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Sample records for facial skin qualities

  1. Addressing Male Facial Skin Concerns: Clinical Efficacy of a Topical Skincare Treatment Product for Men.

    PubMed

    Makino, Elizabeth T; Jiang, Lily I; Tan, Priscilla; Cheng, Tsing; Mehta, Rahul C

    2018-03-01

    The growing male skincare market reflects the increased interest of men in addressing facial aging concerns and maintaining a healthy youthful appearance. Because of differences in skin structure and aging as well as in lifestyle and behavior, male facial skin presents unique challenges that may result in different priorities or treatment strategies compared to female skin. A clinical study was conducted to assess clinical efficacy and tolerability of a topical skincare treatment product that was developed to address several male facial skin concerns related to skin quality, skin aging, and shaving. The treatment product provided significant improvements in all clinical efficacy parameters including overall photodamage, tactile roughness, fine line/wrinkles, and coarse lines/wrinkles. Furthermore, significant improvements in erythema as well as dryness/scaling were observed. Subject self-assessment questionnaires showed that the treatment product was highly rated in both self-perceived efficacy as well as product attributes. Use of skincare treatment products that tackle specific male facial skin concerns could further optimize skin quality and support healthy and youthful looking skin in men.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(3):301-306.

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  2. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J.

    1990-04-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

  3. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing of photoaged facial and non-facial skin: histologic and clinical results and side effects.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Gordon H; Travis, Heather M; Tucker, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    CO(2) fractional ablation offers the potential for facial and non-facial skin resurfacing with minimal downtime and rapid recovery. The purpose of this study was (i) to document the average depths and density of adnexal structures in non-lasered facial and non-facial body skin; (ii) to determine injury in ex vivo human thigh skin with varying fractional laser modes; and (iii) to evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of treatments. Histologies were obtained from non-lasered facial and non-facial skin from 121 patients and from 14 samples of excised lasered thigh skin. Seventy-one patients were evaluated after varying energy (mJ) and density settings by superficial ablation, deeper penetration, and combined treatment. Skin thickness and adnexal density in non-lasered skin exhibited variable ranges: epidermis (47-105 mum); papillary dermis (61-105 mum); reticular dermis (983-1986 mum); hair follicles (2-14/ HPF); sebaceous glands (2-23/HPF); sweat glands (2-7/HPF). Histological studies of samples from human thigh skin demonstrated that increased fluencies in the superficial, deep and combined mode resulted in predictable deeper levels of ablations and thermal injury. An increase in density settings results in total ablation of the epidermis. Clinical improvement of rhytids and pigmentations in facial and non-facial skin was proportional to increasing energy and density settings. Patient assessments and clinical gradings by the Wilcoxon's test of outcomes correlated with more aggressive settings. Prior knowledge of normal skin depths and adnexal densities, as well as ex vivo skin laser-injury profiles at varying fluencies and densities, improve the safety and efficiency of fractional CO(2) for photorejuvenation of facial and non-facial skin.

  4. Facial skin color measurement based on camera colorimetric characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Boquan; Zhou, Changhe; Wang, Shaoqing; Fan, Xin; Li, Chao

    2016-10-01

    The objective measurement of facial skin color and its variance is of great significance as much information can be obtained from it. In this paper, we developed a new skin color measurement procedure which includes following parts: first, a new skin tone color checker made of pantone Skin Tone Color Checker was designed for camera colorimetric characterization; second, the chromaticity of light source was estimated via a new scene illumination estimation method considering several previous algorithms; third, chromatic adaption was used to convert the input facial image into output facial image which appears taken under canonical light; finally the validity and accuracy of our method was verified by comparing the results obtained by our procedure with these by spectrophotometer.

  5. Noninvasive measurement of advanced glycation end-products in the facial skin: New data for skin aging studies.

    PubMed

    Qu, Di; Venzon, Dawna; Murray, Mary; Depauw, Mathew

    Using skin autofluorescence (SAF) as a marker of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) has been extensively studied in the last decade since the introduction of the noninvasive in vivo measurement technique. Data have shown the level of skin AGEs increases with chronological age in healthy human beings, and this increase is substantially higher in age-matched diabetic patients. In skin research, glycation with the accompanying accumulation of skin AGEs has been regarded as one of the primary skin aging mechanisms that contribute to skin wrinkling and the loss of skin elasticity. To date, the totality of SAF data reported in literature has been obtained from measurements on the arm, and noninvasive measurement of facial skin AGE accumulation would add great value to skin aging research. In this study, we report the levels of facial and forearm skin AGEs in 239 men and women of 21-65 year of age. Significantly lower levels of AGEs were detected in the facial skin than in the forearm skin from the young Caucasian groups, and the difference was much larger for men than for women. The rate of change in skin AGE level over age was found to be about 50% higher in men than in women, which further highlights the gender difference. A statistically significant correlation between the levels of skin AGE and facial wrinkling was also observed. The facial skin AGE data may provide new insight into skin aging research.

  6. Keloid Skin Flap Retention and Resurfacing in Facial Keloid Treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Liang, Weizhong; Song, Kexin; Wang, Youbin

    2018-02-01

    Facial keloids commonly occur in young patients. Multiple keloid masses often converge into a large lesion on the face, representing a significant obstacle to keloid mass excision and reconstruction. We describe a new surgical method that excises the keloid mass and resurfaces the wound by saving the keloid skin as a skin flap during facial keloid treatment. Forty-five patients with facial keloids were treated in our department between January 2013 and January 2016. Multiple incisions were made along the facial esthetic line on the keloid mass. The keloid skin was dissected and elevated as a skin flap with one or two pedicles. The scar tissue in the keloid was then removed through the incision. The wound was covered with the preserved keloid skin flap and closed without tension. Radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen were applied after surgery. Patients underwent follow-up examinations 6 and 12 months after surgery. Of the 45 total patients, 32 patients were cured and seven patients were partially cured. The efficacy rate was 88.9%, and 38 patients (84.4%) were satisfied with the esthetic result. We describe an efficacious and esthetically satisfactory surgical method for managing facial keloids by preserving the keloid skin as a skin flap. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  7. The male beard hair and facial skin - challenges for shaving.

    PubMed

    Maurer, M; Rietzler, M; Burghardt, R; Siebenhaar, F

    2016-06-01

    The challenge of shaving is to cut the beard hair as closely as possible to the skin without unwanted effects on the skin. To achieve this requires the understanding of beard hair and male facial skin biology as both, the beard hair and the male facial skin, contribute to the difficulties in obtaining an effective shave without shaving-induced skin irritation. Little information is available on the biology of beard hairs and beard hair follicles. We know that, in beard hairs, the density, thickness, stiffness, as well as the rates of elliptical shape and low emerging angle, are high and highly heterogeneous. All of this makes it challenging to cut it, and shaving techniques commonly employed to overcome these challenges include shaving with increased pressure and multiple stroke shaving, which increase the probability and extent of shaving-induced skin irritation. Several features of male facial skin pose problems to a perfect shave. The male facial skin is heterogeneous in morphology and roughness, and male skin has a tendency to heal slower and to develop hyperinflammatory pigmentation. In addition, many males exhibit sensitive skin, with the face most often affected. Finally, the hair follicle is a sensory organ, and the perifollicular skin is highly responsive to external signals including mechanical and thermal stimulation. Perifollicular skin is rich in vasculature, innervation and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. This makes perifollicular skin a highly responsive and inflammatory system, especially in individuals with sensitive skin. Activation of this system, by shaving, can result in shaving-induced skin irritation. Techniques commonly employed to avoid shaving-induced skin irritation include shaving with less pressure, pre- and post-shave skin treatment and to stop shaving altogether. Recent advances in shaving technology have addressed some but not all of these issues. A better understanding of beard hairs, beard hair follicles and male

  8. Efficacy of diode laser (810 and 940 nm) for facial skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Voravutinon, Nataya; Seawthaweesin, Kanikar; Bureethan, Apron; Srivipatana, Anchisa; Vejanurug, Patnapa

    2015-12-01

    Laser treatment has been introduced for facial skin tightening. However, no prior study has used a diode laser to treat facial skin laxity. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 810- and 940-nm diode laser (MeDioStarNeXT) for treating facial skin laxity. Thirty patients, with facial skin laxity grading scale II-IV, were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent four sessions with a 810- and 940-nm diode laser (MeDioStarNeXT) treatment over 3-week intervals. Improvement in the laxity of facial skin was evaluated using a Cutometer MPA 580, spectrophotometer, and a grading scale. Significant improvement was observed with the Cutometer F3 and R7 parameters at 1 and 3 months after complete treatment, respectively. Physician assessment showed significant improvement in the laxity scale at 1 and 6 months after treatment. Approximately 10% of the patients reported mild pain or minor adverse events. Ninety-eight percent of the patients were satisfied with the treatments. Treatment with a diode laser (810 and 940 nm) is safe and may be effective for facial skin tightening. Maintenance treatment is necessary to sustain the effect of treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Visual attention to variation in female facial skin color distribution.

    PubMed

    Fink, Bernhard; Matts, Paul J; Klingenberg, Heiner; Kuntze, Sebastian; Weege, Bettina; Grammer, Karl

    2008-06-01

    Visible skin condition of women is argued to influence human physical attraction. Recent research has shown that people are sensitive to variation in skin color distribution, and such variation affects visual perception of female facial attractiveness, healthiness, and age. The eye gaze of 39 males and females, aged 13 to 45 years, was tracked while they viewed images of shape- and topography-standardized stimulus faces that varied only in terms of skin color distribution. The number of fixations and dwell time were significantly higher when viewing stimulus faces with the homogeneous skin color distribution of young people, compared with those of more elderly people. In accordance with recent research, facial stimuli with even skin tones were also judged to be younger and received higher attractiveness ratings. Finally, visual attention measures were negatively correlated with perceived age, but positively associated with attractiveness judgments. Variation in visible skin color distribution (independent of facial form and skin surface topography) is able to selectively attract people's attention toward female faces, and this higher attention results in more positive statements about a woman's face.

  10. Facial skin blood flow responses during exposures to emotionally charged movies.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Endo, Kana; Ishii, Kei; Ito, Momoka; Liang, Nan

    2018-03-01

    The changes in regional facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance have been assessed for the first time with noninvasive two-dimensional laser speckle flowmetry during audiovisually elicited emotional challenges for 2 min (comedy, landscape, and horror movie) in 12 subjects. Limb skin blood flow and vascular conductance and systemic cardiovascular variables were simultaneously measured. The extents of pleasantness and consciousness for each emotional stimulus were estimated by the subjective rating from -5 (the most unpleasant; the most unconscious) to +5 (the most pleasant; the most conscious). Facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance, especially in the lips, decreased during viewing of comedy and horror movies, whereas they did not change during viewing of a landscape movie. The decreases in facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance were the greatest with the comedy movie. The changes in lip, cheek, and chin skin blood flow negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective ratings of pleasantness and consciousness. The changes in lip skin vascular conductance negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective rating of pleasantness, while the changes in infraorbital, subnasal, and chin skin vascular conductance negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective rating of consciousness. However, none of the changes in limb skin blood flow and vascular conductance and systemic hemodynamics correlated with the subjective ratings. The mental arithmetic task did not alter facial and limb skin blood flows, although the task influenced systemic cardiovascular variables. These findings suggest that the more emotional status becomes pleasant or conscious, the more neurally mediated vasoconstriction may occur in facial skin blood vessels.

  11. Quality of life in adults with facial port-wine stains

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Solveig L.; Grey, Katherine R.; Korta, Dorota Z.; Kelly, Kristen M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Facial port-wine stains (PWS) are considered by some an aesthetic skin problem, yet impact on quality of life (QoL) has not been objectively documented. Objective We sought to (1) characterize the effect of PWS on QoL in adults, (2) to identify the clinical and demographic factors that affect QoL, and (3) to compare our results with QoL studies in other skin conditions. Methods In total, 244 adults with facial PWS completed an online QoL survey, which included the Skindex-29 instrument. Results QoL in adults with facial PWS was diminished, especially from an emotional perspective. Variables associated with reduced QoL in all Skindex-29 subdomains included comorbid depression, limited facial mobility, and presence of other skin conditions. Persons with hypertrophy had more emotional and symptomatic impairment. The composite dermatologic-specific QoL scores were similar to those of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, rosacea, alopecia, and vitiligo. Limitations Selection bias was a potential limitation, as participants were primarily recruited from patient support groups. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrates that the presence of a facial PWS has a significant negative impact on QoL. Dermatologists caring for patients with PWS should inquire about QoL, provide appropriate support and resources, and consider QoL when discussing treatment options and obtaining authorization for these procedures. PMID:27955934

  12. Proposed shade guide for human facial skin and lip: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wee, Alvin G; Beatty, Mark W; Gozalo-Diaz, David J; Kim-Pusateri, Seungyee; Marx, David B

    2013-08-01

    Currently, no commercially available facial shade guide exists in the United States for the fabrication of facial prostheses. The purpose of this study was to measure facial skin and lip color in a human population sample stratified by age, gender, and race. Clustering analysis was used to determine optimal color coordinates for a proposed facial shade guide. Participants (n=119) were recruited from 4 racial/ethnic groups, 5 age groups, and both genders. Reflectance measurements of participants' noses and lower lips were made by using a spectroradiometer and xenon arc lamp with a 45/0 optical configuration. Repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05), to identify skin and lip color differences, resulting from race, age, gender, and location, and a hierarchical clustering analysis, to identify clusters of skin colors) were used. Significant contributors to L*a*b* facial color were race and facial location (P<.01). b* affected all factors (P<.05). Age affected only b* (P<.001), while gender affected only L* (P<.05) and b* (P<.05). Analyses identified 5 clusters of skin color. The study showed that skin color caused by age and gender primarily occurred within the yellow-blue axis. A significant lightness difference between gender groups was also found. Clustering analysis identified 5 distinct skin shade tabs. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes of oxygen content in facial skin before and after cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guo-Biao; Wu, Pei-Lan; Wang, Xue-Min

    2012-11-01

    Cigarette smoking not only causes systemic health problems, but may also be an underlying cause of premature skin aging. Cigarette smokers frequently have morphological changes in facial skin that may be attributed to reduced oxygen in this region. The purpose of this study was to measure the oxygen content in facial skin before and after smoking. Twenty-five volunteers participated in this study. Changes in oxygen content of the facial skin were measured before and after 30 min of cigarette smoking. Skin temperature and oxygen content were evaluated in the periorbital and periolar regions. There was a significant increase in temperature after smoking. The oxy hemoglobin and partial pressure of oxygen decreased in both the periocular and perioral areas after smoking. There were no changes in deoxy hemoglobin and partial pressure of carbon dioxide at these areas. Significant changes were seen in temperature and oxygen content after only 30 min of smoking. The results from this study suggest that alterations in the skin temperature and oxygen content in facial skin after smoking may be an underlying cause of premature skin aging. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Image analysis of skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and the age-related changes in facial skin.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kumiko; Masuda, Yuji; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Kawai, Eriko; Hirao, Tetsuji

    2015-05-01

    Heterogeneity with respect to skin color tone is one of the key factors in visual perception of facial attractiveness and age. However, there have been few studies on quantitative analyses of the color heterogeneity of facial skin. The purpose of this study was to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and then characterize ethnic differences and age-related changes. A facial imaging system equipped with an illumination unit and a high-resolution digital camera was used to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity. First, melanin and/or hemoglobin images were obtained using pigment-specific image-processing techniques, which involved conversion from Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage XYZ color values to melanin and/or hemoglobin indexes as measures of their contents. Second, a spatial frequency analysis with threshold settings was applied to the individual images. Cheek skin images of 194 healthy Asian and Caucasian female subjects were acquired using the imaging system. Applying this methodology, the skin color heterogeneity of Asian and Caucasian faces was characterized. The proposed pigment-specific image-processing techniques allowed visual discrimination of skin redness from skin pigmentation. In the heterogeneity analyses of cheek skin color, age-related changes in melanin were clearly detected in Asian and Caucasian skin. Furthermore, it was found that the heterogeneity indexes of hemoglobin were significantly higher in Caucasian skin than in Asian skin. We have developed evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity by image analyses based on the major chromophores, melanin and hemoglobin, with special reference to their size. This methodology focusing on skin color heterogeneity should be useful for better understanding of aging and ethnic differences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?

    PubMed

    Kim, B Y; Choi, J W; Park, K C; Youn, S W

    2013-02-01

    Enlarged facial pores have been esthetic problems and have become a matter of cosmetic concern. Several factors are supposed to be related to the enlargement of facial pores, although scientific evaluations were not performed yet. To assess the correlation between facial pores and possible relating factors such as age, gender, sebum secretion, skin elasticity, and the presence of acne, using objective bioengineering instruments. Sixty volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, participated in this study. Various parameters of facial pores were assessed using the Robo Skin Analyzer. The facial sebum secretion and skin elasticity were measured using the Sebumeter and the Cutometer, respectively. These data were compared and correlated to examine the possible relationship between facial pores and age, sebum secretion and skin elasticity, according to gender and the presence of acne. Male gender and the existence of acne were correlated with higher number of facial pores. Sebum secretion levels showed positive correlation with facial pores. The R7 parameter of skin elasticity was negatively correlated with facial pores, suggesting increased facial pores with decreased skin elasticity. However, the age and the severity of acne did not show a definite relationship with facial pores. Male, increased sebum and decreased skin elasticity were mostly correlated with facial pore development. Further studies on population with various demographic profiles and more severe acne may be helpful to elucidate the potential effect of aging and acne severity on facial pores. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Attractiveness as a Function of Skin Tone and Facial Features: Evidence from Categorization Studies.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Participants rated the attractiveness and racial typicality of male faces varying in their facial features from Afrocentric to Eurocentric and in skin tone from dark to light in two experiments. Experiment 1 provided evidence that facial features and skin tone have an interactive effect on perceptions of attractiveness and mixed-race faces are perceived as more attractive than single-race faces. Experiment 2 further confirmed that faces with medium levels of skin tone and facial features are perceived as more attractive than faces with extreme levels of these factors. Black phenotypes (combinations of dark skin tone and Afrocentric facial features) were rated as more attractive than White phenotypes (combinations of light skin tone and Eurocentric facial features); ambiguous faces (combinations of Afrocentric and Eurocentric physiognomy) with medium levels of skin tone were rated as the most attractive in Experiment 2. Perceptions of attractiveness were relatively independent of racial categorization in both experiments.

  17. Stress Evaluation while Prolonged Driving Operation Using the Facial Skin Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hirotoshi; Muto, Takumi; Ide, Hideto

    There is a relation to the accident of a car and the physiological and psychological state of a driver. The stress may lead to the fall of a fatigue or attentiveness. Therefore, it is an important subject from viewpoint such as accident prevention to evaluate the mental state of a driver. The study aimed at the development of a quantitative instrumentation technology of the stress when a subject is driving for a long time. First of all, we measured the physiological and psychological stress of a driver. The facial skin temperature and ventricular rate that was driver's physiological amount were measured and compared it with visual analog scale of the subjective amount. It was able to be obtaining of the high correlation in facial skin temperature and visual analog scale from the outcome of the experiment. Therefore, the possibility of appreciable of driver's stress at a facial skin temperature was shown. As a result of the experiment, we showed a possibility that facial skin temperature could evaluate long driving stress.

  18. The asymmetric facial skin perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy discovered by laser speckle imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Cui, Han; Chen, Yi; Zhong, Weizheng; Yu, Haibo; Li, Zhifeng; He, Yuhai; Yu, Wenlong; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Bell's palsy is a kind of peripheral neural disease that cause abrupt onset of unilateral facial weakness. In the pathologic study, it was evidenced that ischemia of facial nerve at the affected side of face existed in Bell's palsy patients. Since the direction of facial nerve blood flow is primarily proximal to distal, facial skin microcirculation would also be affected after the onset of Bell's palsy. Therefore, monitoring the full area of facial skin microcirculation would help to identify the condition of Bell's palsy patients. In this study, a non-invasive, real time and full field imaging technology - laser speckle imaging (LSI) technology was applied for measuring facial skin blood perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy patients. 85 participants with different stage of Bell's palsy were included. Results showed that Bell's palsy patients' facial skin perfusion of affected side was lower than that of the normal side at the region of eyelid, and that the asymmetric distribution of the facial skin perfusion between two sides of eyelid is positively related to the stage of the disease (P <  0.001). During the recovery, the perfusion of affected side of eyelid was increasing to nearly the same with the normal side. This study was a novel application of LSI in evaluating the facial skin perfusion of Bell's palsy patients, and we discovered that the facial skin blood perfusion could reflect the stage of Bell's palsy, which suggested that microcirculation should be investigated in patients with this neurological deficit. It was also suggested LSI as potential diagnostic tool for Bell's palsy.

  19. Facial peeling skin syndrome: a case report and a brief review.

    PubMed

    Janjua, Shahbaz Ahmad; Hussain, Ijaz; Khachemoune, Amor

    2007-03-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is an extremely rare genodermatosis of possible autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by asymptomatic spontaneous exfoliation of the stratum corneum at a subcorneal or intracorneal level. It usually presents at birth or appears later in early childhood. The condition may be generalized or localized. Here we describe a case of localized continual skin peeling limited to the facial skin in a 6-month-old infant, with two other members of the family affected with the same condition. A few cases of localized skin peeling limited to the acral surfaces have been described in the literature, but a familial case of localized skin peeling limited to the facial skin has not been described before. We believe that our patient represents a new subtype of peeling skin syndrome, limited to the skin of the face.

  20. Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, Marc Oliver; Rettinger, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance. Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors. Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:22073066

  1. Visible skin colouration predicts perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fink, B; Bunse, L; Matts, P J; D'Emiliano, D

    2012-08-01

    Although there is evidence that perception of facial age, health and attractiveness is informed by shape characteristics as well as by visible skin condition, studies on the latter have focused almost exclusively on female skin. Recent research, however, suggests that a decrease in skin colour homogeneity leads to older, less healthy and less attractive ratings of facial skin in both women and men. Here, we elaborate on the significance of the homogeneity of visible skin colouration in men by testing the hypothesis that perception of age, health and attractiveness of (non-contextual) digitally isolated fields of cheek skin only can predict that of whole facial images. Facial digital images of 160 British men (all Caucasian) aged between 10 and 70 were blind-rated for age, health and attractiveness by a total of 147 men and 154 women (mean age = 22.95, SD = 4.26), and these ratings were related to those of corresponding images of cheek skin reported by Fink et al. (J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. in press). Linear regression analysis showed that age, health and attractiveness perception of men's faces could be predicted by the ratings of cheek skin only, such that older men were viewed as older, less healthy and less attractive. This result underlines once again the potent signalling role of skin in its own right, independent of shape or other factors and suggests strongly that visible skin condition, and skin colour homogeneity in particular, plays a significant role in the perception of men's faces. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Home-use TriPollar RF device for facial skin tightening: Clinical study results.

    PubMed

    Beilin, Ghislaine

    2011-04-01

    Professional, non-invasive, anti-aging treatments based on radio-frequency (RF) technologies are popular for skin tightening and improvement of wrinkles. A new home-use RF device for facial treatments has recently been developed based on TriPollar™ technology. To evaluate the STOP™ home-use device for facial skin tightening using objective and subjective methods. Twenty-three female subjects used the STOP at home for a period of 6 weeks followed by a maintenance period of 6 weeks. Facial skin characteristics were objectively evaluated at baseline and at the end of the treatment and maintenance periods using a three-dimensional imaging system. Additionally, facial wrinkles were classified and subjects scored their satisfaction and sensations. Following STOP treatment, a statistically significant reduction of perioral and periorbital wrinkles was achieved in 90% and 95% of the patients, respectively, with an average periorbital wrinkle reduction of 41%. This objective result correlated well with the periorbital wrinkle classification result of 40%. All patients were satisfied to extremely satisfied with the treatments and all reported moderate to excellent visible results. The clinical study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the STOP home-use device for facial skin tightening. Treatment can maintain a tighter and suppler skin with improvement of fine lines and wrinkles.

  3. Patient experiences and outcomes following facial skin cancer surgery: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Erica H; Klassen, Anne F; Lawson, Jessica L; Cano, Stefan J; Scott, Amie M; Pusic, Andrea L

    2016-08-01

    Early melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer of the facial area are primarily treated with surgery. Little is known about the outcomes of treatment for facial skin cancer patients. The objective of the study was to identify concerns about aesthetics, procedures and health from the patients' perspective after facial skin surgery. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 participants. Line-by-line coding was used to establish categories and develop themes. We identified five major themes on the impact of skin cancer surgery: appearance-related concerns; psychological (e.g., fear of new cancers or recurrence); social (e.g. impact on social activities and interaction); physical (e.g. pain and swelling) concerns and satisfaction with the experience of care (e.g., satisfaction with surgeon). The priority of participants was the removal of the facial skin cancer, as this reduced their overall worry. The aesthetic outcome was secondary but important, as it had important implications on the participants' social and psychological functioning. The participants' experience with the care provided by the surgeon and staff also contributed to their satisfaction with their treatment. This conceptual framework provides the basis for the development of a new patient-reported outcome instrument. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  4. A Comparison of the Local Flap and Skin Graft by Location of Face in Reconstruction after Resection of Facial Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Kim, Jun Oh; Kim, Nam Gyun; Lee, Yoon Jung; Park, Young Ji; Kim, Jun Sik

    2017-12-01

    Surgery for reconstruction of defects after surgery should be performed selectively and the many points must be considered. The authors conducted this study to compare the local flap and skin graft by facial location in the reconstruction after resection of facial skin cancer. The authors performed the study in patients that had received treatment in Department of Plastic Surgery, Gyeongsang National University. The cases were analyzed according to the reconstruction methods for the defects after surgery, sex, age, tumor site, and tumor size. Additionally, the authors compared differences of aesthetic satisfaction (out of 5 points) of patients in the local flap and skin graft by facial location after resection of facial skin cancer by dividing the face into eight areas. A total of 153 cases were confirmed. The most common facial skin cancer was basal cell carcinoma (56.8%, 87 cases), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (37.2%, 57 cases) and bowen's disease (5.8%, 9 cases). The most common reconstruction method was local flap 119 cases (77.7%), followed by skin graft 34 cases (22.3%). 86 patients answered the questionnaire and mean satisfaction of the local flap and skin graft were 4.3 and 3.5 ( p =0.04), respectively, indicating that satisfaction of local flap was significantly high. When comparing satisfaction of patients according to results, local flap shows excellent effects in functional and cosmetic aspects would be able to provide excellent results rather than using a skin graft with poor touch and tone compared to the surrounding normal skin.

  5. What's in a face? The role of skin tone, facial physiognomy, and color presentation mode of facial primes in affective priming effects.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Participants (N = 106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this effect depended on the mode of color presentation. The results suggest that in affective priming tasks, faces might not be processed holistically, and instead, visual features of facial priming stimuli independently affect implicit evaluations.

  6. The efficacy of facial skin cancer treatment with high-energy pulsed neodymium and Nd:YAG lasers.

    PubMed

    Moskalik, Konstantin; Kozlov, Alexander; Demin, Eugeny; Boiko, Ernest

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the curative and cosmetic efficacy of treatment for facial skin cancer using neodymium laser irradiation. Due to the complex anatomy of the area, therapy for facial skin cancer is difficult. Laser irradiation was used for the treatment of 3461 patients with 3624 facial skin cancer lesions of stages T(1-2)N(0)M(0:) 3346 basal cell skin cancers, 188 limited basal cell skin cancer recurrences, and 90 squamous cell skin cancers. Pulsed neodymium (Nd) and Nd:YAG lasers were used as the energy sources. The patients were followed-up from 3 mo to 5 y or more. Patients with basal cell skin cancer treated by irradiation with the Nd laser developed recurrences in 1.8% of cases, and patients treated with the Nd:YAG laser had a recurrence rate of 2.5%. Recurrences following treatment for basal cell skin cancer, and those of squamous cell skin cancer, after irradiation with the Nd laser appeared in 3.7% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Overall, the frequency of facial skin cancer recurrences after treatment with laser irradiation was 2.1% of all the irradiated tumors. Neodymium laser irradiation is an effective method to treat facial skin cancer of stages T(1-2)N(0)M(0), and results in acceptable cosmetic results.

  7. Computational Simulation on Facial Expressions and Experimental Tensile Strength for Silicone Rubber as Artificial Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amijoyo Mochtar, Andi

    2018-02-01

    Applications of robotics have become important for human life in recent years. There are many specification of robots that have been improved and encriched with the technology advances. One of them are humanoid robot with facial expression which closer with the human facial expression naturally. The purpose of this research is to make computation on facial expressions and conduct the tensile strength for silicone rubber as artificial skin. Facial expressions were calculated by determining dimension, material properties, number of node elements, boundary condition, force condition, and analysis type. A Facial expression robot is determined by the direction and the magnitude external force on the driven point. The expression face of robot is identical with the human facial expression where the muscle structure in face according to the human face anatomy. For developing facial expression robots, facial action coding system (FACS) in approached due to follow expression human. The tensile strength is conducting due to check the proportional force of artificial skin that can be applied on the future of robot facial expression. Combining of calculated and experimental results can generate reliable and sustainable robot facial expression that using silicone rubber as artificial skin.

  8. Characterizing Facial Skin Ageing in Humans: Disentangling Extrinsic from Intrinsic Biological Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Trojahn, Carina; Dobos, Gabor; Lichterfeld, Andrea; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Facial skin ageing is caused by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Intrinsic ageing is highly related to chronological age. Age related skin changes can be measured using clinical and biophysical methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether and how clinical characteristics and biophysical parameters are associated with each other with and without adjustment for chronological age. Twenty-four female subjects of three age groups were enrolled. Clinical assessments (global facial skin ageing, wrinkling, and sagging), and biophysical measurements (roughness, colour, skin elasticity, and barrier function) were conducted at both upper cheeks. Pearson's correlations and linear regression models adjusted for age were calculated. Most of the measured parameters were correlated with chronological age (e.g., association with wrinkle score, r = 0.901) and with each other (e.g., residual skin deformation and wrinkle score, r = 0.606). After statistical adjustment for age, only few associations remained (e.g., mean roughness (R z) and luminance (L *),  β = −0.507, R 2 = 0.377). Chronological age as surrogate marker for intrinsic ageing has the most important influence on most facial skin ageing signs. Changes in skin elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and yellowness seem to be caused by additional extrinsic ageing. PMID:25767806

  9. Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness in relation to skin texture and color.

    PubMed

    Fink, B; Grammer, K; Thornhill, R

    2001-03-01

    The notion that surface texture may provide important information about the geometry of visible surfaces has attracted considerable attention for a long time. The present study shows that skin texture plays a significant role in the judgment of female facial beauty. Following research in clinical dermatology, the authors developed a computer program that implemented an algorithm based on co-occurrence matrices for the analysis of facial skin texture. Homogeneity and contrast features as well as color parameters were extracted out of stimulus faces. Attractiveness ratings of the images made by male participants relate positively to parameters of skin homogeneity. The authors propose that skin texture is a cue to fertility and health. In contrast to some previous studies, the authors found that dark skin, not light skin, was rated as most attractive.

  10. Skin and Bones: The Contribution of Skin Tone and Facial Structure to Racial Prototypicality Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Michael A.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Zhang, Shunan; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Lee, Hoon Koo

    2012-01-01

    Previous research reveals that a more ‘African’ appearance has significant social consequences, yielding more negative first impressions and harsher criminal sentencing of Black or White individuals. This study is the first to systematically assess the relative contribution of skin tone and facial metrics to White, Black, and Korean perceivers’ ratings of the racial prototypicality of faces from the same three groups. Our results revealed that the relative contribution of metrics and skin tone depended on both perceiver race and face race. White perceivers’ racial prototypicality ratings were less responsive to variations in skin tone than were Black or Korean perceivers’ ratings. White perceivers ratings’ also were more responsive to facial metrics than to skin tone, while the reverse was true for Black perceivers. Additionally, across all perceiver groups, skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics on racial prototypicality ratings of White faces, with the reverse for Korean faces. For Black faces, the relative impact varied with perceiver race: skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics for Black and Korean perceivers, with the reverse for White perceivers. These results have significant implications for predicting who will experience racial prototypicality biases and from whom. PMID:22815966

  11. Prefabricated neck expanded skin flap with the superficial temporal vessels for facial resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Davide; Su, Weijie; Qian, Yunliang; Messmer, Caroline; Agostini, Tommaso; Spinelli, Giuseppe; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Levin, L Scott; Zenn, Micheal R; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2013-05-01

    The achievement of a normal-appearing face after surgical resurfacing remains an elusive goal. This is due in part to insufficient color matching, restoration of contours, and the persistence of visible scars. Flap prefabrication is a staged procedure that provides an independent axial blood supply to local expanded tissues. We describe a new reconstructive alternative with superior reconstructive surgical options for facial resurfacing that better matches damaged or discarded facial tissues. A superficial temporal fascial flap was harvested as the vascular supply of the prefabricated neck flap and located in a subcutaneous neck pocket over a tissue expander. After a 5-month period for expansion and maturation, the prefabricated skin flap was raised, islanded, and rotated to resurface the facial defect. Four patients with hemifacial postburn contracture and two patients affected by hemifacial vascular malformations aged 17 to 42 years (mean 29 years) were successfully treated with no major complication after a mean period of 15 months. Prefabricated neck-expanded skin flap demonstrated an excellent color and texture match with facial skin that surrounded the repair sites, and optimal aesthetic results were obtained. Importantly, facial expression was completely maintained due to thinness and pliability of the rotated skin. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Establishing a profitable skin care practice in a facial plastic surgery office.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Edwin A

    2010-11-01

    Facial plastic surgeons seeking information about establishing and maintaining a first-rate skin care program and practice in their office will learn practice management tips and business advice. This content begins with presenting steps in patient evaluation and continues through development of a care plan. Discussion includes approach to skin care products, sunscreen, and related preventive and restorative methods. Detailed discussion is included of developing a personalized skin care plan. The content concludes with essential business tips and marketing advice for the facial plastic surgeon to include skin care in the surgical practice, including the way in which these are handled in the author's practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of the Facial Skin Care Index: A Health-Related Outcomes Index for Skin Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, B. Alex; Rhee, John S.; Neuburg, Marcy; Burzynski, Mary L.; Nattinger, Ann B.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Existing health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) tools do not appear to capture patients' specific skin cancer concerns. OBJECTIVE To describe the conceptual foundation, item generation, reduction process, and reliability testing for the Facial Skin Cancer Index (FSCI), a HRQOL outcomes tool for skin cancer researchers and clinicians. METHODS Participants in Phases I to III consisted of adult patients (N = 134) diagnosed with biopsy-proven nonmelanoma cervicofacial skin cancer. Data were collected via self-report surveys and clinical records. RESULTS Seventy-one distinct items were generated in Phase I and rated for their importance by an independent sample during Phase II; 36 items representing six theoretical HRQOL domains were retained. Test–retest I results indicated that four subscales showed adequate reliability coefficients (α = 0.60 to 0.91). Twenty-six items remained for test–retest II. Results indicated excellent internal consistency for emotional, social, appearance, and modified financial/work subscales (range 0.79 to 0.95); test–retest correlation coefficients were consistent across time (range 0.81 to 0.97; lifestyle omitted). CONCLUSION Pretesting afforded the opportunity to select items that optimally met our a priori conceptual and psychometric criteria for high data quality. Phase IV testing (validity and sensitivity before surgery and 4 months after Mohs micrographic surgery) for the 20-item FSCI is under way. PMID:16875475

  14. Human facial skin detection in thermal video to effectively measure electrodermal activity (EDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Leonard, Kevin R.; Nelson, Jill K.

    2011-06-01

    In the past, autonomic nervous system response has often been determined through measuring Electrodermal Activity (EDA), sometimes referred to as Skin Conductance (SC). Recent work has shown that high resolution thermal cameras can passively and remotely obtain an analog to EDA by assessing the activation of facial eccrine skin pores. This paper investigates a method to distinguish facial skin from non-skin portions on the face to generate a skin-only Dynamic Mask (DM), validates the DM results, and demonstrates DM performance by removing false pore counts. Moreover, this paper shows results from these techniques using data from 20+ subjects across two different experiments. In the first experiment, subjects were presented with primary screening questions for which some had jeopardy. In the second experiment, subjects experienced standard emotion-eliciting stimuli. The results from using this technique will be shown in relation to data and human perception (ground truth). This paper introduces an automatic end-to-end skin detection approach based on texture feature vectors. In doing so, the paper contributes not only a new capability of tracking facial skin in thermal imagery, but also enhances our capability to provide non-contact, remote, passive, and real-time methods for determining autonomic nervous system responses for medical and security applications.

  15. Facial resurfacing with a monoblock full-thickness skin graft after multiple malignant melanomas excision in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Selahattin; Uygur, Safak; Eryilmaz, Tolga; Ak, Betul

    2012-09-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is an autosomal recessive disease, characterized by vulnerability of the skin to solar radiation. Increase in sunlight-induced cancer is a direct consequence of an increase in mutated cells of the skin of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. There is no specific technique for facial resurfacing in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. In this article, a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum with multiple malignant melanomas on her face and radical excision of total facial skin followed by facial resurfacing with monoblock full-thickness skin graft from the abdomen is presented.

  16. Prefrontal oxygenation correlates to the responses in facial skin blood flows during exposure to pleasantly charged movie.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Endo, Kana; Asahara, Ryota; Yoshikawa, Miho; Kusunoki, Shinya; Ishida, Tomoko

    2017-11-01

    Our laboratory reported that facial skin blood flow may serve as a sensitive tool to assess an emotional status. Cerebral neural correlates during emotional interventions should be sought in relation to the changes in facial skin blood flow. To test the hypothesis that prefrontal activity has positive relation to the changes in facial skin blood flow during emotionally charged stimulation, we examined the dynamic changes in prefrontal oxygenation (with near-infrared spectroscopy) and facial skin blood flows (with two-dimensional laser speckle and Doppler flowmetry) during emotionally charged audiovisual challenges for 2 min (by viewing comedy, landscape, and horror movie) in 14 subjects. Hand skin blood flow and systemic hemodynamics were simultaneously measured. The extents of pleasantness and consciousness for each emotional stimulus were estimated by subjective rating from -5 (the most unpleasant; the most unconscious) to +5 (the most pleasant; the most conscious). Positively charged emotional stimulation (comedy) simultaneously decreased ( P  <   0.05) prefrontal oxygenation and facial skin blood flow, whereas negatively charged (horror) or neutral (landscape) emotional stimulation did not alter or slightly decreased them. Any of hand skin blood flow and systemic cardiovascular variables did not change significantly during positively charged emotional stimulation. The changes in prefrontal oxygenation had a highly positive correlation with the changes in facial skin blood flow without altering perfusion pressure, and they were inversely correlated with the subjective rating of pleasantness. The reduction in prefrontal oxygenation during positively charged emotional stimulation suggests a decrease in prefrontal neural activity, which may in turn elicit neurally mediated vasoconstriction of facial skin blood vessels. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American

  17. Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Bhawan, J; Andersen, W; Lee, J; Labadie, R; Solares, G

    1995-04-01

    Histologic studies have become increasingly important in recognizing morphologic differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged skin. Earlier histologic studies have attempted to evaluate these changes by examining anatomical sites which are not comparable, such as face and buttocks. As part of a multicenter study, we have quantitatively examined a panel of 16 histologic features in baseline facial skin biopsies from 158 women with moderate to severe photodamage. When compared to the postauricular area (photo protected), biopsies of the crow's feet area (photo exposed) had a twofold increase in melanocytes and a statistically significant increase in melanocytic atypia (p < .0001) and epidermal melanin (p < .0001). Other epidermal changes included reduced epidermal thickness (p < .01), more compact stratum corneum (p < .0001) and increased granular layer thickness (p < .0001) in the crow's feet skin. There was increased solar elastosis (p < .0001), dermal elastic tissue (p < .0001), melanophages (p < .0001), perivascular inflammation (p < .05) and perifollicular fibrosis (p < .01) but no change in the number of mast cells or dermal mucin in the photo exposed skin. Our data document quantitative differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged facial skin and provides the groundwork for future studies to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments for photoaged skin.

  18. Objective measures for quality assessment of automatic skin enhancement algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuc, Mihai; Capata, Adrian; Florea, Corneliu

    2010-01-01

    Automatic portrait enhancement by attenuating skin flaws (pimples, blemishes, wrinkles, etc.) has received considerable attention from digital camera manufacturers thanks to its impact on the public. Subsequently, a number of algorithms have been developed to meet this need. One central aspect to developing such an algorithm is quality assessment: having a few numbers that precisely indicate the amount of beautification brought by an algorithm (as perceived by human observers) is of great help, as it works on circumvent time-costly human evaluation. In this paper, we propose a method to numerically evaluate the quality of a skin beautification algorithm. The most important aspects we take into account and quantize to numbers are the quality of the skin detector, the amount of smoothing performed by the method, the preservation of intrinsic skin texture, and the preservation of facial features. We combine these measures into two numbers that assess the quality of skin detection and beautification. The derived measures are highly correlated with human perception, therefore they constitute a helpful tool for tuning and comparing algorithms.

  19. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-01-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA® Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging. PMID:24910280

  20. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study

    PubMed Central

    Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2) and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore’s morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed. PMID:25733918

  1. Tolerance of fragranced and fragrance-free facial cleansers in adults with clinically sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe D; Fowler, Joseph; Larsen, Walter G; Hornby, Sidney; Walters, Russel M; Appa, Yohini

    2015-10-01

    Although mild, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleansers generally are recommended for individuals with sensitive skin, many consumers choose fragranced foaming cleansers. The addition of hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) to mild facial cleansers has been shown to improve product tolerability in individuals with sensitive skin while facilitating foaming. The objective of the 2 studies reported here was to assess the tolerability of a mild, HMP-containing, foaming facial cleanser with a fragrance that was free of common allergens and irritating essential oils in patients with sensitive skin. In the first study, 8 participants with clinically diagnosed fragrance sensitivity used a gentle foaming HMP-containing facial cleanser with or without fragrance for 3 weeks. Both cleansers improved global disease severity, irritation, and erythema with similar cleansing effectiveness. The second study was a 3-week, prospective, double-blind, randomized, 2-center study of 153 participants with clinically diagnosed sensitive skin. In this study, the fragranced gentle foaming cleanser with HMP was as well tolerated as a benchmark gentle, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleanser. Itching, irritation, and desquamation were most improved from baseline in both groups. The participant-rated effectiveness of the cleanser with HMP was similar or better than the benchmark cleanser after 3 weeks of use. In conclusion, the gentle facial cleanser with HMPs and a fragrance offers a new option for adults with sensitive skin who may prefer, and commonly use, a fragranced and foaming product.

  2. Multifractional microablative laser combined with spacially modulated ablative (SMA) technology for facial skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Hersant, Barbara; SidAhmed-Mezi, Mounia; Chossat, Adrien; Meningaud, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for aesthetic procedures, especially facial aesthetic surgery, a new laser technology has been developed for facial skin rejuvenation and wrinkle treatment. The aim of this study was to objectively and subjectively assess the clinical efficacy and safety of Erbium:YAG laser combined with Spatially Modulated Ablation (Er:YAG + SMA) on facial skin rejuvenation. Patients with Fitzpatrick skin type's I-IV were prospectively included. Inclusion criteria consisted of having wrinkles and irregular skin texture. All patients underwent two Er:YAG + SMA sessions (1 month apart) to stimulate tissue regeneration. Er:YAG laser emits wavelength at 2,940 nm and when combined with SMA, a resonance effect is produced in the dermis to promote tissue regeneration. Facial skin elasticity and firmness were objectively assessed by Cutometer at baseline and month 6 (M6). Aesthetic improvement was qualitatively assessed using digital photographs. Patient satisfaction with regard to their facial appearance was self-assessed using the validated FACE-Q scale and the patient-perceived age VAS scale at baseline, M1, and M6. Side effects were investigated after each session. Thirty-four patients were included, 50% (18 patients) had Fitzpatrick skin type III and 41% (14 patients) were smokers. Skin elasticity indices were significantly improved: from 0.335 ± 0.015 at baseline to 0.387 ± 0.021 at M6 (P = 0.05*) for R5 (net elasticity). Skin firmness was assessed through R7 (biological elasticity) and R6 (viscoelastic ratio) at baseline and M6: a significant increase from 0.235 ± 0.01 to 0.2709 ± 0.009 (P < 0.03**) and decrease from 0.486 ± 0.022 to 0.3918 ± 0.023 (P < 0.006***) were respectively observed. A negative value for R6 corresponded to an improved skin condition. The FACE-Q scores were significantly increased from 39.4 ± 6.7 at baseline to 45.4 ± 9.1 at M1 (P < 0.006***) and 50.4 ± 9.8 at

  3. Colour homogeneity and visual perception of age, health and attractiveness of male facial skin.

    PubMed

    Fink, B; Matts, P J; D'Emiliano, D; Bunse, L; Weege, B; Röder, S

    2012-12-01

    Visible facial skin condition in females is known to affect perception of age, health and attractiveness. Skin colour distribution in shape- and topography-standardized female faces, driven by localized melanin and haemoglobin, can account for up to twenty years of apparent age perception. Although this is corroborated by an ability to discern female age even in isolated, non-contextual skin images, a similar effect in the perception of male skin is yet to be demonstrated. To investigate the effect of skin colour homogeneity and chromophore distribution on the visual perception of age, health and attractiveness of male facial skin. Cropped images from the cheeks of facial images of 160 Caucasian British men aged 10-70 years were blind-rated for age, health and attractiveness by a total of 308 participants. In addition, the homogeneity of skin images and corresponding eumelanin/oxyhaemoglobin concentration maps were analysed objectively using Haralick's image segmentation algorithm. Isolated skin images taken from the cheeks of younger males were judged as healthier and more attractive. Perception of age, health and attractiveness was strongly related to melanin and haemoglobin distribution, whereby more even distributions led to perception of younger age and greater health and attractiveness. The evenness of melanized features was a stronger cue for age perception, whereas haemoglobin distribution was associated more strongly with health and attractiveness perception. Male skin colour homogeneity, driven by melanin and haemoglobin distribution, influences perception of age, health and attractiveness. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Management of facial burns with a collagen/glycosaminoglycan skin substitute-prospective experience with 12 consecutive patients with large, deep facial burns.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthew B; Engrav, Loren H; Holmes, James H; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Costa, Beth A; Honari, Shari; Gibran, Nicole S

    2005-05-01

    Management of deep facial burns remains one of the greatest challenges in burn care. We have developed a protocol over the past 20 years for management of facial burns that includes excision and coverage with thick autograft. However, the results were not perfect. Deformities of the eyelids, nose and mouth as well as the prominence of skin graft junctures demonstrated the need to explore novel approaches. Integra has been used with success in the management of burns of the trunk and extremities. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the aesthetic outcome of the use of Integra for deep facial burns. Twelve consecutive patients underwent excision of large, deep facial burns and placement of Integra. Integra provides excellent color and minimally visible skin graft junctures. The texture is good but not as supple as thick autograft. Integra is not well suited for use in the coverage of eyelid burns due to the need to wait 2 weeks for adequate vascularization. In summary, thick autograft remains the gold standard for deep facial burns. However, for patients with extensive burns and limited donor sites, Integra provides an acceptable alternative.

