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Sample records for facial skin qualities

  1. Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, Marc Oliver; Rettinger, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance. Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors. Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:22073066

  2. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study

    PubMed Central

    Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2) and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore’s morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed. PMID:25733918

  3. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J.

    1990-04-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

  4. Addressing Male Facial Skin Concerns: Clinical Efficacy of a Topical Skincare Treatment Product for Men.

    PubMed

    Makino, Elizabeth T; Jiang, Lily I; Tan, Priscilla; Cheng, Tsing; Mehta, Rahul C

    2018-03-01

    The growing male skincare market reflects the increased interest of men in addressing facial aging concerns and maintaining a healthy youthful appearance. Because of differences in skin structure and aging as well as in lifestyle and behavior, male facial skin presents unique challenges that may result in different priorities or treatment strategies compared to female skin. A clinical study was conducted to assess clinical efficacy and tolerability of a topical skincare treatment product that was developed to address several male facial skin concerns related to skin quality, skin aging, and shaving. The treatment product provided significant improvements in all clinical efficacy parameters including overall photodamage, tactile roughness, fine line/wrinkles, and coarse lines/wrinkles. Furthermore, significant improvements in erythema as well as dryness/scaling were observed. Subject self-assessment questionnaires showed that the treatment product was highly rated in both self-perceived efficacy as well as product attributes. Use of skincare treatment products that tackle specific male facial skin concerns could further optimize skin quality and support healthy and youthful looking skin in men.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(3):301-306.

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  5. Keloid Skin Flap Retention and Resurfacing in Facial Keloid Treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Liang, Weizhong; Song, Kexin; Wang, Youbin

    2018-02-01

    Facial keloids commonly occur in young patients. Multiple keloid masses often converge into a large lesion on the face, representing a significant obstacle to keloid mass excision and reconstruction. We describe a new surgical method that excises the keloid mass and resurfaces the wound by saving the keloid skin as a skin flap during facial keloid treatment. Forty-five patients with facial keloids were treated in our department between January 2013 and January 2016. Multiple incisions were made along the facial esthetic line on the keloid mass. The keloid skin was dissected and elevated as a skin flap with one or two pedicles. The scar tissue in the keloid was then removed through the incision. The wound was covered with the preserved keloid skin flap and closed without tension. Radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen were applied after surgery. Patients underwent follow-up examinations 6 and 12 months after surgery. Of the 45 total patients, 32 patients were cured and seven patients were partially cured. The efficacy rate was 88.9%, and 38 patients (84.4%) were satisfied with the esthetic result. We describe an efficacious and esthetically satisfactory surgical method for managing facial keloids by preserving the keloid skin as a skin flap. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  6. The male beard hair and facial skin - challenges for shaving.

    PubMed

    Maurer, M; Rietzler, M; Burghardt, R; Siebenhaar, F

    2016-06-01

    The challenge of shaving is to cut the beard hair as closely as possible to the skin without unwanted effects on the skin. To achieve this requires the understanding of beard hair and male facial skin biology as both, the beard hair and the male facial skin, contribute to the difficulties in obtaining an effective shave without shaving-induced skin irritation. Little information is available on the biology of beard hairs and beard hair follicles. We know that, in beard hairs, the density, thickness, stiffness, as well as the rates of elliptical shape and low emerging angle, are high and highly heterogeneous. All of this makes it challenging to cut it, and shaving techniques commonly employed to overcome these challenges include shaving with increased pressure and multiple stroke shaving, which increase the probability and extent of shaving-induced skin irritation. Several features of male facial skin pose problems to a perfect shave. The male facial skin is heterogeneous in morphology and roughness, and male skin has a tendency to heal slower and to develop hyperinflammatory pigmentation. In addition, many males exhibit sensitive skin, with the face most often affected. Finally, the hair follicle is a sensory organ, and the perifollicular skin is highly responsive to external signals including mechanical and thermal stimulation. Perifollicular skin is rich in vasculature, innervation and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. This makes perifollicular skin a highly responsive and inflammatory system, especially in individuals with sensitive skin. Activation of this system, by shaving, can result in shaving-induced skin irritation. Techniques commonly employed to avoid shaving-induced skin irritation include shaving with less pressure, pre- and post-shave skin treatment and to stop shaving altogether. Recent advances in shaving technology have addressed some but not all of these issues. A better understanding of beard hairs, beard hair follicles and male

  7. Facial skin color measurement based on camera colorimetric characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Boquan; Zhou, Changhe; Wang, Shaoqing; Fan, Xin; Li, Chao

    2016-10-01

    The objective measurement of facial skin color and its variance is of great significance as much information can be obtained from it. In this paper, we developed a new skin color measurement procedure which includes following parts: first, a new skin tone color checker made of pantone Skin Tone Color Checker was designed for camera colorimetric characterization; second, the chromaticity of light source was estimated via a new scene illumination estimation method considering several previous algorithms; third, chromatic adaption was used to convert the input facial image into output facial image which appears taken under canonical light; finally the validity and accuracy of our method was verified by comparing the results obtained by our procedure with these by spectrophotometer.

  8. Visual attention to variation in female facial skin color distribution.

    PubMed

    Fink, Bernhard; Matts, Paul J; Klingenberg, Heiner; Kuntze, Sebastian; Weege, Bettina; Grammer, Karl

    2008-06-01

    Visible skin condition of women is argued to influence human physical attraction. Recent research has shown that people are sensitive to variation in skin color distribution, and such variation affects visual perception of female facial attractiveness, healthiness, and age. The eye gaze of 39 males and females, aged 13 to 45 years, was tracked while they viewed images of shape- and topography-standardized stimulus faces that varied only in terms of skin color distribution. The number of fixations and dwell time were significantly higher when viewing stimulus faces with the homogeneous skin color distribution of young people, compared with those of more elderly people. In accordance with recent research, facial stimuli with even skin tones were also judged to be younger and received higher attractiveness ratings. Finally, visual attention measures were negatively correlated with perceived age, but positively associated with attractiveness judgments. Variation in visible skin color distribution (independent of facial form and skin surface topography) is able to selectively attract people's attention toward female faces, and this higher attention results in more positive statements about a woman's face.

  9. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing of photoaged facial and non-facial skin: histologic and clinical results and side effects.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Gordon H; Travis, Heather M; Tucker, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    CO(2) fractional ablation offers the potential for facial and non-facial skin resurfacing with minimal downtime and rapid recovery. The purpose of this study was (i) to document the average depths and density of adnexal structures in non-lasered facial and non-facial body skin; (ii) to determine injury in ex vivo human thigh skin with varying fractional laser modes; and (iii) to evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of treatments. Histologies were obtained from non-lasered facial and non-facial skin from 121 patients and from 14 samples of excised lasered thigh skin. Seventy-one patients were evaluated after varying energy (mJ) and density settings by superficial ablation, deeper penetration, and combined treatment. Skin thickness and adnexal density in non-lasered skin exhibited variable ranges: epidermis (47-105 mum); papillary dermis (61-105 mum); reticular dermis (983-1986 mum); hair follicles (2-14/ HPF); sebaceous glands (2-23/HPF); sweat glands (2-7/HPF). Histological studies of samples from human thigh skin demonstrated that increased fluencies in the superficial, deep and combined mode resulted in predictable deeper levels of ablations and thermal injury. An increase in density settings results in total ablation of the epidermis. Clinical improvement of rhytids and pigmentations in facial and non-facial skin was proportional to increasing energy and density settings. Patient assessments and clinical gradings by the Wilcoxon's test of outcomes correlated with more aggressive settings. Prior knowledge of normal skin depths and adnexal densities, as well as ex vivo skin laser-injury profiles at varying fluencies and densities, improve the safety and efficiency of fractional CO(2) for photorejuvenation of facial and non-facial skin.

  10. Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Bhawan, J; Andersen, W; Lee, J; Labadie, R; Solares, G

    1995-04-01

    Histologic studies have become increasingly important in recognizing morphologic differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged skin. Earlier histologic studies have attempted to evaluate these changes by examining anatomical sites which are not comparable, such as face and buttocks. As part of a multicenter study, we have quantitatively examined a panel of 16 histologic features in baseline facial skin biopsies from 158 women with moderate to severe photodamage. When compared to the postauricular area (photo protected), biopsies of the crow's feet area (photo exposed) had a twofold increase in melanocytes and a statistically significant increase in melanocytic atypia (p < .0001) and epidermal melanin (p < .0001). Other epidermal changes included reduced epidermal thickness (p < .01), more compact stratum corneum (p < .0001) and increased granular layer thickness (p < .0001) in the crow's feet skin. There was increased solar elastosis (p < .0001), dermal elastic tissue (p < .0001), melanophages (p < .0001), perivascular inflammation (p < .05) and perifollicular fibrosis (p < .01) but no change in the number of mast cells or dermal mucin in the photo exposed skin. Our data document quantitative differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged facial skin and provides the groundwork for future studies to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments for photoaged skin.

  11. Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?

    PubMed

    Kim, B Y; Choi, J W; Park, K C; Youn, S W

    2013-02-01

    Enlarged facial pores have been esthetic problems and have become a matter of cosmetic concern. Several factors are supposed to be related to the enlargement of facial pores, although scientific evaluations were not performed yet. To assess the correlation between facial pores and possible relating factors such as age, gender, sebum secretion, skin elasticity, and the presence of acne, using objective bioengineering instruments. Sixty volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, participated in this study. Various parameters of facial pores were assessed using the Robo Skin Analyzer. The facial sebum secretion and skin elasticity were measured using the Sebumeter and the Cutometer, respectively. These data were compared and correlated to examine the possible relationship between facial pores and age, sebum secretion and skin elasticity, according to gender and the presence of acne. Male gender and the existence of acne were correlated with higher number of facial pores. Sebum secretion levels showed positive correlation with facial pores. The R7 parameter of skin elasticity was negatively correlated with facial pores, suggesting increased facial pores with decreased skin elasticity. However, the age and the severity of acne did not show a definite relationship with facial pores. Male, increased sebum and decreased skin elasticity were mostly correlated with facial pore development. Further studies on population with various demographic profiles and more severe acne may be helpful to elucidate the potential effect of aging and acne severity on facial pores. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Image analysis of skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and the age-related changes in facial skin.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kumiko; Masuda, Yuji; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Kawai, Eriko; Hirao, Tetsuji

    2015-05-01

    Heterogeneity with respect to skin color tone is one of the key factors in visual perception of facial attractiveness and age. However, there have been few studies on quantitative analyses of the color heterogeneity of facial skin. The purpose of this study was to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and then characterize ethnic differences and age-related changes. A facial imaging system equipped with an illumination unit and a high-resolution digital camera was used to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity. First, melanin and/or hemoglobin images were obtained using pigment-specific image-processing techniques, which involved conversion from Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage XYZ color values to melanin and/or hemoglobin indexes as measures of their contents. Second, a spatial frequency analysis with threshold settings was applied to the individual images. Cheek skin images of 194 healthy Asian and Caucasian female subjects were acquired using the imaging system. Applying this methodology, the skin color heterogeneity of Asian and Caucasian faces was characterized. The proposed pigment-specific image-processing techniques allowed visual discrimination of skin redness from skin pigmentation. In the heterogeneity analyses of cheek skin color, age-related changes in melanin were clearly detected in Asian and Caucasian skin. Furthermore, it was found that the heterogeneity indexes of hemoglobin were significantly higher in Caucasian skin than in Asian skin. We have developed evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity by image analyses based on the major chromophores, melanin and hemoglobin, with special reference to their size. This methodology focusing on skin color heterogeneity should be useful for better understanding of aging and ethnic differences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

    2008-02-01

    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  14. Noninvasive measurement of advanced glycation end-products in the facial skin: New data for skin aging studies.

    PubMed

    Qu, Di; Venzon, Dawna; Murray, Mary; Depauw, Mathew

    Using skin autofluorescence (SAF) as a marker of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) has been extensively studied in the last decade since the introduction of the noninvasive in vivo measurement technique. Data have shown the level of skin AGEs increases with chronological age in healthy human beings, and this increase is substantially higher in age-matched diabetic patients. In skin research, glycation with the accompanying accumulation of skin AGEs has been regarded as one of the primary skin aging mechanisms that contribute to skin wrinkling and the loss of skin elasticity. To date, the totality of SAF data reported in literature has been obtained from measurements on the arm, and noninvasive measurement of facial skin AGE accumulation would add great value to skin aging research. In this study, we report the levels of facial and forearm skin AGEs in 239 men and women of 21-65 year of age. Significantly lower levels of AGEs were detected in the facial skin than in the forearm skin from the young Caucasian groups, and the difference was much larger for men than for women. The rate of change in skin AGE level over age was found to be about 50% higher in men than in women, which further highlights the gender difference. A statistically significant correlation between the levels of skin AGE and facial wrinkling was also observed. The facial skin AGE data may provide new insight into skin aging research.

  15. Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, I.; Tseng, S. H.; Cula, G. O.; Bargo, P. R.; Kollias, N.

    2009-02-01

    The activity of certain bacteria in skin is known to correlate to the presence of porphyrins. In particular the presence of coproporphyrin produced by P.acnes inside plugged pores has been correlated to acne vulgaris. Another porphyrin encountered in skin is protoporphyrin IX, which is produced by the body in the pathway for production of heme. In the present work, a fluorescence spectroscopy system was developed to measure the characteristic spectrum and quantify the two types of porphyrins commonly present in human facial skin. The system is comprised of a Xe lamp both for fluorescence excitation and broadband light source for diffuse reflectance measurements. A computer-controlled filter wheel enables acquisition of sequential spectra, first excited by blue light at 405 nm then followed by the broadband light source, at the same location. The diffuse reflectance spectrum was used to correct the fluorescence spectrum due to the presence of skin chromophores, such as blood and melanin. The resulting fluorescence spectra were employed for the quantification of porphyrin concentration in a population of healthy subjects. The results show great variability on the concentration of these porphyrins and further studies are being conducted to correlate them with skin conditions such as inflammation and acne vulgaris.

  16. Attractiveness as a Function of Skin Tone and Facial Features: Evidence from Categorization Studies.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Participants rated the attractiveness and racial typicality of male faces varying in their facial features from Afrocentric to Eurocentric and in skin tone from dark to light in two experiments. Experiment 1 provided evidence that facial features and skin tone have an interactive effect on perceptions of attractiveness and mixed-race faces are perceived as more attractive than single-race faces. Experiment 2 further confirmed that faces with medium levels of skin tone and facial features are perceived as more attractive than faces with extreme levels of these factors. Black phenotypes (combinations of dark skin tone and Afrocentric facial features) were rated as more attractive than White phenotypes (combinations of light skin tone and Eurocentric facial features); ambiguous faces (combinations of Afrocentric and Eurocentric physiognomy) with medium levels of skin tone were rated as the most attractive in Experiment 2. Perceptions of attractiveness were relatively independent of racial categorization in both experiments.

  17. Skin and Bones: The Contribution of Skin Tone and Facial Structure to Racial Prototypicality Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Michael A.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Zhang, Shunan; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Lee, Hoon Koo

    2012-01-01

    Previous research reveals that a more ‘African’ appearance has significant social consequences, yielding more negative first impressions and harsher criminal sentencing of Black or White individuals. This study is the first to systematically assess the relative contribution of skin tone and facial metrics to White, Black, and Korean perceivers’ ratings of the racial prototypicality of faces from the same three groups. Our results revealed that the relative contribution of metrics and skin tone depended on both perceiver race and face race. White perceivers’ racial prototypicality ratings were less responsive to variations in skin tone than were Black or Korean perceivers’ ratings. White perceivers ratings’ also were more responsive to facial metrics than to skin tone, while the reverse was true for Black perceivers. Additionally, across all perceiver groups, skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics on racial prototypicality ratings of White faces, with the reverse for Korean faces. For Black faces, the relative impact varied with perceiver race: skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics for Black and Korean perceivers, with the reverse for White perceivers. These results have significant implications for predicting who will experience racial prototypicality biases and from whom. PMID:22815966

  18. Electro therapy facial and laser skin whitening: Clients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, D; Manimaran, S; Bhagyalakshmi, K

    2018-01-01

    There are so many beauty salons in Metropolis who provide services to women exclusively [1]. These beauty salons depend mostly on electricity for their services to customers, without it there is no effective means of operation [2]. These beauty salons are definitely leading to women empowerment. The beauty salons are run by the women for women. Since they fall under the category of micro and small enterprises, these salons may avail so many financial and non- financial advantages from the Government of India. They also provide employment opportunities to the women employees. The development of such beauty salons rests on the clients' satisfaction on the provision of their services. Hence it is essential to measure the clients attitude towards the services offered by the beauty salons, especially electro therapy facial, laser skin whitening and laser hair removal treatments, which are coming under micro current treatment as a cosmetic tool.

  19. Development of the Facial Skin Care Index: A Health-Related Outcomes Index for Skin Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, B. Alex; Rhee, John S.; Neuburg, Marcy; Burzynski, Mary L.; Nattinger, Ann B.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Existing health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) tools do not appear to capture patients' specific skin cancer concerns. OBJECTIVE To describe the conceptual foundation, item generation, reduction process, and reliability testing for the Facial Skin Cancer Index (FSCI), a HRQOL outcomes tool for skin cancer researchers and clinicians. METHODS Participants in Phases I to III consisted of adult patients (N = 134) diagnosed with biopsy-proven nonmelanoma cervicofacial skin cancer. Data were collected via self-report surveys and clinical records. RESULTS Seventy-one distinct items were generated in Phase I and rated for their importance by an independent sample during Phase II; 36 items representing six theoretical HRQOL domains were retained. Test–retest I results indicated that four subscales showed adequate reliability coefficients (α = 0.60 to 0.91). Twenty-six items remained for test–retest II. Results indicated excellent internal consistency for emotional, social, appearance, and modified financial/work subscales (range 0.79 to 0.95); test–retest correlation coefficients were consistent across time (range 0.81 to 0.97; lifestyle omitted). CONCLUSION Pretesting afforded the opportunity to select items that optimally met our a priori conceptual and psychometric criteria for high data quality. Phase IV testing (validity and sensitivity before surgery and 4 months after Mohs micrographic surgery) for the 20-item FSCI is under way. PMID:16875475

  20. Computational Simulation on Facial Expressions and Experimental Tensile Strength for Silicone Rubber as Artificial Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amijoyo Mochtar, Andi

    2018-02-01

    Applications of robotics have become important for human life in recent years. There are many specification of robots that have been improved and encriched with the technology advances. One of them are humanoid robot with facial expression which closer with the human facial expression naturally. The purpose of this research is to make computation on facial expressions and conduct the tensile strength for silicone rubber as artificial skin. Facial expressions were calculated by determining dimension, material properties, number of node elements, boundary condition, force condition, and analysis type. A Facial expression robot is determined by the direction and the magnitude external force on the driven point. The expression face of robot is identical with the human facial expression where the muscle structure in face according to the human face anatomy. For developing facial expression robots, facial action coding system (FACS) in approached due to follow expression human. The tensile strength is conducting due to check the proportional force of artificial skin that can be applied on the future of robot facial expression. Combining of calculated and experimental results can generate reliable and sustainable robot facial expression that using silicone rubber as artificial skin.

  1. The asymmetric facial skin perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy discovered by laser speckle imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Cui, Han; Chen, Yi; Zhong, Weizheng; Yu, Haibo; Li, Zhifeng; He, Yuhai; Yu, Wenlong; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Bell's palsy is a kind of peripheral neural disease that cause abrupt onset of unilateral facial weakness. In the pathologic study, it was evidenced that ischemia of facial nerve at the affected side of face existed in Bell's palsy patients. Since the direction of facial nerve blood flow is primarily proximal to distal, facial skin microcirculation would also be affected after the onset of Bell's palsy. Therefore, monitoring the full area of facial skin microcirculation would help to identify the condition of Bell's palsy patients. In this study, a non-invasive, real time and full field imaging technology - laser speckle imaging (LSI) technology was applied for measuring facial skin blood perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy patients. 85 participants with different stage of Bell's palsy were included. Results showed that Bell's palsy patients' facial skin perfusion of affected side was lower than that of the normal side at the region of eyelid, and that the asymmetric distribution of the facial skin perfusion between two sides of eyelid is positively related to the stage of the disease (P <  0.001). During the recovery, the perfusion of affected side of eyelid was increasing to nearly the same with the normal side. This study was a novel application of LSI in evaluating the facial skin perfusion of Bell's palsy patients, and we discovered that the facial skin blood perfusion could reflect the stage of Bell's palsy, which suggested that microcirculation should be investigated in patients with this neurological deficit. It was also suggested LSI as potential diagnostic tool for Bell's palsy.

  2. Association Among Facial Paralysis, Depression, and Quality of Life in Facial Plastic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nellis, Jason C.; Ishii, Masaru; Byrne, Patrick J.; Boahene, Kofi D. O.; Dey, Jacob K.; Ishii, Lisa E.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Though anecdotally linked, few studies have investigated the impact of facial paralysis on depression and quality of life (QOL). OBJECTIVE To measure the association between depression, QOL, and facial paralysis in patients seeking treatment at a facial plastic surgery clinic. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS Data were prospectively collected for patients with all-cause facial paralysis and control patients initially presenting to a facial plastic surgery clinic from 2013 to 2015. The control group included a heterogeneous patient population presenting to facial plastic surgery clinic for evaluation. Patients who had prior facial reanimation surgery or missing demographic and psychometric data were excluded from analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Demographics, facial paralysis etiology, facial paralysis severity (graded on the House-Brackmann scale), Beck depression inventory, and QOL scores in both groups were examined. Potential confounders, including self-reported attractiveness and mood, were collected and analyzed. Self-reported scores were measured using a 0 to 100 visual analog scale. RESULTS There was a total of 263 patients (mean age, 48.8 years; 66.9% were female) were analyzed. There were 175 control patients and 88 patients with facial paralysis. Sex distributions were not significantly different between the facial paralysis and control groups. Patients with facial paralysis had significantly higher depression, lower self-reported attractiveness, lower mood, and lower QOL scores. Overall, 37 patients with facial paralysis (42.1%) screened positive for depression, with the greatest likelihood in patients with House-Brackmann grade 3 or greater (odds ratio, 10.8; 95% CI, 5.13–22.75) compared with 13 control patients (8.1%) (P < .001). In multivariate regression, facial paralysis and female sex were significantly associated with higher depression scores (constant, 2.08 [95% CI, 0.77–3.39]; facial paralysis effect, 5.98 [95% CI, 4.38–7

  3. Facial peeling skin syndrome: a case report and a brief review.

    PubMed

    Janjua, Shahbaz Ahmad; Hussain, Ijaz; Khachemoune, Amor

    2007-03-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is an extremely rare genodermatosis of possible autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by asymptomatic spontaneous exfoliation of the stratum corneum at a subcorneal or intracorneal level. It usually presents at birth or appears later in early childhood. The condition may be generalized or localized. Here we describe a case of localized continual skin peeling limited to the facial skin in a 6-month-old infant, with two other members of the family affected with the same condition. A few cases of localized skin peeling limited to the acral surfaces have been described in the literature, but a familial case of localized skin peeling limited to the facial skin has not been described before. We believe that our patient represents a new subtype of peeling skin syndrome, limited to the skin of the face.

  4. Efficacy of diode laser (810 and 940 nm) for facial skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Voravutinon, Nataya; Seawthaweesin, Kanikar; Bureethan, Apron; Srivipatana, Anchisa; Vejanurug, Patnapa

    2015-12-01

    Laser treatment has been introduced for facial skin tightening. However, no prior study has used a diode laser to treat facial skin laxity. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 810- and 940-nm diode laser (MeDioStarNeXT) for treating facial skin laxity. Thirty patients, with facial skin laxity grading scale II-IV, were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent four sessions with a 810- and 940-nm diode laser (MeDioStarNeXT) treatment over 3-week intervals. Improvement in the laxity of facial skin was evaluated using a Cutometer MPA 580, spectrophotometer, and a grading scale. Significant improvement was observed with the Cutometer F3 and R7 parameters at 1 and 3 months after complete treatment, respectively. Physician assessment showed significant improvement in the laxity scale at 1 and 6 months after treatment. Approximately 10% of the patients reported mild pain or minor adverse events. Ninety-eight percent of the patients were satisfied with the treatments. Treatment with a diode laser (810 and 940 nm) is safe and may be effective for facial skin tightening. Maintenance treatment is necessary to sustain the effect of treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Proposed shade guide for human facial skin and lip: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wee, Alvin G; Beatty, Mark W; Gozalo-Diaz, David J; Kim-Pusateri, Seungyee; Marx, David B

    2013-08-01

    Currently, no commercially available facial shade guide exists in the United States for the fabrication of facial prostheses. The purpose of this study was to measure facial skin and lip color in a human population sample stratified by age, gender, and race. Clustering analysis was used to determine optimal color coordinates for a proposed facial shade guide. Participants (n=119) were recruited from 4 racial/ethnic groups, 5 age groups, and both genders. Reflectance measurements of participants' noses and lower lips were made by using a spectroradiometer and xenon arc lamp with a 45/0 optical configuration. Repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05), to identify skin and lip color differences, resulting from race, age, gender, and location, and a hierarchical clustering analysis, to identify clusters of skin colors) were used. Significant contributors to L*a*b* facial color were race and facial location (P<.01). b* affected all factors (P<.05). Age affected only b* (P<.001), while gender affected only L* (P<.05) and b* (P<.05). Analyses identified 5 clusters of skin color. The study showed that skin color caused by age and gender primarily occurred within the yellow-blue axis. A significant lightness difference between gender groups was also found. Clustering analysis identified 5 distinct skin shade tabs. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality of life in adults with facial port-wine stains

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Solveig L.; Grey, Katherine R.; Korta, Dorota Z.; Kelly, Kristen M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Facial port-wine stains (PWS) are considered by some an aesthetic skin problem, yet impact on quality of life (QoL) has not been objectively documented. Objective We sought to (1) characterize the effect of PWS on QoL in adults, (2) to identify the clinical and demographic factors that affect QoL, and (3) to compare our results with QoL studies in other skin conditions. Methods In total, 244 adults with facial PWS completed an online QoL survey, which included the Skindex-29 instrument. Results QoL in adults with facial PWS was diminished, especially from an emotional perspective. Variables associated with reduced QoL in all Skindex-29 subdomains included comorbid depression, limited facial mobility, and presence of other skin conditions. Persons with hypertrophy had more emotional and symptomatic impairment. The composite dermatologic-specific QoL scores were similar to those of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, rosacea, alopecia, and vitiligo. Limitations Selection bias was a potential limitation, as participants were primarily recruited from patient support groups. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrates that the presence of a facial PWS has a significant negative impact on QoL. Dermatologists caring for patients with PWS should inquire about QoL, provide appropriate support and resources, and consider QoL when discussing treatment options and obtaining authorization for these procedures. PMID:27955934

  7. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-01-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA® Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging. PMID:24910280

  8. Changes of oxygen content in facial skin before and after cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guo-Biao; Wu, Pei-Lan; Wang, Xue-Min

    2012-11-01

    Cigarette smoking not only causes systemic health problems, but may also be an underlying cause of premature skin aging. Cigarette smokers frequently have morphological changes in facial skin that may be attributed to reduced oxygen in this region. The purpose of this study was to measure the oxygen content in facial skin before and after smoking. Twenty-five volunteers participated in this study. Changes in oxygen content of the facial skin were measured before and after 30 min of cigarette smoking. Skin temperature and oxygen content were evaluated in the periorbital and periolar regions. There was a significant increase in temperature after smoking. The oxy hemoglobin and partial pressure of oxygen decreased in both the periocular and perioral areas after smoking. There were no changes in deoxy hemoglobin and partial pressure of carbon dioxide at these areas. Significant changes were seen in temperature and oxygen content after only 30 min of smoking. The results from this study suggest that alterations in the skin temperature and oxygen content in facial skin after smoking may be an underlying cause of premature skin aging. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness in relation to skin texture and color.

    PubMed

    Fink, B; Grammer, K; Thornhill, R

    2001-03-01

    The notion that surface texture may provide important information about the geometry of visible surfaces has attracted considerable attention for a long time. The present study shows that skin texture plays a significant role in the judgment of female facial beauty. Following research in clinical dermatology, the authors developed a computer program that implemented an algorithm based on co-occurrence matrices for the analysis of facial skin texture. Homogeneity and contrast features as well as color parameters were extracted out of stimulus faces. Attractiveness ratings of the images made by male participants relate positively to parameters of skin homogeneity. The authors propose that skin texture is a cue to fertility and health. In contrast to some previous studies, the authors found that dark skin, not light skin, was rated as most attractive.

  10. Facial skin blood flow responses during exposures to emotionally charged movies.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Endo, Kana; Ishii, Kei; Ito, Momoka; Liang, Nan

    2018-03-01

    The changes in regional facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance have been assessed for the first time with noninvasive two-dimensional laser speckle flowmetry during audiovisually elicited emotional challenges for 2 min (comedy, landscape, and horror movie) in 12 subjects. Limb skin blood flow and vascular conductance and systemic cardiovascular variables were simultaneously measured. The extents of pleasantness and consciousness for each emotional stimulus were estimated by the subjective rating from -5 (the most unpleasant; the most unconscious) to +5 (the most pleasant; the most conscious). Facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance, especially in the lips, decreased during viewing of comedy and horror movies, whereas they did not change during viewing of a landscape movie. The decreases in facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance were the greatest with the comedy movie. The changes in lip, cheek, and chin skin blood flow negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective ratings of pleasantness and consciousness. The changes in lip skin vascular conductance negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective rating of pleasantness, while the changes in infraorbital, subnasal, and chin skin vascular conductance negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective rating of consciousness. However, none of the changes in limb skin blood flow and vascular conductance and systemic hemodynamics correlated with the subjective ratings. The mental arithmetic task did not alter facial and limb skin blood flows, although the task influenced systemic cardiovascular variables. These findings suggest that the more emotional status becomes pleasant or conscious, the more neurally mediated vasoconstriction may occur in facial skin blood vessels.

  11. Home-use TriPollar RF device for facial skin tightening: Clinical study results.

    PubMed

    Beilin, Ghislaine

    2011-04-01

    Professional, non-invasive, anti-aging treatments based on radio-frequency (RF) technologies are popular for skin tightening and improvement of wrinkles. A new home-use RF device for facial treatments has recently been developed based on TriPollar™ technology. To evaluate the STOP™ home-use device for facial skin tightening using objective and subjective methods. Twenty-three female subjects used the STOP at home for a period of 6 weeks followed by a maintenance period of 6 weeks. Facial skin characteristics were objectively evaluated at baseline and at the end of the treatment and maintenance periods using a three-dimensional imaging system. Additionally, facial wrinkles were classified and subjects scored their satisfaction and sensations. Following STOP treatment, a statistically significant reduction of perioral and periorbital wrinkles was achieved in 90% and 95% of the patients, respectively, with an average periorbital wrinkle reduction of 41%. This objective result correlated well with the periorbital wrinkle classification result of 40%. All patients were satisfied to extremely satisfied with the treatments and all reported moderate to excellent visible results. The clinical study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the STOP home-use device for facial skin tightening. Treatment can maintain a tighter and suppler skin with improvement of fine lines and wrinkles.

  12. Quality of life assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale.

    PubMed

    Kleiss, Ingrid J; Beurskens, Carien H G; Stalmeier, Peep F M; Ingels, Koen J A O; Marres, Henri A M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at validating an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale was translated into the Dutch language using a forward-backward translation method. A pilot test with the translated questionnaire was performed in 10 patients with facial palsy and 10 normal subjects. Finally, cross-cultural adaption was accomplished at our outpatient clinic for facial palsy. Analyses for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness were performed. Ninety-three patients completed the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale, the Dutch Facial Disability Index, and the Dutch Short Form (36) Health Survey. Cronbach's α, representing internal consistency, was 0.800. Test-retest reliability was shown by an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.737. Correlations with the House-Brackmann score, Sunnybrook score, Facial Disability Index physical function, and social/well-being function were -0.292, 0.570, 0.713, and 0.575, respectively. The SF-36 domains correlate best with the FaCE social function domain, with the strongest correlation between the both social function domains (r = 0.576). The FaCE score did statistically significantly increase in 35 patients receiving botulinum toxin type A (P = 0.042, Student t test). The domains 'facial comfort' and 'social function' improved statistically significantly as well (P = 0.022 and P = 0.046, respectively, Student t-test). The Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale shows good psychometric values and can be implemented in the management of Dutch-speaking patients with facial palsy in the Netherlands. Translation of the instrument into other languages may lead to widespread use, making evaluation and comparison possible among different providers.

  13. Visible skin colouration predicts perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fink, B; Bunse, L; Matts, P J; D'Emiliano, D

    2012-08-01

    Although there is evidence that perception of facial age, health and attractiveness is informed by shape characteristics as well as by visible skin condition, studies on the latter have focused almost exclusively on female skin. Recent research, however, suggests that a decrease in skin colour homogeneity leads to older, less healthy and less attractive ratings of facial skin in both women and men. Here, we elaborate on the significance of the homogeneity of visible skin colouration in men by testing the hypothesis that perception of age, health and attractiveness of (non-contextual) digitally isolated fields of cheek skin only can predict that of whole facial images. Facial digital images of 160 British men (all Caucasian) aged between 10 and 70 were blind-rated for age, health and attractiveness by a total of 147 men and 154 women (mean age = 22.95, SD = 4.26), and these ratings were related to those of corresponding images of cheek skin reported by Fink et al. (J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. in press). Linear regression analysis showed that age, health and attractiveness perception of men's faces could be predicted by the ratings of cheek skin only, such that older men were viewed as older, less healthy and less attractive. This result underlines once again the potent signalling role of skin in its own right, independent of shape or other factors and suggests strongly that visible skin condition, and skin colour homogeneity in particular, plays a significant role in the perception of men's faces. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. What's in a face? The role of skin tone, facial physiognomy, and color presentation mode of facial primes in affective priming effects.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Participants (N = 106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this effect depended on the mode of color presentation. The results suggest that in affective priming tasks, faces might not be processed holistically, and instead, visual features of facial priming stimuli independently affect implicit evaluations.

  15. Prefabricated neck expanded skin flap with the superficial temporal vessels for facial resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Davide; Su, Weijie; Qian, Yunliang; Messmer, Caroline; Agostini, Tommaso; Spinelli, Giuseppe; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Levin, L Scott; Zenn, Micheal R; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2013-05-01

    The achievement of a normal-appearing face after surgical resurfacing remains an elusive goal. This is due in part to insufficient color matching, restoration of contours, and the persistence of visible scars. Flap prefabrication is a staged procedure that provides an independent axial blood supply to local expanded tissues. We describe a new reconstructive alternative with superior reconstructive surgical options for facial resurfacing that better matches damaged or discarded facial tissues. A superficial temporal fascial flap was harvested as the vascular supply of the prefabricated neck flap and located in a subcutaneous neck pocket over a tissue expander. After a 5-month period for expansion and maturation, the prefabricated skin flap was raised, islanded, and rotated to resurface the facial defect. Four patients with hemifacial postburn contracture and two patients affected by hemifacial vascular malformations aged 17 to 42 years (mean 29 years) were successfully treated with no major complication after a mean period of 15 months. Prefabricated neck-expanded skin flap demonstrated an excellent color and texture match with facial skin that surrounded the repair sites, and optimal aesthetic results were obtained. Importantly, facial expression was completely maintained due to thinness and pliability of the rotated skin. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. The effect of skin surface topography and skin colouration cues on perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fink, B; Matts, P J; Brauckmann, C; Gundlach, S

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of skin surface topography and colouration cues on the perception of female faces reported a differential weighting for the perception of skin topography and colour evenness, where topography was a stronger visual cue for the perception of age, whereas skin colour evenness was a stronger visual cue for the perception of health. We extend these findings in a study of the effect of skin surface topography and colour evenness cues on the perceptions of facial age, health and attractiveness in males. Facial images of six men (aged 40 to 70 years), selected for co-expression of lines/wrinkles and discolouration, were manipulated digitally to create eight stimuli, namely, separate removal of these two features (a) on the forehead, (b) in the periorbital area, (c) on the cheeks and (d) across the entire face. Omnibus (within-face) pairwise combinations, including the original (unmodified) face, were presented to a total of 240 male and female judges, who selected the face they considered younger, healthier and more attractive. Significant effects were detected for facial image choice, in response to skin feature manipulation. The combined removal of skin surface topography resulted in younger age perception compared with that seen with the removal of skin colouration cues, whereas the opposite pattern was found for health preference. No difference was detected for the perception of attractiveness. These perceptual effects were seen particularly on the forehead and cheeks. Removing skin topography cues (but not discolouration) in the periorbital area resulted in higher preferences for all three attributes. Skin surface topography and colouration cues affect the perception of age, health and attractiveness in men's faces. The combined removal of these features on the forehead, cheeks and in the periorbital area results in the most positive assessments. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    Background The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry) and skin roughness (Ra) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow’s feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. PMID:25552908

  18. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry ) and skin roughness (Ra ) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow's feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects.

  19. Tolerance of fragranced and fragrance-free facial cleansers in adults with clinically sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe D; Fowler, Joseph; Larsen, Walter G; Hornby, Sidney; Walters, Russel M; Appa, Yohini

    2015-10-01

    Although mild, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleansers generally are recommended for individuals with sensitive skin, many consumers choose fragranced foaming cleansers. The addition of hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) to mild facial cleansers has been shown to improve product tolerability in individuals with sensitive skin while facilitating foaming. The objective of the 2 studies reported here was to assess the tolerability of a mild, HMP-containing, foaming facial cleanser with a fragrance that was free of common allergens and irritating essential oils in patients with sensitive skin. In the first study, 8 participants with clinically diagnosed fragrance sensitivity used a gentle foaming HMP-containing facial cleanser with or without fragrance for 3 weeks. Both cleansers improved global disease severity, irritation, and erythema with similar cleansing effectiveness. The second study was a 3-week, prospective, double-blind, randomized, 2-center study of 153 participants with clinically diagnosed sensitive skin. In this study, the fragranced gentle foaming cleanser with HMP was as well tolerated as a benchmark gentle, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleanser. Itching, irritation, and desquamation were most improved from baseline in both groups. The participant-rated effectiveness of the cleanser with HMP was similar or better than the benchmark cleanser after 3 weeks of use. In conclusion, the gentle facial cleanser with HMPs and a fragrance offers a new option for adults with sensitive skin who may prefer, and commonly use, a fragranced and foaming product.

  20. Patient experiences and outcomes following facial skin cancer surgery: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Erica H; Klassen, Anne F; Lawson, Jessica L; Cano, Stefan J; Scott, Amie M; Pusic, Andrea L

    2016-08-01

    Early melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer of the facial area are primarily treated with surgery. Little is known about the outcomes of treatment for facial skin cancer patients. The objective of the study was to identify concerns about aesthetics, procedures and health from the patients' perspective after facial skin surgery. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 participants. Line-by-line coding was used to establish categories and develop themes. We identified five major themes on the impact of skin cancer surgery: appearance-related concerns; psychological (e.g., fear of new cancers or recurrence); social (e.g. impact on social activities and interaction); physical (e.g. pain and swelling) concerns and satisfaction with the experience of care (e.g., satisfaction with surgeon). The priority of participants was the removal of the facial skin cancer, as this reduced their overall worry. The aesthetic outcome was secondary but important, as it had important implications on the participants' social and psychological functioning. The participants' experience with the care provided by the surgeon and staff also contributed to their satisfaction with their treatment. This conceptual framework provides the basis for the development of a new patient-reported outcome instrument. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  1. Determinants of satisfaction with the health state of the facial skin in patients undergoing surgery for facial basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Essers, Brigitte A B; Nieman, Fred H M; Prins, Martin H; Krekels, Gertruud A M; Smeets, Nicole W J; Neumann, H A Martino

    2006-02-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess which health beliefs predict and explain satisfaction with the facial health state of patients undergoing surgery for basal cell carcinoma. Data were collected by administering a newly developed questionnaire pre-operatively and 6 months post-operatively (n = 222). Results show that satisfaction as measured by post-operative worrying, susceptibility and fear of developing a new BCC at other facial sites can be predicted by pre-operative health beliefs. In addition, some patients an increase in perceived susceptibility, fear of recurrence of BCC on the same site or fear of developing a new BCC at other facial sites. Our findings indicate that both pre- and post-operative perceptions predict and explain for a substantial part the extent to which patients are satisfied with their facial health state 6 months after surgery. Administering a short questionnaire at the start of the treatment period will give physicians a better understanding of how patients experience this skin disease. It will also help them to adjust information about BCC and its consequences to the needs of the patient.

  2. Human facial skin detection in thermal video to effectively measure electrodermal activity (EDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Leonard, Kevin R.; Nelson, Jill K.

    2011-06-01

    In the past, autonomic nervous system response has often been determined through measuring Electrodermal Activity (EDA), sometimes referred to as Skin Conductance (SC). Recent work has shown that high resolution thermal cameras can passively and remotely obtain an analog to EDA by assessing the activation of facial eccrine skin pores. This paper investigates a method to distinguish facial skin from non-skin portions on the face to generate a skin-only Dynamic Mask (DM), validates the DM results, and demonstrates DM performance by removing false pore counts. Moreover, this paper shows results from these techniques using data from 20+ subjects across two different experiments. In the first experiment, subjects were presented with primary screening questions for which some had jeopardy. In the second experiment, subjects experienced standard emotion-eliciting stimuli. The results from using this technique will be shown in relation to data and human perception (ground truth). This paper introduces an automatic end-to-end skin detection approach based on texture feature vectors. In doing so, the paper contributes not only a new capability of tracking facial skin in thermal imagery, but also enhances our capability to provide non-contact, remote, passive, and real-time methods for determining autonomic nervous system responses for medical and security applications.

  3. Characterizing Facial Skin Ageing in Humans: Disentangling Extrinsic from Intrinsic Biological Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Trojahn, Carina; Dobos, Gabor; Lichterfeld, Andrea; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Facial skin ageing is caused by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Intrinsic ageing is highly related to chronological age. Age related skin changes can be measured using clinical and biophysical methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether and how clinical characteristics and biophysical parameters are associated with each other with and without adjustment for chronological age. Twenty-four female subjects of three age groups were enrolled. Clinical assessments (global facial skin ageing, wrinkling, and sagging), and biophysical measurements (roughness, colour, skin elasticity, and barrier function) were conducted at both upper cheeks. Pearson's correlations and linear regression models adjusted for age were calculated. Most of the measured parameters were correlated with chronological age (e.g., association with wrinkle score, r = 0.901) and with each other (e.g., residual skin deformation and wrinkle score, r = 0.606). After statistical adjustment for age, only few associations remained (e.g., mean roughness (R z) and luminance (L *),  β = −0.507, R 2 = 0.377). Chronological age as surrogate marker for intrinsic ageing has the most important influence on most facial skin ageing signs. Changes in skin elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and yellowness seem to be caused by additional extrinsic ageing. PMID:25767806

  4. An alternative method for facial resurfacing: supraclavicular skin prefabrication by perforator fascia flap.

    PubMed

    Hocaoğlu, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Prefabrication of supraclavicular skin provides a useful source for flaps congruent with the face skin. Among various vascular sources that have been used for this purpose, anterolateral thigh fascia seems to represent a greater value because of having a long and strong vascular pedicle and negligible donor-site morbidity. In this regard, we present a technical report on using the lateral circumflex femoral artery perforator flap harvest technique in preparing an anterolateral thigh fascia flap for the prefabrication of the supraclavicular skin. The technique proved successful in resurfacing the facial skin of a young female patient with a giant congenital melanocytic hairy nevus on the left side of her face.

  5. Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream.

    PubMed

    Ali, Atif; Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

    2014-05-01

    Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan(®) VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects.

  6. Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. Aim To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Material and methods Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan® VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Results Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. Conclusions The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects. PMID:25097471

  7. Establishing a profitable skin care practice in a facial plastic surgery office.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Edwin A

    2010-11-01

    Facial plastic surgeons seeking information about establishing and maintaining a first-rate skin care program and practice in their office will learn practice management tips and business advice. This content begins with presenting steps in patient evaluation and continues through development of a care plan. Discussion includes approach to skin care products, sunscreen, and related preventive and restorative methods. Detailed discussion is included of developing a personalized skin care plan. The content concludes with essential business tips and marketing advice for the facial plastic surgeon to include skin care in the surgical practice, including the way in which these are handled in the author's practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The importance of skin color and facial structure in perceiving and remembering others: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Brebner, Joanne L; Krigolson, Olav; Handy, Todd C; Quadflieg, Susanne; Turk, David J

    2011-05-04

    The own-race bias (ORB) is a well-documented recognition advantage for own-race (OR) over cross-race (CR) faces, the origin of which remains unclear. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while Caucasian participants age-categorized Black and White faces which were digitally altered to display either a race congruent or incongruent facial structure. The results of a subsequent surprise memory test indicated that regardless of facial structure participants recognized White faces better than Black faces. Additional analyses revealed that temporally-early ERP components associated with face-specific perceptual processing (N170) and the individuation of facial exemplars (N250) were selectively sensitive to skin color. In addition, the N200 (a component that has been linked to increased attention and depth of encoding afforded to in-group and OR faces) was modulated by color and structure, and correlated with subsequent memory performance. However, the LPP component associated with the cognitive evaluation of perceptual input was influenced by racial differences in facial structure alone. These findings suggest that racial differences in skin color and facial structure are detected during the encoding of unfamiliar faces, and that the categorization of conspecifics as members of our social in-group on the basis of their skin color may be a determining factor in our ability to subsequently remember them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Facial resurfacing with a monoblock full-thickness skin graft after multiple malignant melanomas excision in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Selahattin; Uygur, Safak; Eryilmaz, Tolga; Ak, Betul

    2012-09-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is an autosomal recessive disease, characterized by vulnerability of the skin to solar radiation. Increase in sunlight-induced cancer is a direct consequence of an increase in mutated cells of the skin of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. There is no specific technique for facial resurfacing in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. In this article, a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum with multiple malignant melanomas on her face and radical excision of total facial skin followed by facial resurfacing with monoblock full-thickness skin graft from the abdomen is presented.

  10. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-10-01

    The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p -values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion.

  11. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. Objective To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Methods Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Results Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p-values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. Conclusion In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion. PMID:27746642

  12. Stress Evaluation while Prolonged Driving Operation Using the Facial Skin Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hirotoshi; Muto, Takumi; Ide, Hideto

    There is a relation to the accident of a car and the physiological and psychological state of a driver. The stress may lead to the fall of a fatigue or attentiveness. Therefore, it is an important subject from viewpoint such as accident prevention to evaluate the mental state of a driver. The study aimed at the development of a quantitative instrumentation technology of the stress when a subject is driving for a long time. First of all, we measured the physiological and psychological stress of a driver. The facial skin temperature and ventricular rate that was driver's physiological amount were measured and compared it with visual analog scale of the subjective amount. It was able to be obtaining of the high correlation in facial skin temperature and visual analog scale from the outcome of the experiment. Therefore, the possibility of appreciable of driver's stress at a facial skin temperature was shown. As a result of the experiment, we showed a possibility that facial skin temperature could evaluate long driving stress.

  13. Colour homogeneity and visual perception of age, health and attractiveness of male facial skin.

    PubMed

    Fink, B; Matts, P J; D'Emiliano, D; Bunse, L; Weege, B; Röder, S

    2012-12-01

    Visible facial skin condition in females is known to affect perception of age, health and attractiveness. Skin colour distribution in shape- and topography-standardized female faces, driven by localized melanin and haemoglobin, can account for up to twenty years of apparent age perception. Although this is corroborated by an ability to discern female age even in isolated, non-contextual skin images, a similar effect in the perception of male skin is yet to be demonstrated. To investigate the effect of skin colour homogeneity and chromophore distribution on the visual perception of age, health and attractiveness of male facial skin. Cropped images from the cheeks of facial images of 160 Caucasian British men aged 10-70 years were blind-rated for age, health and attractiveness by a total of 308 participants. In addition, the homogeneity of skin images and corresponding eumelanin/oxyhaemoglobin concentration maps were analysed objectively using Haralick's image segmentation algorithm. Isolated skin images taken from the cheeks of younger males were judged as healthier and more attractive. Perception of age, health and attractiveness was strongly related to melanin and haemoglobin distribution, whereby more even distributions led to perception of younger age and greater health and attractiveness. The evenness of melanized features was a stronger cue for age perception, whereas haemoglobin distribution was associated more strongly with health and attractiveness perception. Male skin colour homogeneity, driven by melanin and haemoglobin distribution, influences perception of age, health and attractiveness. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Facial microcirculatory and biomechanical skin properties after single high energy (Er):YAG laser application.

    PubMed

    Medved, Fabian; Wurm, Antonia; Held, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Owing to skin aging and the growing demand for skin rejuvenation, minimal invasive aesthetic treatments such as laser procedures are increasingly coming into focus. However, until now, little has been known about the objective effects of these procedures with respect to skin microcirculation or changes in skin elasticity. Facial skin rejuvenation was performed on 32 volunteers using ablative Erbium: YAG laser. Skin microcirculation and skin elasticity have then been evaluated objectively. Microcirculation (flow, SO 2 , velocity, and rHB) has been analyzed before and directly after the laser session by using the O2C device. Skin elasticity has been evaluated by using the Cutometer device (Uf, Ua, Ur, and Ue) before and directly after the laser treatment, as well as 1 week and then 1, 3, and 6 months post treatment. Further, the outcome for the volunteers regarding their satisfactory level after laser treatment was evaluated. Twenty volunteers were available for a complete follow-up. Microcirculation displayed statistically significant increase in all values to 2 mm depth. The biomechanical skin parameter of firmness of skin displayed statistically significant improvement in superficial skin layer after 6 months. Concerning microcirculation and skin elasticity the ablative Erbium: YAG laser treatment revealed similar effects on the skin like a superficial burn injury. In contrast to the determined skin elasticity parameters, firmness of skin objectively revealed a skin tightening effect after 6 months. Along with the important epidermal effect, the suitability of ablative laser treatment for skin rejuvenation has been proved in a long-term follow-up. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:891-898, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Objective measures for quality assessment of automatic skin enhancement algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuc, Mihai; Capata, Adrian; Florea, Corneliu

    2010-01-01

    Automatic portrait enhancement by attenuating skin flaws (pimples, blemishes, wrinkles, etc.) has received considerable attention from digital camera manufacturers thanks to its impact on the public. Subsequently, a number of algorithms have been developed to meet this need. One central aspect to developing such an algorithm is quality assessment: having a few numbers that precisely indicate the amount of beautification brought by an algorithm (as perceived by human observers) is of great help, as it works on circumvent time-costly human evaluation. In this paper, we propose a method to numerically evaluate the quality of a skin beautification algorithm. The most important aspects we take into account and quantize to numbers are the quality of the skin detector, the amount of smoothing performed by the method, the preservation of intrinsic skin texture, and the preservation of facial features. We combine these measures into two numbers that assess the quality of skin detection and beautification. The derived measures are highly correlated with human perception, therefore they constitute a helpful tool for tuning and comparing algorithms.

  16. The efficacy of facial skin cancer treatment with high-energy pulsed neodymium and Nd:YAG lasers.

    PubMed

    Moskalik, Konstantin; Kozlov, Alexander; Demin, Eugeny; Boiko, Ernest

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the curative and cosmetic efficacy of treatment for facial skin cancer using neodymium laser irradiation. Due to the complex anatomy of the area, therapy for facial skin cancer is difficult. Laser irradiation was used for the treatment of 3461 patients with 3624 facial skin cancer lesions of stages T(1-2)N(0)M(0:) 3346 basal cell skin cancers, 188 limited basal cell skin cancer recurrences, and 90 squamous cell skin cancers. Pulsed neodymium (Nd) and Nd:YAG lasers were used as the energy sources. The patients were followed-up from 3 mo to 5 y or more. Patients with basal cell skin cancer treated by irradiation with the Nd laser developed recurrences in 1.8% of cases, and patients treated with the Nd:YAG laser had a recurrence rate of 2.5%. Recurrences following treatment for basal cell skin cancer, and those of squamous cell skin cancer, after irradiation with the Nd laser appeared in 3.7% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Overall, the frequency of facial skin cancer recurrences after treatment with laser irradiation was 2.1% of all the irradiated tumors. Neodymium laser irradiation is an effective method to treat facial skin cancer of stages T(1-2)N(0)M(0), and results in acceptable cosmetic results.

  17. Evaluation of psychological stress in confined environments using salivary, skin, and facial image parameters.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Mariko; Haze, Shinichiro; Gozu, Yoko; Hosoi, Junichi; Onodera, Tomoko; Tojo, Yosuke; Katsuyama, Masako; Hara, Yusuke; Katagiri, Chika; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Furukawa, Satoshi; Suzuki, Go

    2018-05-29

    Detecting the influence of psychological stress is particularly important in prolonged space missions. In this study, we determined potential markers of psychological stress in a confined environment. We examined 23 Japanese subjects staying for 2 weeks in a confined facility at Tsukuba Space Center, measuring salivary, skin, and facial image parameters. Saliva was collected at four points in a single day to detect diurnal variation. Increases in salivary cortisol were detected after waking up on the 4th and 11th days, and at 15:30 on the 1st and in the second half of the stay. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and sebum content of the skin were higher compared with outside the facility on the 4th and 1st days respectively. Increased IL-1β in the stripped stratum corneum was observed on the 14th day, and 7 days after leaving. Differences in facial expression symmetry at the time of facial expression changes were observed on 11th and 14th days. Thus, we detected a transition of psychological stress using salivary cortisol profiles and skin physiological parameters. The results also suggested that IL-1β in the stripped stratum corneum and facial expression symmetry are possible novel markers for conveniently detecting psychological stress.

  18. Random fractional ultrapulsed CO2 resurfacing of photodamaged facial skin: long-term evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tretti Clementoni, Matteo; Galimberti, Michela; Tourlaki, Athanasia; Catenacci, Maximilian; Lavagno, Rosalia; Bencini, Pier Luca

    2013-02-01

    Although numerous papers have recently been published on ablative fractional resurfacing, there is a lack of information in literature on very long-term results. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy, adverse side effects, and long-term results of a random fractional ultrapulsed CO2 laser on a large population with photodamaged facial skin. Three hundred twelve patients with facial photodamaged skin were enrolled and underwent a single full-face treatment. Six aspects of photodamaged skin were recorded using a 5 point scale at 3, 6, and 24 months after the treatment. The results were compared with a non-parametric statistical test, the Wilcoxon's exact test. Three hundred one patients completed the study. All analyzed features showed a significant statistical improvement 3 months after the procedure. Three months later all features, except for pigmentations, once again showed a significant statistical improvement. Results after 24 months were similar to those assessed 18 months before. No long-term or other serious complications were observed. From the significant number of patients analyzed, long-term results demonstrate not only how fractional ultrapulsed CO2 resurfacing can achieve good results on photodamaged facial skin but also how these results can be considered stable 2 years after the procedure.

  19. Facial averageness and genetic quality: Testing heritability, genetic correlation with attractiveness, and the paternal age effect.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2016-01-01

    Popular theory suggests that facial averageness is preferred in a partner for genetic benefits to offspring. However, whether facial averageness is associated with genetic quality is yet to be established. Here, we computed an objective measure of facial averageness for a large sample ( N = 1,823) of identical and nonidentical twins and their siblings to test two predictions from the theory that facial averageness reflects genetic quality. First, we use biometrical modelling to estimate the heritability of facial averageness, which is necessary if it reflects genetic quality. We also test for a genetic association between facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Second, we assess whether paternal age at conception (a proxy of mutation load) is associated with facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Our findings are mixed with respect to our hypotheses. While we found that facial averageness does have a genetic component, and a significant phenotypic correlation exists between facial averageness and attractiveness, we did not find a genetic correlation between facial averageness and attractiveness (therefore, we cannot say that the genes that affect facial averageness also affect facial attractiveness) and paternal age at conception was not negatively associated with facial averageness. These findings support some of the previously untested assumptions of the 'genetic benefits' account of facial averageness, but cast doubt on others.

  20. Warty skin changes, chronic scrotal lymphoedema, and facial dysmorphism

    PubMed Central

    Felcht, Moritz; Dikow, Nicola; Goebeler, Matthias; Stroebel, Philipp; Booken, Nina; Voßmerbäumer, Urs; Merx, Kirsten; Henzler, Thomas; Marx, Alexander; Moog, Ute; Goerdt, Sergij; Klemke, Claus-Detlev

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man whose main complaints were wart-like skin changes and scrotal lymphoedema. Furthermore, our patient showed signs of a common hereditary disease: lymphoedema, short stature, webbed neck, low frontal and posterior hairline, downslanting palpebral fissures, pale blue iris, broad nose, flat philtrum, and prominent nasolabial folds. His ears were low set and retroverted with a thick helix. However, no diagnosis was made for 49 years. The interdisciplinary dialogue of various specialists to make the final diagnosis is presented and discussed. PMID:22750922

  1. Ways of Noninvasive Facial Skin Tightening and Fat Reduction.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Klaus; Salavastru, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    For skin tightening, ablative and nonablative lasers have been used with various parameters full or fractionated. Currently, other energy-based technologies have been developed such as radiofrequency (RF) from mono- to multipolar, microneedling RF, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. They heat up the tissue to a clinical endpoint. Temperatures above 42°C stimulate fibroblasts to produce more collagen and some technologies produce small coagulation points that allow to shrink and to tighten the tissue with less downtime or side effects. Alternative treatments not based on heat can be chemical peels from light to deep and microneedling without RF. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage.

