for severe resistant nodular and conglobate acne vulgaris. A regimen consisting of a fixed-dose combination of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide gel, 0.1%/2.5% (A-BPO) with oral doxycycline 100 mg (A-BPO/D) has been demonstrated to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients with severe acne and may be an alternative to oral isotretinoin for some patients with severe acne. Objective The objective of this analysis was to compare the relative efficacy and associated costs of A-BPO/D versus oral isotretinoin. Methods In this analysis, comparisons of relative efficacy were made using previously published studies involving similar patient populations with severe acne that warrant the use of oral isotretinoin. The pricing for oral doxycycline and oral isotretinoin was estimated based on the maximum allowable cost from 9 states, and the pricing for A-BPO was calculated as the range between the average wholesale price and the wholesale acquisition cost. For this analysis, 2 treatment models were generated to compare costs: (1) a basic treatment model that examined the costs of an initial regimen of either A-BPO/D or oral isotretinoin without considering probable outcomes, and (2) a long-term model that factored in likely treatment outcomes and subsequent treatments into associated costs. The basic treatment model assumed that patients would be prescribed a single regimen of A-BPO/D for 12 weeks or oral isotretinoin for 20 weeks. The long-term model considered the probability of each treatment successfully managing patients' acne, as well as likely additional regimens of A-BPO monotherapy or an additional regimen of oral isotretinoin. As a result of different treatment durations, the costs for each treatment were
Penna, Pete; Meckfessel, Matthew H; Preston, Norman
Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disease with a high prevalence. Left untreated or inadequately treated, acne vulgaris can lead to psychological and physical scarring, as well as to unnecessary medical expenses. Oral isotretinoin is an effective treatment for severe resistant nodular and conglobate acne vulgaris. A regimen consisting of a fixed-dose combination of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide gel, 0.1%/2.5% (A-BPO) with oral doxycycline 100 mg (A-BPO/D) has been demonstrated to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients with severe acne and may be an alternative to oral isotretinoin for some patients with severe acne. The objective of this analysis was to compare the relative efficacy and associated costs of A-BPO/D versus oral isotretinoin. In this analysis, comparisons of relative efficacy were made using previously published studies involving similar patient populations with severe acne that warrant the use of oral isotretinoin. The pricing for oral doxycycline and oral isotretinoin was estimated based on the maximum allowable cost from 9 states, and the pricing for A-BPO was calculated as the range between the average wholesale price and the wholesale acquisition cost. For this analysis, 2 treatment models were generated to compare costs: (1) a basic treatment model that examined the costs of an initial regimen of either A-BPO/D or oral isotretinoin without considering probable outcomes, and (2) a long-term model that factored in likely treatment outcomes and subsequent treatments into associated costs. The basic treatment model assumed that patients would be prescribed a single regimen of A-BPO/D for 12 weeks or oral isotretinoin for 20 weeks. The long-term model considered the probability of each treatment successfully managing patients' acne, as well as likely additi