  5. Dermal carbonyl modification is related to the yellowish color change of photo-aged Japanese facial skin.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuki; Kuwahara, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Minoru; Tajima, Shingo; Hattori, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kouhei; Okawa, Shinpei; Yamada, Yukio; Tagami, Hachiro; Takahashi, Motoji; Hirao, Tetsuji

    2011-10-01

    The photo-aged facial skin is characterized by various unique features such as dark spots, wrinkles, and sagging. Elderly people, particularly Asians, tend to show a yellowish skin color change with photo-aging. However, there has been no analytical study conducted on this unique skin color change of the aged facial skin. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether the carbonyl modification in the dermal protein is involved in the yellowish color change that occurs in the photo-aged skin. Normal skin samples excised from the face, abdomen and buttock of variously aged Japanese were separated into the epidermal and the dermal portions. These skin samples were histologically examined for carbonyl modification. Moreover, an in vitro constructed dermis model composed of a contracted collagen gel was treated with acrolein or 4-hydroxynonenal. All these samples were also studied colorimetrically. The dermal samples obtained from the photo-aged facial skin exhibited an appearance of yellowish color, whereas neither the facial epidermis nor the dermis obtained from the abdomen or buttock showed such a yellowish discoloration. The upper layer of the dermis that revealed the yellowish color showed elastosis whose elastic fibers were found to colocalize with carbonyl protein as detected by a labeled hydrazide, as well as by an immunohistochemical examination using the antibody against acrolein adduct. Experimental induction of carbonyl modification in a dermis model in vitro by a long-term treatment with acrolein or 4-hydroxynonenal was found to show the appearance of the yellowish change which was also proven by an increase in b* value of colorimetry. It was more pronounced than that induced by glycation. Our present results strongly suggest that carbonyl modification of the dermal protein is involved in the production of the yellowish color change that is noted in the photo-aged facial skin. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology

  6. Random fractional ultrapulsed CO2 resurfacing of photodamaged facial skin: long-term evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tretti Clementoni, Matteo; Galimberti, Michela; Tourlaki, Athanasia; Catenacci, Maximilian; Lavagno, Rosalia; Bencini, Pier Luca

    2013-02-01

    Although numerous papers have recently been published on ablative fractional resurfacing, there is a lack of information in literature on very long-term results. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy, adverse side effects, and long-term results of a random fractional ultrapulsed CO2 laser on a large population with photodamaged facial skin. Three hundred twelve patients with facial photodamaged skin were enrolled and underwent a single full-face treatment. Six aspects of photodamaged skin were recorded using a 5 point scale at 3, 6, and 24 months after the treatment. The results were compared with a non-parametric statistical test, the Wilcoxon's exact test. Three hundred one patients completed the study. All analyzed features showed a significant statistical improvement 3 months after the procedure. Three months later all features, except for pigmentations, once again showed a significant statistical improvement. Results after 24 months were similar to those assessed 18 months before. No long-term or other serious complications were observed. From the significant number of patients analyzed, long-term results demonstrate not only how fractional ultrapulsed CO2 resurfacing can achieve good results on photodamaged facial skin but also how these results can be considered stable 2 years after the procedure.

  7. The effect of skin surface topography and skin colouration cues on perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fink, B; Matts, P J; Brauckmann, C; Gundlach, S

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of skin surface topography and colouration cues on the perception of female faces reported a differential weighting for the perception of skin topography and colour evenness, where topography was a stronger visual cue for the perception of age, whereas skin colour evenness was a stronger visual cue for the perception of health. We extend these findings in a study of the effect of skin surface topography and colour evenness cues on the perceptions of facial age, health and attractiveness in males. Facial images of six men (aged 40 to 70 years), selected for co-expression of lines/wrinkles and discolouration, were manipulated digitally to create eight stimuli, namely, separate removal of these two features (a) on the forehead, (b) in the periorbital area, (c) on the cheeks and (d) across the entire face. Omnibus (within-face) pairwise combinations, including the original (unmodified) face, were presented to a total of 240 male and female judges, who selected the face they considered younger, healthier and more attractive. Significant effects were detected for facial image choice, in response to skin feature manipulation. The combined removal of skin surface topography resulted in younger age perception compared with that seen with the removal of skin colouration cues, whereas the opposite pattern was found for health preference. No difference was detected for the perception of attractiveness. These perceptual effects were seen particularly on the forehead and cheeks. Removing skin topography cues (but not discolouration) in the periorbital area resulted in higher preferences for all three attributes. Skin surface topography and colouration cues affect the perception of age, health and attractiveness in men's faces. The combined removal of these features on the forehead, cheeks and in the periorbital area results in the most positive assessments. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Changes in Women's Facial Skin Color over the Ovulatory Cycle are Not Detectable by the Human Visual System.

    PubMed

    Burriss, Robert P; Troscianko, Jolyon; Lovell, P George; Fulford, Anthony J C; Stevens, Martin; Quigley, Rachael; Payne, Jenny; Saxton, Tamsin K; Rowland, Hannah M

    2015-01-01

    Human ovulation is not advertised, as it is in several primate species, by conspicuous sexual swellings. However, there is increasing evidence that the attractiveness of women's body odor, voice, and facial appearance peak during the fertile phase of their ovulatory cycle. Cycle effects on facial attractiveness may be underpinned by changes in facial skin color, but it is not clear if skin color varies cyclically in humans or if any changes are detectable. To test these questions we photographed women daily for at least one cycle. Changes in facial skin redness and luminance were then quantified by mapping the digital images to human long, medium, and shortwave visual receptors. We find cyclic variation in skin redness, but not luminance. Redness decreases rapidly after menstrual onset, increases in the days before ovulation, and remains high through the luteal phase. However, we also show that this variation is unlikely to be detectable by the human visual system. We conclude that changes in skin color are not responsible for the effects of the ovulatory cycle on women's attractiveness.

  9. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry ) and skin roughness (Ra ) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow's feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects.

  10. High dose rate brachytherapy with customized applicators for malignant facial skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Jumeau, R; Renard-Oldrini, S; Courrech, F; Buchheit, I; Oldrini, G; Vogin, G; Peiffert, D

    2016-07-01

    Brachytherapy is a well-known treatment in the management of skin tumors. For facial or scalp lesions, applicators have been developed to deliver non-invasive treatment. We present cases treated with customized applicators with high dose rate system. Patients with poor performance status treated for malignant skin lesions of the scalp or the facial skin between 2011 and 2014 were studied. Afterloading devices were chosen between Freiburg(®) Flap, silicone-mold or wax applicators. The clinical target volume (CTV) was created by adding margins to lesions (10mm to 20mm). The dose schedules were 25Gy in five fractions for postoperative lesions, 30Gy in six fractions for exclusive treatments and a single session of 8Gy could be considered for palliative treatments. In 30 months, 11 patients received a treatment for a total of 12 lesions. The median age was 80 years. The median follow-up was 17 months and the 2-year local control rate was 91%. The mean CTV surface was 41.1cm(2) with a mean thickness of 6.1mm. We conceived three wax applicators, used our silicone-mold eight times and the Freiburg(®) Flap one time. We observed only low-grade radiodermitis (grade I: 50%, grade II: 33%), and no high-grade skin toxicity. High dose rate brachytherapy with customized applicators for facial skin and scalp lesions is efficient and safe. It is a good modality to treat complex lesions in patients unfit for invasive treatment. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of psychological stress in confined environments using salivary, skin, and facial image parameters.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Mariko; Haze, Shinichiro; Gozu, Yoko; Hosoi, Junichi; Onodera, Tomoko; Tojo, Yosuke; Katsuyama, Masako; Hara, Yusuke; Katagiri, Chika; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Furukawa, Satoshi; Suzuki, Go

    2018-05-29

    Detecting the influence of psychological stress is particularly important in prolonged space missions. In this study, we determined potential markers of psychological stress in a confined environment. We examined 23 Japanese subjects staying for 2 weeks in a confined facility at Tsukuba Space Center, measuring salivary, skin, and facial image parameters. Saliva was collected at four points in a single day to detect diurnal variation. Increases in salivary cortisol were detected after waking up on the 4th and 11th days, and at 15:30 on the 1st and in the second half of the stay. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and sebum content of the skin were higher compared with outside the facility on the 4th and 1st days respectively. Increased IL-1β in the stripped stratum corneum was observed on the 14th day, and 7 days after leaving. Differences in facial expression symmetry at the time of facial expression changes were observed on 11th and 14th days. Thus, we detected a transition of psychological stress using salivary cortisol profiles and skin physiological parameters. The results also suggested that IL-1β in the stripped stratum corneum and facial expression symmetry are possible novel markers for conveniently detecting psychological stress.

  12. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    Background The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry) and skin roughness (Ra) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow’s feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. PMID:25552908

  13. A randomized controlled trial of skin care protocols for facial resurfacing: lessons learned from the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation's Skin Products Assessment Research study.

    PubMed

    Pannucci, Christopher J; Reavey, Patrick L; Kaweski, Susan; Hamill, Jennifer B; Hume, Keith M; Wilkins, Edwin G; Pusic, Andrea L

    2011-03-01

    The Skin Products Assessment Research Committee was created by the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation in 2006. The Skin Products Assessment Research study aims were to (1) develop an infrastructure for Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation-conducted, industry-sponsored research in facial aesthetic surgery and (2) test the research process by comparing outcomes of the Obagi Nu-Derm System versus conventional therapy as treatment adjuncts for facial resurfacing procedures. The Skin Products Assessment Research study was designed as a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. The study was conducted in women with Fitzpatrick type I to IV skin, moderate to severe facial photodamage, and periocular and/or perioral fine wrinkles. Patients underwent chemical peel or laser facial resurfacing and were randomized to the Obagi Nu-Derm System or a standard care regimen. The study endpoints were time to reepithelialization, erythema, and pigmentation changes. Fifty-six women were enrolled and 82 percent were followed beyond reepithelialization. There were no significant differences in mean time to reepithelialization between Obagi Nu-Derm System and control groups. The Obagi Nu-Derm System group had a significantly higher median erythema score on the day of surgery (after 4 weeks of product use) that did not persist after surgery. Test-retest photographic evaluations demonstrated that both interrater and intrarater reliability were adequate for primary study outcomes. The authors demonstrated no significant difference in time to reepithelialization between patients who used the Obagi Nu-Derm System or a standard care regimen as an adjunct to facial resurfacing procedures. The Skin Products Assessment Research team has also provided a discussion of future challenges for Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation-sponsored clinical research for readers of this article.

  14. Changes in Women’s Facial Skin Color over the Ovulatory Cycle are Not Detectable by the Human Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Burriss, Robert P.; Troscianko, Jolyon; Lovell, P. George; Fulford, Anthony J. C.; Stevens, Martin; Quigley, Rachael; Payne, Jenny; Saxton, Tamsin K.; Rowland, Hannah M.

    2015-01-01

    Human ovulation is not advertised, as it is in several primate species, by conspicuous sexual swellings. However, there is increasing evidence that the attractiveness of women’s body odor, voice, and facial appearance peak during the fertile phase of their ovulatory cycle. Cycle effects on facial attractiveness may be underpinned by changes in facial skin color, but it is not clear if skin color varies cyclically in humans or if any changes are detectable. To test these questions we photographed women daily for at least one cycle. Changes in facial skin redness and luminance were then quantified by mapping the digital images to human long, medium, and shortwave visual receptors. We find cyclic variation in skin redness, but not luminance. Redness decreases rapidly after menstrual onset, increases in the days before ovulation, and remains high through the luteal phase. However, we also show that this variation is unlikely to be detectable by the human visual system. We conclude that changes in skin color are not responsible for the effects of the ovulatory cycle on women’s attractiveness. PMID:26134671

  15. Regional and seasonal variations in facial sebum secretions: a proposal for the definition of combination skin type.

    PubMed

    Youn, Sang Woong; Na, Jung Im; Choi, Sun Young; Huh, Chang Hun; Park, Kyoung Chan

    2005-08-01

    Facial sebum secretions are known to change under various circumstances. Facial skin types have been categorized as oily, normal, dry, and combination types. However, these have been evaluated subjectively by individuals to date, and no objective accepted standard measurement method exists. The combination skin type is most common, but its definition is vaguer than the definitions of the other skin types. We measured facial sebum secretions with Sebumeter. Sebum secretions were measured at five sites of the face seasonally for a year, in the same volunteers. Using the data obtained we developed a set of rules to define the combination skin type. Regional differences in sebum secretion were confirmed. Sebum secretions on forehead, nose, and chin were higher than on both cheeks. Summer was found to be the highest sebum-secreting season, and seasonal variations were found in the T- and U-zones. A mismatch of skin type in the T- and U-zones in more than two seasons appears to be close to subjective ratings of what is described as the 'combination' skin type. We showed that the face shows definitive regional and seasonal variations in sebum secretion. To define the combination skin type, seasonal variations in sebum secretion should be considered in addition to regional variations.

  16. The importance of skin color and facial structure in perceiving and remembering others: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Brebner, Joanne L; Krigolson, Olav; Handy, Todd C; Quadflieg, Susanne; Turk, David J

    2011-05-04

    The own-race bias (ORB) is a well-documented recognition advantage for own-race (OR) over cross-race (CR) faces, the origin of which remains unclear. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while Caucasian participants age-categorized Black and White faces which were digitally altered to display either a race congruent or incongruent facial structure. The results of a subsequent surprise memory test indicated that regardless of facial structure participants recognized White faces better than Black faces. Additional analyses revealed that temporally-early ERP components associated with face-specific perceptual processing (N170) and the individuation of facial exemplars (N250) were selectively sensitive to skin color. In addition, the N200 (a component that has been linked to increased attention and depth of encoding afforded to in-group and OR faces) was modulated by color and structure, and correlated with subsequent memory performance. However, the LPP component associated with the cognitive evaluation of perceptual input was influenced by racial differences in facial structure alone. These findings suggest that racial differences in skin color and facial structure are detected during the encoding of unfamiliar faces, and that the categorization of conspecifics as members of our social in-group on the basis of their skin color may be a determining factor in our ability to subsequently remember them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-10-01

    The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p -values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion.

  18. Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

    2014-08-01

    Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception of Chinese and Caucasian faces.

  19. Repair of a facial defect with an interpolation skin flap in a cat.

    PubMed

    Allen, S W; Miller, M A; Haas, K M

    1997-05-01

    A 9-year-old domestic shorthair cat was referred for removal of a rostrally located fibrosarcoma on the face, which had previously recurred twice following excision. A wide excision was performed, using a neodymium:yttrium-aluminumgarnet (Nd:YAG) laser, resulting in a facial defect that could not be closed by primary suture. An interpolation skin flap was elevated, using skin from the side of the cat's face, and sutured in place over the defect. Recurrence of the tumor at the medial canthus of the left eye, which was observed 4 months after surgery, was treated by laser excision and cryotherapy. Other recurrences of the fibrosarcoma were not noticed for 2.5 years after referral, at which time the cat was euthanatized for other reasons. Necropsy revealed that the fibrosarcoma had not recurred. In this cat, an interpolation skin flap was useful in repairing a large rostral facial defect. Care should be taken when elevating this flap to preserve the palpebral nerve.

  20. The effects of a daily facial lotion containing vitamins B3 and E and provitamin B5 on the facial skin of Indian women: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Jerajani, Hemangi R; Mizoguchi, Haruko; Li, James; Whittenbarger, Debora J; Marmor, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The B vitamins niacinamide and panthenol have been shown to reduce many signs of skin aging, including hyperpigmentation and redness. To measure the facial skin effects in Indian women of the daily use of a lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopherol acetate using quantitative image analysis. Adult women 30-60 years of age with epidermal hyperpigmentation were recruited in Mumbai and randomly assigned to apply a test or control lotion to the face daily for 10 weeks. Effects on skin tone were measured using an image capturing system and associated software. Skin texture was assessed by expert graders. Barrier function was evaluated by transepithelial water loss measurements. Subjects and evaluators were blinded to the product assignment. Of 246 women randomized to treatment, 207 (84%) completed the study. Women who used the test lotion experienced significantly reduced appearance of hyperpigmentation, improved skin tone evenness, appearance of lightening of skin, and positive effects on skin texture. Improvements versus control were seen as early as 6 weeks. The test lotion was well tolerated. The most common adverse event was a transient, mild burning sensation. Daily use of a facial lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate improved skin tone and texture and was well tolerated in Indian women with facial signs of aging.

  1. [Reconstruction of zygomatic-facial massive defect using modified bilobed flap after resection of skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Ling, Bin; Abass, Keremu; Hu, Mei; Yin, Xiaopeng; Hu, Lulu; Lin, Zhaoquan; Gong, Zhongcheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the clinical application of the modified bilobed flap in the reconstruction of zygomatic-facial massive defect after resection of skin cancer. Between August 2009 and October 2011, 15 patients with skin cancer in the zygomatic-facial region underwent defect reconstruction using modified bilobed flaps after surgical removal. There were 12 males and 3 females, aged 52-78 years (mean, 64.1 years). The disease duration was 1-14 months (mean, 4.6 months). Among the patients, there were 11 cases of basal cell carcinoma and 4 cases of squamous cell carcinoma; 1 patient had infection and the others had no skin ulceration; and tumor involved the skin layer in all patients. According to TNM staging, 13 cases were rated as T2N0M2 and 2 cases as T3N0M3. The defect size ranged from 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 4.0 cm after cancer resection. The modified bilobed flaps consisting of pre-auricular flap and post-auricular flap was used to repair the defect after cancer resection. The size ranged from 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 4.0 cm of the first flap and from 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm to 5.0 cm x 3.0 cm of the second flap. Partial incision dehiscence occurred in 1 case, and was cured after dressing change; the flaps survived and incision healed primarily in the other cases. Fourteen patients were followed up 12-24 months (mean, 18.7 months). No recurrence was found, and the patients had no obvious face asymmetry or skin scar with normal closure of eyelid and facial nerve function. At last follow-up, the results were very satisfactory in 5 cases, satisfactory in 7 cases, generally satisfactory in 1 case, and dissatisfactory in 1 case. The pre- and post-auricular bilobed flaps could be used to reconstruct the massive defects in the zygomatic-facial region after resection of skin cancer.

  2. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

    2008-02-01

    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  3. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. Objective To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Methods Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Results Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p-values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. Conclusion In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion. PMID:27746642

  4. Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream.

    PubMed

    Ali, Atif; Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

    2014-05-01

    Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan(®) VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects.

  5. Reverse-flow retroauricular island flap in facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Benlier, Erol; Top, Husamettin; Cinar, Can; Yazar, Sukru; Aygit, A Cemal; Cetinkale, Oguz

    2007-12-01

    Reconstruction of facial skin defects requires good-quality skin cover to satisfy aesthetic expectations of patient, especially when the skin defect is on the uncovered area of the face. Limitations in the available local tissue and donor-site morbidity restrict the options. In an effort to solve these problems, we have begun to use a subcutaneous pedicled retroauricular reverse-flow flap. Between January 1997 and December 2005, reverse-flow subcutaneous pedicled retroauricular island flap was used to cover facial defects in 12 patients who underwent surgical excision of skin tumor. The patients ranged in age from 44 to 81 years with a mean age of 58 years. Only one case experienced a superficial necrosis in the distal one-quarter part of the flap. The functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory for both patients and surgeons, and no tumor recurrence was observed during the 12 to 28 months (mean, 18.8 months) follow-up period. This flap can be used reliably for the reconstruction of facial skin defects of small and medium size. The preference of frontal branch pedicled flap enables more distal facial area defects to be covered, such as dorsal nasal, nasolabial, and upper lip, than flaps based on parietal branch.

  6. Age-related differences in morphological characteristics of residual skin surface components collected from the surface of facial skin of healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chalyk, N E; Bandaletova, T Y; Kyle, N H; Petyaev, I M

    2017-05-01

    Global increase of human longevity results in the emergence of previously ignored ageing-related problems. Skin ageing is a well-known phenomenon, but active search for scientific approaches to its prevention and even skin rejuvenation is a relatively new area. Although the structure and composition of the stratum corneum (SC), the superficial layer of epidermis, is well studied, relatively little is known about the residual skin surface components (RSSC) that overlay the surface of the SC. The aim of this study was to examine morphological features of RSSC samples non-invasively collected from the surface of human facial skin for the presence of age-related changes. Residual skin surface component samples were collected by swabbing from the surface of facial skin of 60 adult male volunteers allocated in two age groups: 34 subjects aged in the range 18-32 years and 26 subjects aged in the range 58-72 years. The collected samples were analysed microscopically: the size of the lipid droplets was measured; desquamated corneocytes and lipid crystals were counted; and microbial presence was assessed semi-quantitatively. Age-related changes were revealed for all studied components of the RSSC. There was a significant (P = 0.0126) decrease in the size of lipid droplets among older men. Likewise, significantly (P = 0.0252) lower numbers of lipid crystals were present in this group. In contrast, microbial presence in the RSSC was significantly (P = 0.0019) increased in the older group. There was also a trend towards more abundant corneocyte desquamation among older men, but the difference has not reached statistical significance (P = 0.0636). Non-invasively collected RSSC samples present an informative material for studying age-related changes on the surface of the SC of human facial skin. The results of this study confirm earlier observations regarding age-associated decline of the efficiency of the epidermal barrier and can be used for testing new approaches to skin

  7. An alternative method for facial resurfacing: supraclavicular skin prefabrication by perforator fascia flap.

    PubMed

    Hocaoğlu, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Prefabrication of supraclavicular skin provides a useful source for flaps congruent with the face skin. Among various vascular sources that have been used for this purpose, anterolateral thigh fascia seems to represent a greater value because of having a long and strong vascular pedicle and negligible donor-site morbidity. In this regard, we present a technical report on using the lateral circumflex femoral artery perforator flap harvest technique in preparing an anterolateral thigh fascia flap for the prefabrication of the supraclavicular skin. The technique proved successful in resurfacing the facial skin of a young female patient with a giant congenital melanocytic hairy nevus on the left side of her face.

  8. Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. Aim To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Material and methods Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan® VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Results Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. Conclusions The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects. PMID:25097471

  9. Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, I.; Tseng, S. H.; Cula, G. O.; Bargo, P. R.; Kollias, N.

    2009-02-01

    The activity of certain bacteria in skin is known to correlate to the presence of porphyrins. In particular the presence of coproporphyrin produced by P.acnes inside plugged pores has been correlated to acne vulgaris. Another porphyrin encountered in skin is protoporphyrin IX, which is produced by the body in the pathway for production of heme. In the present work, a fluorescence spectroscopy system was developed to measure the characteristic spectrum and quantify the two types of porphyrins commonly present in human facial skin. The system is comprised of a Xe lamp both for fluorescence excitation and broadband light source for diffuse reflectance measurements. A computer-controlled filter wheel enables acquisition of sequential spectra, first excited by blue light at 405 nm then followed by the broadband light source, at the same location. The diffuse reflectance spectrum was used to correct the fluorescence spectrum due to the presence of skin chromophores, such as blood and melanin. The resulting fluorescence spectra were employed for the quantification of porphyrin concentration in a population of healthy subjects. The results show great variability on the concentration of these porphyrins and further studies are being conducted to correlate them with skin conditions such as inflammation and acne vulgaris.

  10. Assessment of the effects of skin microneedling as adjuvant therapy for facial melasma: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lima, Emerson V A; Lima, Mariana Modesto D A; Paixão, Mauricio Pedreira; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-11-28

    Melasma is a common chronic and relapsing acquired dyschromia. Skin microneedling was reported resulting sustained long-term improvement of recalcitrant melasma, however, the exact mechanism that promotes this skin lightening is not known. This study aimed to investigate clinical and histologic alterations promoted by skin microneedling in facial melasma. Open pilot trial including six women with facial refractory melasma submitted to two sessions of microneedling (1.5 mm) each 30 days followed by daily triple combination and broad-spectrum sunscreen. Comparison of pretreatment (T0) and 15 days after last microneedling procedure (T45) was made by standardized pictures, skin colorimetry, MASI, MELASQoL and histological parameters (haematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius-red, periodic acid Schiff and Fontana-Masson staining). The age of the subjects varied from 34 to 46 years-old, the phototypes were III and IV (Fitzpatrick), and age of melasma onset was 20 to 38 years. Improvement of melasma was perceived in all subjects. There was a significant reduction of MASI score (-70%), MELASQoL (-55%) and increase in L* (+13%) colorimetric value (p < 0.03). All cases evidenced epithelium thickening, decrease in melanin pigmentation and densification of upper dermis collagen (p = 0.03). Patients were followed by 6 months under broad-spectrum sunscreen and triple combination without relapse. In addition to classic treatment (broad-spectrum sunscreen and triple combination), skin microneedling promoted clinical and histological improvement of refractory facial melasma.

  11. Validity and reliability of a structured-light 3D scanner and an ultrasound imaging system for measurements of facial skin thickness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Woo; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Gil, Young-Chun; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3 D)-scanning-based morphological studies of the face are commonly included in various clinical procedures. This study evaluated validity and reliability of a 3 D scanning system by comparing the ultrasound (US) imaging system versus the direct measurement of facial skin. The facial skin thickness at 19 landmarks was measured using the three different methods in 10 embalmed adult Korean cadavers. Skin thickness was first measured using the ultrasound device, then 3 D scanning of the facial skin surface was performed. After the skin on the left half of face was gently dissected, deviating slightly right of the midline, to separate it from the subcutaneous layer, and the harvested facial skin's thickness was measured directly using neck calipers. The dissected specimen was then scanned again, then the scanned images of undissected and dissected faces were superimposed using Morpheus Plastic Solution (version 3.0) software. Finally, the facial skin thickness was calculated from the superimposed images. The ICC value for the correlations between the 3 D scanning system and direct measurement showed excellent reliability (0.849, 95% confidence interval = 0.799-0.887). Bland-Altman analysis showed a good level of agreement between the 3 D scanning system and direct measurement (bias = 0.49 ± 0.49 mm, mean±SD). These results demonstrate that the 3 D scanning system precisely reflects structural changes before and after skin dissection. Therefore, an in-depth morphological study using this 3 D scanning system could provide depth data about the main anatomical structures of face, thereby providing crucial anatomical knowledge for utilization in various clinical applications. Clin. Anat. 30:878-886, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Efficacy of the combined use of a facial cleanser and moisturizers for the care of mild acne patients with sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Kenichi; Seki, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yosuke; Umeda, Koji; Nishizaka, Takahiro; Tanabe, Hisateru; Takagi, Yutaka; Ishida, Koichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    Acne is a common skin disease that involves the seborrheic area of the face and results from the obstruction of hair follicles followed by inflammation. Careful face washing helps to improve and prevent acne; however, intensive washing has a risk of inducing skin barrier impairment and dry skin, especially in sensitive skin. We hypothesized that skin care combining mild skin cleansing and intensive moisturizing ("combination skin care") may be effective in the care of acne in subjects with dry skin and/or sensitive skin. We developed a combination skin care with a weakly acidic foaming facial skin cleanser based on a mild detergent, an aqueous lotion with eucalyptus extract and a moisturizing gel containing pseudo-ceramide and eucalyptus extract. To optimize an ideal facial skin care system for mild acne on sensitive skin, we performed a 4-week clinical trial with 29 post-adolescent Japanese women with mild acne with dry and sensitive skin. The acne significantly decreased after this trial accompanied by the improvement of dry skin, a significantly increased endogenous ceramide level in the stratum corneum and an elongated alkyl chain length of the non-hydroxy acyl sphingosine type ceramide. No adverse events due to the test samples were observed. Based on diagnosis by a dermatologist, 97% of the subjects found the combination skin care to be "useful" or "slightly useful". Based on these findings, the combined use of a facial skin cleanser and moisturizers is safe and effective for the care of acne in post-adolescent Japanese women with sensitive skin. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Determinants of satisfaction with the health state of the facial skin in patients undergoing surgery for facial basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Essers, Brigitte A B; Nieman, Fred H M; Prins, Martin H; Krekels, Gertruud A M; Smeets, Nicole W J; Neumann, H A Martino

    2006-02-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess which health beliefs predict and explain satisfaction with the facial health state of patients undergoing surgery for basal cell carcinoma. Data were collected by administering a newly developed questionnaire pre-operatively and 6 months post-operatively (n = 222). Results show that satisfaction as measured by post-operative worrying, susceptibility and fear of developing a new BCC at other facial sites can be predicted by pre-operative health beliefs. In addition, some patients an increase in perceived susceptibility, fear of recurrence of BCC on the same site or fear of developing a new BCC at other facial sites. Our findings indicate that both pre- and post-operative perceptions predict and explain for a substantial part the extent to which patients are satisfied with their facial health state 6 months after surgery. Administering a short questionnaire at the start of the treatment period will give physicians a better understanding of how patients experience this skin disease. It will also help them to adjust information about BCC and its consequences to the needs of the patient.

  14. A cleanser based on sodium laureth carboxylate and alkyl carboxylates washes facial sebum well but does not induce dry skin.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Aya; Endo, Koji; Ozawa, Toshiaki; Miyaki, Masahiro; Matsuo, Keiko; Nozawa, Kazumi; Manabe, Motomu; Takagi, Yutaka

    2014-12-01

    Because excess sebum and/or metabolites of sebum induce skin problems, cleansers that can remove those kinds of sebum are sought after. However, many people, especially who have little facial sebum, are afraid to wash off sebum well because that may induce dry skin. This concern may be caused by the result that cleansers with a high cleansing ability tend to decrease not only facial sebum but also natural moisturizing factors and intercellular lipids that are essential for cutaneous function. Recently, we have developed a new cleanser based on sodium laureth carboxylate and alkyl carboxylates (AEC/soap) that cleans sebum well without penetrating the stratum corneum. This trial was aim to clarify the effects of sebum removal by AEC/soap-based cleanser on the induction of dry skin. We designed a controlled single blind parallel trial. Thirty female subjects with mild dry skin were assigned randomly to two groups: one group used AEC/soap-based cleanser while the other group kept using their usual facial cleanser twice a day for 4 weeks in the winter season. Using a colored artificial sebum mixture, it was demonstrated that this cleanser washed sebum well. Following usage of this cleanser, their dry skin improved rather than worsen which was indicated by instrumental analysis and visual assessment. These improvements were recognized by subjects. These results suggest that AEC/soap-based cleanser washes off facial sebum well, but it has little effect on the induction of dry skin because of less penetration into stratum corneum. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Influence of facial skin ageing characteristics on the perceived age in a Russian female population.

    PubMed

    Merinville, E; Grennan, G Z; Gillbro, J M; Mathieu, J; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    The desire for a youthful look remains a powerful motivator in the purchase of cosmetics by women globally. To develop an anti-ageing solution that targets the need of end consumers, it is critical to understand which signs of ageing really matter to them and which influence their age perception. To date, such research has not been performed in a Russian population. The aim of this work was to identify the signs of ageing that contribute the most to an 'older' or 'younger' look for Russian women aged 40 years old and above. The age of 203 Russian female volunteers was estimated from their standard photographs by a total of 629 female naïve assessors aged 20-65 years old. Perceived age data were related to 23 facial skin features previously measured using linear correlation coefficients. Differences in average severity of the correlating skin ageing features were evaluated between women perceived older and women perceived younger than their chronological age. Volunteers' responses to a ranking question on their key ageing skin concerns previously collected were analysed to provide an additional view on facial ageing from the consumer perspective. Nine facial skin ageing features were found to correlate the most with perceived age out of the 23 measured. Such results showed the importance of wrinkles in the upper part of the face (crow's feet, glabellar, under eye and forehead wrinkles), but also wrinkles in the lower half of the face associated with facial sagging (upper lip, nasolabial fold). Sagging was confirmed of key importance to female volunteers aged 41-65 years old who were mostly concerned by the sagging of their jawline, ahead of under eye and crow's feet wrinkle. The severity of hyperpigmented spots, red and brown, was also found to contribute to perceived age although to a weaker extent. By providing a clear view on the signs of ageing really matter to Russian women who are aged 40 years old and above, this research offers key information for the

  16. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol(®)) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin.

    PubMed

    Furumura, Minao; Sato, Noriko; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Takagaki, Kinya; Nakayama, Juichiro

    2012-01-01

    French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE. One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily. A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements. Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE.

  17. Predictors of facial attractiveness and health in humans.

    PubMed

    Foo, Yong Zhi; Simmons, Leigh W; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-02-03

    Facial attractiveness has been suggested to provide signals of biological quality, particularly health, in humans. The attractive traits that have been implicated as signals of biological quality include sexual dimorphism, symmetry, averageness, adiposity, and carotenoid-based skin colour. In this study, we first provide a comprehensive examination of the traits that predict attractiveness. In men, attractiveness was predicted positively by masculinity, symmetry, averageness, and negatively by adiposity. In women, attractiveness was predicted positively by femininity and negatively by adiposity. Skin colour did not predict attractiveness in either sex, suggesting that, despite recent interest in the literature, colour may play limited role in determining attractiveness. Male perceived health was predicted positively by averageness, symmetry, and skin yellowness, and negatively by adiposity. Female perceived health was predicted by femininity. We then examined whether appearance predicted actual health using measures that have been theoretically linked to sexual selection, including immune function, oxidative stress, and semen quality. In women, there was little evidence that female appearance predicted health. In men, we found support for the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis that male masculinity signalled semen quality. However, we also found a negative relationship between averageness and semen quality. Overall, these results indicate weak links between attractive facial traits and health.

  18. Predictors of facial attractiveness and health in humans

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Yong Zhi; Simmons, Leigh W.; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Facial attractiveness has been suggested to provide signals of biological quality, particularly health, in humans. The attractive traits that have been implicated as signals of biological quality include sexual dimorphism, symmetry, averageness, adiposity, and carotenoid-based skin colour. In this study, we first provide a comprehensive examination of the traits that predict attractiveness. In men, attractiveness was predicted positively by masculinity, symmetry, averageness, and negatively by adiposity. In women, attractiveness was predicted positively by femininity and negatively by adiposity. Skin colour did not predict attractiveness in either sex, suggesting that, despite recent interest in the literature, colour may play limited role in determining attractiveness. Male perceived health was predicted positively by averageness, symmetry, and skin yellowness, and negatively by adiposity. Female perceived health was predicted by femininity. We then examined whether appearance predicted actual health using measures that have been theoretically linked to sexual selection, including immune function, oxidative stress, and semen quality. In women, there was little evidence that female appearance predicted health. In men, we found support for the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis that male masculinity signalled semen quality. However, we also found a negative relationship between averageness and semen quality. Overall, these results indicate weak links between attractive facial traits and health. PMID:28155897

  19. Facial skin photo-aging and development of hyperpigmented spots from children to middle-aged Japanese woman.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Fukushima, Y; Kondo, K; Ichihashi, M

    2017-11-01

    Facial skin hyperpigmention caused by chronic sun exposure is a major skin complaint, however, its characteristics and influential factors are still limitedly known. A cross-sectional survey in healthy Japanese women aged from 6 to 62 years (n=169) was conducted using a facial image analyzer VISIA ™ for knowing onset age of hyperpigmented spot formation, its chronological changes, and influence of environmental factors. UV Pigmented Spot (PS) Score was positively correlated with age (R=.487, P=.000). Hyperpigmented spots appeared first around 18 years old in most subjects, and PS score remarkably increased at 20s then gradually increased by ages. The subjects with Skin Type I, one of the three grades of Japanese Skin Type (JST), whose melanin formation is genetically lower, showed higher PS score. A woman aged 31 years was subjected a weekly VISIA measurement for 2 years, and found no changes in the number, place, size and intensity of the pigment spots in this duration. Hyperpigmented spots developed in women over 20 years of age due to chronic sun exposure without sun protection during childhood and adolescent and it was stable afterwards, whose intensity was influenced by age and skin type. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage.

  1. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. Methods A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Results Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Conclusion Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage. PMID:23152694

  2. Facial animation on an anatomy-based hierarchical face model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C.; Sung, Eric

    2003-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new hierarchical 3D facial model based on anatomical knowledge that provides high fidelity for realistic facial expression animation. Like real human face, the facial model has a hierarchical biomechanical structure, incorporating a physically-based approximation to facial skin tissue, a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. The deformable skin model has multi-layer structure to approximate different types of soft tissue. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the skin and the fact that soft tissue is almost incompressible. Different types of muscle models have been developed to simulate distribution of the muscle force on the skin due to muscle contraction. By the presence of the skull model, our facial model takes advantage of both more accurate facial deformation and the consideration of facial anatomy during the interactive definition of facial muscles. Under the muscular force, the deformation of the facial skin is evaluated using numerical integration of the governing dynamic equations. The dynamic facial animation algorithm runs at interactive rate with flexible and realistic facial expressions to be generated.

  3. A novel continuous colour mapping approach for visualization of facial skin hydration and transepidermal water loss for four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Voegeli, R; Rawlings, A V; Seroul, P; Summers, B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to develop a novel colour mapping approach to visualize and interpret the complexity of facial skin hydration and barrier properties of four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Indians, Chinese and Black Africans) living in Pretoria, South Africa. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance on 30 pre-defined sites on the forehead, cheek, jaw and eye areas of sixteen women (four per ethnic group) and took digital images of their faces. Continuous colour maps were generated by interpolating between each measured value and superimposing the values on the digital images. The complexity of facial skin hydration and skin barrier properties is revealed by these measurements and visualized by the continuous colour maps of the digital images. Overall, the Caucasian subjects had the better barrier properties followed by the Black African subjects, Chinese subjects and Indian subjects. Nevertheless, the two more darkly pigmented ethnic groups had superior skin hydration properties. Subtle differences were seen when examining the different facial sites. There exists remarkable skin capacitance and TEWL gradients within short distances on selected areas of the face. These gradients are distinctive in the different ethnic groups. In contrast to other reports, we found that darkly pigmented skin does not always have a superior barrier function and differences in skin hydration values are complex on the different parts of the face among the different ethnic groups. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. Dermatological Feasibility of Multimodal Facial Color Imaging Modality for Cross-Evaluation of Facial Actinic Keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Youngwoo; Son, Taeyoon; Nelson, J. Stuart; Kim, Jae-Hong; Choi, Eung Ho; Jung, Byungjo

    2010-01-01

    Background/Purpose Digital color image analysis is currently considered as a routine procedure in dermatology. In our previous study, a multimodal facial color imaging modality (MFCIM), which provides a conventional, parallel- and cross-polarization, and fluorescent color image, was introduced for objective evaluation of various facial skin lesions. This study introduces a commercial version of MFCIM, DermaVision-PRO, for routine clinical use in dermatology and demonstrates its dermatological feasibility for cross-evaluation of skin lesions. Methods/Results Sample images of subjects with actinic keratosis or non-melanoma skin cancers were obtained at four different imaging modes. Various image analysis methods were applied to cross-evaluate the skin lesion and, finally, extract valuable diagnostic information. DermaVision-PRO is potentially a useful tool as an objective macroscopic imaging modality for quick prescreening and cross-evaluation of facial skin lesions. Conclusion DermaVision-PRO may be utilized as a useful tool for cross-evaluation of widely distributed facial skin lesions and an efficient database management of patient information. PMID:20923462

  5. Facial Specialty. Teacher Edition. Cosmetology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to direct and support instruction in vocational cosmetology programs in the State of Oklahoma. It contains seven units for the facial specialty: identifying enemies of the skin, using aromatherapy on the skin, giving facials without the aid of machines, giving facials with the aid…

  6. Dietary Aloe Vera Supplementation Improves Facial Wrinkles and Elasticity and It Increases the Type I Procollagen Gene Expression in Human Skin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soyun; Lee, Serah; Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Dong Hun; Won, Chong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Min

    2009-01-01

    Background No studies have yet been undertaken to determine the effect of aloe gel on the clinical signs and biochemical changes of aging skin. Objective We wanted to determine whether dietary aloe vera gel has anti-aging properties on the skin. Methods Thirty healthy female subjects over the age of 45 were recruited and they received 2 different doses (low-dose: 1,200 mg/d, high-dose: 3,600 mg/d) of aloe vera gel supplementation for 90 days. Their baseline status was used as a control. At baseline and at completion of the study, facial wrinkles were measured using a skin replica, and facial elasticity was measured by an in vivo suction skin elasticity meter. Skin samples were taken before and after aloe intake to compare the type I procollagen and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) mRNA levels by performing real-time RT-PCR. Results After aloe gel intake, the facial wrinkles improved significantly (p<0.05) in both groups, and facial elasticity improved in the lower-dose group. In the photoprotected skin, the type I procollagen mRNA levels were increased in both groups, albeit without significance; the MMP-1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the higher-dose group. Type I procollagen immunostaining was substantially increased throughout the dermis in both groups. Conclusion Aloe gel significantly improves wrinkles and elasticity in photoaged human skin, with an increase in collagen production in the photoprotected skin and a decrease in the collagen-degrading MMP-1 gene expression. However, no dose-response relationship was found between the low-dose and high-dose groups. PMID:20548848

  7. A new quantitative evaluation method for age-related changes of individual pigmented spots in facial skin.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, K; Masuda, Y; Yamashita, T; Sato, K; Katagiri, C; Hirao, T; Mizokami, Y; Yaguchi, H

    2016-08-01

    Facial skin pigmentation is one of the most prominent visible features of skin aging and often affects perception of health and beauty. To date, facial pigmentation has been evaluated using various image analysis methods developed for the cosmetic and esthetic fields. However, existing methods cannot provide precise information on pigmented spots, such as variations in size, color shade, and distribution pattern. The purpose of this study is the development of image evaluation methods to analyze individual pigmented spots and acquire detailed information on their age-related changes. To characterize the individual pigmented spots within a cheek image, we established a simple object-counting algorithm. First, we captured cheek images using an original imaging system equipped with an illumination unit and a high-resolution digital camera. The acquired images were converted into melanin concentration images using compensation formulae. Next, the melanin images were converted into binary images. The binary images were then subjected to noise reduction. Finally, we calculated parameters such as the melanin concentration, quantity, and size of individual pigmented spots using a connected-components labeling algorithm, which assigns a unique label to each separate group of connected pixels. The cheek image analysis was evaluated on 643 female Japanese subjects. We confirmed that the proposed method was sufficiently sensitive to measure the melanin concentration, and the numbers and sizes of individual pigmented spots through manual evaluation of the cheek images. The image analysis results for the 643 Japanese women indicated clear relationships between age and the changes in the pigmented spots. We developed a new quantitative evaluation method for individual pigmented spots in facial skin. This method facilitates the analysis of the characteristics of various pigmented facial spots and is directly applicable to the fields of dermatology, pharmacology, and esthetic

  8. The Effect in Topical Use of Lycogen(TM) via Sonophoresis for Anti-aging on Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Hsin-Ti, Lai; Wen-Sheng, Liu; Yi-Chia, Wu; Ya-Wei, Lai; Wen, Zhi-Hong; David, Wang Hui-Min; Su-Shin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Anti-aging skin care is a growing popular topic in cosmetic and aesthetic fields, and skin care rather then makeup tips draw more attention nowadays. The phenomenon of skin aging includes thinning of skin losses of elasticity and moisture, pigmented spot formation, and wrinkle development. Along with growth in age, the decreased rates of epithelium renewal and cellular recovery as well as the reduced contents of elastin, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans all contribute to creases or folds of skin. Available strategies for wrinkle treatments include topical use of skin care products with anti-aging contents, dermabrasion, laser, Botox injection, fillers injection, and facelift. Though all of these above options can provide different degrees of improvement in facial wrinkles, the cost-effect, pain of intervention therapy, and necessity of repetitive treatment may impact on choices made. Topical use of anti-aging skin products is the most convenient and cheap way to achieve skin anti-aging effect. Lycogen(TM) is an antioxidant, which can prevent the downregulation of pro-collagen I, intracellular accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and achieve the aim of skin rejuvenation. Twenty-six female patients were included in our study with ages between 30 and 45. They were randomly assigned to two groups: the vehicle control group and the experimental group. Patients in the control group applied a skin care product without Lycogen(TM)to the face via sonophoresis after facial cleanser use in the morning and at night. The experimental group applied a Lycogen(TM) -containing skin care product via sonophoresis in the same time schedule. We evaluated results, including pigmented spots, wrinkles, texture, pores, and red area by VISIA on weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 respectively. In the aspect of pigmented spots, the experimental group showed significant difference in comparison with the vehicle control group on weeks 2, 6, 8, and 10. For wrinkles, the experimental group had

  9. Clay jojoba oil facial mask for lesioned skin and mild acne--results of a prospective, observational pilot study.

    PubMed

    Meier, Larissa; Stange, Rainer; Michalsen, Andreas; Uehleke, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    External application of clay facial masks is a cosmetic procedure generally used to reduce skin lesions and to improve overall skin condition. Collecting pilot data about self-treatment with clay jojoba oil masks on participants with acne-prone, lesioned skin and acne. Open, prospective, observational pilot study: Participants received written information, instructions, and questionnaires without direct contact with the study physician. For 6 weeks, they applied the masks 2-3 times per week. The primary outcome is the difference of skin lesions: baseline vs. after 6 weeks. 194 participants (192 female, 2 male, mean age (± SE) (32.3 ± 0.7 years) returned questionnaires and diaries. 133 of these participants returned complete and precise lesion counts (per-protocol (PP) collective). A 54% mean reduction in total lesion count was observed after 6 weeks of treatment with clay facial mask. Both inflammatory and non-inflammatory skin lesions were reduced significantly after treatment compared to baseline: Median counts (MC) of pustules per affected participant were reduced from 7.0 ± 0.9 to 3.0 ± 0.5 (mean individual reduction (MIR) = 49.4%), the MC of the papules from 3.5 ± 2.2 to 1.0 ± 0.4 (MIR = 57.3%), the MC of cysts from 2.0 ± 0.8 to 0.5 ± 0.4 (MIR = 68.6%) and the MC of comedones from 26.5 ± 6.3 to 16.0 ± 4.0 (MIR = 39.1%). DLQI-average score decreased from 5.0 ± 4.5 (mean ± SE) before to 2.1 ± 2.8 after treatment. The present study gives preliminary evidence that healing clay jojoba oil facial masks can be effective treatment for lesioned skin and mild acne vulgaris. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Assessment of cumulative exposure to UVA through the study of asymmetrical facial skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mac-Mary, Sophie; Sainthillier, Jean-Marie; Jeudy, Adeline; Sladen, Christelle; Williams, Cara; Bell, Mike; Humbert, Philippe

    2010-09-23

    Published studies assessing whether asymmetrical facial ultraviolet light exposure leads to underlying differences in skin physiology and morphology report only clinical observations. The aim of this study was to assess the visual impact on the skin of repeated ultraviolet-A (UVA) exposure through a window. Eight women and two men presenting with asymmetrical signs of photoaging due to overexposure of one side of their face to the sun through a window over a long period of time were enrolled in the study. Split-face biometrologic assessments were performed (clinical scoring, hydration with Corneometer, mechanical properties with Cutometer, transepidermal water loss with AquaFlux, skin relief with fringe projection, photography, stripping, and then lipid peroxidation analysis). Significant differences were observed in clinical scores for wrinkles, skin roughness assessed by fringe projection on the cheek, and skin heterogeneity assessed with spectrocolorimetry on the cheekbone. Other differences were observed for skin hydration, as well as skin laxity, which tended towards significance. This study suggests the potential benefit of daily UVA protection during nondeliberate exposure indoors as well as outside.

  11. The impact of face skin tone on perceived facial attractiveness: A study realized with an innovative methodology.

    PubMed

    Vera Cruz, Germano

    2017-12-19

    This study aimed to assess the impact of target faces' skin tone and perceivers' skin tone on the participants' attractiveness judgment regarding a symmetrical representative range of target faces as stimuli. Presented with a set of facial features, 240 Mozambican adults rated their attractiveness along a continuous scale. ANOVA and Chi-square were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that the skin tone of the target faces had an impact on the participants' attractiveness judgment. Overall, participants preferred light-skinned faces over dark-skinned ones. This finding is not only consistent with previous results on skin tone preferences, but it is even more powerful because it demonstrates that the light skin tone preference occurs regardless of the symmetry and baseline attractiveness of the stimuli.