  3. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. Methods A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Results Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Conclusion Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage. PMID:23152694

  4. Prefrontal oxygenation correlates to the responses in facial skin blood flows during exposure to pleasantly charged movie.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Endo, Kana; Asahara, Ryota; Yoshikawa, Miho; Kusunoki, Shinya; Ishida, Tomoko

    2017-11-01

    Our laboratory reported that facial skin blood flow may serve as a sensitive tool to assess an emotional status. Cerebral neural correlates during emotional interventions should be sought in relation to the changes in facial skin blood flow. To test the hypothesis that prefrontal activity has positive relation to the changes in facial skin blood flow during emotionally charged stimulation, we examined the dynamic changes in prefrontal oxygenation (with near-infrared spectroscopy) and facial skin blood flows (with two-dimensional laser speckle and Doppler flowmetry) during emotionally charged audiovisual challenges for 2 min (by viewing comedy, landscape, and horror movie) in 14 subjects. Hand skin blood flow and systemic hemodynamics were simultaneously measured. The extents of pleasantness and consciousness for each emotional stimulus were estimated by subjective rating from -5 (the most unpleasant; the most unconscious) to +5 (the most pleasant; the most conscious). Positively charged emotional stimulation (comedy) simultaneously decreased ( P  <   0.05) prefrontal oxygenation and facial skin blood flow, whereas negatively charged (horror) or neutral (landscape) emotional stimulation did not alter or slightly decreased them. Any of hand skin blood flow and systemic cardiovascular variables did not change significantly during positively charged emotional stimulation. The changes in prefrontal oxygenation had a highly positive correlation with the changes in facial skin blood flow without altering perfusion pressure, and they were inversely correlated with the subjective rating of pleasantness. The reduction in prefrontal oxygenation during positively charged emotional stimulation suggests a decrease in prefrontal neural activity, which may in turn elicit neurally mediated vasoconstriction of facial skin blood vessels. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American

  5. Multifractional microablative laser combined with spacially modulated ablative (SMA) technology for facial skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Hersant, Barbara; SidAhmed-Mezi, Mounia; Chossat, Adrien; Meningaud, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for aesthetic procedures, especially facial aesthetic surgery, a new laser technology has been developed for facial skin rejuvenation and wrinkle treatment. The aim of this study was to objectively and subjectively assess the clinical efficacy and safety of Erbium:YAG laser combined with Spatially Modulated Ablation (Er:YAG + SMA) on facial skin rejuvenation. Patients with Fitzpatrick skin type's I-IV were prospectively included. Inclusion criteria consisted of having wrinkles and irregular skin texture. All patients underwent two Er:YAG + SMA sessions (1 month apart) to stimulate tissue regeneration. Er:YAG laser emits wavelength at 2,940 nm and when combined with SMA, a resonance effect is produced in the dermis to promote tissue regeneration. Facial skin elasticity and firmness were objectively assessed by Cutometer at baseline and month 6 (M6). Aesthetic improvement was qualitatively assessed using digital photographs. Patient satisfaction with regard to their facial appearance was self-assessed using the validated FACE-Q scale and the patient-perceived age VAS scale at baseline, M1, and M6. Side effects were investigated after each session. Thirty-four patients were included, 50% (18 patients) had Fitzpatrick skin type III and 41% (14 patients) were smokers. Skin elasticity indices were significantly improved: from 0.335 ± 0.015 at baseline to 0.387 ± 0.021 at M6 (P = 0.05*) for R5 (net elasticity). Skin firmness was assessed through R7 (biological elasticity) and R6 (viscoelastic ratio) at baseline and M6: a significant increase from 0.235 ± 0.01 to 0.2709 ± 0.009 (P < 0.03**) and decrease from 0.486 ± 0.022 to 0.3918 ± 0.023 (P < 0.006***) were respectively observed. A negative value for R6 corresponded to an improved skin condition. The FACE-Q scores were significantly increased from 39.4 ± 6.7 at baseline to 45.4 ± 9.1 at M1 (P < 0.006***) and 50.4 ± 9.8 at

  6. Skin quality in red potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  7. Assessment of the effects of skin microneedling as adjuvant therapy for facial melasma: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lima, Emerson V A; Lima, Mariana Modesto D A; Paixão, Mauricio Pedreira; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-11-28

    Melasma is a common chronic and relapsing acquired dyschromia. Skin microneedling was reported resulting sustained long-term improvement of recalcitrant melasma, however, the exact mechanism that promotes this skin lightening is not known. This study aimed to investigate clinical and histologic alterations promoted by skin microneedling in facial melasma. Open pilot trial including six women with facial refractory melasma submitted to two sessions of microneedling (1.5 mm) each 30 days followed by daily triple combination and broad-spectrum sunscreen. Comparison of pretreatment (T0) and 15 days after last microneedling procedure (T45) was made by standardized pictures, skin colorimetry, MASI, MELASQoL and histological parameters (haematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius-red, periodic acid Schiff and Fontana-Masson staining). The age of the subjects varied from 34 to 46 years-old, the phototypes were III and IV (Fitzpatrick), and age of melasma onset was 20 to 38 years. Improvement of melasma was perceived in all subjects. There was a significant reduction of MASI score (-70%), MELASQoL (-55%) and increase in L* (+13%) colorimetric value (p < 0.03). All cases evidenced epithelium thickening, decrease in melanin pigmentation and densification of upper dermis collagen (p = 0.03). Patients were followed by 6 months under broad-spectrum sunscreen and triple combination without relapse. In addition to classic treatment (broad-spectrum sunscreen and triple combination), skin microneedling promoted clinical and histological improvement of refractory facial melasma.

  8. High dose rate brachytherapy with customized applicators for malignant facial skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Jumeau, R; Renard-Oldrini, S; Courrech, F; Buchheit, I; Oldrini, G; Vogin, G; Peiffert, D

    2016-07-01

    Brachytherapy is a well-known treatment in the management of skin tumors. For facial or scalp lesions, applicators have been developed to deliver non-invasive treatment. We present cases treated with customized applicators with high dose rate system. Patients with poor performance status treated for malignant skin lesions of the scalp or the facial skin between 2011 and 2014 were studied. Afterloading devices were chosen between Freiburg(®) Flap, silicone-mold or wax applicators. The clinical target volume (CTV) was created by adding margins to lesions (10mm to 20mm). The dose schedules were 25Gy in five fractions for postoperative lesions, 30Gy in six fractions for exclusive treatments and a single session of 8Gy could be considered for palliative treatments. In 30 months, 11 patients received a treatment for a total of 12 lesions. The median age was 80 years. The median follow-up was 17 months and the 2-year local control rate was 91%. The mean CTV surface was 41.1cm(2) with a mean thickness of 6.1mm. We conceived three wax applicators, used our silicone-mold eight times and the Freiburg(®) Flap one time. We observed only low-grade radiodermitis (grade I: 50%, grade II: 33%), and no high-grade skin toxicity. High dose rate brachytherapy with customized applicators for facial skin and scalp lesions is efficient and safe. It is a good modality to treat complex lesions in patients unfit for invasive treatment. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

    2014-08-01

    Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception of Chinese and Caucasian faces.

  10. Assessment of cumulative exposure to UVA through the study of asymmetrical facial skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mac-Mary, Sophie; Sainthillier, Jean-Marie; Jeudy, Adeline; Sladen, Christelle; Williams, Cara; Bell, Mike; Humbert, Philippe

    2010-09-23

    Published studies assessing whether asymmetrical facial ultraviolet light exposure leads to underlying differences in skin physiology and morphology report only clinical observations. The aim of this study was to assess the visual impact on the skin of repeated ultraviolet-A (UVA) exposure through a window. Eight women and two men presenting with asymmetrical signs of photoaging due to overexposure of one side of their face to the sun through a window over a long period of time were enrolled in the study. Split-face biometrologic assessments were performed (clinical scoring, hydration with Corneometer, mechanical properties with Cutometer, transepidermal water loss with AquaFlux, skin relief with fringe projection, photography, stripping, and then lipid peroxidation analysis). Significant differences were observed in clinical scores for wrinkles, skin roughness assessed by fringe projection on the cheek, and skin heterogeneity assessed with spectrocolorimetry on the cheekbone. Other differences were observed for skin hydration, as well as skin laxity, which tended towards significance. This study suggests the potential benefit of daily UVA protection during nondeliberate exposure indoors as well as outside.

  11. [Reconstruction of zygomatic-facial massive defect using modified bilobed flap after resection of skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Ling, Bin; Abass, Keremu; Hu, Mei; Yin, Xiaopeng; Hu, Lulu; Lin, Zhaoquan; Gong, Zhongcheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the clinical application of the modified bilobed flap in the reconstruction of zygomatic-facial massive defect after resection of skin cancer. Between August 2009 and October 2011, 15 patients with skin cancer in the zygomatic-facial region underwent defect reconstruction using modified bilobed flaps after surgical removal. There were 12 males and 3 females, aged 52-78 years (mean, 64.1 years). The disease duration was 1-14 months (mean, 4.6 months). Among the patients, there were 11 cases of basal cell carcinoma and 4 cases of squamous cell carcinoma; 1 patient had infection and the others had no skin ulceration; and tumor involved the skin layer in all patients. According to TNM staging, 13 cases were rated as T2N0M2 and 2 cases as T3N0M3. The defect size ranged from 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 4.0 cm after cancer resection. The modified bilobed flaps consisting of pre-auricular flap and post-auricular flap was used to repair the defect after cancer resection. The size ranged from 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 4.0 cm of the first flap and from 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm to 5.0 cm x 3.0 cm of the second flap. Partial incision dehiscence occurred in 1 case, and was cured after dressing change; the flaps survived and incision healed primarily in the other cases. Fourteen patients were followed up 12-24 months (mean, 18.7 months). No recurrence was found, and the patients had no obvious face asymmetry or skin scar with normal closure of eyelid and facial nerve function. At last follow-up, the results were very satisfactory in 5 cases, satisfactory in 7 cases, generally satisfactory in 1 case, and dissatisfactory in 1 case. The pre- and post-auricular bilobed flaps could be used to reconstruct the massive defects in the zygomatic-facial region after resection of skin cancer.

  12. Chemical Peeling with a Modified Phenol Formula for the Treatment of Facial Freckles on Asian Skin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Feng; Lu, Hai-Shan; Sun, Le-Qi; Ping, Wei-Dong; Mao, Dong-Sheng; Li, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Chemical peeling is an efficient method for the treatment of pigment disorders. For freckles, medium-depth to deep peeling using a phenol solution is one of the most effective chemical peels, and modifications of facial skin can be observed up to 20 years after peeling. However, applying phenol to the skin may cause serious side effects. Phenol peeling has been rarely used in Asia due to its tendency to cause permanent pigmentary changes and hypertrophic scars. In total, 896 Chinese inpatients with facial freckles were enrolled in this study. The phenol formula was modified with crystalline phenol, dyclonine, camphor, anhydrous alcohol and glycerin and adjusted to a concentration of 73.6-90.0%. The entire peeling treatment was divided into two procedures performed separately on 2 days. All patients exhibited 26% or greater improvement, and 99.66% of patients exhibited 51% or greater improvement (good and excellent). Scarring and systemic complications were not observed in any patient. The modified phenol formula is very effective and safe for the treatment of facial freckles in Asian patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. Influence of facial skin ageing characteristics on the perceived age in a Russian female population.

    PubMed

    Merinville, E; Grennan, G Z; Gillbro, J M; Mathieu, J; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    The desire for a youthful look remains a powerful motivator in the purchase of cosmetics by women globally. To develop an anti-ageing solution that targets the need of end consumers, it is critical to understand which signs of ageing really matter to them and which influence their age perception. To date, such research has not been performed in a Russian population. The aim of this work was to identify the signs of ageing that contribute the most to an 'older' or 'younger' look for Russian women aged 40 years old and above. The age of 203 Russian female volunteers was estimated from their standard photographs by a total of 629 female naïve assessors aged 20-65 years old. Perceived age data were related to 23 facial skin features previously measured using linear correlation coefficients. Differences in average severity of the correlating skin ageing features were evaluated between women perceived older and women perceived younger than their chronological age. Volunteers' responses to a ranking question on their key ageing skin concerns previously collected were analysed to provide an additional view on facial ageing from the consumer perspective. Nine facial skin ageing features were found to correlate the most with perceived age out of the 23 measured. Such results showed the importance of wrinkles in the upper part of the face (crow's feet, glabellar, under eye and forehead wrinkles), but also wrinkles in the lower half of the face associated with facial sagging (upper lip, nasolabial fold). Sagging was confirmed of key importance to female volunteers aged 41-65 years old who were mostly concerned by the sagging of their jawline, ahead of under eye and crow's feet wrinkle. The severity of hyperpigmented spots, red and brown, was also found to contribute to perceived age although to a weaker extent. By providing a clear view on the signs of ageing really matter to Russian women who are aged 40 years old and above, this research offers key information for the

  14. Repair of a facial defect with an interpolation skin flap in a cat.

    PubMed

    Allen, S W; Miller, M A; Haas, K M

    1997-05-01

    A 9-year-old domestic shorthair cat was referred for removal of a rostrally located fibrosarcoma on the face, which had previously recurred twice following excision. A wide excision was performed, using a neodymium:yttrium-aluminumgarnet (Nd:YAG) laser, resulting in a facial defect that could not be closed by primary suture. An interpolation skin flap was elevated, using skin from the side of the cat's face, and sutured in place over the defect. Recurrence of the tumor at the medial canthus of the left eye, which was observed 4 months after surgery, was treated by laser excision and cryotherapy. Other recurrences of the fibrosarcoma were not noticed for 2.5 years after referral, at which time the cat was euthanatized for other reasons. Necropsy revealed that the fibrosarcoma had not recurred. In this cat, an interpolation skin flap was useful in repairing a large rostral facial defect. Care should be taken when elevating this flap to preserve the palpebral nerve.

  15. A Comparison of the Local Flap and Skin Graft by Location of Face in Reconstruction after Resection of Facial Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Kim, Jun Oh; Kim, Nam Gyun; Lee, Yoon Jung; Park, Young Ji; Kim, Jun Sik

    2017-12-01

    Surgery for reconstruction of defects after surgery should be performed selectively and the many points must be considered. The authors conducted this study to compare the local flap and skin graft by facial location in the reconstruction after resection of facial skin cancer. The authors performed the study in patients that had received treatment in Department of Plastic Surgery, Gyeongsang National University. The cases were analyzed according to the reconstruction methods for the defects after surgery, sex, age, tumor site, and tumor size. Additionally, the authors compared differences of aesthetic satisfaction (out of 5 points) of patients in the local flap and skin graft by facial location after resection of facial skin cancer by dividing the face into eight areas. A total of 153 cases were confirmed. The most common facial skin cancer was basal cell carcinoma (56.8%, 87 cases), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (37.2%, 57 cases) and bowen's disease (5.8%, 9 cases). The most common reconstruction method was local flap 119 cases (77.7%), followed by skin graft 34 cases (22.3%). 86 patients answered the questionnaire and mean satisfaction of the local flap and skin graft were 4.3 and 3.5 ( p =0.04), respectively, indicating that satisfaction of local flap was significantly high. When comparing satisfaction of patients according to results, local flap shows excellent effects in functional and cosmetic aspects would be able to provide excellent results rather than using a skin graft with poor touch and tone compared to the surrounding normal skin.

  16. Management of facial burns with a collagen/glycosaminoglycan skin substitute-prospective experience with 12 consecutive patients with large, deep facial burns.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthew B; Engrav, Loren H; Holmes, James H; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Costa, Beth A; Honari, Shari; Gibran, Nicole S

    2005-05-01

    Management of deep facial burns remains one of the greatest challenges in burn care. We have developed a protocol over the past 20 years for management of facial burns that includes excision and coverage with thick autograft. However, the results were not perfect. Deformities of the eyelids, nose and mouth as well as the prominence of skin graft junctures demonstrated the need to explore novel approaches. Integra has been used with success in the management of burns of the trunk and extremities. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the aesthetic outcome of the use of Integra for deep facial burns. Twelve consecutive patients underwent excision of large, deep facial burns and placement of Integra. Integra provides excellent color and minimally visible skin graft junctures. The texture is good but not as supple as thick autograft. Integra is not well suited for use in the coverage of eyelid burns due to the need to wait 2 weeks for adequate vascularization. In summary, thick autograft remains the gold standard for deep facial burns. However, for patients with extensive burns and limited donor sites, Integra provides an acceptable alternative.

  17. Dermal carbonyl modification is related to the yellowish color change of photo-aged Japanese facial skin.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuki; Kuwahara, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Minoru; Tajima, Shingo; Hattori, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kouhei; Okawa, Shinpei; Yamada, Yukio; Tagami, Hachiro; Takahashi, Motoji; Hirao, Tetsuji

    2011-10-01

    The photo-aged facial skin is characterized by various unique features such as dark spots, wrinkles, and sagging. Elderly people, particularly Asians, tend to show a yellowish skin color change with photo-aging. However, there has been no analytical study conducted on this unique skin color change of the aged facial skin. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether the carbonyl modification in the dermal protein is involved in the yellowish color change that occurs in the photo-aged skin. Normal skin samples excised from the face, abdomen and buttock of variously aged Japanese were separated into the epidermal and the dermal portions. These skin samples were histologically examined for carbonyl modification. Moreover, an in vitro constructed dermis model composed of a contracted collagen gel was treated with acrolein or 4-hydroxynonenal. All these samples were also studied colorimetrically. The dermal samples obtained from the photo-aged facial skin exhibited an appearance of yellowish color, whereas neither the facial epidermis nor the dermis obtained from the abdomen or buttock showed such a yellowish discoloration. The upper layer of the dermis that revealed the yellowish color showed elastosis whose elastic fibers were found to colocalize with carbonyl protein as detected by a labeled hydrazide, as well as by an immunohistochemical examination using the antibody against acrolein adduct. Experimental induction of carbonyl modification in a dermis model in vitro by a long-term treatment with acrolein or 4-hydroxynonenal was found to show the appearance of the yellowish change which was also proven by an increase in b* value of colorimetry. It was more pronounced than that induced by glycation. Our present results strongly suggest that carbonyl modification of the dermal protein is involved in the production of the yellowish color change that is noted in the photo-aged facial skin. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology

  18. Skin and Composite Grafting Techniques in Facial Reconstruction for Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Michael J; Moyer, Jeffrey S

    2017-08-01

    Skin and composite grafting provide effective resurfacing and reconstruction for cutaneous defects after excision of the malignancy. The goal is to restore a natural appearance and function while preventing distortion of the eyelid, nose, or lips. With careful planning and attention to aesthetic subunits, the surgeon can camouflage incisions and avoid blunting aesthetically sensitive sulci. The surgical plan is also informed by the pathology, as basal or squamous cell carcinomas removed by Mohs micrographic excision have different prognostic and logistical considerations from melanoma. Skin and composite grafting are useful as stand-alone procedures or may complement local flaps and other soft tissue reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient satisfaction and efficacy of accent radiofrequency for facial skin wrinkle reduction

    PubMed Central

    Jaffary, Fariba; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Zarkoob, Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency (RF) is a new technique to treat facial wrinkles. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Accent RF in wrinkle reduction of different areas of the face. Materials and Methods: Patients with mild to severe facial wrinkles were treated with Accent using RF energies of 35-145 W. The average energy used in this study was 83.11 W. Patients received four subsequent weekly RF sessions. Wrinkle improvement was rated by two physicians comparing 6-month post treatment photographs with pretreatment photos. Moreover, patient satisfaction was assessed at 1 and 6 months after the last session of the treatment. Results: A total of 45 women participated in this study. In terms of patient satisfaction one month after the last treatment, 8.9% of the patients declared their dissatisfaction, 53.3% were somehow satisfied, 33.3% were satisfied, and 4.4% were very satisfied. At 6 months, patient satisfaction was as follows: 4.4% dissatisfied, 31.1% somehow satisfied, 46.7% satisfied, and 17.8% very satisfied. Patient satisfaction 6 months after the last treatment was significantly higher than 1 month post treatment (P = 0.006). At 6 months, patient satisfaction was not more than 75% in any treatment areas of the face. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Accent RF may be considered as a possible effective option for facial skin rejuvenation although its efficacy and safety needs to be evaluated further in randomized controlled trials. PMID:24523783

  20. Hypodermal delivery of cosmetic actives for improved facial skin morphology and functionality.

    PubMed

    Bojanowski, K

    2013-12-01

    Skin compartments traditionally targeted by cosmetic actives - epidermis and dermis - are anchored and nourished by the underlying hypodermis, which therefore should be a key target for skin-rejuvenating formulations. However, given the difficulty to reach even the superficial layers of the skin, and to its 'unglamorous' fatty composition, the regenerative potential of hypodermis remains largely untapped. Therefore, this study was to investigate the capacity of a cosmetic material to trigger a regenerative response in dermis and epidermis through a selective action on hypodermis. Furthermore, it aimed to establish the effect of such cosmetic material in transbuccal hypodermal delivery form, on the hypodermal precursor cells - the preadipocytes. A combination of grape seed extract and soy phospholipids was formulated and standardized for elastase activity and free radical inhibition. This formulation was then used to contact the hypodermal layer of human skin biopsies and - under a transbuccal delivery vehicle form - the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and its effects were quantified using PCR arrays and histochemistry. Application of the standardized grape/soy material to the hypodermal layer of skin triggered modulation of gene expression in the upper layers of the skin and resulted in the clear morphological improvement at the dermal and epidermal levels. Furthermore, when this material was formulated in a mucoadhesive, intraoral film and applied on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the resulting modulation of gene expression in these cells was consistent with differentiation and detoxification effects. These results suggest that transbuccal formulations of nutraceutical grade cosmetics have potential to induce signal transduction pathways in facial hypodermis, resulting in anti-aging effects throughout all skin compartments, including dermal and epidermal layers. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Ice slurry ingestion reduces both core and facial skin temperatures in a warm environment.

    PubMed

    Onitsuka, Sumire; Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Internal body cooling by ingesting ice slurry has recently attracted attention. Because ice slurries are ingested through the mouth, it is possible that this results in conductive cooling of the facial skin and brain. However, no studies have investigated this possibility. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ice slurry ingestion on forehead skin temperature at the point of conductive cooling between the forehead skin and brain. Eight male subjects ingested either 7.5g/kg of ice slurry (-1°C; ICE), a cold sports drink (4°C; COOL), or a warm sports drink (37°C; CON) for 15min in a warm environment (30°C, 80% relative humidity). Then, they remained at rest for 1h. As physiological indices, rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature, forehead skin temperature (Thead), heart rate, nude body mass, and urine specific gravity were measured. Subjective thermal sensation (TS) was measured at 5-min intervals throughout the experiment. With ICE, Tre and Thead were significantly reduced compared with CON and COOL conditions (p<0.05). The results of the other physiological indices were not significantly different. TS with ICE was significantly lower than that with CON and COOL (p<0.05) and was correlated with Tre or Thead (p<0.05). These results indicate that ice slurry ingestion may induce conductive cooling between forehead skin and brain, and reduction in core and forehead skin temperature reduced thermal sensation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel continuous colour mapping approach for visualization of facial skin hydration and transepidermal water loss for four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Voegeli, R; Rawlings, A V; Seroul, P; Summers, B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to develop a novel colour mapping approach to visualize and interpret the complexity of facial skin hydration and barrier properties of four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Indians, Chinese and Black Africans) living in Pretoria, South Africa. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance on 30 pre-defined sites on the forehead, cheek, jaw and eye areas of sixteen women (four per ethnic group) and took digital images of their faces. Continuous colour maps were generated by interpolating between each measured value and superimposing the values on the digital images. The complexity of facial skin hydration and skin barrier properties is revealed by these measurements and visualized by the continuous colour maps of the digital images. Overall, the Caucasian subjects had the better barrier properties followed by the Black African subjects, Chinese subjects and Indian subjects. Nevertheless, the two more darkly pigmented ethnic groups had superior skin hydration properties. Subtle differences were seen when examining the different facial sites. There exists remarkable skin capacitance and TEWL gradients within short distances on selected areas of the face. These gradients are distinctive in the different ethnic groups. In contrast to other reports, we found that darkly pigmented skin does not always have a superior barrier function and differences in skin hydration values are complex on the different parts of the face among the different ethnic groups. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Highly polymorphic colour vision in a New World monkey with red facial skin, the bald uakari (Cacajao calvus).

    PubMed

    Corso, Josmael; Bowler, Mark; Heymann, Eckhard W; Roos, Christian; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-04-13

    Colour vision is highly variable in New World monkeys (NWMs). Evidence for the adaptive basis of colour vision in this group has largely centred on environmental features such as foraging benefits for differently coloured foods or predator detection, whereas selection on colour vision for sociosexual communication is an alternative hypothesis that has received little attention. The colour vision of uakaris (Cacajao) is of particular interest because these monkeys have the most dramatic red facial skin of any primate, as well as a unique fission/fusion social system and a specialist diet of seeds. Here, we investigate colour vision in a wild population of the bald uakari,C. calvus, by genotyping the X-linked opsin locus. We document the presence of a polymorphic colour vision system with an unprecedented number of functional alleles (six), including a novel allele with a predicted maximum spectral sensitivity of 555 nm. This supports the presence of strong balancing selection on different alleles at this locus. We consider different hypotheses to explain this selection. One possibility is that trichromacy functions in sexual selection, enabling females to choose high-quality males on the basis of red facial coloration. In support of this, there is some evidence that health affects facial coloration in uakaris, as well as a high prevalence of blood-borne parasitism in wild uakari populations. Alternatively, the low proportion of heterozygous female trichromats in the population may indicate selection on different dichromatic phenotypes, which might be related to cryptic food coloration. We have uncovered unexpected diversity in the last major lineage of NWMs to be assayed for colour vision, which will provide an interesting system to dissect adaptation of polymorphic trichromacy. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. EFFICACY OF PULSED DYE LASER IN COSMETICALLY DISTRESSING FACIAL DERMATOSES IN SKIN TYPES IV AND V

    PubMed Central

    Khandpur, Sujay; Sharma, Vinod K

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) has revolutionized treatment of vascular dermatoses. It has been successfully employed to treat several non-vascular conditions in fair skinned individuals without producing significant pigmentary and textural complications. Aim: A preliminary study was undertaken to assess its efficacy in cosmetically distressing facial, vascular and non-vascular dermatoses in Indian patients with skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: Nine patients of ages 7 to 55 years, with facial verruca plana (VP- 4 cases), angiofibromas (AF- 4 cases) and multiple pyogenic granulomas (PG- one case) were recruited. They had no systemic complaints. Laser parameters used were (spot size/fluence/wavelength/pulse duration):VP- 5mm/5.5-7.5J/585nm/0.45ms; AF-5mm/6-8.5J/585nm/0.45ms;PG- 5mm/7J/585 and 595nm alternately/1.5ms. Response was assessed clinically and photographically. Results and Conclusions: All VP lesions completely resolved after 2-4 sessions (mean 3.25 sessions), AF showed 50% regression in all cases after 2-3 sessions (mean 2.5 sessions) and ≥75% subsidence after 3-7 sessions (mean 5.5 sessions) and in PG, after 3 sessions, there was complete subsidence of small satellite lesions with moderate shrinkage of larger papules and complete resolution after 5 sessions. Complications included transient hyperpigmentation/hypopigmentation only. There was no recurrence during next 6 months. PDL offers significant cosmetic improvement in facial dermatoses in Indian patients. PMID:19882031

  5. Validation of image analysis techniques to measure skin aging features from facial photographs.

    PubMed

    Hamer, M A; Jacobs, L C; Lall, J S; Wollstein, A; Hollestein, L M; Rae, A R; Gossage, K W; Hofman, A; Liu, F; Kayser, M; Nijsten, T; Gunn, D A

    2015-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the extent skin has aged is crucial for skin aging research. Image analysis offers a quick and consistent approach for quantifying skin aging features from photographs, but is prone to technical bias and requires proper validation. Facial photographs of 75 male and 75 female North-European participants, randomly selected from the Rotterdam Study, were graded by two physicians using photonumeric scales for wrinkles (full face, forehead, crow's feet, nasolabial fold and upper lip), pigmented spots and telangiectasia. Image analysis measurements of the same features were optimized using photonumeric grades from 50 participants, then compared to photonumeric grading in the 100 remaining participants stratified by sex. The inter-rater reliability of the photonumeric grades was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.65-0.93). Correlations between the digital measures and the photonumeric grading were moderate to excellent for all the wrinkle comparisons (Spearman's rho ρ = 0.52-0.89) bar the upper lip wrinkles in the men (fair, ρ = 0.30). Correlations were moderate to good for pigmented spots and telangiectasia (ρ = 0.60-0.75). These comparisons demonstrate that all the image analysis measures, bar the upper lip measure in the men, are suitable for use in skin aging research and highlight areas of improvement for future refinements of the techniques. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons.

  6. Development and Validation of a Photonumeric Scale for Evaluation of Facial Skin Texture

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Alastair; Hardas, Bhushan; Murphy, Diane K.; Carruthers, Jean; Jones, Derek; Sykes, Jonathan M.; Creutz, Lela; Marx, Ann; Dill, Sara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A validated scale is needed for objective and reproducible comparisons of facial skin roughness before and after aesthetic treatment in practice and in clinical studies. OBJECTIVE To describe the development and validation of the 5-point photonumeric Allergan Skin Roughness Scale. METHODS The scale was developed to include an assessment guide, verbal descriptors, morphed images, and real subject images for each grade. The clinical significance of a 1-point score difference was evaluated in a review of image pairs representing varying differences in severity. Interrater and intrarater reliability was evaluated in a live-subject validation study (N = 290) completed during 2 sessions occurring 3 weeks apart. RESULTS A score difference of ≥1 point was shown to reflect a clinically meaningful difference (mean [95% confidence interval] absolute score difference 1.09 [0.96–1.23] for clinically different image pairs and 0.53 [0.38–0.67] for not clinically different pairs). Intrarater agreement between the 2 validation sessions was almost perfect (weighted kappa = 0.83). Interrater agreement was almost perfect during the second rating session (0.81, primary end point). CONCLUSION The Allergan Skin Roughness Scale is a validated and reliable scale for physician rating of midface skin roughness. PMID:27661744

  7. Changes in Women’s Facial Skin Color over the Ovulatory Cycle are Not Detectable by the Human Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Burriss, Robert P.; Troscianko, Jolyon; Lovell, P. George; Fulford, Anthony J. C.; Stevens, Martin; Quigley, Rachael; Payne, Jenny; Saxton, Tamsin K.; Rowland, Hannah M.

    2015-01-01

    Human ovulation is not advertised, as it is in several primate species, by conspicuous sexual swellings. However, there is increasing evidence that the attractiveness of women’s body odor, voice, and facial appearance peak during the fertile phase of their ovulatory cycle. Cycle effects on facial attractiveness may be underpinned by changes in facial skin color, but it is not clear if skin color varies cyclically in humans or if any changes are detectable. To test these questions we photographed women daily for at least one cycle. Changes in facial skin redness and luminance were then quantified by mapping the digital images to human long, medium, and shortwave visual receptors. We find cyclic variation in skin redness, but not luminance. Redness decreases rapidly after menstrual onset, increases in the days before ovulation, and remains high through the luteal phase. However, we also show that this variation is unlikely to be detectable by the human visual system. We conclude that changes in skin color are not responsible for the effects of the ovulatory cycle on women’s attractiveness. PMID:26134671

  8. Changes in Women's Facial Skin Color over the Ovulatory Cycle are Not Detectable by the Human Visual System.

    PubMed

    Burriss, Robert P; Troscianko, Jolyon; Lovell, P George; Fulford, Anthony J C; Stevens, Martin; Quigley, Rachael; Payne, Jenny; Saxton, Tamsin K; Rowland, Hannah M

    2015-01-01

    Human ovulation is not advertised, as it is in several primate species, by conspicuous sexual swellings. However, there is increasing evidence that the attractiveness of women's body odor, voice, and facial appearance peak during the fertile phase of their ovulatory cycle. Cycle effects on facial attractiveness may be underpinned by changes in facial skin color, but it is not clear if skin color varies cyclically in humans or if any changes are detectable. To test these questions we photographed women daily for at least one cycle. Changes in facial skin redness and luminance were then quantified by mapping the digital images to human long, medium, and shortwave visual receptors. We find cyclic variation in skin redness, but not luminance. Redness decreases rapidly after menstrual onset, increases in the days before ovulation, and remains high through the luteal phase. However, we also show that this variation is unlikely to be detectable by the human visual system. We conclude that changes in skin color are not responsible for the effects of the ovulatory cycle on women's attractiveness.

  9. Regional and seasonal variations in facial sebum secretions: a proposal for the definition of combination skin type.

    PubMed

    Youn, Sang Woong; Na, Jung Im; Choi, Sun Young; Huh, Chang Hun; Park, Kyoung Chan

    2005-08-01

    Facial sebum secretions are known to change under various circumstances. Facial skin types have been categorized as oily, normal, dry, and combination types. However, these have been evaluated subjectively by individuals to date, and no objective accepted standard measurement method exists. The combination skin type is most common, but its definition is vaguer than the definitions of the other skin types. We measured facial sebum secretions with Sebumeter. Sebum secretions were measured at five sites of the face seasonally for a year, in the same volunteers. Using the data obtained we developed a set of rules to define the combination skin type. Regional differences in sebum secretion were confirmed. Sebum secretions on forehead, nose, and chin were higher than on both cheeks. Summer was found to be the highest sebum-secreting season, and seasonal variations were found in the T- and U-zones. A mismatch of skin type in the T- and U-zones in more than two seasons appears to be close to subjective ratings of what is described as the 'combination' skin type. We showed that the face shows definitive regional and seasonal variations in sebum secretion. To define the combination skin type, seasonal variations in sebum secretion should be considered in addition to regional variations.

  10. Comparison of Neurovascular Characteristics of Facial Skin in Patients After Primary and Revision Rhytidectomies.

    PubMed

    Ardeshirpour, Farhad; Hurliman, Elisabeth; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; McAdams, Brian; Hilger, Peter A; Kennedy, William R; Lassig, Amy Anne D; Brenner, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Wound healing influences both the cosmetic and functional outcomes of facial surgery. Study of cutaneous innervation may afford insight into patients' preoperative wound healing potential and aid in their selection of appropriate surgical procedures. To present the quantitative and qualitative differences of epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs), neurotransmitters, vasculature, and mast cells in facial skin among patients after primary and revision rhytidectomies. This pilot study collected cutaneous specimens from 8 female patients aged 42 to 66 years who underwent primary rhytidectomy (n = 5) and revision rhytidectomy (n = 3) at Centennial Lakes Surgery Center, Edina, Minnesota, from July 2010 to March 2014. Tissue was processed for confocal/epifluorescence microscopy and indirect immunofluorescent localization of several neural and tissue antigens as well as basement membrane and mast cell markers. Primary rhytidectomy vs revision rhytidectomy with selection of a small area of redundant, otherwise disposed of tissue anterior to the tragus for ENF study. Demographic characteristics included smoking status; 10-point rating scales for facial sensation, pain, and paresthesias; and confocal/epifluorescence microscopy to quantify ENFs, neurotransmitters, vasculature, and mast cells. Patients in the primary rhytidectomy group had a mean (SD) of 54.4 (31.6) ENFs/mm (range, 14.2-99.2 ENFs/mm), and those in the revision rhytidectomy group had a mean (SD) of 18.6 (5.8) ENFs/mm (range, 13.8-25.0 ENFs/mm). A patient in the primary rhytidectomy group was a 25-pack-year smoker and had 14.2 ENFs/mm, the lowest in both groups. In addition to these structural neural changes, functional neural changes in revision rhytidectomy samples included qualitative changes in normal neural antigen prevalence (substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide). Capillary loops appeared less robust and were less common in dermal papilla among samples from both the

  11. The impact of face skin tone on perceived facial attractiveness: A study realized with an innovative methodology.

    PubMed

    Vera Cruz, Germano

    2017-12-19

    This study aimed to assess the impact of target faces' skin tone and perceivers' skin tone on the participants' attractiveness judgment regarding a symmetrical representative range of target faces as stimuli. Presented with a set of facial features, 240 Mozambican adults rated their attractiveness along a continuous scale. ANOVA and Chi-square were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that the skin tone of the target faces had an impact on the participants' attractiveness judgment. Overall, participants preferred light-skinned faces over dark-skinned ones. This finding is not only consistent with previous results on skin tone preferences, but it is even more powerful because it demonstrates that the light skin tone preference occurs regardless of the symmetry and baseline attractiveness of the stimuli.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of skin care protocols for facial resurfacing: lessons learned from the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation's Skin Products Assessment Research study.

    PubMed

    Pannucci, Christopher J; Reavey, Patrick L; Kaweski, Susan; Hamill, Jennifer B; Hume, Keith M; Wilkins, Edwin G; Pusic, Andrea L

    2011-03-01

    The Skin Products Assessment Research Committee was created by the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation in 2006. The Skin Products Assessment Research study aims were to (1) develop an infrastructure for Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation-conducted, industry-sponsored research in facial aesthetic surgery and (2) test the research process by comparing outcomes of the Obagi Nu-Derm System versus conventional therapy as treatment adjuncts for facial resurfacing procedures. The Skin Products Assessment Research study was designed as a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. The study was conducted in women with Fitzpatrick type I to IV skin, moderate to severe facial photodamage, and periocular and/or perioral fine wrinkles. Patients underwent chemical peel or laser facial resurfacing and were randomized to the Obagi Nu-Derm System or a standard care regimen. The study endpoints were time to reepithelialization, erythema, and pigmentation changes. Fifty-six women were enrolled and 82 percent were followed beyond reepithelialization. There were no significant differences in mean time to reepithelialization between Obagi Nu-Derm System and control groups. The Obagi Nu-Derm System group had a significantly higher median erythema score on the day of surgery (after 4 weeks of product use) that did not persist after surgery. Test-retest photographic evaluations demonstrated that both interrater and intrarater reliability were adequate for primary study outcomes. The authors demonstrated no significant difference in time to reepithelialization between patients who used the Obagi Nu-Derm System or a standard care regimen as an adjunct to facial resurfacing procedures. The Skin Products Assessment Research team has also provided a discussion of future challenges for Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation-sponsored clinical research for readers of this article.

  13. Facial and Periorbital Cellulitis due to Skin Peeling with Jet Stream by an Unauthorized Person.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Mullaaziz, Didem; Suer, Kaya

    2014-01-01

    Technologies and devices for cosmetic procedures are developing with each passing day. However, increased and unauthorized use of such emerging technologies may also lead to increases in unexpected results and complications as well. Here, we report a case of facial cellulitis after a "beauty parlor" session of skin cleaning with jet stream peeling device in 19-year old female patient for the first time. Complications due to improper and unauthorized use of jet stream peeling devices may also cause doubts about the safety and impair the reputation of the technology as well. In order to avoid irreversible complications, local authorities should follow the technology and update the regulations where the dermatologists should take an active role.

  14. Visualization of drug distribution of topical minocycline in human facial skin with fluorescence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermsmeier, Maiko; Sawant, Tanvee; Lac, Diana; Yamamoto, Akira; Chen, Xin; Nagavarapu, Usha; Evans, Conor L.; Chan, Kin Foong

    2017-02-01

    Minocycline is an antibiotic regularly prescribed to treat acne vulgaris. The only commercially available minocycline comes in an oral dosage form, which often results in systemic adverse effects. A topical minocycline composition (BPX-01) was developed to provide localized and targeted delivery to the epidermis and pilosebaceous unit where acne-related bacteria, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), reside. As minocycline is a known fluorophore, fluorescence microscopy was performed to investigate its potential use in visualizing minocycline distribution within tissues. BPX-01 with various concentrations of minocycline, was applied topically to freshly excised human facial skin specimens. Spatial distribution of minocycline and its fluorescence intensity within the stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis, and pilosebaceous unit were assessed. The resulting fluorescence intensity data as a function of minocycline concentration may indicate clinically relevant therapeutic doses of topical BPX-01 needed to kill P. acnes and reduce inflammation for successful clinical outcomes.

  15. The Relationships among Facial Emotion Recognition, Social Skills, and Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Elliott W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Forty-six institutionalized adults with mild or moderate mental retardation were administered the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (socialization domain), a subjective measure of quality of life, and a facial emotion recognition test. Facial emotion recognition, quality of life, and social skills appeared to be independent of one another. Facial…

  16. A single-blinded randomised controlled study to determine the efficacy of Omnilux Revive facial treatment in skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jaideep; Birch, Jan; Whitehurst, Colin; Lanigan, Sean W

    2005-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of Omnilux Revive facial treatment in skin rejuvenation, twenty-three volunteers received randomised 20 min treatments three times a week for three weeks to one half of their face, with the untreated side acting as control. Regular assessments were carried out, focusing on parameters of subject satisfaction, photographic assessments, skin elasticity (Cutometer) and skin hydration (Corneometer CM825). Ninety-one percent of the volunteers reported visible changes to their skin. Blinded photographic evaluation reported a clinical response in 59% of the subjects. Objective analysis failed to show statistically significant changes in skin hydration or elasticity. The Omnilux Revive LED lamp is a safe alternative non-ablative skin rejuvenation treatment.

  17. Biometric correspondence between reface computerized facial approximations and CT-derived ground truth skin surface models objectively examined using an automated facial recognition system.

    PubMed

    Parks, Connie L; Monson, Keith L

    2018-05-01

    This study employed an automated facial recognition system as a means of objectively evaluating biometric correspondence between a ReFace facial approximation and the computed tomography (CT) derived ground truth skin surface of the same individual. High rates of biometric correspondence were observed, irrespective of rank class (R k ) or demographic cohort examined. Overall, 48% of the test subjects' ReFace approximation probes (n=96) were matched to his or her corresponding ground truth skin surface image at R 1 , a rank indicating a high degree of biometric correspondence and a potential positive identification. Identification rates improved with each successively broader rank class (R 10 =85%, R 25 =96%, and R 50 =99%), with 100% identification by R 57 . A sharp increase (39% mean increase) in identification rates was observed between R 1 and R 10 across most rank classes and demographic cohorts. In contrast, significantly lower (p<0.01) increases in identification rates were observed between R 10 and R 25 (8% mean increase) and R 25 and R 50 (3% mean increase). No significant (p>0.05) performance differences were observed across demographic cohorts or CT scan protocols. Performance measures observed in this research suggest that ReFace approximations are biometrically similar to the actual faces of the approximated individuals and, therefore, may have potential operational utility in contexts in which computerized approximations are utilized as probes in automated facial recognition systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A cleanser based on sodium laureth carboxylate and alkyl carboxylates washes facial sebum well but does not induce dry skin.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Aya; Endo, Koji; Ozawa, Toshiaki; Miyaki, Masahiro; Matsuo, Keiko; Nozawa, Kazumi; Manabe, Motomu; Takagi, Yutaka

    2014-12-01

    Because excess sebum and/or metabolites of sebum induce skin problems, cleansers that can remove those kinds of sebum are sought after. However, many people, especially who have little facial sebum, are afraid to wash off sebum well because that may induce dry skin. This concern may be caused by the result that cleansers with a high cleansing ability tend to decrease not only facial sebum but also natural moisturizing factors and intercellular lipids that are essential for cutaneous function. Recently, we have developed a new cleanser based on sodium laureth carboxylate and alkyl carboxylates (AEC/soap) that cleans sebum well without penetrating the stratum corneum. This trial was aim to clarify the effects of sebum removal by AEC/soap-based cleanser on the induction of dry skin. We designed a controlled single blind parallel trial. Thirty female subjects with mild dry skin were assigned randomly to two groups: one group used AEC/soap-based cleanser while the other group kept using their usual facial cleanser twice a day for 4 weeks in the winter season. Using a colored artificial sebum mixture, it was demonstrated that this cleanser washed sebum well. Following usage of this cleanser, their dry skin improved rather than worsen which was indicated by instrumental analysis and visual assessment. These improvements were recognized by subjects. These results suggest that AEC/soap-based cleanser washes off facial sebum well, but it has little effect on the induction of dry skin because of less penetration into stratum corneum. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol(®)) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin.

    PubMed

    Furumura, Minao; Sato, Noriko; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Takagaki, Kinya; Nakayama, Juichiro

    2012-01-01

    French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE. One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily. A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements. Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE.

  20. Effects of cosmetics on the skin microbiome of facial cheeks with different hydration levels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeong, Sang Eun; Lee, Soyoun; Kim, Sungwoo; Han, Hyuntak; Jeon, Che Ok

    2018-04-01

    Basic cosmetics was used by volunteers belonging to high (HHG) and low (LHG) hydration groups for 4 weeks, and bacterial communities and biophysical parameters in facial skin were analyzed. Hydration level increases and transepidermal water loss and roughness decreases were observed in both groups after cosmetic use. Bacterial diversity was greater in LHG than HHG, and increased after cosmetic use in both groups. Bray-Curtis dissimilarities that were higher in LHG than HHG increased in HHG after cosmetic use, whereas they decreased in LHG. The phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes and the genera Propionibacterium, Ralstonia, Burkholderia, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Cupriavidus, and Pelomonas were identified as common groups and they were not significantly different between LHG and HHG except for Propionibacterium that was more abundant in HHG. After cosmetic use, Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium decreased, whereas Ralstonia, not a core genus, increased, as did KEGG categories of lipid metabolism and xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, suggesting that Ralstonia in skin may have the ability to metabolize cosmetics components. Bacterial communities after cosmetic use were different from those in both LHG and HHG before the cosmetic use, indicating that bacterial communities in LHG were not shifted to resemble those in HHG by cosmetics use. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Methods Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Results Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. Conclusion This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception

  2. Assessment of Combined Ascorbyl Palmitate (AP) and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP) on Facial Skin Sebum Control in Female Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Khan, H; Akhtar, N; Ali, A

    2017-01-01

    The skin is fortified with a setup of lipophilic and hydrophilic, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) and sodium ascorbyl phosphate (SAP) are reported as lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, respectively used for skin care. Present study was aimed to assess the combined AP (in oil phase) and SAP (in aqueous phase) via multiple emulsion (ME 1 ) for controlling sebum secretions in healthy human females. FTIR analysis of AP and SAP was performed for identification. Multiple emulsions (ME 1 and control) were prepared and analyzed for physical stability. Antioxidant activities of AP, SAP as well as ME 1 (with combination of these compounds) were determined by DPPH method. 11 female volunteers were included in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, split-face comparative study. Volunteers were instructed to apply ME 1 on left cheek while control (without AP and SAP) on right cheek, for a period of 90 days. A non-invasive photometric device (Sebumeter ® ) was used for the measurement of sebum secretions on both sides of the face with subsequent time intervals. A good antioxidant activity of ME 1 was observed. ME 1 treatments reduced significant facial sebum secretions as compared with control/placebo treatments. It was concluded that combined AP and SAP supplementations to skin proved a promising choice for controlling facial sebum secretions and could be evaluated for undesired oily skin and acne reductions for beautifying the facial appearance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Sebum and Hydration Levels in Specific Regions of Human Face Significantly Predict the Nature and Diversity of Facial Skin Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Mitra, Rupak; Maitra, Arindam; Gupta, Satyaranjan; Kumaran, Srikala; Chakrabortty, Amit; Majumder, Partha P.

    2016-01-01

    The skin microbiome varies across individuals. The causes of these variations are inadequately understood. We tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in facial skin microbiome can be significantly explained by variation in sebum and hydration levels in specific facial regions of humans. We measured sebum and hydration from forehead and cheek regions of healthy female volunteers (n = 30). Metagenomic DNA from skin swabs were sequenced for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Altogether, 34 phyla were identified; predominantly Actinobacteria (66.3%), Firmicutes (17.7%), Proteobacteria (13.1%) and Bacteroidetes (1.4%). About 1000 genera were identified; predominantly Propionibacterium (58.6%), Staphylococcus (8.6%), Streptococcus (4.0%), Corynebacterium (3.6%) and Paracoccus (3.3%). A subset (n = 24) of individuals were sampled two months later. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that cheek sebum level was the most significant predictor of microbiome composition and diversity followed by forehead hydration level; forehead sebum and cheek hydration levels were not. With increase in cheek sebum, the prevalence of Actinobacteria (p = 0.001)/Propionibacterium (p = 0.002) increased, whereas microbiome diversity decreased (Shannon Index, p = 0.032); this was opposite for other phyla/genera. These trends were reversed for forehead hydration levels. Therefore, the nature and diversity of facial skin microbiome is jointly determined by site-specific lipid and water levels in the stratum corneum. PMID:27786295

  4. Sebum and Hydration Levels in Specific Regions of Human Face Significantly Predict the Nature and Diversity of Facial Skin Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Mitra, Rupak; Maitra, Arindam; Gupta, Satyaranjan; Kumaran, Srikala; Chakrabortty, Amit; Majumder, Partha P

    2016-10-27

    The skin microbiome varies across individuals. The causes of these variations are inadequately understood. We tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in facial skin microbiome can be significantly explained by variation in sebum and hydration levels in specific facial regions of humans. We measured sebum and hydration from forehead and cheek regions of healthy female volunteers (n = 30). Metagenomic DNA from skin swabs were sequenced for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Altogether, 34 phyla were identified; predominantly Actinobacteria (66.3%), Firmicutes (17.7%), Proteobacteria (13.1%) and Bacteroidetes (1.4%). About 1000 genera were identified; predominantly Propionibacterium (58.6%), Staphylococcus (8.6%), Streptococcus (4.0%), Corynebacterium (3.6%) and Paracoccus (3.3%). A subset (n = 24) of individuals were sampled two months later. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that cheek sebum level was the most significant predictor of microbiome composition and diversity followed by forehead hydration level; forehead sebum and cheek hydration levels were not. With increase in cheek sebum, the prevalence of Actinobacteria (p = 0.001)/Propionibacterium (p = 0.002) increased, whereas microbiome diversity decreased (Shannon Index, p = 0.032); this was opposite for other phyla/genera. These trends were reversed for forehead hydration levels. Therefore, the nature and diversity of facial skin microbiome is jointly determined by site-specific lipid and water levels in the stratum corneum.

  5. Nitroglycerin-induced changes in facial skin temperature: 'cold nose' as a predictor of headache?

    PubMed

    Zaproudina, Nina; Närhi, Matti; Lipponen, Jukka A; Tarvainen, Mika P; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Karhu, Jari; Airaksinen, Olavi; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-11-01

    Nitroglycerin (NTG) often induces headaches when used to treat cardiac diseases. Such property of NTG has been widely used in modelling of migraine-like headaches. However, background reasons, predisposing to the development of NTG-headache, are less studied. The main aim of our study was to find, using NTG model, easily accessible markers of the vascular changes associated with headache. Because changes in the blood flow alter the local skin temperature (Tsk), we studied the relationship between the regional changes in the facial Tsk and NTG-induced headaches. Tsk was measured with infrared thermography in 11 healthy women during 3 h after sublingual NTG administration. NTG caused headache in five women, and four of them were the first-degree relatives of migraine patients. Notably, before NTG administration, subjects in the headache group had lower Tsk values, especially in the nose area, than women in the pain-free group (n = 6). NTG-induced headache was associated with a long-lasting increase of Tsk over the baseline. In sharp contrast, in the pain-free group, the Tsk reduced and returned rapidly to the baseline. Thus, the low baseline level and greater increase of regional Tsk correlated with the incidence of headache that supports a role of greater vascular changes in headache happening on the basis of the dissimilarities in vascular tone. An easily accessible phenomenon of 'cold nose' may indicate background vascular dysfunctions in individuals with predisposition to headache. Facial infrared thermography, coupled with NTG administration, suggests a novel temporally controlled approach for non-invasive investigation of vascular processes accompanying headaches. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Gene and protein expression of oestrogen-β and progesterone receptors in facial melasma and adjacent healthy skin in women.

    PubMed

    Tamega, A de A; Miot, H A; Moço, N P; Silva, M G; Marques, M E A; Miot, L D B

    2015-04-01

    Compare gene and protein expression for oestrogen receptor-β (ER-β) and progesterone receptor (PR) in facial melasma and adjacent healthy skin. A cross-sectional study including 42 women with facial melasma, conducted at the Dermatology Service of Botucatu Medical School of São Paulo State University, Brazil. Biopsies of the melasma skin were performed, together with healthy surrounding skin. The gene expression (real-time PCR) of the hormone receptors in the tissue was evaluated. Subsequently, skin fragments were immunostained for nuclear ER-β and PR, evaluated according to their HSCORE (epidermis) and percentage of staining per microscopic field (dermis). Messenger RNA tissue expression for ER-β and PR showed no difference between melasma-affected skin fragments and the healthy perilesional areas (P > 0.2). Median nuclear epithelial expression for ER-β and PR was higher in lesioned skin (HSCORE 157 and 58) than in the healthy perilesional skin (HSCORE 97 and 19; P < 0.01), with no difference in dermal immunostaining. Nuclear histological expression for ER-β was associated to sun-induced melasma and negative familiar background; PR expression was associated to sun-induced melasma and darker phototypes. No difference was observed in gene expression for oestrogen-β and progesterone receptors in melasma-affected skin compared with adjacent healthy skin. However, the higher protein expression of these receptors in melasma-affected epithelia suggests hormonal participation in the pathogenesis of this disease. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Clay jojoba oil facial mask for lesioned skin and mild acne--results of a prospective, observational pilot study.

    PubMed

    Meier, Larissa; Stange, Rainer; Michalsen, Andreas; Uehleke, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    External application of clay facial masks is a cosmetic procedure generally used to reduce skin lesions and to improve overall skin condition. Collecting pilot data about self-treatment with clay jojoba oil masks on participants with acne-prone, lesioned skin and acne. Open, prospective, observational pilot study: Participants received written information, instructions, and questionnaires without direct contact with the study physician. For 6 weeks, they applied the masks 2-3 times per week. The primary outcome is the difference of skin lesions: baseline vs. after 6 weeks. 194 participants (192 female, 2 male, mean age (± SE) (32.3 ± 0.7 years) returned questionnaires and diaries. 133 of these participants returned complete and precise lesion counts (per-protocol (PP) collective). A 54% mean reduction in total lesion count was observed after 6 weeks of treatment with clay facial mask. Both inflammatory and non-inflammatory skin lesions were reduced significantly after treatment compared to baseline: Median counts (MC) of pustules per affected participant were reduced from 7.0 ± 0.9 to 3.0 ± 0.5 (mean individual reduction (MIR) = 49.4%), the MC of the papules from 3.5 ± 2.2 to 1.0 ± 0.4 (MIR = 57.3%), the MC of cysts from 2.0 ± 0.8 to 0.5 ± 0.4 (MIR = 68.6%) and the MC of comedones from 26.5 ± 6.3 to 16.0 ± 4.0 (MIR = 39.1%). DLQI-average score decreased from 5.0 ± 4.5 (mean ± SE) before to 2.1 ± 2.8 after treatment. The present study gives preliminary evidence that healing clay jojoba oil facial masks can be effective treatment for lesioned skin and mild acne vulgaris. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Facial skin photo-aging and development of hyperpigmented spots from children to middle-aged Japanese woman.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Fukushima, Y; Kondo, K; Ichihashi, M

    2017-11-01

    Facial skin hyperpigmention caused by chronic sun exposure is a major skin complaint, however, its characteristics and influential factors are still limitedly known. A cross-sectional survey in healthy Japanese women aged from 6 to 62 years (n=169) was conducted using a facial image analyzer VISIA ™ for knowing onset age of hyperpigmented spot formation, its chronological changes, and influence of environmental factors. UV Pigmented Spot (PS) Score was positively correlated with age (R=.487, P=.000). Hyperpigmented spots appeared first around 18 years old in most subjects, and PS score remarkably increased at 20s then gradually increased by ages. The subjects with Skin Type I, one of the three grades of Japanese Skin Type (JST), whose melanin formation is genetically lower, showed higher PS score. A woman aged 31 years was subjected a weekly VISIA measurement for 2 years, and found no changes in the number, place, size and intensity of the pigment spots in this duration. Hyperpigmented spots developed in women over 20 years of age due to chronic sun exposure without sun protection during childhood and adolescent and it was stable afterwards, whose intensity was influenced by age and skin type. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Age-related differences in morphological characteristics of residual skin surface components collected from the surface of facial skin of healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chalyk, N E; Bandaletova, T Y; Kyle, N H; Petyaev, I M

    2017-05-01

    Global increase of human longevity results in the emergence of previously ignored ageing-related problems. Skin ageing is a well-known phenomenon, but active search for scientific approaches to its prevention and even skin rejuvenation is a relatively new area. Although the structure and composition of the stratum corneum (SC), the superficial layer of epidermis, is well studied, relatively little is known about the residual skin surface components (RSSC) that overlay the surface of the SC. The aim of this study was to examine morphological features of RSSC samples non-invasively collected from the surface of human facial skin for the presence of age-related changes. Residual skin surface component samples were collected by swabbing from the surface of facial skin of 60 adult male volunteers allocated in two age groups: 34 subjects aged in the range 18-32 years and 26 subjects aged in the range 58-72 years. The collected samples were analysed microscopically: the size of the lipid droplets was measured; desquamated corneocytes and lipid crystals were counted; and microbial presence was assessed semi-quantitatively. Age-related changes were revealed for all studied components of the RSSC. There was a significant (P = 0.0126) decrease in the size of lipid droplets among older men. Likewise, significantly (P = 0.0252) lower numbers of lipid crystals were present in this group. In contrast, microbial presence in the RSSC was significantly (P = 0.0019) increased in the older group. There was also a trend towards more abundant corneocyte desquamation among older men, but the difference has not reached statistical significance (P = 0.0636). Non-invasively collected RSSC samples present an informative material for studying age-related changes on the surface of the SC of human facial skin. The results of this study confirm earlier observations regarding age-associated decline of the efficiency of the epidermal barrier and can be used for testing new approaches to skin

  10. A new quantitative evaluation method for age-related changes of individual pigmented spots in facial skin.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, K; Masuda, Y; Yamashita, T; Sato, K; Katagiri, C; Hirao, T; Mizokami, Y; Yaguchi, H

    2016-08-01

    Facial skin pigmentation is one of the most prominent visible features of skin aging and often affects perception of health and beauty. To date, facial pigmentation has been evaluated using various image analysis methods developed for the cosmetic and esthetic fields. However, existing methods cannot provide precise information on pigmented spots, such as variations in size, color shade, and distribution pattern. The purpose of this study is the development of image evaluation methods to analyze individual pigmented spots and acquire detailed information on their age-related changes. To characterize the individual pigmented spots within a cheek image, we established a simple object-counting algorithm. First, we captured cheek images using an original imaging system equipped with an illumination unit and a high-resolution digital camera. The acquired images were converted into melanin concentration images using compensation formulae. Next, the melanin images were converted into binary images. The binary images were then subjected to noise reduction. Finally, we calculated parameters such as the melanin concentration, quantity, and size of individual pigmented spots using a connected-components labeling algorithm, which assigns a unique label to each separate group of connected pixels. The cheek image analysis was evaluated on 643 female Japanese subjects. We confirmed that the proposed method was sufficiently sensitive to measure the melanin concentration, and the numbers and sizes of individual pigmented spots through manual evaluation of the cheek images. The image analysis results for the 643 Japanese women indicated clear relationships between age and the changes in the pigmented spots. We developed a new quantitative evaluation method for individual pigmented spots in facial skin. This method facilitates the analysis of the characteristics of various pigmented facial spots and is directly applicable to the fields of dermatology, pharmacology, and esthetic

  11. Efficacy of the combined use of a facial cleanser and moisturizers for the care of mild acne patients with sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Kenichi; Seki, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yosuke; Umeda, Koji; Nishizaka, Takahiro; Tanabe, Hisateru; Takagi, Yutaka; Ishida, Koichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    Acne is a common skin disease that involves the seborrheic area of the face and results from the obstruction of hair follicles followed by inflammation. Careful face washing helps to improve and prevent acne; however, intensive washing has a risk of inducing skin barrier impairment and dry skin, especially in sensitive skin. We hypothesized that skin care combining mild skin cleansing and intensive moisturizing ("combination skin care") may be effective in the care of acne in subjects with dry skin and/or sensitive skin. We developed a combination skin care with a weakly acidic foaming facial skin cleanser based on a mild detergent, an aqueous lotion with eucalyptus extract and a moisturizing gel containing pseudo-ceramide and eucalyptus extract. To optimize an ideal facial skin care system for mild acne on sensitive skin, we performed a 4-week clinical trial with 29 post-adolescent Japanese women with mild acne with dry and sensitive skin. The acne significantly decreased after this trial accompanied by the improvement of dry skin, a significantly increased endogenous ceramide level in the stratum corneum and an elongated alkyl chain length of the non-hydroxy acyl sphingosine type ceramide. No adverse events due to the test samples were observed. Based on diagnosis by a dermatologist, 97% of the subjects found the combination skin care to be "useful" or "slightly useful". Based on these findings, the combined use of a facial skin cleanser and moisturizers is safe and effective for the care of acne in post-adolescent Japanese women with sensitive skin. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  12. [Propeller facial artery perforator flap for repairing defect after resection of skin malignant tumor at upper lip].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuanzhen; Tang, Xiujun; Wang, Dali; Wei, Zairong; Wang, Bo; Deng, Chengliang; Zhang, Ziyang; Jin, Wenhu

    2018-02-01

    To explore the effectiveness of propeller facial artery perforator flap to repair the defect after resection of skin malignant tumor at upper lip. Between July 2012 and January 2017, 17 cases with skin malignant tumor at upper lip underwent tumor resection and the remained defect was repaired with propeller facial artery perforator flap. Among the 17 patients, 3 were male and 14 were female, with an average age of 57 years (range, 35-82 years). There were 5 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 12 cases of basal cell carcinoma. The disease duration ranged from 4 months to 11 years with an average of 20 months. The tumor size ranged from 1.4 cm×0.3 cm to 3.1 cm×1.4 cm. The extended resection of the tumor tissue was performed according to the characters of tumor. According to the location, size, and shape of the defect and the position of facial artery perforator explored with Doppler ultrasonography, the propeller facial artery perforator flap was designed to repair the defect and partial donor site. The flap size ranged from 5 cm×2 cm to 7 cm×3 cm. The length of the perforator pedicle was 0.5-1.0 cm with an average of 0.8 cm. The defect at donor site was directly closed. Cyanosis occurred in 3 cases of the distal flap after operation, then healing after symptomatic treatment. The remaining flaps survived successfully and the wound healed by first intention. Primary healing was obtained in the donor site. All the patients were followed up 6-36 months with an average of 18 months. The shape of the patient's upper lip was good and the scar on the donor site was unconspicuous. There was no lip deformity, ala nasi deflection, facial tension, entilation dysfunction, or recurrence of tumor during follow-up. At last follow-up, the results of self-evaluation were very satisfactory in 13 cases and satisfactory in 4 cases. Based on multiple advantages of good blood supply, large rotation range, aesthetic outcome, and slight injury of the donor site, propeller facial artery

  13. The effects of a daily facial lotion containing vitamins B3 and E and provitamin B5 on the facial skin of Indian women: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Jerajani, Hemangi R; Mizoguchi, Haruko; Li, James; Whittenbarger, Debora J; Marmor, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The B vitamins niacinamide and panthenol have been shown to reduce many signs of skin aging, including hyperpigmentation and redness. To measure the facial skin effects in Indian women of the daily use of a lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopherol acetate using quantitative image analysis. Adult women 30-60 years of age with epidermal hyperpigmentation were recruited in Mumbai and randomly assigned to apply a test or control lotion to the face daily for 10 weeks. Effects on skin tone were measured using an image capturing system and associated software. Skin texture was assessed by expert graders. Barrier function was evaluated by transepithelial water loss measurements. Subjects and evaluators were blinded to the product assignment. Of 246 women randomized to treatment, 207 (84%) completed the study. Women who used the test lotion experienced significantly reduced appearance of hyperpigmentation, improved skin tone evenness, appearance of lightening of skin, and positive effects on skin texture. Improvements versus control were seen as early as 6 weeks. The test lotion was well tolerated. The most common adverse event was a transient, mild burning sensation. Daily use of a facial lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate improved skin tone and texture and was well tolerated in Indian women with facial signs of aging.