  12. Association Among Facial Paralysis, Depression, and Quality of Life in Facial Plastic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nellis, Jason C.; Ishii, Masaru; Byrne, Patrick J.; Boahene, Kofi D. O.; Dey, Jacob K.; Ishii, Lisa E.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Though anecdotally linked, few studies have investigated the impact of facial paralysis on depression and quality of life (QOL). OBJECTIVE To measure the association between depression, QOL, and facial paralysis in patients seeking treatment at a facial plastic surgery clinic. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS Data were prospectively collected for patients with all-cause facial paralysis and control patients initially presenting to a facial plastic surgery clinic from 2013 to 2015. The control group included a heterogeneous patient population presenting to facial plastic surgery clinic for evaluation. Patients who had prior facial reanimation surgery or missing demographic and psychometric data were excluded from analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Demographics, facial paralysis etiology, facial paralysis severity (graded on the House-Brackmann scale), Beck depression inventory, and QOL scores in both groups were examined. Potential confounders, including self-reported attractiveness and mood, were collected and analyzed. Self-reported scores were measured using a 0 to 100 visual analog scale. RESULTS There was a total of 263 patients (mean age, 48.8 years; 66.9% were female) were analyzed. There were 175 control patients and 88 patients with facial paralysis. Sex distributions were not significantly different between the facial paralysis and control groups. Patients with facial paralysis had significantly higher depression, lower self-reported attractiveness, lower mood, and lower QOL scores. Overall, 37 patients with facial paralysis (42.1%) screened positive for depression, with the greatest likelihood in patients with House-Brackmann grade 3 or greater (odds ratio, 10.8; 95% CI, 5.13–22.75) compared with 13 control patients (8.1%) (P < .001). In multivariate regression, facial paralysis and female sex were significantly associated with higher depression scores (constant, 2.08 [95% CI, 0.77–3.39]; facial paralysis effect, 5.98 [95% CI, 4.38–7

  13. FEM modeling and histological analyses on thermal damage induced in facial skin resurfacing procedure with different CO2 laser pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Zingoni, Tiziano; Di Cicco, Emiliano; Manetti, Leonardo; Pini, Roberto; Fortuna, Damiano

    2011-07-01

    Laser light is nowadays routinely used in the aesthetic treatments of facial skin, such as in laser rejuvenation, scar removal etc. The induced thermal damage may be varied by setting different laser parameters, in order to obtain a particular aesthetic result. In this work, it is proposed a theoretical study on the induced thermal damage in the deep tissue, by considering different laser pulse duration. The study is based on the Finite Element Method (FEM): a bidimensional model of the facial skin is depicted in axial symmetry, considering the different skin structures and their different optical and thermal parameters; the conversion of laser light into thermal energy is modeled by the bio-heat equation. The light source is a CO2 laser, with different pulse durations. The model enabled to study the thermal damage induced into the skin, by calculating the Arrhenius integral. The post-processing results enabled to study in space and time the temperature dynamics induced in the facial skin, to study the eventual cumulative effects of subsequent laser pulses and to optimize the procedure for applications in dermatological surgery. The calculated data where then validated in an experimental measurement session, performed in a sheep animal model. Histological analyses were performed on the treated tissues, evidencing the spatial distribution and the entity of the thermal damage in the collageneous tissue. Modeling and experimental results were in good agreement, and they were used to design a new optimized laser based skin resurfacing procedure.

  14. Non tuberculous mycobacterial lesion of the parotid gland and facial skin in a 4year old girl: A proposed treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Berkovic, Juraj; Vanchiere, John A; Gungor, Anil

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a parotid-facial caseating granulomatous infection caused by atypical mycobacteria (Mycobacterium avium) in an immuno-competent child. The size and depth of the lesion and its proximity to the facial nerve present a challenge for a purely surgical treatment strategy. An alternative treatment strategy is developed to avoid severe disfigurement. Atypical mycobacterial infection of the parotid region in a 5 year old girl: timeline and definition of a planned combined treatment strategy with antibiotics and surgical excision. Cervicofacial infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may present surgical challenges due to the size and depth of the lesion and its proximity to the facial nerve and major vascular structures. Even minor scars are highly visible and poorly tolerated. Close clinical monitoring combined with judicious treatment strategies is necessary for successful treatment and good cosmesis. Recent literature provides insufficient guidance in formulating the best treatment strategy for the individual patient. Comparisons of antibiotic therapy with variations of surgical excision are abundant but poorly formulated. Our case presented with a lesion involving skin, superficial and deep lobe of the parotid gland. Lesion was in immediate proximity to the distribution of the facial nerve through the parotid gland. The risk of surgical damage to the facial nerve in the acute phase of the inflammation and the required extent of skin excision were significant. We decided to start treatment with combination antimycobacterial antibiotics in close cooperation with the pediatric infectious disease specialists. We observed and documented the regress and executed a delayed surgical excision when the lesion was reduced to skin only. In our opinion this was the best treatment strategy that helped us avoid extensive dissection in the vicinity of the facial nerve as well as a parotidectomy. Excision of the involved skin with the deep portion

  15. Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.

    PubMed

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  16. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics. PMID:25136663

  17. Biometric correspondence between reface computerized facial approximations and CT-derived ground truth skin surface models objectively examined using an automated facial recognition system.

    PubMed

    Parks, Connie L; Monson, Keith L

    2018-05-01

    This study employed an automated facial recognition system as a means of objectively evaluating biometric correspondence between a ReFace facial approximation and the computed tomography (CT) derived ground truth skin surface of the same individual. High rates of biometric correspondence were observed, irrespective of rank class (R k ) or demographic cohort examined. Overall, 48% of the test subjects' ReFace approximation probes (n=96) were matched to his or her corresponding ground truth skin surface image at R 1 , a rank indicating a high degree of biometric correspondence and a potential positive identification. Identification rates improved with each successively broader rank class (R 10 =85%, R 25 =96%, and R 50 =99%), with 100% identification by R 57 . A sharp increase (39% mean increase) in identification rates was observed between R 1 and R 10 across most rank classes and demographic cohorts. In contrast, significantly lower (p<0.01) increases in identification rates were observed between R 10 and R 25 (8% mean increase) and R 25 and R 50 (3% mean increase). No significant (p>0.05) performance differences were observed across demographic cohorts or CT scan protocols. Performance measures observed in this research suggest that ReFace approximations are biometrically similar to the actual faces of the approximated individuals and, therefore, may have potential operational utility in contexts in which computerized approximations are utilized as probes in automated facial recognition systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Sebum and Hydration Levels in Specific Regions of Human Face Significantly Predict the Nature and Diversity of Facial Skin Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Mitra, Rupak; Maitra, Arindam; Gupta, Satyaranjan; Kumaran, Srikala; Chakrabortty, Amit; Majumder, Partha P

    2016-10-27

    The skin microbiome varies across individuals. The causes of these variations are inadequately understood. We tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in facial skin microbiome can be significantly explained by variation in sebum and hydration levels in specific facial regions of humans. We measured sebum and hydration from forehead and cheek regions of healthy female volunteers (n = 30). Metagenomic DNA from skin swabs were sequenced for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Altogether, 34 phyla were identified; predominantly Actinobacteria (66.3%), Firmicutes (17.7%), Proteobacteria (13.1%) and Bacteroidetes (1.4%). About 1000 genera were identified; predominantly Propionibacterium (58.6%), Staphylococcus (8.6%), Streptococcus (4.0%), Corynebacterium (3.6%) and Paracoccus (3.3%). A subset (n = 24) of individuals were sampled two months later. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that cheek sebum level was the most significant predictor of microbiome composition and diversity followed by forehead hydration level; forehead sebum and cheek hydration levels were not. With increase in cheek sebum, the prevalence of Actinobacteria (p = 0.001)/Propionibacterium (p = 0.002) increased, whereas microbiome diversity decreased (Shannon Index, p = 0.032); this was opposite for other phyla/genera. These trends were reversed for forehead hydration levels. Therefore, the nature and diversity of facial skin microbiome is jointly determined by site-specific lipid and water levels in the stratum corneum.

  19. A single-blinded randomised controlled study to determine the efficacy of Omnilux Revive facial treatment in skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jaideep; Birch, Jan; Whitehurst, Colin; Lanigan, Sean W

    2005-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of Omnilux Revive facial treatment in skin rejuvenation, twenty-three volunteers received randomised 20 min treatments three times a week for three weeks to one half of their face, with the untreated side acting as control. Regular assessments were carried out, focusing on parameters of subject satisfaction, photographic assessments, skin elasticity (Cutometer) and skin hydration (Corneometer CM825). Ninety-one percent of the volunteers reported visible changes to their skin. Blinded photographic evaluation reported a clinical response in 59% of the subjects. Objective analysis failed to show statistically significant changes in skin hydration or elasticity. The Omnilux Revive LED lamp is a safe alternative non-ablative skin rejuvenation treatment.

  20. Quality of life assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale.

    PubMed

    Kleiss, Ingrid J; Beurskens, Carien H G; Stalmeier, Peep F M; Ingels, Koen J A O; Marres, Henri A M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at validating an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale was translated into the Dutch language using a forward-backward translation method. A pilot test with the translated questionnaire was performed in 10 patients with facial palsy and 10 normal subjects. Finally, cross-cultural adaption was accomplished at our outpatient clinic for facial palsy. Analyses for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness were performed. Ninety-three patients completed the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale, the Dutch Facial Disability Index, and the Dutch Short Form (36) Health Survey. Cronbach's α, representing internal consistency, was 0.800. Test-retest reliability was shown by an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.737. Correlations with the House-Brackmann score, Sunnybrook score, Facial Disability Index physical function, and social/well-being function were -0.292, 0.570, 0.713, and 0.575, respectively. The SF-36 domains correlate best with the FaCE social function domain, with the strongest correlation between the both social function domains (r = 0.576). The FaCE score did statistically significantly increase in 35 patients receiving botulinum toxin type A (P = 0.042, Student t test). The domains 'facial comfort' and 'social function' improved statistically significantly as well (P = 0.022 and P = 0.046, respectively, Student t-test). The Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale shows good psychometric values and can be implemented in the management of Dutch-speaking patients with facial palsy in the Netherlands. Translation of the instrument into other languages may lead to widespread use, making evaluation and comparison possible among different providers.

  1. Effect of Exercise-induced Sweating on facial sebum, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface pH in normal population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyu; Zhang, Guirong; Meng, Huimin; Li, Li

    2013-02-01

    Evidence demonstrated that sweat was an important factor affecting skin physiological properties. We intended to assess the effects of exercise-induced sweating on the sebum, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH of facial skin. 102 subjects (aged 5-60, divided into five groups) were enrolled to be measured by a combination device called 'Derma Unit SSC3' in their frontal and zygomatic regions when they were in a resting state (RS), at the beginning of sweating (BS), during excessive sweating (ES) and an hour after sweating (AS), respectively. Compared to the RS, SC hydration in both regions increased at the BS or during ES, and sebum increased at the BS but lower during ES. Compared to during ES, Sebum increased in AS but lower than RS. Compared to the RS, pH decreased in both regions at the BS in the majority of groups, and increased in frontal region during ES and in zygomatic region in the AS. There was an increase in pH in both regions during ES in the majority of groups compared to the BS, but a decrease in the AS compared to during ES. The study implies that even in summer, after we sweat excessively, lipid products should be applied locally in order to maintain stability of the barrier function of the SC. The study suggests that after a short term(1 h or less) of self adjustment, excessive sweat from moderate exercise will not impair the primary acidic surface pH of the facial skin. Exercise-induced sweating significantly affected the skin physiological properties of facial region. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies the Skin Color Genes IRF4, MC1R, ASIP, and BNC2 Influencing Facial Pigmented Spots.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leonie C; Hamer, Merel A; Gunn, David A; Deelen, Joris; Lall, Jaspal S; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Beekman, Marian; Slagboom, P Eline; Kayser, Manfred; Liu, Fan; Nijsten, Tamar

    2015-07-01

    Facial pigmented spots are a common skin aging feature, but genetic predisposition has yet to be thoroughly investigated. We conducted a genome-wide association study for pigmented spots in 2,844 Dutch Europeans from the Rotterdam Study (mean age: 66.9±8.0 years; 47% male). Using semi-automated image analysis of high-resolution digital facial photographs, facial pigmented spots were quantified as the percentage of affected skin area (mean women: 2.0% ±0.9, men: 0.9% ±0.6). We identified genome-wide significant association with pigmented spots at three genetic loci: IRF4 (rs12203592, P=1.8 × 10(-27)), MC1R (compound heterozygosity score, P=2.3 × 10(-24)), and RALY/ASIP (rs6059655, P=1.9 × 10(-9)). In addition, after adjustment for the other three top-associated loci the BNC2 locus demonstrated significant association (rs62543565, P=2.3 × 10(-8)). The association signals observed at all four loci were successfully replicated (P<0.05) in an independent Dutch cohort (Leiden Longevity Study n=599). Although the four genes have previously been associated with skin color variation and skin cancer risk, all association signals remained highly significant (P<2 × 10(-8)) when conditioning the association analyses on skin color. We conclude that genetic variations in IRF4, MC1R, RALY/ASIP, and BNC2 contribute to the acquired amount of facial pigmented spots during aging, through pathways independent of the basal melanin production.

  3. The Relationships among Facial Emotion Recognition, Social Skills, and Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Elliott W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Forty-six institutionalized adults with mild or moderate mental retardation were administered the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (socialization domain), a subjective measure of quality of life, and a facial emotion recognition test. Facial emotion recognition, quality of life, and social skills appeared to be independent of one another. Facial…

  4. [Propeller facial artery perforator flap for repairing defect after resection of skin malignant tumor at upper lip].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuanzhen; Tang, Xiujun; Wang, Dali; Wei, Zairong; Wang, Bo; Deng, Chengliang; Zhang, Ziyang; Jin, Wenhu

    2018-02-01

    To explore the effectiveness of propeller facial artery perforator flap to repair the defect after resection of skin malignant tumor at upper lip. Between July 2012 and January 2017, 17 cases with skin malignant tumor at upper lip underwent tumor resection and the remained defect was repaired with propeller facial artery perforator flap. Among the 17 patients, 3 were male and 14 were female, with an average age of 57 years (range, 35-82 years). There were 5 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 12 cases of basal cell carcinoma. The disease duration ranged from 4 months to 11 years with an average of 20 months. The tumor size ranged from 1.4 cm×0.3 cm to 3.1 cm×1.4 cm. The extended resection of the tumor tissue was performed according to the characters of tumor. According to the location, size, and shape of the defect and the position of facial artery perforator explored with Doppler ultrasonography, the propeller facial artery perforator flap was designed to repair the defect and partial donor site. The flap size ranged from 5 cm×2 cm to 7 cm×3 cm. The length of the perforator pedicle was 0.5-1.0 cm with an average of 0.8 cm. The defect at donor site was directly closed. Cyanosis occurred in 3 cases of the distal flap after operation, then healing after symptomatic treatment. The remaining flaps survived successfully and the wound healed by first intention. Primary healing was obtained in the donor site. All the patients were followed up 6-36 months with an average of 18 months. The shape of the patient's upper lip was good and the scar on the donor site was unconspicuous. There was no lip deformity, ala nasi deflection, facial tension, entilation dysfunction, or recurrence of tumor during follow-up. At last follow-up, the results of self-evaluation were very satisfactory in 13 cases and satisfactory in 4 cases. Based on multiple advantages of good blood supply, large rotation range, aesthetic outcome, and slight injury of the donor site, propeller facial artery

  5. UK-based prospective cohort study to anglicise and validate the FACE-Q Skin Cancer Module in patients with facial skin cancer undergoing surgical reconstruction: the PROMISCR (Patient-Reported Outcome Measure in Skin Cancer Reconstruction) study.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Thomas; Hutchings, Hayley A; Whitaker, Iain S

    2017-09-24

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide, often occurring on the face, where the cosmetic outcome of treatment is paramount. A number of skin cancer-specific patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) exist, however none adequately consider the difference in type of reconstruction from a patient's point of view. It is the aim of this study to 'anglicise' (to UK English) a recently developed US PROM for facial skin cancer (the FACE-Q Skin Cancer Module) and to validate this UK version of the PROM. The validation will also involve an assessment of the items for relevance to facial reconstruction patients. This will either validate this new measure for the use in clinical care and research of various facial reconstructive options, or provide evidence that a more specific PROM is required. This is a prospective validation study of the FACE-Q Skin Cancer Module in a UK facial skin cancer population with a specific focus on the difference between types of reconstruction. The face and content validity of the FACE-Q questionnaire will initially be assessed by a review process involving patients, skin cancer specialists and methodologists. An assessment of whether questions are relevant and any missing questions will be made. Initial validation will then be carried out by recruiting a cohort of 100 study participants with skin cancer of the face pre-operatively. All eligible patients will be invited to complete the questionnaire preoperatively and postoperatively. Psychometric analysis will be performed to test validity, reliability and responsiveness to change. Subgroup analysis will be performed on patients undergoing different forms of reconstruction postexcision of their skin cancer. This study has been approved by the West Midlands, Edgbaston Research Ethics Committee (Ref 16/WM/0445). All personal data collected will be anonymised and patient-specific data will only be reported in terms of group demographics. Identifiable data collected will include the

  6. Gene and protein expression of oestrogen-β and progesterone receptors in facial melasma and adjacent healthy skin in women.

    PubMed

    Tamega, A de A; Miot, H A; Moço, N P; Silva, M G; Marques, M E A; Miot, L D B

    2015-04-01

    Compare gene and protein expression for oestrogen receptor-β (ER-β) and progesterone receptor (PR) in facial melasma and adjacent healthy skin. A cross-sectional study including 42 women with facial melasma, conducted at the Dermatology Service of Botucatu Medical School of São Paulo State University, Brazil. Biopsies of the melasma skin were performed, together with healthy surrounding skin. The gene expression (real-time PCR) of the hormone receptors in the tissue was evaluated. Subsequently, skin fragments were immunostained for nuclear ER-β and PR, evaluated according to their HSCORE (epidermis) and percentage of staining per microscopic field (dermis). Messenger RNA tissue expression for ER-β and PR showed no difference between melasma-affected skin fragments and the healthy perilesional areas (P > 0.2). Median nuclear epithelial expression for ER-β and PR was higher in lesioned skin (HSCORE 157 and 58) than in the healthy perilesional skin (HSCORE 97 and 19; P < 0.01), with no difference in dermal immunostaining. Nuclear histological expression for ER-β was associated to sun-induced melasma and negative familiar background; PR expression was associated to sun-induced melasma and darker phototypes. No difference was observed in gene expression for oestrogen-β and progesterone receptors in melasma-affected skin compared with adjacent healthy skin. However, the higher protein expression of these receptors in melasma-affected epithelia suggests hormonal participation in the pathogenesis of this disease. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Facial averageness and genetic quality: Testing heritability, genetic correlation with attractiveness, and the paternal age effect.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2016-01-01

    Popular theory suggests that facial averageness is preferred in a partner for genetic benefits to offspring. However, whether facial averageness is associated with genetic quality is yet to be established. Here, we computed an objective measure of facial averageness for a large sample ( N = 1,823) of identical and nonidentical twins and their siblings to test two predictions from the theory that facial averageness reflects genetic quality. First, we use biometrical modelling to estimate the heritability of facial averageness, which is necessary if it reflects genetic quality. We also test for a genetic association between facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Second, we assess whether paternal age at conception (a proxy of mutation load) is associated with facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Our findings are mixed with respect to our hypotheses. While we found that facial averageness does have a genetic component, and a significant phenotypic correlation exists between facial averageness and attractiveness, we did not find a genetic correlation between facial averageness and attractiveness (therefore, we cannot say that the genes that affect facial averageness also affect facial attractiveness) and paternal age at conception was not negatively associated with facial averageness. These findings support some of the previously untested assumptions of the 'genetic benefits' account of facial averageness, but cast doubt on others.

  8. A dietary supplement improves facial photoaging and skin sebum, hydration and tonicity modulating serum fibronectin, neutrophil elastase 2, hyaluronic acid and carbonylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Laurino, Carmen; Palmieri, Beniamino; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2015-03-01

    Excessive exposure to the sun can cause severe photoaging as early as the second decade of life resulting in a loss of physiological elastic fiber functions. We designed a first study to assess differences in facial skin pH, sebum, elasticity, hydration and tonicity and serum levels of fibronectin, elastin, neutrophil elastase 2, hyaluronic acid and carbonylated proteins between patients affected by facial photoaging and healthy controls. In a second study we tested the hypothesis that a dietary supplement would improve facial photoaging, also promoting changes in the above mentioned skin and serum parameters. In the first study we enrolled 30 women [age: 47.5 ± 1.6 years (mean ± standard error of the mean)] affected by moderate facial photoaging (4 cm ≤ Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)<7 cm) and 30 healthy women [age: 45.9 ± 1.6 years (mean ± standard error of the mean)]. In the second study we enrolled a cohort of 30 women [age: 43.6 ± 1.2 years (mean ± standard error of the mean)], affected by moderate (n = 22) and severe (VAS ≥ 7 cm; n = 8) facial photoaging, who were randomized to receive a pharmaceutical formulation (VISCODERM Pearls; IBSA FARMACEUTICI ITALIA Srl, Lodi, Italy) containing Pycnogenol, collagen, coenzyme Q10, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15). Dietary supplement and placebo were administered 2 times a day for 4 weeks. Facial photoaging was assessed by VAS in the first cohort of patients affected by facial photoaging and healthy controls and, at baseline and 2 weeks after the end of treatment, in the second cohort of patients who underwent treatment with VISCODERM Pearls and placebo. Skin Tester was used to analyze differences in facial skin parameters between patients affected by facial photoaging and healthy controls. Skin Tester was also used to assess the effect of VISCODERM Pearls on facial skin parameters and compared with placebo 2 weeks after the end of

  9. Assessment of Combined Ascorbyl Palmitate (AP) and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP) on Facial Skin Sebum Control in Female Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Khan, H; Akhtar, N; Ali, A

    2017-01-01

    The skin is fortified with a setup of lipophilic and hydrophilic, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) and sodium ascorbyl phosphate (SAP) are reported as lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, respectively used for skin care. Present study was aimed to assess the combined AP (in oil phase) and SAP (in aqueous phase) via multiple emulsion (ME 1 ) for controlling sebum secretions in healthy human females. FTIR analysis of AP and SAP was performed for identification. Multiple emulsions (ME 1 and control) were prepared and analyzed for physical stability. Antioxidant activities of AP, SAP as well as ME 1 (with combination of these compounds) were determined by DPPH method. 11 female volunteers were included in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, split-face comparative study. Volunteers were instructed to apply ME 1 on left cheek while control (without AP and SAP) on right cheek, for a period of 90 days. A non-invasive photometric device (Sebumeter ® ) was used for the measurement of sebum secretions on both sides of the face with subsequent time intervals. A good antioxidant activity of ME 1 was observed. ME 1 treatments reduced significant facial sebum secretions as compared with control/placebo treatments. It was concluded that combined AP and SAP supplementations to skin proved a promising choice for controlling facial sebum secretions and could be evaluated for undesired oily skin and acne reductions for beautifying the facial appearance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Sebum and Hydration Levels in Specific Regions of Human Face Significantly Predict the Nature and Diversity of Facial Skin Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Mitra, Rupak; Maitra, Arindam; Gupta, Satyaranjan; Kumaran, Srikala; Chakrabortty, Amit; Majumder, Partha P.

    2016-01-01

    The skin microbiome varies across individuals. The causes of these variations are inadequately understood. We tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in facial skin microbiome can be significantly explained by variation in sebum and hydration levels in specific facial regions of humans. We measured sebum and hydration from forehead and cheek regions of healthy female volunteers (n = 30). Metagenomic DNA from skin swabs were sequenced for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Altogether, 34 phyla were identified; predominantly Actinobacteria (66.3%), Firmicutes (17.7%), Proteobacteria (13.1%) and Bacteroidetes (1.4%). About 1000 genera were identified; predominantly Propionibacterium (58.6%), Staphylococcus (8.6%), Streptococcus (4.0%), Corynebacterium (3.6%) and Paracoccus (3.3%). A subset (n = 24) of individuals were sampled two months later. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that cheek sebum level was the most significant predictor of microbiome composition and diversity followed by forehead hydration level; forehead sebum and cheek hydration levels were not. With increase in cheek sebum, the prevalence of Actinobacteria (p = 0.001)/Propionibacterium (p = 0.002) increased, whereas microbiome diversity decreased (Shannon Index, p = 0.032); this was opposite for other phyla/genera. These trends were reversed for forehead hydration levels. Therefore, the nature and diversity of facial skin microbiome is jointly determined by site-specific lipid and water levels in the stratum corneum. PMID:27786295

  11. Chemical Peeling with a Modified Phenol Formula for the Treatment of Facial Freckles on Asian Skin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Feng; Lu, Hai-Shan; Sun, Le-Qi; Ping, Wei-Dong; Mao, Dong-Sheng; Li, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Chemical peeling is an efficient method for the treatment of pigment disorders. For freckles, medium-depth to deep peeling using a phenol solution is one of the most effective chemical peels, and modifications of facial skin can be observed up to 20 years after peeling. However, applying phenol to the skin may cause serious side effects. Phenol peeling has been rarely used in Asia due to its tendency to cause permanent pigmentary changes and hypertrophic scars. In total, 896 Chinese inpatients with facial freckles were enrolled in this study. The phenol formula was modified with crystalline phenol, dyclonine, camphor, anhydrous alcohol and glycerin and adjusted to a concentration of 73.6-90.0%. The entire peeling treatment was divided into two procedures performed separately on 2 days. All patients exhibited 26% or greater improvement, and 99.66% of patients exhibited 51% or greater improvement (good and excellent). Scarring and systemic complications were not observed in any patient. The modified phenol formula is very effective and safe for the treatment of facial freckles in Asian patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  12. Nanofat-derived stem cells with platelet-rich fibrin improve facial contour remodeling and skin rejuvenation after autologous structural fat transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Hai; Zhu, Mao-Guang; Xu, Fang-Tian; He, Ning; Wei, Xiao-Juan; Li, Hong-Mian

    2017-01-01

    Traditional autologous fat transplantation is a common surgical procedure for treating facial soft tissue depression and skin aging. However, the transplanted fat is easily absorbed, reducing the long-term efficacy of the procedure. Here, we examined the efficacy of nanofat-assisted autologous fat structural transplantation. Nanofat-derived stem cells (NFSCs) were isolated, mechanically emulsified, cultured, and characterized. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) enhanced proliferation and adipogenic differentiation of NFSCs in vitro. We then compared 62 test group patients with soft tissue depression or signs of aging who underwent combined nanofat, PRF, and autologous fat structural transplantation to control patients (77 cases) who underwent traditional autologous fat transplantation. Facial soft tissue depression symptoms and skin texture were improved to a greater extent after nanofat transplants than after traditional transplants, and the nanofat group had an overall satisfaction rate above 90%. These data suggest that NFSCs function similarly to mesenchymal stem cells and share many of the biological characteristics of traditional fat stem cell cultures. Transplants that combine newly-isolated nanofat, which has a rich stromal vascular fraction (SVF), with PRF and autologous structural fat granules may therefore be a safe, highly-effective, and long-lasting method for remodeling facial contours and rejuvenating the skin. PMID:28978136

  13. Facial microcirculatory and biomechanical skin properties after single high energy (Er):YAG laser application.

    PubMed

    Medved, Fabian; Wurm, Antonia; Held, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Owing to skin aging and the growing demand for skin rejuvenation, minimal invasive aesthetic treatments such as laser procedures are increasingly coming into focus. However, until now, little has been known about the objective effects of these procedures with respect to skin microcirculation or changes in skin elasticity. Facial skin rejuvenation was performed on 32 volunteers using ablative Erbium: YAG laser. Skin microcirculation and skin elasticity have then been evaluated objectively. Microcirculation (flow, SO 2 , velocity, and rHB) has been analyzed before and directly after the laser session by using the O2C device. Skin elasticity has been evaluated by using the Cutometer device (Uf, Ua, Ur, and Ue) before and directly after the laser treatment, as well as 1 week and then 1, 3, and 6 months post treatment. Further, the outcome for the volunteers regarding their satisfactory level after laser treatment was evaluated. Twenty volunteers were available for a complete follow-up. Microcirculation displayed statistically significant increase in all values to 2 mm depth. The biomechanical skin parameter of firmness of skin displayed statistically significant improvement in superficial skin layer after 6 months. Concerning microcirculation and skin elasticity the ablative Erbium: YAG laser treatment revealed similar effects on the skin like a superficial burn injury. In contrast to the determined skin elasticity parameters, firmness of skin objectively revealed a skin tightening effect after 6 months. Along with the important epidermal effect, the suitability of ablative laser treatment for skin rejuvenation has been proved in a long-term follow-up. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:891-898, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Collagen concentration on the facial skin of postmenopausal women after topical treatment with estradiol and genistein: a randomized double-blind controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lidia Aragão; Ferraz Carbonel, Adriana Aparecida; de Moraes, Andréa Regina Barbosa; Simões, Ricardo S; Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Goes, Lívia; Nunes, Winnie; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Patriarca, Marisa Teresinha

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effects of topical estrogen and genistein (a soy isoflavone) on the facial skin collagen of postmenopausal women not undergoing systemic hormonal therapy. This is a prospective, double blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Volunteer women (N = 30) 45-55 year old from the Endocrine Gynecology sector of the Gynecology Department of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP). The Ethical Committee of the Federal University of São Paulo approved the study (report no. 386/2004; registration on ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01553773), were assigned to topical treatment with either estrogen or genistein for 24 weeks. We quantified and compared facial collagen concentration before and after each treatment by performing pre-auricular skin biopsies. Our data showed an increase in the amount of both type I and type III facial collagen by the end of both treatments. However, the outcomes of the estrogen GI (ER) group were superior to the genistein GII (GEN) group, with statistical significance p < 000.1 Conclusion: Treatment with topical estrogen is superior to genistein, but both have positive impacts on facial skin collagen. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether prolonged use of genistein and other topical phytoestrogens could produce systemic effects and further research is needed to clarify this question.

  15. Childhood Sarcoidosis Presenting as Recurrent Facial Palsy.

    PubMed

    Passi, Gouri Rao; Arora, Kriti; Gokhale, Narendra

    2018-04-15

    Recurrent facial palsy in a patient merits investigation for underlying etiology. 8-year-old boy with erythematous itchy skin lesion and recurrent facial palsy. He had a past history of aseptic meningitis and nephrocalcinosis. Raised angiotensin converting enzyme levels, interstitial lung disease on CT chest, and non caseating granulomas on skin biopsy clinched the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Multisystem involvement and recurrent lower motor facial nerve palsy is a clinical clue for sarcoidosis.

  16. Male skin and ingredients relevant to male skin care.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2012-03-01

    Male skin care needs are heavily influenced by the need to remove facial hair on a regular basis. Facial skin issues associated with poor hair removal approaches are common and include razor burn and irritation. This paper evaluates current research on shaving technology and how careful ingredient selection can contribute to male skin health. The importance of maintaining hair softness during the shave and restoring facial hydration post-shave is discussed. Data are presented on how post-shave moisturizers containing glycerine and emollients can create an environment for improved barrier function which can be further improved by incorporating specific ingredients such as niacinamide. © 2012 The Author. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Characterization of facial skin of various Asian populations through visual and non-invasive instrumental evaluations: influence of age and skincare habits.

    PubMed

    Galzote, Carlos; Estanislao, Roderico; Suero, Michael Oliver; Khaiat, Alain; Mangubat, Maria Isabel; Moideen, Rafeeq; Tagami, Hachiro; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of age and skincare habits on facial skin of different Asian ethnicities by comparing skin properties and skincare habits among various Asian populations of varying age groups. We evaluated approximately 100 female subjects each from a total of eight Asian cities in China, India, South Korea, Japan, and the Philippines grouped according to age ranging from 14 to 75 years during a summer season. Facial skin was characterized using dermatological examinations of the cheek and instrumental evaluations of the forehead and cheek. Information regarding personal skincare habits was collected using a questionnaire. In 834 female subjects, characteristics related to skin surface moisture, elasticity, and sebum level decreased with age. Differences in skincare habits corresponded with variations in skin parameters. Subjects with the least severe photodamage reported a generally early onset of their skincare habits. These results demonstrate common trends as well as inherent differences in skin characteristics among Asian populations, reflecting the impact of age and the diversity of skincare habits of Asian women. These results may be beneficial when developing new skincare products that are well suited to these Asian populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. EFFICACY OF PULSED DYE LASER IN COSMETICALLY DISTRESSING FACIAL DERMATOSES IN SKIN TYPES IV AND V

    PubMed Central

    Khandpur, Sujay; Sharma, Vinod K

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) has revolutionized treatment of vascular dermatoses. It has been successfully employed to treat several non-vascular conditions in fair skinned individuals without producing significant pigmentary and textural complications. Aim: A preliminary study was undertaken to assess its efficacy in cosmetically distressing facial, vascular and non-vascular dermatoses in Indian patients with skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: Nine patients of ages 7 to 55 years, with facial verruca plana (VP- 4 cases), angiofibromas (AF- 4 cases) and multiple pyogenic granulomas (PG- one case) were recruited. They had no systemic complaints. Laser parameters used were (spot size/fluence/wavelength/pulse duration):VP- 5mm/5.5-7.5J/585nm/0.45ms; AF-5mm/6-8.5J/585nm/0.45ms;PG- 5mm/7J/585 and 595nm alternately/1.5ms. Response was assessed clinically and photographically. Results and Conclusions: All VP lesions completely resolved after 2-4 sessions (mean 3.25 sessions), AF showed 50% regression in all cases after 2-3 sessions (mean 2.5 sessions) and ≥75% subsidence after 3-7 sessions (mean 5.5 sessions) and in PG, after 3 sessions, there was complete subsidence of small satellite lesions with moderate shrinkage of larger papules and complete resolution after 5 sessions. Complications included transient hyperpigmentation/hypopigmentation only. There was no recurrence during next 6 months. PDL offers significant cosmetic improvement in facial dermatoses in Indian patients. PMID:19882031

  19. Facial nerve paralysis secondary to occult malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Boahene, Derek O; Olsen, Kerry D; Driscoll, Colin; Lewis, Jean E; McDonald, Thomas J

    2004-04-01

    This study reviewed patients with unilateral facial paralysis and normal clinical and imaging findings who underwent diagnostic facial nerve exploration. Study design and setting Fifteen patients with facial paralysis and normal findings were seen in the Mayo Clinic Department of Otorhinolaryngology. Eleven patients were misdiagnosed as having Bell palsy or idiopathic paralysis. Progressive facial paralysis with sequential involvement of adjacent facial nerve branches occurred in all 15 patients. Seven patients had a history of regional skin squamous cell carcinoma, 13 patients had surgical exploration to rule out a neoplastic process, and 2 patients had negative exploration. At last follow-up, 5 patients were alive. Patients with facial paralysis and normal clinical and imaging findings should be considered for facial nerve exploration when the patient has a history of pain or regional skin cancer, involvement of other cranial nerves, and prolonged facial paralysis. Occult malignancy of the facial nerve may cause unilateral facial paralysis in patients with normal clinical and imaging findings.

  20. Further enhancement of facial appearance with a hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin in patients previously treated with botulinum toxin Type A.

    PubMed

    Schlessinger, Joel; Kenkel, Jeffrey; Werschler, Philip

    2011-07-01

    A hydroquinone (HQ) skin care system has been designed for use in conjunction with nonsurgical procedures. The authors evaluate the efficacy of this system plus tretinoin for improving facial appearance in comparison to a standard skin care regimen in users of botulinum toxin Type A (BoNT-A). In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, parallel-group study, 61 patients who received upper facial treatment with BoNT-A at a plastic surgery or dermatology clinic were randomly assigned to apply either the HQ system (cleanser, toner, proprietary 4% hydroquinone, exfoliant, and sunscreen) plus 0.05% tretinoin cream or a standard skin care regimen (cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen) for 120 days. Outcomes were assessed by the investigators and through a patient questionnaire. Compared with standard skin care, the HQ system plus tretinoin resulted in significantly milder fine lines/wrinkles and hyperpigmentation at Days 30, 90, and 120 (p ≤ .05) and significantly superior overall ratings for each of nine patient assessments at Days 90 and 120 (p ≤ .05). A relatively greater proportion of patients using the HQ system plus tretinoin believed that their study treatment had further enhanced the improvements attained with BoNT-A (86% vs 8%). Both regimens were generally well tolerated. Adjunctive use of the HQ system plus tretinoin can further enhance the improvements in facial appearance attained with BoNT-A. Applying the HQ system plus tretinoin offers multiple clinical benefits over standard skin care, including significantly greater improvements in fine lines/wrinkles and hyperpigmentation.

  1. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 1: Patient-Directed

    PubMed Central

    Commander, Sarah Jane; Chang, Daniel; Fakhro, Abdulla; Nigro, Marjory G.; Lee, Edward I.

    2016-01-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin and rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but the patients are in control of this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the first in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. The authors focus on patient-directed facial rejuvenation. It is important, however, to emphasize that even in a patient-directed modality, a physician's involvement through education and guidance is integral to its success. PMID:27478421

  2. Enhanced facial texture illumination normalization for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Guan, Ye-Peng

    2015-08-01

    An uncontrolled lighting condition is one of the most critical challenges for practical face recognition applications. An enhanced facial texture illumination normalization method is put forward to resolve this challenge. An adaptive relighting algorithm is developed to improve the brightness uniformity of face images. Facial texture is extracted by using an illumination estimation difference algorithm. An anisotropic histogram-stretching algorithm is proposed to minimize the intraclass distance of facial skin and maximize the dynamic range of facial texture distribution. Compared with the existing methods, the proposed method can more effectively eliminate the redundant information of facial skin and illumination. Extensive experiments show that the proposed method has superior performance in normalizing illumination variation and enhancing facial texture features for illumination-insensitive face recognition.

  3. Perception of health from facial cues

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Audrey J.; Holzleitner, Iris J.; Talamas, Sean N.

    2016-01-01

    Impressions of health are integral to social interactions, yet poorly understood. A review of the literature reveals multiple facial characteristics that potentially act as cues to health judgements. The cues vary in their stability across time: structural shape cues including symmetry and sexual dimorphism alter slowly across the lifespan and have been found to have weak links to actual health, but show inconsistent effects on perceived health. Facial adiposity changes over a medium time course and is associated with both perceived and actual health. Skin colour alters over a short time and has strong effects on perceived health, yet links to health outcomes have barely been evaluated. Reviewing suggested an additional influence of demeanour as a perceptual cue to health. We, therefore, investigated the association of health judgements with multiple facial cues measured objectively from two-dimensional and three-dimensional facial images. We found evidence for independent contributions of face shape and skin colour cues to perceived health. Our empirical findings: (i) reinforce the role of skin yellowness; (ii) demonstrate the utility of global face shape measures of adiposity; and (iii) emphasize the role of affect in facial images with nominally neutral expression in impressions of health. PMID:27069057

  4. Hypodermal delivery of cosmetic actives for improved facial skin morphology and functionality.

    PubMed

    Bojanowski, K

    2013-12-01

    Skin compartments traditionally targeted by cosmetic actives - epidermis and dermis - are anchored and nourished by the underlying hypodermis, which therefore should be a key target for skin-rejuvenating formulations. However, given the difficulty to reach even the superficial layers of the skin, and to its 'unglamorous' fatty composition, the regenerative potential of hypodermis remains largely untapped. Therefore, this study was to investigate the capacity of a cosmetic material to trigger a regenerative response in dermis and epidermis through a selective action on hypodermis. Furthermore, it aimed to establish the effect of such cosmetic material in transbuccal hypodermal delivery form, on the hypodermal precursor cells - the preadipocytes. A combination of grape seed extract and soy phospholipids was formulated and standardized for elastase activity and free radical inhibition. This formulation was then used to contact the hypodermal layer of human skin biopsies and - under a transbuccal delivery vehicle form - the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and its effects were quantified using PCR arrays and histochemistry. Application of the standardized grape/soy material to the hypodermal layer of skin triggered modulation of gene expression in the upper layers of the skin and resulted in the clear morphological improvement at the dermal and epidermal levels. Furthermore, when this material was formulated in a mucoadhesive, intraoral film and applied on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the resulting modulation of gene expression in these cells was consistent with differentiation and detoxification effects. These results suggest that transbuccal formulations of nutraceutical grade cosmetics have potential to induce signal transduction pathways in facial hypodermis, resulting in anti-aging effects throughout all skin compartments, including dermal and epidermal layers. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Patient satisfaction and efficacy of accent radiofrequency for facial skin wrinkle reduction

    PubMed Central

    Jaffary, Fariba; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Zarkoob, Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency (RF) is a new technique to treat facial wrinkles. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Accent RF in wrinkle reduction of different areas of the face. Materials and Methods: Patients with mild to severe facial wrinkles were treated with Accent using RF energies of 35-145 W. The average energy used in this study was 83.11 W. Patients received four subsequent weekly RF sessions. Wrinkle improvement was rated by two physicians comparing 6-month post treatment photographs with pretreatment photos. Moreover, patient satisfaction was assessed at 1 and 6 months after the last session of the treatment. Results: A total of 45 women participated in this study. In terms of patient satisfaction one month after the last treatment, 8.9% of the patients declared their dissatisfaction, 53.3% were somehow satisfied, 33.3% were satisfied, and 4.4% were very satisfied. At 6 months, patient satisfaction was as follows: 4.4% dissatisfied, 31.1% somehow satisfied, 46.7% satisfied, and 17.8% very satisfied. Patient satisfaction 6 months after the last treatment was significantly higher than 1 month post treatment (P = 0.006). At 6 months, patient satisfaction was not more than 75% in any treatment areas of the face. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Accent RF may be considered as a possible effective option for facial skin rejuvenation although its efficacy and safety needs to be evaluated further in randomized controlled trials. PMID:24523783

  6. Electro therapy facial and laser skin whitening: Clients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, D; Manimaran, S; Bhagyalakshmi, K

    2018-01-01

    There are so many beauty salons in Metropolis who provide services to women exclusively [1]. These beauty salons depend mostly on electricity for their services to customers, without it there is no effective means of operation [2]. These beauty salons are definitely leading to women empowerment. The beauty salons are run by the women for women. Since they fall under the category of micro and small enterprises, these salons may avail so many financial and non- financial advantages from the Government of India. They also provide employment opportunities to the women employees. The development of such beauty salons rests on the clients' satisfaction on the provision of their services. Hence it is essential to measure the clients attitude towards the services offered by the beauty salons, especially electro therapy facial, laser skin whitening and laser hair removal treatments, which are coming under micro current treatment as a cosmetic tool.

  7. Topical Treatment of Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Versteeg, Sarah G

    2017-04-01

    Facial seborrheic dermatitis (SD), a chronic inflammatory skin condition, can impact quality of life, and relapses can be frequent. Three broad categories of agents are used to treat SD: antifungal agents, keratolytics, and corticosteroids. Topical therapies are the first line of defense in treating this condition. Our objective was to critically review the published literature on topical treatments for facial SD. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane library databases for original clinical studies evaluating topical treatments for SD. We then conducted both a critical analysis of the selected studies by grading the evidence and a qualitative comparison of results among and within studies. A total of 32 studies were eligible for inclusion, encompassing 18 topical treatments for facial SD. Pimecrolimus, the focus of seven of the 32 eligible studies, was the most commonly studied topical treatment. Promiseb ® , desonide, mometasone furoate, and pimecrolimus were found to be effective topical treatments for facial SD, as they had the lowest recurrence rate, highest clearance rate, and the lowest severity scores (e.g., erythema, scaling, and pruritus), respectively. Ciclopirox olamine, ketoconazole, lithium (gluconate and succinate), and tacrolimus are also strongly recommended (level A recommendations) topical treatments for facial SD, as they are consistently effective across high-quality trials (randomized controlled trials).

  8. Development and Validation of a Photonumeric Scale for Evaluation of Facial Skin Texture

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Alastair; Hardas, Bhushan; Murphy, Diane K.; Carruthers, Jean; Jones, Derek; Sykes, Jonathan M.; Creutz, Lela; Marx, Ann; Dill, Sara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A validated scale is needed for objective and reproducible comparisons of facial skin roughness before and after aesthetic treatment in practice and in clinical studies. OBJECTIVE To describe the development and validation of the 5-point photonumeric Allergan Skin Roughness Scale. METHODS The scale was developed to include an assessment guide, verbal descriptors, morphed images, and real subject images for each grade. The clinical significance of a 1-point score difference was evaluated in a review of image pairs representing varying differences in severity. Interrater and intrarater reliability was evaluated in a live-subject validation study (N = 290) completed during 2 sessions occurring 3 weeks apart. RESULTS A score difference of ≥1 point was shown to reflect a clinically meaningful difference (mean [95% confidence interval] absolute score difference 1.09 [0.96–1.23] for clinically different image pairs and 0.53 [0.38–0.67] for not clinically different pairs). Intrarater agreement between the 2 validation sessions was almost perfect (weighted kappa = 0.83). Interrater agreement was almost perfect during the second rating session (0.81, primary end point). CONCLUSION The Allergan Skin Roughness Scale is a validated and reliable scale for physician rating of midface skin roughness. PMID:27661744

  9. A Fractional Bipolar Radiofrequency Device Combined with a Bipolar Radiofrequency and Infrared Light Treatment for Improvement in Facial Wrinkles and Overall Skin Tone and Texture.

    PubMed

    Gold, Alan H; Pozner, Jason; Weiss, Robert

    2016-10-01

    A variety of techniques and energy-based technologies are currently utilized for the treatment of facial wrinkles. Fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light have both been reported to be safe and effective for the non-invasive treatment of wrinkles and overall facial rejuvenation. A multicenter, prospective clinical trial evaluated a protocol of treatment with a device incorporating bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light followed by treatment with a fractional bipolar radiofrequency device for facial wrinkle reduction and improvement in the overall appearance of aged facial skin. Fifty-six patients with mild to moderate facial wrinkles received three full-face treatments (forehead, nose, cheeks, periorbital, and perioral areas) at 4 to 6 week intervals and were evaluated at 12 and 24 weeks after the last treatment. Clinical photographs at baseline and follow-ups were assessed by both the investigators and patients using the Global Aesthetic Improvement scale. Treatment safety was evaluated. Study participants also completed a satisfaction and improvement questionnaire. Fitzpatrick Wrinkling and Elastosis Score was decreased significantly at three months (P < .01; paired t test) and at six months (P < .001; paired t test) after the final treatment. Investigators' assessments of overall improvement in facial appearance, demonstrated 88% improvement at 12 weeks and 82% at 24 weeks after the final treatment. Subject evaluations were similar, consistently reporting improvement in wrinkles and overall facial skin appearance throughout the study, and high a degree of satisfaction with their final results. Subjects tolerated the procedures well, with only transient mild to moderate erythema and edema occurring in most patients, and without complications. A combined protocol of bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light treatment followed by fractionated bipolar radiofrequency treatment results in

  10. Preliminary results in single-step wound closure procedure of full-thickness facial burns in children by using the collagen-elastin matrix and review of pediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Demircan, Mehmet; Cicek, Tugrul; Yetis, Muhammed Ikbal

    2015-09-01

    Management of full-thickness facial burns remains one of the greatest challenges. Controversy exists among surgeons regarding the use of early excision for facial burns. Unfortunately, delayed excision of deeper burns often results in more scarring and subsequent reconstruction becomes more difficult. A collagen-elastin matrix is used to improve the quality of the reconstructed skin, to reduce scarring and to prevent wound contraction. It serves as a foundation for split thickness skin graft and enhances short and long-term results. We report the usage of a collagen-elastin matrix during single-step wound closure technique of severe full-thickness facial burns in 15 children with large burned body surface area, and also we review the literature about pediatric facial burns. There were 15 pediatric patients with severe facial burns, 8 girls and 7 boys ranging in age from 10 months to 12 years, mean age 7 years and 6 months old. The facial burn surface area (FBSA) among the patients includes seven patients with 100%, five with 75%, and three with 50%. The average total body surface area (TBSA) for the patients was 72%, ranging between 50 and 90%. 5 of the patients' admissions were late, more than four days after burns while the rest of the patients were admitted within the first four days (acute admission time). The burns were caused by flame in eight of the patients, bomb blast in four, and scalding in three. All patients were treated by the simultaneous application of the collagen-elastin matrix and an unmeshed split thickness skin graft at Turgut Özal Medical Center, Pediatric Burn Center, Malatya, Turkey. After the treatment only two patients needed a second operation for revision of the grafts. All grafts transplanted to the face survived. The average Vancouver scar scales (VSS) were 2.55±1.42, ranging between one and six, in the first 10 of 15 patients at the end of 6 months postoperatively. VSS measurements of the last 5 patients were not taken since the 6

  11. Combat-related facial burns: analysis of strategic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Benjamin W; Madson, Andrew Q; Bong-Thakur, Sarah; Tucker, David; Hale, Robert G; Chan, Rodney K

    2015-01-01

    -term outcomes. These challenges include prolonged transport to the burn center, delayed initial intervention and definitive coverage, and a lack of available high-quality color-matched donor skin. These gaps all highlight the need for novel anti-inflammatory and skin replacement strategies to more adequately address these unique combat-related obstacles. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  12. An Open Label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerance of a Retinol and Vitamin C Facial Regimen in Women With Mild-to-Moderate Hyperpigmentation and Photodamaged Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Herndon, James H; Jiang, Lily I; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    A 12-week open-label, single-center clinical usage trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a dual product regimen consisting of a 0.5% retinol treatment and an anti-aging moisturizer with 30% vitamin C in women with mild to moderate hyperpigmented and photodamaged facial skin. Clinical grading of several efficacy parameters, tolerability evaluations, subject self-assessment questionnaires, and digital photography were completed at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. A total of 44 women completed the study. Effective ingredients incorporated into the 0.5% retinol treatment included encapsulated retinol for a retinol concentration of 0.5%, bakuchiol, and Ophiopogon japonicus root extract. The anti-aging moisturizer with 30% vitamin C contained 30% vitamin C in the form of tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD ascorbate), alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). The facial regimen produced a statistically significant decrease (improvement) in clinical grading scores for all parameters assessed at weeks 8 and 12 when compared with baseline scores. In addition, the majority of these parameters were improved at week 4. The test regimen was well-perceived by the subjects for various inquiries regarding facial skin condition, product efficacy, and product attributes. Several tolerability parameters were assessed with no statistically significant increase except for dryness. A statistically significant increase in clinical grading scores for dryness on the face occurred at weeks 4 and 8 when compared to baseline scores. The increase in dryness is expected when introducing a retinol product to a facial regimen and the dryness did not persist to the week 12 time point.