  14. Male facial attractiveness and masculinity may provide sex- and culture-independent cues to semen quality.

    PubMed

    Soler, C; Kekäläinen, J; Núñez, M; Sancho, M; Álvarez, J G; Núñez, J; Yaber, I; Gutiérrez, R

    2014-09-01

    Phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis (PLFH) predicts that male secondary sexual traits reveal honest information about male fertilization ability. However, PLFH has rarely been studied in humans. The aim of the present study was to test PLFH in humans and to investigate whether potential ability to select fertile partners is independent of sex or cultural background. We found that on the contrary to the hypothesis, facial masculinity was negatively associated with semen quality. As increased levels of testosterone have been demonstrated to impair sperm production, this finding may indicate a trade-off between investments in secondary sexual signalling (i.e. facial masculinity) and fertility or status-dependent differences in investments in semen quality. In both sexes and nationalities (Spanish and Colombian), ranked male facial attractiveness predicted male semen quality. However, Spanish males and females estimated facial images generally more attractive (gave higher ranks) than Colombian raters, and in both nationalities, males gave higher ranks than females. This suggests that male facial cues may provide culture- and sex-independent information about male fertility. However, our results also indicate that humans may be more sensitive to facial attractiveness cues within their own populations and also that males may generally overestimate the attractiveness of other men to females. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. The Effect in Topical Use of Lycogen(TM) via Sonophoresis for Anti-aging on Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Hsin-Ti, Lai; Wen-Sheng, Liu; Yi-Chia, Wu; Ya-Wei, Lai; Wen, Zhi-Hong; David, Wang Hui-Min; Su-Shin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Anti-aging skin care is a growing popular topic in cosmetic and aesthetic fields, and skin care rather then makeup tips draw more attention nowadays. The phenomenon of skin aging includes thinning of skin losses of elasticity and moisture, pigmented spot formation, and wrinkle development. Along with growth in age, the decreased rates of epithelium renewal and cellular recovery as well as the reduced contents of elastin, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans all contribute to creases or folds of skin. Available strategies for wrinkle treatments include topical use of skin care products with anti-aging contents, dermabrasion, laser, Botox injection, fillers injection, and facelift. Though all of these above options can provide different degrees of improvement in facial wrinkles, the cost-effect, pain of intervention therapy, and necessity of repetitive treatment may impact on choices made. Topical use of anti-aging skin products is the most convenient and cheap way to achieve skin anti-aging effect. Lycogen(TM) is an antioxidant, which can prevent the downregulation of pro-collagen I, intracellular accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and achieve the aim of skin rejuvenation. Twenty-six female patients were included in our study with ages between 30 and 45. They were randomly assigned to two groups: the vehicle control group and the experimental group. Patients in the control group applied a skin care product without Lycogen(TM)to the face via sonophoresis after facial cleanser use in the morning and at night. The experimental group applied a Lycogen(TM) -containing skin care product via sonophoresis in the same time schedule. We evaluated results, including pigmented spots, wrinkles, texture, pores, and red area by VISIA on weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 respectively. In the aspect of pigmented spots, the experimental group showed significant difference in comparison with the vehicle control group on weeks 2, 6, 8, and 10. For wrinkles, the experimental group had

  16. Evaluation of a Low Energy, Low Density, Non-Ablative Fractional 1927 nm Wavelength Laser for Facial Skin Resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jeremy A; Alabdulrazzaq, Hamad; Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Geronemus, Roy G

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a low energy low density, non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser in the treatment of facial photodamage, melasma, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Prospective non-randomized trial. Single center, private practice with a dedicated research department. Subjects with clinically diagnosed facial photodamage, melasma, or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Subjects received four to six treatments at 14-day intervals (+/- 3 days) with a low energy low density non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser (Solta Hayward, CA) with an energy level of 5 mJ, and density coverage of either 5%, 7.5%, or 10%, with a total of up to 8 passes. Blinded assessment of clinical photos for overall improvement at one and three months post final treatment. Investigator improvement scores, and subject pain and satisfaction scores for overall improvement were recorded as well. We enrolled 23 subjects, average age 45.0 years (range, 25-64 years), 22 with Fitzpatrick Skin Types I-IV and 1 with Type VI, with facial photodamage, melasma, or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Approximately 55% of subjects reported marked to very significant improvement at one and three months post final treatment. Blinded assessment of photography of 20 subjects revealed an average of moderate improvement at one-month follow up and mild to moderate improvement at three months. Average subject pain score was 3.4/10 during treatment. Favorable outcomes were demonstrated using the low energy low density, non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser in facial resurfacing for photodamage, melasma, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Results were maintained at the 3-month follow up, as demonstrated by investigator and subject assessments, as well as blinded evaluations by three independent dermatologists utilizing photographs obtained from a standardized facial imaging device.

  17. Bilayered, non-cross-linked collagen matrix for regeneration of facial defects after skin cancer removal: a new perspective for biomaterial-based tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Kovács, Adorján; Barbeck, Mike; Lorenz, Jonas; Teiler, Anna; Sadeghi, Nader; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Sader, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Classically skin defects are covered by split thickness skin grafts or by means of local or regional skin flaps. In the presented case series for the first time a bilayered, non-crossed-linked collagen matrix has been used in an off-label fashion in order to reconstruct facial skin defects following different types of skin cancer resection. The material is of porcine origin and consists of a spongy and a compact layer. The ratio of the two layers is 1:3 in favour of the spongy layer. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of this matrix for skin regeneration as an alternative to the standard techniques of skin grafts or flaps. Six patients between 39 and 83 years old were included in the study based on a therapeutic trial. The collagen matrix was used in seven defects involving the nose, eyelid, forehead- and posterior scalp regions, and ranging from 1,2 to 6 cm in diameter. Two different head and neck surgeons at two different institutions performed the operations. Each used a different technique in covering the wound following surgery, i.e. with and without a latex-based sheet under the pressure dressing. In three cases cylindrical biopsies were taken after 14 days. In all cases the biomaterial application was performed without any complication and no adverse effects were observed. Clinically, the collagen matrix contributed to a tension-free skin regeneration, independent of the wound dressing used. The newly regenerated skin showed strong similarity to the adjacent normal tissue both in quality and colour. Histological analysis indicated that the spongy layer replaced the defective connective tissue, by providing stepwise integration into the surrounding implantation bed, while the compact layer was infiltrated by mononuclear cells and contributed to its epithelialization by means of a "conductive"process from the surrounding epithelial cells. The clinical and histological data demonstrate that the collagen bilayered matrix used in this series

  18. Quality evaluation of banana skin extract jellies.

    PubMed

    Borges, S V; Valente, W A; Figueiredo, L P; Dias, M V; Pereira, P P; Pereira, A G T; Clemente, P R

    2011-04-01

    Due to the great volume of banana skin resulting from the industrialization of banana and to their high pectin content, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of the following factors: extract/sugar, pectin and citric acid on the chemical, physical and sensory qualities of the jellies obtained. A complete factorial experimental design was used (2(3)) with 3 central points to evaluate the influence of the factors on the dependent variables, testing the linear models. The chemical properties underwent few alterations and the instrumental and sensory texture attributes were mainly affected by the extract/sugar ratio and the pectin level. The brittleness, elasticity and gumminess increased with increases in the extract/ sugar ratio and pectin level. According to the sensory analysis and the purchasing intention, the best formulations were those obtained using a higher extract/sugar ratio (60/40) and lower pectin level (0.5 g/ 100), combined with the highest (20 mL) or lowest volumes of citric acid (15 mL), with scores for all the attributes in the range from 'I liked slightly' to 'I liked moderately'.

  19. Daily Consumption of a Fruit and Vegetable Smoothie Alters Facial Skin Color.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A; Mitra, Soma R; Stephen, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants' skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin.

  20. Validity and reliability of a structured-light 3D scanner and an ultrasound imaging system for measurements of facial skin thickness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Woo; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Gil, Young-Chun; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3 D)-scanning-based morphological studies of the face are commonly included in various clinical procedures. This study evaluated validity and reliability of a 3 D scanning system by comparing the ultrasound (US) imaging system versus the direct measurement of facial skin. The facial skin thickness at 19 landmarks was measured using the three different methods in 10 embalmed adult Korean cadavers. Skin thickness was first measured using the ultrasound device, then 3 D scanning of the facial skin surface was performed. After the skin on the left half of face was gently dissected, deviating slightly right of the midline, to separate it from the subcutaneous layer, and the harvested facial skin's thickness was measured directly using neck calipers. The dissected specimen was then scanned again, then the scanned images of undissected and dissected faces were superimposed using Morpheus Plastic Solution (version 3.0) software. Finally, the facial skin thickness was calculated from the superimposed images. The ICC value for the correlations between the 3 D scanning system and direct measurement showed excellent reliability (0.849, 95% confidence interval = 0.799-0.887). Bland-Altman analysis showed a good level of agreement between the 3 D scanning system and direct measurement (bias = 0.49 ± 0.49 mm, mean±SD). These results demonstrate that the 3 D scanning system precisely reflects structural changes before and after skin dissection. Therefore, an in-depth morphological study using this 3 D scanning system could provide depth data about the main anatomical structures of face, thereby providing crucial anatomical knowledge for utilization in various clinical applications. Clin. Anat. 30:878-886, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Concealing a shiny facial skin appearance by an Aerogel-based formula. In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Cassin, G; Diridollou, S; Flament, F; Adam, A S; Pierre, P; Colomb, L; Morancais, J L; Qiu, H

    2018-02-01

    To explore, in vitro and in vivo, the potential interest of an Aerogel-based formula, in concealing a naturally shiny facial skin. In vitro, various formulae and ingredients were applied as a thin film onto contrast plates and studied through measuring the shine induced following pump spraying of a mixture of oleic acid and mineral water as a sebum/sweat mix model. In such a test, an Aerogel ingredient led to very positive results. In vivo, two different formulae with various concentrations of Aerogel were randomly tested on half side of the face vs. bare side of Chinese women, under some provocative environmental conditions, known to enhance facial shine. These conditions comprised a normal activity under a hot and highly humid summer time followed - or not - by a hamam session. Both studies included comparative evaluations using a half-face procedure (treated/untreated or vehicle). In the first case, evaluations were quantitatively carried out, whereas the second one was based on a quantitative self-evaluations from standardized full-face photographs RESULTS: In vitro, the tested Aerogel, incorporated at 1% or 2% concentration in a common O/W cosmetic emulsion, shows an immediate light scattering effect, thereby masking shine. Such effect appears of much higher amplitude than that of two other tested particulate ingredients (Talc and Perlite). A noticeable remanence of anti-shine effect was confirmed in vivo in extreme conditions. The latter was self-perceived by all participants in the second study. This result is likely related to the super hydrophobic behaviour of the Aerogel. As cosmetic ingredient, this new Aerogel appears as a highly promising ingredient for concealing the facial skin shine, a source of complaint from many consumers living in hot and humid regions. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. A Fractional Bipolar Radiofrequency Device Combined with a Bipolar Radiofrequency and Infrared Light Treatment for Improvement in Facial Wrinkles and Overall Skin Tone and Texture.

    PubMed

    Gold, Alan H; Pozner, Jason; Weiss, Robert

    2016-10-01

    A variety of techniques and energy-based technologies are currently utilized for the treatment of facial wrinkles. Fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light have both been reported to be safe and effective for the non-invasive treatment of wrinkles and overall facial rejuvenation. A multicenter, prospective clinical trial evaluated a protocol of treatment with a device incorporating bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light followed by treatment with a fractional bipolar radiofrequency device for facial wrinkle reduction and improvement in the overall appearance of aged facial skin. Fifty-six patients with mild to moderate facial wrinkles received three full-face treatments (forehead, nose, cheeks, periorbital, and perioral areas) at 4 to 6 week intervals and were evaluated at 12 and 24 weeks after the last treatment. Clinical photographs at baseline and follow-ups were assessed by both the investigators and patients using the Global Aesthetic Improvement scale. Treatment safety was evaluated. Study participants also completed a satisfaction and improvement questionnaire. Fitzpatrick Wrinkling and Elastosis Score was decreased significantly at three months (P < .01; paired t test) and at six months (P < .001; paired t test) after the final treatment. Investigators' assessments of overall improvement in facial appearance, demonstrated 88% improvement at 12 weeks and 82% at 24 weeks after the final treatment. Subject evaluations were similar, consistently reporting improvement in wrinkles and overall facial skin appearance throughout the study, and high a degree of satisfaction with their final results. Subjects tolerated the procedures well, with only transient mild to moderate erythema and edema occurring in most patients, and without complications. A combined protocol of bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light treatment followed by fractionated bipolar radiofrequency treatment results in

  3. Daily Consumption of a Fruit and Vegetable Smoothie Alters Facial Skin Color

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A.; Mitra, Soma R.; Stephen, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants’ skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin. PMID:26186449

  4. Signals of Personality and Health: The Contributions of Facial Shape, Skin Texture, and Viewing Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alex L.; Kramer, Robin S. S.; Ward, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To what extent does information in a person's face predict their likely behavior? There is increasing evidence for association between relatively neutral, static facial appearance and personality traits. By using composite images rendered from three dimensional (3D) scans of women scoring high and low on health and personality dimensions, we aimed…

  5. Dietary Aloe Vera Supplementation Improves Facial Wrinkles and Elasticity and It Increases the Type I Procollagen Gene Expression in Human Skin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soyun; Lee, Serah; Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Dong Hun; Won, Chong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Min

    2009-01-01

    Background No studies have yet been undertaken to determine the effect of aloe gel on the clinical signs and biochemical changes of aging skin. Objective We wanted to determine whether dietary aloe vera gel has anti-aging properties on the skin. Methods Thirty healthy female subjects over the age of 45 were recruited and they received 2 different doses (low-dose: 1,200 mg/d, high-dose: 3,600 mg/d) of aloe vera gel supplementation for 90 days. Their baseline status was used as a control. At baseline and at completion of the study, facial wrinkles were measured using a skin replica, and facial elasticity was measured by an in vivo suction skin elasticity meter. Skin samples were taken before and after aloe intake to compare the type I procollagen and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) mRNA levels by performing real-time RT-PCR. Results After aloe gel intake, the facial wrinkles improved significantly (p<0.05) in both groups, and facial elasticity improved in the lower-dose group. In the photoprotected skin, the type I procollagen mRNA levels were increased in both groups, albeit without significance; the MMP-1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the higher-dose group. Type I procollagen immunostaining was substantially increased throughout the dermis in both groups. Conclusion Aloe gel significantly improves wrinkles and elasticity in photoaged human skin, with an increase in collagen production in the photoprotected skin and a decrease in the collagen-degrading MMP-1 gene expression. However, no dose-response relationship was found between the low-dose and high-dose groups. PMID:20548848

  6. Dose and diagnostic image quality in digital tomosynthesis imaging of facial bones in pediatrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. M.; Hickling, S.; Elbakri, I. A.; Reed, M.; Wrogemann, J.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of digital tomosynthesis (DT) for pediatric facial bone imaging. We compared the eye lens dose and diagnostic image quality of DT facial bone exams relative to digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), and investigated whether we could modify our current DT imaging protocol to reduce patient dose while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. We measured the dose to the eye lens for all three modalities using high-sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and an anthropomorphic skull phantom. To assess the diagnostic image quality of DT compared to the corresponding DR and CT images, we performed an observer study where the visibility of anatomical structures in the DT phantom images were rated on a four-point scale. We then acquired DT images at lower doses and had radiologists indicate whether the visibility of each structure was adequate for diagnostic purposes. For typical facial bone exams, we measured eye lens doses of 0.1-0.4 mGy for DR, 0.3-3.7 mGy for DT, and 26 mGy for CT. In general, facial bone structures were visualized better with DT then DR, and the majority of structures were visualized well enough to avoid the need for CT. DT imaging provides high quality diagnostic images of the facial bones while delivering significantly lower doses to the lens of the eye compared to CT. In addition, we found that by adjusting the imaging parameters, the DT effective dose can be reduced by up to 50% while maintaining sufficient image quality.

  7. FEM modeling and histological analyses on thermal damage induced in facial skin resurfacing procedure with different CO2 laser pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Zingoni, Tiziano; Di Cicco, Emiliano; Manetti, Leonardo; Pini, Roberto; Fortuna, Damiano

    2011-07-01

    Laser light is nowadays routinely used in the aesthetic treatments of facial skin, such as in laser rejuvenation, scar removal etc. The induced thermal damage may be varied by setting different laser parameters, in order to obtain a particular aesthetic result. In this work, it is proposed a theoretical study on the induced thermal damage in the deep tissue, by considering different laser pulse duration. The study is based on the Finite Element Method (FEM): a bidimensional model of the facial skin is depicted in axial symmetry, considering the different skin structures and their different optical and thermal parameters; the conversion of laser light into thermal energy is modeled by the bio-heat equation. The light source is a CO2 laser, with different pulse durations. The model enabled to study the thermal damage induced into the skin, by calculating the Arrhenius integral. The post-processing results enabled to study in space and time the temperature dynamics induced in the facial skin, to study the eventual cumulative effects of subsequent laser pulses and to optimize the procedure for applications in dermatological surgery. The calculated data where then validated in an experimental measurement session, performed in a sheep animal model. Histological analyses were performed on the treated tissues, evidencing the spatial distribution and the entity of the thermal damage in the collageneous tissue. Modeling and experimental results were in good agreement, and they were used to design a new optimized laser based skin resurfacing procedure.

  8. Non tuberculous mycobacterial lesion of the parotid gland and facial skin in a 4year old girl: A proposed treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Berkovic, Juraj; Vanchiere, John A; Gungor, Anil

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a parotid-facial caseating granulomatous infection caused by atypical mycobacteria (Mycobacterium avium) in an immuno-competent child. The size and depth of the lesion and its proximity to the facial nerve present a challenge for a purely surgical treatment strategy. An alternative treatment strategy is developed to avoid severe disfigurement. Atypical mycobacterial infection of the parotid region in a 5 year old girl: timeline and definition of a planned combined treatment strategy with antibiotics and surgical excision. Cervicofacial infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may present surgical challenges due to the size and depth of the lesion and its proximity to the facial nerve and major vascular structures. Even minor scars are highly visible and poorly tolerated. Close clinical monitoring combined with judicious treatment strategies is necessary for successful treatment and good cosmesis. Recent literature provides insufficient guidance in formulating the best treatment strategy for the individual patient. Comparisons of antibiotic therapy with variations of surgical excision are abundant but poorly formulated. Our case presented with a lesion involving skin, superficial and deep lobe of the parotid gland. Lesion was in immediate proximity to the distribution of the facial nerve through the parotid gland. The risk of surgical damage to the facial nerve in the acute phase of the inflammation and the required extent of skin excision were significant. We decided to start treatment with combination antimycobacterial antibiotics in close cooperation with the pediatric infectious disease specialists. We observed and documented the regress and executed a delayed surgical excision when the lesion was reduced to skin only. In our opinion this was the best treatment strategy that helped us avoid extensive dissection in the vicinity of the facial nerve as well as a parotidectomy. Excision of the involved skin with the deep portion

  9. The Pelleve procedure: an effective method for facial wrinkle reduction and skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Stampar, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Devices using radiofrequency (RF) energy and electrical energy to deliver a controlled thermal injury to heat skin have proliferated within the nonablative skin treatment market since the introduction of Thermage in 2002. By delivering continuous monopolar RF energy, rather than pulsed heating, and repeatedly bringing the skin to therapeutic temperatures until maximal contraction is obtained, the Pelleve Procedure can give obvious cosmetic results confluently over all treated areas painlessly and with no downtime. In this article, the technique, mechanism of continuous RF heating, and apparent treatment requirements to produce these results are presented. Some controversies are also addressed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does age difference really matter? Facial markers of biological quality and age difference between husband and wife.

    PubMed

    Danel, D P; Dziedzic-Danel, A; Kleisner, K

    2016-08-01

    Information conveyed by facial attractiveness markers such as averageness, bilateral symmetry, and secondary sexual characteristics may play an important adaptive role in human sexual selection. Nonetheless, mate choice also relies on other non-physical characteristics such as, for instance, an individual's age. Women prefer and enter in relationships with older partners, whereas in men the inverse relation is observed. Surprisingly, the link between facial morphological markers of biological quality on the one hand and age disparity between partners on the other hand has been as yet subject of very little research. This study aims to fill this gap. We had used facial photographs and demographic data of heterosexual marriages. Facial cues of biological quality, such as averageness, bilateral symmetry, and sexual dimorphism, were digitally measured using geometric morphometric methods and then associated with spouses' age difference. It turned out that a greater age disparity between spouses correlates, in both partners, with higher scores in facial measures which indicate partners' biological quality. One exception is female facial masculinity - generally regarded as an unattractive marker of a low biological quality - which, too, is associated with higher spouse age disparity. In general, our results show that facial symmetry, averageness, and secondary sexual characteristics may play a role in age-dependent mate choice. We suggest that in marriages where the wife is considerably younger than the husband, wife's greater facial masculinity may increase her perceived age and with it, her perceived maturity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The Impact of Face Skin Tone vs. Face Symmetry on Perceived Facial Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Vera Cruz, Germano

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the relative contribution of skin tone and symmetry on judgment of attractiveness regarding female faces. Two hundred and fifteen Mozambican adults were presented with a set of faces, and instructed to rate their degree of attractiveness along a continuous scale. Chi-square, factorial weight analyses and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Face skin tone had a significant impact on the participants' attractiveness judgment of target faces. However, the target face skin tone contribution to the participants' attractiveness judgment (5% of the total variance) was much weaker than the contribution of the target face symmetry (85% of the total variance). These results imply that skin bleaching, common among Black people across sub-Saharan African countries, is not only dangerous to the health of those who practice it, but it is unlikely to make them appear much more attractive.

  12. UK-based prospective cohort study to anglicise and validate the FACE-Q Skin Cancer Module in patients with facial skin cancer undergoing surgical reconstruction: the PROMISCR (Patient-Reported Outcome Measure in Skin Cancer Reconstruction) study.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Thomas; Hutchings, Hayley A; Whitaker, Iain S

    2017-09-24

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide, often occurring on the face, where the cosmetic outcome of treatment is paramount. A number of skin cancer-specific patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) exist, however none adequately consider the difference in type of reconstruction from a patient's point of view. It is the aim of this study to 'anglicise' (to UK English) a recently developed US PROM for facial skin cancer (the FACE-Q Skin Cancer Module) and to validate this UK version of the PROM. The validation will also involve an assessment of the items for relevance to facial reconstruction patients. This will either validate this new measure for the use in clinical care and research of various facial reconstructive options, or provide evidence that a more specific PROM is required. This is a prospective validation study of the FACE-Q Skin Cancer Module in a UK facial skin cancer population with a specific focus on the difference between types of reconstruction. The face and content validity of the FACE-Q questionnaire will initially be assessed by a review process involving patients, skin cancer specialists and methodologists. An assessment of whether questions are relevant and any missing questions will be made. Initial validation will then be carried out by recruiting a cohort of 100 study participants with skin cancer of the face pre-operatively. All eligible patients will be invited to complete the questionnaire preoperatively and postoperatively. Psychometric analysis will be performed to test validity, reliability and responsiveness to change. Subgroup analysis will be performed on patients undergoing different forms of reconstruction postexcision of their skin cancer. This study has been approved by the West Midlands, Edgbaston Research Ethics Committee (Ref 16/WM/0445). All personal data collected will be anonymised and patient-specific data will only be reported in terms of group demographics. Identifiable data collected will include the

  13. How much related to skin wrinkles between facial and body site? Age-related changes in skin wrinkle on the knee assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.

    PubMed

    Yoo, M A; Seo, Y K; Shin, M K; Koh, J S

    2016-02-01

    Skin aging has been focused the wrinkle on the face than on the body, so most studies have been studied the change in Crow's feet for ages. Only little is known about the age-dependent changes of wrinkles on body sites. The aim of this study was to establish new grading criteria for severity of wrinkles on knees and to investigate the relationship of wrinkle severity with age- and site-dependent. The skin on the knee of 38 healthy Korean female volunteers, divided into two groups young and old, were photographed. Standard photograph for body wrinkle was established (grade 0~7), and then visual assessment, skin wrinkle, and skin elasticity were evaluated on Crow's feet and the knee. We examined for any significant differences and the correlation of skin aging parameters with age and two different sites. Skin wrinkle severity with standard photograph and wrinkle parameters (Ra, Rmax, Rz, and Rv) had a significantly positive correlation with age-dependent on the knee (P < 0.001). Also, skin elastic parameters (R2, R5, R6, R7, and Q1) showed a significant negative correlation with age on the knee (P < 0.001). Skin wrinkle severity with standard photograph was highly correlated with all skin wrinkle parameters and skin elastic parameters (R2, R5, R7, and Q1) on the knee (P < 0.001). In addition, all the skin aging parameters on the knee were significantly correlated with Crow's feet (P < 0.01). Skin aging on the knee had the same tendency as the Crow's feet. This study has shown the new grading criteria of wrinkles on the knee. Skin wrinkle and elasticity on the knee are age-dependent related and aging on the knee is highly related to Crow's feet. Those parameters are using a quantitative method to evaluate body aging. Also, the knee is considered that it could be a suitable site to evaluate body aging. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Collagen concentration on the facial skin of postmenopausal women after topical treatment with estradiol and genistein: a randomized double-blind controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lidia Aragão; Ferraz Carbonel, Adriana Aparecida; de Moraes, Andréa Regina Barbosa; Simões, Ricardo S; Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Goes, Lívia; Nunes, Winnie; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Patriarca, Marisa Teresinha

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effects of topical estrogen and genistein (a soy isoflavone) on the facial skin collagen of postmenopausal women not undergoing systemic hormonal therapy. This is a prospective, double blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Volunteer women (N = 30) 45-55 year old from the Endocrine Gynecology sector of the Gynecology Department of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP). The Ethical Committee of the Federal University of São Paulo approved the study (report no. 386/2004; registration on ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01553773), were assigned to topical treatment with either estrogen or genistein for 24 weeks. We quantified and compared facial collagen concentration before and after each treatment by performing pre-auricular skin biopsies. Our data showed an increase in the amount of both type I and type III facial collagen by the end of both treatments. However, the outcomes of the estrogen GI (ER) group were superior to the genistein GII (GEN) group, with statistical significance p < 000.1 Conclusion: Treatment with topical estrogen is superior to genistein, but both have positive impacts on facial skin collagen. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether prolonged use of genistein and other topical phytoestrogens could produce systemic effects and further research is needed to clarify this question.

  15. In vivo evaluation of some biophysical parameters of the facial skin of Indian subjects living in Mumbai. Part II: Variability with age and gender.

    PubMed

    Colomb, L; Flament, F; Wagle, A; Idelcaid, Y; Agrawal, D

    2018-04-01

    A previously published work explored the diversity of some biophysical parameters (colour, elasticity, sebum production, skin microrelief, etc.) of the skin of 1204 Indian women, differently aged, living in four Indian cities (Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai). The present work aimed at completing such research by focusing on possible gender-related differences in the same skin parameters, between Indian men and women living in the same Indian city (Mumbai). A total of 297 Indian men, differently aged (18-70y), were recruited in Mumbai, completing the panel of 303 women who were previously recruited in this same city. The same instrumental measurements of facial skin colour and its homogeneity, its mechanical properties, the sebum production, skin pores size, skin relief, etc. as in the previous work, were conducted. Overall, the facial skin colour shows a darker complexion in men as compared to women, on forehead, ocular region, lips, chin and cheek. The skin colour unevenness, which increases with age, was found higher in men, as compared to women. At comparable age, women and men present a same density of skin pores, whereas those of men appear larger, up to 55y. The deepness of Crow's feet wrinkles does not significantly differ between genders. A lesser extensibility was found on the cheeks of men. In men, the sebum production was found significantly higher than that of women at ages above 40y. This work indicates some commonly shared age-related skin features between women and men from Mumbai, despite slight different characteristics such as skin pigmentation, forehead/cheek colour contrast, mechanical properties and sebum production. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Quality of life and emotional state in chronic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Pärna, Ene; Aluoja, Anu; Kingo, Külli

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between chronic inflammatory skin conditions and patients' emotional state and quality of life. The following self-rated questionnaires were used: Emotional State Questionnaire, a self-report scale assessing depression and anxiety symptoms; Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI); and RAND-36, a measure of health-related quality of life. The study group comprised 40 patients with psoriasis, 40 with eczema, 40 with acne, 15 with seborrhoeic dermatitis and 40 healthy controls. Patients with chronic skin diseases had lower DLQI and lower RAND-36 physical functioning scores, more perceived physical limitations and pain, and lower emotional well-being and general health ratings compared with the control group. In conclusion, chronic skin diseases are associated with symptoms of emotional distress, in particular insomnia and general anxiety.

  17. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies the Skin Color Genes IRF4, MC1R, ASIP, and BNC2 Influencing Facial Pigmented Spots.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leonie C; Hamer, Merel A; Gunn, David A; Deelen, Joris; Lall, Jaspal S; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Beekman, Marian; Slagboom, P Eline; Kayser, Manfred; Liu, Fan; Nijsten, Tamar

    2015-07-01

    Facial pigmented spots are a common skin aging feature, but genetic predisposition has yet to be thoroughly investigated. We conducted a genome-wide association study for pigmented spots in 2,844 Dutch Europeans from the Rotterdam Study (mean age: 66.9±8.0 years; 47% male). Using semi-automated image analysis of high-resolution digital facial photographs, facial pigmented spots were quantified as the percentage of affected skin area (mean women: 2.0% ±0.9, men: 0.9% ±0.6). We identified genome-wide significant association with pigmented spots at three genetic loci: IRF4 (rs12203592, P=1.8 × 10(-27)), MC1R (compound heterozygosity score, P=2.3 × 10(-24)), and RALY/ASIP (rs6059655, P=1.9 × 10(-9)). In addition, after adjustment for the other three top-associated loci the BNC2 locus demonstrated significant association (rs62543565, P=2.3 × 10(-8)). The association signals observed at all four loci were successfully replicated (P<0.05) in an independent Dutch cohort (Leiden Longevity Study n=599). Although the four genes have previously been associated with skin color variation and skin cancer risk, all association signals remained highly significant (P<2 × 10(-8)) when conditioning the association analyses on skin color. We conclude that genetic variations in IRF4, MC1R, RALY/ASIP, and BNC2 contribute to the acquired amount of facial pigmented spots during aging, through pathways independent of the basal melanin production.

  18. Characterization of facial skin of various Asian populations through visual and non-invasive instrumental evaluations: influence of age and skincare habits.

    PubMed

    Galzote, Carlos; Estanislao, Roderico; Suero, Michael Oliver; Khaiat, Alain; Mangubat, Maria Isabel; Moideen, Rafeeq; Tagami, Hachiro; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of age and skincare habits on facial skin of different Asian ethnicities by comparing skin properties and skincare habits among various Asian populations of varying age groups. We evaluated approximately 100 female subjects each from a total of eight Asian cities in China, India, South Korea, Japan, and the Philippines grouped according to age ranging from 14 to 75 years during a summer season. Facial skin was characterized using dermatological examinations of the cheek and instrumental evaluations of the forehead and cheek. Information regarding personal skincare habits was collected using a questionnaire. In 834 female subjects, characteristics related to skin surface moisture, elasticity, and sebum level decreased with age. Differences in skincare habits corresponded with variations in skin parameters. Subjects with the least severe photodamage reported a generally early onset of their skincare habits. These results demonstrate common trends as well as inherent differences in skin characteristics among Asian populations, reflecting the impact of age and the diversity of skincare habits of Asian women. These results may be beneficial when developing new skincare products that are well suited to these Asian populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Impact of Facial Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgeries on Patients' Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Tülin; Selimen, Deniz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present prospective and descriptive study was to assess the impact of facial aesthetic and reconstructive surgeries on quality of life. Ninety-one patients, of whom 43 had aesthetic surgery and 48 had reconstructive surgery, were analysed. The data were collected using the patient information form, body cathexis scale, and short form (SF)-36 quality of life scale. There were significant differences between before and after the surgery in both groups in terms of body cathexis scale and quality of life (p < 0.05 for both). It was observed that problems regarding the body image perception were encountered more, and the quality of life was poorer in both aesthetic and reconstructive surgery patients before the surgery. However, the problems were decreased, and the quality of life was enhanced after the surgery. Among the parameters of SF-36 quality of life scale, particularly the mean scores of social functioning, physical role functioning, emotional role functioning, mental health, and vitality/fatigue were found low before the surgery, whereas the mean scores were significantly improved after the surgery. The results revealed that facial aesthetic and reconstructive surgical interventions favourably affected the body image perception and self-esteem and that positive reflections in emotional, social, and mental aspects were effective in enhancing self-confidence and quality of life of the individual.

  20. Histopathologic and Ultrastructural Features of Gold Thread Implanted in the Skin for Facial Rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Moulonguet, Isabelle; Arnaud, Eric; Plantier, Françoise; da Costa, Patrick; Zaleski, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    The authors report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of gold threads, which were implanted in the cheek subcutis of a 77-year-old woman 10 years ago. These particles did not give rise to any adverse reactions and were fortuitously discovered by the surgeon during a facelift. Histopathology showed a nonpolarizing exogenous material consisting of black oval structures surrounded by a capsule of fibrosis and by a discrete inflammatory reaction with a few giant cells. In some cases, only a long fibrous tract surrounded by a moderate mononucleate infiltrate was observed. The wires were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis revealed a specific peak at 2.2 keV representative of gold that was absent in the control skin sample. As this value is specific for gold, it confirms the presence of the metal in the patient's skin. The histopathologic appearance of gold threads is particularly distinctive and easily recognizable by dermatopathologists.

  1. Image quality enhancement for skin cancer optical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliznuks, Dmitrijs; Kuzmina, Ilona; Bolocko, Katrina; Lihachev, Alexey

    2017-12-01

    The research presents image quality analysis and enhancement proposals in biophotonic area. The sources of image problems are reviewed and analyzed. The problems with most impact in biophotonic area are analyzed in terms of specific biophotonic task - skin cancer diagnostics. The results point out that main problem for skin cancer analysis is the skin illumination problems. Since it is often not possible to prevent illumination problems, the paper proposes image post processing algorithm - low frequency filtering. Practical results show diagnostic results improvement after using proposed filter. Along that, filter do not reduces diagnostic results' quality for images without illumination defects. Current filtering algorithm requires empirical tuning of filter parameters. Further work needed to test the algorithm in other biophotonic applications and propose automatic filter parameter selection.

  2. Assessment of health-related quality of life in Turkish patients with facial prostheses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Facial prostheses are intended to provide a non-operative rehabilitation for patients with acquired facial defects. By improving aesthetics and quality of life (QOL), this treatment involves reintegration of the patient into family and social life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of QOL in adult patients with facial prostheses and to compare this perception with that of a control group. Methods The study participants consisted of 72 patients, who were divided into three equal-sized groups according to the type of prosthesis (OP- orbital prosthesis, AP- auricular prosthesis, NP - nasal prosthesis) and 24 healthy control participants without any congenital or acquired deformity of face or body. Clinical and socio-demographic data were gathered from each person’s medical chart. Participants completed the Turkish version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF). Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-tests, Pearson's chi-square test, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and Pearson correlation were used to analyse the data. Results Compared with the control participants, patients with NP scored lower on the all domains of QOL and all three patient groups had lower scores on overall QOL and its domains of physical and environmental health. Patients with OP reported significantly lower physical health scores than those with AP, while patients with NP reported significantly lower overall QOL and psychological health scores than those with AP. Female patients had lower environmental domain scores than did male patients. The patient’s age and income correlated with social relationships QOL, while the patient’s income and the age of facial prosthesis were correlated with environmental QOL. Conclusion Patients with facial prostheses had lower scores in overall QOL, physical and environmental health domains than the control participants. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, income

  3. A dietary supplement improves facial photoaging and skin sebum, hydration and tonicity modulating serum fibronectin, neutrophil elastase 2, hyaluronic acid and carbonylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Laurino, Carmen; Palmieri, Beniamino; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2015-03-01

    Excessive exposure to the sun can cause severe photoaging as early as the second decade of life resulting in a loss of physiological elastic fiber functions. We designed a first study to assess differences in facial skin pH, sebum, elasticity, hydration and tonicity and serum levels of fibronectin, elastin, neutrophil elastase 2, hyaluronic acid and carbonylated proteins between patients affected by facial photoaging and healthy controls. In a second study we tested the hypothesis that a dietary supplement would improve facial photoaging, also promoting changes in the above mentioned skin and serum parameters. In the first study we enrolled 30 women [age: 47.5 ± 1.6 years (mean ± standard error of the mean)] affected by moderate facial photoaging (4 cm ≤ Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)<7 cm) and 30 healthy women [age: 45.9 ± 1.6 years (mean ± standard error of the mean)]. In the second study we enrolled a cohort of 30 women [age: 43.6 ± 1.2 years (mean ± standard error of the mean)], affected by moderate (n = 22) and severe (VAS ≥ 7 cm; n = 8) facial photoaging, who were randomized to receive a pharmaceutical formulation (VISCODERM Pearls; IBSA FARMACEUTICI ITALIA Srl, Lodi, Italy) containing Pycnogenol, collagen, coenzyme Q10, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15). Dietary supplement and placebo were administered 2 times a day for 4 weeks. Facial photoaging was assessed by VAS in the first cohort of patients affected by facial photoaging and healthy controls and, at baseline and 2 weeks after the end of treatment, in the second cohort of patients who underwent treatment with VISCODERM Pearls and placebo. Skin Tester was used to analyze differences in facial skin parameters between patients affected by facial photoaging and healthy controls. Skin Tester was also used to assess the effect of VISCODERM Pearls on facial skin parameters and compared with placebo 2 weeks after the end of

  4. A new evaluation of heat distribution on facial skin surface by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Denise S; Brioschi, Marcos L; Baladi, Marina G; Arita, Emiko S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the facial areas defined by thermal gradient, in individuals compatible with the pattern of normality, and to quantify and describe them anatomically. The sample consisted of 161 volunteers, of both genders, aged between 26 and 84 years (63 ± 15 years). The results demonstrated that the thermal gradient areas suggested for the study were present in at least 95% of the thermograms evaluated and that there is significant difference in temperature between the genders, racial group and variables "odontalgia", "dental prothesis" and "history of migraine" (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in the absolute temperatures between ages, and right and left sides of the face, in individuals compatible with the pattern of normality (ΔT = 0.11°C). The authors concluded that according to the suggested areas of thermal gradients, these were present in at least 95% of all the thermograms evaluated, and the areas of high intensity found in the face were medial palpebral commissure, labial commissure, temporal, supratrochlear and external acoustic meatus, whereas the points of low intensity were inferior labial, lateral palpebral commissure and nasolabial.

  5. A new evaluation of heat distribution on facial skin surface by infrared thermography

    PubMed Central

    Brioschi, Marcos L; Baladi, Marina G; Arita, Emiko S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the facial areas defined by thermal gradient, in individuals compatible with the pattern of normality, and to quantify and describe them anatomically. Methods: The sample consisted of 161 volunteers, of both genders, aged between 26 and 84 years (63 ± 15 years). Results: The results demonstrated that the thermal gradient areas suggested for the study were present in at least 95% of the thermograms evaluated and that there is significant difference in temperature between the genders, racial group and variables “odontalgia”, “dental prothesis” and “history of migraine” (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in the absolute temperatures between ages, and right and left sides of the face, in individuals compatible with the pattern of normality (ΔT = 0.11°C). Conclusions: The authors concluded that according to the suggested areas of thermal gradients, these were present in at least 95% of all the thermograms evaluated, and the areas of high intensity found in the face were medial palpebral commissure, labial commissure, temporal, supratrochlear and external acoustic meatus, whereas the points of low intensity were inferior labial, lateral palpebral commissure and nasolabial. PMID:26891669

  6. Validation of the facial dysfunction domain of the Penn Acoustic Neuroma Quality-of-Life (PANQOL) Scale.

    PubMed

    Lodder, Wouter L; Adan, Guleed H; Chean, Chung S; Lesser, Tristram H; Leong, Samuel C

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the strength of content validity within the facial dysfunction domain of the Penn Acoustic Neuroma Quality-of-Life (PANQOL) Scale and to compare how it correlates with a facial dysfunction-specific QOL instrument (Facial Clinimetric Evaluation, FaCE). The study design is online questionnaire survey. Members of the British Acoustic Neuroma Association received both PANQOL questionnaires and the FaCE scale. 158 respondents with self-identified facial paralysis or dysfunction had completed PANQOL and FaCE data sets for analysis. The mean composite PANQOL score was 53.5 (range 19.2-93.5), whilst the mean total FaCE score was 50.9 (range 10-95). The total scores of the PANQOL and FaCE correlated moderate (r = 0.48). Strong correlation (r = 0.63) was observed between the PANQOL's facial dysfunction domain and the FaCE total score. Of all the FaCE domains, social function was strongly correlated with the PANQOL facial dysfunction domain (r = 0.66), whilst there was very weak-to-moderate correlation (range 0.01-0.43) to the other FaCE domains. The current study has demonstrated a strong correlation between the facial dysfunction domains of PANQOL with a facial paralysis-specific QOL instrument.

  7. An Open Label Clinical Trial of a Peptide Treatment Serum and Supporting Regimen Designed to Improve the Appearance of Aging Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2016-09-01

    A 14-week single-center clinical usage study was conducted to test the efficacy of a peptide treatment serum and supporting skincare regimen in 29 women with mild to moderately photodamaged facial skin. The peptide treatment serum contained gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and various peptides with neurotransmitter inhibiting and cell signaling properties. It was hypothesized that the peptide treatment serum would ameliorate eye and facial expression lines including crow's feet and forehead lines. The efficacy of the supporting skincare regimen was also evaluated. An expert investigator examined the subjects at rest and at maximum smile. Additionally, the subjects completed self-assessment questionnaires. At week 14, the expert investigator found a statistically significant improvement in facial lines, facial wrinkles, eye lines, and eye wrinkles at rest when compared to baseline results. The expert investigator also found statistically significant improvement at week 14 in facial lines, eye lines, and eye wrinkles when compared to baseline results at maximum smile. In addition, there was continued highly statistically significant improvement in smoothness, softness, firmness, radiance, luminosity, and overall appearance at rest when compared to baseline results at the 14-week time point. The test regimen was well perceived by the subjects for efficacy and product attributes. The products were well tolerated with no adverse events.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1100-1106.

  8. The Relationship Between Facial Skin Surface Temperature Reactivity and Traditional Polygraph Measures Used in the Psychophysiological Detection of Deception: A Preliminary Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Surface Temperature and Polygraph Measures 19 References Cook , E. and Turpin , G. ( 1997 ). Differentiating orienting, startle, and defense responses... Turpin , 1997 ). The results of the present study also suggest that, in the forehead and periorbital region, the situation is complex. A multivariate...Facial Skin Surface Temperature and Polygraph Measures 3 areas would be differentially affected by participants’ fear-induced central and ANS responses to

  9. P16INK4a Positive Cells in Human Skin Are Indicative of Local Elastic Fiber Morphology, Facial Wrinkling, and Perceived Age

    PubMed Central

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E. C.; Gunn, David A.; Adams, Peter D.; Pawlikowski, Jeff S.; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; van Heemst, Diana; Slagboom, P. Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells are more prevalent in aged human skin compared to young, but evidence that senescent cells are linked to other biomarkers of aging is scarce. We counted cells positive for the tumor suppressor and senescence associated protein p16INK4a in sun-protected upper-inner arm skin biopsies from 178 participants (aged 45–81 years) of the Leiden Longevity Study. Local elastic fiber morphology, facial wrinkles, and perceived facial age were compared to tertiles of p16INK4a counts, while adjusting for chronological age and other potential confounders. The numbers of epidermal and dermal p16INK4a positive cells were significantly associated with age-associated elastic fiber morphologic characteristics, such as longer and a greater number of elastic fibers. The p16INK4a positive epidermal cells (identified as primarily melanocytes) were also significantly associated with more facial wrinkles and a higher perceived age. Participants in the lowest tertile of epidermal p16INK4a counts looked 3 years younger than those in the highest tertile, independently of chronological age and elastic fiber morphology. In conclusion, p16INK4a positive cell numbers in sun-protected human arm skin are indicative of both local elastic fiber morphology and the extent of aging visible in the face. PMID:26286607

  10. Nanofat-derived stem cells with platelet-rich fibrin improve facial contour remodeling and skin rejuvenation after autologous structural fat transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Hai; Zhu, Mao-Guang; Xu, Fang-Tian; He, Ning; Wei, Xiao-Juan; Li, Hong-Mian

    2017-01-01

    Traditional autologous fat transplantation is a common surgical procedure for treating facial soft tissue depression and skin aging. However, the transplanted fat is easily absorbed, reducing the long-term efficacy of the procedure. Here, we examined the efficacy of nanofat-assisted autologous fat structural transplantation. Nanofat-derived stem cells (NFSCs) were isolated, mechanically emulsified, cultured, and characterized. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) enhanced proliferation and adipogenic differentiation of NFSCs in vitro. We then compared 62 test group patients with soft tissue depression or signs of aging who underwent combined nanofat, PRF, and autologous fat structural transplantation to control patients (77 cases) who underwent traditional autologous fat transplantation. Facial soft tissue depression symptoms and skin texture were improved to a greater extent after nanofat transplants than after traditional transplants, and the nanofat group had an overall satisfaction rate above 90%. These data suggest that NFSCs function similarly to mesenchymal stem cells and share many of the biological characteristics of traditional fat stem cell cultures. Transplants that combine newly-isolated nanofat, which has a rich stromal vascular fraction (SVF), with PRF and autologous structural fat granules may therefore be a safe, highly-effective, and long-lasting method for remodeling facial contours and rejuvenating the skin. PMID:28978136

  11. Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and Quality of Life after Treatment of Face Scars with a Transparent Facial Pressure Mask.

    PubMed

    Kant, S B; Colla, C; Van den Kerckhove, E; Van der Hulst, R R W J; Piatkowski de Grzymala, A

    2018-06-01

    Treatment of facial hypertrophic scars and deformities has developed from the use of elastic fabric hoods to transparent facemasks. The clinical effects of these masks have been described. However, the psychological impact of wearing such a mask is not well documented. The aim of this study was to assess patients' satisfaction with their current facial appearance, to assess the end result of facemask therapy, and to assess the decision to have undergone facemask therapy by means of four different FACE-Q questionnaires. Out of the eligible 87 patients who completed the facemask therapy between January 2012 and November 2017, 42 filled out the questionnaires. These patients wore a custom-fabricated facemask because of facial hypertrophic scars and severe postsurgical facial irregularities. Patients who wore the mask 12 to 16 hours per day were significantly more satisfied with the end result compared with those who wore it 4 to 8 hours daily. Also, patients who wore the mask 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 hours each day were more satisfied to have undergone therapy compared with those who wore it 4 to 8 hours daily. Furthermore, patients who finished therapy 3 to 4 years and 4 to 5 years ago reported a significant higher satisfaction with facial appearance compared with those who completed therapy in a time period shorter than 1 year ago. Patients who finished therapy 3 to 4 years ago reported higher satisfaction with their facial appearance compared with those who finished therapy 2 to 3 years ago. Additionally, the Patient and Observer Scar Assessments Score (POSAS) showed a significant reduction between start and end of therapy. This study shows facemask therapy to result in long-lasting stable results. It also shows a longer daily wearing of the facemask to result in the highest satisfaction according to patients. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Vulval skin conditions: disease activity and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Sandra; Littlewood, Sheelagh

    2013-04-01

    Chronic vulval skin conditions are known to cause a significant reduction in the quality of life. Validated scales exist to measure the disease impact of general dermatologic conditions; however, none have been specifically derived to assess vulval disease. This study aimed to identify what symptoms and aspects of their lives are important for women with vulval skin conditions and to assess their usefulness in developing an assessment measure for monitoring disease activity and quality of life in women with vulval skin conditions. Participants were female patients attending a specialist vulval dermatology clinic at a tertiary referral center. Ten patients with a variety vulval skin conditions were interviewed to gain their experiences of living with a vulval skin condition. Using qualitative semistructured interviews, patients were asked open-ended questions about aspects of their disease that have affected them. These included the following: daily activities and social activities, physical functions, sexual activities, mobility, relationships, and an understanding of their vulval condition. Data was recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically with all aspects regarding quality of life and symptoms identified. Results are presented according to common themes identified, specifically physical symptoms, body image, the impact of the condition on sexual and physical function, issues affecting daily activities, and the journey traveled when accessing medical care. This qualitative study adds to the evidence that chronic vulval conditions are distressing and cause significant morbidity. It highlights further the need to devise a validated questionnaire which can be used in clinical practice looking specifically at disease impact and quality of life. It can only enhance the clinical consultation and facilitate discussion which is disease and person specific.

  13. Further enhancement of facial appearance with a hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin in patients previously treated with botulinum toxin Type A.

    PubMed

    Schlessinger, Joel; Kenkel, Jeffrey; Werschler, Philip

    2011-07-01

    A hydroquinone (HQ) skin care system has been designed for use in conjunction with nonsurgical procedures. The authors evaluate the efficacy of this system plus tretinoin for improving facial appearance in comparison to a standard skin care regimen in users of botulinum toxin Type A (BoNT-A). In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, parallel-group study, 61 patients who received upper facial treatment with BoNT-A at a plastic surgery or dermatology clinic were randomly assigned to apply either the HQ system (cleanser, toner, proprietary 4% hydroquinone, exfoliant, and sunscreen) plus 0.05% tretinoin cream or a standard skin care regimen (cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen) for 120 days. Outcomes were assessed by the investigators and through a patient questionnaire. Compared with standard skin care, the HQ system plus tretinoin resulted in significantly milder fine lines/wrinkles and hyperpigmentation at Days 30, 90, and 120 (p ≤ .05) and significantly superior overall ratings for each of nine patient assessments at Days 90 and 120 (p ≤ .05). A relatively greater proportion of patients using the HQ system plus tretinoin believed that their study treatment had further enhanced the improvements attained with BoNT-A (86% vs 8%). Both regimens were generally well tolerated. Adjunctive use of the HQ system plus tretinoin can further enhance the improvements in facial appearance attained with BoNT-A. Applying the HQ system plus tretinoin offers multiple clinical benefits over standard skin care, including significantly greater improvements in fine lines/wrinkles and hyperpigmentation.

  14. Effect of Exercise-induced Sweating on facial sebum, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface pH in normal population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyu; Zhang, Guirong; Meng, Huimin; Li, Li

    2013-02-01

    Evidence demonstrated that sweat was an important factor affecting skin physiological properties. We intended to assess the effects of exercise-induced sweating on the sebum, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH of facial skin. 102 subjects (aged 5-60, divided into five groups) were enrolled to be measured by a combination device called 'Derma Unit SSC3' in their frontal and zygomatic regions when they were in a resting state (RS), at the beginning of sweating (BS), during excessive sweating (ES) and an hour after sweating (AS), respectively. Compared to the RS, SC hydration in both regions increased at the BS or during ES, and sebum increased at the BS but lower during ES. Compared to during ES, Sebum increased in AS but lower than RS. Compared to the RS, pH decreased in both regions at the BS in the majority of groups, and increased in frontal region during ES and in zygomatic region in the AS. There was an increase in pH in both regions during ES in the majority of groups compared to the BS, but a decrease in the AS compared to during ES. The study implies that even in summer, after we sweat excessively, lipid products should be applied locally in order to maintain stability of the barrier function of the SC. The study suggests that after a short term(1 h or less) of self adjustment, excessive sweat from moderate exercise will not impair the primary acidic surface pH of the facial skin. Exercise-induced sweating significantly affected the skin physiological properties of facial region. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. An Open Label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerance of a Retinol and Vitamin C Facial Regimen in Women With Mild-to-Moderate Hyperpigmentation and Photodamaged Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Herndon, James H; Jiang, Lily I; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    A 12-week open-label, single-center clinical usage trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a dual product regimen consisting of a 0.5% retinol treatment and an anti-aging moisturizer with 30% vitamin C in women with mild to moderate hyperpigmented and photodamaged facial skin. Clinical grading of several efficacy parameters, tolerability evaluations, subject self-assessment questionnaires, and digital photography were completed at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. A total of 44 women completed the study. Effective ingredients incorporated into the 0.5% retinol treatment included encapsulated retinol for a retinol concentration of 0.5%, bakuchiol, and Ophiopogon japonicus root extract. The anti-aging moisturizer with 30% vitamin C contained 30% vitamin C in the form of tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD ascorbate), alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). The facial regimen produced a statistically significant decrease (improvement) in clinical grading scores for all parameters assessed at weeks 8 and 12 when compared with baseline scores. In addition, the majority of these parameters were improved at week 4. The test regimen was well-perceived by the subjects for various inquiries regarding facial skin condition, product efficacy, and product attributes. Several tolerability parameters were assessed with no statistically significant increase except for dryness. A statistically significant increase in clinical grading scores for dryness on the face occurred at weeks 4 and 8 when compared to baseline scores. The increase in dryness is expected when introducing a retinol product to a facial regimen and the dryness did not persist to the week 12 time point.

  16. Correlations between impairment, psychological distress, disability, and quality of life in peripheral facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Aristizabal, U; Valdés-Vilches, M; Fernández-Ferreras, T R; Calero-Muñoz, E; Bienzobas-Allué, E; Moracén-Naranjo, T

    2017-05-23

    This paper analyses the correlations between scores on scales assessing impairment, psychological distress, disability, and quality of life in patients with peripheral facial palsy (PFP). We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study including 30 patients in whom PFP had not resolved completely. We used tools for assessing impairment (Sunnybrook Facial Grading System [FGS]), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), disability (Facial Disability Index [FDI]), and quality of life (Facial Clinimetric Evaluation [FaCE] scale). We found no correlations between FGS and HADS scores, or between FGS and FDI social function scores. However, we did find a correlation between FGS and FDI physical function scores (r=0.54; P<.01), FDI total score (r=0.4; P<.05), FaCE total scores (ρ=0.66; P<.01), and FaCE social function scores (ρ=0.5; P<.01). We also observed a correlation between HADS Anxiety scores and FDI physical function (r=-0.47; P<.01), FDI social function (r=-0.47; P<.01), FDI total (r=-0.55; P<.01), FaCE total (ρ=-0.49; P<.01), and FaCE social scores (ρ=-0.46; P<.05). Significant correlations were also found between HADS Depression scores and FDI physical function (r=-0.61; P<.01), FDI social function (r=-0.53; P<.01), FDI total (r=-0.66; P<.01), FaCE total (ρ=-0.67; P<.01), and FaCE social scores (ρ=-0.68; P<.01), between FDI physical function scores and FaCE total scores (ρ=0.87; P<.01) and FaCE social function (ρ=0.74; P<.01), between FDI social function and FaCE total (ρ=0.66; P<.01) and FaCE social function scores (ρ=0.72; P<.01), and between FDI total scores and FaCE total (ρ = 0,87; P<.01) and FaCE social function scores (ρ=0.84; P<.01). In our sample, patients with more severe impairment displayed greater physical and global disability and poorer quality of life without significantly higher levels of social disability and psychological distress. Patients with more disability experienced greater psychological

  17. Is facial skin tone sufficient to produce a cross-racial identification effect?

    PubMed

    Alley, T R; Schultheis, J A

    2001-06-01

    Research clearly supports the existence of an other race effect for human faces whereby own-race faces are more accurately perceived and recognized. Why this occurs remains unclear. A computerized program (Mac-a-Mug Pro) for face composition was used to create pairs of target and distractor faces that differed only in skin tone. The six target faces were rated on honesty and aggressiveness by 72 university students, with just one 'Black' and one 'White' face viewed by each student. One week later, they attempted to identify these faces in four lineups: two with target-present and two with target-absent. The order of presentation of targets, lineups, and faces within lineups was varied. Own-race identification was slightly better than cross-racial identification. There was no significant difference in the confidence of responses to own- versus other-race faces. These results indicate that neither morphological variation nor differential confidence is necessary for a cross-racial identification effect.

  18. The effect of image quality and forensic expertise in facial image comparisons.

    PubMed

    Norell, Kristin; Läthén, Klas Brorsson; Bergström, Peter; Rice, Allyson; Natu, Vaidehi; O'Toole, Alice

    2015-03-01

    Images of perpetrators in surveillance video footage are often used as evidence in court. In this study, identification accuracy was compared for forensic experts and untrained persons in facial image comparisons as well as the impact of image quality. Participants viewed thirty image pairs and were asked to rate the level of support garnered from their observations for concluding whether or not the two images showed the same person. Forensic experts reached their conclusions with significantly fewer errors than did untrained participants. They were also better than novices at determining when two high-quality images depicted the same person. Notably, lower image quality led to more careful conclusions by experts, but not for untrained participants. In summary, the untrained participants had more false negatives and false positives than experts, which in the latter case could lead to a higher risk of an innocent person being convicted for an untrained witness. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Quality-of-life improvement after free gracilis muscle transfer for smile restoration in patients with facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Robin W; Bhama, Prabhat; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    Facial paralysis can contribute to disfigurement, psychological difficulties, and an inability to convey emotion via facial expression. In patients unable to perform a meaningful smile, free gracilis muscle transfer (FGMT) can often restore smile function. However, little is known about the impact on disease-specific quality of life. To determine quantitatively whether FGMT improves quality of life in patients with facial paralysis. Prospective evaluation of 154 FGMTs performed at a facial nerve center on 148 patients with facial paralysis. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) survey and Facial Assessment by Computer Evaluation software (FACE-gram) were used to quantify quality-of-life improvement, oral commissure excursion, and symmetry with smile. Free gracilis muscle transfer. Change in FaCE score, oral commissure excursion, and symmetry with smile. There were 127 successful FGMTs on 124 patients and 14 failed procedures on 13 patients. Mean (SD) FaCE score increased significantly after successful FGMT (42.30 [15.9] vs 58.5 [17.60]; paired 2-tailed t test, P < .001). Mean (SD) FACE scores improved significantly in all subgroups (nonflaccid cohort, 37.8 [19.9] vs 52.9 [19.3]; P = .02; flaccid cohort, 43.1 [15.1] vs 59.6 [17.2]; P < .001; trigeminal innervation cohort, 38.9 [14.6] vs 55.2 [18.2]; P < .001; cross-face nerve graft cohort, 47.3 [16.6] vs 61.7 [16.9]; P < .001) except the failure cohort (36.5 [20.8] vs 33.5 [17.9]; Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P = .15). Analysis of 40 patients' photographs revealed a mean (SD) preoperative and postoperative excursion on the affected side of -0.88 (3.79) and 7.68 (3.38), respectively (P < .001); symmetry with smile improved from a mean (SD) of 13.8 (7.46) to 4.88 (3.47) (P < .001). Free gracilis muscle transfer has become a mainstay in the management armamentarium for patients with severe reduction in oral commissure movement after facial nerve insult and recovery. We found a

  20. Two-dimensional auto-correlation analysis and Fourier-transform analysis of second-harmonic-generation image for quantitative analysis of collagen fiber in human facial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Yuki; Tanaka, Yuji; Hase, Eiji; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    We compare two-dimensional auto-correlation (2D-AC) analysis and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FT) for evaluation of age-dependent structural change of facial dermal collagen fibers caused by intrinsic aging and extrinsic photo-aging. The age-dependent structural change of collagen fibers for female subjects' cheek skin in their 20s, 40s, and 60s were more noticeably reflected in 2D-AC analysis than in 2D-FT analysis. Furthermore, 2D-AC analysis indicated significantly higher correlation with the skin elasticity measured by Cutometer® than 2D-AC analysis. 2D-AC analysis of SHG image has a high potential for quantitative evaluation of not only age-dependent structural change of collagen fibers but also skin elasticity.

  1. Clinical and Histological Evaluations of Enlarged Facial Skin Pores After Low Energy Level Treatments With Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in Korean Patients.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Choi, Sun Chul; Lee, Won-Yong; Jung, Jae Yoon; Park, Gyeong-Hun

    2018-03-01

    Enlarged facial pores can be an early manifestation of skin aging and they are a common aesthetic concern for Asians. However, studies of improving the appearance of enlarged pores have been limited. The authors aimed to study the application of CO2 fractional laser treatment in patients with enlarged facial pores. A total of 32 patients with dilated facial pores completed 3 consecutive sessions of low energy level treatments with a fractional CO2 laser at 4-week intervals. Image analysis was performed to calculate the number of enlarged pores before each treatment session and 12 weeks after the final treatment. After application of laser treatments, there was a significant decrease in the number of enlarged pores. The mean number of enlarged pores was decreased by 28.8% after the second session and by 54.5% at post-treatment evaluation. Post-treatment side effects were mild and transitory. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated clear increases in the number of collagen fibers and the expression of transforming growth factor-β1. The short-term results showed that treatment with low energy level CO2 fractional laser therapy could be a safe and effective option for patients with Fitzpatrick skin Types III and IV who are concerned with enlarged pores.

  2. Prefabricated Cervical Skin Flaps for Hemi-Facial Resurfacing: Elucidating the Natural History of Postoperative Edema Using Indocyanine Green.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Min, Peiru; Sadigh, Parviz; Grassetti, Luca; Lazzeri, Davide; Torresetti, Matteo; Marsili, Riccardo; Feng, Shaoqing; Liu, Ningfei; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2018-02-01

    The increases in capillary wall permeability and capillary hydrostatic pressure are considered to be the causes for the acute swelling seen in flaps; however, disruption of the circulating flap lymphatics could be another contributory factor. In this study we monitor the development of flap edema in a series of 18 prefabricated flaps and aim to delineate the natural history of this phenomenon by use of lymphography. Postoperative swelling was monitored in a series of 18 pre-expanded prefabricated cervical skin flaps used for hemi-facial burns-scar resurfacing. Time to spontaneous resolution, presence or absence of venous congestion, and clinical outcome were recorded. In two cases, indocyanine-green (ICG) lymphography was used to monitor the dermal backflow pattern until swelling had completely resolved. Average moving velocity of ICG after injection as well as flap thickness was also recorded over the follow-up period. The average moving velocity of ICG in the flap lymphatics improved from 0.48 cm/min to 1.5 cm/min in the first 12 days after flap transfer. The dermal backflow pattern was stardust in the first 12 days, indicating moderate lymphedema, transforming to splash from week three, and a robust collecting lymphatic vessel occurring from the fifth month, indicating mild lymphedema and lymphatic channel recovery, respectively. Transient swelling was observed in all prefabricated flaps in our series. We postulate that this is mostly secondary to lymphatic disruption that subsides as lymphangiogenesis takes place. ICG lymphography is an inexpensive, safe, and easy-to-use imaging technology that could be used in the monitoring of postoperative lymphedema seen in prefabricated flaps.

  3. Assessing Demographic Differences in Patient-Perceived Improvement in Facial Appearance and Quality of Life Following Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Schwitzer, Jonathan A.; Albino, Frank P.; Mathis, Ryan K.; Scott, Amie M.; Gamble, Laurie; Baker, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Background As rhinoplasty patient demographics evolve, surgeons must consider the impact of demographics on patient satisfaction. Objectives The objective of this study was to identify independent demographic predictors of differences in satisfaction with appearance and quality of life following rhinoplasty utilizing the FACE-Q patient-reported outcome instrument. Methods Patients presenting for rhinoplasty completed the following FACE-Q scales: Satisfaction with Facial Appearance, Satisfaction with Nose, Social Function, and Psychological Well-being. Higher FACE-Q scores indicate greater satisfaction with appearance or superior quality of life. Pre- and post-treatment scores were compared in the context of patient demographics. Results The scales were completed by 59 patients. Women demonstrated statistically significant improvements in Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life while men only experienced significant improvement in Satisfaction with Facial appearance. Caucasians demonstrated statistically significant improvement in Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life while non-Caucasians did not. Patients younger than 35 years old were more likely to experience enhanced Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life compared with patients older than 35 years old. Patients with income ≥$100,000 were more likely to experience significant increases in Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life than patients with incomes <$100,000. Conclusions In an objective study using a validated patient-reported outcome instrument, the authors were able to quantify differences in the clinically meaningful change in perception of appearance and quality of life that rhinoplasty patients gain based on demographic variables. The authors also demonstrated that these variables are potential predictors of differences in satisfaction. Level of Evidence 3 Therapeutic PMID:26063837

  4. Assessing Demographic Differences in Patient-Perceived Improvement in Facial Appearance and Quality of Life Following Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Schwitzer, Jonathan A; Albino, Frank P; Mathis, Ryan K; Scott, Amie M; Gamble, Laurie; Baker, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    As rhinoplasty patient demographics evolve, surgeons must consider the impact of demographics on patient satisfaction. The objective of this study was to identify independent demographic predictors of differences in satisfaction with appearance and quality of life following rhinoplasty utilizing the FACE-Q patient-reported outcome instrument. Patients presenting for rhinoplasty completed the following FACE-Q scales: Satisfaction with Facial Appearance, Satisfaction with Nose, Social Function, and Psychological Well-being. Higher FACE-Q scores indicate greater satisfaction with appearance or superior quality of life. Pre- and post-treatment scores were compared in the context of patient demographics. The scales were completed by 59 patients. Women demonstrated statistically significant improvements in Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life while men only experienced significant improvement in Satisfaction with Facial appearance. Caucasians demonstrated statistically significant improvement in Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life while non-Caucasians did not. Patients younger than 35 years old were more likely to experience enhanced Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life compared with patients older than 35 years old. Patients with income ≥$100,000 were more likely to experience significant increases in Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life than patients with incomes <$100,000. In an objective study using a validated patient-reported outcome instrument, the authors were able to quantify differences in the clinically meaningful change in perception of appearance and quality of life that rhinoplasty patients gain based on demographic variables. The authors also demonstrated that these variables are potential predictors of differences in satisfaction. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Association of Facial Paralysis-Related Disability With Patient- and Observer-Perceived Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Goines, Jennifer B; Ishii, Lisa E; Dey, Jacob K; Phillis, Maria; Byrne, Patrick J; Boahene, Kofi D O; Ishii, Masaru

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between patient- and observer-perceived quality of life (QOL) and facial paralysis-related disability and the resulting effect of these interactions on social perception are incompletely understood. To measure the associations between observer-perceived disability and QOL and patient-perceived disability and QOL in patients with facial paralysis. This prospective study in an academic tertiary referral center included 84 naive observers who viewed static and dynamic images of faces with unilateral, House-Brackmann grades IV to VI facial paralysis (n = 16) and demographically matched images of nonparalyzed control individuals (n = 4). Data were collected from June 1 to August 1, 2014, and analyzed from August 2 to December 1, 2014. Observers rated the patient and control images in 6 clinically relevant domains. The patients self-reported their disability and QOL using validated tools, such as the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale. Quality of life, severity of paralysis, and disability were measured on a 100-point visual analog scale. The 84 observers (59 women [70%] and 25 men [30%]) ranged in age from 20 to 68 years (mean [SD] age, 35.2 [11.9]). Structural equation modeling showed that for each 1-point decrease in a patient's Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale score, the patient's visual analog scale QOL improved by 0.36 (SE, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.31-0.42) points. Similarly, from an observer perspective, as the perceived disability (-0.29 [SE, 0.04; 95% CI, -0.36 to -0.22]) and severity (-0.21 [SE, 0.03; 95% CI, -0.28 to -0.14]) decreased, the perceived QOL improved. Furthermore, attractive faces were viewed as having better QOL (disability, severity, and attractiveness regression coefficients, -0.29 [SE, 0.04; 95% CI, -0.36 to -0.22], -0.21 [SE, 0.03; 95% CI, -0.28 to -0.14], and 0.32 [SE, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.39], respectively). An inverse association was found between a paralyzed patient's self-reported QOL rating and the observers

  6. Efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser versus fractional Er:YAG laser in the treatment of facial skin wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Robati, Reza M; Asadi, Elmira

    2017-02-01

    Ablative fractional lasers were introduced for treating facial rhytides. Few studies have compared fractional CO 2 and Er:YAG lasers on cutaneous photodamages by a split trial. The aim of the present study was to compare these modalities in a randomized controlled double-blind split-face design with multiple sessions and larger sample size compared to previous studies done before. Forty patients with facial wrinkles were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive three monthly treatments on each side of the face, one with a fractional CO 2 and one with a fractional Er:YAG laser. The evaluations included investigating clinical outcome determined by two independent dermatologists not enrolled in the treatment along with measuring skin biomechanical property of cheeks using a sensitive biometrologic device with the assessment of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT). Moreover, possible side effects and patients' satisfaction have been recorded at baseline, 1 month after each treatment, and 3 months after the last treatment session. Clinical assessment showed both modalities significantly reduce facial wrinkles (p value < 0.05), with no appreciable difference between two lasers. Mean CRRT values also decreased significantly after the laser treatment compared to the baseline in both laser groups. There was no serious long-standing adverse effect after both laser treatments, but the discomfort was more pronounced by the participants after CO 2 laser treatment. According to the present study, both fractional CO 2 and fractional Er:YAG lasers show considerable clinical improvement of facial skin wrinkles with no serious adverse effects, but post-treatment discomfort seems to be lower with Er:YAG laser.

  7. Enhanced high-energy protocol using a fractional bipolar radiofrequency device combined with bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light for improving facial skin appearance and wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H; Biesman, Brian S; Taylor, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light have been shown in previous trials to safely and effectively improve the appearance of facial wrinkles. To evaluate a high-energy protocol with combined bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light energies for improvement in photoaged facial skin. Seventy-two patients presenting with mild to moderate facial wrinkles underwent a single full-face treatment (n=54) or two treatments (n=18) at 6-week intervals. Independent blinded assessment and investigator assessment were performed, using the Fitzpatrick Wrinkle and Elastosis Scale (0-9) and the Global Aesthetic Improvement scale. Patients also completed a self-assessment questionnaire concerning satisfaction with the treatment. All patients achieved some degree of improvement in their wrinkles and skin appearance, following a single treatment or two treatments with the enhanced-energy protocol. Blinded evaluation demonstrated 71% and 70% of the patients showing improvement of one unit or greater on the Fitzpatrick Scale, at the 12-week and 24-week follow-ups post-treatment, respectively. Similar results were reported by investigators. Under the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale, investigators observed 87%, 91% and 81% of patients showing improvement at the 6-, 12-, and 24-week post-treatment end, respectively. Patients tolerated the treatments well and were satisfied with the clinical results. The enhanced-energy treatment protocol, with fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light applications, yields significant improvement of skin texture, wrinkling, and overall appearance following a single treatment. The results appear gradually over time and are maintained for at least 6 months' post-treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Quality of life in pediatric patients before and after cosmetic camouflage of visible skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Ramien, Michele L; Ondrejchak, Sandra; Gendron, Roxanne; Hatami, Afshin; McCuaig, Catherine C; Powell, Julie; Marcoux, Danielle

    2014-11-01

    Visible vascular and pigmentary conditions have a negative impact on children's and adolescents' quality of life (QoL). We sought to quantitate the effect of visible skin anomalies and their camouflage on QoL. In all, 41 patients, 5 years of age and older, were taught to use cosmetic camouflage. QoL was assessed using the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) before and 6 months after the intervention. Satisfaction and use were evaluated after 1 and 6 months. Baseline QoL scores revealed a small impact of vascular anomalies (CDLQI score 4.2) and a small to moderate effect of pigmentary anomalies (CDLQI score 6.1). Six months after the intervention, QoL improved in the study population as a whole (CDLQI score 5.1 vs 2.1, P<.001), with significant improvements documented for facial lesions and vascular malformations. Cosmetic camouflage was well tolerated and patients with pigmentary anomalies were more likely to continue using the products. Limitations include small study population, few male patients, cultural influences not addressed, and limited range of conditions. Children and teenagers with visible vascular and pigmentary anomalies experience an impairment of QoL that is abrogated by introduction to use of cosmetic camouflage. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy combined with minocycline for treatment of moderate to severe facial acne vulgaris and influence on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinghua; Zheng, Yi; Zhao, Zigang; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Pengxiang; Li, Chengxin

    2017-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is a prevalent skin disorder impairing both physical and psychosocial health. This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined with minocycline in moderate to severe facial acne and influence on quality of life (QOL). Ninety-five patients with moderate to severe facial acne (Investigator Global Assessment [IGA] score 3-4) were randomly treated with PDT and minocycline (n = 48) or minocycline alone (n = 47). All patients took minocycline hydrochloride 100 mg/d for 4 weeks, whereas patients in the minocycline plus PDT group also received 4 times PDT treatment 1 week apart. IGA score, lesion counts, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and safety evaluation were performed before treatment and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after enrolment. There were no statistically significant differences in characteristics between 2 treatment groups at baseline. Minocycline plus PDT treatment led to a greater mean percentage reduction from baseline in lesion counts versus minocycline alone at 8 weeks for both inflammatory (-74.4% vs -53.3%; P < .001) and noninflammatory lesions (-61.7% vs -42.4%; P < .001). More patients treated with minocycline plus PDT achieved IGA score <2 at study end (week 8: 30/48 vs 20/47; P < .05). Patients treated with minocycline plus PDT got significant lower DLQI at 8 weeks (4.4 vs 6.3; P < .001). Adverse events were mild and manageable. Compared with minocycline alone, the combination of PDT with minocycline significantly improved clinical efficacy and QOL in moderate to severe facial acne patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Skin Rounds: A Quality Improvement Approach to Enhance Skin Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Nist, Marliese Dion; Rodgers, Elizabeth A; Ruth, Brenda M; Bertoni, C Briana; Bartman, Thomas; Keller, Leah A; Dail, James W; Gardikes-Gingery, Renee; Shepherd, Edward G

    2016-10-01

    Skin injuries are common among neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients and may lead to significant complications. Standardized methods of preventing, detecting, and treating skin injuries are needed. The aim of this project was to standardize the assessment, documentation, and tracking of skin injuries among hospitalized neonatal patients and to determine the incidence of pressure ulcers in this patient population. (1) Creation of an interdisciplinary skin team to identify skin injuries through weekly skin rounds. (2) Assessment of all patients at least twice daily for the presence of skin injuries. Interventions were implemented upon identification of a skin injury. Pressure ulcers of Stage II or more were further assessed by wound/ostomy nurses. A total of 2299 NICU patients were hospitalized and assessed between July 2011 and December 2015. After the initiation of skin rounds, the baseline incidence of pressure ulcers increased from 0.49 per 1000 patient days to 4.6 per 1000 patient days, reflecting an improvement in detection and reporting. The most common skin injuries detected included erythema, skin tears, and ecchymosis; the most common cause of injuries was medical devices. A dedicated skin team can improve the detection and reporting of skin injuries among NICU patients. Determination of the incidence of pressure ulcers in this population is critical to develop targeted interventions. Further research is needed to determine the most effective interventions to prevent and treat skin injuries among hospitalized neonates.

  11. Facial Specialty. Teacher Edition. Cosmetology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to direct and support instruction in vocational cosmetology programs in the State of Oklahoma. It contains seven units for the facial specialty: identifying enemies of the skin, using aromatherapy on the skin, giving facials without the aid of machines, giving facials with the aid…

  12. Improving the Quality of Facial Composites Using a Holistic Cognitive Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frowd, Charlie D.; Bruce, Vicki; Smith, Ashley J.; Hancock, Peter J. B.

    2008-01-01

    Witnesses to and victims of serious crime are normally asked to describe the appearance of a criminal suspect, using a Cognitive Interview (CI), and to construct a facial composite, a visual representation of the face. Research suggests that focusing on the global aspects of a face, as opposed to its facial features, facilitates recognition and…

  13. Effects of a skin-massaging device on the ex-vivo expression of human dermis proteins and in-vivo facial wrinkles

    PubMed Central

    Caberlotto, Elisa; Ruiz, Laetitia; Miller, Zane; Poletti, Mickael; Tadlock, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical and geometrical cues influence cell behaviour. At the tissue level, almost all organs exhibit immediate mechanical responsiveness, in particular by increasing their stiffness in direct proportion to an applied mechanical stress. It was recently shown in cultured-cell models, in particular with fibroblasts, that the frequency of the applied stress is a fundamental stimulating parameter. However, the influence of the stimulus frequency at the tissue level has remained elusive. Using a device to deliver an oscillating torque that generates cyclic strain at different frequencies, we studied the effect(s) of mild skin massage in an ex vivo model and in vivo. Skin explants were maintained ex vivo for 10 days and massaged twice daily for one minute at various frequencies within the range of 65–85 Hz. Biopsies were analysed at D0, D5 and D10 and processed for immuno-histological staining specific to various dermal proteins. As compared to untreated skin explants, the massaging procedure clearly led to higher rates of expression, in particular for decorin, fibrillin, tropoelastin, and procollagen-1. The mechanical stimulus thus evoked an anti-aging response. Strikingly, the expression was found to depend on the stimulus frequency with maximum expression at 75Hz. We then tested whether this mechanical stimulus had an anti-aging effect in vivo. Twenty Caucasian women (aged 65-75y) applied a commercial anti-aging cream to the face and neck, followed by daily treatments using the anti-aging massage device for 8 weeks. A control group of twenty-two women, with similar ages to the first group, applied the cream alone. At W0, W4 and W8, a blinded evaluator assessed the global facial wrinkles, skin texture, lip area, cheek wrinkles, neck sagging and neck texture using a clinical grading scale. We found that combining the massaging device with a skin anti-aging formulation amplified the beneficial effects of the cream. PMID:28249037

  14. Effects of a skin-massaging device on the ex-vivo expression of human dermis proteins and in-vivo facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Caberlotto, Elisa; Ruiz, Laetitia; Miller, Zane; Poletti, Mickael; Tadlock, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical and geometrical cues influence cell behaviour. At the tissue level, almost all organs exhibit immediate mechanical responsiveness, in particular by increasing their stiffness in direct proportion to an applied mechanical stress. It was recently shown in cultured-cell models, in particular with fibroblasts, that the frequency of the applied stress is a fundamental stimulating parameter. However, the influence of the stimulus frequency at the tissue level has remained elusive. Using a device to deliver an oscillating torque that generates cyclic strain at different frequencies, we studied the effect(s) of mild skin massage in an ex vivo model and in vivo. Skin explants were maintained ex vivo for 10 days and massaged twice daily for one minute at various frequencies within the range of 65-85 Hz. Biopsies were analysed at D0, D5 and D10 and processed for immuno-histological staining specific to various dermal proteins. As compared to untreated skin explants, the massaging procedure clearly led to higher rates of expression, in particular for decorin, fibrillin, tropoelastin, and procollagen-1. The mechanical stimulus thus evoked an anti-aging response. Strikingly, the expression was found to depend on the stimulus frequency with maximum expression at 75Hz. We then tested whether this mechanical stimulus had an anti-aging effect in vivo. Twenty Caucasian women (aged 65-75y) applied a commercial anti-aging cream to the face and neck, followed by daily treatments using the anti-aging massage device for 8 weeks. A control group of twenty-two women, with similar ages to the first group, applied the cream alone. At W0, W4 and W8, a blinded evaluator assessed the global facial wrinkles, skin texture, lip area, cheek wrinkles, neck sagging and neck texture using a clinical grading scale. We found that combining the massaging device with a skin anti-aging formulation amplified the beneficial effects of the cream.

  15. The Safety and Efficacy of Treatment With a 1,927-nm Diode Laser With and Without Topical Hydroquinone for Facial Hyperpigmentation and Melasma in Darker Skin Types.

    PubMed

    Vanaman Wilson, Monique J; Jones, Isabela T; Bolton, Joanna; Larsen, Lisa; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen

    2018-04-13

    The nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser is theoretically a safe and effective treatment for hyperpigmentation and melasma in darker skin and may potentiate topical cosmeceutical delivery. To evaluate the use of a nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser with and without topical 2% hydroquinone (HQ) cream for moderate-to-severe facial hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin Types III-V. Forty adults underwent 4 laser treatments at 2-week intervals and were randomized to daily application of 2% HQ cream or moisturizer. Follow-ups were conducted 4 and 12 weeks after the final laser treatment. Hydroquinone and moisturizer groups demonstrated Mottled Pigmentation Area and Severity Index improvements of approximately 50% at post-treatment Weeks 4 and 12. Blinded investigator-assessed hyperpigmentation and photodamage improved significantly for both the groups at post-treatment Weeks 4 and 12. Subject satisfaction improved significantly in both the groups by post-treatment Week 4. Although investigator-rated Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores were significantly better in the HQ group at post-treatment Week 12, satisfaction was higher among those using moisturizer. No adverse events were noted. The nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser produced significant improvement in hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin Types III-V by 4 weeks, with maintenance of results at 12 weeks after treatment even without HQ.

  16. Eye of the Beholder: Stage Entrance Behavior and Facial Expression Affect Continuous Quality Ratings in Music Performance

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, George; Williamon, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Judgments of music performance quality are commonly employed in music practice, education, and research. However, previous studies have demonstrated the limited reliability of such judgments, and there is now evidence that extraneous visual, social, and other “non-musical” features can unduly influence them. The present study employed continuous measurement techniques to examine how the process of forming a music quality judgment is affected by the manipulation of temporally specific visual cues. Video footage comprising an appropriate stage entrance and error-free performance served as the standard condition (Video 1). This footage was manipulated to provide four additional conditions, each identical save for a single variation: an inappropriate stage entrance (Video 2); the presence of an aural performance error midway through the piece (Video 3); the same error accompanied by a negative facial reaction by the performer (Video 4); the facial reaction with no corresponding aural error (Video 5). The participants were 53 musicians and 52 non-musicians (N = 105) who individually assessed the performance quality of one of the five randomly assigned videos via a digital continuous measurement interface and headphones. The results showed that participants viewing the “inappropriate” stage entrance made judgments significantly more quickly than those viewing the “appropriate” entrance, and while the poor entrance caused significantly lower initial scores among those with musical training, the effect did not persist long into the performance. The aural error caused an immediate drop in quality judgments that persisted to a lower final score only when accompanied by the frustrated facial expression from the pianist; the performance error alone caused a temporary drop only in the musicians' ratings, and the negative facial reaction alone caused no reaction regardless of participants' musical experience. These findings demonstrate the importance of visual

  17. Depigmented skin and phantom color measurements for realistic prostheses.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of realistic prostheses. Data was analyzed from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared with 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making realistic facial prostheses. The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (P = 0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (P = 0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162). Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for realistic facial prostheses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Treatment of facial lipoatrophy with polymethylmethacrylate among patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): impact on the quality of life.

    PubMed

    Quintas, Rodrigo C S; de França, Emmanuel R; de Petribú, Kátia C L; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Quintas, Lóren F F M; Cavalcanti, Ernando L F; Kitamura, Marco A P; Magalhães, Kássia A A; Paiva, Késsia C F; Filho, Demócrito B Miranda

    2014-04-01

    The lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by selective loss of subcutaneous fat on the face and extremities (lipoatrophy) and/or accumulation of fat around the neck, abdomen, and thorax (lipohypertrophy). The aim of this study has been to assess the impact of polymethylmethacrylate facial treatment on quality of life, self-perceived facial image, and the severity of depressive symptoms in patients living with HIV/AIDS. A non-randomized before and after interventional study was developed. Fifty-one patients underwent facial filling. The self-perceived quality of life, facial image, and degree of depressive symptoms were measured by the Short-Form 36 and HIV/AIDS--Targeted quality of life questionnaires, by a visual analogue scale and by the Beck depression inventory, respectively, before and three months after treatment. Six of the eight domains of Short-Form 36 and eight of the nine dimensions of the HIV/AIDS--Targeted quality of life questionnaires, together with the visual analogue scale and by the Beck depression inventory scores, revealed a statistically significant improvement. The only adverse effects registered were edema and ecchymosis. The treatment of facial lipoatrophy improved the self-perceived quality of life and facial image as well as any depressive symptoms among patients with HIV/AIDS. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Stress and skin disease quality of life: the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity social concerns.

    PubMed

    Dixon, L J; Witcraft, S M; McCowan, N K; Brodell, R T

    2018-04-01

    Stress is an important factor in the onset, exacerbation and reoccurrence of many skin diseases. Little is known about psychological risk factors that affect the association between stress and dermatological conditions. One relevant factor that may modulate this link is anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns - the propensity to respond fearfully to anxiety-related sensations (e.g. sweating, flushing) owing to perceived social consequences (e.g. rejection or humiliation). To gain insight into psychological factors affecting skin disease, we examined the moderating role of AS social concerns in the relationship between stress and skin disease quality of life (QoL). Participants [n = 237 (161 female), mean ± SD age 34·18 ± 9·57 years] with active skin disease symptoms were recruited online and completed questionnaires assessing stress, AS social concerns, skin disease QoL and global skin disease symptom severity. AS social concerns moderated the association between stress and skin-related emotional and social functioning in adults with skin disease. Stress was a significant predictor of the impairment associated with skin disease. Stress was linked to skin disease-related emotional and functional impairment associated with skin disease among individuals with high AS social concerns. These results highlight the potential for AS reduction interventions to break the vicious cycle of stress and skin disease symptoms and to improve psychosocial well-being in dermatology patients. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Reverse-flow retroauricular island flap in facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Benlier, Erol; Top, Husamettin; Cinar, Can; Yazar, Sukru; Aygit, A Cemal; Cetinkale, Oguz

    2007-12-01

    Reconstruction of facial skin defects requires good-quality skin cover to satisfy aesthetic expectations of patient, especially when the skin defect is on the uncovered area of the face. Limitations in the available local tissue and donor-site morbidity restrict the options. In an effort to solve these problems, we have begun to use a subcutaneous pedicled retroauricular reverse-flow flap. Between January 1997 and December 2005, reverse-flow subcutaneous pedicled retroauricular island flap was used to cover facial defects in 12 patients who underwent surgical excision of skin tumor. The patients ranged in age from 44 to 81 years with a mean age of 58 years. Only one case experienced a superficial necrosis in the distal one-quarter part of the flap. The functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory for both patients and surgeons, and no tumor recurrence was observed during the 12 to 28 months (mean, 18.8 months) follow-up period. This flap can be used reliably for the reconstruction of facial skin defects of small and medium size. The preference of frontal branch pedicled flap enables more distal facial area defects to be covered, such as dorsal nasal, nasolabial, and upper lip, than flaps based on parietal branch.

  1. Quality enhancement of chicken baked without skin using honey marinades.

    PubMed

    Hashim, I B; McWatters, K H; Hung, Y C

    1999-12-01

    Chicken (bone-in, skinless, split breast) injected with lemon-pepper poultry pump marinade containing 20 or 30% honey was compared with chicken (with and without skin) marinated without honey. The objectives were to 1) determine moisture and fat contents and instrumental color and texture measurements, 2) characterize the sensory profiles of marinated chicken baked with and without skin, and 3) investigate the effect of honey marinades on the sensory characteristics of chicken baked without skin. Chicken was roasted at 177 C for one h to an internal temperature of 80 C. A trained panel (n = 13) evaluated the roasted chicken. Results showed that skin could be removed from premarinated chicken breast before baking without significantly affecting the amount of marinade uptake, moisture content, fat content, texture (force required to shear), or most instrumental measurements of color. With regard to sensory characteristics, skin removal before baking resulted in a less glossy and moist appearance, less brown color, and more intense pepper flavor in the roasted product than when the skin was not removed. Addition of honey to the marinade restored, to some extent, the intensities of moist and glossy appearance and brown color that were reduced by removal of the skin before baking.

  2. Alterations in the Elasticity, Pliability, and Viscoelastic Properties of Facial Skin After Injection of Onabotulinum Toxin A.

    PubMed

    Bonaparte, James P; Ellis, David

    2015-01-01

    This prospective cohort study provides evidence and information on the mechanism of action of onabotulinum toxin A on the reduction of skin elasticity and pliability. Understanding the natural course that onabotulinum toxin A has on the elasticity of skin may help physicians understand why there appears to be a progressive reduction in wrinkle levels with repeated treatments. To determine whether onabotulinum toxin A increases skin pliability and elasticity with a corresponding decrease in the contribution of the viscoelastic component of skin resistance. From October 1, 2012, through June 31, 2013, this prospective cohort study enrolled 48 onabotulinum toxin A-naive women (mean [SD] age, 55.2 [11.3] years) with a minimum of mild wrinkle levels at the glabella and lateral orbit (43 completed the study). Patients were treated at a private cosmetic surgery clinic with onabotulinum toxin A and assessed at baseline and 2 weeks, 2 months, 3 months, and 4 months after injection. Standardized onabotulinum toxin A was administered to patients' glabella, supraorbit, and lateral orbit. Skin pliability, elastic recoil, and the ratio of viscoelastic resistance (Uv) to elastic resistance (Ue). For the supraorbit, there was a significant effect of time on pliability (F = 20.5), elastic recoil (F = 6.92), and Uv/Ue ratio (F = 5.6) (P < .001 for all). For the glabella, there was a significant effect of time on pliability (F = 32.23), elastic recoil (F = 31.66), and Uv/Ue ratio (F = 10.11) (P < .001 for all). For the lateral orbit, there was a significant effect of time on pliability (F = 15.83, P < .001), elastic recoil (F = 11.43, P < .001), and Uv/Ue ratio (F = 10.60, P = .009). This study provides further evidence that there is an alteration in biomechanical properties of the skin after injection with onabotulinum toxin A. This effect appears to last up to 4 months in the glabella and up to 3 months at other sites. The

  3. Combat-related facial burns: analysis of strategic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Benjamin W; Madson, Andrew Q; Bong-Thakur, Sarah; Tucker, David; Hale, Robert G; Chan, Rodney K

    2015-01-01

    -term outcomes. These challenges include prolonged transport to the burn center, delayed initial intervention and definitive coverage, and a lack of available high-quality color-matched donor skin. These gaps all highlight the need for novel anti-inflammatory and skin replacement strategies to more adequately address these unique combat-related obstacles. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  4. Central facial paresis and its impact on mimicry, psyche and quality of life in patients after stroke.

    PubMed

    Konecny, Petr; Elfmark, Milan; Horak, Stanislav; Pastucha, Dalibor; Krobot, Alois; Urbanek, Karel; Kanovsky, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Using functional scales and face video analysis, changes in central facial paresis are monitored in patients with stroke after orofacial therapy and correlations between changes in mimicry, mental function and overall quality of life of patients after stroke are made. A prospective randomized study of patients after stroke with facial paresis. The functional status of the experimental group of 50 cases with orofacial regulation therapy and 49 control cases without mimicry therapy is observed after four weeks of rehabilitation. Changes in mimicry functions evaluated by the House-Brackmann Grading System (HBGS) clinical range and using 2D video analysis of the distance between the paretic corner of the mouth and earlobe at rest and during smiling were statistically better in the experimental group than in controls. Changes in mental function - depression using Beck Depression Inventory and changes in the quality of life using Bartle index and modified Rankin score (scale) were significantly greater in the experimental group. There was a very close relationship between the changes in mimicry, mental state and overall quality of life according to the Spearman correlative coefficient. Orofacial rehabilitation therapy for patients with paresis after stroke has a significant influence on the adjustment of mimicry, mental functions and overall quality of life after 4 weeks of treatment.

  5. A Randomized, Investigator-Blinded Comparison of Two Topical Regimens in Fitzpatrick Skin Types III-VI With Moderate to Severe Facial Hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Vanaman Wilson, Monique J; Jones, Isabela T; Bolton, Joanna; Larsen, Lisa; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2017-11-01

    Purpose: Though hydroquinone (HQ) remains the gold standard for treatment of hyperpigmentation, concerns about its safety have prompted the development of HQ-free topical skin lightening systems. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of a new HQ-free system and a popular HQ-based system for the improvement of facial hyperpigmentation and photoaging in darker skin types. This investigator-blinded trial randomized 30 subjects of Fitzpatrick skin types III to VI with moderate to severe hyperpigmentation to a new 7-product HQ-free system or a 7-product HQ-based system for 12 weeks. At 4, 8, and 12 week follow-up visits, a blinded investigator assessed efficacy and tolerability using standardized scales. Subjects also performed a self-assessment at each visit. Both the HQ-free and HQ-based systems produced significant improvements in Overall Hyperpigmentation that were sustained through week 12 (P=0.008, 0.0003). The HQ-based system demonstrated better improvement in overall hyperpigmentation at weeks 4, 8, 12 (P=0.01, 0.001, 0.003, respectively). Mottled Pigmentation Area Severity Index (MoPASI) scores improved with both systems (P=0.02, 0.01), with no statistically significant differences between the two treatment groups. Subject-rated hyperpigmentation was not different between groups. Subjects reported significantly more discomfort with the HQ-free system at week 8 (P=0.02); otherwise, measures of irritation were the same between groups. All irritation was described as mild to moderate. At week 12, 100% of subjects in the HQ-free group and 92.3% of subjects in the HQ-based group were satisfied with their outcome. Both a new HQ-free skincare system and a widely-available HQ-based system improved hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin types III to VI. Though the HQ-based system produced greater improvement in hyperpigmentation when compared to the HQ-free system, there was no difference in MoPASI scores between the treatment groups. Subjects were satisfied with

  6. Polycomponent mesotherapy formulations for the treatment of skin aging and improvement of skin quality

    PubMed Central

    Prikhnenko, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Skin aging can largely be attributed to dermal fibroblast dysfunction and a decrease in their biosynthetic activity. Regardless of the underlying causes, aging fibroblasts begin to produce elements of the extracellular matrix in amounts that are insufficient to maintain the youthful appearance of skin. The goal of mesopreparations is primarily to slow down and correct changes in skin due to aging. The rationale for developing complex polycomponent mesopreparations is based on the principle that aging skin needs to be supplied with the various substrates that are key to the adequate functioning of the fibroblast. The quintessential example of a polycomponent formulation – NCTF® (New Cellular Treatment Factor) – includes vitamins, minerals, amino acids, nucleotides, coenzymes and antioxidants, as well as hyaluronic acid, designed to help fibroblasts function more efficiently by providing a more optimal environment for biochemical processes and energy generation, as well as resisting the effects of oxidative stress. In vitro experiments suggest that there is a significant increase in the synthetic and prophylactic activity of fibroblasts with treated NCTF, and a significant increase in the ability of cells to resist oxidative stress. The current article looks at the rationale behind the development of polycomponent mesopreparations, using NCTF as an example. PMID:25897252

  7. Identification and quantitation of vitamins K1 and K3 in cosmetic products for facial skin protection.

    PubMed

    De Orsi, D; Giannini, G; Gagliardi, L; Carpani, I; Tonelli, D

    2008-01-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method was developed for the determination of vitamins K1 and K3 in facial anti-rash creams. The procedure is based on an ultrasonic extraction of the cosmetic sample with dimethylacetamide, in the presence of an internal standard, followed by HPLC separation. HPLC was performed using a C18 column and spectrophotometric detection at 333 nm. A linear gradient elution was carried out starting with 50% acetonitrile-methanol (75:25 v/v) and water up to 100% acetonitrile-methanol for 5 min. Linearity was established over the concentration range from 0.2 to 1.0 mg/ml for vitamin K1 and from 0.02 to 0.1 mg/ml for vitamin K3, with LOD values of 100 ng and 20 ng injected, respectively. The accuracy was verified by spiking experiments on model cosmetic samples. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the analysis of commercial samples of creams.

  8. Surface Facial Electromyography, Skin Conductance, and Self-Reported Emotional Responses to Light- and Season-Relevant Stimuli in Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Kathryn Tierney; Rohan, Kelly J.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Mahon, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Learned associations between depressive behavior and environmental stimuli signaling low light availability and winter season may play a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether light and season environmental cues elicit emotional responses that are distinct in individuals with SAD. Methods Twenty-four currently depressed SAD participants were compared to 24 demographically-matched controls with no depression history on emotional responses to outdoor scenes captured under two light intensity (i.e., clear, sunny vs. overcast sky) and three season (i.e., summer with green leaves, fall with autumn foliage, and winter with bare trees) conditions. Emotion measures included surface facial electromyography (EMG) activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions, skin conductance, and self-reported mood state on the Profile of Mood States Depression–Dejection Subscale. Results Light intensity was a more salient cue than season in determining emotional reactions among SAD participants. Relative to controls, SAD participants displayed more corrugator activity, more frequent significant skin conductance responses (SCR), greater SCR magnitude, and more self-reported depressed mood in response to overcast stimuli and less corrugator activity, lower SCR magnitude, and less self-reported depressed mood in response to sunny stimuli. Limitations Study limitations include the single, as opposed to repeated, assessment and the lack of a nonseasonal depression group. Conclusions These findings suggest that extreme emotional reactivity to light-relevant stimuli may be a correlate of winter depression; and future work should examine its potential onset or maintenance significance. PMID:21600661

  9. Quality of life differences in patients with right- versus left-sided facial paralysis: Universal preference of right-sided human face recognition.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Nam Gyu; Lim, Byung Woo; Cho, Jae Keun; Kim, Jin

    2016-09-01

    We investigated whether experiencing right- or left-sided facial paralysis would affect an individual's ability to recognize one side of the human face using hybrid hemi-facial photos by preliminary study. Further investigation looked at the relationship between facial recognition ability, stress, and quality of life. To investigate predominance of one side of the human face for face recognition, 100 normal participants (right-handed: n = 97, left-handed: n = 3, right brain dominance: n = 56, left brain dominance: n = 44) answered a questionnaire that included hybrid hemi-facial photos developed to determine decide superiority of one side for human face recognition. To determine differences of stress level and quality of life between individuals experiencing right- and left-sided facial paralysis, 100 patients (right side:50, left side:50, not including traumatic facial nerve paralysis) answered a questionnaire about facial disability index test and quality of life (SF-36 Korean version). Regardless of handedness or hemispheric dominance, the proportion of predominance of the right side in human face recognition was larger than the left side (71% versus 12%, neutral: 17%). Facial distress index of the patients with right-sided facial paralysis was lower than that of left-sided patients (68.8 ± 9.42 versus 76.4 ± 8.28), and the SF-36 scores of right-sided patients were lower than left-sided patients (119.07 ± 15.24 versus 123.25 ± 16.48, total score: 166). Universal preference for the right side in human face recognition showed worse psychological mood and social interaction in patients with right-side facial paralysis than left-sided paralysis. This information is helpful to clinicians in that psychological and social factors should be considered when treating patients with facial-paralysis. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.

    PubMed

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  11. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics. PMID:25136663

  12. Facial skin resurfacing with a very short-pulsed CO2 laser: beam characterization and initial histological results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David M.; Bell, Thomas; From, Lynn; Schachter, Daniel

    1996-05-01

    The beam characteristics and spot geometry of a short pulsed (15 - 1000 microsecond) carbon- dioxide, multimode laser were measured. At a distance of 1.0 - 3.0 cm from the handpiece the laser produced a 5 mm2 square spot with an even fluence across the entire spot area (Mesa Mode). Human eyelid skin was irradiated both in vivo and ex-vivo immediately after excision with 1, 2, 3, or 4 pulses, a pulse duration of 62.5 microseconds, and at a fluence of 6 J/cm2. H&E stained sections showed an even removal of tissue across the impact site. The depth of thermal damage was measured as 38 micrometer plus or minus 22.7 with a range of 0 - 100 micrometer.

  13. Children with facial morphoea managing everyday life: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Stasiulis, E; Gladstone, B; Boydell, K; O'Brien, C; Pope, E; Laxer, R M

    2018-02-16

    Facial morphoea is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder, typically presenting in childhood and adolescence, which can be disfiguring, and which has been suggested to cause mild-to-moderate impairment in quality of life. To explore the everyday experiences of children with facial morphoea by examining the psychosocial impact of living with facial morphoea and how children and their families manage its impact. We used a qualitative, social constructionist approach involving focus groups, in-depth interviews and drawing activities with 10 children with facial morphoea aged 8-17 years and 13 parents. Interpretive thematic analysis was utilized to examine the data. Children and parents reported on the stress of living with facial morphoea, which was related to the lack of knowledge about facial morphoea and the extent to which they perceived themselves as different from others. Self-perceptions were based on the visibility of the lesion, different phases of life transitions and the reactions of others (e.g. intrusive questioning and bullying). Medication routines, and side-effects such as weight gain, added to the stress experienced by the participants. To manage the impact of facial morphoea, children and their parents used strategies to normalize the experience by hiding physical signs of the illness, constructing explanations about what 'it' is, and by connecting with their peers. Understanding what it is like to live with facial morphoea from the perspectives of children and parents is important for devising ways to help children with the disorder achieve a better quality of life. Healthcare providers can help families access resources to manage anxiety, deal with bullying and construct adequate explanations of facial morphoea, in addition to providing opportunities for peer support. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Validation of a quality-of-life instrument for patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Rhee, John S; Matthews, B Alex; Neuburg, Marcy; Logan, Brent R; Burzynski, Mary; Nattinger, Ann B

    2006-01-01

    To validate a disease-specific quality-of-life instrument--the Skin Cancer Index--intended to measure quality-of-life issues relevant to patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer. Internal reliability, convergent and divergent validity with existing scales, and factor analyses were performed in a cross-sectional study of 211 patients presenting with cervicofacial nonmelanoma skin cancer to a dermatologic surgery clinic. Factor analyses of the Skin Cancer Index confirmed a multidimensional scale with 3 distinct subscales-emotional, social, and appearance. Excellent internal validity of the 3 subscales was demonstrated. Substantial evidence was observed for convergent validity with the Dermatology Life Quality Index, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Lerman's Cancer Worry Scale, and Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form 12 domains for vitality, emotion, social function, and mental health. These findings validate a new disease-specific quality-of-life instrument for patients with cervicofacial nonmelanoma skin cancer. Studies on the responsiveness of the Skin Cancer Index to clinical intervention are currently under way.

  15. Childhood Sarcoidosis Presenting as Recurrent Facial Palsy.

    PubMed

    Passi, Gouri Rao; Arora, Kriti; Gokhale, Narendra

    2018-04-15

    Recurrent facial palsy in a patient merits investigation for underlying etiology. 8-year-old boy with erythematous itchy skin lesion and recurrent facial palsy. He had a past history of aseptic meningitis and nephrocalcinosis. Raised angiotensin converting enzyme levels, interstitial lung disease on CT chest, and non caseating granulomas on skin biopsy clinched the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Multisystem involvement and recurrent lower motor facial nerve palsy is a clinical clue for sarcoidosis.

  16. UV imaging reveals facial areas that are prone to skin cancer are disproportionately missed during sunscreen application.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Harry; Hassanin, Kareem; Troughton, Lee D; Czanner, Gabriela; Zheng, Yalin; McCormick, Austin G; Hamill, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Application of sunscreen is a widely used mechanism for protecting skin from the harmful effects of UV light. However, protection can only be achieved through effective application, and areas that are routinely missed are likely at increased risk of UV damage. Here we sought to determine if specific areas of the face are missed during routine sunscreen application, and whether provision of public health information is sufficient to improve coverage. To investigate this, 57 participants were imaged with a UV sensitive camera before and after sunscreen application: first visit; minimal pre-instruction, second visit; provided with a public health information statement. Images were scored using a custom automated image analysis process designed to identify areas of high UV reflectance, i.e. missed during sunscreen application, and analysed for 5% significance. Analyses revealed eyelid and periorbital regions to be disproportionately missed during routine sunscreen application (median 14% missed in eyelid region vs 7% in rest of face, p<0.01). Provision of health information caused a significant improvement in coverage to eyelid areas in general however, the medial canthal area was still frequently missed. These data reveal that a public health announcement-type intervention could be effective at improving coverage of high risk areas of the face, however high risk areas are likely to remain unprotected therefore other mechanisms of sun protection should be widely promoted such as UV blocking sunglasses.

  17. UV imaging reveals facial areas that are prone to skin cancer are disproportionately missed during sunscreen application

    PubMed Central

    Troughton, Lee D.; Czanner, Gabriela; Zheng, Yalin; McCormick, Austin G.

    2017-01-01

    Application of sunscreen is a widely used mechanism for protecting skin from the harmful effects of UV light. However, protection can only be achieved through effective application, and areas that are routinely missed are likely at increased risk of UV damage. Here we sought to determine if specific areas of the face are missed during routine sunscreen application, and whether provision of public health information is sufficient to improve coverage. To investigate this, 57 participants were imaged with a UV sensitive camera before and after sunscreen application: first visit; minimal pre-instruction, second visit; provided with a public health information statement. Images were scored using a custom automated image analysis process designed to identify areas of high UV reflectance, i.e. missed during sunscreen application, and analysed for 5% significance. Analyses revealed eyelid and periorbital regions to be disproportionately missed during routine sunscreen application (median 14% missed in eyelid region vs 7% in rest of face, p<0.01). Provision of health information caused a significant improvement in coverage to eyelid areas in general however, the medial canthal area was still frequently missed. These data reveal that a public health announcement-type intervention could be effective at improving coverage of high risk areas of the face, however high risk areas are likely to remain unprotected therefore other mechanisms of sun protection should be widely promoted such as UV blocking sunglasses. PMID:28968413

  18. A Skin Cancer Prevention Facial-Aging Mobile App for Secondary Schools in Brazil: Appearance-Focused Interventional Study.

    PubMed

    Brinker, Titus Josef; Heckl, Marlene; Gatzka, Martina; Heppt, Markus V; Resende Rodrigues, Henrique; Schneider, Sven; Sondermann, Wiebke; de Almeida E Silva, Carolina; Kirchberger, Michael C; Klode, Joachim; Enk, Alexander H; Knispel, Sarah; von Kalle, Christof; Stoffels, Ingo; Schadendorf, Dirk; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Esser, Stefan; Assis, Aisllan; Bernardes-Souza, Breno

    2018-03-09

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other major cancer both in Brazil and worldwide. Southeast Brazil has especially high incidences of melanoma, and early detection is low. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a primary risk factor for developing melanoma. Increasing attractiveness is a major motivation among adolescents for tanning. A medical student-delivered intervention that takes advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones and adolescents' interest in their appearance indicated effectiveness in a recent study from Germany. However, the effect in a high-UV index country with a high melanoma prevalence and the capability of medical students to implement such an intervention remain unknown. In this pilot study, our objective was to investigate the preliminary success and implementability of a photoaging intervention to prevent skin cancer in Brazilian adolescents. We implemented a free photoaging mobile phone app (Sunface) in 15 secondary school classes in southeast Brazil. Medical students "mirrored" the pupils' altered 3-dimensional (3D) selfies reacting to touch on tablets via a projector in front of their whole grade accompanied by a brief discussion of means of UV protection. An anonymous questionnaire capturing sociodemographic data and risk factors for melanoma measured the perceptions of the intervention on 5-point Likert scales among 356 pupils of both sexes (13-19 years old; median age 16 years) in grades 8 to 12 of 2 secondary schools in Brazil. We measured more than 90% agreement in both items that measured motivation to reduce UV exposure and only 5.6% disagreement: 322 (90.5%) agreed or strongly agreed that their 3D selfie motivated them to avoid using a tanning bed, and 321 (90.2%) that it motivated them to improve their sun protection; 20 pupils (5.6%) disagreed with both items. The perceived effect on motivation was higher in female pupils in both tanning bed avoidance (n=198, 92.6% agreement in females vs n=123

  19. The association of dermatologist-diagnosed and self-reported skin diseases with skin-related quality of life in Latino migrant farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Schulz, Mark R; Vallejos, Quirina M; Feldman, Steven R; Verma, Amit; Fleischer, Alan B; Rapp, Stephen R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2008-03-01

    Skin diseases are known to affect the quality of life (QoL), but data to support this are based on clinical samples. Few data document the skin-related QoL in the general population, and whether its association differs with self-reported or dermatologist-diagnosed skin ailments. Farmworkers are at high risk for skin diseases, and are an appropriate population in which to explore these associations. To compare the association between skin-related QoL and workers' self-reports of skin conditions or dermatologist-diagnosed skin diseases over the course of a work season. Three hundred and four Latino farmworkers were recruited from 45 randomly selected residential sites in North Carolina, USA, for longitudinal surveillance. The participants were interviewed up to five times at 3-week intervals and the reported skin problems and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were recorded. Nine digital photographs were taken of each participant. A board-certified dermatologist rated each for the presence of specific skin diseases. An impact of skin disease on QoL was reported in 16% of interviews. In multivariate analyses with self-reported skin problems, feet or skin fungus, rash, itching, and poison ivy were predictors of QoL. Dermatologist-diagnosed inflammatory diseases and pigmentary disorders were significant predictors of QoL. The association was stronger for self-reported skin problems than for dermatologist-diagnosed conditions. In a population of farmworkers, skin problems had a clinically significant impact on QoL. Itch-related conditions and cosmetic conditions, such as acne and melasma, were important determinants of QoL. Treatment for these conditions in this population may enhance QoL.

  20. New strategy to improve quality control of Montenegro skin test at the production level.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Deborah Carbonera; Minozzo, João Carlos; Pasquali, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi; Faulds, Craig; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2017-01-01

    The production of the Montenegro antigen for skin test poses difficulties regarding quality control. Here, we propose that certain animal models reproducing a similar immune response to humans may be used in the quality control of Montenegro antigen production. Fifteen Cavia porcellus (guinea pigs) were immunized with Leishmania amazonensis or Leishmania braziliensis , and, after 30 days, they were skin tested with standard Montenegro antigen. To validate C. porcellus as an animal model for skin tests, eighteen Mesocricetus auratus (hamsters) were infected with L. amazonensis or L. braziliensis , and, after 45 days, they were skin tested with standard Montenegro antigen. Cavia porcellus immunized with L. amazonensis or L. braziliensis , and hamsters infected with the same species presented induration reactions when skin tested with standard Montenegro antigen 48-72h after the test. The comparison between immunization methods and immune response from the two animal species validated C. porcellus as a good model for Montenegro skin test, and the model showed strong potential as an in vivo model in the quality control of the production of Montenegro antigen.

  1. Resurfacing of Facial Acne Scars With a New Variable-Pulsed Er:YAG Laser in Fitzpatrick Skin Types IV and V

    PubMed Central

    Chathra, Namitha; Mysore, Venkataram

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The Er:YAG laser, considered to be less effective than CO2 laser in its traditional form, in its new modulated version has variable pulse technology that is claimed to be superior to the earlier versions of the laser. Aim: The aim of the study was to check efficacy and safety of the new variable square pulse (VSP) Er:YAG laser in the management of acne scar in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 80 patients (Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V) with atrophic and hypertrophic facial acne scars. Records of the patients who had undergone four treatment sessions with VSP technology equipped with Er:YAG laser were extracted. Each patient had undergone a minimum of four sessions. Fractional mode at medium laser pulse (SP) and long pulse (LP) was employed for the depressed center of the scars to stimulate neocollagenogenesis. Short laser pulse (MSP) in nonfractionated mode was used for ablating the raised scar border and hypertrophic scars. Goodman and Baron global scarring grading system was used for qualitative and quantitative assessments. Patient’s satisfaction to the treatment and observer’s assessment of improvement (based on photographs) was graded as poor (<25% improvement), fair (25–50% improvement), good (51–75% improvement), and excellent (>75% improvement). Results: At the end of the four sessions, the number of patients in grade IV postacne scarring reduced from 16 to 2 and that in grade III from 47 to 29. The mean score significantly dropped from 36.94 to 27.5. Subjective assessment revealed that 78 of 80 patients had noticed more than 25% improvement, with 50 of them showing more than 50% improvement at the end of four sessions. Eight patients perceived an excellent response and 42 reported a good response. This is notably higher than the observer’s grading, which showed an excellent response in only 2 patients and a good response in 35. Adverse effects were limited

  2. Resurfacing of Facial Acne Scars With a New Variable-Pulsed Er:YAG Laser in Fitzpatrick Skin Types IV and V.

    PubMed

    Chathra, Namitha; Mysore, Venkataram

    2018-01-01

    The Er:YAG laser, considered to be less effective than CO 2 laser in its traditional form, in its new modulated version has variable pulse technology that is claimed to be superior to the earlier versions of the laser. The aim of the study was to check efficacy and safety of the new variable square pulse (VSP) Er:YAG laser in the management of acne scar in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V. This retrospective study consisted of 80 patients (Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V) with atrophic and hypertrophic facial acne scars. Records of the patients who had undergone four treatment sessions with VSP technology equipped with Er:YAG laser were extracted. Each patient had undergone a minimum of four sessions. Fractional mode at medium laser pulse (SP) and long pulse (LP) was employed for the depressed center of the scars to stimulate neocollagenogenesis. Short laser pulse (MSP) in nonfractionated mode was used for ablating the raised scar border and hypertrophic scars. Goodman and Baron global scarring grading system was used for qualitative and quantitative assessments. Patient's satisfaction to the treatment and observer's assessment of improvement (based on photographs) was graded as poor (<25% improvement), fair (25-50% improvement), good (51-75% improvement), and excellent (>75% improvement). At the end of the four sessions, the number of patients in grade IV postacne scarring reduced from 16 to 2 and that in grade III from 47 to 29. The mean score significantly dropped from 36.94 to 27.5. Subjective assessment revealed that 78 of 80 patients had noticed more than 25% improvement, with 50 of them showing more than 50% improvement at the end of four sessions. Eight patients perceived an excellent response and 42 reported a good response. This is notably higher than the observer's grading, which showed an excellent response in only 2 patients and a good response in 35. Adverse effects were limited to prolonged erythema (two patients), prolonged crusting

  3. Self-reported skin symptoms and skin-related quality of life among Latino immigrant poultry processing and other manual workers.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Newman, Jill C; Pichardo-Geisinger, Rita; Mora, Dana C; Chen, Haiying; Feldman, Steven R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    Manual labor employment occurs in environments with exposures likely to impact skin-related quality of life (SRQOL). The objectives of this paper are to (1) document the dimensions of SRQOL, (2) examine its association with skin symptoms, and (3) identify the predictors of SRQOL in Latino manual workers. A population-based survey of 733 Latino manual workers obtained Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and skin symptoms in the prior year. Two-thirds of workers were employed in production. Skin symptoms in prior year were reported by 23%. Impaired SRQOL was reported by 23%. In multivariate analyses, reduced SRQOL was associated with age, occupation, childhood indigenous language use, and experience of skin symptoms in the prior year. Despite overall high SRQOL exposures in some immigrant occupational groups produce reduce SRQOL. This rural, immigrant population faces significant obstacles to obtaining dermatological care; efforts are needed to improve their SRQOL. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Facial nerve paralysis secondary to occult malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Boahene, Derek O; Olsen, Kerry D; Driscoll, Colin; Lewis, Jean E; McDonald, Thomas J

    2004-04-01

    This study reviewed patients with unilateral facial paralysis and normal clinical and imaging findings who underwent diagnostic facial nerve exploration. Study design and setting Fifteen patients with facial paralysis and normal findings were seen in the Mayo Clinic Department of Otorhinolaryngology. Eleven patients were misdiagnosed as having Bell palsy or idiopathic paralysis. Progressive facial paralysis with sequential involvement of adjacent facial nerve branches occurred in all 15 patients. Seven patients had a history of regional skin squamous cell carcinoma, 13 patients had surgical exploration to rule out a neoplastic process, and 2 patients had negative exploration. At last follow-up, 5 patients were alive. Patients with facial paralysis and normal clinical and imaging findings should be considered for facial nerve exploration when the patient has a history of pain or regional skin cancer, involvement of other cranial nerves, and prolonged facial paralysis. Occult malignancy of the facial nerve may cause unilateral facial paralysis in patients with normal clinical and imaging findings.

  5. Effect of the Duck Skin on Quality Characteristics of Duck Hams

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Young-Boong; Sung, Jung-Min; Jang, YoungJin; Shim, Jae-Yun; Han, Sung-Gu; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of duck skin on cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, protein solubility, texture profile analysis (TPA), apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of press type duck ham with different ratio of duck breast meat and duck skin. Five duck ham formulations were produced with the following compositions: T1 (duck breast 70% + duck skin 30%), T2 (duck breast 60% + duck skin 40%), T3 (duck breast 50% + duck skin 50%), T4 (duck breast 40% + duck skin 60%), and T5 (duck breast 30% + duck skin 70%). The cooking loss and fat separation were lower in T1, and the total expressible fluid separations were lower in T1 and T2 than others. The pH ranged from 6.48 to 6.59, with the highest values in T4 and T5. T5 had the highest CIE L*-value, and T1 and T2 had the highest CIE a*-values; however, CIE b*-values did not differ significantly between the duck ham samples. The protein solubility and TPA (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness) were the highest in T1. T1 and T2 had higher scores for color, tenderness, and overall acceptability. T1, T2, and T3 showed significantly higher values, but there were no significant differences for flavor and juiciness. Regarding apparent viscosity properties, T1 and T2 had higher viscosity values than the other formulations. In conclusion, the T1 (duck breast 70% + duck skin 30%) and T2 (duck breast 60% + duck skin 40%) duck hams show the highest quality characteristics. PMID:28747821

  6. [Facial palsy].

    PubMed

    Cavoy, R

    2013-09-01

    Facial palsy is a daily challenge for the clinicians. Determining whether facial nerve palsy is peripheral or central is a key step in the diagnosis. Central nervous lesions can give facial palsy which may be easily differentiated from peripheral palsy. The next question is the peripheral facial paralysis idiopathic or symptomatic. A good knowledge of anatomy of facial nerve is helpful. A structure approach is given to identify additional features that distinguish symptomatic facial palsy from idiopathic one. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is idiopathic one, or Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The most common cause of symptomatic peripheral facial palsy is Ramsay-Hunt syndrome. Early identification of symptomatic facial palsy is important because of often worst outcome and different management. The prognosis of Bell's palsy is on the whole favorable and is improved with a prompt tapering course of prednisone. In Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, an antiviral therapy is added along with prednisone. We also discussed of current treatment recommendations. We will review short and long term complications of peripheral facial palsy.

  7. In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2013-03-01

    In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology.