  13. Ice slurry ingestion reduces both core and facial skin temperatures in a warm environment.

    PubMed

    Onitsuka, Sumire; Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Internal body cooling by ingesting ice slurry has recently attracted attention. Because ice slurries are ingested through the mouth, it is possible that this results in conductive cooling of the facial skin and brain. However, no studies have investigated this possibility. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ice slurry ingestion on forehead skin temperature at the point of conductive cooling between the forehead skin and brain. Eight male subjects ingested either 7.5g/kg of ice slurry (-1°C; ICE), a cold sports drink (4°C; COOL), or a warm sports drink (37°C; CON) for 15min in a warm environment (30°C, 80% relative humidity). Then, they remained at rest for 1h. As physiological indices, rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature, forehead skin temperature (Thead), heart rate, nude body mass, and urine specific gravity were measured. Subjective thermal sensation (TS) was measured at 5-min intervals throughout the experiment. With ICE, Tre and Thead were significantly reduced compared with CON and COOL conditions (p<0.05). The results of the other physiological indices were not significantly different. TS with ICE was significantly lower than that with CON and COOL (p<0.05) and was correlated with Tre or Thead (p<0.05). These results indicate that ice slurry ingestion may induce conductive cooling between forehead skin and brain, and reduction in core and forehead skin temperature reduced thermal sensation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of image analysis techniques to measure skin aging features from facial photographs.

    PubMed

    Hamer, M A; Jacobs, L C; Lall, J S; Wollstein, A; Hollestein, L M; Rae, A R; Gossage, K W; Hofman, A; Liu, F; Kayser, M; Nijsten, T; Gunn, D A

    2015-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the extent skin has aged is crucial for skin aging research. Image analysis offers a quick and consistent approach for quantifying skin aging features from photographs, but is prone to technical bias and requires proper validation. Facial photographs of 75 male and 75 female North-European participants, randomly selected from the Rotterdam Study, were graded by two physicians using photonumeric scales for wrinkles (full face, forehead, crow's feet, nasolabial fold and upper lip), pigmented spots and telangiectasia. Image analysis measurements of the same features were optimized using photonumeric grades from 50 participants, then compared to photonumeric grading in the 100 remaining participants stratified by sex. The inter-rater reliability of the photonumeric grades was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.65-0.93). Correlations between the digital measures and the photonumeric grading were moderate to excellent for all the wrinkle comparisons (Spearman's rho ρ = 0.52-0.89) bar the upper lip wrinkles in the men (fair, ρ = 0.30). Correlations were moderate to good for pigmented spots and telangiectasia (ρ = 0.60-0.75). These comparisons demonstrate that all the image analysis measures, bar the upper lip measure in the men, are suitable for use in skin aging research and highlight areas of improvement for future refinements of the techniques. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons.

  15. P16INK4a Positive Cells in Human Skin Are Indicative of Local Elastic Fiber Morphology, Facial Wrinkling, and Perceived Age

    PubMed Central

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E. C.; Gunn, David A.; Adams, Peter D.; Pawlikowski, Jeff S.; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; van Heemst, Diana; Slagboom, P. Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells are more prevalent in aged human skin compared to young, but evidence that senescent cells are linked to other biomarkers of aging is scarce. We counted cells positive for the tumor suppressor and senescence associated protein p16INK4a in sun-protected upper-inner arm skin biopsies from 178 participants (aged 45–81 years) of the Leiden Longevity Study. Local elastic fiber morphology, facial wrinkles, and perceived facial age were compared to tertiles of p16INK4a counts, while adjusting for chronological age and other potential confounders. The numbers of epidermal and dermal p16INK4a positive cells were significantly associated with age-associated elastic fiber morphologic characteristics, such as longer and a greater number of elastic fibers. The p16INK4a positive epidermal cells (identified as primarily melanocytes) were also significantly associated with more facial wrinkles and a higher perceived age. Participants in the lowest tertile of epidermal p16INK4a counts looked 3 years younger than those in the highest tertile, independently of chronological age and elastic fiber morphology. In conclusion, p16INK4a positive cell numbers in sun-protected human arm skin are indicative of both local elastic fiber morphology and the extent of aging visible in the face. PMID:26286607

  16. Influence of gravity upon some facial signs.

    PubMed

    Flament, F; Bazin, R; Piot, B

    2015-06-01

    Facial clinical signs and their integration are the basis of perception than others could have from ourselves, noticeably the age they imagine we are. Facial modifications in motion and their objective measurements before and after application of skin regimen are essential to go further in evaluation capacities to describe efficacy in facial dynamics. Quantification of facial modifications vis à vis gravity will allow us to answer about 'control' of facial shape in daily activities. Standardized photographs of the faces of 30 Caucasian female subjects of various ages (24-73 year) were successively taken at upright and supine positions within a short time interval. All these pictures were therefore reframed - any bias due to facial features was avoided when evaluating one single sign - for clinical quotation by trained experts of several facial signs regarding published standardized photographic scales. For all subjects, the supine position increased facial width but not height, giving a more fuller appearance to the face. More importantly, the supine position changed the severity of facial ageing features (e.g. wrinkles) compared to an upright position and whether these features were attenuated or exacerbated depended on their facial location. Supine station mostly modifies signs of the lower half of the face whereas those of the upper half appear unchanged or slightly accentuated. These changes appear much more marked in the older groups, where some deep labial folds almost vanish. These alterations decreased the perceived ages of the subjects by an average of 3.8 years. Although preliminary, this study suggests that a 90° rotation of the facial skin vis à vis gravity induces rapid rearrangements among which changes in tensional forces within and across the face, motility of interstitial free water among underlying skin tissue and/or alterations of facial Langer lines, likely play a significant role. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Fran

  17. Comparison of Neurovascular Characteristics of Facial Skin in Patients After Primary and Revision Rhytidectomies.

    PubMed

    Ardeshirpour, Farhad; Hurliman, Elisabeth; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; McAdams, Brian; Hilger, Peter A; Kennedy, William R; Lassig, Amy Anne D; Brenner, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Wound healing influences both the cosmetic and functional outcomes of facial surgery. Study of cutaneous innervation may afford insight into patients' preoperative wound healing potential and aid in their selection of appropriate surgical procedures. To present the quantitative and qualitative differences of epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs), neurotransmitters, vasculature, and mast cells in facial skin among patients after primary and revision rhytidectomies. This pilot study collected cutaneous specimens from 8 female patients aged 42 to 66 years who underwent primary rhytidectomy (n = 5) and revision rhytidectomy (n = 3) at Centennial Lakes Surgery Center, Edina, Minnesota, from July 2010 to March 2014. Tissue was processed for confocal/epifluorescence microscopy and indirect immunofluorescent localization of several neural and tissue antigens as well as basement membrane and mast cell markers. Primary rhytidectomy vs revision rhytidectomy with selection of a small area of redundant, otherwise disposed of tissue anterior to the tragus for ENF study. Demographic characteristics included smoking status; 10-point rating scales for facial sensation, pain, and paresthesias; and confocal/epifluorescence microscopy to quantify ENFs, neurotransmitters, vasculature, and mast cells. Patients in the primary rhytidectomy group had a mean (SD) of 54.4 (31.6) ENFs/mm (range, 14.2-99.2 ENFs/mm), and those in the revision rhytidectomy group had a mean (SD) of 18.6 (5.8) ENFs/mm (range, 13.8-25.0 ENFs/mm). A patient in the primary rhytidectomy group was a 25-pack-year smoker and had 14.2 ENFs/mm, the lowest in both groups. In addition to these structural neural changes, functional neural changes in revision rhytidectomy samples included qualitative changes in normal neural antigen prevalence (substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide). Capillary loops appeared less robust and were less common in dermal papilla among samples from both the

  18. Depigmented skin and phantom color measurements for realistic prostheses.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of realistic prostheses. Data was analyzed from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared with 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making realistic facial prostheses. The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (P = 0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (P = 0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162). Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for realistic facial prostheses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Dose and diagnostic image quality in digital tomosynthesis imaging of facial bones in pediatrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. M.; Hickling, S.; Elbakri, I. A.; Reed, M.; Wrogemann, J.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of digital tomosynthesis (DT) for pediatric facial bone imaging. We compared the eye lens dose and diagnostic image quality of DT facial bone exams relative to digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), and investigated whether we could modify our current DT imaging protocol to reduce patient dose while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. We measured the dose to the eye lens for all three modalities using high-sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and an anthropomorphic skull phantom. To assess the diagnostic image quality of DT compared to the corresponding DR and CT images, we performed an observer study where the visibility of anatomical structures in the DT phantom images were rated on a four-point scale. We then acquired DT images at lower doses and had radiologists indicate whether the visibility of each structure was adequate for diagnostic purposes. For typical facial bone exams, we measured eye lens doses of 0.1-0.4 mGy for DR, 0.3-3.7 mGy for DT, and 26 mGy for CT. In general, facial bone structures were visualized better with DT then DR, and the majority of structures were visualized well enough to avoid the need for CT. DT imaging provides high quality diagnostic images of the facial bones while delivering significantly lower doses to the lens of the eye compared to CT. In addition, we found that by adjusting the imaging parameters, the DT effective dose can be reduced by up to 50% while maintaining sufficient image quality.

  20. Assessing Demographic Differences in Patient-Perceived Improvement in Facial Appearance and Quality of Life Following Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Schwitzer, Jonathan A.; Albino, Frank P.; Mathis, Ryan K.; Scott, Amie M.; Gamble, Laurie; Baker, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Background As rhinoplasty patient demographics evolve, surgeons must consider the impact of demographics on patient satisfaction. Objectives The objective of this study was to identify independent demographic predictors of differences in satisfaction with appearance and quality of life following rhinoplasty utilizing the FACE-Q patient-reported outcome instrument. Methods Patients presenting for rhinoplasty completed the following FACE-Q scales: Satisfaction with Facial Appearance, Satisfaction with Nose, Social Function, and Psychological Well-being. Higher FACE-Q scores indicate greater satisfaction with appearance or superior quality of life. Pre- and post-treatment scores were compared in the context of patient demographics. Results The scales were completed by 59 patients. Women demonstrated statistically significant improvements in Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life while men only experienced significant improvement in Satisfaction with Facial appearance. Caucasians demonstrated statistically significant improvement in Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life while non-Caucasians did not. Patients younger than 35 years old were more likely to experience enhanced Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life compared with patients older than 35 years old. Patients with income ≥$100,000 were more likely to experience significant increases in Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life than patients with incomes <$100,000. Conclusions In an objective study using a validated patient-reported outcome instrument, the authors were able to quantify differences in the clinically meaningful change in perception of appearance and quality of life that rhinoplasty patients gain based on demographic variables. The authors also demonstrated that these variables are potential predictors of differences in satisfaction. Level of Evidence 3 Therapeutic PMID:26063837

  1. Assessing Demographic Differences in Patient-Perceived Improvement in Facial Appearance and Quality of Life Following Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Schwitzer, Jonathan A; Albino, Frank P; Mathis, Ryan K; Scott, Amie M; Gamble, Laurie; Baker, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    As rhinoplasty patient demographics evolve, surgeons must consider the impact of demographics on patient satisfaction. The objective of this study was to identify independent demographic predictors of differences in satisfaction with appearance and quality of life following rhinoplasty utilizing the FACE-Q patient-reported outcome instrument. Patients presenting for rhinoplasty completed the following FACE-Q scales: Satisfaction with Facial Appearance, Satisfaction with Nose, Social Function, and Psychological Well-being. Higher FACE-Q scores indicate greater satisfaction with appearance or superior quality of life. Pre- and post-treatment scores were compared in the context of patient demographics. The scales were completed by 59 patients. Women demonstrated statistically significant improvements in Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life while men only experienced significant improvement in Satisfaction with Facial appearance. Caucasians demonstrated statistically significant improvement in Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life while non-Caucasians did not. Patients younger than 35 years old were more likely to experience enhanced Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life compared with patients older than 35 years old. Patients with income ≥$100,000 were more likely to experience significant increases in Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and quality of life than patients with incomes <$100,000. In an objective study using a validated patient-reported outcome instrument, the authors were able to quantify differences in the clinically meaningful change in perception of appearance and quality of life that rhinoplasty patients gain based on demographic variables. The authors also demonstrated that these variables are potential predictors of differences in satisfaction. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Does age difference really matter? Facial markers of biological quality and age difference between husband and wife.

    PubMed

    Danel, D P; Dziedzic-Danel, A; Kleisner, K

    2016-08-01

    Information conveyed by facial attractiveness markers such as averageness, bilateral symmetry, and secondary sexual characteristics may play an important adaptive role in human sexual selection. Nonetheless, mate choice also relies on other non-physical characteristics such as, for instance, an individual's age. Women prefer and enter in relationships with older partners, whereas in men the inverse relation is observed. Surprisingly, the link between facial morphological markers of biological quality on the one hand and age disparity between partners on the other hand has been as yet subject of very little research. This study aims to fill this gap. We had used facial photographs and demographic data of heterosexual marriages. Facial cues of biological quality, such as averageness, bilateral symmetry, and sexual dimorphism, were digitally measured using geometric morphometric methods and then associated with spouses' age difference. It turned out that a greater age disparity between spouses correlates, in both partners, with higher scores in facial measures which indicate partners' biological quality. One exception is female facial masculinity - generally regarded as an unattractive marker of a low biological quality - which, too, is associated with higher spouse age disparity. In general, our results show that facial symmetry, averageness, and secondary sexual characteristics may play a role in age-dependent mate choice. We suggest that in marriages where the wife is considerably younger than the husband, wife's greater facial masculinity may increase her perceived age and with it, her perceived maturity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethnic and Gender Considerations in the Use of Facial Injectables: Asian Patients.

    PubMed

    Liew, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Asians have distinct facial characteristics due to underlying skeletal and morphological features that differ greatly with those of whites. This together with the higher sun protection factor and the differences in the quality of the skin and soft tissue create a profound effect on their aging process. Understanding of these differences and their effects in the aging process in Asians is crucial in determining effective utilization and placement of injectable products to ensure optimal aesthetic outcomes. For younger Asian women, the main treatment goal is to address the inherent structural deficits through reshaping and the provision of facial support. Facial injectables are used to provide anterior projection, to reduce facial width, and to lengthen facial height. In the older group, the aim is for rejuvenation and also to address the underlying structural issues that has compounded due to age-related volume loss. Asian women requesting cosmetic procedures do not want to be Westernized but rather seeking to enhance and optimize their Asian ethnic features.

  4. Male facial attractiveness and masculinity may provide sex- and culture-independent cues to semen quality.

    PubMed

    Soler, C; Kekäläinen, J; Núñez, M; Sancho, M; Álvarez, J G; Núñez, J; Yaber, I; Gutiérrez, R

    2014-09-01

    Phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis (PLFH) predicts that male secondary sexual traits reveal honest information about male fertilization ability. However, PLFH has rarely been studied in humans. The aim of the present study was to test PLFH in humans and to investigate whether potential ability to select fertile partners is independent of sex or cultural background. We found that on the contrary to the hypothesis, facial masculinity was negatively associated with semen quality. As increased levels of testosterone have been demonstrated to impair sperm production, this finding may indicate a trade-off between investments in secondary sexual signalling (i.e. facial masculinity) and fertility or status-dependent differences in investments in semen quality. In both sexes and nationalities (Spanish and Colombian), ranked male facial attractiveness predicted male semen quality. However, Spanish males and females estimated facial images generally more attractive (gave higher ranks) than Colombian raters, and in both nationalities, males gave higher ranks than females. This suggests that male facial cues may provide culture- and sex-independent information about male fertility. However, our results also indicate that humans may be more sensitive to facial attractiveness cues within their own populations and also that males may generally overestimate the attractiveness of other men to females. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 2: Physician-Directed—Neuromodulators and Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Ryan M.; Louis, Matthew R.; Cox, Joshua A.; Mohan, Kriti; Lee, Edward I.; Nigro, Marjory G.

    2016-01-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin as well as rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but patients are in control with this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the second in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. Here the authors discuss neuromodulators and fillers in detail, focusing on indications for use, techniques, and common side effects. PMID:27478422

  6. Highly polymorphic colour vision in a New World monkey with red facial skin, the bald uakari (Cacajao calvus).

    PubMed

    Corso, Josmael; Bowler, Mark; Heymann, Eckhard W; Roos, Christian; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-04-13

    Colour vision is highly variable in New World monkeys (NWMs). Evidence for the adaptive basis of colour vision in this group has largely centred on environmental features such as foraging benefits for differently coloured foods or predator detection, whereas selection on colour vision for sociosexual communication is an alternative hypothesis that has received little attention. The colour vision of uakaris (Cacajao) is of particular interest because these monkeys have the most dramatic red facial skin of any primate, as well as a unique fission/fusion social system and a specialist diet of seeds. Here, we investigate colour vision in a wild population of the bald uakari,C. calvus, by genotyping the X-linked opsin locus. We document the presence of a polymorphic colour vision system with an unprecedented number of functional alleles (six), including a novel allele with a predicted maximum spectral sensitivity of 555 nm. This supports the presence of strong balancing selection on different alleles at this locus. We consider different hypotheses to explain this selection. One possibility is that trichromacy functions in sexual selection, enabling females to choose high-quality males on the basis of red facial coloration. In support of this, there is some evidence that health affects facial coloration in uakaris, as well as a high prevalence of blood-borne parasitism in wild uakari populations. Alternatively, the low proportion of heterozygous female trichromats in the population may indicate selection on different dichromatic phenotypes, which might be related to cryptic food coloration. We have uncovered unexpected diversity in the last major lineage of NWMs to be assayed for colour vision, which will provide an interesting system to dissect adaptation of polymorphic trichromacy. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Children with facial morphoea managing everyday life: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Stasiulis, E; Gladstone, B; Boydell, K; O'Brien, C; Pope, E; Laxer, R M

    2018-02-16

    Facial morphoea is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder, typically presenting in childhood and adolescence, which can be disfiguring, and which has been suggested to cause mild-to-moderate impairment in quality of life. To explore the everyday experiences of children with facial morphoea by examining the psychosocial impact of living with facial morphoea and how children and their families manage its impact. We used a qualitative, social constructionist approach involving focus groups, in-depth interviews and drawing activities with 10 children with facial morphoea aged 8-17 years and 13 parents. Interpretive thematic analysis was utilized to examine the data. Children and parents reported on the stress of living with facial morphoea, which was related to the lack of knowledge about facial morphoea and the extent to which they perceived themselves as different from others. Self-perceptions were based on the visibility of the lesion, different phases of life transitions and the reactions of others (e.g. intrusive questioning and bullying). Medication routines, and side-effects such as weight gain, added to the stress experienced by the participants. To manage the impact of facial morphoea, children and their parents used strategies to normalize the experience by hiding physical signs of the illness, constructing explanations about what 'it' is, and by connecting with their peers. Understanding what it is like to live with facial morphoea from the perspectives of children and parents is important for devising ways to help children with the disorder achieve a better quality of life. Healthcare providers can help families access resources to manage anxiety, deal with bullying and construct adequate explanations of facial morphoea, in addition to providing opportunities for peer support. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Overview of Facial Plastic Surgery and Current Developments

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Jessica; Barnes, Christian; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Facial plastic surgery is a multidisciplinary specialty largely driven by otolaryngology but includes oral maxillary surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology, and plastic surgery. It encompasses both reconstructive and cosmetic components. The scope of practice for facial plastic surgeons in the United States may include rhinoplasty, browlifts, blepharoplasty, facelifts, microvascular reconstruction of the head and neck, craniomaxillofacial trauma reconstruction, and correction of defects in the face after skin cancer resection. Facial plastic surgery also encompasses the use of injectable fillers, neural modulators (e.g., BOTOX Cosmetic, Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Westport, Ireland), lasers, and other devices aimed at rejuvenating skin. Facial plastic surgery is a constantly evolving field with continuing innovative advances in surgical techniques and cosmetic adjunctive technologies. This article aims to give an overview of the various procedures that encompass the field of facial plastic surgery and to highlight the recent advances and trends in procedures and surgical techniques. PMID:28824978

  9. Efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser versus fractional Er:YAG laser in the treatment of facial skin wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Robati, Reza M; Asadi, Elmira

    2017-02-01

    Ablative fractional lasers were introduced for treating facial rhytides. Few studies have compared fractional CO 2 and Er:YAG lasers on cutaneous photodamages by a split trial. The aim of the present study was to compare these modalities in a randomized controlled double-blind split-face design with multiple sessions and larger sample size compared to previous studies done before. Forty patients with facial wrinkles were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive three monthly treatments on each side of the face, one with a fractional CO 2 and one with a fractional Er:YAG laser. The evaluations included investigating clinical outcome determined by two independent dermatologists not enrolled in the treatment along with measuring skin biomechanical property of cheeks using a sensitive biometrologic device with the assessment of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT). Moreover, possible side effects and patients' satisfaction have been recorded at baseline, 1 month after each treatment, and 3 months after the last treatment session. Clinical assessment showed both modalities significantly reduce facial wrinkles (p value < 0.05), with no appreciable difference between two lasers. Mean CRRT values also decreased significantly after the laser treatment compared to the baseline in both laser groups. There was no serious long-standing adverse effect after both laser treatments, but the discomfort was more pronounced by the participants after CO 2 laser treatment. According to the present study, both fractional CO 2 and fractional Er:YAG lasers show considerable clinical improvement of facial skin wrinkles with no serious adverse effects, but post-treatment discomfort seems to be lower with Er:YAG laser.

  10. In vivo evaluation of some biophysical parameters of the facial skin of Indian subjects living in Mumbai. Part II: Variability with age and gender.

    PubMed

    Colomb, L; Flament, F; Wagle, A; Idelcaid, Y; Agrawal, D

    2018-04-01

    A previously published work explored the diversity of some biophysical parameters (colour, elasticity, sebum production, skin microrelief, etc.) of the skin of 1204 Indian women, differently aged, living in four Indian cities (Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai). The present work aimed at completing such research by focusing on possible gender-related differences in the same skin parameters, between Indian men and women living in the same Indian city (Mumbai). A total of 297 Indian men, differently aged (18-70y), were recruited in Mumbai, completing the panel of 303 women who were previously recruited in this same city. The same instrumental measurements of facial skin colour and its homogeneity, its mechanical properties, the sebum production, skin pores size, skin relief, etc. as in the previous work, were conducted. Overall, the facial skin colour shows a darker complexion in men as compared to women, on forehead, ocular region, lips, chin and cheek. The skin colour unevenness, which increases with age, was found higher in men, as compared to women. At comparable age, women and men present a same density of skin pores, whereas those of men appear larger, up to 55y. The deepness of Crow's feet wrinkles does not significantly differ between genders. A lesser extensibility was found on the cheeks of men. In men, the sebum production was found significantly higher than that of women at ages above 40y. This work indicates some commonly shared age-related skin features between women and men from Mumbai, despite slight different characteristics such as skin pigmentation, forehead/cheek colour contrast, mechanical properties and sebum production. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. A new physical model with multilayer architecture for facial expression animation using dynamic adaptive mesh.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C; Sung, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new physically-based 3D facial model based on anatomical knowledge which provides high fidelity for facial expression animation while optimizing the computation. Our facial model has a multilayer biomechanical structure, incorporating a physically-based approximation to facial skin tissue, a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators, and underlying skull structure. In contrast to existing mass-spring-damper (MSD) facial models, our dynamic skin model uses the nonlinear springs to directly simulate the nonlinear visco-elastic behavior of soft tissue and a new kind of edge repulsion spring is developed to prevent collapse of the skin model. Different types of muscle models have been developed to simulate distribution of the muscle force applied on the skin due to muscle contraction. The presence of the skull advantageously constrain the skin movements, resulting in more accurate facial deformation and also guides the interactive placement of facial muscles. The governing dynamics are computed using a local semi-implicit ODE solver. In the dynamic simulation, an adaptive refinement automatically adapts the local resolution at which potential inaccuracies are detected depending on local deformation. The method, in effect, ensures the required speedup by concentrating computational time only where needed while ensuring realistic behavior within a predefined error threshold. This mechanism allows more pleasing animation results to be produced at a reduced computational cost.

  12. Clinical and Histological Evaluations of Enlarged Facial Skin Pores After Low Energy Level Treatments With Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in Korean Patients.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Choi, Sun Chul; Lee, Won-Yong; Jung, Jae Yoon; Park, Gyeong-Hun

    2018-03-01

    Enlarged facial pores can be an early manifestation of skin aging and they are a common aesthetic concern for Asians. However, studies of improving the appearance of enlarged pores have been limited. The authors aimed to study the application of CO2 fractional laser treatment in patients with enlarged facial pores. A total of 32 patients with dilated facial pores completed 3 consecutive sessions of low energy level treatments with a fractional CO2 laser at 4-week intervals. Image analysis was performed to calculate the number of enlarged pores before each treatment session and 12 weeks after the final treatment. After application of laser treatments, there was a significant decrease in the number of enlarged pores. The mean number of enlarged pores was decreased by 28.8% after the second session and by 54.5% at post-treatment evaluation. Post-treatment side effects were mild and transitory. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated clear increases in the number of collagen fibers and the expression of transforming growth factor-β1. The short-term results showed that treatment with low energy level CO2 fractional laser therapy could be a safe and effective option for patients with Fitzpatrick skin Types III and IV who are concerned with enlarged pores.

  13. Clinical efficacy of facial masks containing yoghurt and Opuntia humifusa Raf. (F-YOP).

    PubMed

    Yeom, Gyoseon; Yun, Dae-Myoung; Kang, Yun-Won; Kwon, Ji-Sook; Kang, In-Oh; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2011-01-01

    Facial packs or masks are popular beauty treatments that are thought to improve skin quality. We formulated a yoghurt pack using natural ingredients (F-YOP), with consideration of skin affinity, safety, health, and beauty. Then, we performed an in vitro assessment of biological activity and in vivo assessments of moisture, TEWL, melanin content, and elasticity. Facial areas treated with F-YOP showed increased moisture compared to control regions: 89±6.26% (forehead), 140.72±10.19% (cheek), and 123.29±6.67% (chin). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values were decreased in the treated areas compared to control: 101.38±6.95% (forehead), 50.37±5.93% (cheek), and l57.81±10.88% (chin). Elasticity was decreased in the control region, whereas the treatment region did not change. The initial elasticity was maintained in the cheek. F-YOP exhibited activity on DPPH radical scavenging, SOD-like activity, and lipoxygenase activity. F-YOP treatment successfully improved the moisture, brightness, and elasticity of treated skin.

  14. Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Methods Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Results Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. Conclusion This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception

  15. Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions: evidence from an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hui; Chau, Desmond K. P.; Su, Jianpo; Zeng, Ling-Li; Jiang, Weixiong; He, Jufang; Fan, Jintu; Hu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions are investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in 41 young adults (22 males and 19 females). The subjects underwent fMRI while they were presented with computer-generated, yet realistic face images, which had varying facial proportions, but the same neutral facial expression, baldhead and skin tone, as stimuli. Statistical parametric mapping with parametric modulation was used to explore the brain regions with the response modulated by facial attractiveness ratings (ARs). The results showed significant linear effects of the ARs in the caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex for all of the subjects, and a non-linear response profile in the right amygdala for only the male subjects. Furthermore, canonical correlation analysis was used to learn the most relevant facial ratios that were best correlated with facial attractiveness. A regression model on the fMRI-derived facial ratio components demonstrated a strong linear relationship between the visually assessed mean ARs and the predictive ARs. Overall, this study provided, for the first time, direct neurophysiologic evidence of the effects of facial ratios on facial attractiveness and suggested that there are notable gender differences in perceiving facial attractiveness as induced by facial proportions. PMID:27779211

  16. Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions: evidence from an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Chau, Desmond K P; Su, Jianpo; Zeng, Ling-Li; Jiang, Weixiong; He, Jufang; Fan, Jintu; Hu, Dewen

    2016-10-25

    Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions are investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in 41 young adults (22 males and 19 females). The subjects underwent fMRI while they were presented with computer-generated, yet realistic face images, which had varying facial proportions, but the same neutral facial expression, baldhead and skin tone, as stimuli. Statistical parametric mapping with parametric modulation was used to explore the brain regions with the response modulated by facial attractiveness ratings (ARs). The results showed significant linear effects of the ARs in the caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex for all of the subjects, and a non-linear response profile in the right amygdala for only the male subjects. Furthermore, canonical correlation analysis was used to learn the most relevant facial ratios that were best correlated with facial attractiveness. A regression model on the fMRI-derived facial ratio components demonstrated a strong linear relationship between the visually assessed mean ARs and the predictive ARs. Overall, this study provided, for the first time, direct neurophysiologic evidence of the effects of facial ratios on facial attractiveness and suggested that there are notable gender differences in perceiving facial attractiveness as induced by facial proportions.

  17. Quality-of-life improvement after free gracilis muscle transfer for smile restoration in patients with facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Robin W; Bhama, Prabhat; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    Facial paralysis can contribute to disfigurement, psychological difficulties, and an inability to convey emotion via facial expression. In patients unable to perform a meaningful smile, free gracilis muscle transfer (FGMT) can often restore smile function. However, little is known about the impact on disease-specific quality of life. To determine quantitatively whether FGMT improves quality of life in patients with facial paralysis. Prospective evaluation of 154 FGMTs performed at a facial nerve center on 148 patients with facial paralysis. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) survey and Facial Assessment by Computer Evaluation software (FACE-gram) were used to quantify quality-of-life improvement, oral commissure excursion, and symmetry with smile. Free gracilis muscle transfer. Change in FaCE score, oral commissure excursion, and symmetry with smile. There were 127 successful FGMTs on 124 patients and 14 failed procedures on 13 patients. Mean (SD) FaCE score increased significantly after successful FGMT (42.30 [15.9] vs 58.5 [17.60]; paired 2-tailed t test, P < .001). Mean (SD) FACE scores improved significantly in all subgroups (nonflaccid cohort, 37.8 [19.9] vs 52.9 [19.3]; P = .02; flaccid cohort, 43.1 [15.1] vs 59.6 [17.2]; P < .001; trigeminal innervation cohort, 38.9 [14.6] vs 55.2 [18.2]; P < .001; cross-face nerve graft cohort, 47.3 [16.6] vs 61.7 [16.9]; P < .001) except the failure cohort (36.5 [20.8] vs 33.5 [17.9]; Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P = .15). Analysis of 40 patients' photographs revealed a mean (SD) preoperative and postoperative excursion on the affected side of -0.88 (3.79) and 7.68 (3.38), respectively (P < .001); symmetry with smile improved from a mean (SD) of 13.8 (7.46) to 4.88 (3.47) (P < .001). Free gracilis muscle transfer has become a mainstay in the management armamentarium for patients with severe reduction in oral commissure movement after facial nerve insult and recovery. We found a

  18. Expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Donghong; Ma, Xinrong; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Lingfeng; Zhu, Baozhen

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the feasibility and clinical efficacy of expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma. From March 2000 to April 2011, 13 cases of facial cicatrices left by radiotherapy of hemangioma have been treated with implantation surgery of facial skin dilator under local anesthesia. After water flood expansion for 1-2 months, resection of facial scar was performed, and wound repairing with expansion flap transfer was done. Thirteen patients were followed up from 5 months to 3 years. All patients tolerated flap transfer well; no contracture occurred during the facial expansion flap transfer. The incision scar was not obvious, and its color and texture were identical to surrounding skin. In conclusion, the use of expanded flap transfer to repair the facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma is advantageous due to its simplicity, flexibility, and large area of repairing. This method does not affect the subsequent facial appearance.

  19. The beneficial effects of honeybee-venom serum on facial wrinkles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Mi; Hong, In Phyo; Woo, Soon Ok; Chun, Sung Nam; Park, Kwan Kyu; Nicholls, Young Mee; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Facial wrinkles are an undesirable outcome caused by extrinsic photodamage and intrinsic aging processes. Currently, no effective strategies are known to prevent facial wrinkles. We assessed the beneficial effects of bee-venom serum on the clinical signs of aging skin. Our results show that bee-venom serum treatment clinically improved facial wrinkles by decreasing total wrinkle area, total wrinkle count, and average wrinkle depth. Therefore, bee-venom serum may be effective for the improvement of skin wrinkles. PMID:26491274

  20. Photodynamic Therapy Interventions in Facial Photodamage: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, G; Ruiz-Cañas, V; Miranda, J M; Ferrín, A P; Ramirez, P A; Hernandez, G N

    2018-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the combination of a light source and a photosensitizing agent to induce tissue damage via the generation of singlet oxygen. Although topical PDT has been approved for other indications, its use in facial photodamage is uncertain. To assess the efficacy and safety of PDT in facial skin photoaging. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of any form of topical PDT for the treatment of facial photodamage (dermatoheliosis) or photoaging in patients older than 18 years, were included. Photodynamic-therapy using any topical photosensitizing agent at any dose, and with any light-source, were considered. Comparators were chemical exfoliation, intense pulsed light (IPL), light emitting diodes (LED), dermabrasion or microdermabrasion, ablative or non-ablative lasers, injectables, surgery, placebo and/or no treatment. A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, Google Scholar and RCT's registry databases, was performed. Search was conducted up to May 4th 2016. Four authors independently selected and assessed methodological quality of each RCT. According to inclusion criteria, twelve studies were included (6 aminolevulinate (ALA) trials and 6 methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) trials), but the majority of them had methodological constraints particularly in randomization description and patients/outcome assessors blindness. Overall results indicated that PDT either with ALA or with MAL was effective and safe for facial photodamage treatment, but high quality of evidence was found mainly for MAL studies. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Concealing a shiny facial skin appearance by an Aerogel-based formula. In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Cassin, G; Diridollou, S; Flament, F; Adam, A S; Pierre, P; Colomb, L; Morancais, J L; Qiu, H

    2018-02-01

    To explore, in vitro and in vivo, the potential interest of an Aerogel-based formula, in concealing a naturally shiny facial skin. In vitro, various formulae and ingredients were applied as a thin film onto contrast plates and studied through measuring the shine induced following pump spraying of a mixture of oleic acid and mineral water as a sebum/sweat mix model. In such a test, an Aerogel ingredient led to very positive results. In vivo, two different formulae with various concentrations of Aerogel were randomly tested on half side of the face vs. bare side of Chinese women, under some provocative environmental conditions, known to enhance facial shine. These conditions comprised a normal activity under a hot and highly humid summer time followed - or not - by a hamam session. Both studies included comparative evaluations using a half-face procedure (treated/untreated or vehicle). In the first case, evaluations were quantitatively carried out, whereas the second one was based on a quantitative self-evaluations from standardized full-face photographs RESULTS: In vitro, the tested Aerogel, incorporated at 1% or 2% concentration in a common O/W cosmetic emulsion, shows an immediate light scattering effect, thereby masking shine. Such effect appears of much higher amplitude than that of two other tested particulate ingredients (Talc and Perlite). A noticeable remanence of anti-shine effect was confirmed in vivo in extreme conditions. The latter was self-perceived by all participants in the second study. This result is likely related to the super hydrophobic behaviour of the Aerogel. As cosmetic ingredient, this new Aerogel appears as a highly promising ingredient for concealing the facial skin shine, a source of complaint from many consumers living in hot and humid regions. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Reconstruction of Complex Facial Defects Using Cervical Expanded Flap Prefabricated by Temporoparietal Fascia Flap.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Qinghua; Jiang, Haiyue; Liu, Ge; Huang, Wanlu; Dong, Weiwei

    2015-09-01

    Reconstruction of complex facial defects using cervical expanded flap prefabricated by temporoparietal fascia flap. Complex facial defects are required to restore not only function but also aesthetic appearance, so it is vital challenge for plastic surgeons. Skin grafts and traditional flap transfer cannot meet the reconstructive requirements of color and texture with recipient. The purpose of this sturdy is to create an expanded prefabricated temporoparietal fascia flap to repair complex facial defects. Two patients suffered severe burns on the face underwent complex facial resurfacing with prefabricated cervical flap. The vasculature of prefabricated flap, including the superficial temporal vessel and surrounding fascia, was used as the vascular carrier. The temporoparietal fascia flap was sutured underneath the cervical subcutaneous tissue, and expansion was begun in postoperative 1 week. After 4 to 6 months of expansion, the expander was removed, facial scars were excised, and cervical prefabricated flap was elevated and transferred to repair the complex facial defects. Two complex facial defects were repaired successfully by prefabricated temporoparietal fascia flap, and prefabricated flaps survived completely. On account of donor site's skin was thinner and expanded too fast, 1 expanded skin flap was rupture during expansion, but necrosis was not occurred after the 2nd operation. Venous congestion was observed in 1 patient, but after dressing, flap necrosis was not happened. Donor site was closed primarily. Postoperative follow-up 6 months, the color, texture of prefabricated flap was well-matched with facial skin. This method of expanded prefabricated flap may provide a reliable solution to the complex facial resurfacing.

  3. Dermofat graft in deep nasolabial fold and facial rhytidectomy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Han, Jin Yi; Kim, Dae Joong

    2003-01-01

    Fat and dermis or the combined tissues are used commonly in augmentation of the nasolabial fold. Guyuron obtained the dermofat graft from either the suprapubic or the groin region. The thickness of the preauricular skin was measured in seven Korean cadavers, five male and two female. We used the dermofat graft out of the preauricular skin remnant after facial rhytidectomy to augment the deep nasolabial fold in a patient. The average thickness of the epidermis was 56 +/- 12 microm, the dermis was 1820 +/- 265 microm thick, and the subcutaneous tissue was 4783 +/- 137 microm. More dense connective tissues, such as SMAS, are seen in the preauricular skin. The dermofat graft was easily obtained and prepared from the leftover preauricular skin after dissection of the lax skin in face lifting. This technique could be employed effectively and successfully to alleviate a deep nasolabial fold and concomitant facial rhytidectomy in an Asian with a thick preauricular skin.

  4. Evaluation of a Low Energy, Low Density, Non-Ablative Fractional 1927 nm Wavelength Laser for Facial Skin Resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jeremy A; Alabdulrazzaq, Hamad; Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Geronemus, Roy G

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a low energy low density, non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser in the treatment of facial photodamage, melasma, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Prospective non-randomized trial. Single center, private practice with a dedicated research department. Subjects with clinically diagnosed facial photodamage, melasma, or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Subjects received four to six treatments at 14-day intervals (+/- 3 days) with a low energy low density non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser (Solta Hayward, CA) with an energy level of 5 mJ, and density coverage of either 5%, 7.5%, or 10%, with a total of up to 8 passes. Blinded assessment of clinical photos for overall improvement at one and three months post final treatment. Investigator improvement scores, and subject pain and satisfaction scores for overall improvement were recorded as well. We enrolled 23 subjects, average age 45.0 years (range, 25-64 years), 22 with Fitzpatrick Skin Types I-IV and 1 with Type VI, with facial photodamage, melasma, or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Approximately 55% of subjects reported marked to very significant improvement at one and three months post final treatment. Blinded assessment of photography of 20 subjects revealed an average of moderate improvement at one-month follow up and mild to moderate improvement at three months. Average subject pain score was 3.4/10 during treatment. Favorable outcomes were demonstrated using the low energy low density, non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser in facial resurfacing for photodamage, melasma, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Results were maintained at the 3-month follow up, as demonstrated by investigator and subject assessments, as well as blinded evaluations by three independent dermatologists utilizing photographs obtained from a standardized facial imaging device.

  5. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 3: Physician-Directed—Lasers, Chemical Peels, and Other Noninvasive Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Meaike, Jesse D.; Agrawal, Nikhil; Chang, Daniel; Lee, Edward I.; Nigro, Marjory G.

    2016-01-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin and rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but patients are in control with this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the last in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. Here the authors review the mechanism, indications, and possible complications of lasers, chemical peels, and other commonly used noninvasive modalities. PMID:27478423

  6. Facial and Periorbital Cellulitis due to Skin Peeling with Jet Stream by an Unauthorized Person.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Mullaaziz, Didem; Suer, Kaya

    2014-01-01

    Technologies and devices for cosmetic procedures are developing with each passing day. However, increased and unauthorized use of such emerging technologies may also lead to increases in unexpected results and complications as well. Here, we report a case of facial cellulitis after a "beauty parlor" session of skin cleaning with jet stream peeling device in 19-year old female patient for the first time. Complications due to improper and unauthorized use of jet stream peeling devices may also cause doubts about the safety and impair the reputation of the technology as well. In order to avoid irreversible complications, local authorities should follow the technology and update the regulations where the dermatologists should take an active role.

  7. Evaluation of mild skin cleansers.

    PubMed

    Wortzman, M S

    1991-01-01

    Each person makes the decision of how best to care for his or her own skin. Among the prime concerns, especially for facial skin, is the type of dirt, debris, or make-up to be removed. In most cases, all products do an adequate job in the removal of dirt; if not, the washing techniques can be modified to accomplish the task at hand. What cannot be controlled are the adverse side effects inherent in the use of that product. These adverse properties include damages to the barrier function of the skin; increased susceptibility to environmental sources of irritation and sensitization; frank irritation responses, such as erythema and edema; and reduction of the cosmetic qualities of the skin, such as degree of moisture and smoothness. Part of the problem is that most of these changes are subtle, occurring slowly over time. Often, the association of these problems with the use of a particular facial cleansing regimen is overlooked. The typical woman uses as many as 10 to 15 facial cosmetic and cleansing products each day, making the identification of a problem even more difficult. It is important to identify the risks associated with individual products and with product categories in general. Although the identification of a safe group of products to use for facial cleansing is desirable, the results of this investigation indicate that there are no simple answers. It has been assumed that because moisturizing cream formulations are routinely safe and mild in general use, a cleansing product in the same general form would share these attributes. We can see from the results in Table 2 and Figures 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9 that cleansing creams are not uniformly superior to cleansing bars in the key attributes that are used to evaluate mildness. In each evaluation there were individual cleansing creams that demonstrated statistically weaker performance than did cleansing bars in general. As a group, cleansing creams did well in the cosmetic categories of dryness and texture but

  8. Facial nerve conduction after sclerotherapy in children with facial lymphatic malformations: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Jung; Guo, Yuh-Cherng; Lin, Jan-You; Chang, Yu-Tang

    2007-04-01

    Surgical excision is thought to be the standard treatment of choice for lymphatic malformations. However, when the lesions are limited to the face only, surgical scar and facial nerve injury may impair cosmetics and facial expression. Sclerotherapy, an injection of a sclerosing agent directly through the skin into a lesion, is an alternative method. By evaluating facial nerve conduction, we observed the long-term effect of facial lymphatic malformations after intralesional injection of OK-432 and correlated the findings with anatomic outcomes. One 12-year-old boy with a lesion over the right-side preauricular area adjacent to the main trunk of facial nerve and the other 5-year-old boy with a lesion in the left-sided cheek involving the buccinator muscle were enrolled. The follow-up data of more than one year, including clinical appearance, computed tomography (CT) scan and facial nerve evaluation were collected. The facial nerve conduction study was normal in both cases. Blink reflex in both children revealed normal results as well. Complete resolution was noted on outward appearance and CT scan. The neurophysiologic data were compatible with good anatomic and functional outcomes. Our report suggests that the inflammatory reaction of OK-432 did not interfere with adjacent facial nerve conduction.

  9. Enhanced high-energy protocol using a fractional bipolar radiofrequency device combined with bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light for improving facial skin appearance and wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H; Biesman, Brian S; Taylor, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light have been shown in previous trials to safely and effectively improve the appearance of facial wrinkles. To evaluate a high-energy protocol with combined bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light energies for improvement in photoaged facial skin. Seventy-two patients presenting with mild to moderate facial wrinkles underwent a single full-face treatment (n=54) or two treatments (n=18) at 6-week intervals. Independent blinded assessment and investigator assessment were performed, using the Fitzpatrick Wrinkle and Elastosis Scale (0-9) and the Global Aesthetic Improvement scale. Patients also completed a self-assessment questionnaire concerning satisfaction with the treatment. All patients achieved some degree of improvement in their wrinkles and skin appearance, following a single treatment or two treatments with the enhanced-energy protocol. Blinded evaluation demonstrated 71% and 70% of the patients showing improvement of one unit or greater on the Fitzpatrick Scale, at the 12-week and 24-week follow-ups post-treatment, respectively. Similar results were reported by investigators. Under the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale, investigators observed 87%, 91% and 81% of patients showing improvement at the 6-, 12-, and 24-week post-treatment end, respectively. Patients tolerated the treatments well and were satisfied with the clinical results. The enhanced-energy treatment protocol, with fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light applications, yields significant improvement of skin texture, wrinkling, and overall appearance following a single treatment. The results appear gradually over time and are maintained for at least 6 months' post-treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Marker optimization for facial motion acquisition and deformation.

    PubMed

    Le, Binh H; Zhu, Mingyang; Deng, Zhigang

    2013-11-01

    A long-standing problem in marker-based facial motion capture is what are the optimal facial mocap marker layouts. Despite its wide range of potential applications, this problem has not yet been systematically explored to date. This paper describes an approach to compute optimized marker layouts for facial motion acquisition as optimization of characteristic control points from a set of high-resolution, ground-truth facial mesh sequences. Specifically, the thin-shell linear deformation model is imposed onto the example pose reconstruction process via optional hard constraints such as symmetry and multiresolution constraints. Through our experiments and comparisons, we validate the effectiveness, robustness, and accuracy of our approach. Besides guiding minimal yet effective placement of facial mocap markers, we also describe and demonstrate its two selected applications: marker-based facial mesh skinning and multiresolution facial performance capture.

  11. An Open Label Clinical Trial of a Peptide Treatment Serum and Supporting Regimen Designed to Improve the Appearance of Aging Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2016-09-01

    A 14-week single-center clinical usage study was conducted to test the efficacy of a peptide treatment serum and supporting skincare regimen in 29 women with mild to moderately photodamaged facial skin. The peptide treatment serum contained gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and various peptides with neurotransmitter inhibiting and cell signaling properties. It was hypothesized that the peptide treatment serum would ameliorate eye and facial expression lines including crow's feet and forehead lines. The efficacy of the supporting skincare regimen was also evaluated. An expert investigator examined the subjects at rest and at maximum smile. Additionally, the subjects completed self-assessment questionnaires. At week 14, the expert investigator found a statistically significant improvement in facial lines, facial wrinkles, eye lines, and eye wrinkles at rest when compared to baseline results. The expert investigator also found statistically significant improvement at week 14 in facial lines, eye lines, and eye wrinkles when compared to baseline results at maximum smile. In addition, there was continued highly statistically significant improvement in smoothness, softness, firmness, radiance, luminosity, and overall appearance at rest when compared to baseline results at the 14-week time point. The test regimen was well perceived by the subjects for efficacy and product attributes. The products were well tolerated with no adverse events.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1100-1106.

  12. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy combined with minocycline for treatment of moderate to severe facial acne vulgaris and influence on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinghua; Zheng, Yi; Zhao, Zigang; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Pengxiang; Li, Chengxin

    2017-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is a prevalent skin disorder impairing both physical and psychosocial health. This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined with minocycline in moderate to severe facial acne and influence on quality of life (QOL). Ninety-five patients with moderate to severe facial acne (Investigator Global Assessment [IGA] score 3-4) were randomly treated with PDT and minocycline (n = 48) or minocycline alone (n = 47). All patients took minocycline hydrochloride 100 mg/d for 4 weeks, whereas patients in the minocycline plus PDT group also received 4 times PDT treatment 1 week apart. IGA score, lesion counts, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and safety evaluation were performed before treatment and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after enrolment. There were no statistically significant differences in characteristics between 2 treatment groups at baseline. Minocycline plus PDT treatment led to a greater mean percentage reduction from baseline in lesion counts versus minocycline alone at 8 weeks for both inflammatory (-74.4% vs -53.3%; P < .001) and noninflammatory lesions (-61.7% vs -42.4%; P < .001). More patients treated with minocycline plus PDT achieved IGA score <2 at study end (week 8: 30/48 vs 20/47; P < .05). Patients treated with minocycline plus PDT got significant lower DLQI at 8 weeks (4.4 vs 6.3; P < .001). Adverse events were mild and manageable. Compared with minocycline alone, the combination of PDT with minocycline significantly improved clinical efficacy and QOL in moderate to severe facial acne patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Illuminant color estimation based on pigmentation separation from human skin color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2015-03-01

    Human has the visual system called "color constancy" that maintains the perceptive colors of same object across various light sources. The effective method of color constancy algorithm was proposed to use the human facial color in a digital color image, however, this method has wrong estimation results by the difference of individual facial colors. In this paper, we present the novel color constancy algorithm based on skin color analysis. The skin color analysis is the method to separate the skin color into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. We use the stationary property of Japanese facial color, and this property is calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin. As a result, we achieve to propose the method to use subject's facial color in image and not depend on the individual difference among Japanese facial color.

  14. Facial reanimation by muscle-nerve neurotization after facial nerve sacrifice. Case report.

    PubMed

    Taupin, A; Labbé, D; Babin, E; Fromager, G

    2016-12-01

    Recovering a certain degree of mimicry after sacrifice of the facial nerve is a clinically recognized finding. The authors report a case of hemifacial reanimation suggesting a phenomenon of neurotization from muscle-to-nerve. A woman benefited from a parotidectomy with sacrifice of the left facial nerve indicated for recurrent tumor in the gland. The distal branches of the facial nerve, isolated at the time of resection, were buried in the masseter muscle underneath. The patient recovered a voluntary hémifacial motricity. The electromyographic analysis of the motor activity of the zygomaticus major before and after block of the masseter nerve showed a dependence between mimic muscles and the masseter muscle. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the spontaneous reanimation of facial paralysis. The clinical case makes it possible to argue in favor of muscle-to-nerve neurotization from masseter muscle to distal branches of the facial nerve. It illustrates the quality of motricity that can be obtained thanks to this procedure. The authors describe a simple implantation technique of distal branches of the facial nerve in the masseter muscle during a radical parotidectomy with facial nerve sacrifice and recovery of resting tone but also a quality voluntary mimicry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical patterns and epidemiological characteristics of facial melasma in Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Tamega, A de A; Miot, L D B; Bonfietti, C; Gige, T C; Marques, M E A; Miot, H A

    2013-02-01

    BACKGROUND; Melasma is a common acquired chronic hypermelanosis of sun-exposed areas which significantly impacts quality of life. There are few epidemiological studies in medical literature concerning these patients. Characterize clinical and epidemiological data on Brazilian female patients with melasma. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to melasma patients treated at a dermatology clinic between 2005 and 2010. Association between variables was performed by multivariate regression models. We assessed 302 patients; intermediate skin phototypes III (34.4%) and IV (38.4%) were prevalent. Mean disease onset age was 27.5 ± 7.8 years and familiar occurrence of melasma was identified in 56.3%. The most commonly reported trigger factors were pregnancy (36.4%), contraceptive pills (16.2%) and intense sun exposure (27.2%). Preferred facial topographies were zygomatic (83.8%), labial superior (51.3%) and frontal (49.7%). Pregnancy induced melasma has been associated to early disease (OR = 0.86) and number of pregnancies (OR = 1.39). Childbearing was correlated to melasma extension. Older disease onset age was associated to darker skin phototypes. Co-occurrence of facial topographies supported clinical classification as centrofacial and peripheral melasma. This population was characterized by: a high prevalence in adult females, intermediate skin phototypes, disease precipitation by hormonal stimulus and familiar genetic influence. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Lifestyle Factors and Visible Skin Aging in a Population of Japanese Elders

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Keiko; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Milojevic, Ai; Michikawa, Takehiro; Kikuchi, Yuriko; Nakano, Makiko; Iwasawa, Satoko; Hillebrand, Greg; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Ono, Masaji; Kinjo, Yoshihide; Akiba, Suminori; Takebayashi, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Background The number of studies that use objective and quantitative methods to evaluate facial skin aging in elderly people is extremely limited, especially in Japan. Therefore, in this cross-sectional study we attempted to characterize the condition of facial skin (hyperpigmentation, pores, texture, and wrinkling) in Japanese adults aged 65 years or older by using objective and quantitative imaging methods. In addition, we aimed to identify lifestyle factors significantly associated with these visible signs of aging. Methods The study subjects were 802 community-dwelling Japanese men and women aged at least 65 years and living in the town of Kurabuchi (Takasaki City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan), a mountain community with a population of approximately 4800. The facial skin condition of subjects was assessed quantitatively using a standardized facial imaging system and subsequent computer image analysis. Lifestyle information was collected using a structured questionnaire. The association between skin condition and lifestyle factors was examined using multivariable regression analysis. Results Among women, the mean values for facial texture, hyperpigmentation, and pores were generally lower than those among age-matched men. There was no significant difference between sexes in the severity of facial wrinkling. Older age was associated with worse skin condition among women only. After adjusting for age, smoking status and topical sun protection were significantly associated with skin condition among both men and women. Conclusions Our study revealed significant differences between sexes in the severity of hyperpigmentation, texture, and pores, but not wrinkling. Smoking status and topical sun protection were significantly associated with signs of visible skin aging in this study population. PMID:19700917

  17. Association study of Demodex bacteria and facial dermatoses based on DGGE technique.

    PubMed

    Zhao, YaE; Yang, Fan; Wang, RuiLing; Niu, DongLing; Mu, Xin; Yang, Rui; Hu, Li

    2017-03-01

    The role of bacteria is unclear in the facial skin lesions caused by Demodex. To shed some light on this issue, we conducted a case-control study comparing cases with facial dermatoses with controls with healthy skin using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. The bacterial diversity, composition, and principal component were analyzed for Demodex bacteria and the matched facial skin bacteria. The result of mite examination showed that all 33 cases were infected with Demodex folliculorum (D. f), whereas 16 out of the 30 controls were infected with D. f, and the remaining 14 controls were infected with Demodex brevis (D. b). The diversity analysis showed that only evenness index presented statistical difference between mite bacteria and matched skin bacteria in the cases. The composition analysis showed that the DGGE bands of cases and controls were assigned to 12 taxa of 4 phyla, including Proteobacteria (39.37-52.78%), Firmicutes (2.7-26.77%), Actinobacteria (0-5.71%), and Bacteroidetes (0-2.08%). In cases, the proportion of Staphylococcus in Firmicutes was significantly higher than that in D. f controls and D. b controls, while the proportion of Sphingomonas in Proteobacteria was significantly lower than that in D. f controls. The between-group analysis (BGA) showed that all the banding patterns clustered into three groups, namely, D. f cases, D. f controls, and D. b controls. Our study suggests that the bacteria in Demodex should come from the matched facial skin bacteria. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes are the two main taxa. The increase of Staphylococcus and decrease of Sphingomonas might be associated with the development of facial dermatoses.

  18. The Relationship Between Facial Skin Surface Temperature Reactivity and Traditional Polygraph Measures Used in the Psychophysiological Detection of Deception: A Preliminary Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Surface Temperature and Polygraph Measures 19 References Cook , E. and Turpin , G. ( 1997 ). Differentiating orienting, startle, and defense responses... Turpin , 1997 ). The results of the present study also suggest that, in the forehead and periorbital region, the situation is complex. A multivariate...Facial Skin Surface Temperature and Polygraph Measures 3 areas would be differentially affected by participants’ fear-induced central and ANS responses to

  19. Multi-layer robot skin with embedded sensors and muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomar, Ankit; Tadesse, Yonas

    2016-04-01

    Soft artificial skin with embedded sensors and actuators is proposed for a crosscutting study of cognitive science on a facial expressive humanoid platform. This paper focuses on artificial muscles suitable for humanoid robots and prosthetic devices for safe human-robot interactions. Novel composite artificial skin consisting of sensors and twisted polymer actuators is proposed. The artificial skin is conformable to intricate geometries and includes protective layers, sensor layers, and actuation layers. Fluidic channels are included in the elastomeric skin to inject fluids in order to control actuator response time. The skin can be used to develop facially expressive humanoid robots or other soft robots. The humanoid robot can be used by computer scientists and other behavioral science personnel to test various algorithms, and to understand and develop more perfect humanoid robots with facial expression capability. The small-scale humanoid robots can also assist ongoing therapeutic treatment research with autistic children. The multilayer skin can be used for many soft robots enabling them to detect both temperature and pressure, while actuating the entire structure.

  20. Effects of cosmetics on the skin microbiome of facial cheeks with different hydration levels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeong, Sang Eun; Lee, Soyoun; Kim, Sungwoo; Han, Hyuntak; Jeon, Che Ok

    2018-04-01

    Basic cosmetics was used by volunteers belonging to high (HHG) and low (LHG) hydration groups for 4 weeks, and bacterial communities and biophysical parameters in facial skin were analyzed. Hydration level increases and transepidermal water loss and roughness decreases were observed in both groups after cosmetic use. Bacterial diversity was greater in LHG than HHG, and increased after cosmetic use in both groups. Bray-Curtis dissimilarities that were higher in LHG than HHG increased in HHG after cosmetic use, whereas they decreased in LHG. The phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes and the genera Propionibacterium, Ralstonia, Burkholderia, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Cupriavidus, and Pelomonas were identified as common groups and they were not significantly different between LHG and HHG except for Propionibacterium that was more abundant in HHG. After cosmetic use, Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium decreased, whereas Ralstonia, not a core genus, increased, as did KEGG categories of lipid metabolism and xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, suggesting that Ralstonia in skin may have the ability to metabolize cosmetics components. Bacterial communities after cosmetic use were different from those in both LHG and HHG before the cosmetic use, indicating that bacterial communities in LHG were not shifted to resemble those in HHG by cosmetics use. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Validation of the facial dysfunction domain of the Penn Acoustic Neuroma Quality-of-Life (PANQOL) Scale.

    PubMed

    Lodder, Wouter L; Adan, Guleed H; Chean, Chung S; Lesser, Tristram H; Leong, Samuel C

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the strength of content validity within the facial dysfunction domain of the Penn Acoustic Neuroma Quality-of-Life (PANQOL) Scale and to compare how it correlates with a facial dysfunction-specific QOL instrument (Facial Clinimetric Evaluation, FaCE). The study design is online questionnaire survey. Members of the British Acoustic Neuroma Association received both PANQOL questionnaires and the FaCE scale. 158 respondents with self-identified facial paralysis or dysfunction had completed PANQOL and FaCE data sets for analysis. The mean composite PANQOL score was 53.5 (range 19.2-93.5), whilst the mean total FaCE score was 50.9 (range 10-95). The total scores of the PANQOL and FaCE correlated moderate (r = 0.48). Strong correlation (r = 0.63) was observed between the PANQOL's facial dysfunction domain and the FaCE total score. Of all the FaCE domains, social function was strongly correlated with the PANQOL facial dysfunction domain (r = 0.66), whilst there was very weak-to-moderate correlation (range 0.01-0.43) to the other FaCE domains. The current study has demonstrated a strong correlation between the facial dysfunction domains of PANQOL with a facial paralysis-specific QOL instrument.

  2. Treatment of facial lipoatrophy with polymethylmethacrylate among patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): impact on the quality of life.

    PubMed

    Quintas, Rodrigo C S; de França, Emmanuel R; de Petribú, Kátia C L; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Quintas, Lóren F F M; Cavalcanti, Ernando L F; Kitamura, Marco A P; Magalhães, Kássia A A; Paiva, Késsia C F; Filho, Demócrito B Miranda

    2014-04-01

    The lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by selective loss of subcutaneous fat on the face and extremities (lipoatrophy) and/or accumulation of fat around the neck, abdomen, and thorax (lipohypertrophy). The aim of this study has been to assess the impact of polymethylmethacrylate facial treatment on quality of life, self-perceived facial image, and the severity of depressive symptoms in patients living with HIV/AIDS. A non-randomized before and after interventional study was developed. Fifty-one patients underwent facial filling. The self-perceived quality of life, facial image, and degree of depressive symptoms were measured by the Short-Form 36 and HIV/AIDS--Targeted quality of life questionnaires, by a visual analogue scale and by the Beck depression inventory, respectively, before and three months after treatment. Six of the eight domains of Short-Form 36 and eight of the nine dimensions of the HIV/AIDS--Targeted quality of life questionnaires, together with the visual analogue scale and by the Beck depression inventory scores, revealed a statistically significant improvement. The only adverse effects registered were edema and ecchymosis. The treatment of facial lipoatrophy improved the self-perceived quality of life and facial image as well as any depressive symptoms among patients with HIV/AIDS. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. The Impact of Facial Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgeries on Patients' Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Tülin; Selimen, Deniz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present prospective and descriptive study was to assess the impact of facial aesthetic and reconstructive surgeries on quality of life. Ninety-one patients, of whom 43 had aesthetic surgery and 48 had reconstructive surgery, were analysed. The data were collected using the patient information form, body cathexis scale, and short form (SF)-36 quality of life scale. There were significant differences between before and after the surgery in both groups in terms of body cathexis scale and quality of life (p < 0.05 for both). It was observed that problems regarding the body image perception were encountered more, and the quality of life was poorer in both aesthetic and reconstructive surgery patients before the surgery. However, the problems were decreased, and the quality of life was enhanced after the surgery. Among the parameters of SF-36 quality of life scale, particularly the mean scores of social functioning, physical role functioning, emotional role functioning, mental health, and vitality/fatigue were found low before the surgery, whereas the mean scores were significantly improved after the surgery. The results revealed that facial aesthetic and reconstructive surgical interventions favourably affected the body image perception and self-esteem and that positive reflections in emotional, social, and mental aspects were effective in enhancing self-confidence and quality of life of the individual.

  4. Quantitative anatomical analysis of facial expression using a 3D motion capture system: Application to cosmetic surgery and facial recognition technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Gi; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Jung-Hyuk; Choi, You-Jin; Bae, Hyun-Sook; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2015-09-01

    The topography of the facial muscles differs between males and females and among individuals of the same gender. To explain the unique expressions that people can make, it is important to define the shapes of the muscle, their associations with the skin, and their relative functions. Three-dimensional (3D) motion-capture analysis, often used to study facial expression, was used in this study to identify characteristic skin movements in males and females when they made six representative basic expressions. The movements of 44 reflective markers (RMs) positioned on anatomical landmarks were measured. Their mean displacement was large in males [ranging from 14.31 mm (fear) to 41.15 mm (anger)], and 3.35-4.76 mm smaller in females [ranging from 9.55 mm (fear) to 37.80 mm (anger)]. The percentages of RMs involved in the ten highest mean maximum displacement values in making at least one expression were 47.6% in males and 61.9% in females. The movements of the RMs were larger in males than females but were more limited. Expanding our understanding of facial expression requires morphological studies of facial muscles and studies of related complex functionality. Conducting these together with quantitative analyses, as in the present study, will yield data valuable for medicine, dentistry, and engineering, for example, for surgical operations on facial regions, software for predicting changes in facial features and expressions after corrective surgery, and the development of face-mimicking robots. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Microbial biofilms on facial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Nina; Vissink, Arjan; van Oort, Robert P; Kusdhany, Lindawati; Djais, Ariadna; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W; van der Mei, Henny C; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2012-01-01

    The composition of microbial biofilms on silicone rubber facial prostheses was investigated and compared with the microbial flora on healthy and prosthesis-covered skin. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of mixed bacterial and yeast biofilms on and deterioration of the surface of the prostheses. Microbial culturing confirmed the presence of yeasts and bacteria. Microbial colonization was significantly increased on prosthesis-covered skin compared to healthy skin. Candida spp. were exclusively isolated from prosthesis-covered skin and from prostheses. Biofilms from prostheses showed the least diverse band-profile in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) whereas prosthesis-covered skin showed the most diverse band-profile. Bacterial diversity exceeded yeast diversity in all samples. It is concluded that occlusion of the skin by prostheses creates a favorable niche for opportunistic pathogens such as Candida spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. Biofilms on healthy skin, skin underneath the prosthesis and on the prosthesis had a comparable composition, but the numbers present differed according to the microorganism.

  6. Biomask: An Advanced Robotic System for the Real-time, Autonomous Monitoring and Treatment of Facial Burns of Wounded Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    bioreactor systems, a microfluidic -based flexible fluid exchange patch was developed for porcine wound models. A novel design and fabrication process...to be established. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Biomask, burn injury, facial reconstruction, wound-healing, bioreactor, flexible microfluidic , and...and layers of facial skin using different cell types and matrices to produce a reliable, physiologic facial and skin construct to restore functional

  7. Assessment of health-related quality of life in Turkish patients with facial prostheses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Facial prostheses are intended to provide a non-operative rehabilitation for patients with acquired facial defects. By improving aesthetics and quality of life (QOL), this treatment involves reintegration of the patient into family and social life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of QOL in adult patients with facial prostheses and to compare this perception with that of a control group. Methods The study participants consisted of 72 patients, who were divided into three equal-sized groups according to the type of prosthesis (OP- orbital prosthesis, AP- auricular prosthesis, NP - nasal prosthesis) and 24 healthy control participants without any congenital or acquired deformity of face or body. Clinical and socio-demographic data were gathered from each person’s medical chart. Participants completed the Turkish version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF). Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-tests, Pearson's chi-square test, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and Pearson correlation were used to analyse the data. Results Compared with the control participants, patients with NP scored lower on the all domains of QOL and all three patient groups had lower scores on overall QOL and its domains of physical and environmental health. Patients with OP reported significantly lower physical health scores than those with AP, while patients with NP reported significantly lower overall QOL and psychological health scores than those with AP. Female patients had lower environmental domain scores than did male patients. The patient’s age and income correlated with social relationships QOL, while the patient’s income and the age of facial prosthesis were correlated with environmental QOL. Conclusion Patients with facial prostheses had lower scores in overall QOL, physical and environmental health domains than the control participants. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, income

  8. Two-dimensional auto-correlation analysis and Fourier-transform analysis of second-harmonic-generation image for quantitative analysis of collagen fiber in human facial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Yuki; Tanaka, Yuji; Hase, Eiji; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    We compare two-dimensional auto-correlation (2D-AC) analysis and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FT) for evaluation of age-dependent structural change of facial dermal collagen fibers caused by intrinsic aging and extrinsic photo-aging. The age-dependent structural change of collagen fibers for female subjects' cheek skin in their 20s, 40s, and 60s were more noticeably reflected in 2D-AC analysis than in 2D-FT analysis. Furthermore, 2D-AC analysis indicated significantly higher correlation with the skin elasticity measured by Cutometer® than 2D-AC analysis. 2D-AC analysis of SHG image has a high potential for quantitative evaluation of not only age-dependent structural change of collagen fibers but also skin elasticity.

  9. Facial soft tissue thickness of Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi-Oliveira, Sílvia Virginia; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff; de Almeida, Natalie Haddad; de Paiva, Luiz Airton Saavedra

    2009-12-15

    The auxiliary technique known as Facial Reconstruction enables one to reestablish the contours of the soft tissues over the skull, therefore producing a face and increasing the probability of a facial recognition. The reliability of this technique depends on the evaluation of the mean values of soft tissue thicknesses observed in a given population. Measurements were evaluated in autopsied corpses in "Section of Technical Verification of Deaths" in Guarulhos, São Paulo, Brazil. Thickness was measured manually by puncturing 10 midline craniometrical points and 11 bilateral points on a sample of 40 corpses of both sexes aged between 17 and 90 years, classified by skin color and the nutritional state. The results for the average thickness values are higher for males, variations related to the nutritional state are proportional to the increased fat on the face and age was not significant. The ethnic variable related to skin color when compared to studies with other populations showed differences, with the need for a reference table for a given population application of Facial Reconstruction technique in skulls of non-attributable identity.

  10. An Automatic Diagnosis Method of Facial Acne Vulgaris Based on Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jiachi; Yan, Chenjun; Zhou, Hong

    2018-04-11

    In this paper, we present a new automatic diagnosis method for facial acne vulgaris which is based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). To overcome the shortcomings of previous methods which were the inability to classify enough types of acne vulgaris. The core of our method is to extract features of images based on CNNs and achieve classification by classifier. A binary-classifier of skin-and-non-skin is used to detect skin area and a seven-classifier is used to achieve the classification task of facial acne vulgaris and healthy skin. In the experiments, we compare the effectiveness of our CNN and the VGG16 neural network which is pre-trained on the ImageNet data set. We use a ROC curve to evaluate the performance of binary-classifier and use a normalized confusion matrix to evaluate the performance of seven-classifier. The results of our experiments show that the pre-trained VGG16 neural network is effective in extracting features from facial acne vulgaris images. And the features are very useful for the follow-up classifiers. Finally, we try applying the classifiers both based on the pre-trained VGG16 neural network to assist doctors in facial acne vulgaris diagnosis.

  11. The value of facial attractiveness for encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption: analyses from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Appleton, Katherine M; McGrath, Alanna J; McKinley, Michelle C; Draffin, Claire R; Hamill, Lesley L; Young, Ian S; Woodside, Jayne V

    2018-03-01

    An effect of increased fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption on facial attractiveness has been proposed and recommended as a strategy to promote FV intakes, but no studies to date demonstrate a causal link between FV consumption and perceived attractiveness. This study investigated perceptions of attractiveness before and after the supervised consumption of 2, 5 or 8 FV portions/day for 4 weeks in 30 low FV consumers. Potential mechanisms for change via skin colour and perceived skin healthiness were also investigated. Faces were photographed at the start and end of the 4 week intervention in controlled conditions. Seventy-three independent individuals subsequently rated all 60 photographs in a randomized order, for facial attractiveness, facial skin yellowness, redness, healthiness, clarity, and symmetry. Using clustered multiple regression, FV consumption over the previous 4 weeks had no direct effect on attractiveness, but, for female faces, some evidence was found for an indirect impact, via linear and non-linear changes in skin yellowness. Effect sizes, however, were small. No association between FV consumption and skin healthiness was found, but skin healthiness was associated with facial attractiveness. Controlled and objectively measured increases in FV consumption for 4 weeks resulted indirectly in increased attractiveness in females via increases in skin yellowness, but effects are small and gradually taper as FV consumption increases. Based on the effect sizes from this study, we are hesitant to recommend the use of facial attractiveness to encourage increased FV consumption. Clinical trial Registration Number NCT01591057 ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ). Registered: 27th April, 2012.

  12. Image quality enhancement for skin cancer optical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliznuks, Dmitrijs; Kuzmina, Ilona; Bolocko, Katrina; Lihachev, Alexey

    2017-12-01

    The research presents image quality analysis and enhancement proposals in biophotonic area. The sources of image problems are reviewed and analyzed. The problems with most impact in biophotonic area are analyzed in terms of specific biophotonic task - skin cancer diagnostics. The results point out that main problem for skin cancer analysis is the skin illumination problems. Since it is often not possible to prevent illumination problems, the paper proposes image post processing algorithm - low frequency filtering. Practical results show diagnostic results improvement after using proposed filter. Along that, filter do not reduces diagnostic results' quality for images without illumination defects. Current filtering algorithm requires empirical tuning of filter parameters. Further work needed to test the algorithm in other biophotonic applications and propose automatic filter parameter selection.

  13. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  14. Quality of life differences in patients with right- versus left-sided facial paralysis: Universal preference of right-sided human face recognition.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Nam Gyu; Lim, Byung Woo; Cho, Jae Keun; Kim, Jin

    2016-09-01

    We investigated whether experiencing right- or left-sided facial paralysis would affect an individual's ability to recognize one side of the human face using hybrid hemi-facial photos by preliminary study. Further investigation looked at the relationship between facial recognition ability, stress, and quality of life. To investigate predominance of one side of the human face for face recognition, 100 normal participants (right-handed: n = 97, left-handed: n = 3, right brain dominance: n = 56, left brain dominance: n = 44) answered a questionnaire that included hybrid hemi-facial photos developed to determine decide superiority of one side for human face recognition. To determine differences of stress level and quality of life between individuals experiencing right- and left-sided facial paralysis, 100 patients (right side:50, left side:50, not including traumatic facial nerve paralysis) answered a questionnaire about facial disability index test and quality of life (SF-36 Korean version). Regardless of handedness or hemispheric dominance, the proportion of predominance of the right side in human face recognition was larger than the left side (71% versus 12%, neutral: 17%). Facial distress index of the patients with right-sided facial paralysis was lower than that of left-sided patients (68.8 ± 9.42 versus 76.4 ± 8.28), and the SF-36 scores of right-sided patients were lower than left-sided patients (119.07 ± 15.24 versus 123.25 ± 16.48, total score: 166). Universal preference for the right side in human face recognition showed worse psychological mood and social interaction in patients with right-side facial paralysis than left-sided paralysis. This information is helpful to clinicians in that psychological and social factors should be considered when treating patients with facial-paralysis. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Facial Contrast Is a Cross-Cultural Cue for Perceiving Age.

    PubMed

    Porcheron, Aurélie; Mauger, Emmanuelle; Soppelsa, Frédérique; Liu, Yuli; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Russell, Richard; Morizot, Frédérique

    2017-01-01

    Age is a fundamental social dimension and a youthful appearance is of importance for many individuals, perhaps because it is a relevant predictor of aspects of health, facial attractiveness and general well-being. We recently showed that facial contrast-the color and luminance difference between facial features and the surrounding skin-is age-related and a cue to age perception of Caucasian women. Specifically, aspects of facial contrast decrease with age in Caucasian women, and Caucasian female faces with higher contrast look younger (Porcheron et al., 2013). Here we investigated faces of other ethnic groups and raters of other cultures to see whether facial contrast is a cross-cultural youth-related attribute. Using large sets of full face color photographs of Chinese, Latin American and black South African women aged 20-80, we measured the luminance and color contrast between the facial features (the eyes, the lips, and the brows) and the surrounding skin. Most aspects of facial contrast that were previously found to decrease with age in Caucasian women were also found to decrease with age in the other ethnic groups. Though the overall pattern of changes with age was common to all women, there were also some differences between the groups. In a separate study, individual faces of the 4 ethnic groups were perceived younger by French and Chinese participants when the aspects of facial contrast that vary with age in the majority of faces were artificially increased, but older when they were artificially decreased. Altogether these findings indicate that facial contrast is a cross-cultural cue to youthfulness. Because cosmetics were shown to enhance facial contrast, this work provides some support for the notion that a universal function of cosmetics is to make female faces look younger.

  16. Fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing of rhytides and photoaged skin--a prospective clinical study on patient expectation and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Elisabeth; Meierhöfer, Julia; Koller, Michael; Zeman, Florian; Groesser, Leopold; Karrer, Sigrid; Hohenleutner, Ulrich; Landthaler, Michael; Hohenleutner, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    Fractional CO2 -laser resurfacing is increasingly used for treating rhytides and photoaged skin because of its favorable benefit-risk ratio. A key outcome measure and treatment goal in aesthetic laser therapy is patient satisfaction. However, few data are available on patient-reported outcomes after fractional ablative skin-resurfacing. To compare patient expectations before and patient satisfaction after three fractional CO2 -laser treatments and to correlate objectively measured wrinkle reduction with patient satisfaction after treatment. We investigated patient expectation and satisfaction using a 14-item questionnaire in 24 female patients. We assessed the skin-related quality of life and patient satisfaction with skin appearance. We profilometrically measured wrinkle size in four facial areas before and three months after treatment and investigated correlations between wrinkle reduction and patient satisfaction. The high patient expectations before treatment (ceiling effect) were actually slightly exceeded. The average score of 14 items delineating patient satisfaction with laser treatment was higher (4.64 ± 0.82; n = 24) than the respective expectations before treatment (4.43 ± 0.88; n = 24). Skin-related quality of life and patient satisfaction with skin appearance had significantly improved after the last treatment. Patients dissatisfied with their skin appearance before treatment (mean 2.1 ± 1.5; evaluated on a scale ranging from 0-6) were satisfied (mean 5.1 ± 1.2) (P < 0.001) with skin appearance at the follow-up. Patient satisfaction with skin appearance was not correlated to the profilometrically measured reduction of wrinkle size of any facial area. Our results show high patient satisfaction with ablative fractional skin resurfacing, also regarding improved self-esteem and self-satisfaction despite high pre-treatment expectations. Skin-specific quality of life had significantly improved. Thus, this treatment modality

  17. Randomized, Observer-blind, Split-face Compatibility Study with Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2%/Benzoyl Peroxide 3.75% gel and Facial Foundation Makeup.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Neal; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2015-09-01

    Cosmetic compatibility in the treatment of acne is an important issue significantly impacting quality of life, but often overlooked, as dermatologists commonly recommended avoidance of cosmetic foundations when treating adult female patients. Fixed combinations of clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide are widely used in the treatment of acne, but little is known about the impact of their concomitant use with facial foundation. To assess the compatibility of clindamycin phosphate 1. 2%/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel with foundation makeup for up to six hours after application. Twenty-nine female subjects applied makeup to their face after randomly applying clindamycin phosphate 1. 2%/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel to one side of the face. Investigator and subject self- assessment included facial skin attributes, facial tolerability, and cosmetic compatibility post-application and at Hour 6; as well as cutaneous tolerability. No statistical difference was noted between the treated and untreated side of the face in terms of coverage, blotchiness, appearance, skin tone, or visual smoothness. Tolerability was excellent, with no erythema, edema, dryness, and peeling post-makeup application. For both the treated and untreated side, there was a slight lack of improvement in cosmetic appearance six hours post-makeup application. Clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel was shown to have excellent cosmetic compatibility with facial foundation.

  18. Detection and inpainting of facial wrinkles using texture orientation fields and Markov random field modeling.

    PubMed

    Batool, Nazre; Chellappa, Rama

    2014-09-01

    Facial retouching is widely used in media and entertainment industry. Professional software usually require a minimum level of user expertise to achieve the desirable results. In this paper, we present an algorithm to detect facial wrinkles/imperfection. We believe that any such algorithm would be amenable to facial retouching applications. The detection of wrinkles/imperfections can allow these skin features to be processed differently than the surrounding skin without much user interaction. For detection, Gabor filter responses along with texture orientation field are used as image features. A bimodal Gaussian mixture model (GMM) represents distributions of Gabor features of normal skin versus skin imperfections. Then, a Markov random field model is used to incorporate the spatial relationships among neighboring pixels for their GMM distributions and texture orientations. An expectation-maximization algorithm then classifies skin versus skin wrinkles/imperfections. Once detected automatically, wrinkles/imperfections are removed completely instead of being blended or blurred. We propose an exemplar-based constrained texture synthesis algorithm to inpaint irregularly shaped gaps left by the removal of detected wrinkles/imperfections. We present results conducted on images downloaded from the Internet to show the efficacy of our algorithms.

  19. Chronic, burning facial pain following cosmetic facial surgery.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, E; Yaari, A; Har-Shai, Y

    1996-01-01

    Chronic, burning facial pain as a result of cosmetic facial surgery has rarely been reported. During the year of 1994, two female patients presented themselves at our Pain Relief Clinic with chronic facial pain that developed following aesthetic facial surgery. One patient underwent bilateral transpalpebral surgery for removal of intraorbital fat for the correction of the exophthalmus, and the other had classical face and anterior hairline forehead lifts. Pain in both patients was similar in that it was bilateral, symmetric, burning in quality, and aggravated by external stimuli, mainly light touch. It was resistant to multiple analgesic medications, and was associated with significant depression and disability. Diagnostic local (lidocaine) and systemic (lidocaine and phentolamine) nerve blocks failed to provide relief. Psychological evaluation revealed that the two patients had clear psychosocial factors that seemed to have further compounded their pain complaints. Tricyclic antidepressants (and biofeedback training in one patient) were modestly effective and produced only partial pain relief.

  20. The effect of facial expressions on respirators contact pressures.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mang; Shen, Shengnan; Li, Hui

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of four typical facial expressions (calmness, happiness, sadness and surprise) on contact characteristics between an N95 filtering facepiece respirator and a headform. The respirator model comprised two layers (an inner layer and an outer layer) and a nose clip. The headform model was comprised of a skin layer, a fatty tissue layer embedded with eight muscles, and a skull layer. Four typical facial expressions were generated by the coordinated contraction of four facial muscles. After that, the distribution of the contact pressure on the headform, as well as the contact area, were calculated. Results demonstrated that the nasal clip could help make the respirator move closer to the nose bridge while causing facial discomfort. Moreover, contact areas varied with different facial expressions, and facial expressions significantly altered contact pressures at different key areas, which may result in leakage.

  1. Cell-assisted lipotransfer in the clinical treatment of facial soft tissue deformity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Wen, Huicai; Jian, Xueping; Liao, Huaiwei; Sui, Yunpeng; Liu, Yanping; Xu, Guizhen

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic surgeons have experimented with a variety of substances to improve soft tissue deformities of the face. Autologous fat grafting provides significant advantages over other modalities because it leaves no scar, is easy to use and is well tolerated by most patients. Autologous fat grafting has become one of the most popular techniques in the field of facial plastic surgery. Unfortunately, there are still two major problems affecting survival rate and development: revascularization after transplantion; and cell reservation proliferation and survival. Since Zuk and Yosra developed a technology based on adipose-derived stem cells and cell-assisted lipotrophy, researchers have hoped that this technology would promote the survival and reduce the absorption of grafted fat cells. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells may have great potential in skin repair applications, aged skin rejuvenation and other aging-related skin lesion treatments. Recently, the study of adipose-derived stem cells has gained increased attention. More researchers have started to adopt this technology in the clinical treatment of facial soft tissue deformity. The present article reviews the history of facial soft tissue augmentation and the advent of adipose-derived stem cells in the area of the clinical treatment of facial soft tissue deformity. PMID:26361629

  2. Correlations between impairment, psychological distress, disability, and quality of life in peripheral facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Aristizabal, U; Valdés-Vilches, M; Fernández-Ferreras, T R; Calero-Muñoz, E; Bienzobas-Allué, E; Moracén-Naranjo, T

    2017-05-23

    This paper analyses the correlations between scores on scales assessing impairment, psychological distress, disability, and quality of life in patients with peripheral facial palsy (PFP). We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study including 30 patients in whom PFP had not resolved completely. We used tools for assessing impairment (Sunnybrook Facial Grading System [FGS]), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), disability (Facial Disability Index [FDI]), and quality of life (Facial Clinimetric Evaluation [FaCE] scale). We found no correlations between FGS and HADS scores, or between FGS and FDI social function scores. However, we did find a correlation between FGS and FDI physical function scores (r=0.54; P<.01), FDI total score (r=0.4; P<.05), FaCE total scores (ρ=0.66; P<.01), and FaCE social function scores (ρ=0.5; P<.01). We also observed a correlation between HADS Anxiety scores and FDI physical function (r=-0.47; P<.01), FDI social function (r=-0.47; P<.01), FDI total (r=-0.55; P<.01), FaCE total (ρ=-0.49; P<.01), and FaCE social scores (ρ=-0.46; P<.05). Significant correlations were also found between HADS Depression scores and FDI physical function (r=-0.61; P<.01), FDI social function (r=-0.53; P<.01), FDI total (r=-0.66; P<.01), FaCE total (ρ=-0.67; P<.01), and FaCE social scores (ρ=-0.68; P<.01), between FDI physical function scores and FaCE total scores (ρ=0.87; P<.01) and FaCE social function (ρ=0.74; P<.01), between FDI social function and FaCE total (ρ=0.66; P<.01) and FaCE social function scores (ρ=0.72; P<.01), and between FDI total scores and FaCE total (ρ = 0,87; P<.01) and FaCE social function scores (ρ=0.84; P<.01). In our sample, patients with more severe impairment displayed greater physical and global disability and poorer quality of life without significantly higher levels of social disability and psychological distress. Patients with more disability experienced greater psychological

  3. Young Children's Ability to Match Facial Features Typical of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacoste, Ronald J.

    This study examined (1) the ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to racially classify Negro and Caucasian facial features in the absence of skin color as a racial cue; and (2) the relative value attached to the facial features of Negro and Caucasian races. Subjects were 21 middle income, Caucasian children from a privately owned nursery school in…

  4. Case Report of a Pressure Ulcer Occurring Over the Nasal Bridge Due to a Non-Invasive Ventilation Facial Mask.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Farooq A; Ahmad, Faria; Zahoor, Muhammad Umar U

    2016-10-03

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is used in patients with respiratory failure, sleep apnoea, and dyspnoea related to pulmonary oedema. NIV is provided through a facial mask. Many complications of NIV facial masks have been reported, including the breakdown of facial skin. We report a case of an elderly male admitted with multiple co-morbidities. The facial mask was applied continuously for NIV, without any relief or formal monitoring of the underlying skin. It resulted in a Grade II pressure ulcer. We discuss the possible mechanism and offer advice for prevention of such device-related pressure ulcers.

  5. Facial gunshot wound debridement: debridement of facial soft tissue gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Shvyrkov, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Over the period 1981-1985 the author treated 1486 patients with facial gunshot wounds sustained in combat in Afghanistan. In the last quarter of 20th century, more powerful and destructive weapons such as M-16 rifles, AK-47 and Kalashnikov submachine guns, became available and a new approach to gunshot wound debridement is required. Modern surgeons have little experience in treatment of such wounds because of rare contact with similar pathology. This article is intended to explore modern wound debridement. The management of 502 isolated soft tissue injuries is presented. Existing principles recommend the sparing of damaged tissues. The author's experience was that tissue sparing lead to a high rate of complications (47.6%). Radical primary surgical debridement (RPSD) of wounds was then adopted with radical excision of necrotic non-viable wound margins containing infection to the point of active capillary bleeding and immediate primary wound closure. After radical debridement wound infection and breakdown decreased by a factor of 10. Plastic operations with local and remote soft tissue were made on 14, 7% of the wounded. Only 0.7% patients required discharge from the army due to facial muscle paralysis and/or facial skin impregnation with particles of gunpowder from mine explosions. Gunshot face wound; modern debridement. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Caricaturing facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Calder, A J; Rowland, D; Young, A W; Nimmo-Smith, I; Keane, J; Perrett, D I

    2000-08-14

    The physical differences between facial expressions (e.g. fear) and a reference norm (e.g. a neutral expression) were altered to produce photographic-quality caricatures. In Experiment 1, participants rated caricatures of fear, happiness and sadness for their intensity of these three emotions; a second group of participants rated how 'face-like' the caricatures appeared. With increasing levels of exaggeration the caricatures were rated as more emotionally intense, but less 'face-like'. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar relationship between emotional intensity and level of caricature for six different facial expressions. Experiments 3 and 4 compared intensity ratings of facial expression caricatures prepared relative to a selection of reference norms - a neutral expression, an average expression, or a different facial expression (e.g. anger caricatured relative to fear). Each norm produced a linear relationship between caricature and rated intensity of emotion; this finding is inconsistent with two-dimensional models of the perceptual representation of facial expression. An exemplar-based multidimensional model is proposed as an alternative account.

  7. Vulval skin conditions: disease activity and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Sandra; Littlewood, Sheelagh

    2013-04-01

    Chronic vulval skin conditions are known to cause a significant reduction in the quality of life. Validated scales exist to measure the disease impact of general dermatologic conditions; however, none have been specifically derived to assess vulval disease. This study aimed to identify what symptoms and aspects of their lives are important for women with vulval skin conditions and to assess their usefulness in developing an assessment measure for monitoring disease activity and quality of life in women with vulval skin conditions. Participants were female patients attending a specialist vulval dermatology clinic at a tertiary referral center. Ten patients with a variety vulval skin conditions were interviewed to gain their experiences of living with a vulval skin condition. Using qualitative semistructured interviews, patients were asked open-ended questions about aspects of their disease that have affected them. These included the following: daily activities and social activities, physical functions, sexual activities, mobility, relationships, and an understanding of their vulval condition. Data was recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically with all aspects regarding quality of life and symptoms identified. Results are presented according to common themes identified, specifically physical symptoms, body image, the impact of the condition on sexual and physical function, issues affecting daily activities, and the journey traveled when accessing medical care. This qualitative study adds to the evidence that chronic vulval conditions are distressing and cause significant morbidity. It highlights further the need to devise a validated questionnaire which can be used in clinical practice looking specifically at disease impact and quality of life. It can only enhance the clinical consultation and facilitate discussion which is disease and person specific.

  8. Validation of a quality-of-life instrument for patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Rhee, John S; Matthews, B Alex; Neuburg, Marcy; Logan, Brent R; Burzynski, Mary; Nattinger, Ann B

    2006-01-01

    To validate a disease-specific quality-of-life instrument--the Skin Cancer Index--intended to measure quality-of-life issues relevant to patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer. Internal reliability, convergent and divergent validity with existing scales, and factor analyses were performed in a cross-sectional study of 211 patients presenting with cervicofacial nonmelanoma skin cancer to a dermatologic surgery clinic. Factor analyses of the Skin Cancer Index confirmed a multidimensional scale with 3 distinct subscales-emotional, social, and appearance. Excellent internal validity of the 3 subscales was demonstrated. Substantial evidence was observed for convergent validity with the Dermatology Life Quality Index, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Lerman's Cancer Worry Scale, and Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form 12 domains for vitality, emotion, social function, and mental health. These findings validate a new disease-specific quality-of-life instrument for patients with cervicofacial nonmelanoma skin cancer. Studies on the responsiveness of the Skin Cancer Index to clinical intervention are currently under way.

  9. Relationship between skin color and solar elastosis in aged Asian skin: A colorimetric-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dai Hyun; Oh, Ga Na; Kwon, In Hyuk; Seo, Soo Hong; Kye, Young Chul; Ahn, Hyo Hyun

    2017-10-01

    Aged skin is reported to be associated with unattractive skin color changes and solar elastosis. However, comparative studies have not documented the possible correlation between the two factors. This study investigated the plausible relationship between the facial skin color of elderly Asians and solar elastosis. A total of 22 skin specimens were collected from 22 Korean patients who underwent cheek skin biopsies. Skin color was quantitatively measured using colorimetric photography techniques to produce CIE L*a*b* values; the degree of solar elastosis was quantifiably assessed using a histologic grading scale. These values were used to investigate a correlation between the CIE L*a*b* coordinates and solar elastosis grade. The solar elastosis grade increased according to patient age (r = 0.67, p = .0006). However, the extent of solar elastosis was not statistically correlated with the CIE L*a*b* values, including L*, a*, and b* (r = 0.02, p = .95; r = 0.15, p = 0.50; r = -0.07, p = 0.76, respectively). The results showed that the solar elastosis grade increased, according to patient age, because of cumulative actinic damage. However, colorimetric skin color data did not correlate with the degree of solar elastosis. Therefore, cutaneous color changes and solar elastosis are separate, age-related phenomena. Physicians should be aware of the possible histologic changes in actinically damaged facial skin, regardless of the skin color. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Quality of life and emotional state in chronic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Pärna, Ene; Aluoja, Anu; Kingo, Külli

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between chronic inflammatory skin conditions and patients' emotional state and quality of life. The following self-rated questionnaires were used: Emotional State Questionnaire, a self-report scale assessing depression and anxiety symptoms; Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI); and RAND-36, a measure of health-related quality of life. The study group comprised 40 patients with psoriasis, 40 with eczema, 40 with acne, 15 with seborrhoeic dermatitis and 40 healthy controls. Patients with chronic skin diseases had lower DLQI and lower RAND-36 physical functioning scores, more perceived physical limitations and pain, and lower emotional well-being and general health ratings compared with the control group. In conclusion, chronic skin diseases are associated with symptoms of emotional distress, in particular insomnia and general anxiety.

  11. Image ratio features for facial expression recognition application.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Liu, Zicheng; Li, Xuelong; Zhou, Mengchu

    2010-06-01

    Video-based facial expression recognition is a challenging problem in computer vision and human-computer interaction. To target this problem, texture features have been extracted and widely used, because they can capture image intensity changes raised by skin deformation. However, existing texture features encounter problems with albedo and lighting variations. To solve both problems, we propose a new texture feature called image ratio features. Compared with previously proposed texture features, e.g., high gradient component features, image ratio features are more robust to albedo and lighting variations. In addition, to further improve facial expression recognition accuracy based on image ratio features, we combine image ratio features with facial animation parameters (FAPs), which describe the geometric motions of facial feature points. The performance evaluation is based on the Carnegie Mellon University Cohn-Kanade database, our own database, and the Japanese Female Facial Expression database. Experimental results show that the proposed image ratio feature is more robust to albedo and lighting variations, and the combination of image ratio features and FAPs outperforms each feature alone. In addition, we study asymmetric facial expressions based on our own facial expression database and demonstrate the superior performance of our combined expression recognition system.

  12. The Clinical Test of Nano gold Cosmetic for Recovering Skin Damage Due to Chemicals: Special Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufikurohmah, T.; Wardana, A. P.; Tjahjani, S.; Sanjaya, I. G. M.; Baktir, A.; Syahrani, A.

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics was done at PT. Gizi Indonesia. Clinical trials to cosmetics data supported that cosmetics are able to treat skin health which has been reported partially. For special cases, the recovery process of facial skin damage should also receive attention including cases of facial skin damage caused by chemicals such as phenol, HCl, aqua regia or other harsh chemicals. The problem determined whether the Nano gold is able to recover skin damage due to the harsh chemicals. This clinical trial data on the forms of early skin damage caused by phenol was delivered in the forms of facial photos patients. The recovery progress of facial skin condition was obtained every week for two months. The data included the forms of widespread wounds during the recovery process. This statement supported by anova statistical analysis of the widespread wound changing every week for 8 times. The conclusion is skin damage due to Phenol impregnation can be recovered with the use of Nano gold cosmetics for 8 weeks. This results support the manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics for the needs of society. It also suggest that Nano gold material can be used for medicine manufacturing in the future.