  8. Comparative Physiological and Proteomic Analysis Reveal Distinct Regulation of Peach Skin Quality Traits by Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Evangelos; Tanou, Georgia; Samiotaki, Martina; Michailidis, Michail; Diamantidis, Grigorios; Minas, Ioannis S.; Molassiotis, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    The role of environment in fruit physiology has been established; however, knowledge regarding the effect of altitude in fruit quality traits is still lacking. Here, skin tissue quality characters were analyzed in peach fruit (cv. June Gold), harvested in 16 orchards located in low (71.5 m mean), or high (495 m mean) altitutes sites. Data indicated that soluble solids concentration and fruit firmness at commercial harvest stage were unaffected by alitute. Peach grown at high-altitude environment displayed higher levels of pigmentation and specific antioxidant-related activity in their skin at the commercial harvest stage. Skin extracts from distinct developmental stages and growing altitudes exhibited different antioxidant ability against DNA strand-scission. The effects of altitude on skin tissue were further studied using a proteomic approach. Protein expression analysis of the mature fruits depicted altered expression of 42 proteins that are mainly involved in the metabolic pathways of defense, primary metabolism, destination/storage and energy. The majority of these proteins were up-regulated at the low-altitude region. High-altitude environment increased the accumulation of several proteins, including chaperone ClpC, chaperone ClpB, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1, TCP domain class transcription factor, and lipoxygenase. We also discuss the altitude-affected protein variations, taking into account their potential role in peach ripening process. This study provides the first characterization of the peach skin proteome and helps to improve our understanding of peach's response to altitude. PMID:27891143

  9. Topical Treatment of Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Versteeg, Sarah G

    2017-04-01

    Facial seborrheic dermatitis (SD), a chronic inflammatory skin condition, can impact quality of life, and relapses can be frequent. Three broad categories of agents are used to treat SD: antifungal agents, keratolytics, and corticosteroids. Topical therapies are the first line of defense in treating this condition. Our objective was to critically review the published literature on topical treatments for facial SD. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane library databases for original clinical studies evaluating topical treatments for SD. We then conducted both a critical analysis of the selected studies by grading the evidence and a qualitative comparison of results among and within studies. A total of 32 studies were eligible for inclusion, encompassing 18 topical treatments for facial SD. Pimecrolimus, the focus of seven of the 32 eligible studies, was the most commonly studied topical treatment. Promiseb ® , desonide, mometasone furoate, and pimecrolimus were found to be effective topical treatments for facial SD, as they had the lowest recurrence rate, highest clearance rate, and the lowest severity scores (e.g., erythema, scaling, and pruritus), respectively. Ciclopirox olamine, ketoconazole, lithium (gluconate and succinate), and tacrolimus are also strongly recommended (level A recommendations) topical treatments for facial SD, as they are consistently effective across high-quality trials (randomized controlled trials).

  10. The Hand-Foot Skin Reaction and Quality of Life Questionnaire: An Assessment Tool for Oncology.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Roger T; Keating, Karen N; Doll, Helen A; Camacho, Fabian

    2015-07-01

    Skin toxicity (hand-foot syndrome/hand-foot skin reaction, HFS/R) related to antineoplastic therapy is a significant issue in oncology practice, with potentially large impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQL). A patient-reported questionnaire, the hand-foot skin reaction and quality of life (HF-QoL) questionnaire was developed to measure the HFS/R symptoms associated with cancer therapeutic agents and their effect on daily activities. The validity and reliability of the HF-QoL questionnaire was tested in a randomized trial of capecitabine with sorafenib/placebo in 223 patients with locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer. Other measures completed included patient ratings of condition severity, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast cancer (FACT-B), and the clinician-rated National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE), version 3.0, hand-foot skin reaction grade. The psychometric properties of the HF-QoL tested included structural validity, internal consistency, construct validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness. Finally, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was estimated. The HF-QoL instrument comprises a 20-item symptom scale and an 18-item daily activity scale. Each scale demonstrated excellent measurement properties and discriminated between NCI-CTCAE grade and patient-rated condition severity with large effect sizes. The daily activity scale had excellent internal consistency and correlated with the FACT-B and HF-QoL symptom scores. Both HF-QoL scale scores increased linearly with increasing patient-rated condition severity. The MCIDs were estimated as 5 units for daily activities and 8 units for symptoms mean scores. The HF-QoL was sensitive to symptoms and HRQL issues associated with HFS/R among participants treated with capecitabine with and without sorafenib. The HF-QoL appears suitable for assessing the HRQL impairment associated with HFS/R to cancer therapies. Skin

  11. Facial animation on an anatomy-based hierarchical face model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C.; Sung, Eric

    2003-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new hierarchical 3D facial model based on anatomical knowledge that provides high fidelity for realistic facial expression animation. Like real human face, the facial model has a hierarchical biomechanical structure, incorporating a physically-based approximation to facial skin tissue, a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. The deformable skin model has multi-layer structure to approximate different types of soft tissue. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the skin and the fact that soft tissue is almost incompressible. Different types of muscle models have been developed to simulate distribution of the muscle force on the skin due to muscle contraction. By the presence of the skull model, our facial model takes advantage of both more accurate facial deformation and the consideration of facial anatomy during the interactive definition of facial muscles. Under the muscular force, the deformation of the facial skin is evaluated using numerical integration of the governing dynamic equations. The dynamic facial animation algorithm runs at interactive rate with flexible and realistic facial expressions to be generated.

  12. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment ... face like the eyes or lips. A facial plastic surgeon has many options for treating and improving ...

  13. Motion-artifact-robust, polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on rapid polarization switching with electro-optic Pockells cell and its application to in vivo visualization of collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yuji; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shuichiro; Ogura, Yuki; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Hirao, Tetsuji; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation (PR-SHG) microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating collagen fiber orientation quantitatively with low invasiveness. However, the waiting time for the mechanical polarization rotation makes it too sensitive to motion artifacts and hence has hampered its use in various applications in vivo. In the work described in this article, we constructed a motion-artifact-robust, PR-SHG microscope based on rapid polarization switching at every pixel with an electro-optic Pockells cell (PC) in synchronization with step-wise raster scanning of the focus spot and alternate data acquisition of a vertical-polarization-resolved SHG signal and a horizontal-polarization-resolved one. The constructed PC-based PR-SHG microscope enabled us to visualize orientation mapping of dermal collagen fiber in human facial skin in vivo without the influence of motion artifacts. Furthermore, it implied the location and/or age dependence of the collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin. The robustness to motion artifacts in the collagen orientation measurement will expand the application scope of SHG microscopy in dermatology and collagen-related fields. PMID:24761292

  14. Impact of TNF-α antagonists on the quality of life in selected skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Gisondi, P; Girolomoni, G

    2013-06-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the impact of TNF-α antagonists on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in selected skin diseases, i.e. chronic plaque psoriasis, Behçet's disease (BD), hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). We have carried out a systematic literature search of Medline (2000 to April 2013) using the Cochrane highly sensitive and specific search strategy. Citations were screened for randomized, controlled trials of TNF-α antagonists (adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab) versus placebo in adults with psoriasis, BD, HS or PG. From the literature it is evident that skin diseases can affect physical, psychological, social and occupational aspects of everyday life. TNF-α antagonists induced consistent benefits across health outcomes in psoriasis, but only monoclonal antibodies, infliximab and adalimumab were effective in improving QoL in patients with BD, HS and PG. Dermatology Life Quality Index was the most common used tool for investigating HRQoL. For the majority of patients with skin diseases, the most important negative impacts on QoL were appearance related. Generally, the burden on QoL was correlated to the severity of skin disease and the improvement in QoL achieved by TNF-α blockers was proportional to the degree of disease remission. HRQoL issues are becoming even more important in evaluating medical care, including treatment of skin diseases. In general, achieving the highest clearing of skin disease with anti-TNF-α agents is required for optimal improvement in QoL.

  15. The impact of skin diseases on quality of life: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, G; Burgos, C; Nova, J; Hernández, F; González, C; Reyes, M I; Córdoba, N; Arévalo, Á; Meléndez, E; Colmenares, J; Ariza, S; Hernández, G

    2017-04-01

    To date, no formal study has been published regarding how Colombian patients with skin disorders could be affected according to their perception of disease. To determine the impact in quality of life of skin diseases in a Colombian population. This multicenter study included patients with skin disease from almost the whole country. Individuals >18 years old; of any gender; with any skin disease and who signed informed consent, were included. We applied the Colombian validated version of the Skindex-29 instrument. A total of 1896 questionnaires had sufficient information for the analyses. No significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics of patients who returned the questionnaire incomplete vs. complete, were found. Participants mean age was 41.5 years. There were no statistical differences in men vs. women regarding the global (p=0.37), symptoms (p=0.71) and emotions (p=0.32) domains, whereas statistical differences were found in the function domain (p=0.04; Mann-Whitney U test). Psoriasis, contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, hair disorders, Hansen's disease, scars, hyperhidrosis and genital human papillomavirus disease scored the highest. Skindex-29 score variability as a result of differences in the location of the skin lesions, their inflammatory or non-inflammatory nature, and the start of therapy. Even the most localized or asymptomatic skin lesion in our population leads to a disruption at some level of patient's wellness. This study adds well supported scientific data of the burden of skin diseases worldwide. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [To evaluate the quality of life and peristomal skin ostomy patient with the new device Sensura].

    PubMed

    Crespo Fontán, Beatriz; Caparrós Sanz, María Rosario; Lainez Pardos, Pilar Lourdes; Davín Durban, Inmaculada

    2010-10-01

    In 2006, Coloplast launched in several European countries a new device for ostomy care called Sensura. This clinical research report includes only the results of the subpopulation included in Spain as a part of an international study involving many countries such as Denmark, United States, Canada, Australia, Poland, Netherlands, France, Slovakia, Germany, UK, Italy, Iceland, Japan, Czech Republic, Portugal, South Korea and Argentina. OBJECTIVES AND STUDY VARIABLES: The main purpose of the study is to evaluate the experience with Sensura, under normal conditions of use, with special attention to skin condition and quality of life. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the quality of life, through Quality of Life Questionnaire called "Stoma QoL". A secondary objective, is to study the correlation between quality of life and the peristomal skin condition. Other Secondary objectives include the evaluation of the patient's current device at the time of entering the study and by the other hand, the device Sensura and safety evaluation throughout the study. The study was designed as an open label non-comparative, multi-national Post Market study. The study period for each patient is 6 to 8 weeks +/- 4 days, which includes an initial visit and a final visit. The study population included people who carry a colostomy or ileostomy. Regarding Spain, a total of 10 sites participated and included a total of 131 patients. This report only presents results for nine sites and a total of 123 patients. The reason is that the last participating site began the study with a considerable delay The remaining subjects included in this site together with the other centers in Spain and the other participating countries will be included in the final international report, that will present the overall results. MEASUREMENT TOOLS. Stoma-QoL (Quality of Life Questionnaire for people with an ostomy). OST (Ostomy Skin Tool) instrument for the assessment of peristomal skin. As for the

  17. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for samples formulated with SFM-1 or SFM-2 was higher than in the control (p<0.05), and increased with increasing the concentrations of SFM-1 and SFM-2. The addition of SFM-1 and SFM-2 had no significant effect on the pH of the samples. The lightness value of uncooked chicken nuggets was higher than that of cooked chicken nuggets for all the samples tested. Chicken nuggets formulated with SFM-1 and SFM-2 displayed higher cooking yields than the control sample. The hardness of the control sample was also lower than the samples containing SFM-1 and SFM-2. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control and the samples containing SFM. Therefore, the incorporation of a chicken skin and wheat fiber mixture improved the quality of chicken nuggets. PMID:26761796

  18. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for samples formulated with SFM-1 or SFM-2 was higher than in the control (p<0.05), and increased with increasing the concentrations of SFM-1 and SFM-2. The addition of SFM-1 and SFM-2 had no significant effect on the pH of the samples. The lightness value of uncooked chicken nuggets was higher than that of cooked chicken nuggets for all the samples tested. Chicken nuggets formulated with SFM-1 and SFM-2 displayed higher cooking yields than the control sample. The hardness of the control sample was also lower than the samples containing SFM-1 and SFM-2. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control and the samples containing SFM. Therefore, the incorporation of a chicken skin and wheat fiber mixture improved the quality of chicken nuggets.

  19. Predictors of facial attractiveness and health in humans.

    PubMed

    Foo, Yong Zhi; Simmons, Leigh W; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-02-03

    Facial attractiveness has been suggested to provide signals of biological quality, particularly health, in humans. The attractive traits that have been implicated as signals of biological quality include sexual dimorphism, symmetry, averageness, adiposity, and carotenoid-based skin colour. In this study, we first provide a comprehensive examination of the traits that predict attractiveness. In men, attractiveness was predicted positively by masculinity, symmetry, averageness, and negatively by adiposity. In women, attractiveness was predicted positively by femininity and negatively by adiposity. Skin colour did not predict attractiveness in either sex, suggesting that, despite recent interest in the literature, colour may play limited role in determining attractiveness. Male perceived health was predicted positively by averageness, symmetry, and skin yellowness, and negatively by adiposity. Female perceived health was predicted by femininity. We then examined whether appearance predicted actual health using measures that have been theoretically linked to sexual selection, including immune function, oxidative stress, and semen quality. In women, there was little evidence that female appearance predicted health. In men, we found support for the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis that male masculinity signalled semen quality. However, we also found a negative relationship between averageness and semen quality. Overall, these results indicate weak links between attractive facial traits and health.

  20. Predictors of facial attractiveness and health in humans

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Yong Zhi; Simmons, Leigh W.; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Facial attractiveness has been suggested to provide signals of biological quality, particularly health, in humans. The attractive traits that have been implicated as signals of biological quality include sexual dimorphism, symmetry, averageness, adiposity, and carotenoid-based skin colour. In this study, we first provide a comprehensive examination of the traits that predict attractiveness. In men, attractiveness was predicted positively by masculinity, symmetry, averageness, and negatively by adiposity. In women, attractiveness was predicted positively by femininity and negatively by adiposity. Skin colour did not predict attractiveness in either sex, suggesting that, despite recent interest in the literature, colour may play limited role in determining attractiveness. Male perceived health was predicted positively by averageness, symmetry, and skin yellowness, and negatively by adiposity. Female perceived health was predicted by femininity. We then examined whether appearance predicted actual health using measures that have been theoretically linked to sexual selection, including immune function, oxidative stress, and semen quality. In women, there was little evidence that female appearance predicted health. In men, we found support for the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis that male masculinity signalled semen quality. However, we also found a negative relationship between averageness and semen quality. Overall, these results indicate weak links between attractive facial traits and health. PMID:28155897

  1. Hyperspectral venous image quality assessment for optimum illumination range selection based on skin tone characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous veins localization is usually performed manually by medical staff to find suitable vein to insert catheter for medication delivery or blood sample function. The rule of thumb is to find large and straight enough vein for the medication to flow inside of the selected blood vessel without any obstruction. The problem of peripheral difficult venous access arises when patient’s veins are not visible due to any reason like dark skin tone, presence of hair, high body fat or dehydrated condition, etc. Methods To enhance the visibility of veins, near infrared imaging systems is used to assist medical staff in veins localization process. Optimum illumination is crucial to obtain a better image contrast and quality, taking into consideration the limited power and space on portable imaging systems. In this work a hyperspectral image quality assessment is done to get the optimum range of illumination for venous imaging system. A database of hyperspectral images from 80 subjects has been created and subjects were divided in to four different classes on the basis of their skin tone. In this paper the results of hyper spectral image analyses are presented in function of the skin tone of patients. For each patient, four mean images were constructed by taking mean with a spectral span of 50 nm within near infrared range, i.e. 750–950 nm. Statistical quality measures were used to analyse these images. Conclusion It is concluded that the wavelength range of 800 to 850 nm serve as the optimum illumination range to get best near infrared venous image quality for each type of skin tone. PMID:25087016

  2. The impact of acne and facial post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation on quality of life and self-esteem of newly admitted Nigerian undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Adeolu Oladayo; Ezejiofor, Ogochukwu Ifeanyi; Olanrewaju, Fatai Olatunde; Oripelaye, Mufutau Muphy; Olabode, Olatunde Peter; Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward; Onayemi, Emmanuel Olaniyi

    2018-01-01

    Acne and facial post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation are relatively common clinical conditions among adolescents and young adults, and inflict psychosocial injuries on sufferers. To document the psychosocial and self-esteem implications of acne and facial hyperpigmentation on newly admitted undergraduates. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 undergraduates. Demographics and clinical characteristics were obtained and acne was graded using the US Food and Drug Administration 5-category global system of acne classification. Participants completed the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES), and data were analyzed using SPSS 20. Mean age of acne onset was 16.24 ± 3.32 years. There were 168 (84.0%) cases categorized as almost clear, 24 (12.0%) as mild acne, 4 (2.0%) as moderate acne and 4 (2.0%) as severe acne. Acne with facial hyperpigmentation, compared to acne without hyperpigmentation, was associated with significant level of anxiety in 30 participants (26.5% vs 10.3%, p =0.004) and emotional distress in 40 (35.4% vs 10.3%, p <0.001). Acne severity correlated with total CADI score but not with total RSES score. Quality of life (QoL) was significantly reduced among acne patients with facial hyperpigmentation (1.77±1.62, vs 1.07±1.02, p <0.001) compared to those without hyperpigmentation. Acne and facial hyperpigmentation was associated with social life interference, avoidance of public facilities, poor body image and self-esteem and perception of worse disease. There was no association between gender and QoL but acne was related to a reduction of self-worth. Low self-esteem was present in 1.5%, and severe acne was associated with an occasional feeling of uselessness in the male gender. Acne with facial hyperpigmentation induces poorer QoL and self-esteem is impaired only in severe acne. Beyond the medical treatment of acne, dermatologists should routinely assess the QoL and give attention to treatment of facial

  3. The impact of acne and facial post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation on quality of life and self-esteem of newly admitted Nigerian undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Akinboro, Adeolu Oladayo; Ezejiofor, Ogochukwu Ifeanyi; Olanrewaju, Fatai Olatunde; Oripelaye, Mufutau Muphy; Olabode, Olatunde Peter; Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward; Onayemi, Emmanuel Olaniyi

    2018-01-01

    Background Acne and facial post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation are relatively common clinical conditions among adolescents and young adults, and inflict psychosocial injuries on sufferers. Objective To document the psychosocial and self-esteem implications of acne and facial hyperpigmentation on newly admitted undergraduates. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 undergraduates. Demographics and clinical characteristics were obtained and acne was graded using the US Food and Drug Administration 5-category global system of acne classification. Participants completed the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES), and data were analyzed using SPSS 20. Results Mean age of acne onset was 16.24 ± 3.32 years. There were 168 (84.0%) cases categorized as almost clear, 24 (12.0%) as mild acne, 4 (2.0%) as moderate acne and 4 (2.0%) as severe acne. Acne with facial hyperpigmentation, compared to acne without hyperpigmentation, was associated with significant level of anxiety in 30 participants (26.5% vs 10.3%, p=0.004) and emotional distress in 40 (35.4% vs 10.3%, p<0.001). Acne severity correlated with total CADI score but not with total RSES score. Quality of life (QoL) was significantly reduced among acne patients with facial hyperpigmentation (1.77±1.62, vs 1.07±1.02, p<0.001) compared to those without hyperpigmentation. Acne and facial hyperpigmentation was associated with social life interference, avoidance of public facilities, poor body image and self-esteem and perception of worse disease. There was no association between gender and QoL but acne was related to a reduction of self-worth. Low self-esteem was present in 1.5%, and severe acne was associated with an occasional feeling of uselessness in the male gender. Conclusion Acne with facial hyperpigmentation induces poorer QoL and self-esteem is impaired only in severe acne. Beyond the medical treatment of acne, dermatologists should routinely

  4. In vivo evaluation of some biophysical parameters of the facial skin of Indian women. Part I: variability with age and geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Colomb, L; Flament, F; Wagle, A; Agrawal, D

    2018-02-01

    India is a large country (a subcontinent) of about 3.3 million km 2 that covers large ranges in latitude and longitude. The last Indian census counted about 1.21 billion of inhabitants of many origins, creating a vast human diversity and skin types, the variability of which having been previously established. The present study aimed at deepening this knowledge through a set of biophysical measurements to describe, along the skin ageing process, the specificities of various Indian subjects living in different geographical locations. A total of 1204 women, aged 18-84 years, of all socio-economic status, were recruited in four Indian cities (Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Delhi). Measurements of face skin colour properties, elastic properties, sebum production, skin pores and microrelief roughness were performed. With regard skin colour, this study indicates, with age, a darkening of very low amplitude that leads to an increased skin colour heterogeneity. In all subjects, at all ages, the ocular region (dark circles) presents a much darker pigmentation than the cheeks, creating a contrast that appears constant at all ages. In addition to an increased skin colour heterogeneity, a progressive alteration of the skin surface relief, increased sizes of skin pores, a loss of skin elasticity and a drop in sebum production, post-menopause, are observed. This study confirms, in Indian women, some skin ageing measurements found on women from other ethnic groups (i.e. sebum, firmness, wrinkles and pores size) and also identifies some Indian specificities: a high and constant contrast between the ocular region and the cheek colour, associated to a very slow darkening effect along the lifespan. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Influence of gravity upon some facial signs.

    PubMed

    Flament, F; Bazin, R; Piot, B

    2015-06-01

    Facial clinical signs and their integration are the basis of perception than others could have from ourselves, noticeably the age they imagine we are. Facial modifications in motion and their objective measurements before and after application of skin regimen are essential to go further in evaluation capacities to describe efficacy in facial dynamics. Quantification of facial modifications vis à vis gravity will allow us to answer about 'control' of facial shape in daily activities. Standardized photographs of the faces of 30 Caucasian female subjects of various ages (24-73 year) were successively taken at upright and supine positions within a short time interval. All these pictures were therefore reframed - any bias due to facial features was avoided when evaluating one single sign - for clinical quotation by trained experts of several facial signs regarding published standardized photographic scales. For all subjects, the supine position increased facial width but not height, giving a more fuller appearance to the face. More importantly, the supine position changed the severity of facial ageing features (e.g. wrinkles) compared to an upright position and whether these features were attenuated or exacerbated depended on their facial location. Supine station mostly modifies signs of the lower half of the face whereas those of the upper half appear unchanged or slightly accentuated. These changes appear much more marked in the older groups, where some deep labial folds almost vanish. These alterations decreased the perceived ages of the subjects by an average of 3.8 years. Although preliminary, this study suggests that a 90° rotation of the facial skin vis à vis gravity induces rapid rearrangements among which changes in tensional forces within and across the face, motility of interstitial free water among underlying skin tissue and/or alterations of facial Langer lines, likely play a significant role. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Fran

  6. Facial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Facial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rajarshi; Gopalkrishnan, Kulandaswamy

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the incidence of facial fractures along with age, gender predilection, etiology, commonest site, associated dental injuries, and any complications of patients operated in Craniofacial Unit of SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital. This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of OMFS, SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad from January 2003 to December 2013. Data were recorded for the cause of injury, age and gender distribution, frequency and type of injury, localization and frequency of soft tissue injuries, dentoalveolar trauma, facial bone fractures, complications, concomitant injuries, and different treatment protocols.All the data were analyzed using statistical analysis that is chi-squared test. A total of 1146 patients reported at our unit with facial fractures during these 10 years. Males accounted for a higher frequency of facial fractures (88.8%). Mandible was the commonest bone to be fractured among all the facial bones (71.2%). Maxillary central incisors were the most common teeth to be injured (33.8%) and avulsion was the most common type of injury (44.6%). Commonest postoperative complication was plate infection (11%) leading to plate removal. Other injuries associated with facial fractures were rib fractures, head injuries, upper and lower limb fractures, etc., among these rib fractures were seen most frequently (21.6%). This study was performed to compare the different etiologic factors leading to diverse facial fracture patterns. By statistical analysis of this record the authors come to know about the relationship of facial fractures with gender, age, associated comorbidities, etc.

  8. Occupational skin diseases in cleaning and kitchen employees: course and quality of life after measures of secondary individual prevention.

    PubMed

    Soder, Stefanie; Diepgen, Thomas L; Radulescu, Magdalena; Apfelbacher, Christian J; Bruckner, Thomas; Weisshaar, Elke

    2007-08-01

    Cleaning and kitchen employees have an increased risk of suffering from occupational dermatoses. Prevention including improving individual skin care and skin protection behavior, health education, optimizing diagnostics and therapy as well as avoidance of occupational skin disease (BK 5101) is important. Participants in the courses were patients suspected of having an occupational skin disease. Besides socio-demographic and disease-related data, health-related quality of life (QL) was measured using the SF-36 and Skindex-29. One year later all participants were interviewed by telephone about the course of their skin disease. Out of 212 participants, 84.0 % were female. The mean age was 41.6 (SD = 10.8) years.168 patients (79.2 %) suffered from hand dermatitis,with irritant contact dermatitis being the predominant diagnosis (46.2 %,n = 98). One year later 65.4 % (n = 85) of the patients interviewed still suffered from hand dermatitis.9.2 % (n = 12) had meanwhile quit their job due to the skin disease. QL was impaired in all age groups being lower with increasing age of the patients. The follow-up confirmed the positive impact of the skin protection courses on patients' skin disease and well-being. Occupational skin diseases impair health-related quality of life in these professions but disease severity does not seem to play a key role.

  9. Failure of anthropometry as a facial identification technique using high-quality photographs.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, Krista F; Vanezis, Peter; Burton, A Mike

    2007-07-01

    Anthropometry can be used in certain circumstances to facilitate comparison of a photograph of a suspect with that of the potential offender from surveillance footage. Experimental research was conducted to determine whether anthropometry has a place in forensic practice in confirming the identity of a suspect from a surveillance video. We examined an existing database of photographic lineups, where one video image was compared against 10 photographs, which has previously been used in psychological research. Target (1) and test (10) photos were of high quality, although taken with a different camera. The anthropometric landmarks of right and left ectocanthions, nasion, and stomion were chosen, and proportions and angle values between these landmarks were measured to compare target with test photos. Results indicate that these measurements failed to accurately identify targets. There was also no indication that any of the landmarks made a better comparison than another. It was concluded that, for these landmarks, this method does not generate the consistent results necessary for use as evidence in a court of law.

  10. Rejuvenation of aged pig facial skin by transplanting allogeneic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced peripheral blood stem cells from a young pig.

    PubMed

    Harn, Horng-Jyh; Huang, Mao-Hsuan; Huang, Chi-Ting; Lin, Po-Cheng; Yen, Ssu-Yin; Chou, Yi-Wen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Chu, Hen-Yi; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2013-01-01

    Following a stroke, the administration of stem cells that have been treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) can ameliorate functional deficits in both rats and humans. It is not known, however, whether the application of GCSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) to human skin can function as an antiaging treatment. We used a Lanyu pig (Sus scrofa) model, since compared with rodents, the structure of a pig's skin is very similar to human skin, to provide preliminary data on whether these cells can exert antiaging effects over a short time frame. GCSF-mobilized PBSCs from a young male Lanyu pig (5 months) were injected intradermally into the cheek skin of aged female Lanyu pigs, and tissues before and after the cell injections were compared to determine whether this treatment caused skin rejuvenation. Increased levels of collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, and the hyaluronic acid receptor CD44 were observed in both dermal and subcutaneous layers following the injection of PBSCs. In addition, the treated skin tissue was tighter and more elastic than adjacent control regions of aged skin tissue. In the epidermal layer, PBSC injection altered the levels of both involucrin and integrin, indicating an increased rate of epidermal cell renewal as evidenced by reductions in both cornified cells and cells of the spinous layers and increases in the number of dividing cells within the basal layer. We found that the exogenous PBSCs, visualized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, were located primarily in hair follicles and adjacent tissues. In summary, PBSC injection restored young skin properties in the skin of aged (90 months) pigs. On the basis of our preliminary data, we conclude that intradermal injection of GCSF-mobilized PBSCs from a young pig can rejuvenate the skin in aged pigs.

  11. Assessing Quality of Life in Older Adult Patients with Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Sherman, Susan N.; Tsevat, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Significance for Public Health The global population is aging. In the industrial world, adults over 65 outnumber children and comprise almost 20% of the population in some countries. Older adults experience a number of skin diseases and disorders that substantially affect their quality of life. Opportunity exists for developing and validating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures specifically for dermatological conditions most pertinent to older patients. Older adults experience a number of skin diseases and disorders that substantially affect quality of life. In the last two decades, a number of instruments have been developed for use among general dermatology patients to assess the effects of treatment and disease progression, perceptions of well-being, and the value that patients place on their dermatologic state of health. This chapter reviews some health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (HRQoL) measures developed and validated specifically for dermatological conditions. However, opportunity exists for developing and validating HRQoL measures specifically for dermatological conditions most pertinent to older patients. PMID:22980159

  12. “Home of Younger Skin” (HOYS) program: Defining the change in apparent skin age after facial treatment with botulinum toxin and dermal fillers

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Greg J; Roberts, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Background Objective and subjective scales estimating improvement in both clinical studies and clinical practice are becoming more mainstream. However, the use of a system to analyze improvement in aging with a multiplicity of treatments would be useful. The purpose of this study was to use a recently developed educative and patient self-assessment program (“Home of Younger Skin”, HOYS) for assessment of the effect of facial treatment with neurotoxins and filling agents in terms of decreasing apparent age. Methods Four patients underwent facial treatments with neurotoxins and dermal fillers by an experienced blinded physician and were assessed twice utilizing an age analysis program (HOYS), once before and then 6 weeks after completion of treatment. Results The four patients showed an average reduction in apparent facial age of 7.5 years. The individual “regions” differed in their reductions. The upper face showed a decline of 13.5 years, the periorbital region 9.25 years, the mid face 4.5 years, and the lower face 12.25 years. Conclusion Use of this previously validated self-assessment program may prove to be a useful measure of patient-reported improvement with treatment. PMID:22956881

  13. Photodynamic Therapy Interventions in Facial Photodamage: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, G; Ruiz-Cañas, V; Miranda, J M; Ferrín, A P; Ramirez, P A; Hernandez, G N

    2018-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the combination of a light source and a photosensitizing agent to induce tissue damage via the generation of singlet oxygen. Although topical PDT has been approved for other indications, its use in facial photodamage is uncertain. To assess the efficacy and safety of PDT in facial skin photoaging. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of any form of topical PDT for the treatment of facial photodamage (dermatoheliosis) or photoaging in patients older than 18 years, were included. Photodynamic-therapy using any topical photosensitizing agent at any dose, and with any light-source, were considered. Comparators were chemical exfoliation, intense pulsed light (IPL), light emitting diodes (LED), dermabrasion or microdermabrasion, ablative or non-ablative lasers, injectables, surgery, placebo and/or no treatment. A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, Google Scholar and RCT's registry databases, was performed. Search was conducted up to May 4th 2016. Four authors independently selected and assessed methodological quality of each RCT. According to inclusion criteria, twelve studies were included (6 aminolevulinate (ALA) trials and 6 methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) trials), but the majority of them had methodological constraints particularly in randomization description and patients/outcome assessors blindness. Overall results indicated that PDT either with ALA or with MAL was effective and safe for facial photodamage treatment, but high quality of evidence was found mainly for MAL studies. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Melanoma risk: adolescent females' perspectives on skin protection pre/post-viewing a ultraviolet photoaged photograph of their own facial sun damage.

    PubMed

    Eastabrook, Suzette; Chang, Paul; Taylor, Myra F

    2018-03-01

    Suntanning increases skin cancer risk and prematurely ages skin. Photoageing photography is an effective means of increasing adult ultraviolet radiation (UVR) awareness and skin-protection practices. While adults' largely positive suntanning-deterrence responses to photoageing photography are well-documented, comparatively little is known about the deterrence effectiveness of photoageing photography with adolescents. To help fill this knowledge gap, in-depth interviews were collected from 10 adolescent females and were subsequently subjected to interpretive phenomenological analysis. The emergent central theme - Having a tan and looking good in the short-term is okay, however, in the longer-term you can end up looking far worse… but still a tan is worth it - and its component subthemes reveal that the adolescent female's desire for a suntan is largely appearance driven. While photoaged photography is effective in increasing their awareness of the skin damage that UVR exposure causes, it does not alter their suntanning intentions. The analysis also revealed that one of the major barriers to adolescent females' adoption of skin-protective behaviours is their belief in their own invincibility. Hence, skin-protection interventions that lessen the aura of invincibility around adolescent females' understanding of their risk for developing skin cancers are vital to reducing the incidence of malignant melanoma.

  15. Acneiform facial eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Melody J.; Taher, Muba; Lauzon, Gilles J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical recognition and current management strategies for four types of acneiform facial eruptions common in young women: acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Many randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) have studied treatments for acne vulgaris over the years. Treatment recommendations for rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis are based predominantly on comparison and open-label studies (level II evidence) as well as expert opinion and consensus statements (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Young women with acneiform facial eruptions often present in primary care. Differentiating between morphologically similar conditions is often difficult. Accurate diagnosis is important because treatment approaches are different for each disease. CONCLUSION Careful visual assessment with an appreciation for subtle morphologic differences and associated clinical factors will help with diagnosis of these common acneiform facial eruptions and lead to appropriate management. PMID:15856972

  16. Caricaturing facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Calder, A J; Rowland, D; Young, A W; Nimmo-Smith, I; Keane, J; Perrett, D I

    2000-08-14

    The physical differences between facial expressions (e.g. fear) and a reference norm (e.g. a neutral expression) were altered to produce photographic-quality caricatures. In Experiment 1, participants rated caricatures of fear, happiness and sadness for their intensity of these three emotions; a second group of participants rated how 'face-like' the caricatures appeared. With increasing levels of exaggeration the caricatures were rated as more emotionally intense, but less 'face-like'. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar relationship between emotional intensity and level of caricature for six different facial expressions. Experiments 3 and 4 compared intensity ratings of facial expression caricatures prepared relative to a selection of reference norms - a neutral expression, an average expression, or a different facial expression (e.g. anger caricatured relative to fear). Each norm produced a linear relationship between caricature and rated intensity of emotion; this finding is inconsistent with two-dimensional models of the perceptual representation of facial expression. An exemplar-based multidimensional model is proposed as an alternative account.

  17. Facial Transplantation Surgery Introduction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea. PMID:26028914

  18. Facial transplantation surgery introduction.

    PubMed

    Eun, Seok-Chan

    2015-06-01

    Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea.

  19. Quality of life and female sexual function after skinning vulvectomy with split-thickness skin graft in women with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or vulvar Paget disease.

    PubMed

    Lavoué, V; Lemarrec, A; Bertheuil, N; Henno, S; Mesbah, H; Watier, E; Levêque, J; Morcel, K

    2013-12-01

    Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and vulvar Paget disease are managed with either vulvectomy, destructive treatments (laser, antimitotic drugs) or immunostimulants. All these options are associated with functional complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical technique consisting of skinning vulvectomy with split-thickness skin graft, and its effect on overall quality of life and sexual function. A retrospective study was conducted on thirteen patients who underwent skinning vulvectomy with split-thickness skin graft between 1999 and 2009. Overall quality of life and sexual function were assessed with the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), respectively. The median age of patients was 54 (range: 33-77) years. Three patients had Paget disease and 10 patients had VIN lesions. The excision margins were clear in 46% of cases. The incidence of occult cancer was 31%. The mean follow-up period was 77 (±35) months. Four patients experienced a relapse of their intraepithelial disease. The mean disease-free survival was 58 (±44) months. There was no significant difference in MOS SF-36 scores between the study population and the general population. The patients assessed with the FSFI regained normal sexual function after the surgical procedure. Skinning vulvectomy with split-thickness skin graft is a feasible technique yielding good results in terms of quality of life and sexual function. It enables occult cancer to be diagnosed in patients with VIN or Paget disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C

    2014-11-01

    Facial attractiveness has important social consequences. Despite a widespread belief that beauty cannot be defined, in fact, there is considerable agreement across individuals and cultures on what is found attractive. By considering that attraction and mate choice are critical components of evolutionary selection, we can better understand the importance of beauty. There are many traits that are linked to facial attractiveness in humans and each may in some way impart benefits to individuals who act on their preferences. If a trait is reliably associated with some benefit to the perceiver, then we would expect individuals in a population to find that trait attractive. Such an approach has highlighted face traits such as age, health, symmetry, and averageness, which are proposed to be associated with benefits and so associated with facial attractiveness. This view may postulate that some traits will be universally attractive; however, this does not preclude variation. Indeed, it would be surprising if there existed a template of a perfect face that was not affected by experience, environment, context, or the specific needs of an individual. Research on facial attractiveness has documented how various face traits are associated with attractiveness and various factors that impact on an individual's judgments of facial attractiveness. Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces. A fuller understanding of facial beauty will come with an understanding of how these various factors interact with each other. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:621-634. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1316 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions: evidence from an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hui; Chau, Desmond K. P.; Su, Jianpo; Zeng, Ling-Li; Jiang, Weixiong; He, Jufang; Fan, Jintu; Hu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions are investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in 41 young adults (22 males and 19 females). The subjects underwent fMRI while they were presented with computer-generated, yet realistic face images, which had varying facial proportions, but the same neutral facial expression, baldhead and skin tone, as stimuli. Statistical parametric mapping with parametric modulation was used to explore the brain regions with the response modulated by facial attractiveness ratings (ARs). The results showed significant linear effects of the ARs in the caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex for all of the subjects, and a non-linear response profile in the right amygdala for only the male subjects. Furthermore, canonical correlation analysis was used to learn the most relevant facial ratios that were best correlated with facial attractiveness. A regression model on the fMRI-derived facial ratio components demonstrated a strong linear relationship between the visually assessed mean ARs and the predictive ARs. Overall, this study provided, for the first time, direct neurophysiologic evidence of the effects of facial ratios on facial attractiveness and suggested that there are notable gender differences in perceiving facial attractiveness as induced by facial proportions. PMID:27779211

  2. Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions: evidence from an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Chau, Desmond K P; Su, Jianpo; Zeng, Ling-Li; Jiang, Weixiong; He, Jufang; Fan, Jintu; Hu, Dewen

    2016-10-25

    Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions are investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in 41 young adults (22 males and 19 females). The subjects underwent fMRI while they were presented with computer-generated, yet realistic face images, which had varying facial proportions, but the same neutral facial expression, baldhead and skin tone, as stimuli. Statistical parametric mapping with parametric modulation was used to explore the brain regions with the response modulated by facial attractiveness ratings (ARs). The results showed significant linear effects of the ARs in the caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex for all of the subjects, and a non-linear response profile in the right amygdala for only the male subjects. Furthermore, canonical correlation analysis was used to learn the most relevant facial ratios that were best correlated with facial attractiveness. A regression model on the fMRI-derived facial ratio components demonstrated a strong linear relationship between the visually assessed mean ARs and the predictive ARs. Overall, this study provided, for the first time, direct neurophysiologic evidence of the effects of facial ratios on facial attractiveness and suggested that there are notable gender differences in perceiving facial attractiveness as induced by facial proportions.

  3. Facial trauma.

    PubMed

    Peeters, N; Lemkens, P; Leach, R; Gemels B; Schepers, S; Lemmens, W

    Facial trauma. Patients with facial trauma must be assessed in a systematic way so as to avoid missing any injury. Severe and disfiguring facial injuries can be distracting. However, clinicians must first focus on the basics of trauma care, following the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system of care. Maxillofacial trauma occurs in a significant number of severely injured patients. Life- and sight-threatening injuries must be excluded during the primary and secondary surveys. Special attention must be paid to sight-threatening injuries in stabilized patients through early referral to an appropriate specialist or the early initiation of emergency care treatment. The gold standard for the radiographic evaluation of facial injuries is computed tomography (CT) imaging. Nasal fractures are the most frequent isolated facial fractures. Isolated nasal fractures are principally diagnosed through history and clinical examination. Closed reduction is the most frequently performed treatment for isolated nasal fractures, with a fractured nasal septum as a predictor of failure. Ear, nose and throat surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons and ophthalmologists must all develop an adequate treatment plan for patients with complex maxillofacial trauma.

  4. Studies in fat grafting: Part III. Fat grafting irradiated tissue--improved skin quality and decreased fat graft retention.

    PubMed

    Garza, Rebecca M; Paik, Kevin J; Chung, Michael T; Duscher, Dominik; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2014-08-01

    Following radiation therapy, skin becomes fibrotic and can present a difficult problem for reconstructive surgeons. There is an increasing belief that fat grafting under irradiated skin can reverse the damage caused by radiation. The present study evaluated the effect of fat grafting on irradiated skin, along with fat graft quality and retention rates in irradiated tissue. Nine adult Crl:NU-Foxn1 CD-1 mice underwent 30-Gy external beam irradiation of the scalp. Four weeks after irradiation, scalp skin from irradiated and nonirradiated mice was harvested and compared histologically for dermal thickness, collagen content, and vascular density. Human fat grafts were then injected in the subcutaneous plane of the scalp. Skin assessment was performed in the irradiated group at 2 and 8 weeks after grafting, and fat graft retention was measured at baseline and every 2 weeks up to 8 weeks after grafting using micro-computed tomography. Finally, fat graft samples were explanted at 8 weeks, and quality scoring was performed. Fat grafting resulted in decreased dermal thickness, decreased collagen content, and increased vascular density in irradiated skin. Computed tomographic analysis revealed significantly decreased fat graft survival in the irradiated group compared with the nonirradiated group. Histologic scoring of explanted fat grafts demonstrated no difference in quality between the irradiated and nonirradiated groups. Fat grafting attenuates dermal collagen deposition and vessel depletion characteristic of radiation fibrosis. Although fat graft retention rates are significantly lower in irradiated than in nonirradiated tissue, the quality of retained fat between the groups is similar.

  5. Evaluation of mild skin cleansers.

    PubMed

    Wortzman, M S

    1991-01-01

    Each person makes the decision of how best to care for his or her own skin. Among the prime concerns, especially for facial skin, is the type of dirt, debris, or make-up to be removed. In most cases, all products do an adequate job in the removal of dirt; if not, the washing techniques can be modified to accomplish the task at hand. What cannot be controlled are the adverse side effects inherent in the use of that product. These adverse properties include damages to the barrier function of the skin; increased susceptibility to environmental sources of irritation and sensitization; frank irritation responses, such as erythema and edema; and reduction of the cosmetic qualities of the skin, such as degree of moisture and smoothness. Part of the problem is that most of these changes are subtle, occurring slowly over time. Often, the association of these problems with the use of a particular facial cleansing regimen is overlooked. The typical woman uses as many as 10 to 15 facial cosmetic and cleansing products each day, making the identification of a problem even more difficult. It is important to identify the risks associated with individual products and with product categories in general. Although the identification of a safe group of products to use for facial cleansing is desirable, the results of this investigation indicate that there are no simple answers. It has been assumed that because moisturizing cream formulations are routinely safe and mild in general use, a cleansing product in the same general form would share these attributes. We can see from the results in Table 2 and Figures 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 that cleansing creams are not uniformly superior to cleansing bars in the key attributes that are used to evaluate mildness. In each evaluation there were individual cleansing creams that demonstrated statistically weaker performance than did cleansing bars in general. As a group, cleansing creams did well in the cosmetic categories of dryness and texture but

  6. Facial transplantation: A concise update

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Pulido, Fernando; Gomez-Cia, Tomas; Sicilia-Castro, Domingo; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto; Gacto-Sanchez, Purificacion; Hernandez-Guisado, Jose-Maria; Lagares-Borrego, Araceli; Narros-Gimenez, Rocio; Gonzalez-Padilla, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Update on clinical results obtained by the first worldwide facial transplantation teams as well as review of the literature concerning the main surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow-up aspects described on facial transplanted patients. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on “face transplantation” until March 2012. Results: Eighteen clinical cases were studied. The mean patient age was 37.5 years, with a higher prevalence of men. Main surgical indication was gunshot injuries (6 patients). All patients had previously undergone multiple conventional surgical reconstructive procedures which had failed. Altogether 8 transplant teams belonging to 4 countries participated. Thirteen partial face transplantations and 5 full face transplantations have been performed. Allografts are varied according to face anatomical components and the amount of skin, muscle, bone, and other tissues included, though all were grafted successfully and remained viable without significant postoperative surgical complications. The patient with the longest follow-up was 5 years. Two patients died 2 and 27 months after transplantation. Conclusions: Clinical experience has demonstrated the feasibility of facial transplantation as a valuable reconstructive option, but it still remains considered as an experimental procedure with unresolved issues to settle down. Results show that from a clinical, technical, and immunological standpoint, facial transplantation has achieved functional, aesthetic, and social rehabilitation in severely facial disfigured patients. Key words:Face transplantation, composite tissue transplantation, face allograft, facial reconstruction, outcomes and complications of face transplantation. PMID:23229268

  7. Facial paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... a physical, speech, or occupational therapist. If facial paralysis from Bell palsy lasts for more than 6 to 12 months, plastic surgery may be recommended to help the eye close and improve the appearance of the face. Alternative Names Paralysis of the face Images Ptosis, drooping of the ...

  8. Cell junction protein armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome is expressed in the skin and colocalizes with autoantibodies of patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Yi, Hong; Howard, Michael S

    2017-10-01

    We previously described a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia, South America (El Bagre-EPF, or pemphigus Abreu-Manu). El Bagre-EPF differs from other types of EPF clinically, epidemiologically, immunologically and in its target antigens. We reported the presence of patient autoantibodies colocalizing with armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (ARVCF), a catenin cell junction protein colocalizing with El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies in the heart and within pilosebaceous units along their neurovascular supply routes. Here we investigate the presence of ARVCF in skin and its possibility as a cutaneous El Bagre-EPF antigen. We used a case-control study, testing sera of 45 patients and 45 controls via direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF/IIF), confocal microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting for the presence of ARVCF and its relationship with El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies in the skin. We also immunoadsorbed samples with desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) ectodomain (El Bagre-EPF antigen) by incubating with the positive ARVCF samples from DIF and IIF. ARVCF was expressed in all the samples from the cases and controls. Immunoadsorption with Dsg1 on positive ARVCF immunofluorescence DIF/IIF cases showed that the immune response was present against non-desmoglein 1 antigen(s). Overall, 40/45 patients showed colocalization of their autoantibodies with ARVCF in the epidermis; no controls from the endemic area displayed colocalization. We demonstrate that ARVCF is expressed in many areas of human skin, and colocalizes with the majority of El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies as a putative antigen.

  9. Cell junction protein armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome is expressed in the skin and colocalizes with autoantibodies of patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Yi, Hong; Howard, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Background We previously described a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia, South America (El Bagre-EPF, or pemphigus Abreu-Manu). El Bagre-EPF differs from other types of EPF clinically, epidemiologically, immunologically and in its target antigens. We reported the presence of patient autoantibodies colocalizing with armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (ARVCF), a catenin cell junction protein colocalizing with El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies in the heart and within pilosebaceous units along their neurovascular supply routes. Here we investigate the presence of ARVCF in skin and its possibility as a cutaneous El Bagre-EPF antigen. Methods We used a case-control study, testing sera of 45 patients and 45 controls via direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF/IIF), confocal microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting for the presence of ARVCF and its relationship with El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies in the skin. We also immunoadsorbed samples with desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) ectodomain (El Bagre-EPF antigen) by incubating with the positive ARVCF samples from DIF and IIF. Results ARVCF was expressed in all the samples from the cases and controls. Immunoadsorption with Dsg1 on positive ARVCF immunofluorescence DIF/IIF cases showed that the immune response was present against non-desmoglein 1 antigen(s). Overall, 40/45 patients showed colocalization of their autoantibodies with ARVCF in the epidermis; no controls from the endemic area displayed colocalization. Conclusions We demonstrate that ARVCF is expressed in many areas of human skin, and colocalizes with the majority of El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies as a putative antigen. PMID:29214101

  10. Biorevitalizing effect of a novel facial serum containing apple stem cell extract, pro-collagen lipopeptide, creatine, and urea on skin aging signs.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Maria Teresa; Campos, Celia; Milani, Massimo; Foyaca, Monica; Lamy, Amandine; Kurdian, Karine; Trullas, Carles

    2016-03-01

    Epithelial regeneration in skin is achieved by the constant turnover and differentiation of keratinocytes. Epidermal and dermal stem cells compartments are fundamental for the continuous renewal of the skin. Adult stem cells are the unique source for skin tissue renewal. Plants have stem cells and plant derived stem cell extracts are now used in topical products for their potential anti-ageing and anti-wrinkle effects. A new dermocosmetic product containing apple stem cell extract, urea, creatine and palmitoyl tripeptide-38 (Ureadin Fusion Serum Lift Antiarrugas, ISDIN S.A), has been recently developed to target different aspects involved in skin aging. To assess in vitro the effects of this new serum on the metabolic functions of human senescent fibroblasts and in vivo the anti-aging effects by clinical and instrumental evaluation. We evaluated the effects of the serum on the mitochondrial ROS (reactive oxygen species) production in human senescent cultured fibroblasts measured at 0.1% and 1% using the Mitoread AntiOx mtROS method. In addition we evaluated the anti-ageing in vivo effect of this new serum applied on the face twice daily for 28 consecutive days and assessed by clinical and instrumental evaluation in 32 women with sensitive skin bearing wrinkles on crow's feet. The tested serum both at 0.1% and 1% induces a significant increase in 02 consumption, cellular ATP level and a reduction in extra-cellular lactate concentration. The product reduces also significantly the mitochondrial ROS production. The clinical study shows a relevant anti-wrinkle effect in 71% of the treated women with visible effects in 68% of the subjects as soon as 7 days of treatment. A significant increase in dermal density and skin elasticity was also observed. The use of this novel anti-aging serum demonstrated a significant improvement of aging skin signs with first visible results achieved after one week of use. The product seemed to optimize the metabolic functions in human

  11. Comparative study in Japan and China concerning aspiration of Asian women towards quality of skin fairness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Miho; Matsumoto, Junko; Date, Akira; Li, Junfang

    2002-06-01

    Beauty is a world common aspiration, but perceptions of what make a woman beautiful vary across culture and countries. A series of Saito's studies indicated that unlike much of the Western world, in Asia, one common desire is fairer skin tone that epitomizes feminine beauty. Using 105 Japanese women and 105 Chinese women as subjects, a comparative study concerning aspiration of Asian Women toward skin fairness was conducted. In this study, four real skin photo images that have skin tone variations (fair/dark) and skin texture variations (rough/smooth) were used. The fifty-two words describe personality were shown to the subject. The subjects were required to match a suitable skin photo image to the descriptive words. The overall result between China and Japan were very consistent. Both in China and Japan, fairer skin tone with smoother skin texture was accepted very positively. Fairer skin tone with rougher texture tends to provide passive and conservative impression while smoother skin texture with darker skin tone tends to provide friendly and delight impression. The results suggested that in addition to skin tone, the skin texture plays an important role for the personal impressions and it works as a trigger to enhance 'ideal skin fairness' for Asian women.

  12. A grayscale skin and facial detection mechanism for use in conjunction with security system technology via graphical block methodologies on field programmable gate arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Smith, Jeremy S.; Wu, Q. Henry

    2008-04-01

    Presented in this paper is the design of a skin filter which unlike many systems already developed for use, this system will not use RGB or HSI colour but an 8-bit greyscale instead. This is done in order to make the system more convenient to employ on an FPGA, to increase the speed to better enable real-time imaging and to make it easier to combine with the previously designed binary based algorithms. This paper will discuss the many approaches and methods that could be considered such as Bayes format and thresholds, pixel extraction, mathematical morphological strings, edge detection or a combination of the previous and a discussion about which provided the best performance. The research for this skin filter was carried out in two stages, firstly on people who had an ethnic origin of White - British, Asian or Asian British, Chinese and Mixed White and Asian. The second phase which won't be included here in great detail will cover the same principles for the other ethnic backgrounds of Black or Black British - Caribbean or Africa, Other Black background, Asian or Asian British - Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi. This is due to the fact that we have to modify the parameters that govern the detection process to account for greyscale changes in the skin tone, texture and intensity; however the same principles would still be applied for general detection and integration into the previous algorithm. The latter is discussed and what benefits it will give.

  13. Chronic, burning facial pain following cosmetic facial surgery.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, E; Yaari, A; Har-Shai, Y

    1996-01-01

    Chronic, burning facial pain as a result of cosmetic facial surgery has rarely been reported. During the year of 1994, two female patients presented themselves at our Pain Relief Clinic with chronic facial pain that developed following aesthetic facial surgery. One patient underwent bilateral transpalpebral surgery for removal of intraorbital fat for the correction of the exophthalmus, and the other had classical face and anterior hairline forehead lifts. Pain in both patients was similar in that it was bilateral, symmetric, burning in quality, and aggravated by external stimuli, mainly light touch. It was resistant to multiple analgesic medications, and was associated with significant depression and disability. Diagnostic local (lidocaine) and systemic (lidocaine and phentolamine) nerve blocks failed to provide relief. Psychological evaluation revealed that the two patients had clear psychosocial factors that seemed to have further compounded their pain complaints. Tricyclic antidepressants (and biofeedback training in one patient) were modestly effective and produced only partial pain relief.

  14. Mortality tradeoff between air quality and skin cancer from changes in stratospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastham, Sebastian D.; Keith, David W.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2018-03-01

    Skin cancer mortality resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion has been widely studied. Similarly, there is a deep body of literature on surface ozone and its health impacts, with modeling and observational studies demonstrating that surface ozone concentrations can be increased when stratospheric air mixes to the Earth’s surface. We offer the first quantitative estimate of the trade-off between these two effects, comparing surface air quality benefits and UV-related harms from stratospheric ozone depletion. Applying an idealized ozone loss term in the stratosphere of a chemistry-transport model for modern-day conditions, we find that each Dobson unit of stratospheric ozone depletion results in a net decrease in the global annual mortality rate of ~40 premature deaths per billion population (d/bn/DU). The impacts are spatially heterogeneous in sign and magnitude, composed of a reduction in premature mortality rate due to ozone exposure of ~80 d/bn/DU concentrated in Southeast Asia, and an increase in skin cancer mortality rate of ~40 d/bn/DU, mostly in Western Europe. This is the first study to quantify air quality benefits of stratospheric ozone depletion, and the first to find that marginal decreases in stratospheric ozone around modern-day values could result in a net reduction in global mortality due to competing health impact pathways. This result, which is subject to significant methodological uncertainty, highlights the need to understand the health and environmental trade-offs involved in policy decisions regarding anthropogenic influences on ozone chemistry over the 21st century.

  15. Skin picking disorder: prevalence, correlates, and associations with quality of life in a large sample.

    PubMed

    Machado, Myrela O; Köhler, Cristiano A; Stubbs, Brendon; Nunes-Neto, Paulo R; Koyanagi, Ai; Quevedo, João; Soares, Jair C; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Marazziti, Donatella; Maes, Michael; Stein, Dan J; Carvalho, André F

    2018-05-07

    Evidence suggests that skin picking disorder (SPD) could be a prevalent condition associated with comorbidity and psychosocial dysfunction. However, just a few studies have assessed the prevalence and correlates of SPD in samples from low- and middle-income countries. In addition, the impact of SPD on quality of life (QoL) dimension after multivariable adjustment to potential confounders remains unclear. Data were obtained from a Brazilian anonymous Web-based research platform. Participants provided sociodemographic data and completed the modified Skin Picking-Stanford questionnaire, the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised inventory (SCL-90R), early trauma inventory self report-short form, and the World Health Organization quality of life abbreviated scale (WHOQOL-Bref). Associations were adjusted to potential confounders through multivariable models. For our survey, 7639 participants took part (71.3% females; age: 27.2±7.9 years). The prevalence of SPD was 3.4% (95% CI: 3.0-3.8%), with a female preponderance (P<0.001). In addition, SPD was associated with a positive screen for a major depressive episode, nicotine dependence, and alcohol dependence, as well as suicidal ideation. Physical and psychological QoL was significantly more impaired in participants with SPD compared to those without SPD, even after adjustment for comorbidity. In this large sample, SPD was a prevalent condition associated with co-occurring depression, nicotine, and alcohol dependence. In addition, SPD was independently associated with impaired physical and psychological QoL. Public health efforts toward the early recognition and treatment of SPD are warranted.

  16. Interactions of donor sources and media influence the histo-morphological quality of full-thickness skin models.

    PubMed

    Lange, Julia; Weil, Frederik; Riegler, Christoph; Groeber, Florian; Rebhan, Silke; Kurdyn, Szymon; Alb, Miriam; Kneitz, Hermann; Gelbrich, Götz; Walles, Heike; Mielke, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Human artificial skin models are increasingly employed as non-animal test platforms for research and medical purposes. However, the overall histopathological quality of such models may vary significantly. Therefore, the effects of manufacturing protocols and donor sources on the quality of skin models built-up from fibroblasts and keratinocytes derived from juvenile foreskins is studied. Histo-morphological parameters such as epidermal thickness, number of epidermal cell layers, dermal thickness, dermo-epidermal adhesion and absence of cellular nuclei in the corneal layer are obtained and scored accordingly. In total, 144 full-thickness skin models derived from 16 different donors, built-up in triplicates using three different culture conditions were successfully generated. In univariate analysis both media and donor age affected the quality of skin models significantly. Both parameters remained statistically significant in multivariate analyses. Performing general linear model analyses we could show that individual medium-donor-interactions influence the quality. These observations suggest that the optimal choice of media may differ from donor to donor and coincides with findings where significant inter-individual variations of growth rates in keratinocytes and fibroblasts have been described. Thus, the consideration of individual medium-donor-interactions may improve the overall quality of human organ models thereby forming a reproducible test platform for sophisticated clinical research. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Quality of life and self-esteem in patients submitted to surgical treatment of skin carcinomas: long-term results.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Paula Curitiba; Veiga-Filho, Joel; Carvalho, Marcelo Prado; Fonseca, Fernando Elias Martins; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Veiga, Daniela Francescato

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease and skin carcinomas are the most common type of cancer. Assessing quality of life and self-esteem outcomes in skin cancer patients is important because these are indicators of the results of the treatment, translating how patients face their lives and their personal relationships. To assess the late impact of the surgical treatment of head and/or neck skin carcinomas on quality of life and self-esteem of the patients. Fifty patients with head or neck skin carcinomas were enrolled. Their age ranged between 30 and 75 years, 27 were men and 23 were women. Patients were assessed with regard to quality of life and self-esteem, preoperatively and five years postoperatively. Validated instruments were used: the MOS 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Rosenberg Self-esteem/EPM-UNIFESP Scale. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for the statistical analysis. Twenty-two patients completed the five-year follow-up, 54.5% women and 45.5% men. Compared to the preoperative assessment, patients had an improvement in mental health (p=0.011) and in self-esteem (p=0.002). There was no statistical difference with regard to the other domains of the SF-36. Patients submitted to surgical treatment of skin carcinoma improved mental health and self-esteem in the late postsurgical testing.

  18. Skin lipids of the striped plateau lizard (Sceloporus virgatus) correlate with female receptivity and reproductive quality alongside visual ornaments.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jay K; Wallace, Alisa K; Weiss, Stacey L

    2017-09-14

    Sex pheromones can perform a variety of functions ranging from revealing the location of suitable mates to being honest signals of mate quality, and they are used in the mate selection process by many species of reptile. In this study, we determined whether the skin lipids of female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus) can predict the reproductive quality of females, thereby having the potential to serve as pheromones. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified 17 compounds present in skin lipids of female lizards. Using principal component analysis to compare the skin lipid profile of receptive and non-receptive females, we determined that an uncharacterized compound may allow for chemical identification of receptive mates. We also compared extracted principal components to measures of female fitness and reproductive qualities and found that the level of two 18 carbon fatty acids present in a female's skin lipids may indicate her clutch size. Finally, we compared the information content of the skin lipids to that of female-specific color ornaments to assess whether chemical and visual cues transmit different information or not. We found that the chroma of a female's orange throat patch is also related to her clutch size, suggesting that chemical signals may reinforce the information communicated by visual ornamentation in this species which would support the "backup signals" hypothesis for multiple signals.

  19. Skin lipids of the striped plateau lizard ( Sceloporus virgatus) correlate with female receptivity and reproductive quality alongside visual ornaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Jay K.; Wallace, Alisa K.; Weiss, Stacey L.

    2017-10-01

    Sex pheromones can perform a variety of functions ranging from revealing the location of suitable mates to being honest signals of mate quality, and they are used in the mate selection process by many species of reptile. In this study, we determined whether the skin lipids of female striped plateau lizards ( Sceloporus virgatus) can predict the reproductive quality of females, thereby having the potential to serve as pheromones. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified 17 compounds present in skin lipids of female lizards. Using principal component analysis to compare the skin lipid profile of receptive and non-receptive females, we determined that an uncharacterized compound may allow for chemical identification of receptive mates. We also compared extracted principal components to measures of female fitness and reproductive qualities and found that the level of two 18 carbon fatty acids present in a female's skin lipids may indicate her clutch size. Finally, we compared the information content of the skin lipids to that of female-specific color ornaments to assess whether chemical and visual cues transmit different information or not. We found that the chroma of a female's orange throat patch is also related to her clutch size, suggesting that chemical signals may reinforce the information communicated by visual ornamentation in this species which would support the "backup signals" hypothesis for multiple signals.

  20. Quality of life and self-esteem in patients submitted to surgical treatment of skin carcinomas: long-term results*

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Paula Curitiba; Veiga-Filho, Joel; de Carvalho, Marcelo Prado; Fonseca, Fernando Elias Martins; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Veiga, Daniela Francescato

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cancer is a multifactorial disease and skin carcinomas are the most common type of cancer. Assessing quality of life and self-esteem outcomes in skin cancer patients is important because these are indicators of the results of the treatment, translating how patients face their lives and their personal relationships. OBJECTIVE To assess the late impact of the surgical treatment of head and/or neck skin carcinomas on quality of life and self-esteem of the patients. METHODS Fifty patients with head or neck skin carcinomas were enrolled. Their age ranged between 30 and 75 years, 27 were men and 23 were women. Patients were assessed with regard to quality of life and self-esteem, preoperatively and five years postoperatively. Validated instruments were used: the MOS 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Rosenberg Self-esteem/EPM-UNIFESP Scale. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS Twenty-two patients completed the five-year follow-up, 54.5% women and 45.5% men. Compared to the preoperative assessment, patients had an improvement in mental health (p=0.011) and in self-esteem (p=0.002). There was no statistical difference with regard to the other domains of the SF-36. CONCLUSION Patients submitted to surgical treatment of skin carcinoma improved mental health and self-esteem in the late postsurgical testing. PMID:25054746

  1. Biomask: An Advanced Robotic System for the Real-time, Autonomous Monitoring and Treatment of Facial Burns of Wounded Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    bioreactor systems, a microfluidic -based flexible fluid exchange patch was developed for porcine wound models. A novel design and fabrication process...to be established. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Biomask, burn injury, facial reconstruction, wound-healing, bioreactor, flexible microfluidic , and...and layers of facial skin using different cell types and matrices to produce a reliable, physiologic facial and skin construct to restore functional

  2. Results of fractional ablative facial skin resurfacing with the erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser 1 week and 2 months after one single treatment in 30 patients.

    PubMed

    Trelles, Mario A; Mordon, Serge; Velez, Mariano; Urdiales, Fernando; Levy, Jean Luc

    2009-03-01

    The erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser has recently been used in the fractional resurfacing of photo-aged skin. Our study evaluated the results after one single session of fractional resurfacing with Er:YAG. Thirty women participated in the study, with an average age of 46 years, skin types from II to IV, and wrinkle grades I to III. The 2,940 nm Er:YAG system used (Pixel, Alma Laser, Israel) had variable pulse durations (1 ms to 2 ms) and energy densities (800 mJ/cm(2) to 1,400 mJ/cm(2)) which, together with the number of passes (four to eight), were selected as a function of wrinkle severity. All patients received only one treatment. Postoperative side effects were evaluated. The number of wrinkles was documented with clinical photography and was scored. Histological assessment was carried out on two patients before and 2 months after treatment. All patients completed the study. Of the patients, 93% reported good or very good improvement of the degree of their wrinkles, with a satisfaction index of 83%. Pain was not a problem during treatment, and there were no side effects except for in one phototype IV patient, who had hyperpigmentation. Histology 2 months after the single treatment demonstrated younger morphology of both the epidermis and dermis, with improvement of the pretreatment typical elastotic appearance. At the parameters used in our study, only one treatment session of Er:YAG laser could achieve effective skin rejuvenation, with effects recognized in both the dermis and, more importantly, the epidermis. This regimen offers an interesting alternative to the conventional approach of multi-session fractional resurfacing.

  3. Enhanced facial texture illumination normalization for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Guan, Ye-Peng

    2015-08-01

    An uncontrolled lighting condition is one of the most critical challenges for practical face recognition applications. An enhanced facial texture illumination normalization method is put forward to resolve this challenge. An adaptive relighting algorithm is developed to improve the brightness uniformity of face images. Facial texture is extracted by using an illumination estimation difference algorithm. An anisotropic histogram-stretching algorithm is proposed to minimize the intraclass distance of facial skin and maximize the dynamic range of facial texture distribution. Compared with the existing methods, the proposed method can more effectively eliminate the redundant information of facial skin and illumination. Extensive experiments show that the proposed method has superior performance in normalizing illumination variation and enhancing facial texture features for illumination-insensitive face recognition.

  4. Microbial biofilms on facial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Nina; Vissink, Arjan; van Oort, Robert P; Kusdhany, Lindawati; Djais, Ariadna; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W; van der Mei, Henny C; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2012-01-01

    The composition of microbial biofilms on silicone rubber facial prostheses was investigated and compared with the microbial flora on healthy and prosthesis-covered skin. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of mixed bacterial and yeast biofilms on and deterioration of the surface of the prostheses. Microbial culturing confirmed the presence of yeasts and bacteria. Microbial colonization was significantly increased on prosthesis-covered skin compared to healthy skin. Candida spp. were exclusively isolated from prosthesis-covered skin and from prostheses. Biofilms from prostheses showed the least diverse band-profile in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) whereas prosthesis-covered skin showed the most diverse band-profile. Bacterial diversity exceeded yeast diversity in all samples. It is concluded that occlusion of the skin by prostheses creates a favorable niche for opportunistic pathogens such as Candida spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. Biofilms on healthy skin, skin underneath the prosthesis and on the prosthesis had a comparable composition, but the numbers present differed according to the microorganism.

  5. Poster – 39: Using Optical Scanner and 3D Printer Technology to Create Lead Shielding for Radiotherapy of Facial Skin Cancer with Low Energy Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Rickey, Daniel; Leylek, Ahmet; Dubey, Arbind

    Purpose: Treatment of skin cancers of the face using orthovoltage radiotherapy often requires lead shielding. However, creating a lead shield can be difficult because the face has complex and intricate contours. The traditional process involved creating a plaster mould of the patient’s face can be difficult for patients. Our goal was to develop an improved process by using an optical scanner and 3D printer technology. Methods: The oncologist defined the treatment field by drawing on each patient’s skin. Three-dimensional images were acquired using a consumer-grade optical scanner. A 3D model of each patient’s face was processed with mesh editing softwaremore » before being printed on a 3D printer. Using a hammer, a 3 mm thick layer of lead was formed to closely fit the contours of the model. A hole was then cut out to define the field. Results: The lead shields created were remarkably accurate and fit the contours of the patients. The hole defining the field exposed only a minimally sized site to be exposed to radiation, while the rest of the face was protected. It was easy to obtain perfect symmetry for the definition of parallel opposed beams. Conclusion: We are routinely using this technique to build lead shielding that wraps around the patient as an alternative to cut-outs. We also use it for treatment of the tip of the nose using a parallel opposed pair beams with a wax nose block. We found this technique allows more accurate delineation of the cut-out and a more reproducible set-up.« less

  6. Reconstruction of facial nerve injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Fattah, Adel; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ron M

    2011-05-01

    Facial nerve trauma is uncommon in children, and many spontaneously recover some function; nonetheless, loss of facial nerve activity leads to functional impairment of ocular and oral sphincters and nasal orifice. In many cases, the impediment posed by facial asymmetry and reduced mimetic function more significantly affects the child's psychosocial interactions. As such, reconstruction of the facial nerve affords great benefits in quality of life. The therapeutic strategy is dependent on numerous factors, including the cause of facial nerve injury, the deficit, the prognosis for recovery, and the time elapsed since the injury. The options for treatment include a diverse range of surgical techniques including static lifts and slings, nerve repairs, nerve grafts and nerve transfers, regional, and microvascular free muscle transfer. We review our strategies for addressing facial nerve injuries in children.

  7. Young Children's Ability to Match Facial Features Typical of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacoste, Ronald J.

    This study examined (1) the ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to racially classify Negro and Caucasian facial features in the absence of skin color as a racial cue; and (2) the relative value attached to the facial features of Negro and Caucasian races. Subjects were 21 middle income, Caucasian children from a privately owned nursery school in…

  8. Marker optimization for facial motion acquisition and deformation.

    PubMed

    Le, Binh H; Zhu, Mingyang; Deng, Zhigang

    2013-11-01

    A long-standing problem in marker-based facial motion capture is what are the optimal facial mocap marker layouts. Despite its wide range of potential applications, this problem has not yet been systematically explored to date. This paper describes an approach to compute optimized marker layouts for facial motion acquisition as optimization of characteristic control points from a set of high-resolution, ground-truth facial mesh sequences. Specifically, the thin-shell linear deformation model is imposed onto the example pose reconstruction process via optional hard constraints such as symmetry and multiresolution constraints. Through our experiments and comparisons, we validate the effectiveness, robustness, and accuracy of our approach. Besides guiding minimal yet effective placement of facial mocap markers, we also describe and demonstrate its two selected applications: marker-based facial mesh skinning and multiresolution facial performance capture.

  9. Impact of Cosmetic Camouflage on the Quality of Life of Children With Skin Disease and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Salsberg, Jennifer M; Weinstein, Miriam; Shear, Neil; Lee, Michelle; Pope, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Cosmetic camouflage is known to improve quality of life in adults. Few data are available regarding cosmetic camouflage in children, and thus it is not often selected as a mode of treatment. We sought to determine whether cosmetic camouflage leads to improved quality of life of pediatric patients with visible dermatoses and their parent or primary caregiver. Patients aged 5 to 17 years with visible skin disease and their parent were assessed with the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and the Family Dermatology Life Quality Index (FDLQI) before and after consultation regarding cosmetic camouflage. Twenty-two children with skin conditions were included in the study. The mean CDLQI decreased from 6.82 (SD = 1.28) to 3.05 (SD = 0.65; P = .0014), while the mean FDLQI decreased from 7.68 (SD = 1.15) to 4.68 (SD = 0.92; P = .0012). Our study highlighted improvement in quality of life in patients with skin disorders who were managed with cosmetic camouflage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Ethnic and Gender Considerations in the Use of Facial Injectables: Asian Patients.

    PubMed

    Liew, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Asians have distinct facial characteristics due to underlying skeletal and morphological features that differ greatly with those of whites. This together with the higher sun protection factor and the differences in the quality of the skin and soft tissue create a profound effect on their aging process. Understanding of these differences and their effects in the aging process in Asians is crucial in determining effective utilization and placement of injectable products to ensure optimal aesthetic outcomes. For younger Asian women, the main treatment goal is to address the inherent structural deficits through reshaping and the provision of facial support. Facial injectables are used to provide anterior projection, to reduce facial width, and to lengthen facial height. In the older group, the aim is for rejuvenation and also to address the underlying structural issues that has compounded due to age-related volume loss. Asian women requesting cosmetic procedures do not want to be Westernized but rather seeking to enhance and optimize their Asian ethnic features.

  11. Split-face comparative study of 1550 nm fractional photothermolysis and trichloroacetic acid 15% chemical peeling for facial melasma in Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Phil; Han, Seung-Seog; Choi, Seok-Joo; Kim, Myoung-Shin; Won, Chong-Hyun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan; Kim, Youn Jin; Chang, Sung-Eun

    2012-04-01

    Fractional photothermolysis (FP) therapy and chemical peels have been reported to be effective in patients with recalcitrant melasma. However, there is little information to compare the efficacy of single treatment session in Asian women. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy, long-lasting outcomes and safety of a single session of 1550-nm erbium-doped FP in Asian patients, compared with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel with a medium depth. Eighteen Korean women (Fitzpatrick skin type III or IV) with moderate-to-severe bilateral melasma were randomly treated with a single session of 1550-nm FP on one cheek, and with a 15% TCA peel on the other cheek. Outcome measures included an objective melasma area severity index and subjective patient-rated overall improvement at 4 and 12 weeks after treatment. Melasma lesions were significantly improved 4 weeks after either treatment, but melasma recurred at 12 weeks. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation developed in 28% of patients at 4 weeks but resolved in all but one patient by 12 weeks. There was no difference between FP treatment and TCA peeling with respect to any outcome measure. FP laser and TCA peel treatments were equally effective and safe when used to treat moderate-to-severe melasma, but neither treatment was long-lasting. We suggest that multiple or periodic maintenance treatments and/or supplemental procedures may be required for the successful treatment of melasma in Asian women.

  12. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  13. Estimating pediatric entrance skin dose from digital radiography examination using DICOM metadata: A quality assurance tool.

    PubMed

    Brady, S L; Kaufman, R A

    2015-05-01

    To develop an automated methodology to estimate patient examination dose in digital radiography (DR) imaging using DICOM metadata as a quality assurance (QA) tool. Patient examination and demographical information were gathered from metadata analysis of DICOM header data. The x-ray system radiation output (i.e., air KERMA) was characterized for all filter combinations used for patient examinations. Average patient thicknesses were measured for head, chest, abdomen, knees, and hands using volumetric images from CT. Backscatter factors (BSFs) were calculated from examination kVp. Patient entrance skin air KERMA (ESAK) was calculated by (1) looking up examination technique factors taken from DICOM header metadata (i.e., kVp and mA s) to derive an air KERMA (k air) value based on an x-ray characteristic radiation output curve; (2) scaling k air with a BSF value; and (3) correcting k air for patient thickness. Finally, patient entrance skin dose (ESD) was calculated by multiplying a mass-energy attenuation coefficient ratio by ESAK. Patient ESD calculations were computed for common DR examinations at our institution: dual view chest, anteroposterior (AP) abdomen, lateral (LAT) skull, dual view knee, and bone age (left hand only) examinations. ESD was calculated for a total of 3794 patients; mean age was 11 ± 8 yr (range: 2 months to 55 yr). The mean ESD range was 0.19-0.42 mGy for dual view chest, 0.28-1.2 mGy for AP abdomen, 0.18-0.65 mGy for LAT view skull, 0.15-0.63 mGy for dual view knee, and 0.10-0.12 mGy for bone age (left hand) examinations. A methodology combining DICOM header metadata and basic x-ray tube characterization curves was demonstrated. In a regulatory era where patient dose reporting has become increasingly in demand, this methodology will allow a knowledgeable user the means to establish an automatable dose reporting program for DR and perform patient dose related QA testing for digital x-ray imaging.

  14. Estimating pediatric entrance skin dose from digital radiography examination using DICOM metadata: A quality assurance tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, S. L., E-mail: samuel.brady@stjude.org; Kaufman, R. A., E-mail: robert.kaufman@stjude.org

    Purpose: To develop an automated methodology to estimate patient examination dose in digital radiography (DR) imaging using DICOM metadata as a quality assurance (QA) tool. Methods: Patient examination and demographical information were gathered from metadata analysis of DICOM header data. The x-ray system radiation output (i.e., air KERMA) was characterized for all filter combinations used for patient examinations. Average patient thicknesses were measured for head, chest, abdomen, knees, and hands using volumetric images from CT. Backscatter factors (BSFs) were calculated from examination kVp. Patient entrance skin air KERMA (ESAK) was calculated by (1) looking up examination technique factors taken frommore » DICOM header metadata (i.e., kVp and mA s) to derive an air KERMA (k{sub air}) value based on an x-ray characteristic radiation output curve; (2) scaling k{sub air} with a BSF value; and (3) correcting k{sub air} for patient thickness. Finally, patient entrance skin dose (ESD) was calculated by multiplying a mass–energy attenuation coefficient ratio by ESAK. Patient ESD calculations were computed for common DR examinations at our institution: dual view chest, anteroposterior (AP) abdomen, lateral (LAT) skull, dual view knee, and bone age (left hand only) examinations. Results: ESD was calculated for a total of 3794 patients; mean age was 11 ± 8 yr (range: 2 months to 55 yr). The mean ESD range was 0.19–0.42 mGy for dual view chest, 0.28–1.2 mGy for AP abdomen, 0.18–0.65 mGy for LAT view skull, 0.15–0.63 mGy for dual view knee, and 0.10–0.12 mGy for bone age (left hand) examinations. Conclusions: A methodology combining DICOM header metadata and basic x-ray tube characterization curves was demonstrated. In a regulatory era where patient dose reporting has become increasingly in demand, this methodology will allow a knowledgeable user the means to establish an automatable dose reporting program for DR and perform patient dose related QA testing

  15. Perception of health from facial cues

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Audrey J.; Holzleitner, Iris J.; Talamas, Sean N.

    2016-01-01

    Impressions of health are integral to social interactions, yet poorly understood. A review of the literature reveals multiple facial characteristics that potentially act as cues to health judgements. The cues vary in their stability across time: structural shape cues including symmetry and sexual dimorphism alter slowly across the lifespan and have been found to have weak links to actual health, but show inconsistent effects on perceived health. Facial adiposity changes over a medium time course and is associated with both perceived and actual health. Skin colour alters over a short time and has strong effects on perceived health, yet links to health outcomes have barely been evaluated. Reviewing suggested an additional influence of demeanour as a perceptual cue to health. We, therefore, investigated the association of health judgements with multiple facial cues measured objectively from two-dimensional and three-dimensional facial images. We found evidence for independent contributions of face shape and skin colour cues to perceived health. Our empirical findings: (i) reinforce the role of skin yellowness; (ii) demonstrate the utility of global face shape measures of adiposity; and (iii) emphasize the role of affect in facial images with nominally neutral expression in impressions of health. PMID:27069057

  16. Dermatological Feasibility of Multimodal Facial Color Imaging Modality for Cross-Evaluation of Facial Actinic Keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Youngwoo; Son, Taeyoon; Nelson, J. Stuart; Kim, Jae-Hong; Choi, Eung Ho; Jung, Byungjo

    2010-01-01

    Background/Purpose Digital color image analysis is currently considered as a routine procedure in dermatology. In our previous study, a multimodal facial color imaging modality (MFCIM), which provides a conventional, parallel- and cross-polarization, and fluorescent color image, was introduced for objective evaluation of various facial skin lesions. This study introduces a commercial version of MFCIM, DermaVision-PRO, for routine clinical use in dermatology and demonstrates its dermatological feasibility for cross-evaluation of skin lesions. Methods/Results Sample images of subjects with actinic keratosis or non-melanoma skin cancers were obtained at four different imaging modes. Various image analysis methods were applied to cross-evaluate the skin lesion and, finally, extract valuable diagnostic information. DermaVision-PRO is potentially a useful tool as an objective macroscopic imaging modality for quick prescreening and cross-evaluation of facial skin lesions. Conclusion DermaVision-PRO may be utilized as a useful tool for cross-evaluation of widely distributed facial skin lesions and an efficient database management of patient information. PMID:20923462

  17. [Idiopathic facial paralysis in children].

    PubMed

    Achour, I; Chakroun, A; Ayedi, S; Ben Rhaiem, Z; Mnejja, M; Charfeddine, I; Hammami, B; Ghorbel, A

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic facial palsy is the most common cause of facial nerve palsy in children. Controversy exists regarding treatment options. The objectives of this study were to review the epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as the outcome of idiopathic facial palsy in children to suggest appropriate treatment. A retrospective study was conducted on children with a diagnosis of idiopathic facial palsy from 2007 to 2012. A total of 37 cases (13 males, 24 females) with a mean age of 13.9 years were included in this analysis. The mean duration between onset of Bell's palsy and consultation was 3 days. Of these patients, 78.3% had moderately severe (grade IV) or severe paralysis (grade V on the House and Brackmann grading). Twenty-seven patients were treated in an outpatient context, three patients were hospitalized, and seven patients were treated as outpatients and subsequently hospitalized. All patients received corticosteroids. Eight of them also received antiviral treatment. The complete recovery rate was 94.6% (35/37). The duration of complete recovery was 7.4 weeks. Children with idiopathic facial palsy have a very good prognosis. The complete recovery rate exceeds 90%. However, controversy exists regarding treatment options. High-quality studies have been conducted on adult populations. Medical treatment based on corticosteroids alone or combined with antiviral treatment is certainly effective in improving facial function outcomes in adults. In children, the recommendation for prescription of steroids and antiviral drugs based on adult treatment appears to be justified. Randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population are recommended to define a strategy for management of idiopathic facial paralysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Dermatography (Medical Tattooing) for Scars and Skin Grafts in Head and Neck Patients to Improve Appearance and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Drost, Brigitte H; van de Langenberg, Rick; Manusama, Olivia R; Janssens, A Soe; Sikorska, Karolina; Zuur, C Lot; Klop, Willem M C; Lohuis, Peter J F M

    2017-01-01

    Dermatography (medical tattooing) is often overlooked as an adjuvant procedure to improve color mismatch in the head and neck area, and its effect on patient satisfaction and quality of life has not been evaluated, to our knowledge. To analyze the effect of dermatography on the subjective perception of the appearance of scars and skin grafts and the quality of life in head and neck patients. Case series of patients undergoing dermatography at the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, between July 1, 2007, and April 1, 2015. Participants were invited to respond to 2 questionnaires measuring their scar or graft appearance and their quality of life before and after dermatography as an adjuvant treatment for benign or malignant head and neck tumors. Use of dermatography. Two questionnaires evaluating a visual analog scale score (range, 0-10) and multiple questions on a 5-point scale focusing on satisfaction with the appearance and the quality of life. Among 76 patients, 56 (74%) were included in the study. The mean (SD) age of the study cohort was 56.5 (16.0) years, and 42 (75%) were female. The mean improvement in scar or skin graft perception on the visual analog scale of the modified Utrecht Questionnaire for Outcome Assessment in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty before and after dermatography was 4 points. On the modified Patient Scar Assessment Questionnaire, uniform improvement of approximately 1 point across 9 questions was observed. The answers to all patient satisfaction and quality-of-life questions on both questionnaires improved significantly after dermatography. Dermatography is an effectual adjuvant procedure to improve the subjective perception of scar and skin graft appearance and the quality of life in head and neck patients. 4.

  19. A Spanish version of the Skin Cancer Index: a questionnaire for measuring quality of life in patients with cervicofacial nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    de Troya-Martín, M; Rivas-Ruiz, F; Blázquez-Sánchez, N; Fernández-Canedo, I; Aguilar-Bernier, M; Repiso-Jiménez, J B; Toribio-Montero, J C; Jones-Caballero, M; Rhee, J

    2015-01-01

    The Skin Cancer Index (SCI) is the first specific patient-reported outcome measure for patients with cervicofacial nonmelanoma skin cancer. To date, only the original English version has been published. To develop a Spanish version of the SCI that is semantically and linguistically equivalent to the original, and to evaluate its measurement properties in this different cultural environment. A cross-sectional study was conducted of the cultural adaptation and empirical validation of the questionnaire, analysing the psychometric properties of the new index at different stages. Of 440 patients recruited to the study, 431 (95%) completed the Spanish version of the SCI questionnaire, in a mean time of 6·3 min (SD 2·9). Factor analysis of the scale revealed commonality and loading values of < 0·5 for three of the 15 items. The remaining 12 items converged into two components: appearance/social aspects (seven items) and emotional aspects (five items). Both domains presented a high level of internal consistency, with Cronbach's alpha values above 0·8. The convergent-discriminant validity analysis produced correlations higher than 0·3 for the mental component of the Short Form Health Survey-12v2 Health Questionnaire (correlation coefficient 0·39) and the Dermatology Quality of Life Index (correlation coefficient -0·30). In the test-retest, nine of the 12 items produced a weighted kappa value exceeding 0·4, and for the remaining three items, the absolute agreement percentage exceeded 60%. The Spanish version of the SCI quality of life scale has been satisfactorily adapted and validated for use in Spanish-speaking countries and populations. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. The beneficial effects of honeybee-venom serum on facial wrinkles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Mi; Hong, In Phyo; Woo, Soon Ok; Chun, Sung Nam; Park, Kwan Kyu; Nicholls, Young Mee; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Facial wrinkles are an undesirable outcome caused by extrinsic photodamage and intrinsic aging processes. Currently, no effective strategies are known to prevent facial wrinkles. We assessed the beneficial effects of bee-venom serum on the clinical signs of aging skin. Our results show that bee-venom serum treatment clinically improved facial wrinkles by decreasing total wrinkle area, total wrinkle count, and average wrinkle depth. Therefore, bee-venom serum may be effective for the improvement of skin wrinkles. PMID:26491274

  1. Overview of Facial Plastic Surgery and Current Developments

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Jessica; Barnes, Christian; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Facial plastic surgery is a multidisciplinary specialty largely driven by otolaryngology but includes oral maxillary surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology, and plastic surgery. It encompasses both reconstructive and cosmetic components. The scope of practice for facial plastic surgeons in the United States may include rhinoplasty, browlifts, blepharoplasty, facelifts, microvascular reconstruction of the head and neck, craniomaxillofacial trauma reconstruction, and correction of defects in the face after skin cancer resection. Facial plastic surgery also encompasses the use of injectable fillers, neural modulators (e.g., BOTOX Cosmetic, Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Westport, Ireland), lasers, and other devices aimed at rejuvenating skin. Facial plastic surgery is a constantly evolving field with continuing innovative advances in surgical techniques and cosmetic adjunctive technologies. This article aims to give an overview of the various procedures that encompass the field of facial plastic surgery and to highlight the recent advances and trends in procedures and surgical techniques. PMID:28824978

  2. Facial nerve conduction after sclerotherapy in children with facial lymphatic malformations: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Jung; Guo, Yuh-Cherng; Lin, Jan-You; Chang, Yu-Tang

    2007-04-01

    Surgical excision is thought to be the standard treatment of choice for lymphatic malformations. However, when the lesions are limited to the face only, surgical scar and facial nerve injury may impair cosmetics and facial expression. Sclerotherapy, an injection of a sclerosing agent directly through the skin into a lesion, is an alternative method. By evaluating facial nerve conduction, we observed the long-term effect of facial lymphatic malformations after intralesional injection of OK-432 and correlated the findings with anatomic outcomes. One 12-year-old boy with a lesion over the right-side preauricular area adjacent to the main trunk of facial nerve and the other 5-year-old boy with a lesion in the left-sided cheek involving the buccinator muscle were enrolled. The follow-up data of more than one year, including clinical appearance, computed tomography (CT) scan and facial nerve evaluation were collected. The facial nerve conduction study was normal in both cases. Blink reflex in both children revealed normal results as well. Complete resolution was noted on outward appearance and CT scan. The neurophysiologic data were compatible with good anatomic and functional outcomes. Our report suggests that the inflammatory reaction of OK-432 did not interfere with adjacent facial nerve conduction.

  3. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 1: Patient-Directed

    PubMed Central

    Commander, Sarah Jane; Chang, Daniel; Fakhro, Abdulla; Nigro, Marjory G.; Lee, Edward I.

    2016-01-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin and rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but the patients are in control of this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the first in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. The authors focus on patient-directed facial rejuvenation. It is important, however, to emphasize that even in a patient-directed modality, a physician's involvement through education and guidance is integral to its success. PMID:27478421

  4. Preliminary results in single-step wound closure procedure of full-thickness facial burns in children by using the collagen-elastin matrix and review of pediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Demircan, Mehmet; Cicek, Tugrul; Yetis, Muhammed Ikbal

    2015-09-01

    Management of full-thickness facial burns remains one of the greatest challenges. Controversy exists among surgeons regarding the use of early excision for facial burns. Unfortunately, delayed excision of deeper burns often results in more scarring and subsequent reconstruction becomes more difficult. A collagen-elastin matrix is used to improve the quality of the reconstructed skin, to reduce scarring and to prevent wound contraction. It serves as a foundation for split thickness skin graft and enhances short and long-term results. We report the usage of a collagen-elastin matrix during single-step wound closure technique of severe full-thickness facial burns in 15 children with large burned body surface area, and also we review the literature about pediatric facial burns. There were 15 pediatric patients with severe facial burns, 8 girls and 7 boys ranging in age from 10 months to 12 years, mean age 7 years and 6 months old. The facial burn surface area (FBSA) among the patients includes seven patients with 100%, five with 75%, and three with 50%. The average total body surface area (TBSA) for the patients was 72%, ranging between 50 and 90%. 5 of the patients' admissions were late, more than four days after burns while the rest of the patients were admitted within the first four days (acute admission time). The burns were caused by flame in eight of the patients, bomb blast in four, and scalding in three. All patients were treated by the simultaneous application of the collagen-elastin matrix and an unmeshed split thickness skin graft at Turgut Özal Medical Center, Pediatric Burn Center, Malatya, Turkey. After the treatment only two patients needed a second operation for revision of the grafts. All grafts transplanted to the face survived. The average Vancouver scar scales (VSS) were 2.55±1.42, ranging between one and six, in the first 10 of 15 patients at the end of 6 months postoperatively. VSS measurements of the last 5 patients were not taken since the 6

  5. Self-reported skin diseases, quality of life and medication use: a nationwide pharmaco-epidemiological survey in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Magnus; Isacson, Dag; Bingefors, Kerstin

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine self-reported consumption of dermatological pharmaceuticals and quality of life (QoL), measured with Short Form 36, in relation to eczema, acne, psoriasis and other inflammatory skin conditions in the Swedish population. A questionnaire containing questions on the occurrence of skin diseases, health-related QoL and the use of pharmaceuticals was sent to a cross-sectional sample of the Swedish population, age range 18-84 years (n = 8,000). The response rate was 61%. The 1-year prevalence of skin diseases was 30-35%, with females reporting a higher prevalence. The prevalence was 11.5% for eczema other than hand eczema, 10.2% for acne, 7.5% for hand eczema, 3.9% for psoriasis and 3.1% for urticaria. QoL was significantly affected and 25% of females and 19% of males had used a dermatological drug. Compared with hand eczema, persons with psoriasis and other eczema reported significantly more use of topical steroids on prescription and more use of dermatological pharmaceuticals in total. Skin conditions are common; they affect QoL and lead to a high consumption of dermatological drugs; which deserves increased awareness in the society.

  6. Facial fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Jennings R

    2014-10-01

    Facial trauma in children differs from adults. The growing facial skeleton presents several challenges to the reconstructive surgeon. A thorough understanding of the patterns of facial growth and development is needed to form an individualized treatment strategy. A proper diagnosis must be made and treatment options weighed against the risk of causing further harm to facial development. This article focuses on the management of facial fractures in children. Discussed are common fracture patterns based on the development of the facial structure, initial management, diagnostic strategies, new concepts and old controversies regarding radiologic examinations, conservative versus operative intervention, risks of growth impairment, and resorbable fixation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conceptualization, development and validation of T-QoL© (Teenagers' Quality of Life): a patient-focused measure to assess quality of life of adolescents with skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Basra, M K A; Salek, M S; Fenech, D; Finlay, A Y

    2018-01-01

    Skin disease can affect the quality of life (QoL) of teenagers in a variety of different ways, some being unique to this age group. To develop and validate a dermatology-specific QoL instrument for adolescents with skin diseases. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with adolescents with skin disease to gain in-depth understanding of how skin diseases affect their QoL. A prototype instrument based on the themes identified from content analysis of interviews was tested in several stages, using classical test theory and item response theory models to develop this new tool and conduct its psychometric evaluation. Thirty-three QoL issues were identified from semistructured interviews with 50 adolescents. A questionnaire based on items derived from content analysis of interviews was subjected to Rasch analysis: factor analysis identified three domains, therefore not supporting the validity of T-QoL as a unidimensional measure. Psychometric evaluation of the final 18-item questionnaire was carried out in a cohort of 203 adolescents. Convergent validity was demonstrated by significant correlation with Skindex-Teen and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) or Children's DLQI. The T-QoL showed excellent internal consistency reliability: Cronbach's α = 0·89 for total scale score and 0·85, 0·60 and 0·74, respectively, for domains 1, 2 and 3. Test-retest reliability was high in stable volunteers. T-QoL showed sensitivity to change in two subgroups of patients who indicated change in their self-assessed disease severity. Built on rich qualitative data from patients, the T-QoL is a simple and valid tool to quantify the impact of skin disease on adolescents' QoL; it could be used as an outcome measure in both clinical practice and clinical research. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

  9. The effect of facial expressions on respirators contact pressures.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mang; Shen, Shengnan; Li, Hui

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of four typical facial expressions (calmness, happiness, sadness and surprise) on contact characteristics between an N95 filtering facepiece respirator and a headform. The respirator model comprised two layers (an inner layer and an outer layer) and a nose clip. The headform model was comprised of a skin layer, a fatty tissue layer embedded with eight muscles, and a skull layer. Four typical facial expressions were generated by the coordinated contraction of four facial muscles. After that, the distribution of the contact pressure on the headform, as well as the contact area, were calculated. Results demonstrated that the nasal clip could help make the respirator move closer to the nose bridge while causing facial discomfort. Moreover, contact areas varied with different facial expressions, and facial expressions significantly altered contact pressures at different key areas, which may result in leakage.

  10. Three-Arm Randomized Phase III Trial: Quality Aloe and Placebo Cream Versus Powder as Skin Treatment During Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hoopfer, Donna; Holloway, Caroline; Gabos, Zsolt; Alidrisi, Maha; Chafe, Susan; Krause, Barbara; Lees, Alan; Mehta, Nirmal; Tankel, Keith; Strickland, Faith; Hanson, John; King, Charlotte; Ghosh, Sunita; Severin, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The efficacy of aloe extract in reducing radiation-induced skin injury is controversial. The purpose of the present 3-arm randomized trial was to test the efficacy of quality-tested aloe extract in reducing the severity of radiation-induced skin injury and, secondarily, to examine the effect of a moist cream versus a dry powder skin care regimen. A total of 248 patients with breast cancer were randomized to powder, aloe cream, or placebo cream. Acute skin toxicity was scored weekly and after treatment at weeks 1, 2, and 4 using a modified 10-point Catterall scale. The patients scored their symptom severity using a 6-point Likert scale and kept an acute phase diary. The aloe formulation did not reduce acute skin toxicity or symptom severity. Patients with a greater body mass index were more likely to develop acute skin toxicity. A similar pattern of increased skin reaction toxicity occurred with both study creams compared with the dry powder regimen. No evidence was found to support prophylactic application of quality aloe extract or cream to improve the symptoms or reduce the skin reaction severity. Our results support a dry skin care regimen of powder during radiation therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High Quality Bioreplication of Intricate Nanostructures from a Fragile Gecko Skin Surface with Bactericidal Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David William; Lee, Kenneth Ka-Ho; Watson, Jolanta Anna; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Jong-Min; Watson, Gregory Shaun; Jung, Han-Sung

    2017-01-01

    The external epithelial surfaces of plants and animals are frequently carpeted with small micro- and nanostructures, which broadens their adaptive capabilities in challenging physical habitats. Hairs and other shaped protuberances manage with excessive water, light contaminants, predators or parasites in innovative ways. We are interested in transferring these intricate architectures onto biomedical devices and daily-life surfaces. Such a project requires a very rapid and accurate small-scale fabrication process not involving lithography. In this study, we describe a simple benchtop biotemplating method using shed gecko lizard skin that generates duplicates that closely replicate the small nanotipped hairs (spinules) that cover the original skin. Synthetic replication of the spinule arrays in popular biomaterials closely matched the natural spinules in length. More significantly, the shape, curvature and nanotips of the synthetic arrays are virtually identical to the natural ones. Despite some small differences, the synthetic gecko skin surface resisted wetting and bacterial contamination at the same level as natural shed skin templates. Such synthetic gecko skin surfaces are excellent platforms to test for bacterial control in clinical settings. We envision testing the biocidal properties of the well-matched templates for fungal spores and viral resistance in biomedicine as well as co/multi-cultures.

  12. Hair Color and Skin Color Together Influence Perceptions of Age, Health, and Attractiveness in Lightly-Pigmented, Young Women.

    PubMed

    Fink, Bernhard; Liebner, Katharina; Müller, Ann-Kathrin; Hirn, Thomas; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2018-05-17

    Research documents that even subtle changes in visible skin condition affect perceptions of age, health, and attractiveness. There is evidence that hair quality also affects the assessment of physical appearance, as variations in hair diameter, hair density, and hair style have systematic effects on perception. Here, we consider combined effects of hair color and skin color on the perception of female physical appearance. In two experiments, we digitally manipulated facial skin color of lightly-pigmented, young women, both between-subjects (Experiment 1) and within-subjects (Experiment 2), and investigated possible interactions with hair color in regard to age, health, and attractiveness perception. In both experiments, we detected hair color and skin color interaction effects on men's and women's assessments. For between-subjects comparisons, participants with lighter hair color were judged to be younger than those with darker shades; this effect was more pronounced in women with light skin color. No such effect was observed for within-subjects variation in skin color. Both experiments showed that smaller perceived contrast between hair color and skin color resulted in more positive responses. We conclude that hair color and facial skin color together have an effect on perceptions of female age, health, and attractiveness in young women, and we discuss these findings with reference to the literature on the role of hair and skin in the assessment of female physical appearance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Health-related quality of life and patient burden in patients with split-thickness skin graft donor site wounds.

    PubMed

    Humrich, Marco; Goepel, Lisa; Gutknecht, Mandy; Lohrberg, David; Blessmann, Marco; Bruning, Guido; Diener, Holger; Dissemond, Joachim; Hartmann, Bernd; Augustin, Matthias

    2018-04-01

    Split-thickness skin grafting is a common procedure to treat different kinds of wounds. This systematic, multicentre, observational, cross-sectional study of adult patients with split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor site wounds was conducted to evaluate quality of life (QoL) impairments caused by donor site wounds following split-thickness skin grafting. Therefore, 112 patients from 12 wound centres in Germany were examined based on patient and physician questionnaires as well as a physical examination of the donor site wound. Most indications for skin grafting were postsurgical treatment (n = 51; 42.5%) and chronic wounds (n = 47; 39.2%). European QoL visual analoque scale (EQ VAS) averaged 64.7 ± 23.3, European QoL 5 dimensions (EQ-5D) averaged 77.4 ± 30.0. Wound-QoL (range: 0-4) was rated 0.8 ± 0.8 post-surgery and 0.4 ± 0.6 at the time of survey (on average 21 weeks between the time points). Compared to averaged Wound-QoL scores of chronic wounds donor site-related QoL impairments in split-thickness skin-graft patients were less pronounced. There were significant differences in patient burden immediately after surgery compared to the time of the survey, with medium effect sizes. This supports the hypothesis that faster healing of the donor site wound leads to more favourable patient-reported outcomes. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Automated facial acne assessment from smartphone images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Mohammad; Vasefi, Fartash; Valdebran, Manuel; Huang, Kevin; Zhang, Haomiao; Kemp, William; MacKinnon, Nicholas

    2018-02-01

    A smartphone mobile medical application is presented, that provides analysis of the health of skin on the face using a smartphone image and cloud-based image processing techniques. The mobile application employs the use of the camera to capture a front face image of a subject, after which the captured image is spatially calibrated based on fiducial points such as position of the iris of the eye. A facial recognition algorithm is used to identify features of the human face image, to normalize the image, and to define facial regions of interest (ROI) for acne assessment. We identify acne lesions and classify them into two categories: those that are papules and those that are pustules. Automated facial acne assessment was validated by performing tests on images of 60 digital human models and 10 real human face images. The application was able to identify 92% of acne lesions within five facial ROIs. The classification accuracy for separating papules from pustules was 98%. Combined with in-app documentation of treatment, lifestyle factors, and automated facial acne assessment, the app can be used in both cosmetic and clinical dermatology. It allows users to quantitatively self-measure acne severity and treatment efficacy on an ongoing basis to help them manage their chronic facial acne.

  15. Experience with esthetic reconstruction of complex facial soft tissue trauma: application of the pulsed dye laser.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kazemi, Hossein Mohammad; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin

    2014-08-01

    Facial soft tissue injury can be one of the most challenging cases presenting to the plastic surgeon. The life quality and self-esteem of the patients with facial injury may be compromised temporarily or permanently. Immediate reconstruction of most defects leads to better restoration of form and function as well as early rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to present our experience in management of facial soft tissue injuries from different causes. We prospectively studied patients treated by plastic surgeons from 2010 to 2012 suffering from different types of blunt or sharp (penetrating) facial soft tissue injuries to the different areas of the face. All soft tissue injuries were treated primarily. Photography from all patients before, during, and after surgical reconstruction was performed and the results were collected. We used early pulsed dye laser (PDL) post-operatively. In our study, 63 patients including 18 (28.5%) women and 45 (71.5%) men aged 8-70 years (mean 47 years) underwent facial reconstruction due to soft tissue trauma in different parts of the face. Sharp wounds were seen in 15 (23%) patients and blunt trauma lacerations were seen in 52 (77%) patients. Overall, 65% of facial injuries were repaired primary and the remainder were reconstructed with local flaps or skin graft from adjacent tissues. Postoperative PDL therapy done two weeks following surgery for all scars yielded good results in our cases. Analysis of the injury including location, size, and depth of penetration as well as presence of associated injuries can aid in the formulation of a proper surgical plan. We recommend PDL in the early post operation period (two weeks) after suture removal for better aesthetic results.

  16. Experience With Esthetic Reconstruction of Complex Facial Soft Tissue Trauma: Application of the Pulsed Dye Laser

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kazemi, Hossein Mohammad; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Facial soft tissue injury can be one of the most challenging cases presenting to the plastic surgeon. The life quality and self-esteem of the patients with facial injury may be compromised temporarily or permanently. Immediate reconstruction of most defects leads to better restoration of form and function as well as early rehabilitation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to present our experience in management of facial soft tissue injuries from different causes. Patients and Methods: We prospectively studied patients treated by plastic surgeons from 2010 to 2012 suffering from different types of blunt or sharp (penetrating) facial soft tissue injuries to the different areas of the face. All soft tissue injuries were treated primarily. Photography from all patients before, during, and after surgical reconstruction was performed and the results were collected. We used early pulsed dye laser (PDL) post-operatively. Results: In our study, 63 patients including 18 (28.5%) women and 45 (71.5%) men aged 8-70 years (mean 47 years) underwent facial reconstruction due to soft tissue trauma in different parts of the face. Sharp wounds were seen in 15 (23%) patients and blunt trauma lacerations were seen in 52 (77%) patients. Overall, 65% of facial injuries were repaired primary and the remainder were reconstructed with local flaps or skin graft from adjacent tissues. Postoperative PDL therapy done two weeks following surgery for all scars yielded good results in our cases. Conclusions: Analysis of the injury including location, size, and depth of penetration as well as presence of associated injuries can aid in the formulation of a proper surgical plan. We recommend PDL in the early post operation period (two weeks) after suture removal for better aesthetic results. PMID:25337516

  17. Consumer Quality Index Chronic Skin Disease (CQI-CSD): a new instrument to measure quality of care from the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    van Cranenburgh, O D; Krol, M W; Hendriks, M C P; de Rie, M A; Smets, E M A; de Korte, J; Sprangers, M A G

    2015-10-01

    Assessing quality of care from the patient's perspective is considered to be highly relevant. As a standardized instrument in dermatology was lacking, we developed a patient experience questionnaire regarding chronic skin disease care: the Consumer Quality Index Chronic Skin Disease (CQI-CSD). (i) To evaluate the dimensional structure of the CQI-CSD, (ii) to assess its ability to distinguish between hospitals according to patients' experiences with quality of care, (iii) to explore patients' experiences with dermatological care and priorities for quality improvement according to the patients, and (iv) to optimize the questionnaire based on psychometric results and stakeholders' input. In a cross-sectional study 5647 adult patients who received dermatological care in the past 12 months in 20 hospitals were randomly selected and invited to fill out the questionnaire. Overall 1160 of 3989 eligible respondents (29% response rate, 30-87 per hospital) were included for analysis. The CQI-CSD comprised seven scales with high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0·74-0·92). The instrument's discriminative power was limited. Patients were positive about the care provided by nurses and doctors, but the provision of information by healthcare providers, accessibility of care and patient involvement could be improved. We optimized the CQI-CSD, resulting in a revised questionnaire containing 65 items. In conclusion, the CQI-CSD is a useful instrument to measure patient experiences with dermatological care. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Diagnostic value and cost-effectiveness of good quality digital images accompanying electronic referrals for suspected skin malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ng, Michael F Y; Stevenson, J Howard

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome and cost-effectiveness of good and poor quality photographs accompanying the electronic referrals for suspected skin malignancies. A retrospective study of 100 patients, divided into 2 groups, 50 with good quality photographs and 50 with poor quality photographs. Patients with no digital images, or who failed to attend, or patients with incomplete notes were excluded from the study. The treatment pathway, waiting times, and estimated cost between the 2 groups were compared. Good photographs were more likely to be treated at the 1-Stop Clinic (P = 0.05). Good images had a better positive predictive value than poor quality images (62.55% vs. 42.86%). Good quality images are more accurate than poor quality images in triaging of patients, and thus more effective in facilitating the treatment of malignant lesions timely. Good quality photographs allow a delayed appropriate treatment of benign lesions. This increases the safety for patients in a queue in a rationed health care system, and improves patient flow.

  19. Expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Donghong; Ma, Xinrong; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Lingfeng; Zhu, Baozhen

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the feasibility and clinical efficacy of expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma. From March 2000 to April 2011, 13 cases of facial cicatrices left by radiotherapy of hemangioma have been treated with implantation surgery of facial skin dilator under local anesthesia. After water flood expansion for 1-2 months, resection of facial scar was performed, and wound repairing with expansion flap transfer was done. Thirteen patients were followed up from 5 months to 3 years. All patients tolerated flap transfer well; no contracture occurred during the facial expansion flap transfer. The incision scar was not obvious, and its color and texture were identical to surrounding skin. In conclusion, the use of expanded flap transfer to repair the facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma is advantageous due to its simplicity, flexibility, and large area of repairing. This method does not affect the subsequent facial appearance.

  20. Male skin and ingredients relevant to male skin care.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2012-03-01

    Male skin care needs are heavily influenced by the need to remove facial hair on a regular basis. Facial skin issues associated with poor hair removal approaches are common and include razor burn and irritation. This paper evaluates current research on shaving technology and how careful ingredient selection can contribute to male skin health. The importance of maintaining hair softness during the shave and restoring facial hydration post-shave is discussed. Data are presented on how post-shave moisturizers containing glycerine and emollients can create an environment for improved barrier function which can be further improved by incorporating specific ingredients such as niacinamide. © 2012 The Author. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Dermofat graft in deep nasolabial fold and facial rhytidectomy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Han, Jin Yi; Kim, Dae Joong

    2003-01-01

    Fat and dermis or the combined tissues are used commonly in augmentation of the nasolabial fold. Guyuron obtained the dermofat graft from either the suprapubic or the groin region. The thickness of the preauricular skin was measured in seven Korean cadavers, five male and two female. We used the dermofat graft out of the preauricular skin remnant after facial rhytidectomy to augment the deep nasolabial fold in a patient. The average thickness of the epidermis was 56 +/- 12 microm, the dermis was 1820 +/- 265 microm thick, and the subcutaneous tissue was 4783 +/- 137 microm. More dense connective tissues, such as SMAS, are seen in the preauricular skin. The dermofat graft was easily obtained and prepared from the leftover preauricular skin after dissection of the lax skin in face lifting. This technique could be employed effectively and successfully to alleviate a deep nasolabial fold and concomitant facial rhytidectomy in an Asian with a thick preauricular skin.

  2. Changes in Quality Characteristics of Pork Patties Containing Antioxidative Fish Skin Peptide or Fish Skin Peptide-loaded Nanoliposomes during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jing-Jing; Lee, Jung-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Soojin; Choi, Mi-Jung; Cho, Youngjae

    2017-01-01

    Marine fish skin peptides (FSP) have been widely studied due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. We aimed to use a natural antioxidant, FSP, to replacing synthetic preservatives in a pork patty model, which is safer for human body. Moreover, nano-liposome technology can be applied for masking the fishy smell and improving the stability of this peptide. Therefore, in this study, the effects of FSP and FSP-loaded liposomes (FSPL) on pork patty were evaluated through the tests of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), color, cooking loss, texture, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), and the pH value, during 14 d of refrigerated (4°C) storage. The results showed that all FSP-treated patties had lower TBARS values than control patties, which indicated an inhibitory effect of FSP on lipid oxidation. This effect in the patties depended on the FSP concentration. However, FSPL-treated patties showed significantly higher and undesirable TBARS values compared to the control, and this effect depended on the FSPL concentration. None of the physicochemical results showed remarkable changes except the pH and VBN values. Therefore, this study provides evidence that FSP has great potential to inhibit the lipid oxidation of pork patties and is capable of maintaining the quality and extending the shelf life. However, it is necessary to study the application of FSP treatments greater than 3% to improve the antioxidant effect on pork patties and search for other coating materials and technology to reduce the drawbacks of FSP.

  3. Changes in Quality Characteristics of Pork Patties Containing Antioxidative Fish Skin Peptide or Fish Skin Peptide-loaded Nanoliposomes during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jing-Jing; Lee, Jung-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Soojin; Choi, Mi-Jung; Cho, Youngjae

    2017-01-01

    Marine fish skin peptides (FSP) have been widely studied due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. We aimed to use a natural antioxidant, FSP, to replacing synthetic preservatives in a pork patty model, which is safer for human body. Moreover, nano-liposome technology can be applied for masking the fishy smell and improving the stability of this peptide. Therefore, in this study, the effects of FSP and FSP-loaded liposomes (FSPL) on pork patty were evaluated through the tests of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), color, cooking loss, texture, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), and the pH value, during 14 d of refrigerated (4°C) storage. The results showed that all FSP-treated patties had lower TBARS values than control patties, which indicated an inhibitory effect of FSP on lipid oxidation. This effect in the patties depended on the FSP concentration. However, FSPL-treated patties showed significantly higher and undesirable TBARS values compared to the control, and this effect depended on the FSPL concentration. None of the physicochemical results showed remarkable changes except the pH and VBN values. Therefore, this study provides evidence that FSP has great potential to inhibit the lipid oxidation of pork patties and is capable of maintaining the quality and extending the shelf life. However, it is necessary to study the application of FSP treatments greater than 3% to improve the antioxidant effect on pork patties and search for other coating materials and technology to reduce the drawbacks of FSP. PMID:29147099

  4. Evaluation of the impact of urban pollution on the quality of skin: a multicentre study in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, M-A; Pham, D-M; Boussouira, B; Bernard, D; Camus, C; Nguyen, Q-L

    2015-06-01

    After pilot and preliminary studies aimed at identifying pertinent biochemical parameters, a multicenter clinical study was performed to evaluate the effect of pollution on human skin. The clinical study was performed in collaboration with the 'Centre Régional de lutte contre le cancer de Montpellier' and the 'National Institute of Public Health of Mexico' on 96 subjects in Mexico City (exposed to pollution) and 93 subjects in Cuernavaca (less exposed to pollution). Both biochemical and clinical skin parameters were studied. The study demonstrated significant quantitative and qualitative modifications of parameters related to sebum excretion in Mexico City compared to Cuernavaca one: An increased level of sebum excretion rate, a lower level of vitamin E and squalene in sebum, an increase of lactic acid and a higher erythematous index on the face of the subjects. In the stratum corneum, a significant higher level of carbonylated proteins and a lower level of IL 1α were noticed, as well as a decrease of ATP concentration with a decrease of chymotrysin like activity, without modifications of corneodesmosin content and trypsin like activity. From a clinical point of view, a higher frequency of atopic and urticarial skins, a higher frequency of red dermographism, an important seborrheic status at the forehead level and a lower level of dandruffs were noted in Mexico City population. The analysis taking into account the sex does not modify the observed results. The study demonstrated an important impact of polluted environmental conditions on skin quality, evidencing important modifications of superficial biochemical parameters. The cause/effects relationships of these modifications remain, however, to be further assessed by a complementary in vitro/in vivo approaches. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Use of 4MAT Learning Theory to Promote Better Skin Care During Radiation Therapy: An Evidence-Based Quality Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Carole; Magnan, Morris; Laszewski, Pamela

    Radiation therapy is a key treatment modality for cancer patients, but it is associated with adverse side effects such as radiation dermatitis. To mitigate the adverse effects of radiation on the skin, patients must participate in skin-related self-care. However, even with self-care instruction, adherence can be poor. This quality improvement project used best available evidence for skin care in patients undergoing radiation therapy and a theoretical framework, 4MATing, to provide a structured approach to patient education designed to enhance adherence to skin care recommendations. Implementation of this approach resulted in increased adherence to a topical skin care protocol in our facility. Patients were highly satisfied with their education. While there was a 4-day delay in the onset of radiation dermatitis, this difference was not statistically significant.

  6. Outcome of a graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation in patients with facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Laura C; Eckstein, Anja; Stähr, Kerstin; Xing, Minzhi; Lang, Stephan; Mattheis, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Peripheral paralysis of the facial nerve is the most frequent of all cranial nerve disorders. Despite advances in facial surgery, the functional and aesthetic reconstruction of a paralyzed face remains a challenge. Graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation is based on a modular principle. According to the patients' needs, precondition, and expectations, the following modules can be performed: temporalis muscle transposition and facelift, nasal valve suspension, endoscopic brow lift, and eyelid reconstruction. Applying a concept of a graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation may help minimize surgical trauma and reduce morbidity. Twenty patients underwent a graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation. A retrospective chart review was performed with a follow-up examination between 1 and 8 months after surgery. The FACEgram software was used to calculate pre- and postoperative eyelid closure, the level of brows, nasal, and philtral symmetry as well as oral commissure position at rest and oral commissure excursion with smile. As a patient-oriented outcome parameter, the Glasgow Benefit Inventory questionnaire was applied. There was a statistically significant improvement in the postoperative score of eyelid closure, brow asymmetry, nasal asymmetry, philtral asymmetry as well as oral commissure symmetry at rest (p < 0.05). Smile evaluation revealed no significant change of oral commissure excursion. The mean Glasgow Benefit Inventory score indicated substantial improvement in patients' overall quality of life. If a primary facial nerve repair or microneurovascular tissue transfer cannot be applied, graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation is a promising option to restore facial function and symmetry at rest.

  7. Rapid non-enzymatic extraction method for isolating PCR-quality camelpox virus DNA from skin.

    PubMed

    Yousif, A Ausama; Al-Naeem, A Abdelmohsen; Al-Ali, M Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Molecular diagnostic investigations of orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections are performed using a variety of clinical samples including skin lesions, tissues from internal organs, blood and secretions. Skin samples are particularly convenient for rapid diagnosis and molecular epidemiological investigations of camelpox virus (CMLV). Classical extraction procedures and commercial spin-column-based kits are time consuming, relatively expensive, and require multiple extraction and purification steps in addition to proteinase K digestion. A rapid non-enzymatic procedure for extracting CMLV DNA from dried scabs or pox lesions was developed to overcome some of the limitations of the available DNA extraction techniques. The procedure requires as little as 10mg of tissue and produces highly purified DNA [OD(260)/OD(280) ratios between 1.47 and 1.79] with concentrations ranging from 6.5 to 16 microg/ml. The extracted CMLV DNA was proven suitable for virus-specific qualitative and, semi-quantitative PCR applications. Compared to spin-column and conventional viral DNA extraction techniques, the two-step extraction procedure saves money and time, and retains the potential for automation without compromising CMLV PCR sensitivity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A new physical model with multilayer architecture for facial expression animation using dynamic adaptive mesh.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C; Sung, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new physically-based 3D facial model based on anatomical knowledge which provides high fidelity for facial expression animation while optimizing the computation. Our facial model has a multilayer biomechanical structure, incorporating a physically-based approximation to facial skin tissue, a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators, and underlying skull structure. In contrast to existing mass-spring-damper (MSD) facial models, our dynamic skin model uses the nonlinear springs to directly simulate the nonlinear visco-elastic behavior of soft tissue and a new kind of edge repulsion spring is developed to prevent collapse of the skin model. Different types of muscle models have been developed to simulate distribution of the muscle force applied on the skin due to muscle contraction. The presence of the skull advantageously constrain the skin movements, resulting in more accurate facial deformation and also guides the interactive placement of facial muscles. The governing dynamics are computed using a local semi-implicit ODE solver. In the dynamic simulation, an adaptive refinement automatically adapts the local resolution at which potential inaccuracies are detected depending on local deformation. The method, in effect, ensures the required speedup by concentrating computational time only where needed while ensuring realistic behavior within a predefined error threshold. This mechanism allows more pleasing animation results to be produced at a reduced computational cost.

  9. Facial Soft Tissue Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries. PMID:22550459

  10. Clinical efficacy of facial masks containing yoghurt and Opuntia humifusa Raf. (F-YOP).

    PubMed

    Yeom, Gyoseon; Yun, Dae-Myoung; Kang, Yun-Won; Kwon, Ji-Sook; Kang, In-Oh; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2011-01-01

    Facial packs or masks are popular beauty treatments that are thought to improve skin quality. We formulated a yoghurt pack using natural ingredients (F-YOP), with consideration of skin affinity, safety, health, and beauty. Then, we performed an in vitro assessment of biological activity and in vivo assessments of moisture, TEWL, melanin content, and elasticity. Facial areas treated with F-YOP showed increased moisture compared to control regions: 89±6.26% (forehead), 140.72±10.19% (cheek), and 123.29±6.67% (chin). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values were decreased in the treated areas compared to control: 101.38±6.95% (forehead), 50.37±5.93% (cheek), and l57.81±10.88% (chin). Elasticity was decreased in the control region, whereas the treatment region did not change. The initial elasticity was maintained in the cheek. F-YOP exhibited activity on DPPH radical scavenging, SOD-like activity, and lipoxygenase activity. F-YOP treatment successfully improved the moisture, brightness, and elasticity of treated skin.

  11. Clinical patterns and epidemiological characteristics of facial melasma in Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Tamega, A de A; Miot, L D B; Bonfietti, C; Gige, T C; Marques, M E A; Miot, H A

    2013-02-01

    BACKGROUND; Melasma is a common acquired chronic hypermelanosis of sun-exposed areas which significantly impacts quality of life. There are few epidemiological studies in medical literature concerning these patients. Characterize clinical and epidemiological data on Brazilian female patients with melasma. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to melasma patients treated at a dermatology clinic between 2005 and 2010. Association between variables was performed by multivariate regression models. We assessed 302 patients; intermediate skin phototypes III (34.4%) and IV (38.4%) were prevalent. Mean disease onset age was 27.5 ± 7.8 years and familiar occurrence of melasma was identified in 56.3%. The most commonly reported trigger factors were pregnancy (36.4%), contraceptive pills (16.2%) and intense sun exposure (27.2%). Preferred facial topographies were zygomatic (83.8%), labial superior (51.3%) and frontal (49.7%). Pregnancy induced melasma has been associated to early disease (OR = 0.86) and number of pregnancies (OR = 1.39). Childbearing was correlated to melasma extension. Older disease onset age was associated to darker skin phototypes. Co-occurrence of facial topographies supported clinical classification as centrofacial and peripheral melasma. This population was characterized by: a high prevalence in adult females, intermediate skin phototypes, disease precipitation by hormonal stimulus and familiar genetic influence. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. [Facial tics and spasms].

    PubMed

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; van Dijk, J Marc C; Elting, Jan Willem J; de Koning-Tijssen, Marina A J

    2014-01-01

    Facial tics and spasms are socially incapacitating, but effective treatment is often available. The clinical picture is sufficient for distinguishing between the different diseases that cause this affliction.We describe three cases of patients with facial tics or spasms: one case of tics, which are familiar to many physicians; one case of blepharospasms; and one case of hemifacial spasms. We discuss the differential diagnosis and the treatment possibilities for facial tics and spasms. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, because of the associated social incapacitation. Botulin toxin should be considered as a treatment option for facial tics and a curative neurosurgical intervention should be considered for hemifacial spasms.