  13. Facial transplantation: A concise update

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Pulido, Fernando; Gomez-Cia, Tomas; Sicilia-Castro, Domingo; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto; Gacto-Sanchez, Purificacion; Hernandez-Guisado, Jose-Maria; Lagares-Borrego, Araceli; Narros-Gimenez, Rocio; Gonzalez-Padilla, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Update on clinical results obtained by the first worldwide facial transplantation teams as well as review of the literature concerning the main surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow-up aspects described on facial transplanted patients. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on “face transplantation” until March 2012. Results: Eighteen clinical cases were studied. The mean patient age was 37.5 years, with a higher prevalence of men. Main surgical indication was gunshot injuries (6 patients). All patients had previously undergone multiple conventional surgical reconstructive procedures which had failed. Altogether 8 transplant teams belonging to 4 countries participated. Thirteen partial face transplantations and 5 full face transplantations have been performed. Allografts are varied according to face anatomical components and the amount of skin, muscle, bone, and other tissues included, though all were grafted successfully and remained viable without significant postoperative surgical complications. The patient with the longest follow-up was 5 years. Two patients died 2 and 27 months after transplantation. Conclusions: Clinical experience has demonstrated the feasibility of facial transplantation as a valuable reconstructive option, but it still remains considered as an experimental procedure with unresolved issues to settle down. Results show that from a clinical, technical, and immunological standpoint, facial transplantation has achieved functional, aesthetic, and social rehabilitation in severely facial disfigured patients. Key words:Face transplantation, composite tissue transplantation, face allograft, facial reconstruction, outcomes and complications of face transplantation. PMID:23229268

  14. Nitroglycerin-induced changes in facial skin temperature: 'cold nose' as a predictor of headache?

    PubMed

    Zaproudina, Nina; Närhi, Matti; Lipponen, Jukka A; Tarvainen, Mika P; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Karhu, Jari; Airaksinen, Olavi; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-11-01

    Nitroglycerin (NTG) often induces headaches when used to treat cardiac diseases. Such property of NTG has been widely used in modelling of migraine-like headaches. However, background reasons, predisposing to the development of NTG-headache, are less studied. The main aim of our study was to find, using NTG model, easily accessible markers of the vascular changes associated with headache. Because changes in the blood flow alter the local skin temperature (Tsk), we studied the relationship between the regional changes in the facial Tsk and NTG-induced headaches. Tsk was measured with infrared thermography in 11 healthy women during 3 h after sublingual NTG administration. NTG caused headache in five women, and four of them were the first-degree relatives of migraine patients. Notably, before NTG administration, subjects in the headache group had lower Tsk values, especially in the nose area, than women in the pain-free group (n = 6). NTG-induced headache was associated with a long-lasting increase of Tsk over the baseline. In sharp contrast, in the pain-free group, the Tsk reduced and returned rapidly to the baseline. Thus, the low baseline level and greater increase of regional Tsk correlated with the incidence of headache that supports a role of greater vascular changes in headache happening on the basis of the dissimilarities in vascular tone. An easily accessible phenomenon of 'cold nose' may indicate background vascular dysfunctions in individuals with predisposition to headache. Facial infrared thermography, coupled with NTG administration, suggests a novel temporally controlled approach for non-invasive investigation of vascular processes accompanying headaches. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Facial fluid synthesis for assessment of acne vulgaris using luminescent visualization system through optical imaging and integration of fluorescent imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbin, Jessie R.; Dela Cruz, Jennifer C.; Camba, Clarisse O.; Gozo, Angelo D.; Jimenez, Sheena Mariz B.; Tribiana, Aivje C.

    2017-06-01

    Acne vulgaris, commonly called as acne, is a skin problem that occurs when oil and dead skin cells clog up in a person's pores. This is because hormones change which makes the skin oilier. The problem is people really do not know the real assessment of sensitivity of their skin in terms of fluid development on their faces that tends to develop acne vulgaris, thus having more complications. This research aims to assess Acne Vulgaris using luminescent visualization system through optical imaging and integration of image processing algorithms. Specifically, this research aims to design a prototype for facial fluid analysis using luminescent visualization system through optical imaging and integration of fluorescent imaging system, and to classify different facial fluids present in each person. Throughout the process, some structures and layers of the face will be excluded, leaving only a mapped facial structure with acne regions. Facial fluid regions are distinguished from the acne region as they are characterized differently.

  16. Bilayered, non-cross-linked collagen matrix for regeneration of facial defects after skin cancer removal: a new perspective for biomaterial-based tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Kovács, Adorján; Barbeck, Mike; Lorenz, Jonas; Teiler, Anna; Sadeghi, Nader; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Sader, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Classically skin defects are covered by split thickness skin grafts or by means of local or regional skin flaps. In the presented case series for the first time a bilayered, non-crossed-linked collagen matrix has been used in an off-label fashion in order to reconstruct facial skin defects following different types of skin cancer resection. The material is of porcine origin and consists of a spongy and a compact layer. The ratio of the two layers is 1:3 in favour of the spongy layer. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of this matrix for skin regeneration as an alternative to the standard techniques of skin grafts or flaps. Six patients between 39 and 83 years old were included in the study based on a therapeutic trial. The collagen matrix was used in seven defects involving the nose, eyelid, forehead- and posterior scalp regions, and ranging from 1,2 to 6 cm in diameter. Two different head and neck surgeons at two different institutions performed the operations. Each used a different technique in covering the wound following surgery, i.e. with and without a latex-based sheet under the pressure dressing. In three cases cylindrical biopsies were taken after 14 days. In all cases the biomaterial application was performed without any complication and no adverse effects were observed. Clinically, the collagen matrix contributed to a tension-free skin regeneration, independent of the wound dressing used. The newly regenerated skin showed strong similarity to the adjacent normal tissue both in quality and colour. Histological analysis indicated that the spongy layer replaced the defective connective tissue, by providing stepwise integration into the surrounding implantation bed, while the compact layer was infiltrated by mononuclear cells and contributed to its epithelialization by means of a "conductive"process from the surrounding epithelial cells. The clinical and histological data demonstrate that the collagen bilayered matrix used in this series

  17. Efficacy of Autologous Microfat Graft on Facial Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sautereau, Nolwenn; Daumas, Aurélie; Truillet, Romain; Jouve, Elisabeth; Magalon, Jéremy; Veran, Julie; Casanova, Dominique; Frances, Yves; Magalon, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Autologous adipose tissue injection is used in plastic surgery for correction of localized tissue atrophy and has also been successfully offered for treatment of localized scleroderma. We aimed to evaluate whether patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and facial handicap could also benefit from this therapy. Methods: We included 14 patients (mean age of 53.8 ± 9.6 years) suffering from SSc with facial handicap defined by Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis Scale (MHISS) score more than or equal to 20, a Rodnan skin score on the face more than or equal to 1, and maximal mouth opening of less than 55 mm. Autologous adipose tissue injection was performed under local anesthesia using the technique of subcutaneous microinjection. The main objective of this study was an improvement of the MHISS score 6 months after the surgical treatment. Results: The procedure was well tolerated. We observed a mean decrease in the MHISS score of 10.7 points (±5.1; P < 0.0001) at 6 months (35% improvement). Secondary efficacy parameters assessing perioral skin sclerosis, maximum mouth opening, sicca syndrome, and facial pain significantly improved at 3 and 6 months postsurgery. At a 6-month follow-up, 75% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied of the adipose tissue microinjection therapy. Conclusions: Our study suggests that subcutaneous perioral microfat injection in patients with SSc is beneficial in the treatment of facial handicap, skin sclerosis, mouth opening limitation, sicca syndrome, and facial pain. Thus, this minimally invasive approach offers a new hope for face therapy for patients with SSc. PMID:27257590

  18. Efficacy of Autologous Microfat Graft on Facial Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Sautereau, Nolwenn; Daumas, Aurélie; Truillet, Romain; Jouve, Elisabeth; Magalon, Jéremy; Veran, Julie; Casanova, Dominique; Frances, Yves; Magalon, Guy; Granel, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Autologous adipose tissue injection is used in plastic surgery for correction of localized tissue atrophy and has also been successfully offered for treatment of localized scleroderma. We aimed to evaluate whether patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and facial handicap could also benefit from this therapy. We included 14 patients (mean age of 53.8 ± 9.6 years) suffering from SSc with facial handicap defined by Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis Scale (MHISS) score more than or equal to 20, a Rodnan skin score on the face more than or equal to 1, and maximal mouth opening of less than 55 mm. Autologous adipose tissue injection was performed under local anesthesia using the technique of subcutaneous microinjection. The main objective of this study was an improvement of the MHISS score 6 months after the surgical treatment. The procedure was well tolerated. We observed a mean decrease in the MHISS score of 10.7 points (±5.1; P < 0.0001) at 6 months (35% improvement). Secondary efficacy parameters assessing perioral skin sclerosis, maximum mouth opening, sicca syndrome, and facial pain significantly improved at 3 and 6 months postsurgery. At a 6-month follow-up, 75% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied of the adipose tissue microinjection therapy. Our study suggests that subcutaneous perioral microfat injection in patients with SSc is beneficial in the treatment of facial handicap, skin sclerosis, mouth opening limitation, sicca syndrome, and facial pain. Thus, this minimally invasive approach offers a new hope for face therapy for patients with SSc.

  19. Randomized, Observer-blind, Split-face Compatibility Study with Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2%/Benzoyl Peroxide 3.75% gel and Facial Foundation Makeup

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cosmetic compatibility in the treatment of acne is an important issue significantly impacting quality of life, but often overlooked, as dermatologists commonly recommended avoidance of cosmetic foundations when treating adult female patients. Fixed combinations of clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide are widely used in the treatment of acne, but little is known about the impact of their concomitant use with facial foundation. Objective: To assess the compatibility of clindamycin phosphate 1. 2%/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel with foundation makeup for up to six hours after application. Methods: Twenty-nine female subjects applied makeup to their face after randomly applying clindamycin phosphate 1. 2%/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel to one side of the face. Investigator and subject self- assessment included facial skin attributes, facial tolerability, and cosmetic compatibility post-application and at Hour 6; as well as cutaneous tolerability. Results: No statistical difference was noted between the treated and untreated side of the face in terms of coverage, blotchiness, appearance, skin tone, or visual smoothness. Tolerability was excellent, with no erythema, edema, dryness, and peeling post-makeup application. For both the treated and untreated side, there was a slight lack of improvement in cosmetic appearance six hours post-makeup application. Conclusion: Clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide 3. 75% gel was shown to have excellent cosmetic compatibility with facial foundation. PMID:26430488

  20. Non-ablative skin tightening with radiofrequency in Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Kushikata, Nobuharu; Negishi, Kei; Tezuka, Yukiko; Takeuchi, Kaori; Wakamatsu, Shingo

    2005-02-01

    The recent successful application of radiofrequency (RF) in non-ablative skin tightening for skin laxity has attracted attention worldwide. The efficacy and clinical effect of RF were assessed in Asian skin, with additional study on the duration of the effect and any complications. Eighty-five Japanese females were enrolled in the study for treatment of nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and sagging jowls with 6-month follow-up. RF treatment was effective for nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and jowls. Objective physician evaluation found relatively good improvement at 3 months post-treatment, and even better improvement at the 6-month evaluation. RF treatment was very satisfactory for skin tightening in Asian facial skin. When compared with published literature from the United States, the results suggested that there might be race-related differences in the treatment parameters. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Combined flaps based on the superficial temporal vascular system for reconstruction of facial defects.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Renpeng; Wang, Chen; Qian, Yunliang; Wang, Danru

    2015-09-01

    Facial defects are multicomponent deficiencies rather than simple soft-tissue defects. Based on different branches of the superficial temporal vascular system, various tissue components can be obtained to reconstruct facial defects individually. From January 2004 to December 2013, 31 patients underwent reconstruction of facial defects with composite flaps based on the superficial temporal vascular system. Twenty cases of nasal defects were repaired with skin and cartilage components, six cases of facial defects were treated with double island flaps of the skin and fascia, three patients underwent eyebrow and lower eyelid reconstruction with hairy and hairless flaps simultaneously, and two patients underwent soft-tissue repair with auricular combined flaps and cranial bone grafts. All flaps survived completely. Donor-site morbidity is minimal, closed primarily. Donor areas healed with acceptable cosmetic results. The final outcome was satisfactory. Combined flaps based on the superficial temporal vascular system are a useful and versatile option in facial soft-tissue reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-na; Fang, Hong; Zhu, Wei-fang

    2009-01-01

    To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing factors. Eight hundred and forty-eight Hangzhou residents received the survey between March 2004 and September 2004. Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the accelerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types II, III and IV were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type II seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types III and IV. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.

  3. Effect analysis of intradermal hyaluronic acid injection to treat enlarged facial pores.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wei; Zhang, Yan-Kun; Hou, Ying; Lyu, Wei; Cao, Qian; Li, Yan-Qi; Fan, Ju-Feng

    2017-08-08

    To investigate the clinical application and efficacy of intradermal injection of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMW-HA) for treating enlarged facial pores. From January 2015 to May 2016, 42 subjects who sought aesthetic treatment underwent intradermal injection of LMW-HA to improve enlarged facial pores. For each treatment, 2.5 mL (25 mg) of LMW-HA was injected into the skin of the full face. The treatment was repeated 2-5 times with an interval of 1 to 1.5 months between consecutive treatments. The postoperative follow-up period was 1 to 6 months. Statistical analysis was used to compare the degree of enlargement of facial pores before and after injection. The clinical efficacy and adverse effects were recorded. The enlarged facial pores before and after treatment were categorized and subjected to the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. The difference was statistically significant (P<.01). The improvement rate was 40.03±18.41%. No infection, nodules, or pigmentation was reported at the injection sites in the subjects who sought aesthetic treatment. The overall satisfaction rate was 92.8%. Intradermal injection of LMW-HA can significantly improve skin texture, reduce pore size, and enhance skin radiance. The injection technique was simple, safe, and effective and could easily be extended to clinical practice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Hair Color and Skin Color Together Influence Perceptions of Age, Health, and Attractiveness in Lightly-Pigmented, Young Women.

    PubMed

    Fink, Bernhard; Liebner, Katharina; Müller, Ann-Kathrin; Hirn, Thomas; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2018-05-17

    Research documents that even subtle changes in visible skin condition affect perceptions of age, health, and attractiveness. There is evidence that hair quality also affects the assessment of physical appearance, as variations in hair diameter, hair density, and hair style have systematic effects on perception. Here, we consider combined effects of hair color and skin color on the perception of female physical appearance. In two experiments, we digitally manipulated facial skin color of lightly-pigmented, young women, both between-subjects (Experiment 1) and within-subjects (Experiment 2), and investigated possible interactions with hair color in regard to age, health, and attractiveness perception. In both experiments, we detected hair color and skin color interaction effects on men's and women's assessments. For between-subjects comparisons, participants with lighter hair color were judged to be younger than those with darker shades; this effect was more pronounced in women with light skin color. No such effect was observed for within-subjects variation in skin color. Both experiments showed that smaller perceived contrast between hair color and skin color resulted in more positive responses. We conclude that hair color and facial skin color together have an effect on perceptions of female age, health, and attractiveness in young women, and we discuss these findings with reference to the literature on the role of hair and skin in the assessment of female physical appearance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Facial contrast is a cue for perceiving health from the face.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard; Porcheron, Aurélie; Sweda, Jennifer R; Jones, Alex L; Mauger, Emmanuelle; Morizot, Frederique

    2016-09-01

    How healthy someone appears has important social consequences. Yet the visual cues that determine perceived health remain poorly understood. Here we report evidence that facial contrast-the luminance and color contrast between internal facial features and the surrounding skin-is a cue for the perception of health from the face. Facial contrast was measured from a large sample of Caucasian female faces, and was found to predict ratings of perceived health. Most aspects of facial contrast were positively related to perceived health, meaning that faces with higher facial contrast appeared healthier. In 2 subsequent experiments, we manipulated facial contrast and found that participants perceived faces with increased facial contrast as appearing healthier than faces with decreased facial contrast. These results support the idea that facial contrast is a cue for perceived health. This finding adds to the growing knowledge about perceived health from the face, and helps to ground our understanding of perceived health in terms of lower-level perceptual features such as contrast. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Conditioning in laser skin resurfacing - betulin emulsion and skin recovery.

    PubMed

    Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Podmelle, Fred; Waite, Peter D; Müller-Debus, Charlotte Friederieke; Hammes, Stefan; Funk, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Laser skin resurfacing of the face by CO₂-laser ablation is causing superficial wounds that need rapid recovery to reduce the risk of infection, the risk of chronification and as a result the risk of unaesthetic scars. The question being addressed by this study is to demonstrate benefit of betulin emulsion skin care after CO₂-laser wounds. The outcome of this aesthetic comparison between betulin emulsion, moist wound dressing and gauze covering in promoting the recovery process in laser skin ablation is to demonstrate improved aesthetic benefit for the patient. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Automated facial acne assessment from smartphone images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Mohammad; Vasefi, Fartash; Valdebran, Manuel; Huang, Kevin; Zhang, Haomiao; Kemp, William; MacKinnon, Nicholas

    2018-02-01

    A smartphone mobile medical application is presented, that provides analysis of the health of skin on the face using a smartphone image and cloud-based image processing techniques. The mobile application employs the use of the camera to capture a front face image of a subject, after which the captured image is spatially calibrated based on fiducial points such as position of the iris of the eye. A facial recognition algorithm is used to identify features of the human face image, to normalize the image, and to define facial regions of interest (ROI) for acne assessment. We identify acne lesions and classify them into two categories: those that are papules and those that are pustules. Automated facial acne assessment was validated by performing tests on images of 60 digital human models and 10 real human face images. The application was able to identify 92% of acne lesions within five facial ROIs. The classification accuracy for separating papules from pustules was 98%. Combined with in-app documentation of treatment, lifestyle factors, and automated facial acne assessment, the app can be used in both cosmetic and clinical dermatology. It allows users to quantitatively self-measure acne severity and treatment efficacy on an ongoing basis to help them manage their chronic facial acne.

  8. The role of skin colour in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Bar-Haim, Yair; Saidel, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2009-01-01

    People have better memory for faces from their own racial group than for faces from other races. It has been suggested that this own-race recognition advantage depends on an initial categorisation of faces into own and other race based on racial markers, resulting in poorer encoding of individual variations in other-race faces. Here, we used a study--test recognition task with stimuli in which the skin colour of African and Caucasian faces was manipulated to produce four categories representing the cross-section between skin colour and facial features. We show that, despite the notion that skin colour plays a major role in categorising faces into own and other-race faces, its effect on face recognition is minor relative to differences across races in facial features.

  9. Limbic and prefrontal responses to facial emotion expressions in depersonalization.

    PubMed

    Lemche, Erwin; Surguladze, Simon A; Giampietro, Vincent P; Anilkumar, Ananthapadmanabha; Brammer, Michael J; Sierra, Mauricio; Chitnis, Xavier; Williams, Steven C R; Gasston, David; Joraschky, Peter; David, Anthony S; Phillips, Mary L

    2007-03-26

    Depersonalization disorder, characterized by emotional detachment, has been associated with increased prefrontal cortical and decreased autonomic activity to emotional stimuli. Event-related fMRI with simultaneous measurements of skin conductance levels occurred in nine depersonalization disorder patients and 12 normal controls to neutral, mild and intense happy and sad facial expressions. Patients, but not controls, showed decreases in subcortical limbic activity to increasingly intense happy and sad facial expressions, respectively. For both happy and sad expressions, negative correlations between skin conductance measures in bilateral dorsal prefrontal cortices occurred only in depersonalization disorder patients. Abnormal decreases in limbic activity to increasingly intense emotional expressions, and increases in dorsal prefrontal cortical activity to emotionally arousing stimuli may underlie the emotional detachment of depersonalization disorder.

  10. Cues of Fatigue: Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Facial Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Design: Experimental laboratory study. Setting: Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Measurements: Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. Results: The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life. Citation: Sundelin T; Lekander M; Kecklund G; Van Someren EJW; Olsson A; Axelsson J. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1355-1360. PMID:23997369

  11. Dermabrasion and staged excision of facial lesions in a neurofibromatosis case for improvement of facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Karabekmez, Furkan Erol; Duymaz, Ahmet; Karacor, Zeynep

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis may present with different skin lesions. Disfiguring lesions on the face might be challenging for the surgeon or clinician to correct and may have adverse effects on patients' social lives, especially in young women. To present the dermabrasion technique combined with serial excisions of a deeper accompanying lesion to treat superficial facial lesions in a young neurofibromatosis patient. Dermabrasion was applied to superficial lesions on the face, and staged excision was applied to the deeper lesion located on the forehead. We obtained high patient satisfaction with the result. The deep lesion was excised totally, and superficial lesions were decreased with dermabrasion. Dermabrasion may become a good alternative in cases of neurofibromatosis with superficial facial lesions.

  12. Facial preservation following extreme mummification: Shrunken heads.

    PubMed

    Houlton, Tobias M R; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2018-05-01

    Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction. Sixty-five human shrunken heads were assessed: 6 ceremonial, 36 commercial, and 23 ambiguous. Investigations included manual inspection, multi-detector computerised tomography, infrared reflectography, ultraviolet fluorescence and microscopic hair analysis. The mummification process disfigures the outer face, cheeks, nasal root and bridge form, including brow ridge, eyes, ears, mouth, and nose projection. Melanin depletion, epidermal degeneration, and any applied staining changes the natural skin complexion. Papillary and reticular dermis separation is possible. Normal hair structure (cuticle, cortex, medulla) is retained. Hair appears longer (unless cut) and more profuse following shrinkage. Significant features retained include skin defects, facial creases, hairlines and earlobe form. Hair conditions that only affect living scalps are preserved (e.g. nits, hair casts). Ear and nose cartilage helps to retain some morphological information. Commercial heads appear less distorted than ceremonial tsantsa, often presenting a definable eyebrow shape, vermillion lip shape, lip thickness (if mouth is open), philtrum form, and palpebral slit angle. Facial identification capabilities are considered limited, and only perceived possible for commercial heads. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Reconstruction of facial soft tissue defects with pedicled expanded flaps].

    PubMed

    Yangqun, Li; Yong, Tang; Wen, Chen; Zhe, Yang; Muxin, Zhao; Lisi, Xu; Chunmei, Hu; Yuanyuan, Liu; Ning, Ma; Jun, Feng; Weixin, Wang

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the application of pedicled expanded flaps for the reconstruction of facial soft tissue defects. The expanded skin flaps, pedicled with orbicularis oculi muscle, submental artery, the branch of facial artery, superficial temporal artery, interior upper arm artery, had similar texture and color as facial soft tissue. The pedicled expanded flaps have repaired the facial soft tissue defects. Between Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2013, 157 cases with facial soft tissue defects were reconstructed by pedicled expanded flaps. Epidermal necrosis happened at the distal end of 8 expanded flaps, pedicled with interior upper arm artery(4 cases), orbicularis oculi muscle(3 cases) and submental artery(1 case), which healed spontaneously after dressing. All the other flaps survived completely with similar color and inconspicuous scar. 112 cases were followed up for 8 months to 8 years. Satisfactory results were achieved in 75 cases. 37 cases with hypertrophic scar at incisions need secondary operation. Island pedicled expanded flap with similar texture and color as facial soft tissue is suitable for facial soft tissue defects. The facial extra-incision and large dog-ear deformity could be avoided.

  14. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J W; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Experimental laboratory study. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01). The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life.

  15. Visualization of drug distribution of topical minocycline in human facial skin with fluorescence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermsmeier, Maiko; Sawant, Tanvee; Lac, Diana; Yamamoto, Akira; Chen, Xin; Nagavarapu, Usha; Evans, Conor L.; Chan, Kin Foong

    2017-02-01

    Minocycline is an antibiotic regularly prescribed to treat acne vulgaris. The only commercially available minocycline comes in an oral dosage form, which often results in systemic adverse effects. A topical minocycline composition (BPX-01) was developed to provide localized and targeted delivery to the epidermis and pilosebaceous unit where acne-related bacteria, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), reside. As minocycline is a known fluorophore, fluorescence microscopy was performed to investigate its potential use in visualizing minocycline distribution within tissues. BPX-01 with various concentrations of minocycline, was applied topically to freshly excised human facial skin specimens. Spatial distribution of minocycline and its fluorescence intensity within the stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis, and pilosebaceous unit were assessed. The resulting fluorescence intensity data as a function of minocycline concentration may indicate clinically relevant therapeutic doses of topical BPX-01 needed to kill P. acnes and reduce inflammation for successful clinical outcomes.

  16. Superficial chemical peeling with salicylic Acid in facial dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Bari, Arfan Ul; Iqbal, Zafar; Rahman, Simeen Ber

    2007-04-01

    To determine the effectiveness of salicylic acid chemical peeling in common dermatological conditions affecting face in people with predominant Fitzpatrick skin type IV and V. An interventional, quasi-experimental study. Military Hospital, Rawalpindi and PAF Hospital, Sargodha, from July 2002 to June 2003. A total of 167 patients of either gender, aged between 13 to 60 years, having some facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, freckles, fine lines and wrinkles, post-inflammatory scars, actinic keratoses, and plane facial warts) were included. A series of eight weekly hospital based peeling sessions was conducted in all patients under standardized conditions with 30% salicylic acid. Clinical improvement in different disorders was evaluated by change in MASI score, decrease in the size of affected area and % reduction in lesions count. McNemar test was applied for data analysis. Majority of the patients showed moderate to excellent response. There was 35% to 63% improvement (p<0.05) in all dermatoses. Significant side effects, as feared in Asian skins were not observed. Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is an effective and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses.

  17. Eye of the Beholder: Stage Entrance Behavior and Facial Expression Affect Continuous Quality Ratings in Music Performance

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, George; Williamon, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Judgments of music performance quality are commonly employed in music practice, education, and research. However, previous studies have demonstrated the limited reliability of such judgments, and there is now evidence that extraneous visual, social, and other “non-musical” features can unduly influence them. The present study employed continuous measurement techniques to examine how the process of forming a music quality judgment is affected by the manipulation of temporally specific visual cues. Video footage comprising an appropriate stage entrance and error-free performance served as the standard condition (Video 1). This footage was manipulated to provide four additional conditions, each identical save for a single variation: an inappropriate stage entrance (Video 2); the presence of an aural performance error midway through the piece (Video 3); the same error accompanied by a negative facial reaction by the performer (Video 4); the facial reaction with no corresponding aural error (Video 5). The participants were 53 musicians and 52 non-musicians (N = 105) who individually assessed the performance quality of one of the five randomly assigned videos via a digital continuous measurement interface and headphones. The results showed that participants viewing the “inappropriate” stage entrance made judgments significantly more quickly than those viewing the “appropriate” entrance, and while the poor entrance caused significantly lower initial scores among those with musical training, the effect did not persist long into the performance. The aural error caused an immediate drop in quality judgments that persisted to a lower final score only when accompanied by the frustrated facial expression from the pianist; the performance error alone caused a temporary drop only in the musicians' ratings, and the negative facial reaction alone caused no reaction regardless of participants' musical experience. These findings demonstrate the importance of visual

  18. Facial palsy: what can the multidisciplinary team do?

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Daniel P; Grobbelaar, Adriaan O

    2017-01-01

    The functional and psychosocial impact of facial paralysis on the patient is significant. In response, a broad spectrum of treatment options exist and are provided by a multitude of health care practitioners. The cause and duration of the facial weakness can vary widely and the optimal care pathway varies. To optimize patient outcome, those involved in the care of patients with facial palsy should collaborate within comprehensive multidisciplinary teams (MDTs). At an international level, those involved in the care of patients with facial paralysis should aim to create standardized guidelines on which outcome domains matter most to patients to aid the identification of high quality care. This review summarizes the causes and treatment options for facial paralysis and discusses the subsequent importance of multidisciplinary care in the management of patients with this condition. Further discussion is given to the extended role of the MDT in determining what constitutes quality in facial palsy care to aid the creation of accepted care pathways and delineate best practice. PMID:29026314

  19. A novel method to measure conspicuous facial pores using computer analysis of digital-camera-captured images: the effect of glycolic acid chemical peeling.

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Kushida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Nobuko; Minakata, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Kenji; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2011-11-01

    Chemical peeling is becoming increasingly popular for skin rejuvenation in dermatological esthetic surgery. Conspicuous facial pores are one of the most frequently encountered skin problems in women of all ages. This study was performed to analyze the effectiveness of reducing conspicuous facial pores using glycolic acid chemical peeling (GACP) based on a novel computer analysis of digital-camera-captured images. GACP was performed a total of five times at 2-week intervals in 22 healthy women. Computerized image analysis of conspicuous, open, and darkened facial pores was performed using the Robo Skin Analyzer CS 50. The number of conspicuous facial pores decreased significantly in 19 (86%) of the 22 subjects, with a mean improvement rate of 34.6%. The number of open pores decreased significantly in 16 (72%) of the subjects, with a mean improvement rate of 11.0%. The number of darkened pores decreased significantly in 18 (81%) of the subjects, with a mean improvement rate of 34.3%. GACP significantly reduces the number of conspicuous facial pores. The Robo Skin Analyzer CS 50 is useful for the quantification and analysis of 'pore enlargement', a subtle finding in dermatological esthetic surgery. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Self-reported skin symptoms and skin-related quality of life among Latino immigrant poultry processing and other manual workers.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Newman, Jill C; Pichardo-Geisinger, Rita; Mora, Dana C; Chen, Haiying; Feldman, Steven R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    Manual labor employment occurs in environments with exposures likely to impact skin-related quality of life (SRQOL). The objectives of this paper are to (1) document the dimensions of SRQOL, (2) examine its association with skin symptoms, and (3) identify the predictors of SRQOL in Latino manual workers. A population-based survey of 733 Latino manual workers obtained Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and skin symptoms in the prior year. Two-thirds of workers were employed in production. Skin symptoms in prior year were reported by 23%. Impaired SRQOL was reported by 23%. In multivariate analyses, reduced SRQOL was associated with age, occupation, childhood indigenous language use, and experience of skin symptoms in the prior year. Despite overall high SRQOL exposures in some immigrant occupational groups produce reduce SRQOL. This rural, immigrant population faces significant obstacles to obtaining dermatological care; efforts are needed to improve their SRQOL. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Skin and Composite Grafting Techniques in Facial Reconstruction for Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Michael J; Moyer, Jeffrey S

    2017-08-01

    Skin and composite grafting provide effective resurfacing and reconstruction for cutaneous defects after excision of the malignancy. The goal is to restore a natural appearance and function while preventing distortion of the eyelid, nose, or lips. With careful planning and attention to aesthetic subunits, the surgeon can camouflage incisions and avoid blunting aesthetically sensitive sulci. The surgical plan is also informed by the pathology, as basal or squamous cell carcinomas removed by Mohs micrographic excision have different prognostic and logistical considerations from melanoma. Skin and composite grafting are useful as stand-alone procedures or may complement local flaps and other soft tissue reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel technique for preventing skin pressure sores using a rubber tube during surgical treatment of mandibular condyle fractures.

    PubMed

    Kawase-Koga, Yoko; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Hoshi, Kazuhito; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Craniofacial surgery occasionally results in sores and necrosis of the facial skin because of pressure from surgical instruments. During surgical treatment of mandibular condylar process fractures, the main mandibular fragment is routinely retracted downward using a wire to achieve a satisfactory anatomic reduction. This procedure may injure the facial skin. This potential complication is easily overlooked by medical staff, but it is easily preventable. We herein describe a method of using a rubber tube to avoid causing pressure sores of the facial skin during surgical treatment of mandibular condylar process fractures.

  3. Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials in facial aging: study protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    PubMed

    Schlessinger, Daniel I; Iyengar, Sanjana; Yanes, Arianna F; Henley, Jill K; Ashchyan, Hovik J; Kurta, Anastasia O; Patel, Payal M; Sheikh, Umar A; Franklin, Matthew J; Hanna, Courtney C; Chen, Brian R; Chiren, Sarah G; Schmitt, Jochen; Deckert, Stefanie; Furlan, Karina C; Poon, Emily; Maher, Ian A; Cartee, Todd V; Sobanko, Joseph F; Alam, Murad

    2017-08-01

    Facial aging is a concern for many patients. Wrinkles, loss of volume, and discoloration are common physical manifestations of aging skin. Genetic heritage, prior ultraviolet light exposure, and Fitzpatrick skin type may be associated with the rate and type of facial aging. Although many clinical trials assess the correlates of skin aging, there is heterogeneity in the outcomes assessed, which limits the quality of evaluation and comparison of treatment modalities. To address the inconsistency in outcomes, in this project we will develop a core set of outcomes that are to be evaluated in all clinical trials relevant to facial aging. A long list of measureable outcomes will be created from four sources: (1) systematic medical literature review, (2) patient interviews, (3) other published sources, and (4) stakeholder involvement. Two rounds of Delphi processes with homogeneous groups of physicians and patients will be performed to prioritize and condense the list. At a consensus meeting attended by physicians, patients, and stakeholders, outcomes will be further condensed on the basis of participant scores. By the end of the meeting, members will vote and decide on a final recommended set of core outcomes. Subsequent to this, specific measures will be selected or created to assess these outcomes. The aim of this study is to develop a core outcome set and relevant measures for clinical trials relevant to facial aging. We hope to improve the reliability and consistency of outcome reporting of skin aging, thereby enabling improved evaluation of treatment efficacy and patient satisfaction. Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) Initiative, accessible at http://www.comet-initiative.org/studies/details/737 . Core Outcomes Set Initiative, (CSG-COUSIN) accessible at https://www.uniklinikum-dresden.de/de/das-klinikum/universitaetscentren/zegv/cousin/meet-the-teams/project-groups/core-outcome-set-for-the-appearance-of-facial-aging . Protocol version date is 28

  4. Effects of glycolic acid chemical peeling on facial pigment deposition: evaluation using novel computer analysis of digital-camera-captured images.

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Kushida, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2013-12-01

    Chemical peeling is becoming increasingly popular for skin rejuvenation in dermatological cosmetic medicine. However, the improvements seen with chemical peeling are often very minor, and it is difficult to conduct a quantitative assessment of pre- and post-treatment appearance. We report the pre- and postpeeling effects for facial pigment deposition using a novel computer analysis method for digital-camera-captured images. Glycolic acid chemical peeling was performed a total of 5 times at 2-week intervals in 23 healthy women. We conducted a computer image analysis by utilizing Robo Skin Analyzer CS 50 and Clinical Suite 2.1 and then reviewed each parameter for the area of facial pigment deposition pre- and post-treatment. Parameters were pigmentation size and four pigmentation categories: little pigmentation and three levels of marked pigmentation (Lv1, 2, and 3) based on detection threshold. Each parameter was measured, and the total area of facial pigmentation was calculated. The total area of little pigmentation and marked pigmentation (Lv1) was significantly reduced. On the other hand, a significant difference was not observed for the total area of marked pigmentation Lv2 and Lv3. This suggests that glycolic acid chemical peeling has an effect on small facial pigment disposition or has an effect on light pigment deposition. As the Robo Skin Analyzer is useful for objectively quantifying and analyzing minor changes in facial skin, it is considered to be an effective tool for accumulating treatment evidence in the cosmetic and esthetic skin field. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The association of dermatologist-diagnosed and self-reported skin diseases with skin-related quality of life in Latino migrant farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Schulz, Mark R; Vallejos, Quirina M; Feldman, Steven R; Verma, Amit; Fleischer, Alan B; Rapp, Stephen R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2008-03-01

    Skin diseases are known to affect the quality of life (QoL), but data to support this are based on clinical samples. Few data document the skin-related QoL in the general population, and whether its association differs with self-reported or dermatologist-diagnosed skin ailments. Farmworkers are at high risk for skin diseases, and are an appropriate population in which to explore these associations. To compare the association between skin-related QoL and workers' self-reports of skin conditions or dermatologist-diagnosed skin diseases over the course of a work season. Three hundred and four Latino farmworkers were recruited from 45 randomly selected residential sites in North Carolina, USA, for longitudinal surveillance. The participants were interviewed up to five times at 3-week intervals and the reported skin problems and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were recorded. Nine digital photographs were taken of each participant. A board-certified dermatologist rated each for the presence of specific skin diseases. An impact of skin disease on QoL was reported in 16% of interviews. In multivariate analyses with self-reported skin problems, feet or skin fungus, rash, itching, and poison ivy were predictors of QoL. Dermatologist-diagnosed inflammatory diseases and pigmentary disorders were significant predictors of QoL. The association was stronger for self-reported skin problems than for dermatologist-diagnosed conditions. In a population of farmworkers, skin problems had a clinically significant impact on QoL. Itch-related conditions and cosmetic conditions, such as acne and melasma, were important determinants of QoL. Treatment for these conditions in this population may enhance QoL.

  6. Identification of Genes Promoting Skin Youthfulness by Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne L.S.; Atzmon, Gil; Bergman, Aviv; Brugmann, Samantha; Atwood, Scott X; Chang, Howard Y; Barzilai, Nir

    2014-01-01

    To identify genes that promote facial skin youthfulness (SY), a genome-wide association study on an Ashkenazi Jewish discovery group (n=428) was performed using Affymetrix 6.0 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Array. After SNP quality controls, 901,470 SNPs remained for analysis. The eigenstrat method showed no stratification. Cases and controls were identified by global facial skin aging severity including intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. Linear regression adjusted for age and gender, with no significant differences in smoking history, body mass index, menopausal status, or personal or family history of centenarians. Six SNPs met the Bonferroni threshold with Pallele<10−8; two of these six had Pgenotype<10−8. Quantitative trait loci mapping confirmed linkage disequilibrium. The six SNPs were interrogated by MassARRAY in a replication group (n=436) with confirmation of rs6975107, an intronic region of KCND2 (potassium voltage-gated channel, Shal-related family member 2) (Pgenotype=0.023). A second replication group (n=371) confirmed rs318125, downstream of DIAPH2 (diaphanous homolog 2 (Drosophila)) (Pallele=0.010, Pgenotype=0.002) and rs7616661, downstream of EDEM1 (ER degradation enhancer, mannosidase α-like 1) (Pgenotype=0.042). DIAPH2 has been associated with premature ovarian insufficiency, an aging phenotype in humans. EDEM1 associates with lifespan in animal models, although not humans. KCND2 is expressed in human skin, but has not been associated with aging. These genes represent new candidate genes to study the molecular basis of healthy skin aging. PMID:24037343

  7. The Clinical Efficacy of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma Combined with Ultra-Pulsed Fractional CO2 Laser Therapy for Facial Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Qiang; Chang, Peng; Guo, Bingyu; Zhang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser is an efficient, precise, and safe therapeutic intervention for skin refreshing, although accompanied with prolonged edema and erythema. In recent years, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proven to promote wound and soft tissue healing and collagen regeneration. To investigate whether the combination of PRP and ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser had a synergistic effect on therapy for facial rejuvenation. Totally, 13 facial aging females were treated with ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser. One side of the face was randomly selected as experimental group and injected with PRP, the other side acted as the control group and was injected with physiological saline at the same dose. Comprehensive assessment of clinical efficacy was performed by satisfaction scores, dermatologists' double-blind evaluation and the VISIA skin analysis system. After treatment for 3 months, subjective scores of facial wrinkles, skin texture, and skin elasticity were higher than that in the control group. Similarly, improvement of skin wrinkles, texture, and tightness in the experimental group was better compared with the control group. Additionally, the total duration of erythema, edema, and crusting was decreased, in the experimental group compared with the control group. PRP combined with ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser had a synergistic effect on facial rejuvenation, shortening duration of side effects, and promoting better therapeutic effect. PMID:27222038

  8. Facial Transplantation Surgery Introduction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea. PMID:26028914

  9. Facial transplantation surgery introduction.

    PubMed

    Eun, Seok-Chan

    2015-06-01

    Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea.

  10. Reduction of facial redness with resveratrol added to topical product containing green tea polyphenols and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Ferzli, Georgina; Patel, Mital; Phrsai, Natasha; Brody, Neil

    2013-07-01

    Many topical formulations include antioxidants to improve the antioxidant capability of the skin. This study evaluated the ability of a unique combination of antioxidants including resveratrol, green tea polyphenols, and caffeine to reduce facial redness. Subjects (n=16) presenting with facial redness applied the resveratrol-enriched product twice daily to the entire face. Reduction in redness was evaluated by trained staff members and dermatology house staff officers. Evaluators compared clinical photographs and spectrally enhanced images taken before treatment and at 2-week intervals for up to 12 weeks. 16 of 16 clinical images showed improvement and 13 of 16 spectrally enhanced images were improved. Reduction in facial redness continued to evolve over the duration of the study period but was generally detectable by 6 weeks of treatment. Adverse effects were not observed in any subject. The skin product combination of resveratrol, green tea polyphenols, and caffeine safely reduces facial redness in most patients by 6 weeks of continuous treatment and may provide further improvement with additional treatment.

  11. Autologous Fat Used for Facial Filling Can Lead to Massive Cerebral Infarction Through Middle Cerebral Artery or Facial Intracranial Branches.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian; Wu, Min; Zhou, Xing; Liu, Hengdeng; Zhang, Yongchao; Wang, Haiping

    2018-05-31

    Autologous fat injection is a procedure aimed at eliminating grave defects in the skin surface by subcutaneous injection of the patient's fatty tissue. Fat embolism is a rare but severe complication of this procedure, especially cerebral infarction. It is first reported by Thaunat in 2004. were presented to the hospital with sudden unconsciousness and left limb weakness in 24 hours after facial fat injection. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed immediately after admission. Frontal temporoparietal decompressive craniectomy plus multiple treatments scheduled for patients. Pictures and videos were taken during follow-up. Figures are edited with Adobe Photograph CS6. Patients were diagnosed with extensive cerebral infarction of the right hemisphere through the middle cerebral artery or facial-intracranial branches. Routine cosmetic procedures of facial fat injections could cause devastating and even fatal complications to patients. The small volume of fat grafts can be inserted through the internal carotid artery or go through the communicating branches between the facial artery and the intracranial artery into the brain.

  12. Dry skin conditions are related to the recovery rate of skin temperature after cold stress rather than to blood flow.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Amano, Yasuko; Nomura, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Iwata, Kayoko; Higaki, Yuko; Tanahashi, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous blood flow plays an important role in the thermoregulation, oxygen supply, and nutritional support necessary to maintain the skin. However, there is little evidence for a link between blood flow and skin physiology. Therefore, we conducted surveys of healthy volunteers to determine the relationship(s) between dry skin properties and cutaneous vascular function. Water content of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, and visual dryness score were investigated as dry skin parameters. Cutaneous blood flow in the resting state, the recovery rate (RR) of skin temperature on the hand after a cold-stress test, and the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling were examined as indices of cutaneous vascular functions. The relationships between dry skin parameters and cutaneous vascular functions were assessed. The RR correlated negatively with the visual dryness score of skin on the leg but correlated positively with water content of the stratum corneum on the arm. No significant correlation between the resting state of blood flow and dry skin parameters was observed. In both the face and the body, deterioration in skin dryness from summer to winter was significant in subjects with low RR. The RR correlated well with the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling, indicating that the RR affects systemic dry skin conditions. These results suggest that the RR but not blood flow at the resting state is associated with dry skin conditions and is involved in skin homeostasis during seasonal environmental changes. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Association of Facial Paralysis-Related Disability With Patient- and Observer-Perceived Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Goines, Jennifer B; Ishii, Lisa E; Dey, Jacob K; Phillis, Maria; Byrne, Patrick J; Boahene, Kofi D O; Ishii, Masaru

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between patient- and observer-perceived quality of life (QOL) and facial paralysis-related disability and the resulting effect of these interactions on social perception are incompletely understood. To measure the associations between observer-perceived disability and QOL and patient-perceived disability and QOL in patients with facial paralysis. This prospective study in an academic tertiary referral center included 84 naive observers who viewed static and dynamic images of faces with unilateral, House-Brackmann grades IV to VI facial paralysis (n = 16) and demographically matched images of nonparalyzed control individuals (n = 4). Data were collected from June 1 to August 1, 2014, and analyzed from August 2 to December 1, 2014. Observers rated the patient and control images in 6 clinically relevant domains. The patients self-reported their disability and QOL using validated tools, such as the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale. Quality of life, severity of paralysis, and disability were measured on a 100-point visual analog scale. The 84 observers (59 women [70%] and 25 men [30%]) ranged in age from 20 to 68 years (mean [SD] age, 35.2 [11.9]). Structural equation modeling showed that for each 1-point decrease in a patient's Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale score, the patient's visual analog scale QOL improved by 0.36 (SE, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.31-0.42) points. Similarly, from an observer perspective, as the perceived disability (-0.29 [SE, 0.04; 95% CI, -0.36 to -0.22]) and severity (-0.21 [SE, 0.03; 95% CI, -0.28 to -0.14]) decreased, the perceived QOL improved. Furthermore, attractive faces were viewed as having better QOL (disability, severity, and attractiveness regression coefficients, -0.29 [SE, 0.04; 95% CI, -0.36 to -0.22], -0.21 [SE, 0.03; 95% CI, -0.28 to -0.14], and 0.32 [SE, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.39], respectively). An inverse association was found between a paralyzed patient's self-reported QOL rating and the observers

  14. Skin tightening with a combined unipolar and bipolar radiofrequency device.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, Flor A

    2007-02-01

    Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) devices are well established treatment modalities for tightening facial skin. A 60-year-old woman presented with a desire to tighten the lax skin and improve the appearance of both upper arms. A combination unipolar and bipolar RF device may provide volume reduction as well as skin tightening in the upper arm.

  15. Capturing Physiology of Emotion along Facial Muscles: A Method of Distinguishing Feigned from Involuntary Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood Mehmood; Ward, Robert D.; Ingleby, Michael

    The ability to distinguish feigned from involuntary expressions of emotions could help in the investigation and treatment of neuropsychiatric and affective disorders and in the detection of malingering. This work investigates differences in emotion-specific patterns of thermal variations along the major facial muscles. Using experimental data extracted from 156 images, we attempted to classify patterns of emotion-specific thermal variations into neutral, and voluntary and involuntary expressions of positive and negative emotive states. Initial results suggest (i) each facial muscle exhibits a unique thermal response to various emotive states; (ii) the pattern of thermal variances along the facial muscles may assist in classifying voluntary and involuntary facial expressions; and (iii) facial skin temperature measurements along the major facial muscles may be used in automated emotion assessment.

  16. Quality of life in pediatric patients before and after cosmetic camouflage of visible skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Ramien, Michele L; Ondrejchak, Sandra; Gendron, Roxanne; Hatami, Afshin; McCuaig, Catherine C; Powell, Julie; Marcoux, Danielle

    2014-11-01

    Visible vascular and pigmentary conditions have a negative impact on children's and adolescents' quality of life (QoL). We sought to quantitate the effect of visible skin anomalies and their camouflage on QoL. In all, 41 patients, 5 years of age and older, were taught to use cosmetic camouflage. QoL was assessed using the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) before and 6 months after the intervention. Satisfaction and use were evaluated after 1 and 6 months. Baseline QoL scores revealed a small impact of vascular anomalies (CDLQI score 4.2) and a small to moderate effect of pigmentary anomalies (CDLQI score 6.1). Six months after the intervention, QoL improved in the study population as a whole (CDLQI score 5.1 vs 2.1, P<.001), with significant improvements documented for facial lesions and vascular malformations. Cosmetic camouflage was well tolerated and patients with pigmentary anomalies were more likely to continue using the products. Limitations include small study population, few male patients, cultural influences not addressed, and limited range of conditions. Children and teenagers with visible vascular and pigmentary anomalies experience an impairment of QoL that is abrogated by introduction to use of cosmetic camouflage. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changing perception: facial reanimation surgery improves attractiveness and decreases negative facial perception.

    PubMed

    Dey, Jacob K; Ishii, Masaru; Boahene, Kofi D O; Byrne, Patrick J; Ishii, Lisa E

    2014-01-01

    Determine the effect of facial reanimation surgery on observer-graded attractiveness and negative facial perception of patients with facial paralysis. Randomized controlled experiment. Ninety observers viewed images of paralyzed faces, smiling and in repose, before and after reanimation surgery, as well as normal comparison faces. Observers rated the attractiveness of each face and characterized the paralyzed faces by rating severity, disfigured/bothersome, and importance to repair. Iterated factor analysis indicated these highly correlated variables measure a common domain, so they were combined to create the disfigured, important to repair, bothersome, severity (DIBS) factor score. Mixed effects linear regression determined the effect of facial reanimation surgery on attractiveness and DIBS score. Facial paralysis induces an attractiveness penalty of 2.51 on a 10-point scale for faces in repose and 3.38 for smiling faces. Mixed effects linear regression showed that reanimation surgery improved attractiveness for faces both in repose and smiling by 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67, 1.01) and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.42) respectively. Planned hypothesis tests confirmed statistically significant differences in attractiveness ratings between postoperative and normal faces, indicating attractiveness was not completely normalized. Regression analysis also showed that reanimation surgery decreased DIBS by 0.807 (95% CI: 0.704, 0.911) for faces in repose and 0.989 (95% CI: 0.886, 1.093), an entire standard deviation, for smiling faces. Facial reanimation surgery increases attractiveness and decreases negative facial perception of patients with facial paralysis. These data emphasize the need to optimize reanimation surgery to restore not only function, but also symmetry and cosmesis to improve facial perception and patient quality of life. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Acneiform facial eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Melody J.; Taher, Muba; Lauzon, Gilles J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical recognition and current management strategies for four types of acneiform facial eruptions common in young women: acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Many randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) have studied treatments for acne vulgaris over the years. Treatment recommendations for rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis are based predominantly on comparison and open-label studies (level II evidence) as well as expert opinion and consensus statements (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Young women with acneiform facial eruptions often present in primary care. Differentiating between morphologically similar conditions is often difficult. Accurate diagnosis is important because treatment approaches are different for each disease. CONCLUSION Careful visual assessment with an appreciation for subtle morphologic differences and associated clinical factors will help with diagnosis of these common acneiform facial eruptions and lead to appropriate management. PMID:15856972

  19. Reconstruction of facial nerve injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Fattah, Adel; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ron M

    2011-05-01

    Facial nerve trauma is uncommon in children, and many spontaneously recover some function; nonetheless, loss of facial nerve activity leads to functional impairment of ocular and oral sphincters and nasal orifice. In many cases, the impediment posed by facial asymmetry and reduced mimetic function more significantly affects the child's psychosocial interactions. As such, reconstruction of the facial nerve affords great benefits in quality of life. The therapeutic strategy is dependent on numerous factors, including the cause of facial nerve injury, the deficit, the prognosis for recovery, and the time elapsed since the injury. The options for treatment include a diverse range of surgical techniques including static lifts and slings, nerve repairs, nerve grafts and nerve transfers, regional, and microvascular free muscle transfer. We review our strategies for addressing facial nerve injuries in children.

  20. Comparison of efficacy of chemical peeling with 25% trichloroacetic acid and 0.1% retinoic acid for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Selda; Gurel, Mehmet Salih; Gungor, Sule; Tekeli, Omur; Canat, Dilek

    2016-06-01

    Skin aging is a problem which negatively affects the psyche of the person, social relations, as well as work life and health and which compels the patients to find appropriate treatment methods. Numerous treatment methods have been developed in order to delay aging and to reduce the aging effects in addition to having a younger, healthier and more beautiful facial appearance. To compare the efficiency, cosmetic results and possible adverse effects of the peeling treatment with 25% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and 0.1% retinoic acid for facial rejuvenation in patients presenting with skin aging. Fifty female patients in total presenting with medium and advanced degree skin aging were subject to this study. Two separate treatment groups were formed; the first group underwent chemical skin treatment with 25% TCA while the other group was applied with 0.1% retinoic acid treatment. Following the 4 months' treatment the patients were controlled three times in total for post lesional hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, scars, skin irritation and other possible changes per month. The pretreatment and first follow-up visit, and final control images were comparatively evaluated by three observers via specific software. The healing rates of the group subject to retinoic acid were statistically higher (p < 0.05) compared to patients in the TCA group in the final follow-up visit following the treatment according to the first and second observers. On the other hand, according to the third observer, patients applied with retinoic acid presented with higher healing rates compared to those treated with TCA, however; this rate was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The frequency of TCA- and retinoic acid-associated adverse effects was similar in both groups (p > 0.05). As a result of both treatments, a reduction in the quality of life scores as well as a pronounced recovery (p = 0.001) in the quality of life of those patients with skin aging was observed. The photo aging

  1. Comparison of efficacy of chemical peeling with 25% trichloroacetic acid and 0.1% retinoic acid for facial rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Gurel, Mehmet Salih; Gungor, Sule; Tekeli, Omur; Canat, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin aging is a problem which negatively affects the psyche of the person, social relations, as well as work life and health and which compels the patients to find appropriate treatment methods. Numerous treatment methods have been developed in order to delay aging and to reduce the aging effects in addition to having a younger, healthier and more beautiful facial appearance. Aim To compare the efficiency, cosmetic results and possible adverse effects of the peeling treatment with 25% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and 0.1% retinoic acid for facial rejuvenation in patients presenting with skin aging. Material and methods Fifty female patients in total presenting with medium and advanced degree skin aging were subject to this study. Two separate treatment groups were formed; the first group underwent chemical skin treatment with 25% TCA while the other group was applied with 0.1% retinoic acid treatment. Following the 4 months’ treatment the patients were controlled three times in total for post lesional hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, scars, skin irritation and other possible changes per month. The pretreatment and first follow-up visit, and final control images were comparatively evaluated by three observers via specific software. Results The healing rates of the group subject to retinoic acid were statistically higher (p < 0.05) compared to patients in the TCA group in the final follow-up visit following the treatment according to the first and second observers. On the other hand, according to the third observer, patients applied with retinoic acid presented with higher healing rates compared to those treated with TCA, however; this rate was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The frequency of TCA- and retinoic acid-associated adverse effects was similar in both groups (p > 0.05). As a result of both treatments, a reduction in the quality of life scores as well as a pronounced recovery (p = 0.001) in the quality of life of those patients

  2. New strategy to improve quality control of Montenegro skin test at the production level.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Deborah Carbonera; Minozzo, João Carlos; Pasquali, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi; Faulds, Craig; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2017-01-01

    The production of the Montenegro antigen for skin test poses difficulties regarding quality control. Here, we propose that certain animal models reproducing a similar immune response to humans may be used in the quality control of Montenegro antigen production. Fifteen Cavia porcellus (guinea pigs) were immunized with Leishmania amazonensis or Leishmania braziliensis , and, after 30 days, they were skin tested with standard Montenegro antigen. To validate C. porcellus as an animal model for skin tests, eighteen Mesocricetus auratus (hamsters) were infected with L. amazonensis or L. braziliensis , and, after 45 days, they were skin tested with standard Montenegro antigen. Cavia porcellus immunized with L. amazonensis or L. braziliensis , and hamsters infected with the same species presented induration reactions when skin tested with standard Montenegro antigen 48-72h after the test. The comparison between immunization methods and immune response from the two animal species validated C. porcellus as a good model for Montenegro skin test, and the model showed strong potential as an in vivo model in the quality control of the production of Montenegro antigen.

  3. Outcome of a graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation in patients with facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Laura C; Eckstein, Anja; Stähr, Kerstin; Xing, Minzhi; Lang, Stephan; Mattheis, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Peripheral paralysis of the facial nerve is the most frequent of all cranial nerve disorders. Despite advances in facial surgery, the functional and aesthetic reconstruction of a paralyzed face remains a challenge. Graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation is based on a modular principle. According to the patients' needs, precondition, and expectations, the following modules can be performed: temporalis muscle transposition and facelift, nasal valve suspension, endoscopic brow lift, and eyelid reconstruction. Applying a concept of a graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation may help minimize surgical trauma and reduce morbidity. Twenty patients underwent a graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation. A retrospective chart review was performed with a follow-up examination between 1 and 8 months after surgery. The FACEgram software was used to calculate pre- and postoperative eyelid closure, the level of brows, nasal, and philtral symmetry as well as oral commissure position at rest and oral commissure excursion with smile. As a patient-oriented outcome parameter, the Glasgow Benefit Inventory questionnaire was applied. There was a statistically significant improvement in the postoperative score of eyelid closure, brow asymmetry, nasal asymmetry, philtral asymmetry as well as oral commissure symmetry at rest (p < 0.05). Smile evaluation revealed no significant change of oral commissure excursion. The mean Glasgow Benefit Inventory score indicated substantial improvement in patients' overall quality of life. If a primary facial nerve repair or microneurovascular tissue transfer cannot be applied, graduated minimally invasive facial reanimation is a promising option to restore facial function and symmetry at rest.

  4. Hydrophobically modified polymers can minimize skin irritation potential caused by surfactant-based cleansers.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe; Hornby, Sidney; Walters, Russel M; Appa, Yohini

    2013-12-01

    The addition of hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) to cleansers that contain surfactants can create polymer-surfactant complexes that are less irritating to the skin than commercially available mild cleansers. Our objective was to compare the tolerability and efficacy of a test foaming liquid facial cleanser containing HMPs with a commercial liquid nonfoaming facial cleanser in women with sensitive skin. In this randomized, prospective, double-blind, comparative study, women (n = 20 per group) with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis (AD), eczema, acne, or rosacea used a test gentle foaming liquid facial cleanser containing HMPs or a commercial gentle liquid nonfoaming facial cleanser daily for 3 weeks. Investigators assessed irritation and skin condition. Study subjects also assessed their skin properties and the performance of each cleanser. Clinicians as well as study subjects consistently rated the test cleanser as effective or slightly more effective at improving symptoms than the commercial cleanser, although no significant differences between groups were observed. At weeks 1 and 3, respectively, more users of the commercial cleanser reported irritation (20% and 10%) than users of the test cleanser (5% and 5%). In addition, subject self-assessments of skin condition and cleansing properties were slightly more improved with the test cleanser than with the commercial cleanser. Both the test foaming cleanser containing HMPs and the commercial nonfoaming cleanser were effective and well accepted by most women in the study. Improvements were observed by both clinicians and subjects in the group using the test cleanser containing HMPs in all evaluated skin categories. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

  6. Spectrum of mucocutaneous, ocular and facial features and delineation of novel presentations in 62 classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Colombi, M; Dordoni, C; Venturini, M; Ciaccio, C; Morlino, S; Chiarelli, N; Zanca, A; Calzavara-Pinton, P; Zoppi, N; Castori, M; Ritelli, M

    2017-12-01

    Classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) is characterized by marked cutaneous involvement, according to the Villefranche nosology and its 2017 revision. However, the diagnostic flow-chart that prompts molecular testing is still based on experts' opinion rather than systematic published data. Here we report on 62 molecularly characterized cEDS patients with focus on skin, mucosal, facial, and articular manifestations. The major and minor Villefranche criteria, additional 11 mucocutaneous signs and 15 facial dysmorphic traits were ascertained and feature rates compared by sex and age. In our cohort, we did not observe any mandatory clinical sign. Skin hyperextensibility plus atrophic scars was the most frequent combination, whereas generalized joint hypermobility according to the Beighton score decreased with age. Skin was more commonly hyperextensible on elbows, neck, and knees. The sites more frequently affected by abnormal atrophic scarring were knees, face (especially forehead), pretibial area, and elbows. Facial dysmorphism commonly affected midface/orbital areas with epicanthal folds and infraorbital creases more commonly observed in young patients. Our findings suggest that the combination of ≥1 eye dysmorphism and facial/forehead scars may support the diagnosis in children. Minor acquired traits, such as molluscoid pseudotumors, subcutaneous spheroids, and signs of premature skin aging are equally useful in adults. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Skin image retrieval using Gabor wavelet texture feature.

    PubMed

    Ou, X; Pan, W; Zhang, X; Xiao, P

    2016-12-01

    Skin imaging plays a key role in many clinical studies. We have used many skin imaging techniques, including the recently developed capacitive contact skin imaging based on fingerprint sensors. The aim of this study was to develop an effective skin image retrieval technique using Gabor wavelet transform, which can be used on different types of skin images, but with a special focus on skin capacitive contact images. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is a useful technology to retrieve stored images from database by supplying query images. In a typical CBIR, images are retrieved based on colour, shape, texture, etc. In this study, texture feature is used for retrieving skin images, and Gabor wavelet transform is used for texture feature description and extraction. The results show that the Gabor wavelet texture features can work efficiently on different types of skin images. Although Gabor wavelet transform is slower compared with other image retrieval techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), Gabor wavelet transform is the best for retrieving skin capacitive contact images and facial images with different orientations. Gabor wavelet transform can also work well on facial images with different expressions and skin cancer/disease images. We have developed an effective skin image retrieval method based on Gabor wavelet transform, that it is useful for retrieving different types of images, namely digital colour face images, digital colour skin cancer and skin disease images, and particularly greyscale skin capacitive contact images. Gabor wavelet transform can also be potentially useful for face recognition (with different orientation and expressions) and skin cancer/disease diagnosis. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Facial-zygomatic triangle: a relationship between the extracranial portion of facial nerve and the zygomatic arch.

    PubMed

    Campero, A; Socolovsky, M; Martins, C; Yasuda, A; Torino, R; Rhoton, A L

    2008-03-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the relationships between the extracranial portion of the facial nerve (EFN) and the zygomatic arch (ZA). Four cadaveric heads (8 parotid regions), examined under 3-40x magnification, were dissected from lateral to medial to expose the EFN. In a vertical plane just anterior to the tragus, the distance from the superior edge of the ZA to the facial nerve (FN) is, on average, 26.88 mm. The FN then courses superiorly and anteriorly, crossing the ZA 18.65 mm anterior to the tragus on average. Thus, three points can be used to depict a triangle: A, at the level of the anterior border of the tragus, just above the superior edge of the ZA; B, 26 mm below A; and C, 18 mm anterior to A. This so called facial-zygomatic triangle represents the area where surgical dissection can be performed with no risk of damaging the FN. Thus, the closer one stays to the tragus, the lesser the risk of damaging the FN below the ZA. If the incision is carried out on a vertical plane closer to the tragus, the skin can be safely cut up to 2 cm below the ZA. The facial-zygomatic triangle is a very useful superficial landmark to avoid FN damage when working below the ZA.

  9. Occipital neuralgia evoked by facial herpes zoster infection.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Takeshi; Shimohama, Shun

    2006-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a pain syndrome which may usually be induced by spasms of the cervical muscles or trauma to the greater or lesser occipital nerves. We report a patient with occipital neuralgia followed by facial herpes lesion. A 74-year-old male experienced sudden-onset severe headache in the occipital area. The pain was localized to the distribution of the right side of the greater occipital nerve, and palpation of the right greater occipital nerve reproduces the pain. He was diagnosed with occipital neuralgia according to ICHD-II criteria. A few days later, the occipital pain was followed by reddening of the skin and the appearance, of varying size, of vesicles on the right side of his face (the maxillary nerve and the mandibular nerve region). This was diagnosed as herpes zoster. This case represents a combination of facial herpes lesions and pain in the C2 and C3 regions. The pain syndromes can be confusing, and the classic herpes zoster infection should be considered even when no skin lesions are established.

  10. Physical therapy for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Lázaro J; Valbuza, Juliana S; Prado, Gilmar F

    2011-12-07

    with acupuncture (360 participants). For most outcomes we were unable to perform meta-analysis because the interventions and outcomes were not comparable.For the primary outcome of incomplete recovery after six months, electrostimulation produced no benefit over placebo (moderate quality evidence from one study with 86 participants). Low quality comparisons of electrostimulation with prednisolone (an active treatment)(149 participants), or the addition of electrostimulation to hot packs, massage and facial exercises (22 participants), reported no significant differences. Similarly a meta-analysis from two studies, one of three months and the other of six months duration, (142 participants) found no statistically significant difference in synkinesis, a complication of Bell's palsy, between participants receiving electrostimulation and controls. A single low quality study (56 participants), which reported at three months, found worse functional recovery with electrostimulation (mean difference (MD) 12.00 points (scale of 0 to 100) 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 22.74).Two trials of facial exercises, both at high risk of bias, found no difference in incomplete recovery at six months when exercises were compared to waiting list controls or conventional therapy. There is evidence from a single small study (34 participants) of moderate quality that exercises are beneficial on measures of facial disability to people with chronic facial palsy when compared with controls (MD 20.40 points (scale of 0 to 100), 95% CI 8.76 to 32.04) and from another single low quality study with 145 people with acute cases treated for three months where significantly fewer participants developed facial motor synkinesis after exercise (risk ratio 0.24, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.69). The same study showed statistically significant reduction in time for complete recovery, mainly in more severe cases (47 participants, MD -2.10 weeks, 95% CI -3.15 to -1.05) but this was not a prespecified outcome in this

  11. Histological case-control study of peeling-induced skin changes by different peeling agents in surgically subcutaneous undermined skin flaps in facelift patients.

    PubMed

    Gonser, P; Kaestner, S; Jaminet, P; Kaye, K

    2017-11-01

    A histological evaluation of peeling-induced skin changes in subcutaneous undermined preauricular facial skin flaps of nine patients was performed. There were three treatment groups: Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 25%, TCA 40% and phenol/croton oil; one group served as control. Two independent evaluators determined the epidermal and dermal thickness and the depth of necrosis (micrometre). The percentual tissue damage due to the peeling was calculated, and a one-sample t-test for statistical significance was performed. On the basis of the histomorphological changes, peeling depth was classified as superficial, superficial-partial, deep-partial and full thickness chemical burn. The histological results revealed a progression of wound depth for different peeling agents without full thickness necrosis. TCA peels of up to 40% can be safely applied on subcutaneous undermined facial skin flaps without impairing the vascular patency, producing a predictable chemical burn, whereas deep peels such as phenol/croton oil peels should not be applied on subcutaneous undermined skin so as to not produce skin slough or necrosis by impairing vascular patency. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Central facial paresis and its impact on mimicry, psyche and quality of life in patients after stroke.

    PubMed

    Konecny, Petr; Elfmark, Milan; Horak, Stanislav; Pastucha, Dalibor; Krobot, Alois; Urbanek, Karel; Kanovsky, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Using functional scales and face video analysis, changes in central facial paresis are monitored in patients with stroke after orofacial therapy and correlations between changes in mimicry, mental function and overall quality of life of patients after stroke are made. A prospective randomized study of patients after stroke with facial paresis. The functional status of the experimental group of 50 cases with orofacial regulation therapy and 49 control cases without mimicry therapy is observed after four weeks of rehabilitation. Changes in mimicry functions evaluated by the House-Brackmann Grading System (HBGS) clinical range and using 2D video analysis of the distance between the paretic corner of the mouth and earlobe at rest and during smiling were statistically better in the experimental group than in controls. Changes in mental function - depression using Beck Depression Inventory and changes in the quality of life using Bartle index and modified Rankin score (scale) were significantly greater in the experimental group. There was a very close relationship between the changes in mimicry, mental state and overall quality of life according to the Spearman correlative coefficient. Orofacial rehabilitation therapy for patients with paresis after stroke has a significant influence on the adjustment of mimicry, mental functions and overall quality of life after 4 weeks of treatment.

  13. Use of Facial Recognition Software to Identify Disaster Victims With Facial Injuries.

    PubMed

    Broach, John; Yong, Rothsovann; Manuell, Mary-Elise; Nichols, Constance

    2017-10-01

    After large-scale disasters, victim identification frequently presents a challenge and a priority for responders attempting to reunite families and ensure proper identification of deceased persons. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether currently commercially available facial recognition software can successfully identify disaster victims with facial injuries. Photos of 106 people were taken before and after application of moulage designed to simulate traumatic facial injuries. These photos as well as photos from volunteers' personal photo collections were analyzed by using facial recognition software to determine whether this technology could accurately identify a person with facial injuries. The study results suggest that a responder could expect to get a correct match between submitted photos and photos of injured patients between 39% and 45% of the time and a much higher percentage of correct returns if submitted photos were of optimal quality with percentages correct exceeding 90% in most situations. The present results suggest that the use of this software would provide significant benefit to responders. Although a correct result was returned only 40% of the time, this would still likely represent a benefit for a responder trying to identify hundreds or thousands of victims. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:568-572).

  14. The effect of image quality and forensic expertise in facial image comparisons.

    PubMed

    Norell, Kristin; Läthén, Klas Brorsson; Bergström, Peter; Rice, Allyson; Natu, Vaidehi; O'Toole, Alice

    2015-03-01

    Images of perpetrators in surveillance video footage are often used as evidence in court. In this study, identification accuracy was compared for forensic experts and untrained persons in facial image comparisons as well as the impact of image quality. Participants viewed thirty image pairs and were asked to rate the level of support garnered from their observations for concluding whether or not the two images showed the same person. Forensic experts reached their conclusions with significantly fewer errors than did untrained participants. They were also better than novices at determining when two high-quality images depicted the same person. Notably, lower image quality led to more careful conclusions by experts, but not for untrained participants. In summary, the untrained participants had more false negatives and false positives than experts, which in the latter case could lead to a higher risk of an innocent person being convicted for an untrained witness. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Radiofrequency for the treatment of skin laxity: mith or truth*

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Angélica Rodrigues; Soares, Viviane Pinheiro Campos; da Silva, Fernanda Souza; Moreira, Tatiane da Silva

    2015-01-01

    The nonablative radiofrequency is a procedure commonly used for the treatment of skin laxity from an increase in tissue temperature. The goal is to induce thermal damage to thus stimulate neocollagenesis in deep layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. However, many of these devices haven't been tested and their parameters are still not accepted by the scientific community. Because of this, it is necessary to review the literature regarding the physiological effects and parameters for application of radiofrequency and methodological quality and level of evidence of studies. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE, PEDro, SciELO, PubMed, LILACS and CAPES and experimental studies in humans, which used radiofrequency devices as treatment for facial or body laxity, were selected. The results showed that the main physiological effect is to stimulate collagen synthesis. There was no homogeneity between studies in relation to most of the parameters used and the methodological quality of studies and level of evidence for using radiofrequency are low. This fact complicates the determination of effective parameters for clinical use of this device in the treatment of skin laxity. The analyzed studies suggest that radiofrequency is effective, however the physiological mechanisms and the required parameters are not clear in the literature. PMID:26560216

  16. Experience with esthetic reconstruction of complex facial soft tissue trauma: application of the pulsed dye laser.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kazemi, Hossein Mohammad; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin

    2014-08-01

    Facial soft tissue injury can be one of the most challenging cases presenting to the plastic surgeon. The life quality and self-esteem of the patients with facial injury may be compromised temporarily or permanently. Immediate reconstruction of most defects leads to better restoration of form and function as well as early rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to present our experience in management of facial soft tissue injuries from different causes. We prospectively studied patients treated by plastic surgeons from 2010 to 2012 suffering from different types of blunt or sharp (penetrating) facial soft tissue injuries to the different areas of the face. All soft tissue injuries were treated primarily. Photography from all patients before, during, and after surgical reconstruction was performed and the results were collected. We used early pulsed dye laser (PDL) post-operatively. In our study, 63 patients including 18 (28.5%) women and 45 (71.5%) men aged 8-70 years (mean 47 years) underwent facial reconstruction due to soft tissue trauma in different parts of the face. Sharp wounds were seen in 15 (23%) patients and blunt trauma lacerations were seen in 52 (77%) patients. Overall, 65% of facial injuries were repaired primary and the remainder were reconstructed with local flaps or skin graft from adjacent tissues. Postoperative PDL therapy done two weeks following surgery for all scars yielded good results in our cases. Analysis of the injury including location, size, and depth of penetration as well as presence of associated injuries can aid in the formulation of a proper surgical plan. We recommend PDL in the early post operation period (two weeks) after suture removal for better aesthetic results.

  17. In what sense 'familiar'? Examining experiential differences within pathologies of facial recognition.

    PubMed

    Young, Garry

    2009-09-01

    Explanations of Capgras delusion and prosopagnosia typically incorporate a dual-route approach to facial recognition in which a deficit in overt or covert processing in one condition is mirror-reversed in the other. Despite this double dissociation, experiences of either patient-group are often reported in the same way--as lacking a sense of familiarity toward familiar faces. In this paper, deficits in the facial processing of these patients are compared to other facial recognition pathologies, and their experiential characteristics mapped onto the dual-route model in order to provide a less ambiguous link between facial processing and experiential content. The paper concludes that the experiential states of Capgras delusion, prosopagnosia, and related facial pathologies are quite distinct, and that this descriptive distinctiveness finds explanatory equivalence at the level of anatomical and functional disruption within the face recognition system. The role of skin conductance response (SCR) as a measure of 'familiarity' is also clarified.

  18. Voluntary facial action generates emotion-specific autonomic nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Levenson, R W; Ekman, P; Friesen, W V

    1990-07-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether voluntarily produced emotional facial configurations are associated with differentiated patterns of autonomic activity, and if so, how this might be mediated. Subjects received muscle-by-muscle instructions and coaching to produce facial configurations for anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise while heart rate, skin conductance, finger temperature, and somatic activity were monitored. Results indicated that voluntary facial activity produced significant levels of subjective experience of the associated emotion, and that autonomic distinctions among emotions: (a) were found both between negative and positive emotions and among negative emotions, (b) were consistent between group and individual subjects' data, (c) were found in both male and female subjects, (d) were found in both specialized (actors, scientists) and nonspecialized populations, (e) were stronger when the voluntary facial configurations most closely resembled actual emotional expressions, and (f) were stronger when experience of the associated emotion was reported. The capacity of voluntary facial activity to generate emotion-specific autonomic activity: (a) did not require subjects to see facial expressions (either in a mirror or on an experimenter's face), and (b) could not be explained by differences in the difficulty of making the expressions or by differences in concomitant somatic activity.

  19. Instrumental evaluation of anti-aging effects of cosmetic formulations containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on aged human skin.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Jung, Ho Jung; Schrammek-Drusios, Med Christine; Lee, Sung Nae; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Seung Bin; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2016-08-01

    Anti-aging cosmetics are widely used for improving signs of aged skin such as skin wrinkles, decreased elasticity, low dermal density and yellow skin tone. The present study evaluated the effects of cosmetic formulations, eye cream and facial cream, containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum ( S. marianum ) seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone after 4 weeks period of application on aged human skin. Healthy volunteers (n=20) with aged skin were recruited to apply the test materials facially twice per day for 4 weeks. Skin wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone were measured instrumentally for assessing the improvement of skin aging. All the measurements were conducted prior to the application of test materials and at 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Crow's feet wrinkles were decreased 5.97% after 2 weeks of test material application and 14.07% after 4 weeks of application in comparison of pre-application. Skin elasticity was increased 6.81% after 2 weeks and 8.79% after 4 weeks. Dermal density was increased 16.74% after 2 weeks and 27.63% after 4 weeks. With the L* value indicating skin brightness and the a* value indicating erythema (redness), the results showed that brightness was increased 1.70% after 2 weeks and 2.14% after 4 weeks, and erythema was decreased 10.45% after 2 weeks and 22.39% after 4 weeks. Hence, the test materials appear to exert some degree of anti-aging effects on aged human skin. There were no abnormal skin responses from the participants during the trial period. We conclude that the facial and eye cream containing palmitoyl peptides and S. marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other ingredients have effects on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone.

  20. Case Report: Clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis presenting acutely with isolated facial edema

    PubMed Central

    Pappa, Efthymia; Gkeka, Marina; Protogerou, Asimina; Marinos, Leonidas; Loupa, Chariclia; Christopoulos, Constantinos

    2018-01-01

    A 45-year-old Asian man presented with acute-onset periorbital and facial edema associated with pyrexia. Muscle weakness was absent. Initial laboratory investigations showed an inflammatory reaction, while screening for infections was negative. Serum muscle enzyme levels were normal. He was hospitalized and treated empirically with antibiotics and corticosteroids, pending the result of facial skin and muscle biopsy. He showed a good clinical and laboratory response but an attempt to discontinue corticosteroids led to a prompt relapse of facial edema and pyrexia, associated with rising laboratory indices of inflammation. Biopsy findings were typical of dermatomyositis. Reintroduction of corticosteroid treatment resulted in complete clinical and laboratory remission. Facial edema as the sole clinical manifestation of dermatomyositis is extremely rare. There have been no previous reports of isolated facial edema in the setting of acute, clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis in adults. A high level of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis in the absence of myopathy and the hallmark cutaneous manifestations of the disease (heliotrope rash, Gottron papules). PMID:29707197

  1. MRI-based finite element modeling of facial mimics: a case study on the paired zygomaticus major muscles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ang-Xiao; Dakpé, Stéphanie; Dao, Tien Tuan; Pouletaut, Philippe; Rachik, Mohamed; Ho Ba Tho, Marie Christine

    2017-07-01

    Finite element simulation of facial mimics provides objective indicators about soft tissue functions for improving diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of facial disorders. There is a lack of in vivo experimental data for model development and validation. In this study, the contribution of the paired Zygomaticus Major (ZM) muscle contraction on the facial mimics was investigated using in vivo experimental data derived from MRI. Maximal relative differences of 7.7% and 37% were noted between MRI-based measurements and numerical outcomes for ZM and skin deformation behaviors respectively. This study opens a new direction to simulate facial mimics with in vivo data.

  2. Face resurfacing using a cervicothoracic skin flap prefabricated by lateral thigh fascial flap and tissue expander.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingfeng; Zan, Tao; Gu, Bin; Liu, Kai; Shen, Guoxiong; Xie, Yun; Weng, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Resurfacing of facial massive soft tissue defect is a formidable challenge because of the unique character of the region and the limitation of well-matched donor site. In this report, we introduce a technique for using the prefabricated cervicothoracic skin flap for facial resurfacing, in an attempt to meet the principle of flap selection in face reconstructive surgery for matching the color and texture, large dimension, and thinner thickness (MLT) of the recipient. Eleven patients with massive facial scars underwent resurfacing procedures with prefabricated cervicothoracic flaps. The vasculature of the lateral thigh fascial flap, including the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex vessels and the surrounding muscle fascia, was used as the vascular carrier, and the pedicles of the fascial flap were anastomosed to either the superior thyroid or facial vessels in flap prefabrication. A tissue expander was placed beneath the fascial flap to enlarge the size and reduce the thickness of the flap. The average size of the harvested fascia flap was 6.5 x 11.7 cm. After a mean interval of 21.5 weeks, the expanders were filled to a mean volume of 1,685 ml. The sizes of the prefabricated skin flaps ranged from 12 x 15 cm to 15 x 32 cm. The prefabricated skin flaps were then transferred to the recipient site as pedicled flaps for facial resurfacing. All facial soft tissue defects were successfully covered by the flaps. The donor sites were primarily closed and healed without complications. Although varied degrees of venous congestion were developed after flap transfers, the marginal necrosis only occurred in two cases. The results in follow-up showed most resurfaced faces restored natural contour and regained emotional expression. MLT is the principle for flap selection in resurfacing of the massive facial soft tissue defect. Our experience in this series of patients demonstrated that the prefabricated cervicothoracic skin flap could be a reliable alternative

  3. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment ... face like the eyes or lips. A facial plastic surgeon has many options for treating and improving ...

  4. Microorganisms inhabiting follicular contents of facial acne are not only Propionibacterium but also Malassezia spp.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-08-01

    To clarify the relationship between major cutaneous microorganisms (Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus and Malassezia spp.) and acne vulgaris (acne), we examined the microbiota quantitatively in the follicular contents of inflammatory acne and on the facial skin of patients with acne. Fifteen Japanese untreated acne outpatients were studied. The follicular contents from inflammatory acne lesions of the face were collected using a comedo extractor. The skin surface samples were obtained by the swab method from 10 cm(2) of facial skin. The microbiota was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. The microbiota in follicular contents was similar to that on the skin surface, namely, there were large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. Moreover, the number of Malassezia spp. on the skin surface was correlated with that of inflammatory acne and that in follicular contents. This study clarified that there are large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. in follicular contents. These results suggest the possibility that not only Propionibacterium acnes but also other cutaneous resident microorganisms are related to acne. Particularly, we considered that Malassezia spp. is closely related. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Effects of a skin-massaging device on the ex-vivo expression of human dermis proteins and in-vivo facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Caberlotto, Elisa; Ruiz, Laetitia; Miller, Zane; Poletti, Mickael; Tadlock, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical and geometrical cues influence cell behaviour. At the tissue level, almost all organs exhibit immediate mechanical responsiveness, in particular by increasing their stiffness in direct proportion to an applied mechanical stress. It was recently shown in cultured-cell models, in particular with fibroblasts, that the frequency of the applied stress is a fundamental stimulating parameter. However, the influence of the stimulus frequency at the tissue level has remained elusive. Using a device to deliver an oscillating torque that generates cyclic strain at different frequencies, we studied the effect(s) of mild skin massage in an ex vivo model and in vivo. Skin explants were maintained ex vivo for 10 days and massaged twice daily for one minute at various frequencies within the range of 65-85 Hz. Biopsies were analysed at D0, D5 and D10 and processed for immuno-histological staining specific to various dermal proteins. As compared to untreated skin explants, the massaging procedure clearly led to higher rates of expression, in particular for decorin, fibrillin, tropoelastin, and procollagen-1. The mechanical stimulus thus evoked an anti-aging response. Strikingly, the expression was found to depend on the stimulus frequency with maximum expression at 75Hz. We then tested whether this mechanical stimulus had an anti-aging effect in vivo. Twenty Caucasian women (aged 65-75y) applied a commercial anti-aging cream to the face and neck, followed by daily treatments using the anti-aging massage device for 8 weeks. A control group of twenty-two women, with similar ages to the first group, applied the cream alone. At W0, W4 and W8, a blinded evaluator assessed the global facial wrinkles, skin texture, lip area, cheek wrinkles, neck sagging and neck texture using a clinical grading scale. We found that combining the massaging device with a skin anti-aging formulation amplified the beneficial effects of the cream.

  6. Effects of a skin-massaging device on the ex-vivo expression of human dermis proteins and in-vivo facial wrinkles

    PubMed Central

    Caberlotto, Elisa; Ruiz, Laetitia; Miller, Zane; Poletti, Mickael; Tadlock, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical and geometrical cues influence cell behaviour. At the tissue level, almost all organs exhibit immediate mechanical responsiveness, in particular by increasing their stiffness in direct proportion to an applied mechanical stress. It was recently shown in cultured-cell models, in particular with fibroblasts, that the frequency of the applied stress is a fundamental stimulating parameter. However, the influence of the stimulus frequency at the tissue level has remained elusive. Using a device to deliver an oscillating torque that generates cyclic strain at different frequencies, we studied the effect(s) of mild skin massage in an ex vivo model and in vivo. Skin explants were maintained ex vivo for 10 days and massaged twice daily for one minute at various frequencies within the range of 65–85 Hz. Biopsies were analysed at D0, D5 and D10 and processed for immuno-histological staining specific to various dermal proteins. As compared to untreated skin explants, the massaging procedure clearly led to higher rates of expression, in particular for decorin, fibrillin, tropoelastin, and procollagen-1. The mechanical stimulus thus evoked an anti-aging response. Strikingly, the expression was found to depend on the stimulus frequency with maximum expression at 75Hz. We then tested whether this mechanical stimulus had an anti-aging effect in vivo. Twenty Caucasian women (aged 65-75y) applied a commercial anti-aging cream to the face and neck, followed by daily treatments using the anti-aging massage device for 8 weeks. A control group of twenty-two women, with similar ages to the first group, applied the cream alone. At W0, W4 and W8, a blinded evaluator assessed the global facial wrinkles, skin texture, lip area, cheek wrinkles, neck sagging and neck texture using a clinical grading scale. We found that combining the massaging device with a skin anti-aging formulation amplified the beneficial effects of the cream. PMID:28249037

  7. In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2013-03-01

    In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology.

  8. [Using infrared thermal asymmetry analysis for objective assessment of the lesion of facial nerve function].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu-long; Hong, Wen-xue; Song, Jia-lin; Wu, Zhen-ying

    2012-03-01

    The skin temperature distribution of a healthy human body exhibits a contralateral symmetry. Some lesions of facial nerve function are associated with an alteration of the thermal distribution of the human body. Since the dissipation of heat through the skin occurs for the most part in the form of infrared radiation, infrared thermography is the method of choice to capture the alteration of the infrared thermal distribution. This paper presents a new method of analysis of the thermal asymmetry named effective thermal area ratio, which is a product of two variables. The first variable is mean temperature difference between the specific facial region and its contralateral region. The second variable is a ratio, which is equal to the area of the abnormal region divided by the total area. Using this new method, we performed a controlled trial to assess the facial nerve function of the healthy subjects and the patients with Bell's palsy respectively. The results show: that the mean specificity and sensitivity of this method are 0.90 and 0.87 respectively, improved by 7% and 26% compared with conventional methods. Spearman correlation coefficient between effective thermal area ratio and the degree of facial nerve function is an average of 0.664. Hence, concerning the diagnosis and assessment of facial nerve function, infrared thermography is a powerful tool; while the effective ther mal area ratio is an efficient clinical indicator.

  9. Dermatoscopic features of cutaneous non-facial non-acral lentiginous growth pattern melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Keir, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Background: The dermatoscopic features of facial lentigo maligna (LM), facial lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) and acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) have been well described. This is the first description of the dermatoscopic appearance of a clinical series of cutaneous non-facial non-acral lentiginous growth pattern melanomas. Objective: To describe the dermatoscopic features of a series of cutaneous non-facial non-acral lentiginous growth pattern melanomas in an Australian skin cancer practice. Method: Single observer retrospective analysis of dermatoscopic images of a one-year series of cutaneous non-facial, non-acral melanomas reported as having a lentiginous growth pattern detected in an open access primary care skin cancer clinic in Australia. Lesions were scored for presence of classical criteria for facial LM; modified pattern analysis (“Chaos and Clues”) criteria; and the presence of two novel criteria: a lentigo-like pigment pattern lacking a lentigo-like border, and large polygons. Results: 20 melanomas occurring in 14 female and 6 male patients were included. Average patient age was 64 years (range: 44–83). Lesion distribution was: trunk 35%; upper limb 40%; and lower limb 25%. The incidences of criteria identified were: asymmetry of color or pattern (100%); lentigo-like pigment pattern lacking a lentigo-like border (90%); asymmetrically pigmented follicular openings (APFO’s) (70%); grey blue structures (70%); large polygons (45%); eccentric structureless area (15%); bright white lines (5%). 20% of the lesions had only the novel criteria and/or APFO’s. Limitations: Single observer, single center retrospective study. Conclusions: Cutaneous non-facial non-acral melanomas with a lentiginous growth pattern may have none or very few traditional criteria for the diagnosis of melanoma. Criteria that are logically expected in lesions with a lentiginous growth pattern (lentigo-like pigment pattern lacking a lentigo-like border, APFO’s) and the novel

  10. Dermatoscopic features of cutaneous non-facial non-acral lentiginous growth pattern melanomas.

    PubMed

    Keir, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The dermatoscopic features of facial lentigo maligna (LM), facial lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) and acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) have been well described. This is the first description of the dermatoscopic appearance of a clinical series of cutaneous non-facial non-acral lentiginous growth pattern melanomas. To describe the dermatoscopic features of a series of cutaneous non-facial non-acral lentiginous growth pattern melanomas in an Australian skin cancer practice. Single observer retrospective analysis of dermatoscopic images of a one-year series of cutaneous non-facial, non-acral melanomas reported as having a lentiginous growth pattern detected in an open access primary care skin cancer clinic in Australia. Lesions were scored for presence of classical criteria for facial LM; modified pattern analysis ("Chaos and Clues") criteria; and the presence of two novel criteria: a lentigo-like pigment pattern lacking a lentigo-like border, and large polygons. 20 melanomas occurring in 14 female and 6 male patients were included. Average patient age was 64 years (range: 44-83). Lesion distribution was: trunk 35%; upper limb 40%; and lower limb 25%. The incidences of criteria identified were: asymmetry of color or pattern (100%); lentigo-like pigment pattern lacking a lentigo-like border (90%); asymmetrically pigmented follicular openings (APFO's) (70%); grey blue structures (70%); large polygons (45%); eccentric structureless area (15%); bright white lines (5%). 20% of the lesions had only the novel criteria and/or APFO's. Single observer, single center retrospective study. Cutaneous non-facial non-acral melanomas with a lentiginous growth pattern may have none or very few traditional criteria for the diagnosis of melanoma. Criteria that are logically expected in lesions with a lentiginous growth pattern (lentigo-like pigment pattern lacking a lentigo-like border, APFO's) and the novel criterion of large polygons may be useful in increasing sensitivity and

  11. Tolerability of a Skin Care Regimen Formulated for Acne-Prone Skin in Children.

    PubMed

    Hensley, David; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology and demographic profile of acne vulgaris has evolved over the past several decades, with a noted earlier onset occurring in patients as young as 7 years of age. The combination of a foaming facial wash and a facial moisturizer with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 is an over-the-counter cleansing and moisturizing regimen for acne-prone skin that has been shown to be safe and tolerable in subjects 12 years of age and older. To assess the tolerability of this skin care regimen in children ages 7 to 11 years with acne-prone skin. This was an open-label, single-center study that investigated the safety and tolerability of these products in subjects 7 to 11 years of age (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01909713). Subjects used the foaming wash twice daily and the SPF 30 moisturizer once daily. Subjects were assessed for cutaneous tolerability, and satisfaction at baseline and weeks 1 and 3. Thirty-five subjects enrolled and completed the study. The cutaneous tolerability score of most subjects was none when assessed by the investigator and subject or legally authorized representative at weeks 1 and 3. The products were well tolerated and a positive impression for cosmetic acceptability was reported for both products by the study population on the questionnaire. This study supports the use of a skin care regimen comprising a wash and a moisturizer in acne-prone patients as young as 7 years old since these products were safe, well tolerated, and liked by subjects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Motion-artifact-robust, polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on rapid polarization switching with electro-optic Pockells cell and its application to in vivo visualization of collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yuji; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shuichiro; Ogura, Yuki; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Hirao, Tetsuji; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation (PR-SHG) microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating collagen fiber orientation quantitatively with low invasiveness. However, the waiting time for the mechanical polarization rotation makes it too sensitive to motion artifacts and hence has hampered its use in various applications in vivo. In the work described in this article, we constructed a motion-artifact-robust, PR-SHG microscope based on rapid polarization switching at every pixel with an electro-optic Pockells cell (PC) in synchronization with step-wise raster scanning of the focus spot and alternate data acquisition of a vertical-polarization-resolved SHG signal and a horizontal-polarization-resolved one. The constructed PC-based PR-SHG microscope enabled us to visualize orientation mapping of dermal collagen fiber in human facial skin in vivo without the influence of motion artifacts. Furthermore, it implied the location and/or age dependence of the collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin. The robustness to motion artifacts in the collagen orientation measurement will expand the application scope of SHG microscopy in dermatology and collagen-related fields. PMID:24761292

  13. Daily Consumption of a Fruit and Vegetable Smoothie Alters Facial Skin Color

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A.; Mitra, Soma R.; Stephen, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants’ skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin. PMID:26186449

  14. Daily Consumption of a Fruit and Vegetable Smoothie Alters Facial Skin Color.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A; Mitra, Soma R; Stephen, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants' skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin.

  15. Facial reconstruction--anatomical art or artistic anatomy?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    Facial reconstruction is employed in the context of forensic investigation and for creating three-dimensional portraits of people from the past, from ancient Egyptian mummies and bog bodies to digital animations of J. S. Bach. This paper considers a facial reconstruction method (commonly known as the Manchester method) associated with the depiction and identification of the deceased from skeletal remains. Issues of artistic licence and scientific rigour, in relation to soft tissue reconstruction, anatomical variation and skeletal assessment, are discussed. The need for artistic interpretation is greatest where only skeletal material is available, particularly for the morphology of the ears and mouth, and with the skin for an ageing adult. The greatest accuracy is possible when information is available from preserved soft tissue, from a portrait, or from a pathological condition or healed injury.

  16. Tooth, skin, hair and eye colour interrelationships in Greek young adults.

    PubMed

    Lagouvardos, Panagiotis E; Tsamali, Ioana; Papadopoulou, Christine; Polyzois, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible interrelationships of teeth, skin, eye and hair colour. A portable colorimeter (Shade Eye NCC/Shofu) was used to record the colour in the CIELAB system of the upper right incisors in 150 dental school students, along with their skin colour at three different areas. Natural hair and eye colour was classified into several categories by a trained examiner (ICC 0.93-0.99). One-way ANOVA and correlation tests were used to statistically analyse the data. Skin was found to have significantly higher L*, b* but lower a* values than teeth (p < 0.05). A significant correlation (p < 0.05) of teeth to skin L* and a*colour coordinate was found, but not to b* coordinate (p > 0.05). Hair tones were not correlated to teeth L* or b*, but only to a*coordinate. Teeth and eye colour coordinates were not correlated (p > 0.05). Eye and hair tones were found to have the highest significant correlation (ρ = 0.369). In conclusion, teeth of this cohort were found to be lighter, less red and yellow than the skin. Teeth colour was not related to eye colour, but lighter teeth were found to be associated with lighter skins, and redder lateral incisors to lighter hair. Darker facial skins or yellower forehead areas were also associated with darker hair and vice versa. The clinical relevance of the study is that the investigated facial characteristics are inter-correlated weakly to moderately, and for this reason predicting the colour parameters of one facial characteristic by another would not be accurate, but helpful for a rough colour selection as associations show.

  17. Lyme disease with facial nerve palsy: rapid diagnosis using a nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Y; Takahashi, H; Kishiyama, K; Sato, Y; Nakao, M; Miyamoto, K; Iizuka, H

    1998-02-01

    A 64-year-old woman with Lyme disease and manifesting facial nerve palsy had been bitten by a tick on the left frontal scalp 4 weeks previously. Erythema migrans appeared on the left forehead, accompanied by left facial paralysis. Nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (nested PCR-RFLP) was performed on DNA extracted from a skin biopsy of the erythema on the left forehead. Borrelia flagellin gene DNA was detected and its RFLP pattern indicated that the organism was B. garinii, Five weeks later, B. garinii was isolated by conventional culture from the erythematous skin lesion, but not from the cerebrospinal fluid. After treatment with ceftriaxone intravenously for 10 days and oral administration of minocycline for 7 days, both the erythema and facial nerve palsy improved significantly. Nested PCR and culture taken after the lesion subsided, using skin samples obtained from a site adjacent to the original biopsy, were both negative. We suggest that nested PCR-RFLP analysis might be useful for the rapid diagnosis of Lyme disease and for evaluating therapy.

  18. Do Masculine Men Smell Better? An Association Between Skin Color Masculinity and Female Preferences for Body Odor.

    PubMed

    Carrito, Mariana L; Santos, Isabel M; Alho, Laura; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Soares, Sandra C; Bem-Haja, Pedro; Silva, Carlos F; Perrett, David I

    2017-03-01

    A recent study claimed face skin color as a sexually dimorphic variable that influences attractiveness preferences in mate choice. Thereby, skin color may assume the role of a mate quality signal influencing attractiveness preferences. As body odor is linked to attractiveness, this study aimed to explore whether the odors of men with more masculine facial skin color would be evaluated more positively than odors from less masculine men. Female raters were presented with body odors of 18 men and were asked to rate them in various characteristics. Multilevel modeling revealed that the odors of the donors with more masculine color were rated not only as more attractive, more pleasant, and sexier, but also healthier. This indicates that odor associated with men with more masculine skin color is attractive, just as other sexually dimorphic traits. Furthermore, we found a negative relation between skin color masculinity and perceived odor maleness. Regarding this last finding, a new discussion is introduced with respect to the influence of cognitive stereotypes in odor judgments. Altogether, the study supports the possibility that chemosensory signals may be communicating signs of mate quality associated with masculinity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Facial Contrast Is a Cross-Cultural Cue for Perceiving Age

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, Aurélie; Mauger, Emmanuelle; Soppelsa, Frédérique; Liu, Yuli; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Russell, Richard; Morizot, Frédérique

    2017-01-01

    Age is a fundamental social dimension and a youthful appearance is of importance for many individuals, perhaps because it is a relevant predictor of aspects of health, facial attractiveness and general well-being. We recently showed that facial contrast—the color and luminance difference between facial features and the surrounding skin—is age-related and a cue to age perception of Caucasian women. Specifically, aspects of facial contrast decrease with age in Caucasian women, and Caucasian female faces with higher contrast look younger (Porcheron et al., 2013). Here we investigated faces of other ethnic groups and raters of other cultures to see whether facial contrast is a cross-cultural youth-related attribute. Using large sets of full face color photographs of Chinese, Latin American and black South African women aged 20–80, we measured the luminance and color contrast between the facial features (the eyes, the lips, and the brows) and the surrounding skin. Most aspects of facial contrast that were previously found to decrease with age in Caucasian women were also found to decrease with age in the other ethnic groups. Though the overall pattern of changes with age was common to all women, there were also some differences between the groups. In a separate study, individual faces of the 4 ethnic groups were perceived younger by French and Chinese participants when the aspects of facial contrast that vary with age in the majority of faces were artificially increased, but older when they were artificially decreased. Altogether these findings indicate that facial contrast is a cross-cultural cue to youthfulness. Because cosmetics were shown to enhance facial contrast, this work provides some support for the notion that a universal function of cosmetics is to make female faces look younger. PMID:28790941

  20. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome: deletion of chromosome 8q22.1 is necessary but not sufficient to cause the phenotype.