  13. Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve the Quality and Stability of Vascularized Flap Surgery of Irradiated Skin in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Linard, Christine; Brachet, Michel; Strup-Perrot, Carine; L'homme, Bruno; Busson, Elodie; Squiban, Claire; Holler, Valerie; Bonneau, Michel; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Eric; Benderitter, Marc

    2018-05-18

    Cutaneous radiation syndrome has severe long-term health consequences. Because it causes an unpredictable course of inflammatory waves, conventional surgical treatment is ineffective and often leads to a fibronecrotic process. Data about the long-term stability of healed wounds, with neither inflammation nor resumption of fibrosis, are lacking. In this study, we investigated the effect of injections of local autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs), combined with plastic surgery for skin necrosis, in a large-animal model. Three months after irradiation overexposure to the rump, minipigs were divided into three groups: one group treated by simple excision of the necrotic tissue, the second by vascularized-flap surgery, and the third by vascularized-flap surgery and local autologous BM-MSC injections. Three additional injections of the BM-MSCs were performed weekly for 3 weeks. The quality of cutaneous wound healing was examined 1 year post-treatment. The necrotic tissue excision induced a pathologic scar characterized by myofibroblasts, excessive collagen-1 deposits, and inadequate vascular density. The vascularized-flap surgery alone was accompanied by inadequate production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (decorin, fibronectin); the low col1/col3 ratio, associated with persistent inflammatory nodules, and the loss of vascularization both attested to continued immaturity of the ECM. BM-MSC therapy combined with vascularized-flap surgery provided mature wound healing characterized by a col1/col3 ratio and decorin and fibronectin expression that were all similar to that of nonirradiated skin, with no inflammation, and vascular stability. In this preclinical model, vascularized flap surgery successfully and lastingly remodeled irradiated skin only when combined with BM-MSC therapy. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018. © 2018 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Alpha

  14. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality: A clinically relevant porcine model of full-thickness burn, excision and grafting.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anders H; Rose, Lloyd F; Fletcher, John L; Wu, Jesse C; Leung, Kai P; Chan, Rodney K

    2017-02-01

    Current standard of care for full-thickness burn is excision followed by autologous split-thickness skin graft placement. Skin grafts are also frequently used to cover surgical wounds not amenable to linear closure. While all grafts have potential to contract, clinical observation suggests that antecedent thermal injury worsens contraction and impairs functional and aesthetic outcomes. This study evaluates the impact of antecedent full-thickness burn on split-thickness skin graft scar outcomes and the potential mediating factors. Full-thickness contact burns (100°C, 30s) were created on the backs of anesthetized female Yorkshire Pigs. After seven days, burn eschar was tangentially excised and covered with 12/1000th inch (300μm) split-thickness skin graft. For comparison, unburned wounds were created by sharp excision to fat before graft application. From 7 to 120days post-grafting, planimetric measurements, digital imaging and biopsies for histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression were obtained. At 120days post-grafting, the Observer Scar Assessment Scale, colorimetry, contour analysis and optical graft height assessments were performed. Twenty-nine porcine wounds were analyzed. All measured metrics of clinical skin quality were significantly worse (p<0.05) in burn injured wounds. Histological analysis supported objective clinical findings with marked scar-like collagen proliferation within the dermis, increased vascular density, and prolonged and increased cellular infiltration. Observed differences in contracture also correlated with earlier and more prominent myofibroblast differentiation as demonstrated by α-SMA staining. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality, likely by multiple mechanisms including burn-related inflammation, microscopically inadequate excision, and dysregulation of tissue remodeling. A valid, reliable, clinically relevant model of full-thickness burn, excision and skin replacement therapy has been

  15. Guide to Understanding Facial Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to many different facial muscles. These muscles control facial expression. The coordinated activity of this nerve and these ... involves a weakness of the muscles responsible for facial expression and side-to-side eye movement. Moebius syndrome ...

  16. Facial reanimation by muscle-nerve neurotization after facial nerve sacrifice. Case report.

    PubMed

    Taupin, A; Labbé, D; Babin, E; Fromager, G

    2016-12-01

    Recovering a certain degree of mimicry after sacrifice of the facial nerve is a clinically recognized finding. The authors report a case of hemifacial reanimation suggesting a phenomenon of neurotization from muscle-to-nerve. A woman benefited from a parotidectomy with sacrifice of the left facial nerve indicated for recurrent tumor in the gland. The distal branches of the facial nerve, isolated at the time of resection, were buried in the masseter muscle underneath. The patient recovered a voluntary hémifacial motricity. The electromyographic analysis of the motor activity of the zygomaticus major before and after block of the masseter nerve showed a dependence between mimic muscles and the masseter muscle. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the spontaneous reanimation of facial paralysis. The clinical case makes it possible to argue in favor of muscle-to-nerve neurotization from masseter muscle to distal branches of the facial nerve. It illustrates the quality of motricity that can be obtained thanks to this procedure. The authors describe a simple implantation technique of distal branches of the facial nerve in the masseter muscle during a radical parotidectomy with facial nerve sacrifice and recovery of resting tone but also a quality voluntary mimicry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. New icing media for quality enhancement of chilled hake (Merluccius merluccius) using a jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) skin extract.

    PubMed

    Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina; Miranda, José M; Chan-Higuera, Jesús Enrique; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Aubourg, Santiago P

    2017-08-01

    An advanced strategy for chilled fish preservation, based on the inclusion in ice of an extract of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) skin (JSS), is proposed. Aqueous solutions including acetic acid-ethanol extracts of JSS were tested at two different concentrations as icing media, with the effects on the quality evolution of chilled hake (Merluccius merluccius) being monitored. A significant inhibition (P < 0.05) of microbial activity (aerobes, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae, proteolytic bacteria; pH, trimethylamine) was obtained in hake corresponding to the icing batch including the highest JSS concentration. Additionally, fish specimens from such icing conditions showed an inhibitory effect (P < 0.05) on lipid hydrolysis development, while no effect (P > 0.05) was depicted for lipid oxidation. Sensory analysis (skin and mucus development; eyes; gills; texture; external odour; raw and cooked flesh odour; flesh taste) indicated a shelf life extension of chilled hake stored in ice including the highest JSS concentration. A profitable use of JSS, an industrial by-product during jumbo squid commercialisation, has been developed in the present work, which leads to a remarkable microbial inhibition and a significant shelf life extension of chilled hake. In agreement with previous research, ommochrome pigments (i.e. lipophilic-type compounds) would be considered responsible for this preservative effect. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Choice, Transparency, Coordination, and Quality Among Direct-to-Consumer Telemedicine Websites and Apps Treating Skin Disease.

    PubMed

    Resneck, Jack S; Abrouk, Michael; Steuer, Meredith; Tam, Andrew; Yen, Adam; Lee, Ivy; Kovarik, Carrie L; Edison, Karen E

    2016-07-01

    Evidence supports use of teleconsultation for improving patient access to dermatology. However, little is known about the quality of rapidly expanding direct-to-consumer (DTC) telemedicine websites and smartphone apps diagnosing and treating skin disease. To assess the performance of DTC teledermatology services. Simulated patients submitted a series of structured dermatologic cases with photographs, including neoplastic, inflammatory, and infectious conditions, using regional and national DTC telemedicine websites and smartphone apps offering services to California residents. Choice of clinician, transparency of credentials, clinician location, demographic and medical data requested, diagnoses given, treatments recommended or prescribed, adverse effects discussed, care coordination. We received responses for 62 clinical encounters from 16 DTC telemedicine websites from February 4 to March 11, 2016. None asked for identification or raised concerns about pseudonym use or falsified photographs. During most encounters (42 [68%]), patients were assigned a clinician without any choice. Only 16 (26%) disclosed information about clinician licensure, and some used internationally based physicians without California licenses. Few collected the name of an existing primary care physician (14 [23%]) or offered to send records (6 [10%]). A diagnosis or likely diagnosis was proffered in 48 encounters (77%). Prescription medications were ordered in 31 of 48 diagnosed cases (65%), and relevant adverse effects or pregnancy risks were disclosed in a minority (10 of 31 [32%] and 6 of 14 [43%], respectively). Websites made several correct diagnoses in clinical scenarios where photographs alone were adequate, but when basic additional history elements (eg, fever, hypertrichosis, oligomenorrhea) were important, they regularly failed to ask simple relevant questions and diagnostic performance was poor. Major diagnoses were repeatedly missed, including secondary syphilis, eczema

  19. Improving posttraumatic facial scars.

    PubMed

    Ardeshirpour, Farhad; Shaye, David A; Hilger, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Posttraumatic soft-tissue injuries of the face are often the most lasting sequelae of facial trauma. The disfigurement of posttraumatic scarring lies in both their physical deformity and psychosocial ramifications. This review outlines a variety of techniques to improve facial scars and limit their lasting effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Reconstruction of facial soft tissue defects with pedicled expanded flaps].

    PubMed

    Yangqun, Li; Yong, Tang; Wen, Chen; Zhe, Yang; Muxin, Zhao; Lisi, Xu; Chunmei, Hu; Yuanyuan, Liu; Ning, Ma; Jun, Feng; Weixin, Wang

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the application of pedicled expanded flaps for the reconstruction of facial soft tissue defects. The expanded skin flaps, pedicled with orbicularis oculi muscle, submental artery, the branch of facial artery, superficial temporal artery, interior upper arm artery, had similar texture and color as facial soft tissue. The pedicled expanded flaps have repaired the facial soft tissue defects. Between Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2013, 157 cases with facial soft tissue defects were reconstructed by pedicled expanded flaps. Epidermal necrosis happened at the distal end of 8 expanded flaps, pedicled with interior upper arm artery(4 cases), orbicularis oculi muscle(3 cases) and submental artery(1 case), which healed spontaneously after dressing. All the other flaps survived completely with similar color and inconspicuous scar. 112 cases were followed up for 8 months to 8 years. Satisfactory results were achieved in 75 cases. 37 cases with hypertrophic scar at incisions need secondary operation. Island pedicled expanded flap with similar texture and color as facial soft tissue is suitable for facial soft tissue defects. The facial extra-incision and large dog-ear deformity could be avoided.

  1. Advances in facial reanimation.

    PubMed

    Tate, James R; Tollefson, Travis T

    2006-08-01

    Facial paralysis often has a significant emotional impact on patients. Along with the myriad of new surgical techniques in managing facial paralysis comes the challenge of selecting the most effective procedure for the patient. This review delineates common surgical techniques and reviews state-of-the-art techniques. The options for dynamic reanimation of the paralyzed face must be examined in the context of several patient factors, including age, overall health, and patient desires. The best functional results are obtained with direct facial nerve anastomosis and interpositional nerve grafts. In long-standing facial paralysis, temporalis muscle transfer gives a dependable and quick result. Microvascular free tissue transfer is a reliable technique with reanimation potential whose results continue to improve as microsurgical expertise increases. Postoperative results can be improved with ancillary soft tissue procedures, as well as botulinum toxin. The paper provides an overview of recent advances in facial reanimation, including preoperative assessment, surgical reconstruction options, and postoperative management.

  2. Randomized, Observer-blind, Split-face Compatibility Study with Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2%/Benzoyl Peroxide 3.75% gel and Facial Foundation Makeup

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cosmetic compatibility in the treatment of acne is an important issue significantly impacting quality of life, but often overlooked, as dermatologists commonly recommended avoidance of cosmetic foundations when treating adult female patients. Fixed combinations of clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide are widely used in the treatment of acne, but little is known about the impact of their concomitant use with facial foundation. Objective: To assess the compatibility of clindamycin phosphate 1. 2%/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel with foundation makeup for up to six hours after application. Methods: Twenty-nine female subjects applied makeup to their face after randomly applying clindamycin phosphate 1. 2%/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel to one side of the face. Investigator and subject self- assessment included facial skin attributes, facial tolerability, and cosmetic compatibility post-application and at Hour 6; as well as cutaneous tolerability. Results: No statistical difference was noted between the treated and untreated side of the face in terms of coverage, blotchiness, appearance, skin tone, or visual smoothness. Tolerability was excellent, with no erythema, edema, dryness, and peeling post-makeup application. For both the treated and untreated side, there was a slight lack of improvement in cosmetic appearance six hours post-makeup application. Conclusion: Clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel was shown to have excellent cosmetic compatibility with facial foundation. PMID:26430488

  3. Randomized, Observer-blind, Split-face Compatibility Study with Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2%/Benzoyl Peroxide 3.75% gel and Facial Foundation Makeup.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Neal; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2015-09-01

    Cosmetic compatibility in the treatment of acne is an important issue significantly impacting quality of life, but often overlooked, as dermatologists commonly recommended avoidance of cosmetic foundations when treating adult female patients. Fixed combinations of clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide are widely used in the treatment of acne, but little is known about the impact of their concomitant use with facial foundation. To assess the compatibility of clindamycin phosphate 1. 2%/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel with foundation makeup for up to six hours after application. Twenty-nine female subjects applied makeup to their face after randomly applying clindamycin phosphate 1. 2%/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel to one side of the face. Investigator and subject self- assessment included facial skin attributes, facial tolerability, and cosmetic compatibility post-application and at Hour 6; as well as cutaneous tolerability. No statistical difference was noted between the treated and untreated side of the face in terms of coverage, blotchiness, appearance, skin tone, or visual smoothness. Tolerability was excellent, with no erythema, edema, dryness, and peeling post-makeup application. For both the treated and untreated side, there was a slight lack of improvement in cosmetic appearance six hours post-makeup application. Clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel was shown to have excellent cosmetic compatibility with facial foundation.

  4. Quality and antioxidant properties of breads enriched with dry onion (Allium cepa L.) skin.

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara; Tomiło, Justyna; Czyż, Jarosław

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect on the antioxidant properties and sensory value of bread of adding ground onion skin (OS). For a determination of bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro the human gastrointestinal tract model was used. OS contained mastication-extractable quercetin (4.6 mg/g). Quercetin from OS was highly bioaccessible during in vitro conditions, but only approximately 4% of quercetin released during simulated digestion was bioavailable in vitro. The antioxidant potential of bread with OS was significantly higher than the activity noted in the control. In particular, OS addition significantly fortificated bread with bioaccessible lipid oxidation preventers and compounds with reducing and chelating abilities. The 2-3% OS addition caused significant improvement of antioxidant abilities (further increases in the OS supplement did not increase the activity of bread). Sensory evaluation showed that replacement of wheat flour in bread with up to 3% OS powder gave satisfactory consumer acceptability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Facial nerve neurinomas].

    PubMed

    Sokołowski, Jacek; Bartoszewicz, Robert; Morawski, Krzysztof; Jamróz, Barbara; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of diagnostic, surgical technique, treatment results facial nerve neurinomas and its comparison with literature was the main purpose of this study. Seven cases of patients (2005-2011) with facial nerve schwannomas were included to retrospective analysis in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw. All patients were assessed with history of the disease, physical examination, hearing tests, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, electronystagmography. Cases were observed in the direction of potential complications and recurrences. Neurinoma of the facial nerve occurred in the vertical segment (n=2), facial nerve geniculum (n=1) and the internal auditory canal (n=4). The symptoms observed in patients were analyzed: facial nerve paresis (n=3), hearing loss (n=2), dizziness (n=1). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography allowed to confirm the presence of the tumor and to assess its staging. Schwannoma of the facial nerve has been surgically removed using the middle fossa approach (n=5) and by antromastoidectomy (n=2). Anatomical continuity of the facial nerve was achieved in 3 cases. In the twelve months after surgery, facial nerve paresis was rated at level II-III° HB. There was no recurrence of the tumor in radiological observation. Facial nerve neurinoma is a rare tumor. Currently surgical techniques allow in most cases, the radical removing of the lesion and reconstruction of the VII nerve function. The rate of recurrence is low. A tumor of the facial nerve should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nerve VII paresis. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: An Intra-subject Controlled Trial Examining Treated vs. Untreated Skin Utilizing Clinical Features and Erythema-directed Digital Photography.

    PubMed

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo; Micali, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis.

  7. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-06-12

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners.

  8. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  9. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2007-01-01

    Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

  10. Combined use of two formulations containing diacetyl boldine, TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68 with other hypopigmenting/exfoliating agents and sunscreen provides effective and convenient treatment for facial melasma. Either is equal to or is better than 4% hydroquinone on normal skin.

    PubMed

    Pratchyapurit, Walai-Orn

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of melasma remains a challenge and involves multistep approach. Diacetyl boldine (DAB) stabilizes tyrosinase in its inactive form while TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68 inhibits tyrosinase activity. (1) to study the efficacy and safety of the combination use of two formulae containing two principal ingredients: DAB and TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68 on facial melasma, and (2) to compare their efficacy with 2% and 4% hydroquinone cream (HQ) on sun-protected normal skin. A randomized, double-blind, 12-week comparative study of pre-/post-treatment was conducted in 40 females. Melasma was evaluated by manual MASI score and MASI score with instrumentally graded darkness at baseline, 6th week, and 12th week. The author also compared their effect with HQ on the arms, assessed their safety profile throughout the study. Thirty-eight subjects have completed the study. Their melasma showed improvement at the 6th week and 12th week as compared with baseline (P < 0.05). None developed severe reaction. Most subjects had temporary, mild skin reaction. About 2.6% of subjects graded themselves markedly improved, 76.3% moderately improved, and 21.1% slightly improved. Each formula showed either more efficacy or exerted faster action on pigment reduction than HQ. Combination of DAB serum at night and DAB/TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68/sunscreen cream in the morning and at noon was effective and safe for facial melasma. They were superior to HQ in pigment reduction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Twice-Daily, Three-Step Men's Skincare Regimen in Improving Overall Skin Quality and Reducing Shave-Related Irritation.

    PubMed

    Rodan, Katie; Fields, Kathy; Falla, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    More men are beginning to take advantage of opportunities to improve the health and appearance of their skin; however, the effectiveness of men's skincare regimens has not been well studied. The authors investigated the efficacy and tolerance of a twice-daily, three-step men's skincare regimen in improving skin appearance and reducing shave-related issues. Twenty-nine men who used a wet-shaving method completed a specific, three-step, twice-daily facial regimen-a Shave Cleanser, a Post-Shave Treatment, and Day Protection-in place of their usual routine for 4 weeks. This skincare regimen produced significant improvements in tactile smoothness, clarity, radiance, and pore size at weeks 2 and 4 and in fine lines, razor burn, and photodamage at week 4 ( P <.05). Significant improvements were seen in the appearance of nicks/cuts and folliculitis of the face and neck after weeks 2 and 4 ( P <.05). Mean change in the moisture content of the stratum corneum was significant at week 4 ( P <.05). The majority of men provided positive self-assessments and indicated an interest in continuing this regimen.

  12. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  13. Education to improve quality of life of people with chronic inflammatory skin conditions: a systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Pickett, K; Frampton, G; Loveman, E

    2016-06-01

    Patient and carer education has been proposed as a way of improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people with chronic inflammatory skin conditions. This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of education that specifically addresses HRQoL among people with chronic inflammatory skin conditions. We searched 12 literature databases and other sources (up to July 2014). Seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the review inclusion criteria. Data from these RCTs were extracted and critically appraised. Two RCTs showed that for psoriasis in adults, group-based and text message education (as adjuncts to usual care) resulted in better HRQoL and disease severity outcomes than comparators, respectively. One RCT found that group-based education for children with eczema (atopic dermatitis) and their parents resulted in greater improvements in parents' HRQoL and in the children's disease severity than no education at 12 months. The remaining RCTs evaluated an educational session for psoriasis, a website for carers of children with eczema, information on skincare and make-up use given to women with acne, and an itch-coping programme for a range of conditions, all as adjuncts to usual care. None of these RCTs found statistically significant effects on HRQoL or disease severity compared with usual care. Common features of the effective interventions were long delivery (over 6 weeks to 3 months) and delivery by a multidisciplinary team. Overall, the evidence base is currently limited and generally has an unclear risk of bias. There is a need for more large RCTs evaluating piloted and theory-based interventions. © 2016 Crown copyright. British Journal of Dermatology © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  14. Conditioning in laser skin resurfacing - betulin emulsion and skin recovery.

    PubMed

    Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Podmelle, Fred; Waite, Peter D; Müller-Debus, Charlotte Friederieke; Hammes, Stefan; Funk, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Laser skin resurfacing of the face by CO₂-laser ablation is causing superficial wounds that need rapid recovery to reduce the risk of infection, the risk of chronification and as a result the risk of unaesthetic scars. The question being addressed by this study is to demonstrate benefit of betulin emulsion skin care after CO₂-laser wounds. The outcome of this aesthetic comparison between betulin emulsion, moist wound dressing and gauze covering in promoting the recovery process in laser skin ablation is to demonstrate improved aesthetic benefit for the patient. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Skin tightening with a combined unipolar and bipolar radiofrequency device.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, Flor A

    2007-02-01

    Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) devices are well established treatment modalities for tightening facial skin. A 60-year-old woman presented with a desire to tighten the lax skin and improve the appearance of both upper arms. A combination unipolar and bipolar RF device may provide volume reduction as well as skin tightening in the upper arm.

  16. Changing perception: facial reanimation surgery improves attractiveness and decreases negative facial perception.

    PubMed

    Dey, Jacob K; Ishii, Masaru; Boahene, Kofi D O; Byrne, Patrick J; Ishii, Lisa E

    2014-01-01

    Determine the effect of facial reanimation surgery on observer-graded attractiveness and negative facial perception of patients with facial paralysis. Randomized controlled experiment. Ninety observers viewed images of paralyzed faces, smiling and in repose, before and after reanimation surgery, as well as normal comparison faces. Observers rated the attractiveness of each face and characterized the paralyzed faces by rating severity, disfigured/bothersome, and importance to repair. Iterated factor analysis indicated these highly correlated variables measure a common domain, so they were combined to create the disfigured, important to repair, bothersome, severity (DIBS) factor score. Mixed effects linear regression determined the effect of facial reanimation surgery on attractiveness and DIBS score. Facial paralysis induces an attractiveness penalty of 2.51 on a 10-point scale for faces in repose and 3.38 for smiling faces. Mixed effects linear regression showed that reanimation surgery improved attractiveness for faces both in repose and smiling by 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67, 1.01) and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.42) respectively. Planned hypothesis tests confirmed statistically significant differences in attractiveness ratings between postoperative and normal faces, indicating attractiveness was not completely normalized. Regression analysis also showed that reanimation surgery decreased DIBS by 0.807 (95% CI: 0.704, 0.911) for faces in repose and 0.989 (95% CI: 0.886, 1.093), an entire standard deviation, for smiling faces. Facial reanimation surgery increases attractiveness and decreases negative facial perception of patients with facial paralysis. These data emphasize the need to optimize reanimation surgery to restore not only function, but also symmetry and cosmesis to improve facial perception and patient quality of life. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Case Report of a Pressure Ulcer Occurring Over the Nasal Bridge Due to a Non-Invasive Ventilation Facial Mask.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Farooq A; Ahmad, Faria; Zahoor, Muhammad Umar U

    2016-10-03

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is used in patients with respiratory failure, sleep apnoea, and dyspnoea related to pulmonary oedema. NIV is provided through a facial mask. Many complications of NIV facial masks have been reported, including the breakdown of facial skin. We report a case of an elderly male admitted with multiple co-morbidities. The facial mask was applied continuously for NIV, without any relief or formal monitoring of the underlying skin. It resulted in a Grade II pressure ulcer. We discuss the possible mechanism and offer advice for prevention of such device-related pressure ulcers.

  18. Facial soft tissue thickness of Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi-Oliveira, Sílvia Virginia; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff; de Almeida, Natalie Haddad; de Paiva, Luiz Airton Saavedra

    2009-12-15

    The auxiliary technique known as Facial Reconstruction enables one to reestablish the contours of the soft tissues over the skull, therefore producing a face and increasing the probability of a facial recognition. The reliability of this technique depends on the evaluation of the mean values of soft tissue thicknesses observed in a given population. Measurements were evaluated in autopsied corpses in "Section of Technical Verification of Deaths" in Guarulhos, São Paulo, Brazil. Thickness was measured manually by puncturing 10 midline craniometrical points and 11 bilateral points on a sample of 40 corpses of both sexes aged between 17 and 90 years, classified by skin color and the nutritional state. The results for the average thickness values are higher for males, variations related to the nutritional state are proportional to the increased fat on the face and age was not significant. The ethnic variable related to skin color when compared to studies with other populations showed differences, with the need for a reference table for a given population application of Facial Reconstruction technique in skulls of non-attributable identity.

  19. Chemical kinetics of multiphase reactions between ozone and human skin lipids: Implications for indoor air quality and health effects.

    PubMed

    Lakey, P S J; Wisthaler, A; Berkemeier, T; Mikoviny, T; Pöschl, U; Shiraiwa, M

    2017-07-01

    Ozone reacts with skin lipids such as squalene, generating an array of organic compounds, some of which can act as respiratory or skin irritants. Thus, it is important to quantify and predict the formation of these products under different conditions in indoor environments. We developed the kinetic multilayer model that explicitly resolves mass transport and chemical reactions at the skin and in the gas phase (KM-SUB-Skin). It can reproduce the concentrations of ozone and organic compounds in previous measurements and new experiments. This enabled the spatial and temporal concentration profiles in the skin oil and underlying skin layers to be resolved. Upon exposure to ~30 ppb ozone, the concentrations of squalene ozonolysis products in the gas phase and in the skin reach up to several ppb and on the order of ~10 mmol m -3 . Depending on various factors including the number of people, room size, and air exchange rates, concentrations of ozone can decrease substantially due to reactions with skin lipids. Ozone and dicarbonyls quickly react away in the upper layers of the skin, preventing them from penetrating deeply into the skin and hence reaching the blood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials in facial aging: study protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    PubMed

    Schlessinger, Daniel I; Iyengar, Sanjana; Yanes, Arianna F; Henley, Jill K; Ashchyan, Hovik J; Kurta, Anastasia O; Patel, Payal M; Sheikh, Umar A; Franklin, Matthew J; Hanna, Courtney C; Chen, Brian R; Chiren, Sarah G; Schmitt, Jochen; Deckert, Stefanie; Furlan, Karina C; Poon, Emily; Maher, Ian A; Cartee, Todd V; Sobanko, Joseph F; Alam, Murad

    2017-08-01

    Facial aging is a concern for many patients. Wrinkles, loss of volume, and discoloration are common physical manifestations of aging skin. Genetic heritage, prior ultraviolet light exposure, and Fitzpatrick skin type may be associated with the rate and type of facial aging. Although many clinical trials assess the correlates of skin aging, there is heterogeneity in the outcomes assessed, which limits the quality of evaluation and comparison of treatment modalities. To address the inconsistency in outcomes, in this project we will develop a core set of outcomes that are to be evaluated in all clinical trials relevant to facial aging. A long list of measureable outcomes will be created from four sources: (1) systematic medical literature review, (2) patient interviews, (3) other published sources, and (4) stakeholder involvement. Two rounds of Delphi processes with homogeneous groups of physicians and patients will be performed to prioritize and condense the list. At a consensus meeting attended by physicians, patients, and stakeholders, outcomes will be further condensed on the basis of participant scores. By the end of the meeting, members will vote and decide on a final recommended set of core outcomes. Subsequent to this, specific measures will be selected or created to assess these outcomes. The aim of this study is to develop a core outcome set and relevant measures for clinical trials relevant to facial aging. We hope to improve the reliability and consistency of outcome reporting of skin aging, thereby enabling improved evaluation of treatment efficacy and patient satisfaction. Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) Initiative, accessible at http://www.comet-initiative.org/studies/details/737 . Core Outcomes Set Initiative, (CSG-COUSIN) accessible at https://www.uniklinikum-dresden.de/de/das-klinikum/universitaetscentren/zegv/cousin/meet-the-teams/project-groups/core-outcome-set-for-the-appearance-of-facial-aging . Protocol version date is 28

  1. The Facially Disfigured Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncada, Georgia A.

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews diagnosis and treatments for facially disfigured children including craniofacial reconstruction and microsurgical techniques. Noted are associated disease processes that affect the social and intellectual outcomes of the afflicted child. (Author/DB)

  2. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... graft; Full thickness skin graft Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Images Skin graft Skin ...

  3. Traumatic facial nerve neuroma with facial palsy presenting in infancy.

    PubMed

    Clark, James H; Burger, Peter C; Boahene, Derek Kofi; Niparko, John K

    2010-07-01

    To describe the management of traumatic neuroma of the facial nerve in a child and literature review. Sixteen-month-old male subject. Radiological imaging and surgery. Facial nerve function. The patient presented at 16 months with a right facial palsy and was found to have a right facial nerve traumatic neuroma. A transmastoid, middle fossa resection of the right facial nerve lesion was undertaken with a successful facial nerve-to-hypoglossal nerve anastomosis. The facial palsy improved postoperatively. A traumatic neuroma should be considered in an infant who presents with facial palsy, even in the absence of an obvious history of trauma. The treatment of such lesion is complex in any age group but especially in young children. Symptoms, age, lesion size, growth rate, and facial nerve function determine the appropriate management.

  4. Facial bacterial infections: folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Laureano, Ana Cristina; Schwartz, Robert A; Cohen, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Facial bacterial infections are most commonly caused by infections of the hair follicles. Wherever pilosebaceous units are found folliculitis can occur, with the most frequent bacterial culprit being Staphylococcus aureus. We review different origins of facial folliculitis, distinguishing bacterial forms from other infectious and non-infectious mimickers. We distinguish folliculitis from pseudofolliculitis and perifolliculitis. Clinical features, etiology, pathology, and management options are also discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Image ratio features for facial expression recognition application.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Liu, Zicheng; Li, Xuelong; Zhou, Mengchu

    2010-06-01

    Video-based facial expression recognition is a challenging problem in computer vision and human-computer interaction. To target this problem, texture features have been extracted and widely used, because they can capture image intensity changes raised by skin deformation. However, existing texture features encounter problems with albedo and lighting variations. To solve both problems, we propose a new texture feature called image ratio features. Compared with previously proposed texture features, e.g., high gradient component features, image ratio features are more robust to albedo and lighting variations. In addition, to further improve facial expression recognition accuracy based on image ratio features, we combine image ratio features with facial animation parameters (FAPs), which describe the geometric motions of facial feature points. The performance evaluation is based on the Carnegie Mellon University Cohn-Kanade database, our own database, and the Japanese Female Facial Expression database. Experimental results show that the proposed image ratio feature is more robust to albedo and lighting variations, and the combination of image ratio features and FAPs outperforms each feature alone. In addition, we study asymmetric facial expressions based on our own facial expression database and demonstrate the superior performance of our combined expression recognition system.

  6. Effectiveness, safety, and effect on quality of life of topical salicylic acid peels for treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in dark skin.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Smita S; Boone, Susan L; Alam, Murad; Yoo, Simon; White, Lucile; Rademaker, Alfred; Helenowski, Irene; West, Dennis P; Kundu, Roopal V

    2009-04-01

    There are no randomized split-face model studies investigating treatments for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) in dark skin. To assess the efficacy, safety, and effect on quality of life of salicylic acid peels for PIH in dark skin. Ten subjects with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes IV to VI were randomized to receive two 20% salicylic acid peels followed by three 30% salicylic acid peels to half of the face. The contralateral half remained untreated. Response was evaluated by photography reviewed by three blinded dermatologists. The Visual Analog Scale, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and treatment quality questionnaire were administered. Improvement of PIH on the treatment side according to each rater (p=.81, p=.81, p=.42) and according to the raters combined (p=.11) approached but did not reach statistical significance. Subjects' Visual Analog Scale scores indicated significantly greater improvement of PIH on the treatment side than in the control (p=.004). Quality of life measured according to the DLQI improved after treatment but not statistically significantly so (p=.13). Treatment had no significant adverse effects. Salicylic acid peels are safe in this population. Although patients rated them as clinically effective, blinded raters found a brief series of peels to have less efficacy. Measured quality of life improved nominally.

  7. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  8. [Facial paralysis in children].

    PubMed

    Muler, H; Paquelin, F; Cotin, G; Luboinski, B; Henin, J M

    1975-01-01

    Facial paralyses in children may be grouped under headings displaying a certain amount of individuality. Chronologically, first to be described are neonatal facial paralyses. These are common and are nearly always cured within a few days. Some of these cases are due to the mastoid being crushed at birth with or without the use of forceps. The intra-osseous pathway of the facial nerve is then affected throughout its length. However, a cure is often spontaneous. When this desirable development does not take place within three months, the nerve should be freed by decompressive surgery. The special anatomy of the facial nerve in the new-born baby makes this a delicate operation. Later, in all stages of acute otitis, acute mastoiditis or chronic otitis, facial paralysis can be seen. Treatment depends on the stage reached by the otitis: paracentesis, mastoidectomy, various scraping procedures, and, of course, antibiotherapy. The other causes of facial paralysis in children are very much less common: a frigore or viral, traumatic, occur ring in the course of acute poliomyelitis, shingles or tumours of the middle ear. To these must be added exceptional causes such as vitamin D intoxication, idiopathic hypercalcaemia and certain haemopathies.

  9. Societal Value of Surgery for Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Su, Peiyi; Ishii, Lisa E; Joseph, Andrew; Nellis, Jason; Dey, Jacob; Bater, Kristin; Byrne, Patrick J; Boahene, Kofi D O; Ishii, Masaru

    2017-03-01

    Patients with facial paralysis are perceived negatively by society in a number of domains. Society's perception of the health utility of varying degrees of facial paralysis and the value society places on reconstructive surgery for facial reanimation need to be quantified. To measure health state utility of varying degrees of facial paralysis, willingness to pay (WTP) for a repair, and the subsequent value of facial reanimation surgery as perceived by society. This prospective observational study conducted in an academic tertiary referral center evaluated a group of 348 casual observers who viewed images of faces with unilateral facial paralysis of 3 severity levels (low, medium, and high) categorized by House-Brackmann grade. Structural equation modeling was performed to understand associations among health utility metrics, WTP, and facial perception domains. Data were collected from July 16 to September 26, 2015. Observer-rated (1) quality of life (QOL) using established health utility metrics (standard gamble, time trade-off, and a visual analog scale) and (2) their WTP for surgical repair. Among the 348 observers (248 women [71.3%]; 100 men [28.7%]; mean [SD] age, 29.3 [11.6] years), mixed-effects linear regression showed that WTP increased nonlinearly with increasing severity of paralysis. Participants were willing to pay $3487 (95% CI, $2362-$4961) to repair low-grade paralysis, $8571 (95% CI, $6401-$11 234) for medium-grade paralysis, and $20 431 (95% CI, $16 273-$25 317) for high-grade paralysis. The dominant factor affecting the participants' WTP was perceived QOL. Modeling showed that perceived QOL decreased with paralysis severity (regression coefficient, -0.004; 95% CI, -0.005 to -0.004; P < .001) and increased with attractiveness (regression coefficient, 0.002; 95% CI, 0.002 to 0.003; P < .001). Mean (SD) health utility scores calculated by the standard gamble metric for low- and high-grade paralysis were 0.98 (0.09) and 0.77 (0

  10. Medical makeup for concealing facial scars.

    PubMed

    Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F

    2012-10-01

    Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Non-ablative skin tightening with radiofrequency in Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Kushikata, Nobuharu; Negishi, Kei; Tezuka, Yukiko; Takeuchi, Kaori; Wakamatsu, Shingo

    2005-02-01

    The recent successful application of radiofrequency (RF) in non-ablative skin tightening for skin laxity has attracted attention worldwide. The efficacy and clinical effect of RF were assessed in Asian skin, with additional study on the duration of the effect and any complications. Eighty-five Japanese females were enrolled in the study for treatment of nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and sagging jowls with 6-month follow-up. RF treatment was effective for nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and jowls. Objective physician evaluation found relatively good improvement at 3 months post-treatment, and even better improvement at the 6-month evaluation. RF treatment was very satisfactory for skin tightening in Asian facial skin. When compared with published literature from the United States, the results suggested that there might be race-related differences in the treatment parameters. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life in Chronic Pruritus: An Analysis Related to Disease Etiology, Clinical Skin Conditions and Itch Intensity.

    PubMed

    Warlich, Benjamin; Fritz, Fleur; Osada, Nani; Bruland, Philipp; Stumpf, Astrid; Schneider, Gudrun; Dugas, Martin; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Ständer, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown if health-related quality of life (HRQoL) differs between diseases associated with chronic pruritus (CP). To analyze HRQoL in relation to age, gender, skin lesions (primary vs. scratch-induced secondary) and itch intensity. Consecutive patients of our itch clinic were assessed with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). In 510 CP patients (282 females; median age, 61.4 years), DLQI scores and VAS values were highly correlated, irrespective of the type of skin lesion. Overall, women had a lower HRQoL compared to men (females: 10.7 ± 6.7, males: 8.9 ± 6.7), but female gender was only associated with worse quality of life in patients <65 years old. HRQoL impairment in CP is highly influenced by pruritus intensity but not to the visible skin lesion or underlying cause. With limitations to item bias, DLQI is a suitable instrument for estimating quality of life impairment by CP. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effect of a quality-controlled fermented nutraceutical on skin aging markers: An antioxidant-control, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    BERTUCCELLI, GIUSEPPE; ZERBINATI, NICOLA; MARCELLINO, MASSIMILIANO; NANDA KUMAR, NAVALPUR SHANMUGAM; HE, FANG; TSEPAKOLENKO, VLADIMIR; CERVI, JOSEPH; LORENZETTI, ALDO; MAROTTA, FRANCESCO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether oral supplementation with a fermented papaya preparation (FPP-treated group) or an antioxidant cocktail (antioxidant-control group, composed of 10 mg trans-resveratrol, 60 µg selenium, 10 mg vitamin E and 50 mg vitamin C) was able to improve the skin antioxidant capacity and the expression of key skin genes, while promoting skin antiaging effects. The study enrolled 60 healthy non-smoker males and females aged 40–65 years, all of whom showed clinical signs of skin aging. The subjects were randomly divided into two matched groups, and were administered FPP or antioxidant treatment of a 4.5 g/day sachet sublingually twice a day for 90 days in a double-blind fashion. The parameters investigated were: Skin surface, brown spots, skin evenness, skin moisturization, elasticity (face), redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) concentration, and the expression levels of key genes (outer forearm sample). As compared with the baseline (day 0) and antioxidant-control values, FPP-treated subjects showed a significant improvement in skin evenness, moisturization and elasticity. The two treatments improved the MDA and SOD skin concentrations, but only the FPP-treated group showed a higher SOD level and a significant NO increase, along with significant upregulation of acquaporin-3 and downregulation of the potentially pro-aging/carcinogenetic cyclophilin-A and CD147 genes (P<0.05). Progerin was unaffected in both treatment groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that orally-administered FPP showed a consistent biological and gene-regulatory improvement in the skin, as was also demonstrated in previous experimental and clinical trials testing other tissues, while common oral antioxidants had only a minor effect. PMID:26998011

  14. Facial dynamics and emotional expressions in facial aging treatments.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Thierry; Gassia, Véronique; Belhaouari, Lakhdar

    2015-03-01

    Facial expressions convey emotions that form the foundation of interpersonal relationships, and many of these emotions promote and regulate our social linkages. Hence, the facial aging symptomatological analysis and the treatment plan must of necessity include knowledge of the facial dynamics and the emotional expressions of the face. This approach aims to more closely meet patients' expectations of natural-looking results, by correcting age-related negative expressions while observing the emotional language of the face. This article will successively describe patients' expectations, the role of facial expressions in relational dynamics, the relationship between facial structures and facial expressions, and the way facial aging mimics negative expressions. Eventually, therapeutic implications for facial aging treatment will be addressed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

    2009-08-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two cases of sound-induced facial synkinesis (SFS) after facial nerve injury. As far as we know, this phenomenon has not been described in the English literature before. Patient A presented with right hemifacial palsy after lesion of the facial nerve due to skull base fracture. He reported involuntary muscle activity at the right corner of the mouth, specifically on hearing ringing keys. Patient B suffered from left hemifacial palsy following otitis media and developed involuntary muscle contraction in the facial musculature specifically on hearing clapping hands or a trumpet sound. Both patients were evaluated by means of video, audio and EMG analysis. Possible mechanisms in the pathophysiology of SFS are postulated and therapeutic options are discussed.

  16. History and current concepts in the analysis of facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Bashour, Mounir

    2006-09-01

    Facial attractiveness research has yielded many discoveries in the past 30 years, and facial cosmetic, plastic, and reconstructive surgeons should have a thorough understanding of these findings. Many of the recent studies were conducted by social, developmental, cognitive, and evolutionary psychologists, and although the findings have been published in the psychology literature, they have not been presented in a comprehensive manner appropriate to surgeons. The author reviews the findings of facial attractiveness research from antiquity to the present day and highlights and analyzes important concepts necessary for a thorough understanding of facial attractiveness. Four important cues emerge as being the most important determinants of attractiveness: averageness (prototypicality), sexual dimorphism, youthfulness, and symmetry. A surgeon planning facial cosmetic, plastic, or reconstructive surgery can potentially gain both profound insight and better quality surgical results by appreciating these findings.

  17. Capturing Physiology of Emotion along Facial Muscles: A Method of Distinguishing Feigned from Involuntary Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood Mehmood; Ward, Robert D.; Ingleby, Michael

    The ability to distinguish feigned from involuntary expressions of emotions could help in the investigation and treatment of neuropsychiatric and affective disorders and in the detection of malingering. This work investigates differences in emotion-specific patterns of thermal variations along the major facial muscles. Using experimental data extracted from 156 images, we attempted to classify patterns of emotion-specific thermal variations into neutral, and voluntary and involuntary expressions of positive and negative emotive states. Initial results suggest (i) each facial muscle exhibits a unique thermal response to various emotive states; (ii) the pattern of thermal variances along the facial muscles may assist in classifying voluntary and involuntary facial expressions; and (iii) facial skin temperature measurements along the major facial muscles may be used in automated emotion assessment.

  18. Facial preservation following extreme mummification: Shrunken heads.

    PubMed

    Houlton, Tobias M R; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2018-05-01

    Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction. Sixty-five human shrunken heads were assessed: 6 ceremonial, 36 commercial, and 23 ambiguous. Investigations included manual inspection, multi-detector computerised tomography, infrared reflectography, ultraviolet fluorescence and microscopic hair analysis. The mummification process disfigures the outer face, cheeks, nasal root and bridge form, including brow ridge, eyes, ears, mouth, and nose projection. Melanin depletion, epidermal degeneration, and any applied staining changes the natural skin complexion. Papillary and reticular dermis separation is possible. Normal hair structure (cuticle, cortex, medulla) is retained. Hair appears longer (unless cut) and more profuse following shrinkage. Significant features retained include skin defects, facial creases, hairlines and earlobe form. Hair conditions that only affect living scalps are preserved (e.g. nits, hair casts). Ear and nose cartilage helps to retain some morphological information. Commercial heads appear less distorted than ceremonial tsantsa, often presenting a definable eyebrow shape, vermillion lip shape, lip thickness (if mouth is open), philtrum form, and palpebral slit angle. Facial identification capabilities are considered limited, and only perceived possible for commercial heads. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of skin hydration evaluation sites and correlations among skin hydration, transepidermal water loss, SCORAD index, Nottingham Eczema Severity Score, and quality of life in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam-lun Ellis; Wong, Kin Yee; Leung, Ting-Fan; Chow, Chung-Mo; Ng, Pak-Cheung

    2008-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by dryness of the skin, pruritus and involvement of the skin flexures. Skin hydration (SH) and integrity, as measured by transepidermal water loss (TEWL), are important parameters for objectively quantifying AD research. To evaluate if sites in the forearm are equivalent to the antecubital fossa for standard SH and TEWL measurements; and to determine the correlations among these measurements and scores of disease severity and quality of life. We evaluated SH and TEWL under standardized conditions at three common measurement sites in the forearm (antecubital flexure, 2 cm below the antecubital flexure, mid-forearm), and determined the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score, Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS), and Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI). Significant correlations between clinical scores, SH, and TEWL were obtained at a site 2 cm below the antecubital fossa (r = -0.553, p < 0.001 for SH and SCORAD; r = 0.596, p < 0.001 for TEWL and SCORAD). SH and TEWL were also correlated with long-term severity of AD as measured by NESS (r = -0.494, p = 0.001 for SH; r = 0.430, p = 0.004 for TEWL), while TEWL was significantly correlated with CDLQI (r = 0.323, p = 0.035). Overall, similar significant correlations were obtained at the mid-forearm, but less so at the antecubital fossa. In AD research, three sites on the forearm appear to be convenient for determination of SH and TEWL. This is the first report to demonstrate that significant correlations are obtained among acute and chronic scores of AD disease severity, quality of life, and the bioengineering parameters.

  20. The Impact of Skin Problems on the Quality of Life in Patients Treated with Anticancer Agents: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaewon; Lim, Jin; Park, Jong Seo; Kim, Miso; Kim, Tae-Yong; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Keam, Bhumsuk; Han, Sae-Won; Mun, Je-Ho; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Jo, Seong Jin

    2017-12-14

    Patients treated with anticancer agents often experience a variety of treatment-related skin problems, which can impair their quality of life. In this cross-sectional study, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and clinical information were evaluated in patients under active anticancer treatment using a questionnaire survey and their medical records review. Of 375 evaluated subjects with anticancer therapy, 136 (36.27%) and 114 (30.40%) were treated for breast cancer and colorectal cancer, respectively. We found that women, breast cancer, targeted agent use, and longer duration of anticancer therapy were associated with higher dermatology-specific QoL distraction. In addition, itching, dry skin, easy bruising, pigmentation, papulopustules on face, periungual inflammation, nail changes, palmoplantar lesions were associated with significantly higher DLQI scores. Periungual inflammation and palmoplantar lesions scored the highest DLQI. We believe our findings can be helpful to clinicians in counseling and managing the patients undergoing anticancer therapy.

  1. Fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing of rhytides and photoaged skin--a prospective clinical study on patient expectation and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Elisabeth; Meierhöfer, Julia; Koller, Michael; Zeman, Florian; Groesser, Leopold; Karrer, Sigrid; Hohenleutner, Ulrich; Landthaler, Michael; Hohenleutner, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    Fractional CO2 -laser resurfacing is increasingly used for treating rhytides and photoaged skin because of its favorable benefit-risk ratio. A key outcome measure and treatment goal in aesthetic laser therapy is patient satisfaction. However, few data are available on patient-reported outcomes after fractional ablative skin-resurfacing. To compare patient expectations before and patient satisfaction after three fractional CO2 -laser treatments and to correlate objectively measured wrinkle reduction with patient satisfaction after treatment. We investigated patient expectation and satisfaction using a 14-item questionnaire in 24 female patients. We assessed the skin-related quality of life and patient satisfaction with skin appearance. We profilometrically measured wrinkle size in four facial areas before and three months after treatment and investigated correlations between wrinkle reduction and patient satisfaction. The high patient expectations before treatment (ceiling effect) were actually slightly exceeded. The average score of 14 items delineating patient satisfaction with laser treatment was higher (4.64 ± 0.82; n = 24) than the respective expectations before treatment (4.43 ± 0.88; n = 24). Skin-related quality of life and patient satisfaction with skin appearance had significantly improved after the last treatment. Patients dissatisfied with their skin appearance before treatment (mean 2.1 ± 1.5; evaluated on a scale ranging from 0-6) were satisfied (mean 5.1 ± 1.2) (P < 0.001) with skin appearance at the follow-up. Patient satisfaction with skin appearance was not correlated to the profilometrically measured reduction of wrinkle size of any facial area. Our results show high patient satisfaction with ablative fractional skin resurfacing, also regarding improved self-esteem and self-satisfaction despite high pre-treatment expectations. Skin-specific quality of life had significantly improved. Thus, this treatment modality

  2. Compensation procedures for facial asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Kozol, F

    1995-01-01

    Why would a patient complain of "fuzzy and uncomfortable" vision with a variety of glasses? Perhaps because the practitioner has failed to take facial asymmetry into account. Methods of measuring facial asymmetry and optically correcting for it are discussed.

  3. Clinical characteristics of patients with facial psoriasis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Syed Nong Chek, Sharifah Rosniza; Robinson, Suganthy; Mohd Affandi, Azura; Baharum, Nurakmal

    2016-10-01

    Psoriasis involving the face is visible and can cause considerable emotional distress to patients. Its presence may also confer a poorer prognosis for the patient. This study sought to evaluate the characteristics of facial psoriasis in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study conducted using data from the Malaysian Psoriasis Registry from 2007 to 2011. Specific risk factors, i.e., age, age of onset, gender, duration of disease, obesity group, body surface area, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), family history of psoriasis, nail involvement, psoriatic arthritis, phototherapy, systemic therapy, clinic visit, days of work/school, and hospital admission due to psoriasis in the last 6 months were analyzed. A total of 48.4% of patients had facial psoriasis. Variables significantly associated with facial psoriasis are younger age, younger age of onset of psoriasis of ≤ 40 years, male, severity of psoriasis involving >10% of the body surface area, higher DLQI of >10, nail involvement, and history of hospitalization due to psoriasis. This study found that facial psoriasis is not as rare as previously thought. Ambient ultraviolet light, sebum, and contact with chemicals from facial products may reduce the severity of facial psoriasis, but these factors do not reduce the prevalence of facial psoriasis. The association with younger age, younger age of onset, higher percentage of body surface area involvement, higher DLQI of > 10, nail involvement, and hospitalization due to psoriasis support the notion that facial psoriasis is a marker of severe disease. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Investigation into the use of photoanthropometry in facial image comparison.

    PubMed

    Moreton, Reuben; Morley, Johanna

    2011-10-10

    Photoanthropometry is a metric based facial image comparison technique. Measurements of the face are taken from an image using predetermined facial landmarks. Measurements are then converted to proportionality indices (PIs) and compared to PIs from another facial image. Photoanthropometry has been presented as a facial image comparison technique in UK courts for over 15 years. It is generally accepted that extrinsic factors (e.g. orientation of the head, camera angle and distance from the camera) can cause discrepancies in anthropometric measurements of the face from photographs. However there has been limited empirical research into quantifying the influence of such variables. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of photoanthropometric measurements between different images of the same individual taken with different angulations of the camera. The study examined the facial measurements of 25 individuals from high resolution photographs, taken at different horizontal and vertical camera angles in a controlled environment. Results show that the degree of variability in facial measurements of the same individual due to variations in camera angle can be as great as the variability of facial measurements between different individuals. Results suggest that photoanthropometric facial comparison, as it is currently practiced, is unsuitable for elimination purposes. Preliminary investigations into the effects of distance from camera and image resolution in poor quality images suggest that such images are not an accurate representation of an individuals face, however further work is required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Botulinum toxin in the management of facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Cabin, Jonathan A; Massry, Guy G; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2015-08-01

    Complete flaccid facial paralysis, as well as the synkinetic and hyperkinetic sequelae of partial recovery, has significant impact on quality of life. Patients suffer from functional deficiencies, cosmetic deformity, discomfort and social consequences leading to emotional distress. Despite an extensive and sophisticated array of available interventions for facial reanimation, most patients have persistent issues that require consistent follow-up. In long-term management, botulinum toxin (BT) injection remains a critical tool in the treatment of the facial paralysis patient, particularly in the case of synkinesis, hyperkinesis and imbalance. We review the recent scientific literature and highlight key principles and developments in the use of BT in the management of facial paralysis, including less common applications for acute facial paralysis, hyperlacrimation and pseudoptosis. We reviewed the literature for the latest advances in the use of BT in facial paralysis, including applications and technique, as well as measurement tools and adjunct exercises. We also share our experience in treating our own patient population. BT continues to be a well tolerated and effective tool in the long-term management of facial paralysis, specifically in treating synkinesis, imbalance and hyperkinesis, as well as hyperlacrimation and pseudoptosis. Consistent measurement tools and adjunct neuromuscular retraining are crucial in the successful deployment of BT. Controversy exists as to whether BT should be used to manage facial paralysis during the acute phase, and whether BT application to the nonparalyzed face can improve long-term recovery in the paralyzed side.

  6. Skin toxicity and quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer during first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI treatment in a single-arm phase II study.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Josef; Karthaus, Meinolf; Mineur, Laurent; Greil, Richard; Letocha, Henry; Hofheinz, Ralf; Fernebro, Eva; Gamelin, Erick; Baños, Ana; Köhne, Claus-Henning

    2012-09-29

    Integument-related toxicities are common during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy. Panitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the EGFR that significantly improves progression-free survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have wild-type (WT) KRAS tumours. Primary efficacy and tolerability results from a phase II single-arm study of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have been reported. Here we report additional descriptive tolerability and quality of life data from this trial. Integument-related toxicities and quality of life were analysed; toxicities were graded using modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to and duration of first integument-related toxicity were prepared. Quality of life was measured using EuroQoL EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Best overall response was analysed by skin toxicity grade and baseline quality of life. Change in quality of life was analysed by skin toxicity severity. 154 patients were enrolled (WT KRAS n = 86; mutant KRAS n = 59); most (98%) experienced integument-related toxicities (most commonly rash [42%], dry skin [40%] and acne [36%]). Median time to first integument-related toxicity was 8 days; median duration was 334 days. Overall, proportionally more patients with grade 2+ skin toxicity responded (56%) compared with those with grade 0/1 (29%). Mean overall EQ-5D health state index scores (0.81 vs. 0.78), health rating scores (72.5 vs. 71.0) and QLQ-C30 global health status scores (65.8 vs. 66.7) were comparable at baseline vs. safety follow-up (8 weeks after completion), respectively and appeared unaffected by skin toxicity severity. First-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI has acceptable tolerability and appears to have little impact on quality of life, despite the high incidence of integument-related toxicity. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00508404.

  7. Computer Recognition of Facial Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-01

    facial recognition 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side It necessary and Identify by block number) A system for the recognition of human faces from...21 2.6 Classification Algorithms ........... ... 32 III FACIAL RECOGNITION AND AUTOMATIC TRAINING . . . 37 3.1 Facial Profile Recognition...provide a fair test of the classification system. The work of Goldstein, Harmon, and Lesk [81 indicates, however, that for facial recognition , a ten class

  8. Managing the Pediatric Facial Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Patrick; Kaufman, Yoav; Hollier, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Facial fracture management is often complex and demanding, particularly within the pediatric population. Although facial fractures in this group are uncommon relative to their incidence in adult counterparts, a thorough understanding of issues relevant to pediatric facial fracture management is critical to optimal long-term success. Here, we discuss several issues germane to pediatric facial fractures and review significant factors in their evaluation, diagnosis, and management. PMID:22110800

  9. Radiofrequency facial rejuvenation: evidence-based effect.

    PubMed

    el-Domyati, Moetaz; el-Ammawi, Tarek S; Medhat, Walid; Moawad, Osama; Brennan, Donna; Mahoney, My G; Uitto, Jouni

    2011-03-01

    Multiple therapies involving ablative and nonablative techniques have been developed for rejuvenation of photodamaged skin. Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) is emerging as a gentler, nonablative skin-tightening device that delivers uniform heat to the dermis at a controlled depth. We evaluated the clinical effects and objectively quantified the histologic changes of the nonablative RF device in the treatment of photoaging. Six individuals of Fitzpatrick skin type III to IV and Glogau class I to II wrinkles were subjected to 3 months of treatment (6 sessions at 2-week intervals). Standard photographs and skin biopsy specimens were obtained at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after the start of treatment. We performed quantitative evaluation of total elastin, collagen types I and III, and newly synthesized collagen using computerized histometric and immunohistochemical techniques. Blinded photographs were independently scored for wrinkle improvement. RF produced noticeable clinical results, with high satisfaction and corresponding facial skin improvement. Compared with the baseline, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean of collagen types I and III, and newly synthesized collagen, while the mean of total elastin was significantly decreased, at the end of treatment and 3 months posttreatment. A limitation of this study is the small number of patients, yet the results show a significant improvement. Although the results may not be as impressive as those obtained by ablative treatments, RF is a promising treatment option for photoaging with fewer side effects and downtime. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. BMI and WHR Are Reflected in Female Facial Shape and Texture: A Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christine; Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3–10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception. PMID:28052103

  11. BMI and WHR Are Reflected in Female Facial Shape and Texture: A Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Christine; Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3-10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception.

  12. Cues of Fatigue: Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Facial Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Design: Experimental laboratory study. Setting: Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Measurements: Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. Results: The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life. Citation: Sundelin T; Lekander M; Kecklund G; Van Someren EJW; Olsson A; Axelsson J. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1355-1360. PMID:23997369

  13. Facial gunshot wound debridement: debridement of facial soft tissue gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Shvyrkov, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Over the period 1981-1985 the author treated 1486 patients with facial gunshot wounds sustained in combat in Afghanistan. In the last quarter of 20th century, more powerful and destructive weapons such as M-16 rifles, AK-47 and Kalashnikov submachine guns, became available and a new approach to gunshot wound debridement is required. Modern surgeons have little experience in treatment of such wounds because of rare contact with similar pathology. This article is intended to explore modern wound debridement. The management of 502 isolated soft tissue injuries is presented. Existing principles recommend the sparing of damaged tissues. The author's experience was that tissue sparing lead to a high rate of complications (47.6%). Radical primary surgical debridement (RPSD) of wounds was then adopted with radical excision of necrotic non-viable wound margins containing infection to the point of active capillary bleeding and immediate primary wound closure. After radical debridement wound infection and breakdown decreased by a factor of 10. Plastic operations with local and remote soft tissue were made on 14, 7% of the wounded. Only 0.7% patients required discharge from the army due to facial muscle paralysis and/or facial skin impregnation with particles of gunpowder from mine explosions. Gunshot face wound; modern debridement. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  15. Reconstruction of Complex Facial Defects Using Cervical Expanded Flap Prefabricated by Temporoparietal Fascia Flap.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Qinghua; Jiang, Haiyue; Liu, Ge; Huang, Wanlu; Dong, Weiwei

    2015-09-01

    Reconstruction of complex facial defects using cervical expanded flap prefabricated by temporoparietal fascia flap. Complex facial defects are required to restore not only function but also aesthetic appearance, so it is vital challenge for plastic surgeons. Skin grafts and traditional flap transfer cannot meet the reconstructive requirements of color and texture with recipient. The purpose of this sturdy is to create an expanded prefabricated temporoparietal fascia flap to repair complex facial defects. Two patients suffered severe burns on the face underwent complex facial resurfacing with prefabricated cervical flap. The vasculature of prefabricated flap, including the superficial temporal vessel and surrounding fascia, was used as the vascular carrier. The temporoparietal fascia flap was sutured underneath the cervical subcutaneous tissue, and expansion was begun in postoperative 1 week. After 4 to 6 months of expansion, the expander was removed, facial scars were excised, and cervical prefabricated flap was elevated and transferred to repair the complex facial defects. Two complex facial defects were repaired successfully by prefabricated temporoparietal fascia flap, and prefabricated flaps survived completely. On account of donor site's skin was thinner and expanded too fast, 1 expanded skin flap was rupture during expansion, but necrosis was not occurred after the 2nd operation. Venous congestion was observed in 1 patient, but after dressing, flap necrosis was not happened. Donor site was closed primarily. Postoperative follow-up 6 months, the color, texture of prefabricated flap was well-matched with facial skin. This method of expanded prefabricated flap may provide a reliable solution to the complex facial resurfacing.

  16. Nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lask, Gary P.; Lee, Patrick K.; Seyfzadeh, Manouchehr; Nelson, J. Stuart; Milner, Thomas E.; Anvari, Bahman; Dave, Digant P.; Geronemus, Roy G.; Bernstein, Leonard J.; Mittelman, Harry; Ridener, Laurie A.; Coulson, Walter F.; Sand, Bruce; Baumgarder, Jon; Hennings, David R.; Menefee, Richard F.; Berry, Michael J.

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the New Star Model 130 neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser system for nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides (e.g., periorbital wrinkles). Facial rhytides are treated with 1.32 micrometer wavelength laser light delivered through a fiberoptic handpiece into a 5 mm diameter spot using three 300 microsecond duration pulses at 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency and pulse radiant exposures extending up to 12 J/cm2. Dynamic cooling is used to cool the epidermis selectively prior to laser treatment; animal histology experiments confirm that dynamic cooling combined with nonablative laser heating protects the epidermis and selectively injures the dermis. In the human clinical study, immediately post-treatment, treated sites exhibit mild erythema and, in a few cases, edema or small blisters. There are no long-term complications such as marked dyspigmentation and persistent erythema that are commonly observed following ablative laser skin resurfacing. Preliminary results indicate that the severity of facial rhytides has been reduced, but long-term follow-up examinations are needed to quantify the reduction. The mechanism of action of this nonablative laser treatment modality may involve dermal wound healing that leads to long- term synthesis of new collagen and extracellular matrix material.

  17. Recognizing Facial Slivers.

    PubMed

    Gilad-Gutnick, Sharon; Harmatz, Elia Samuel; Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Yovel, Galit; Sinha, Pawan

    2018-07-01

    We report here an unexpectedly robust ability of healthy human individuals ( n = 40) to recognize extremely distorted needle-like facial images, challenging the well-entrenched notion that veridical spatial configuration is necessary for extracting facial identity. In face identification tasks of parametrically compressed internal and external features, we found that the sum of performances on each cue falls significantly short of performance on full faces, despite the equal visual information available from both measures (with full faces essentially being a superposition of internal and external features). We hypothesize that this large deficit stems from the use of positional information about how the internal features are positioned relative to the external features. To test this, we systematically changed the relations between internal and external features and found preferential encoding of vertical but not horizontal spatial relationships in facial representations ( n = 20). Finally, we employ magnetoencephalography imaging ( n = 20) to demonstrate a close mapping between the behavioral psychometric curve and the amplitude of the M250 face familiarity, but not M170 face-sensitive evoked response field component, providing evidence that the M250 can be modulated by faces that are perceptually identifiable, irrespective of extreme distortions to the face's veridical configuration. We theorize that the tolerance to compressive distortions has evolved from the need to recognize faces across varying viewpoints. Our findings help clarify the important, but poorly defined, concept of facial configuration and also enable an association between behavioral performance and previously reported neural correlates of face perception.

  18. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, cryotherapy is used to ...

  19. Skin abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  20. [Effects of a Facial Muscle Exercise Program including Facial Massage for Patients with Facial Palsy].

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyoung Ju; Shin, Sung Hee

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a facial muscle exercise program including facial massage on the facial muscle function, subjective symptoms related to paralysis and depression in patients with facial palsy. This study was a quasi-experimental research with a non-equivalent control group non-synchronized design. Participants were 70 patients with facial palsy (experimental group 35, control group 35). For the experimental group, the facial muscular exercise program including facial massage was performed 20 minutes a day, 3 times a week for two weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ²-test, Fisher's exact test and independent sample t-test with the SPSS 18.0 program. Facial muscular function of the experimental group improved significantly compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in symptoms related to paralysis between the experimental group and control group. The level of depression in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group. Results suggest that a facial muscle exercise program including facial massage is an effective nursing intervention to improve facial muscle function and decrease depression in patients with facial palsy.

  1. Principles and Planning in Nasal and Facial Reconstruction: Making a Normal Face.

    PubMed

    Menick, Frederick J

    2016-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the rationale and value of principles of facial reconstruction in the complex patient. 2. Understand the importance of diagnosis and planning. 3. Appreciate the value of surgical staging. 4. Modify tissues to the requirements of the defect. 5. Know how to treat ischemic cover and lining complications. 6. Learn methods of late revision. It is easy to be overwhelmed by a complex defect. What to do? How? When? In what order? Success is determined by careful planning, guided by principles. The aesthetic and anatomical deficiencies must be identified. Then, what is absent, both visually and anatomically, and what is missing must be determined. What are the priorities? What is the best timing for each stage? What are the available options and what will be the likely result? Should I choose another option? How can the surgeon maintain vascularity, transfer tissue, and improve tissue quality and contour? What are potential backup salvage maneuvers? Sound surgical principles based on the contributions of Gillies and Millard provide strategic instructions that help the surgeon "make sense" of a complex problem. They provide coordinated rules that clarify the diagnosis, planning, timing, and stages of repair. These should be combined with a regional unit approach to facial repair that provides tactical rules to establish the skin quality, border outline, and three-dimensional shape of the normal face.

  2. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 2: Physician-Directed—Neuromodulators and Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Ryan M.; Louis, Matthew R.; Cox, Joshua A.; Mohan, Kriti; Lee, Edward I.; Nigro, Marjory G.

    2016-01-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin as well as rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but patients are in control with this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the second in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. Here the authors discuss neuromodulators and fillers in detail, focusing on indications for use, techniques, and common side effects. PMID:27478422

  3. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 3: Physician-Directed—Lasers, Chemical Peels, and Other Noninvasive Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Meaike, Jesse D.; Agrawal, Nikhil; Chang, Daniel; Lee, Edward I.; Nigro, Marjory G.

    2016-01-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin and rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but patients are in control with this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the last in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. Here the authors review the mechanism, indications, and possible complications of lasers, chemical peels, and other commonly used noninvasive modalities. PMID:27478423

  4. Facial diplegia: a clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Debaprasad; Roy, Mukut; Bhattacharyya, Amrit K

    2013-06-01

    Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare clinical entity and presents as a diagnostic challenge. Unlike its unilateral counterpart facial diplegia is seldom secondary to Bell's palsy. Occurring at a frequency of 0.3% to 2% of all facial palsies it often indicates ominous medical conditions. Guillian-Barre syndrome needs to be considered as a differential in all given cases of facial diplegia where timely treatment would be rewarding. Here a case of bilateral facial palsy due to Guillian-Barre syndrome with atypical presentation is reported.

  5. Are dark-skinned people really protected from ultraviolet radiation?

    PubMed

    Young, A L; Levy, S; Nighland, M; Grossman, R; Silvers, D N; Celebi, J T

    2010-06-01

    Premature ageing of the skin (photoageing) results from the action of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on skin. One of the histopathological findings of photoageing is the presence of solar elastosis in the dermis. Skin pigmentation is protective against UVR. To evaluate the presence of solar elastosis in dark-skinned people. Normal facial skin biopsies of 147 dark-skinned and 140 light-skinned people were examined histopathologically for solar elastosis. The degree of solar elastosis was graded on a five-point scale by a panel of dermatopathologists blinded to patient demographics. There were 112 of 140 (80%) light-skinned and 50 of 147 (34%) dark-skinned patients with high-grade solar elastosis. In the dark-skinned patient group, high-grade solar elastosis was seen in 29 of 61 (47.5%) Hispanic and 5 of 49 (10.2%) African American subjects. Dark-skinned people are not completely protected from the effects of UVR.

  6. Dermabrasion and staged excision of facial lesions in a neurofibromatosis case for improvement of facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Karabekmez, Furkan Erol; Duymaz, Ahmet; Karacor, Zeynep

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis may present with different skin lesions. Disfiguring lesions on the face might be challenging for the surgeon or clinician to correct and may have adverse effects on patients' social lives, especially in young women. To present the dermabrasion technique combined with serial excisions of a deeper accompanying lesion to treat superficial facial lesions in a young neurofibromatosis patient. Dermabrasion was applied to superficial lesions on the face, and staged excision was applied to the deeper lesion located on the forehead. We obtained high patient satisfaction with the result. The deep lesion was excised totally, and superficial lesions were decreased with dermabrasion. Dermabrasion may become a good alternative in cases of neurofibromatosis with superficial facial lesions.

  7. [A case of skin autograft for skin ulcers in ichthyosis].

    PubMed

    Li, Shiwei; Yang, Xiaodong; Liu, Lijun; Tang, Xueyang

    2017-10-28

    Ichthyosis refers to a group of skin diseases characterized by abnormal keratinization of the epidermis, resulting in dryness, roughness and scale of the skin. A girl with ichthyosis, who presented with skin ulcers and infection of the right dorsal foot, was admitted to our department. An autologous razor-thin skin grafting procedure was performed to repair the skin ulcers after debridement and vacuum sealing drain. After 8 months of follow-up, both the donor and recipient site healed well and there were no newly formed ulcers or infections. Although the skin quality of ichthyosis is poor, the lesion area can still be used as donor or recipient cite.

  8. Use of Facial Recognition Software to Identify Disaster Victims With Facial Injuries.

    PubMed

    Broach, John; Yong, Rothsovann; Manuell, Mary-Elise; Nichols, Constance

    2017-10-01

    After large-scale disasters, victim identification frequently presents a challenge and a priority for responders attempting to reunite families and ensure proper identification of deceased persons. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether currently commercially available facial recognition software can successfully identify disaster victims with facial injuries. Photos of 106 people were taken before and after application of moulage designed to simulate traumatic facial injuries. These photos as well as photos from volunteers' personal photo collections were analyzed by using facial recognition software to determine whether this technology could accurately identify a person with facial injuries. The study results suggest that a responder could expect to get a correct match between submitted photos and photos of injured patients between 39% and 45% of the time and a much higher percentage of correct returns if submitted photos were of optimal quality with percentages correct exceeding 90% in most situations. The present results suggest that the use of this software would provide significant benefit to responders. Although a correct result was returned only 40% of the time, this would still likely represent a benefit for a responder trying to identify hundreds or thousands of victims. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:568-572).

  9. Facial appearance affects science communication.

    PubMed

    Gheorghiu, Ana I; Callan, Mitchell J; Skylark, William J

    2017-06-06

    First impressions based on facial appearance predict many important social outcomes. We investigated whether such impressions also influence the communication of scientific findings to lay audiences, a process that shapes public beliefs, opinion, and policy. First, we investigated the traits that engender interest in a scientist's work, and those that create the impression of a "good scientist" who does high-quality research. Apparent competence and morality were positively related to both interest and quality judgments, whereas attractiveness boosted interest but decreased perceived quality. Next, we had members of the public choose real science news stories to read or watch and found that people were more likely to choose items that were paired with "interesting-looking" scientists, especially when selecting video-based communications. Finally, we had people read real science news items and found that the research was judged to be of higher quality when paired with researchers who look like "good scientists." Our findings offer insights into the social psychology of science, and indicate a source of bias in the dissemination of scientific findings to broader society.

  10. Facial appearance affects science communication

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghiu, Ana I.; Callan, Mitchell J.; Skylark, William J.

    2017-01-01

    First impressions based on facial appearance predict many important social outcomes. We investigated whether such impressions also influence the communication of scientific findings to lay audiences, a process that shapes public beliefs, opinion, and policy. First, we investigated the traits that engender interest in a scientist’s work, and those that create the impression of a “good scientist” who does high-quality research. Apparent competence and morality were positively related to both interest and quality judgments, whereas attractiveness boosted interest but decreased perceived quality. Next, we had members of the public choose real science news stories to read or watch and found that people were more likely to choose items that were paired with “interesting-looking” scientists, especially when selecting video-based communications. Finally, we had people read real science news items and found that the research was judged to be of higher quality when paired with researchers who look like “good scientists.” Our findings offer insights into the social psychology of science, and indicate a source of bias in the dissemination of scientific findings to broader society. PMID:28533389

  11. Skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Facial contrast is a cue for perceiving health from the face.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard; Porcheron, Aurélie; Sweda, Jennifer R; Jones, Alex L; Mauger, Emmanuelle; Morizot, Frederique

    2016-09-01

    How healthy someone appears has important social consequences. Yet the visual cues that determine perceived health remain poorly understood. Here we report evidence that facial contrast-the luminance and color contrast between internal facial features and the surrounding skin-is a cue for the perception of health from the face. Facial contrast was measured from a large sample of Caucasian female faces, and was found to predict ratings of perceived health. Most aspects of facial contrast were positively related to perceived health, meaning that faces with higher facial contrast appeared healthier. In 2 subsequent experiments, we manipulated facial contrast and found that participants perceived faces with increased facial contrast as appearing healthier than faces with decreased facial contrast. These results support the idea that facial contrast is a cue for perceived health. This finding adds to the growing knowledge about perceived health from the face, and helps to ground our understanding of perceived health in terms of lower-level perceptual features such as contrast. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Facial Asymmetry-Based Age Group Estimation: Role in Recognizing Age-Separated Face Images.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Taj, Imtiaz Ahmad; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Ratyal, Naeem Iqbal

    2018-04-23

    Face recognition aims to establish the identity of a person based on facial characteristics. On the other hand, age group estimation is the automatic calculation of an individual's age range based on facial features. Recognizing age-separated face images is still a challenging research problem due to complex aging processes involving different types of facial tissues, skin, fat, muscles, and bones. Certain holistic and local facial features are used to recognize age-separated face images. However, most of the existing methods recognize face images without incorporating the knowledge learned from age group estimation. In this paper, we propose an age-assisted face recognition approach to handle aging variations. Inspired by the observation that facial asymmetry is an age-dependent intrinsic facial feature, we first use asymmetric facial dimensions to estimate the age group of a given face image. Deeply learned asymmetric facial features are then extracted for face recognition using a deep convolutional neural network (dCNN). Finally, we integrate the knowledge learned from the age group estimation into the face recognition algorithm using the same dCNN. This integration results in a significant improvement in the overall performance compared to using the face recognition algorithm alone. The experimental results on two large facial aging datasets, the MORPH and FERET sets, show that the proposed age group estimation based on the face recognition approach yields superior performance compared to some existing state-of-the-art methods. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Radiofrequency for the treatment of skin laxity: mith or truth*

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Angélica Rodrigues; Soares, Viviane Pinheiro Campos; da Silva, Fernanda Souza; Moreira, Tatiane da Silva

    2015-01-01

    The nonablative radiofrequency is a procedure commonly used for the treatment of skin laxity from an increase in tissue temperature. The goal is to induce thermal damage to thus stimulate neocollagenesis in deep layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. However, many of these devices haven't been tested and their parameters are still not accepted by the scientific community. Because of this, it is necessary to review the literature regarding the physiological effects and parameters for application of radiofrequency and methodological quality and level of evidence of studies. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE, PEDro, SciELO, PubMed, LILACS and CAPES and experimental studies in humans, which used radiofrequency devices as treatment for facial or body laxity, were selected. The results showed that the main physiological effect is to stimulate collagen synthesis. There was no homogeneity between studies in relation to most of the parameters used and the methodological quality of studies and level of evidence for using radiofrequency are low. This fact complicates the determination of effective parameters for clinical use of this device in the treatment of skin laxity. The analyzed studies suggest that radiofrequency is effective, however the physiological mechanisms and the required parameters are not clear in the literature. PMID:26560216

  15. Viewing distance matter to perceived intensity of facial expressions

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardsson, Andreas; Högman, Lennart; Fischer, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    In our daily perception of facial expressions, we depend on an ability to generalize across the varied distances at which they may appear. This is important to how we interpret the quality and the intensity of the expression. Previous research has not investigated whether this so called perceptual constancy also applies to the experienced intensity of facial expressions. Using a psychophysical measure (Borg CR100 scale) the present study aimed to further investigate perceptual constancy of happy and angry facial expressions at varied sizes, which is a proxy for varying viewing distances. Seventy-one (42 females) participants rated the intensity and valence of facial expressions varying in distance and intensity. The results demonstrated that the perceived intensity (PI) of the emotional facial expression was dependent on the distance of the face and the person perceiving it. An interaction effect was noted, indicating that close-up faces are perceived as more intense than faces at a distance and that this effect is stronger the more intense the facial expression truly is. The present study raises considerations regarding constancy of the PI of happy and angry facial expressions at varied distances. PMID:26191035

  16. Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

  17. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J W; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Experimental laboratory study. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01). The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life.

  18. MRI-based finite element modeling of facial mimics: a case study on the paired zygomaticus major muscles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ang-Xiao; Dakpé, Stéphanie; Dao, Tien Tuan; Pouletaut, Philippe; Rachik, Mohamed; Ho Ba Tho, Marie Christine

    2017-07-01

    Finite element simulation of facial mimics provides objective indicators about soft tissue functions for improving diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of facial disorders. There is a lack of in vivo experimental data for model development and validation. In this study, the contribution of the paired Zygomaticus Major (ZM) muscle contraction on the facial mimics was investigated using in vivo experimental data derived from MRI. Maximal relative differences of 7.7% and 37% were noted between MRI-based measurements and numerical outcomes for ZM and skin deformation behaviors respectively. This study opens a new direction to simulate facial mimics with in vivo data.

  19. Self-management interventions for skin care in people with a spinal cord injury: part 2-a systematic review of use of theory and quality of intervention reporting.

    PubMed

    Baron, Justine S; Sullivan, Katrina J; Swaine, Jillian M; Aspinall, Arlene; Jaglal, Susan; Presseau, Justin; Wolfe, Dalton; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2018-05-25

    Systematic review. To examine use of theory and quality of reporting in skin care self-management interventions for people with SCI. International. The Theory Coding Scheme (TCS) and the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist were applied by two independent researchers to 17 interventions identified in a systematic review of self-management interventions for skin care in people with SCI. Six (35%) of the 17 interventions reviewed were reported to have a theoretical basis. Theories used included three of the most commonly featured in health behavior research (the Health Belief Model, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Transtheoretical Model). In these six interventions, theory was used to design content but not to select participants or tailor strategies. None of the interventions were used to test theories in the SCI population, or to propose theoretical refinements. Reporting quality was found to vary by TIDieR item, with 6-100% of interventions including recommended information. Information on two intervention fidelity items was missing in 53 and 82% of descriptions. Use of theory and reporting quality in SCI self-management research remains suboptimal, potentially slowing down advancements in this area of research. Rehabilitation researchers should direct their efforts toward improving these practices to help build a science of SCI self-management that is cumulative and reproducible by clinicians, scientists, and policy makers. This work was funded through a postdoctoral fellowship awarded to the first author by the Rick Hansen Institute.

  20. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Mohd Noor, Nor Farid; Basri, Rehana; Yew, Tan Fo; Wen, Tay Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18-25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects' evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05) but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1%) were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5%) short and 81 (28.3%) long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population.

  1. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18–25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects’ evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05) but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1%) were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5%) short and 81 (28.3%) long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. In conclusion: 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population. PMID:26562655

  2. Dissociation of sad facial expressions and autonomic nervous system responding in boys with disruptive behavior disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Penny; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Williams, Bailey

    2009-01-01

    Although deficiencies in emotional responding have been linked to externalizing behaviors in children, little is known about how discrete response systems (e.g., expressive, physiological) are coordinated during emotional challenge among these youth. We examined time-linked correspondence of sad facial expressions and autonomic reactivity during an empathy-eliciting task among boys with disruptive behavior disorders (n = 31) and controls (n = 23). For controls, sad facial expressions were associated with reduced sympathetic (lower skin conductance level, lengthened cardiac preejection period [PEP]) and increased parasympathetic (higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) activity. In contrast, no correspondence between facial expressions and autonomic reactivity was observed among boys with conduct problems. Furthermore, low correspondence between facial expressions and PEP predicted externalizing symptom severity, whereas low correspondence between facial expressions and RSA predicted internalizing symptom severity. PMID:17868261

  3. In what sense 'familiar'? Examining experiential differences within pathologies of facial recognition.

    PubMed

    Young, Garry

    2009-09-01

    Explanations of Capgras delusion and prosopagnosia typically incorporate a dual-route approach to facial recognition in which a deficit in overt or covert processing in one condition is mirror-reversed in the other. Despite this double dissociation, experiences of either patient-group are often reported in the same way--as lacking a sense of familiarity toward familiar faces. In this paper, deficits in the facial processing of these patients are compared to other facial recognition pathologies, and their experiential characteristics mapped onto the dual-route model in order to provide a less ambiguous link between facial processing and experiential content. The paper concludes that the experiential states of Capgras delusion, prosopagnosia, and related facial pathologies are quite distinct, and that this descriptive distinctiveness finds explanatory equivalence at the level of anatomical and functional disruption within the face recognition system. The role of skin conductance response (SCR) as a measure of 'familiarity' is also clarified.

  4. Limbic and prefrontal responses to facial emotion expressions in depersonalization.

    PubMed

    Lemche, Erwin; Surguladze, Simon A; Giampietro, Vincent P; Anilkumar, Ananthapadmanabha; Brammer, Michael J; Sierra, Mauricio; Chitnis, Xavier; Williams, Steven C R; Gasston, David; Joraschky, Peter; David, Anthony S; Phillips, Mary L

    2007-03-26

    Depersonalization disorder, characterized by emotional detachment, has been associated with increased prefrontal cortical and decreased autonomic activity to emotional stimuli. Event-related fMRI with simultaneous measurements of skin conductance levels occurred in nine depersonalization disorder patients and 12 normal controls to neutral, mild and intense happy and sad facial expressions. Patients, but not controls, showed decreases in subcortical limbic activity to increasingly intense happy and sad facial expressions, respectively. For both happy and sad expressions, negative correlations between skin conductance measures in bilateral dorsal prefrontal cortices occurred only in depersonalization disorder patients. Abnormal decreases in limbic activity to increasingly intense emotional expressions, and increases in dorsal prefrontal cortical activity to emotionally arousing stimuli may underlie the emotional detachment of depersonalization disorder.

  5. Facial disability index (FDI): Adaptation to Spanish, reliability and validity

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cardero, Eduardo; Cayuela, Aurelio; Acosta-Feria, Manuel; Gutierrez-Perez, Jose-Luis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To adapt to Spanish the facial disability index (FDI) described by VanSwearingen and Brach in 1995 and to assess its reliability and validity in patients with facial nerve paresis after parotidectomy. Study Design: The present study was conducted in two different stages: a) cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire and b) cross-sectional study of a control group of 79 Spanish-speaking patients who suffered facial paresis after superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. The cross-cultural adaptation process comprised the following stages: (I) initial translation, (II) synthesis of the translated document, (III) retro-translation, (IV) review by a board of experts, (V) pilot study of the pre-final draft and (VI) analysis of the pilot study and final draft. Results: The reliability and internal consistency of every one of the rating scales included in the FDI (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient) was 0.83 for the complete scale and 0.77 and 0.82 for the physical and the social well-being subscales. The analysis of the factorial validity of the main components of the adapted FDI yielded similar results to the original questionnaire. Bivariate correlations between FDI and House-Brackmann scale were positive. The variance percentage was calculated for all FDI components. Conclusions: The FDI questionnaire is a specific instrument for assessing facial neuromuscular dysfunction which becomes a useful tool in order to determine quality of life in patients with facial nerve paralysis. Spanish adapted FDI is equivalent to the original questionnaire and shows similar reliability and validity. The proven reproducibi-lity, reliability and validity of this questionnaire make it a useful additional tool for evaluating the impact of facial nerve paralysis in Spanish-speaking patients. Key words:Parotidectomy, facial nerve paralysis, facial disability. PMID:22926474

  6. Neoclassical canons of facial beauty: Do we see the deviations?

    PubMed

    Pavlic, Andrej; Trinajstic Zrinski, Magda; Katic, Visnja; Spalj, Stjepan

    2017-05-01

    To explore the presence of neoclassical canons of facial beauty among young people in Croatia and to question possible psychosocial repercussions occurring in those who demonstrate deviations in relation to canons. The study was cross-sectional and the sample included 249 subjects (60% female) aged 12-39 (median 20). Their en face and profile photographs were taken in Natural Head Position. Photogrammetry included analysis of nine neoclassical canons of facial beauty originating from the Renaissance. Psychosocial issues were assessed using the Self-Esteem Scale, Big Five Inventory and three domains of Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire. Significant deviations from neoclassical facial beauty canons were observed in 55-65% of adolescents and young adults. Gender and age showed no relation to deviations. The deviations from canons that influenced the quality of life were mainly those related to vertical facial proportions and demonstrated increased facial aesthetics concern and social impact, and higher self-reported treatment need (p < 0.05). Deviations from canons were not related to self-esteem but a decrease in openness, agreeableness and neuroticism was observed. Neoclassical canons were not valid for the majority of adolescents and young adults in Croatia. Only deviations from some canons appear to provoke mild psychosocial repercussions. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Facial palsy: what can the multidisciplinary team do?

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Daniel P; Grobbelaar, Adriaan O

    2017-01-01

    The functional and psychosocial impact of facial paralysis on the patient is significant. In response, a broad spectrum of treatment options exist and are provided by a multitude of health care practitioners. The cause and duration of the facial weakness can vary widely and the optimal care pathway varies. To optimize patient outcome, those involved in the care of patients with facial palsy should collaborate within comprehensive multidisciplinary teams (MDTs). At an international level, those involved in the care of patients with facial paralysis should aim to create standardized guidelines on which outcome domains matter most to patients to aid the identification of high quality care. This review summarizes the causes and treatment options for facial paralysis and discusses the subsequent importance of multidisciplinary care in the management of patients with this condition. Further discussion is given to the extended role of the MDT in determining what constitutes quality in facial palsy care to aid the creation of accepted care pathways and delineate best practice. PMID:29026314

  8. Sparse coding for flexible, robust 3D facial-expression synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuxu; Song, Mingli; Quynh, Dao Thi Phuong; He, Ying; Chen, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Computer animation researchers have been extensively investigating 3D facial-expression synthesis for decades. However, flexible, robust production of realistic 3D facial expressions is still technically challenging. A proposed modeling framework applies sparse coding to synthesize 3D expressive faces, using specified coefficients or expression examples. It also robustly recovers facial expressions from noisy and incomplete data. This approach can synthesize higher-quality expressions in less time than the state-of-the-art techniques.

  9. Facial Contrast Is a Cross-Cultural Cue for Perceiving Age.

    PubMed

    Porcheron, Aurélie; Mauger, Emmanuelle; Soppelsa, Frédérique; Liu, Yuli; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Russell, Richard; Morizot, Frédérique

    2017-01-01

    Age is a fundamental social dimension and a youthful appearance is of importance for many individuals, perhaps because it is a relevant predictor of aspects of health, facial attractiveness and general well-being. We recently showed that facial contrast-the color and luminance difference between facial features and the surrounding skin-is age-related and a cue to age perception of Caucasian women. Specifically, aspects of facial contrast decrease with age in Caucasian women, and Caucasian female faces with higher contrast look younger (Porcheron et al., 2013). Here we investigated faces of other ethnic groups and raters of other cultures to see whether facial contrast is a cross-cultural youth-related attribute. Using large sets of full face color photographs of Chinese, Latin American and black South African women aged 20-80, we measured the luminance and color contrast between the facial features (the eyes, the lips, and the brows) and the surrounding skin. Most aspects of facial contrast that were previously found to decrease with age in Caucasian women were also found to decrease with age in the other ethnic groups. Though the overall pattern of changes with age was common to all women, there were also some differences between the groups. In a separate study, individual faces of the 4 ethnic groups were perceived younger by French and Chinese participants when the aspects of facial contrast that vary with age in the majority of faces were artificially increased, but older when they were artificially decreased. Altogether these findings indicate that facial contrast is a cross-cultural cue to youthfulness. Because cosmetics were shown to enhance facial contrast, this work provides some support for the notion that a universal function of cosmetics is to make female faces look younger.

  10. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  11. Impact of facial defect reconstruction on attractiveness and negative facial perception.

    PubMed

    Dey, Jacob K; Ishii, Masaru; Boahene, Kofi D O; Byrne, Patrick; Ishii, Lisa E

    2015-06-01

    Measure the impact of facial defect reconstruction on observer-graded attractiveness and negative facial perception. Prospective, randomized, controlled experiment. One hundred twenty casual observers viewed images of faces with defects of varying sizes and locations before and after reconstruction as well as normal comparison faces. Observers rated attractiveness, defect severity, and how disfiguring, bothersome, and important to repair they considered each face. Facial defects decreased attractiveness -2.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.45, -2.08) on a 10-point scale. Mixed effects linear regression showed this attractiveness penalty varied with defect size and location, with large and central defects generating the greatest penalty. Reconstructive surgery increased attractiveness 1.33 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.47), an improvement dependent upon size and location, restoring some defect categories to near normal ranges of attractiveness. Iterated principal factor analysis indicated the disfiguring, important to repair, bothersome, and severity variables were highly correlated and measured a common domain; thus, they were combined to create the disfigured, important to repair, bothersome, severity (DIBS) factor score, representing negative facial perception. The DIBS regression showed defect faces have a 1.5 standard deviation increase in negative perception (DIBS: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.61, 1.77) compared to normal faces, which decreased by a similar magnitude after surgery (DIBS: -1.44, 95% CI: -1.49, -1.38). These findings varied with defect size and location. Surgical reconstruction of facial defects increased attractiveness and decreased negative social facial perception, an impact that varied with defect size and location. These new social perception data add to the evidence base demonstrating the value of high-quality reconstructive surgery. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Management of a facial partial thickness chemical burn in a dog caused by bleach.

    PubMed

    Kawalilak, Lukas T; Fransson, Boel A; Alessio, Terri L

    2017-03-01

    To describe the management and successful outcome of a late-recognition partial thickness bleach burn to the face and corneas of a dog. A 1-year-old male neutered Fox Terrier mix breed dog was evaluated for sloughing facial epithelium 5 days after coming into contact with an 8.25% household bleach cleaning solution. Severe erythema, edema, and crusting were noted around the muzzle and margins of both eyes, with moderate to severe alopecia in these areas. A partially detached, partial thickness eschar was present on the muzzle, while a firmly attached eschar was present in the region of both frontal sinuses. These injuries were consistent with a focal, superficial, and partial thickness chemical burn. Multiple ocular abnormalities, the most concerning of which was corneal ulceration, were also present. The patient's wounds were managed conservatively with limited surgical debridement of the affected epithelium 11 and 22 days after the initial exposure. Topical ocular medications, corneal debridement, and a superficial keratectomy were also used. All lesions resolved completely by 84 days postexposure, with no residual effects on the patient's quality of life. Chemical burns caused by contact with alkaline agents such as bleach (sodium hypochlorite) result in extensive necrosis of the skin and underlying structures. This is the first report of management alkaline facial burns in a dog. If inadequate or delayed hydrotherapy following exposure has resulted in superficial partial thickness burns, conservative management can be successful when traditional treatments, especially bandaging, are not feasible. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  13. A new design of facial artery perforator flaps for the reconstruction of small- to medium-sized intraoral defects.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-fei; Zhou, Wei-na; Li, Jie; Jiang, Hong-bing; Yuan, Hua; Wan, Lin-zhong

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and outcomes of a new design of facial artery perforator flaps, extending from the angle of the mouth to the border of the mandible, for the reconstruction of small- to medium-sized intraoral defects. The technique had been used in 23 patients between February 2009 and August 2012. The locations of intraoral defects included the tongue, the floor of the mouth, the inferior gingival mucosa, and the sublingual gland. All flaps were monitored for complications including skin loss and ischemia. The functions of appearance, swallowing, and speech were assessed 6 months after operation with the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire. All flaps presented with satisfactory results except for one, which demonstrated superficial tip necrosis that settled after conservative treatment. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 12 months, and 1 patient died as a result of pulmonary metastasis, and 3 patients underwent second surgery because of local tumor recurrence (2patients) and cervical recurrence (1 patient). Nineteen patients were assessed with the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the mean (SD) scores of appearance, swallowing, and speech were 57.89 (14.45), 83.68 (19.98), and 81.58 (23.16), respectively. This design of facial artery perforator flaps could provide an efficient and cost-effective method for reconstruction of small- to medium-sized intraoral defects with a low surgical morbidity and satisfactory levels of quality of life.

  14. Quantitative anatomical analysis of facial expression using a 3D motion capture system: Application to cosmetic surgery and facial recognition technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Gi; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Jung-Hyuk; Choi, You-Jin; Bae, Hyun-Sook; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2015-09-01

    The topography of the facial muscles differs between males and females and among individuals of the same gender. To explain the unique expressions that people can make, it is important to define the shapes of the muscle, their associations with the skin, and their relative functions. Three-dimensional (3D) motion-capture analysis, often used to study facial expression, was used in this study to identify characteristic skin movements in males and females when they made six representative basic expressions. The movements of 44 reflective markers (RMs) positioned on anatomical landmarks were measured. Their mean displacement was large in males [ranging from 14.31 mm (fear) to 41.15 mm (anger)], and 3.35-4.76 mm smaller in females [ranging from 9.55 mm (fear) to 37.80 mm (anger)]. The percentages of RMs involved in the ten highest mean maximum displacement values in making at least one expression were 47.6% in males and 61.9% in females. The movements of the RMs were larger in males than females but were more limited. Expanding our understanding of facial expression requires morphological studies of facial muscles and studies of related complex functionality. Conducting these together with quantitative analyses, as in the present study, will yield data valuable for medicine, dentistry, and engineering, for example, for surgical operations on facial regions, software for predicting changes in facial features and expressions after corrective surgery, and the development of face-mimicking robots. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Easy facial analysis using the facial golden mask.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ha

    2007-05-01

    For over 2000 years, many artists and scientists have tried to understand or quantify the form of the perfect, ideal, or most beautiful face both in art and in vivo (life). A mathematical relationship has been consistently and repeatedly reported to be present in beautiful things. This particular relationship is the golden ratio. It is a mathematical ratio of 1.618:1 that seems to appear recurrently in beautiful things in nature as well as in other things that are seen as beautiful. Dr. Marquardt made the facial golden mask that contains and includes all of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional geometric golden elements formed from the golden ratio. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the golden facial mask. In 40 cases, the authors applied the facial golden mask to preoperative and postoperative photographs and scored each photograph on a 1 to 5 scale from the perspective of their personal aesthetic views. The score was lower when the facial deformity was severe, whereas it was higher when the face was attractive. Compared with the average scores of facial mask applied photographs and nonapplied photographs using a nonparametric test, statistical significance was not reached (P > 0.05). This implies that the facial golden mask may be used as an analytical tool. The facial golden mask is easy to apply, inexpensive, and relatively objective. Therefore, the authors introduce it as a useful facial analysis.

  16. Societal Value of Surgery for Facial Reanimation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Peiyi; Ishii, Lisa E.; Joseph, Andrew; Nellis, Jason; Dey, Jacob; Bater, Kristin; Byrne, Patrick J.; Boahene, Kofi D. O.; Ishii, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Patients with facial paralysis are perceived negatively by society in a number of domains. Society’s perception of the health utility of varying degrees of facial paralysis and the value society places on reconstructive surgery for facial reanimation need to be quantified. OBJECTIVE To measure health state utility of varying degrees of facial paralysis, willingness to pay (WTP) for a repair, and the subsequent value of facial reanimation surgery as perceived by society. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective observational study conducted in an academic tertiary referral center evaluated a group of 348 casual observers who viewed images of faces with unilateral facial paralysis of 3 severity levels (low, medium, and high) categorized by House-Brackmann grade. Structural equation modeling was performed to understand associations among health utility metrics, WTP, and facial perception domains. Data were collected from July 16 to September 26, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Observer-rated (1) quality of life (QOL) using established health utility metrics (standard gamble, time trade-off, and a visual analog scale) and (2) their WTP for surgical repair. RESULTS Among the 348 observers (248 women [71.3%]; 100 men [28.7%]; mean [SD] age, 29.3 [11.6] years), mixed-effects linear regression showed that WTP increased nonlinearly with increasing severity of paralysis. Participants were willing to pay $3487 (95% CI, $2362–$4961) to repair low-grade paralysis, $8571 (95% CI, $6401–$11 234) for medium-grade paralysis, and $20 431 (95% CI, $16 273–$25 317) for high-grade paralysis. The dominant factor affecting the participants’ WTP was perceived QOL. Modeling showed that perceived QOL decreased with paralysis severity (regression coefficient, −0.004; 95% CI, −0.005 to −0.004; P < .001) and increased with attractiveness (regression coefficient, 0.002; 95% CI, 0.002 to 0.003; P < .001). Mean (SD) health utility scores calculated by the

  17. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Varicose Veins Sclerotherapy for Varicose Veins Back Hair Transplants Laser Treatments for Pre-Cancerous ... Skin Sagging skin in the lower face and neck is a natural part of the aging process. Why treat sagging ...

  18. Facial lacerations in children.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Hwang, Pil Joong; Sohn, In Ah

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographics and treatment of facial lacerations in pediatric patients. A retrospective record-based analysis was administered on 3783 patients (<15 years of age) presenting with facial lacerations from March 2002 to February 2011. Males were injured more frequently across all age groups (65.3%) and especially in the 13- to 15-year-old group (81.3%) (P = 0.012, Pearson χ). Overall, 48.9% of injuries occurred outdoors and 45.1% in homes. Only 6.0% occurred in schools or kindergartens. Injuries that occurred in schools or kindergarten increased with the age groups (from 2.3% for 0- to 3-year-olds to 19.1% for 13- to 15-year-olds). In the age groups younger than 12 years, injury occurred more frequently on the weekend. In the 13-to 15-year-old group, however, injury occurred more frequently on weekdays (odds ratio, 2.46). Injury occurred most frequently at the times of 7 to 9 PM and least frequently from midnight to 6 AM. The most frequent cause of injury in children was by being struck or by bumping something (32.5%), followed by slip-down (31.5%). Accidents involving furniture and stairs accounted for 9% each. Accidents caused by stairs decreased with age (from 10.2% for 0-3 years of age to 5.5% for 13-15 years of age, P = 0.000, Pearson χ). In a little less than half (47.2%) of the cases, parents accompanied their children at the time of injury. In the 13- to 15-year age group, only 17.9% of the children were accompanied by their parents. Foreheads (26.4%) took the brunt of most frequent injuries, followed by the eyelids (20.6%), eyebrows including the glabella (19.7%), and chin injuries (15.7%). Only 58 cases had associated injuries. Among 3783 cases of facial lacerations, 3745 patients did not have facial bone fractures or associated injuries and were managed under local anesthesia or through dressings only. A sound knowledge about the epidemiology of lacerations might be beneficial for the prevention of pediatric

  19. Comparison of efficacy of chemical peeling with 25% trichloroacetic acid and 0.1% retinoic acid for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Selda; Gurel, Mehmet Salih; Gungor, Sule; Tekeli, Omur; Canat, Dilek

    2016-06-01

    Skin aging is a problem which negatively affects the psyche of the person, social relations, as well as work life and health and which compels the patients to find appropriate treatment methods. Numerous treatment methods have been developed in order to delay aging and to reduce the aging effects in addition to having a younger, healthier and more beautiful facial appearance. To compare the efficiency, cosmetic results and possible adverse effects of the peeling treatment with 25% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and 0.1% retinoic acid for facial rejuvenation in patients presenting with skin aging. Fifty female patients in total presenting with medium and advanced degree skin aging were subject to this study. Two separate treatment groups were formed; the first group underwent chemical skin treatment with 25% TCA while the other group was applied with 0.1% retinoic acid treatment. Following the 4 months' treatment the patients were controlled three times in total for post lesional hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, scars, skin irritation and other possible changes per month. The pretreatment and first follow-up visit, and final control images were comparatively evaluated by three observers via specific software. The healing rates of the group subject to retinoic acid were statistically higher (p < 0.05) compared to patients in the TCA group in the final follow-up visit following the treatment according to the first and second observers. On the other hand, according to the third observer, patients applied with retinoic acid presented with higher healing rates compared to those treated with TCA, however; this rate was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The frequency of TCA- and retinoic acid-associated adverse effects was similar in both groups (p > 0.05). As a result of both treatments, a reduction in the quality of life scores as well as a pronounced recovery (p = 0.001) in the quality of life of those patients with skin aging was observed. The photo aging

  20. Comparison of efficacy of chemical peeling with 25% trichloroacetic acid and 0.1% retinoic acid for facial rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Gurel, Mehmet Salih; Gungor, Sule; Tekeli, Omur; Canat, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin aging is a problem which negatively affects the psyche of the person, social relations, as well as work life and health and which compels the patients to find appropriate treatment methods. Numerous treatment methods have been developed in order to delay aging and to reduce the aging effects in addition to having a younger, healthier and more beautiful facial appearance. Aim To compare the efficiency, cosmetic results and possible adverse effects of the peeling treatment with 25% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and 0.1% retinoic acid for facial rejuvenation in patients presenting with skin aging. Material and methods Fifty female patients in total presenting with medium and advanced degree skin aging were subject to this study. Two separate treatment groups were formed; the first group underwent chemical skin treatment with 25% TCA while the other group was applied with 0.1% retinoic acid treatment. Following the 4 months’ treatment the patients were controlled three times in total for post lesional hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, scars, skin irritation and other possible changes per month. The pretreatment and first follow-up visit, and final control images were comparatively evaluated by three observers via specific software. Results The healing rates of the group subject to retinoic acid were statistically higher (p < 0.05) compared to patients in the TCA group in the final follow-up visit following the treatment according to the first and second observers. On the other hand, according to the third observer, patients applied with retinoic acid presented with higher healing rates compared to those treated with TCA, however; this rate was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The frequency of TCA- and retinoic acid-associated adverse effects was similar in both groups (p > 0.05). As a result of both treatments, a reduction in the quality of life scores as well as a pronounced recovery (p = 0.001) in the quality of life of those patients

  1. Ionic skin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jeong-Yun; Keplinger, Christoph; Whitesides, George M; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-12-03

    Electronic skins (i.e., stretchable sheets of distributed sensors) report signals using electrons, whereas natural skins report signals using ions. Here, ionic conductors are used to create a new type of sensory sheet, called "ionic skin". Ionic skins are highly stretchable, transparent, and biocompatible. They readily measure strains from 1% to 500%, and pressures as low as 1 kPa. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness.

  3. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness. PMID:27148111

  4. [Facial femalization in transgenders].

    PubMed

    Yahalom, R; Blinder, D; Nadel, S

    2015-07-01

    Transsexualism is a gender identity disorder in which there is a strong desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex. In male-to-female transsexuals with strong masculine facial features, facial feminization surgery is performed as part of the gender reassignment. A strong association between femininity and attractiveness has been attributed to the upper third of the face and the interplay of the glabellar prominence of the forehead. Studies have shown that a certain lower jaw shape is characteristic of males with special attention to the strong square mandibular angle and chin and also suggest that the attractive female jaw is smaller with a more round shape mandibular angles and a pointy chin. Other studies have shown that feminization of the forehead through cranioplasty have the most significant impact in determining the gender of a patient. Facial feminization surgeries are procedures aimed to change the features of the male face to that of a female face. These include contouring of the forehead, brow lift, mandible angle reduction, genioplasty, rhinoplasty and a variety of soft tissue adjustments. In our maxillofacial surgery department at the Sheba Medical Center we perform forehead reshaping combining with brow lift and at the same surgery, mandibular and chin reshaping to match the remodeled upper third of the face. The forehead reshaping is done by cranioplasty with additional reduction of the glabella area by burring of the frontal bone. After reducing the frontal bossing around the superior orbital rims we manage the soft tissue to achieve the brow lift. The mandibular reshaping, is performed by intraoral approach and include contouring of the angles by osteotomy for a more round shape (rather than the manly square shape angles), as well as reshaping of the bone in the chin area in order to make it more pointy, by removing the lateral parts of the chin and in some cases performing also genioplasty reduction by AP osteotomy.

  5. Relationship between skin color and solar elastosis in aged Asian skin: A colorimetric-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dai Hyun; Oh, Ga Na; Kwon, In Hyuk; Seo, Soo Hong; Kye, Young Chul; Ahn, Hyo Hyun

    2017-10-01

    Aged skin is reported to be associated with unattractive skin color changes and solar elastosis. However, comparative studies have not documented the possible correlation between the two factors. This study investigated the plausible relationship between the facial skin color of elderly Asians and solar elastosis. A total of 22 skin specimens were collected from 22 Korean patients who underwent cheek skin biopsies. Skin color was quantitatively measured using colorimetric photography techniques to produce CIE L*a*b* values; the degree of solar elastosis was quantifiably assessed using a histologic grading scale. These values were used to investigate a correlation between the CIE L*a*b* coordinates and solar elastosis grade. The solar elastosis grade increased according to patient age (r = 0.67, p = .0006). However, the extent of solar elastosis was not statistically correlated with the CIE L*a*b* values, including L*, a*, and b* (r = 0.02, p = .95; r = 0.15, p = 0.50; r = -0.07, p = 0.76, respectively). The results showed that the solar elastosis grade increased, according to patient age, because of cumulative actinic damage. However, colorimetric skin color data did not correlate with the degree of solar elastosis. Therefore, cutaneous color changes and solar elastosis are separate, age-related phenomena. Physicians should be aware of the possible histologic changes in actinically damaged facial skin, regardless of the skin color. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Skin Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin Biopsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Skin Biopsy What's in ... en español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a ...

  7. Illuminant color estimation based on pigmentation separation from human skin color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2015-03-01

    Human has the visual system called "color constancy" that maintains the perceptive colors of same object across various light sources. The effective method of color constancy algorithm was proposed to use the human facial color in a digital color image, however, this method has wrong estimation results by the difference of individual facial colors. In this paper, we present the novel color constancy algorithm based on skin color analysis. The skin color analysis is the method to separate the skin color into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. We use the stationary property of Japanese facial color, and this property is calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin. As a result, we achieve to propose the method to use subject's facial color in image and not depend on the individual difference among Japanese facial color.

  8. Effect of a Facial Muscle Exercise Device on Facial Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ui-jae; Kwon, Oh-yun; Jung, Sung-hoon; Ahn, Sun-hee; Gwak, Gyeong-tae

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The efficacy of facial muscle exercises (FMEs) for facial rejuvenation is controversial. In the majority of previous studies, nonquantitative assessment tools were used to assess the benefits of FMEs. Objectives This study examined the effectiveness of FMEs using a Pao (MTG, Nagoya, Japan) device to quantify facial rejuvenation. Methods Fifty females were asked to perform FMEs using a Pao device for 30 seconds twice a day for 8 weeks. Facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area were measured sonographically. Facial surface distance, surface area, and volumes were determined using a laser scanning system before and after FME. Facial muscle thickness, cross-sectional area, midfacial surface distances, jawline surface distance, and lower facial surface area and volume were compared bilaterally before and after FME using a paired Student t test. Results The cross-sectional areas of the zygomaticus major and digastric muscles increased significantly (right: P < 0.001, left: P = 0.015), while the midfacial surface distances in the middle (right: P = 0.005, left: P = 0.047) and lower (right: P = 0.028, left: P = 0.019) planes as well as the jawline surface distances (right: P = 0.004, left: P = 0.003) decreased significantly after FME using the Pao device. The lower facial surface areas (right: P = 0.005, left: P = 0.006) and volumes (right: P = 0.001, left: P = 0.002) were also significantly reduced after FME using the Pao device. Conclusions FME using the Pao device can increase facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area, thus contributing to facial rejuvenation. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:29365050

  9. An eFTD-VP framework for efficiently generating patient-specific anatomically detailed facial soft tissue FE mesh for craniomaxillofacial surgery simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Kim, Daeseung; Shen, Shunyao; Yuan, Peng; Liu, Siting; Tang, Zhen; Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Xiaobo; Gateno, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Accurate surgical planning and prediction of craniomaxillofacial surgery outcome requires simulation of soft tissue changes following osteotomy. This can only be achieved by using an anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model. The current state-of-the-art of model generation is not appropriate to clinical applications due to the time-intensive nature of manual segmentation and volumetric mesh generation. The conventional patient-specific finite element (FE) mesh generation methods are to deform a template FE mesh to match the shape of a patient based on registration. However, these methods commonly produce element distortion. Additionally, the mesh density for patients depends on that of the template model. It could not be adjusted to conduct mesh density sensitivity analysis. In this study, we propose a new framework of patient-specific facial soft tissue FE mesh generation. The goal of the developed method is to efficiently generate a high-quality patient-specific hexahedral FE mesh with adjustable mesh density while preserving the accuracy in anatomical structure correspondence. Our FE mesh is generated by eFace template deformation followed by volumetric parametrization. First, the patient-specific anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model (including skin, mucosa, and muscles) is generated by deforming an eFace template model. The adaptation of the eFace template model is achieved by using a hybrid landmark-based morphing and dense surface fitting approach followed by a thin-plate spline interpolation. Then, high-quality hexahedral mesh is constructed by using volumetric parameterization. The user can control the resolution of hexahedron mesh to best reflect clinicians’ need. Our approach was validated using 30 patient models and 4 visible human datasets. The generated patient-specific FE mesh showed high surface matching accuracy, element quality, and internal structure matching accuracy. They can be directly and effectively used for clinical

  10. An eFTD-VP framework for efficiently generating patient-specific anatomically detailed facial soft tissue FE mesh for craniomaxillofacial surgery simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Kim, Daeseung; Shen, Shunyao; Yuan, Peng; Liu, Siting; Tang, Zhen; Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Xiaobo; Gateno, Jaime; Liebschner, Michael A K; Xia, James J

    2018-04-01

    Accurate surgical planning and prediction of craniomaxillofacial surgery outcome requires simulation of soft tissue changes following osteotomy. This can only be achieved by using an anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model. The current state-of-the-art of model generation is not appropriate to clinical applications due to the time-intensive nature of manual segmentation and volumetric mesh generation. The conventional patient-specific finite element (FE) mesh generation methods are to deform a template FE mesh to match the shape of a patient based on registration. However, these methods commonly produce element distortion. Additionally, the mesh density for patients depends on that of the template model. It could not be adjusted to conduct mesh density sensitivity analysis. In this study, we propose a new framework of patient-specific facial soft tissue FE mesh generation. The goal of the developed method is to efficiently generate a high-quality patient-specific hexahedral FE mesh with adjustable mesh density while preserving the accuracy in anatomical structure correspondence. Our FE mesh is generated by eFace template deformation followed by volumetric parametrization. First, the patient-specific anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model (including skin, mucosa, and muscles) is generated by deforming an eFace template model. The adaptation of the eFace template model is achieved by using a hybrid landmark-based morphing and dense surface fitting approach followed by a thin-plate spline interpolation. Then, high-quality hexahedral mesh is constructed by using volumetric parameterization. The user can control the resolution of hexahedron mesh to best reflect clinicians' need. Our approach was validated using 30 patient models and 4 visible human datasets. The generated patient-specific FE mesh showed high surface matching accuracy, element quality, and internal structure matching accuracy. They can be directly and effectively used for clinical

  11. Complications in Pediatric Facial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Mimi T.; Losee, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pediatric facial fractures, little has been published on the complications of these fractures. The existing literature is highly variable regarding both the definition and the reporting of adverse events. Although the incidence of pediatric facial fractures is relative low, they are strongly associated with other serious injuries. Both the fractures and their treatment may have long-term consequence on growth and development of the immature face. This article is a selective review of the literature on facial fracture complications with special emphasis on the complications unique to pediatric patients. We also present our classification system to evaluate adverse outcomes associated with pediatric facial fractures. Prospective, long-term studies are needed to fully understand and appreciate the complexity of treating children with facial fractures and determining the true incidence, subsequent growth, and nature of their complications. PMID:22110803

  12. Management of Chronic Facial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher G.; Dellon, A. Lee; Rosson, Gedge D.

    2009-01-01

    Pain persisting for at least 6 months is defined as chronic. Chronic facial pain conditions often take on lives of their own deleteriously changing the lives of the sufferer. Although much is known about facial pain, it is clear that those physicians who treat these conditions should continue elucidating the mechanisms and defining successful treatment strategies for these life-changing conditions. This article will review many of the classic causes of chronic facial pain due to the trigeminal nerve and its branches that are amenable to surgical therapies. Testing of facial sensibility is described and its utility introduced. We will also introduce some of the current hypotheses of atypical facial pain and headaches secondary to chronic nerve compressions and will suggest possible treatment strategies. PMID:22110799

  13. Satisfaction with facial profile aesthetics: are norms overrated?

    PubMed

    Manevska, I; Pavlic, A; Katic, V; Trinajstic Zrinski, M; Drevensek, M; Spalj, S

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to explore to what extent adults perceive deviations from the norm of a balanced profile with normal occlusion as reducing satisfaction with facial appearance and having a psychosocial impact. This cross-sectional study included 225 Caucasian subjects (64% women) aged 18-42 years. Their facial profiles were analyzed photogrammetrically and they were classified into three categories: within, below, or above the standard range for the Croatian population with a normal occlusion. Psychosocial issues were assessed by self-reported satisfaction with facial appearance and domains from the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire: social aspects of dentofacial aesthetics (SA), facial aesthetics concern (FA), and awareness of dentofacial aesthetics (AW). Men with a concave profile were less satisfied with their faces than those with a flat or convex profile (P<0.05). A reduced upper lip height in men resulted in a lower level of satisfaction and increased FA score, when compared to men with a normal or increased upper lip height (P<0.05). In women, a reduced middle third of the face increased AW (P=0.045). Deviations from a well-balanced facial profile, as well as the morphology of the nose and lip, do not increase psychosocial issues to a great extent. The range of acceptable facial characteristics is evidently much broader than the norms. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Do facial movements express emotions or communicate motives?

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the debate between emotion-expression and motive-communication approaches to facial movements, focusing on Ekman's (1972) and Fridlund's (1994) contrasting models and their historical antecedents. Available evidence suggests that the presence of others either reduces or increases facial responses, depending on the quality and strength of the emotional manipulation and on the nature of the relationship between interactants. Although both display rules and social motives provide viable explanations of audience "inhibition" effects, some audience facilitation effects are less easily accommodated within an emotion-expression perspective. In particular, emotion is not a sufficient condition for a corresponding "expression," even discounting explicit regulation, and, apparently, "spontaneous" facial movements may be facilitated by the presence of others. Further, there is no direct evidence that any particular facial movement provides an unambiguous expression of a specific emotion. However, information communicated by facial movements is not necessarily extrinsic to emotion. Facial movements not only transmit emotion-relevant information but also contribute to ongoing processes of emotional action in accordance with pragmatic theories.

  15. The reconstruction of male hair-bearing facial regions.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Emily B; Pribaz, Julian J

    2011-01-01

    Loss of hair-bearing regions of the face caused by trauma, tumor resection, or burn presents a difficult reconstructive task for plastic surgeons. The ideal tissue substitute should have the same characteristics as the facial area affected, consisting of thin, pliable tissue with a similar color match and hair-bearing quality. This is a retrospective study of 34 male patients who underwent reconstruction of hair-bearing facial regions performed by the senior author (J.J.P.). Local and pedicled flaps were used primarily to reconstruct defects after tumor extirpation, trauma, infections, and burns. Two patients had irradiation before reconstruction. Two patients had prior facial reconstruction with free flaps. The authors found that certain techniques of reconstructing defects in hair-bearing facial regions were more successful than others in particular facial regions and in different sizes of defects. The authors were able to develop a simple algorithm for management of facial defects involving the hair-bearing regions of the eyebrow, sideburn, beard, and mustache that may prospectively aid the planning of reconstructive strategy in these cases.

  16. Use of Fat Grafts in Facial Reconstruction on the Wounded Soldiers From the First World War (WWI) by Hippolyte Morestin (1869-1919).

    PubMed

    Benmoussa, Nadia; Hansen, Kevin; Charlier, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    During the Great War of 1914 to 1918, spectacular progress was made in the field of facial reconstruction. The sheer number and severity of facial lesions inflicted during the fighting obliged French and German surgeons to take a close interest in the treatment of patients wounded in such a manner. As head surgeon of the fifth division "blessés de la face" at the hospital of Val-de-Grace, Hippolyte Morestin was responsible for one of the largest surgical departments specializing in facial surgery and reconstruction during the war. During his time of service, he developed various surgical techniques such as autoplasties using cartilaginous and adipose grafts to reconstruct tissue defects. This study focuses primarily on the adipose graft techniques and their aesthetic outcome used by Morestin during and in the aftermath of World War I. This is a historical descriptive study. Our research is based on documents available at the museum and archives of the Val-de-Grace Army Health Service (hospital activity reports, pre- and postoperative patient photographs, newspaper clippings, documented accounts of ward nurses, wax anatomy models). Thirty-four clinical cases published by Hippolyte Morestin dealing with facial reconstruction during the World War I were studied. Fat was mainly used to fill craniofacial substance losses after carrying out often complex reconstructions. The surgical technique is well documented and subdivided into 3 succeeding procedures. Most of the time, the grafts were of autologous origin but sometimes heterologous samples were used. Although the primary objective was to increase volume, an improved quality of skin healing and better skin flexibility were observed. The fat thus allowed the filling of substance losses, and its positive effects on scarring were noticed even before the regenerative properties of the stem cells present in body fat were discovered. Hippolyte Morestin can be named one of the pioneers of facial reconstruction. A

  17. Reconstruction of Facial Defect Using Deltopectoral Flap.

    PubMed

    Aldelaimi, Tahrir N; Khalil, Afrah A

    2015-11-01

    Reconstruction of the head and neck is a challenge for otolarygology surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons as well as plastic surgeons. Defects caused by the resection and/or trauma should be closed with flaps which match in color, texture and hair bearing characteristics with the face. Deltopectoral flap is a one such flap from chest and neck skin mainly used to cover the facial defects. This study report a patient presenting with tragic Road Traffic Accident (RTA) admitted to maxillofacial surgery department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Anbar province, Iraq. An incision, medially based, was done and deltopectoral fascio-cutaneous flap was used for surgical exposure and closure of defects after RTA. There was no major complication. Good aesthetic and functional results were achieved. Deltopectoral flap is an excellent alternative for the reconstruction of head and neck. Harvesting and application of the flap is rapid and safe. Only a single incision is sufficient for dissection and flap elevation.

  18. Facial fluid synthesis for assessment of acne vulgaris using luminescent visualization system through optical imaging and integration of fluorescent imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbin, Jessie R.; Dela Cruz, Jennifer C.; Camba, Clarisse O.; Gozo, Angelo D.; Jimenez, Sheena Mariz B.; Tribiana, Aivje C.

    2017-06-01

    Acne vulgaris, commonly called as acne, is a skin problem that occurs when oil and dead skin cells clog up in a person's pores. This is because hormones change which makes the skin oilier. The problem is people really do not know the real assessment of sensitivity of their skin in terms of fluid development on their faces that tends to develop acne vulgaris, thus having more complications. This research aims to assess Acne Vulgaris using luminescent visualization system through optical imaging and integration of image processing algorithms. Specifically, this research aims to design a prototype for facial fluid analysis using luminescent visualization system through optical imaging and integration of fluorescent imaging system, and to classify different facial fluids present in each person. Throughout the process, some structures and layers of the face will be excluded, leaving only a mapped facial structure with acne regions. Facial fluid regions are distinguished from the acne region as they are characterized differently.

  19. Influence of Quality of Relationship Between Patient With Melanoma and Partner on Partner-Assisted Skin Examination Education: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, Brittney A; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A; Ackerman, Sarah; Robinson, June K

    2016-02-01

    Melanoma has a high survival rate if it is detected early. Training patients with early-stage melanoma who are at risk of developing new melanomas to perform skin self-examination (SSE) may improve survival. To examine for whom the intervention works best in a sample composed of dyads of patients with melanoma and skin-check partners who received an SSE intervention vs customary care. For 494 patients with stage 0 to IIB melanoma (mean age, 55 years; 253 [51.2%] females) and their skin-check partners (mean age, 55 years; 280 [56.7%] females), a randomized clinical trial was conducted in ambulatory care dermatologic offices from June 6, 2011, to April 14, 2014. Follow-up assessments were performed at 12 months. Analysis was performed between March 23 and June 25, 2015. Dyads of 494 patients and their partners were randomly assigned to receive the intervention (395 patients) or customary care (control) (99 patients). The main outcome was patient SSE self-efficacy. Partner motivation to assist with SSE and relationship quality (eg, agreeability, activities with partner, and happiness) were assessed for moderation of the influence of the intervention's effect on SSE self-efficacy. Relationship quality, defined by activities with the partner (β = -0.892, SE = 0.432, t = -2.066; P = .001) and happiness (β = -4.586, SE = 2.044, t = -2.24; P = .001), significantly moderated the intervention effects on patients' SSE self-efficacy. In contrast, patient-partner agreeability (β = -0.262, SE = 0.148, t = -1.773; P = .09) and partner motivation (β = -0.328, SE = 1.024, t = -0.320; P = .10) did not significantly moderate the intervention effects on patients' SSE self-efficacy. Differences between the conditions were highest when activities performed with the partner were below average (mean difference, 6.652; P = .001) and when happiness was below average (mean difference, 7.000; P = .001). Although everyone receiving the intervention experienced

  20. Educational interventions to improve quality of life in people with chronic inflammatory skin diseases: systematic reviews of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Karen; Loveman, Emma; Kalita, Neelam; Frampton, Geoff K; Jones, Jeremy

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory skin diseases include a broad range of disorders. For some people, these conditions lead to psychological comorbidities and reduced quality of life (QoL). Patient education is recommended in the management of these conditions and may improve QoL. To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of educational interventions to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with chronic inflammatory skin diseases. Twelve electronic bibliographic databases, including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched to July 2014. Bibliographies of retrieved papers were searched and an Advisory Group contacted. Systematic reviews were conducted following standard methodologies. Clinical effectiveness studies were included if they were undertaken in people with a chronic inflammatory skin condition. Educational interventions that aimed to, or could, improve HRQoL were eligible. Studies were required to measure HRQoL, and other outcomes such as disease severity were also included. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials were eligible. For the review of cost-effectiveness, studies were eligible if they were full economic evaluations, cost-consequence or cost analyses. Seven RCTs were included in the review of clinical effectiveness. Two RCTs focused on children with eczema and their carers. Five RCTs were in adults. Of these, two were of people with psoriasis, one was of people with acne and two were of people with a range of conditions. There were few similarities in the interventions (e.g. the delivery mode, the topics covered, the duration of the education), which precluded any quantitative synthesis. Follow-up ranged from 4 weeks to 12 months, samples sizes were generally small and, overall, the study quality was poor. There appeared to be positive effects on HRQoL in participants with psoriasis in one trial, but no difference between groups in another trial in which participants had less severe