    PubMed

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather; Albrecht, Beate; Bijlsma, Emilia; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Donti, Emilio; Fitzpatrick, David; Isidor, Bertrand; Lachlan, Katherine; Le Caignec, Cedric; Prontera, Paolo; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Rogaia, Daniela; van Bon, Bregje; Aradhya, Swaroop; Crocker, Susan F; Jarinova, Olga; McGowan-Jordan, Jean; Boycott, Kym; Bulman, Dennis; Fagerberg, Christina Ringmann

    2012-09-01

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last few years, several individuals with NMLFS have been reported to have a microdeletion of 8q21.3q22.1, demonstrated by microarray analysis. The minimal overlapping region is 93.98-96.22 Mb (hg19). Here we present clinical and microarray data from five singletons and two mother-child pairs who have heterozygous deletions significantly overlapping the region associated with NMLFS. Notably, while one mother and child were said to have mild tightening of facial skin, none of these individuals exhibited reduced facial expression or the classical facial phenotype of NMLFS. These findings indicate that deletion of the 8q21.3q22.1 region is necessary but not sufficient for development of the NMLFS. We discuss possible genetic mechanisms underlying the complex pattern of inheritance for this condition. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Experience With Esthetic Reconstruction of Complex Facial Soft Tissue Trauma: Application of the Pulsed Dye Laser

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kazemi, Hossein Mohammad; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Facial soft tissue injury can be one of the most challenging cases presenting to the plastic surgeon. The life quality and self-esteem of the patients with facial injury may be compromised temporarily or permanently. Immediate reconstruction of most defects leads to better restoration of form and function as well as early rehabilitation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to present our experience in management of facial soft tissue injuries from different causes. Patients and Methods: We prospectively studied patients treated by plastic surgeons from 2010 to 2012 suffering from different types of blunt or sharp (penetrating) facial soft tissue injuries to the different areas of the face. All soft tissue injuries were treated primarily. Photography from all patients before, during, and after surgical reconstruction was performed and the results were collected. We used early pulsed dye laser (PDL) post-operatively. Results: In our study, 63 patients including 18 (28.5%) women and 45 (71.5%) men aged 8-70 years (mean 47 years) underwent facial reconstruction due to soft tissue trauma in different parts of the face. Sharp wounds were seen in 15 (23%) patients and blunt trauma lacerations were seen in 52 (77%) patients. Overall, 65% of facial injuries were repaired primary and the remainder were reconstructed with local flaps or skin graft from adjacent tissues. Postoperative PDL therapy done two weeks following surgery for all scars yielded good results in our cases. Conclusions: Analysis of the injury including location, size, and depth of penetration as well as presence of associated injuries can aid in the formulation of a proper surgical plan. We recommend PDL in the early post operation period (two weeks) after suture removal for better aesthetic results. PMID:25337516

  2. Tactile Stimulation of the Face and the Production of Facial Expressions Activate Neurons in the Primate Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Clayton P.; Zimmerman, Prisca E.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The majority of neurophysiological studies that have explored the role of the primate amygdala in the evaluation of social signals have relied on visual stimuli such as images of facial expressions. Vision, however, is not the only sensory modality that carries social signals. Both humans and nonhuman primates exchange emotionally meaningful social signals through touch. Indeed, social grooming in nonhuman primates and caressing touch in humans is critical for building lasting and reassuring social bonds. To determine the role of the amygdala in processing touch, we recorded the responses of single neurons in the macaque amygdala while we applied tactile stimuli to the face. We found that one-third of the recorded neurons responded to tactile stimulation. Although we recorded exclusively from the right amygdala, the receptive fields of 98% of the neurons were bilateral. A fraction of these tactile neurons were monitored during the production of facial expressions and during facial movements elicited occasionally by touch stimuli. Firing rates arising during the production of facial expressions were similar to those elicited by tactile stimulation. In a subset of cells, combining tactile stimulation with facial movement further augmented the firing rates. This suggests that tactile neurons in the amygdala receive input from skin mechanoceptors that are activated by touch and by compressions and stretches of the facial skin during the contraction of the underlying muscles. Tactile neurons in the amygdala may play a role in extracting the valence of touch stimuli and/or monitoring the facial expressions of self during social interactions. PMID:27752543

  3. Tactile Stimulation of the Face and the Production of Facial Expressions Activate Neurons in the Primate Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Clayton P; Zimmerman, Prisca E; Fuglevand, Andrew J; Gothard, Katalin M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of neurophysiological studies that have explored the role of the primate amygdala in the evaluation of social signals have relied on visual stimuli such as images of facial expressions. Vision, however, is not the only sensory modality that carries social signals. Both humans and nonhuman primates exchange emotionally meaningful social signals through touch. Indeed, social grooming in nonhuman primates and caressing touch in humans is critical for building lasting and reassuring social bonds. To determine the role of the amygdala in processing touch, we recorded the responses of single neurons in the macaque amygdala while we applied tactile stimuli to the face. We found that one-third of the recorded neurons responded to tactile stimulation. Although we recorded exclusively from the right amygdala, the receptive fields of 98% of the neurons were bilateral. A fraction of these tactile neurons were monitored during the production of facial expressions and during facial movements elicited occasionally by touch stimuli. Firing rates arising during the production of facial expressions were similar to those elicited by tactile stimulation. In a subset of cells, combining tactile stimulation with facial movement further augmented the firing rates. This suggests that tactile neurons in the amygdala receive input from skin mechanoceptors that are activated by touch and by compressions and stretches of the facial skin during the contraction of the underlying muscles. Tactile neurons in the amygdala may play a role in extracting the valence of touch stimuli and/or monitoring the facial expressions of self during social interactions.

  4. Impact of facial defect reconstruction on attractiveness and negative facial perception.

    PubMed

    Dey, Jacob K; Ishii, Masaru; Boahene, Kofi D O; Byrne, Patrick; Ishii, Lisa E

    2015-06-01

    Measure the impact of facial defect reconstruction on observer-graded attractiveness and negative facial perception. Prospective, randomized, controlled experiment. One hundred twenty casual observers viewed images of faces with defects of varying sizes and locations before and after reconstruction as well as normal comparison faces. Observers rated attractiveness, defect severity, and how disfiguring, bothersome, and important to repair they considered each face. Facial defects decreased attractiveness -2.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.45, -2.08) on a 10-point scale. Mixed effects linear regression showed this attractiveness penalty varied with defect size and location, with large and central defects generating the greatest penalty. Reconstructive surgery increased attractiveness 1.33 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.47), an improvement dependent upon size and location, restoring some defect categories to near normal ranges of attractiveness. Iterated principal factor analysis indicated the disfiguring, important to repair, bothersome, and severity variables were highly correlated and measured a common domain; thus, they were combined to create the disfigured, important to repair, bothersome, severity (DIBS) factor score, representing negative facial perception. The DIBS regression showed defect faces have a 1.5 standard deviation increase in negative perception (DIBS: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.61, 1.77) compared to normal faces, which decreased by a similar magnitude after surgery (DIBS: -1.44, 95% CI: -1.49, -1.38). These findings varied with defect size and location. Surgical reconstruction of facial defects increased attractiveness and decreased negative social facial perception, an impact that varied with defect size and location. These new social perception data add to the evidence base demonstrating the value of high-quality reconstructive surgery. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. [Effects of a Facial Muscle Exercise Program including Facial Massage for Patients with Facial Palsy].

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyoung Ju; Shin, Sung Hee

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a facial muscle exercise program including facial massage on the facial muscle function, subjective symptoms related to paralysis and depression in patients with facial palsy. This study was a quasi-experimental research with a non-equivalent control group non-synchronized design. Participants were 70 patients with facial palsy (experimental group 35, control group 35). For the experimental group, the facial muscular exercise program including facial massage was performed 20 minutes a day, 3 times a week for two weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ²-test, Fisher's exact test and independent sample t-test with the SPSS 18.0 program. Facial muscular function of the experimental group improved significantly compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in symptoms related to paralysis between the experimental group and control group. The level of depression in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group. Results suggest that a facial muscle exercise program including facial massage is an effective nursing intervention to improve facial muscle function and decrease depression in patients with facial palsy.

  6. Dissociation of sad facial expressions and autonomic nervous system responding in boys with disruptive behavior disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Penny; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Williams, Bailey

    2009-01-01

    Although deficiencies in emotional responding have been linked to externalizing behaviors in children, little is known about how discrete response systems (e.g., expressive, physiological) are coordinated during emotional challenge among these youth. We examined time-linked correspondence of sad facial expressions and autonomic reactivity during an empathy-eliciting task among boys with disruptive behavior disorders (n = 31) and controls (n = 23). For controls, sad facial expressions were associated with reduced sympathetic (lower skin conductance level, lengthened cardiac preejection period [PEP]) and increased parasympathetic (higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) activity. In contrast, no correspondence between facial expressions and autonomic reactivity was observed among boys with conduct problems. Furthermore, low correspondence between facial expressions and PEP predicted externalizing symptom severity, whereas low correspondence between facial expressions and RSA predicted internalizing symptom severity. PMID:17868261

  7. Improving the Quality of Facial Composites Using a Holistic Cognitive Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frowd, Charlie D.; Bruce, Vicki; Smith, Ashley J.; Hancock, Peter J. B.

    2008-01-01

    Witnesses to and victims of serious crime are normally asked to describe the appearance of a criminal suspect, using a Cognitive Interview (CI), and to construct a facial composite, a visual representation of the face. Research suggests that focusing on the global aspects of a face, as opposed to its facial features, facilitates recognition and…

  8. Combined infrared light and bipolar radiofrequency for skin tightening in Asians.

    PubMed

    Yu, Carol S; Yeung, Chi K; Shek, Samantha Y; Tse, Raymond K; Kono, Taro; Chan, Henry H

    2007-07-01

    As the demand for non-invasive procedures for skin tightening is increasing, combined optical and radiofrequency (RF) devices have recently emerged. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a device that combined broadband infrared (IR) light (700-2000 nm) and bipolar RF (electro-optical synergy [ELOS]) for non-ablative treatment of facial laxity. DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen Chinese volunteers of skin types III-V, with facial laxity and periorbital rhytides, received three treatments at 3-week intervals with combined IR (700-2000 nm, 10 W/cm(2)) and RF energies (70-120 J/cm(3)). Standardized photographs were taken by the Canfield Visia CR system at baseline and serially for 3 months after the last treatment. Two masked assessors evaluated the photographs to assess the improvement in skin laxity. Patient satisfaction scores were also obtained. At 3 months after the last treatment, 89.5% of the subjects reported moderate to significant subjective improvement in skin laxity of cheek, jowl, periorbital area and upper neck, with a high overall satisfaction rating. Masked observers' assessments were less remarkable. Mild improvement in skin laxity was observed over mid and lower face. There was no serious complication. The combination of broadband infrared light and bipolar radiofrequency produces mild improvement of facial laxity in Asians with no serious adverse sequelae. A high patients' satisfaction is achieved. However, further studies are necessary to demonstrate the long-term effects of the procedure and to optimize treatment parameters. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Generating Facial Expressions Using an Anatomically Accurate Biomechanical Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tim; Hung, Alice; Mithraratne, Kumar

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a computational framework for modelling the biomechanics of human facial expressions. A detailed high-order (Cubic-Hermite) finite element model of the human head was constructed using anatomical data segmented from magnetic resonance images. The model includes a superficial soft-tissue continuum consisting of skin, the subcutaneous layer and the superficial Musculo-Aponeurotic system. Embedded within this continuum mesh, are 20 pairs of facial muscles which drive facial expressions. These muscles were treated as transversely-isotropic and their anatomical geometries and fibre orientations were accurately depicted. In order to capture the relative composition of muscles and fat, material heterogeneity was also introduced into the model. Complex contact interactions between the lips, eyelids, and between superficial soft tissue continuum and deep rigid skeletal bones were also computed. In addition, this paper investigates the impact of incorporating material heterogeneity and contact interactions, which are often neglected in similar studies. Four facial expressions were simulated using the developed model and the results were compared with surface data obtained from a 3D structured-light scanner. Predicted expressions showed good agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Modified wind chill temperatures determined by a whole body thermoregulation model and human-based facial convective coefficients.

    PubMed

    Shabat, Yael Ben; Shitzer, Avraham; Fiala, Dusan

    2014-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCETs) were estimated by a modified Fiala's whole body thermoregulation model of a clothed person. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients applied in the computations concurrently with environmental radiation effects were taken from a recently derived human-based correlation. Apart from these, the analysis followed the methodology used in the derivation of the currently used wind chill charts. WCET values are summarized by the following equation:[Formula: see text]Results indicate consistently lower estimated facial skin temperatures and consequently higher WCETs than those listed in the literature and used by the North American weather services. Calculated dynamic facial skin temperatures were additionally applied in the estimation of probabilities for the occurrence of risks of frostbite. Predicted weather combinations for probabilities of "Practically no risk of frostbite for most people," for less than 5 % risk at wind speeds above 40 km h(-1), were shown to occur at air temperatures above -10 °C compared to the currently published air temperature of -15 °C. At air temperatures below -35 °C, the presently calculated weather combination of 40 km h(-1)/-35 °C, at which the transition for risks to incur a frostbite in less than 2 min, is less conservative than that published: 60 km h(-1)/-40 °C. The present results introduce a fundamentally improved scientific basis for estimating facial skin temperatures, wind chill temperatures and risk probabilities for frostbites over those currently practiced.

  11. Modified wind chill temperatures determined by a whole body thermoregulation model and human-based facial convective coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabat, Yael Ben; Shitzer, Avraham; Fiala, Dusan

    2014-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCETs) were estimated by a modified Fiala's whole body thermoregulation model of a clothed person. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients applied in the computations concurrently with environmental radiation effects were taken from a recently derived human-based correlation. Apart from these, the analysis followed the methodology used in the derivation of the currently used wind chill charts. WCET values are summarized by the following equation: Results indicate consistently lower estimated facial skin temperatures and consequently higher WCETs than those listed in the literature and used by the North American weather services. Calculated dynamic facial skin temperatures were additionally applied in the estimation of probabilities for the occurrence of risks of frostbite. Predicted weather combinations for probabilities of "Practically no risk of frostbite for most people," for less than 5 % risk at wind speeds above 40 km h-1, were shown to occur at air temperatures above -10 °C compared to the currently published air temperature of -15 °C. At air temperatures below -35 °C, the presently calculated weather combination of 40 km h-1/-35 °C, at which the transition for risks to incur a frostbite in less than 2 min, is less conservative than that published: 60 km h-1/-40 °C. The present results introduce a fundamentally improved scientific basis for estimating facial skin temperatures, wind chill temperatures and risk probabilities for frostbites over those currently practiced.

  12. Satisfaction with Facial Appearance and Quality of Life after Treatment of Face Scars with a Transparent Facial Pressure Mask.

    PubMed

    Kant, S B; Colla, C; Van den Kerckhove, E; Van der Hulst, R R W J; Piatkowski de Grzymala, A

    2018-06-01

    Treatment of facial hypertrophic scars and deformities has developed from the use of elastic fabric hoods to transparent facemasks. The clinical effects of these masks have been described. However, the psychological impact of wearing such a mask is not well documented. The aim of this study was to assess patients' satisfaction with their current facial appearance, to assess the end result of facemask therapy, and to assess the decision to have undergone facemask therapy by means of four different FACE-Q questionnaires. Out of the eligible 87 patients who completed the facemask therapy between January 2012 and November 2017, 42 filled out the questionnaires. These patients wore a custom-fabricated facemask because of facial hypertrophic scars and severe postsurgical facial irregularities. Patients who wore the mask 12 to 16 hours per day were significantly more satisfied with the end result compared with those who wore it 4 to 8 hours daily. Also, patients who wore the mask 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 hours each day were more satisfied to have undergone therapy compared with those who wore it 4 to 8 hours daily. Furthermore, patients who finished therapy 3 to 4 years and 4 to 5 years ago reported a significant higher satisfaction with facial appearance compared with those who completed therapy in a time period shorter than 1 year ago. Patients who finished therapy 3 to 4 years ago reported higher satisfaction with their facial appearance compared with those who finished therapy 2 to 3 years ago. Additionally, the Patient and Observer Scar Assessments Score (POSAS) showed a significant reduction between start and end of therapy. This study shows facemask therapy to result in long-lasting stable results. It also shows a longer daily wearing of the facemask to result in the highest satisfaction according to patients. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Principles and Planning in Nasal and Facial Reconstruction: Making a Normal Face.

    PubMed

    Menick, Frederick J

    2016-06-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the rationale and value of principles of facial reconstruction in the complex patient. 2. Understand the importance of diagnosis and planning. 3. Appreciate the value of surgical staging. 4. Modify tissues to the requirements of the defect. 5. Know how to treat ischemic cover and lining complications. 6. Learn methods of late revision. It is easy to be overwhelmed by a complex defect. What to do? How? When? In what order? Success is determined by careful planning, guided by principles. The aesthetic and anatomical deficiencies must be identified. Then, what is absent, both visually and anatomically, and what is missing must be determined. What are the priorities? What is the best timing for each stage? What are the available options and what will be the likely result? Should I choose another option? How can the surgeon maintain vascularity, transfer tissue, and improve tissue quality and contour? What are potential backup salvage maneuvers? Sound surgical principles based on the contributions of Gillies and Millard provide strategic instructions that help the surgeon "make sense" of a complex problem. They provide coordinated rules that clarify the diagnosis, planning, timing, and stages of repair. These should be combined with a regional unit approach to facial repair that provides tactical rules to establish the skin quality, border outline, and three-dimensional shape of the normal face.

  14. An eFTD-VP framework for efficiently generating patient-specific anatomically detailed facial soft tissue FE mesh for craniomaxillofacial surgery simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Kim, Daeseung; Shen, Shunyao; Yuan, Peng; Liu, Siting; Tang, Zhen; Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Xiaobo; Gateno, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Accurate surgical planning and prediction of craniomaxillofacial surgery outcome requires simulation of soft tissue changes following osteotomy. This can only be achieved by using an anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model. The current state-of-the-art of model generation is not appropriate to clinical applications due to the time-intensive nature of manual segmentation and volumetric mesh generation. The conventional patient-specific finite element (FE) mesh generation methods are to deform a template FE mesh to match the shape of a patient based on registration. However, these methods commonly produce element distortion. Additionally, the mesh density for patients depends on that of the template model. It could not be adjusted to conduct mesh density sensitivity analysis. In this study, we propose a new framework of patient-specific facial soft tissue FE mesh generation. The goal of the developed method is to efficiently generate a high-quality patient-specific hexahedral FE mesh with adjustable mesh density while preserving the accuracy in anatomical structure correspondence. Our FE mesh is generated by eFace template deformation followed by volumetric parametrization. First, the patient-specific anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model (including skin, mucosa, and muscles) is generated by deforming an eFace template model. The adaptation of the eFace template model is achieved by using a hybrid landmark-based morphing and dense surface fitting approach followed by a thin-plate spline interpolation. Then, high-quality hexahedral mesh is constructed by using volumetric parameterization. The user can control the resolution of hexahedron mesh to best reflect clinicians’ need. Our approach was validated using 30 patient models and 4 visible human datasets. The generated patient-specific FE mesh showed high surface matching accuracy, element quality, and internal structure matching accuracy. They can be directly and effectively used for clinical

  15. An eFTD-VP framework for efficiently generating patient-specific anatomically detailed facial soft tissue FE mesh for craniomaxillofacial surgery simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Kim, Daeseung; Shen, Shunyao; Yuan, Peng; Liu, Siting; Tang, Zhen; Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Xiaobo; Gateno, Jaime; Liebschner, Michael A K; Xia, James J

    2018-04-01

    Accurate surgical planning and prediction of craniomaxillofacial surgery outcome requires simulation of soft tissue changes following osteotomy. This can only be achieved by using an anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model. The current state-of-the-art of model generation is not appropriate to clinical applications due to the time-intensive nature of manual segmentation and volumetric mesh generation. The conventional patient-specific finite element (FE) mesh generation methods are to deform a template FE mesh to match the shape of a patient based on registration. However, these methods commonly produce element distortion. Additionally, the mesh density for patients depends on that of the template model. It could not be adjusted to conduct mesh density sensitivity analysis. In this study, we propose a new framework of patient-specific facial soft tissue FE mesh generation. The goal of the developed method is to efficiently generate a high-quality patient-specific hexahedral FE mesh with adjustable mesh density while preserving the accuracy in anatomical structure correspondence. Our FE mesh is generated by eFace template deformation followed by volumetric parametrization. First, the patient-specific anatomically detailed facial soft tissue model (including skin, mucosa, and muscles) is generated by deforming an eFace template model. The adaptation of the eFace template model is achieved by using a hybrid landmark-based morphing and dense surface fitting approach followed by a thin-plate spline interpolation. Then, high-quality hexahedral mesh is constructed by using volumetric parameterization. The user can control the resolution of hexahedron mesh to best reflect clinicians' need. Our approach was validated using 30 patient models and 4 visible human datasets. The generated patient-specific FE mesh showed high surface matching accuracy, element quality, and internal structure matching accuracy. They can be directly and effectively used for clinical

  16. Assessing Quality of Life in Older Adult Patients with Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Sherman, Susan N.; Tsevat, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Significance for Public Health The global population is aging. In the industrial world, adults over 65 outnumber children and comprise almost 20% of the population in some countries. Older adults experience a number of skin diseases and disorders that substantially affect their quality of life. Opportunity exists for developing and validating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures specifically for dermatological conditions most pertinent to older patients. Older adults experience a number of skin diseases and disorders that substantially affect quality of life. In the last two decades, a number of instruments have been developed for use among general dermatology patients to assess the effects of treatment and disease progression, perceptions of well-being, and the value that patients place on their dermatologic state of health. This chapter reviews some health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (HRQoL) measures developed and validated specifically for dermatological conditions. However, opportunity exists for developing and validating HRQoL measures specifically for dermatological conditions most pertinent to older patients. PMID:22980159

  17. Nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lask, Gary P.; Lee, Patrick K.; Seyfzadeh, Manouchehr; Nelson, J. Stuart; Milner, Thomas E.; Anvari, Bahman; Dave, Digant P.; Geronemus, Roy G.; Bernstein, Leonard J.; Mittelman, Harry; Ridener, Laurie A.; Coulson, Walter F.; Sand, Bruce; Baumgarder, Jon; Hennings, David R.; Menefee, Richard F.; Berry, Michael J.

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the New Star Model 130 neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser system for nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides (e.g., periorbital wrinkles). Facial rhytides are treated with 1.32 micrometer wavelength laser light delivered through a fiberoptic handpiece into a 5 mm diameter spot using three 300 microsecond duration pulses at 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency and pulse radiant exposures extending up to 12 J/cm2. Dynamic cooling is used to cool the epidermis selectively prior to laser treatment; animal histology experiments confirm that dynamic cooling combined with nonablative laser heating protects the epidermis and selectively injures the dermis. In the human clinical study, immediately post-treatment, treated sites exhibit mild erythema and, in a few cases, edema or small blisters. There are no long-term complications such as marked dyspigmentation and persistent erythema that are commonly observed following ablative laser skin resurfacing. Preliminary results indicate that the severity of facial rhytides has been reduced, but long-term follow-up examinations are needed to quantify the reduction. The mechanism of action of this nonablative laser treatment modality may involve dermal wound healing that leads to long- term synthesis of new collagen and extracellular matrix material.

  18. Reconstruction after complex facial trauma: achieving optimal outcome through multiple contemporary surgeries.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rohit; Pu, Lee L Q

    2013-04-01

    Major facial trauma injuries often require complex repair. Traditionally, the reconstruction of such injuries has primarily utilized only free tissue transfer. However, the advent of newer, contemporary procedures may lead to potential reconstructive improvement through the use of complementary procedures after free flap reconstruction. An 18-year-old male patient suffered a major left facial degloving injury resulting in soft-tissue defect with exposed zygoma, and parietal bone. Multiple operations were undertaken in a staged manner for reconstruction. A state-of-the-art free anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap and Medpor implant reconstruction of the midface were initially performed, followed by flap debulking, lateral canthopexy, midface lift with redo canthopexy, scalp tissue expansion for hairline reconstruction, and epidermal skin grafting for optimal skin color matching. Over a follow-up period of 2 years, a good and impressive reconstructive result was achieved through the use of multiple contemporary reconstructive procedures following an excellent free ALT flap reconstruction. Multiple staged reconstructions are essential in producing an optimal outcome in this complex facial injury that would likely not have been produced through a 1-stage traditional free flap reconstruction. Utilizing multiple, sequential contemporary surgeries may substantially improve outcome through the enhancement and refinement of results based on possibly the best initial soft-tissue reconstruction.

  19. Influence of the ventilatory mode on acute adverse effects and facial thermography after noninvasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Suzy Maria Montenegro; Melo, Luiz Henrique de Paula; Maia, Nathalia Parente de Sousa; Nogueira, Andrea da Nóbrega Cirino; Vasconcelos, Thiago Brasileiro; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Bastos, Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects and the variation in the temperature of facial skin by thermography after the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Methods: We included 20 healthy volunteers receiving NIV via oronasal mask for 1 h. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups according to the ventilatory mode: bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Facial thermography was performed in order to determine the temperature of the face where it was in contact with the mask and of the nasal dorsum at various time points. After removal of the mask, the volunteers completed a questionnaire about adverse effects of NIV. Results: The incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects were higher in the individuals receiving BiPAP than in those receiving CPAP (16.1% vs. 5.6%). Thermographic analysis showed a significant cooling of the facial skin in the two regions of interest immediately after removal of the mask. The more intense acute adverse effects occurred predominantly among the participants in whom the decrease in the mean temperature of the nasal dorsum was lower (14.4% vs. 7.2%). The thermographic visual analysis of the zones of cooling and heating on the face identified areas of hypoperfusion or reactive hyperemia. Conclusions: The use of BiPAP mode was associated with a higher incidence and intensity of NIV-related acute adverse effects. There was an association between acute adverse effects and less cooling of the nasal dorsum immediately after removal of the mask. Cutaneous thermography can be an additional tool to detect adverse effects that the use of NIV has on facial skin. PMID:28538774

  20. Physiotherapy in patients with facial nerve paresis: description of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Beurskens, Carien H G; Heymans, Peter G

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe changes and stabilities of long-term sequelae of facial paresis in outpatients receiving mime therapy, a form of physiotherapy. Archived data of 155 patients with peripheral facial nerve paresis were analyzed. Main outcome measures were (1) impairments: facial symmetry in rest and during movements and synkineses; (2) disabilities: eating, drinking, and speaking; and (3) quality of life. Symmetry at rest improved significantly; the average severity of the asymmetry in all movements decreased. The number of synkineses increased for 3 out of 8 movements; however, the group average severities decreased for 6 movements; substantially fewer patients reported disabilities in eating, drinking, and speaking; and quality of life improved significantly. During a period of approximately 3 months, significant changes in many aspects of facial functioning were observed, the relative position of patients remaining stable over time. Observed changes occurred while the patients participated in a program for facial rehabilitation (mime therapy), replicating the randomized controlled trial-proven benefits of mime therapy in a more varied sample of outpatients.

  1. [Facial palsy].

    PubMed

    Cavoy, R

    2013-09-01

    Facial palsy is a daily challenge for the clinicians. Determining whether facial nerve palsy is peripheral or central is a key step in the diagnosis. Central nervous lesions can give facial palsy which may be easily differentiated from peripheral palsy. The next question is the peripheral facial paralysis idiopathic or symptomatic. A good knowledge of anatomy of facial nerve is helpful. A structure approach is given to identify additional features that distinguish symptomatic facial palsy from idiopathic one. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is idiopathic one, or Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The most common cause of symptomatic peripheral facial palsy is Ramsay-Hunt syndrome. Early identification of symptomatic facial palsy is important because of often worst outcome and different management. The prognosis of Bell's palsy is on the whole favorable and is improved with a prompt tapering course of prednisone. In Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, an antiviral therapy is added along with prednisone. We also discussed of current treatment recommendations. We will review short and long term complications of peripheral facial palsy.

  2. Are dark-skinned people really protected from ultraviolet radiation?

    PubMed

    Young, A L; Levy, S; Nighland, M; Grossman, R; Silvers, D N; Celebi, J T

    2010-06-01

    Premature ageing of the skin (photoageing) results from the action of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on skin. One of the histopathological findings of photoageing is the presence of solar elastosis in the dermis. Skin pigmentation is protective against UVR. To evaluate the presence of solar elastosis in dark-skinned people. Normal facial skin biopsies of 147 dark-skinned and 140 light-skinned people were examined histopathologically for solar elastosis. The degree of solar elastosis was graded on a five-point scale by a panel of dermatopathologists blinded to patient demographics. There were 112 of 140 (80%) light-skinned and 50 of 147 (34%) dark-skinned patients with high-grade solar elastosis. In the dark-skinned patient group, high-grade solar elastosis was seen in 29 of 61 (47.5%) Hispanic and 5 of 49 (10.2%) African American subjects. Dark-skinned people are not completely protected from the effects of UVR.

  3. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

    2009-08-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two cases of sound-induced facial synkinesis (SFS) after facial nerve injury. As far as we know, this phenomenon has not been described in the English literature before. Patient A presented with right hemifacial palsy after lesion of the facial nerve due to skull base fracture. He reported involuntary muscle activity at the right corner of the mouth, specifically on hearing ringing keys. Patient B suffered from left hemifacial palsy following otitis media and developed involuntary muscle contraction in the facial musculature specifically on hearing clapping hands or a trumpet sound. Both patients were evaluated by means of video, audio and EMG analysis. Possible mechanisms in the pathophysiology of SFS are postulated and therapeutic options are discussed.

  4. Medical makeup for concealing facial scars.

    PubMed

    Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F

    2012-10-01

    Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. [Idiopathic facial paralysis in children].

    PubMed

    Achour, I; Chakroun, A; Ayedi, S; Ben Rhaiem, Z; Mnejja, M; Charfeddine, I; Hammami, B; Ghorbel, A

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic facial palsy is the most common cause of facial nerve palsy in children. Controversy exists regarding treatment options. The objectives of this study were to review the epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as the outcome of idiopathic facial palsy in children to suggest appropriate treatment. A retrospective study was conducted on children with a diagnosis of idiopathic facial palsy from 2007 to 2012. A total of 37 cases (13 males, 24 females) with a mean age of 13.9 years were included in this analysis. The mean duration between onset of Bell's palsy and consultation was 3 days. Of these patients, 78.3% had moderately severe (grade IV) or severe paralysis (grade V on the House and Brackmann grading). Twenty-seven patients were treated in an outpatient context, three patients were hospitalized, and seven patients were treated as outpatients and subsequently hospitalized. All patients received corticosteroids. Eight of them also received antiviral treatment. The complete recovery rate was 94.6% (35/37). The duration of complete recovery was 7.4 weeks. Children with idiopathic facial palsy have a very good prognosis. The complete recovery rate exceeds 90%. However, controversy exists regarding treatment options. High-quality studies have been conducted on adult populations. Medical treatment based on corticosteroids alone or combined with antiviral treatment is certainly effective in improving facial function outcomes in adults. In children, the recommendation for prescription of steroids and antiviral drugs based on adult treatment appears to be justified. Randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population are recommended to define a strategy for management of idiopathic facial paralysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Facial Asymmetry-Based Age Group Estimation: Role in Recognizing Age-Separated Face Images.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Taj, Imtiaz Ahmad; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Ratyal, Naeem Iqbal

    2018-04-23

    Face recognition aims to establish the identity of a person based on facial characteristics. On the other hand, age group estimation is the automatic calculation of an individual's age range based on facial features. Recognizing age-separated face images is still a challenging research problem due to complex aging processes involving different types of facial tissues, skin, fat, muscles, and bones. Certain holistic and local facial features are used to recognize age-separated face images. However, most of the existing methods recognize face images without incorporating the knowledge learned from age group estimation. In this paper, we propose an age-assisted face recognition approach to handle aging variations. Inspired by the observation that facial asymmetry is an age-dependent intrinsic facial feature, we first use asymmetric facial dimensions to estimate the age group of a given face image. Deeply learned asymmetric facial features are then extracted for face recognition using a deep convolutional neural network (dCNN). Finally, we integrate the knowledge learned from the age group estimation into the face recognition algorithm using the same dCNN. This integration results in a significant improvement in the overall performance compared to using the face recognition algorithm alone. The experimental results on two large facial aging datasets, the MORPH and FERET sets, show that the proposed age group estimation based on the face recognition approach yields superior performance compared to some existing state-of-the-art methods. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Facial dynamics and emotional expressions in facial aging treatments.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Thierry; Gassia, Véronique; Belhaouari, Lakhdar

    2015-03-01

    Facial expressions convey emotions that form the foundation of interpersonal relationships, and many of these emotions promote and regulate our social linkages. Hence, the facial aging symptomatological analysis and the treatment plan must of necessity include knowledge of the facial dynamics and the emotional expressions of the face. This approach aims to more closely meet patients' expectations of natural-looking results, by correcting age-related negative expressions while observing the emotional language of the face. This article will successively describe patients' expectations, the role of facial expressions in relational dynamics, the relationship between facial structures and facial expressions, and the way facial aging mimics negative expressions. Eventually, therapeutic implications for facial aging treatment will be addressed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Reversal of skin aging with topical retinoids.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Bradley A; Unger, Jacob G; Rohrich, Rod J

    2014-04-01

    Topical skin care and its place in plastic surgery today are often overlooked by clinicians formulating a plan for facial rejuvenation. Not only is it important to consider topical skin care as part of comprehensive care, but clinicians should also be educated with the data available in today's literature. This review aims to familiarize the reader with the biological processes of skin aging and evidence-based clinical outcomes afforded by various topical therapies. Furthermore, this review will focus on solar damage, the value of retinoids, and how they can be used in conjunction with forms of treatment such as chemical peel, dermabrasion, and lasers. Finally, guidelines will be provided to help the physician administer appropriate skin care based on the data presented.

  9. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Mohd Noor, Nor Farid; Basri, Rehana; Yew, Tan Fo; Wen, Tay Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18-25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects' evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05) but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1%) were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5%) short and 81 (28.3%) long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population.

  10. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18–25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects’ evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05) but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1%) were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5%) short and 81 (28.3%) long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. In conclusion: 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population. PMID:26562655

  11. Hand skin reconstruction from skeletal landmarks.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, P; Van Sint Jan, S; Beauthier, J P; Rooze, M

    2007-11-01

    Many studies related to three-dimensional facial reconstruction have been previously reported. On the other hand, no extensive work has been found in the literature about hand reconstruction as an identification method. In this paper, the feasibility of virtual reconstruction of hand skin based on (1) its skeleton and (2) another hand skin and skeleton used as template was assessed. One cadaver hand and one volunteer's hand have been used. For the two hands, computer models of the bones and skin were obtained from computerized tomography. A customized software allowed locating spatial coordinates of bony anatomical landmarks on the models. From these landmarks, the spatial relationships between the models were determined and used to interpolate the missing hand skin. The volume of the interpolated skin was compared to the real skin obtained from medical imaging for validation. Results seem to indicate that such a method is of interest to give forensic investigators morphological clues related to an individual hand skin based on its skeleton. Further work is in progress to finalize the method.

  12. Sparse coding for flexible, robust 3D facial-expression synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuxu; Song, Mingli; Quynh, Dao Thi Phuong; He, Ying; Chen, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Computer animation researchers have been extensively investigating 3D facial-expression synthesis for decades. However, flexible, robust production of realistic 3D facial expressions is still technically challenging. A proposed modeling framework applies sparse coding to synthesize 3D expressive faces, using specified coefficients or expression examples. It also robustly recovers facial expressions from noisy and incomplete data. This approach can synthesize higher-quality expressions in less time than the state-of-the-art techniques.

  13. Supplementating with dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate improves facial elasticity and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -12 expression: a comparative study with placebo.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Hyun Hee; Cho, Soyun; Lee, Se-Rah; Shin, Mi-Hee; Chung, Jin Ho

    2014-07-01

    Photoaging accounts for most age-related changes in skin appearance. It has been suggested that both astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, and collagen hydrolysate can be used as antiaging modalities in photoaged skin. However, there is no clinical study using astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate. We investigated the effects of using a combination of dietary astaxanthin and collagen hydrolysate supplementation on moderately photoaged skin in humans. A total of 44 healthy subjects were recruited and treated with astaxanthin (2 mg/day) combined with collagen hydrolysate (3 g/day) or placebos, which were identical in appearance and taste to the active supplementation for 12 weeks. The elasticity and hydration properties of facial skin were evaluated using noninvasive objective devices. In addition, we also evaluated the expression of procollagen type I, fibrillin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and -12, and ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage in artificially UV-irradiated buttock skin before and after treatment. The supplement group showed significant improvements in skin elasticity and transepidermal water loss in photoaged facial skin after 12 weeks compared with the placebo group. In the supplement group, expression of procollagen type I mRNA increased and expression of MMP-1 and -12 mRNA decreased compared with those in the placebo group. In contrast, there was no significant difference in UV-induced DNA damage between groups. These results demonstrate that dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate can improve elasticity and barrier integrity in photoaged human facial skin, and such treatment is well tolerated.

  14. Do facial movements express emotions or communicate motives?

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the debate between emotion-expression and motive-communication approaches to facial movements, focusing on Ekman's (1972) and Fridlund's (1994) contrasting models and their historical antecedents. Available evidence suggests that the presence of others either reduces or increases facial responses, depending on the quality and strength of the emotional manipulation and on the nature of the relationship between interactants. Although both display rules and social motives provide viable explanations of audience "inhibition" effects, some audience facilitation effects are less easily accommodated within an emotion-expression perspective. In particular, emotion is not a sufficient condition for a corresponding "expression," even discounting explicit regulation, and, apparently, "spontaneous" facial movements may be facilitated by the presence of others. Further, there is no direct evidence that any particular facial movement provides an unambiguous expression of a specific emotion. However, information communicated by facial movements is not necessarily extrinsic to emotion. Facial movements not only transmit emotion-relevant information but also contribute to ongoing processes of emotional action in accordance with pragmatic theories.

  15. The reconstruction of male hair-bearing facial regions.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Emily B; Pribaz, Julian J

    2011-01-01

    Loss of hair-bearing regions of the face caused by trauma, tumor resection, or burn presents a difficult reconstructive task for plastic surgeons. The ideal tissue substitute should have the same characteristics as the facial area affected, consisting of thin, pliable tissue with a similar color match and hair-bearing quality. This is a retrospective study of 34 male patients who underwent reconstruction of hair-bearing facial regions performed by the senior author (J.J.P.). Local and pedicled flaps were used primarily to reconstruct defects after tumor extirpation, trauma, infections, and burns. Two patients had irradiation before reconstruction. Two patients had prior facial reconstruction with free flaps. The authors found that certain techniques of reconstructing defects in hair-bearing facial regions were more successful than others in particular facial regions and in different sizes of defects. The authors were able to develop a simple algorithm for management of facial defects involving the hair-bearing regions of the eyebrow, sideburn, beard, and mustache that may prospectively aid the planning of reconstructive strategy in these cases.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Oral Supplementation With Ovoderm on Human Skin Physiology: Two Pilot Studies.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Andrés; Gil-Quintana, Erena; Fenaux, Marisa; Erdozain, Sandra; Sarria, Itziar

    2017-11-02

    Collagens and hyaluronic acid have long been used in pharmaceuticals and food supplements for the improvement of skin elasticity and hydration. These compounds provide the building blocks of the skin. Ovoderm is an oral supplement obtained from eggshells that contains naturally occurring collagen and glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid. We evaluated the efficacy of Ovoderm on skin biophysical parameters related to cutaneous aging such as elasticity, hydration, and pigmentation. Two pilot studies were run to assess the effect of daily oral supplementation with 300 mg Ovoderm on skin parameters. The first consisted of a self-assessment questionnaire intended to perform an assessment on skin, hair, and nail health after 50 days of treatment. The second measured the effect of 5-week treatment on hydration by corneometry, on elasticity with the cutometer, and on pigmentation with the mexameter. In the pilot study 1, participants were predominantly satisfied with the effects obtained on general face (100% volunteers satisfied) and body (94% volunteers satisfied) skin condition and skin properties (100% volunteers satisfied with facial skin softness, 94% with facial skin hydration, and 89% with body skin hydration) and partly with effects on hair (67% volunteers satisfied) and nail (50% volunteers satisfied) condition. The study 2 revealed a statistically significant improvement in skin elasticity (12% increase, p =.0136), a tendency to reduce skin pigmentation (5% decrease), and no significant change in skin hydration. Our study reflects that oral supplementation with Ovoderm is efficacious to reduce the gradual loss of skin elasticity characteristic of aged skin, which helps to improve the appearance of the skin.

  17. Combined facial heating and inhalation of hot air do not alter thermoeffector responses in humans.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Kimura, Kenichi; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-09-01

    The influence of thermoreceptors in human facial skin on thermoeffector responses is equivocal; furthermore, the presence of thermoreceptors in the respiratory tract and their involvement in thermal homeostasis has not been elucidated. This study tested the hypothesis that hot air directed on the face and inhaled during whole body passive heat stress elicits an earlier onset and greater sensitivity of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating than that directed on an equal skin surface area away from the face. Six men and two women completed two trials separated by ∼1 wk. Participants were passively heated (water-perfused suit; core temperature increase ∼0.9°C) while hot air was directed on either the face or on the lower leg (counterbalanced). Skin blood flux (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and local sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured at the chest and one forearm. During hot-air heating, local temperatures of the cheek and leg were 38.4 ± 0.8°C and 38.8 ± 0.6°C, respectively (P = 0.18). Breathing hot air combined with facial heating did not affect mean body temperature onsets (P = 0.97 and 0.27 for arm and chest sites, respectively) or slopes of cutaneous vasodilation (P = 0.49 and 0.43 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or the onsets (P = 0.89 and 0.94 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or slopes of sweating (P = 0.48 and 0.65 for arm and chest sites, respectively). Based on these findings, respiratory tract thermoreceptors, if present in humans, and selective facial skin heating do not modulate thermoeffector responses during passive heat stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Traumatic facial nerve neuroma with facial palsy presenting in infancy.

    PubMed

    Clark, James H; Burger, Peter C; Boahene, Derek Kofi; Niparko, John K

    2010-07-01

    To describe the management of traumatic neuroma of the facial nerve in a child and literature review. Sixteen-month-old male subject. Radiological imaging and surgery. Facial nerve function. The patient presented at 16 months with a right facial palsy and was found to have a right facial nerve traumatic neuroma. A transmastoid, middle fossa resection of the right facial nerve lesion was undertaken with a successful facial nerve-to-hypoglossal nerve anastomosis. The facial palsy improved postoperatively. A traumatic neuroma should be considered in an infant who presents with facial palsy, even in the absence of an obvious history of trauma. The treatment of such lesion is complex in any age group but especially in young children. Symptoms, age, lesion size, growth rate, and facial nerve function determine the appropriate management.

  19. Palatability of tastes is associated with facial circulatory responses.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Hideaki; Hamada, Yuka; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2014-03-01

    To examine whether various types of taste stimuli in the oral cavity elicit unique changes in facial skin blood flow (SkBF) according to the palatability perceived by an individual, the facial SkBF was observed by laser speckle flowgraphy in 15 healthy subjects (11 males and 4 females) before and during the ingestion of bitter tea, chilli sauce, coffee, orange juice, soup, and a water control. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and SkBF in the index finger were recorded continuously. Subjects reported their subjective palatability and taste intensity scores after each stimulus. The vascular conductance indexes (CIs) in the face and finger were calculated as ratios of SkBF to MAP. CI in the eyelid increased significantly in response to chilli sauce, orange juice, and soup, whereas CIs in the forehead, nose, and cheek decreased in response to bitter tea. There was a significant correlation between the palatability scores and CI values in the eyelid when changes induced by chilli sauce were excluded. These results suggest that the facial circulatory response reflects the degree of palatability of a foodstuff.

  20. Facial reconstruction – anatomical art or artistic anatomy?

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Facial reconstruction is employed in the context of forensic investigation and for creating three-dimensional portraits of people from the past, from ancient Egyptian mummies and bog bodies to digital animations of J. S. Bach. This paper considers a facial reconstruction method (commonly known as the Manchester method) associated with the depiction and identification of the deceased from skeletal remains. Issues of artistic licence and scientific rigour, in relation to soft tissue reconstruction, anatomical variation and skeletal assessment, are discussed. The need for artistic interpretation is greatest where only skeletal material is available, particularly for the morphology of the ears and mouth, and with the skin for an ageing adult. The greatest accuracy is possible when information is available from preserved soft tissue, from a portrait, or from a pathological condition or healed injury. PMID:20447245

  1. Comparative Discussion on Psychophysiological Effect of Self-administered Facial Massage by Treatment Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Takei, Yuya

    The aim of study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of self-administered facial massage, which was done by hand or facial roller. In this study, the psychophysiological effects of facial massage were evaluated. The central nerves system and the autonomic nervous system were administered to evaluate physiological system. The central nerves system was assessed by Electroencephalogram (EEG). The autonomic nervous system were assessed by peripheral skin temperature(PST) and heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, the high-frequency components (HF) were evaluated. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood Status (POMS) and subjective sensory amount with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. These results suggest that kept brain activity and had strong effects on stress alleviation.

  2. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2007-01-01

    Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

  3. Tolerance and safety of superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Bari, Arfan Ul; Iqbal, Zafar; Rahman, Simeen Ber

    2005-01-01

    Chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure that may have some potentially undesirable side-effects. The present study is directed towards safety concerns associated with superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses. The study was a non-comparative and a prospective one. Two hundred and sixty-eight patients of either sex, aged between 10 to 60 years, undergoing superficial chemical peeling for various facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, freckles, post-inflammatory scars/pigmentation, actinic keratoses, plane facial warts, etc.) were included in the study. Eight weekly peeling sessions were carried out in each patient. Tolerance to the procedure and any undesirable effects noted during these sessions were recorded. Almost all the patients tolerated the procedure well. Mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema were quite common but the incidence of major side-effects was very low and these too, were easily manageable. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side-effects between facial dermatoses (melasma, acne and other pigmentary disorders). Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is a well tolerated and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses.

  4. Evaluation of a topical treatment for the relief of sensitive skin

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Ingrid R; Adams, Damian H; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately, 50% of the population claim to have sensitive skin, which has created an important challenge for dermatologists and the cosmetic industry. This study evaluates the properties of QV Face Rescue Gel (Rescue Gel) that contains a combination of moisturizing and anti-irritant ingredients, and which is used to relieve the symptoms of sensitive facial skin. Methods The ability of Rescue Gel to induce collagen types I and III in cultured neonatal human foreskin fibroblasts compared to transforming growth factor beta 1, a known potent inducer of collagen types I and III, was measured using immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, healthy volunteers were recruited to measure the potential for Rescue Gel to reduce erythema induced by solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation on the skin compared to 0.5% hydrocortisone cream (positive control) as well as it’s ability to decrease transepidermal water loss compared to baseline levels. In addition, the formulation was tested for its potential to be 1) nonstinging using a facial sting/discomfort assay performed on volunteers who reacted positively to lactic acid, 2) nonirritating as determined by repeat insult patch tests, and 3) noncomedogenic. Results Rescue Gel significantly induced collagen types I and III in cultured human foreskin fibroblasts similarly to transforming growth factor beta 1. In volunteers, Rescue Gel was shown to significantly reduce erythema induced by solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation similarly to 0.5% hydrocortisone, and to significantly reduce transepidermal water loss compared to baseline levels. Further, the formulation was found to be nonstinging, nonirritating, and noncomedogenic. No adverse events were observed. Conclusion In this study, Rescue Gel has been shown to exhibit properties that make it effective for use on sensitive or irritated facial skin, without exacerbation of the symptoms associated with sensitive skin. PMID:26251625

  5. Neoclassical canons of facial beauty: Do we see the deviations?

    PubMed

    Pavlic, Andrej; Trinajstic Zrinski, Magda; Katic, Visnja; Spalj, Stjepan

    2017-05-01

    To explore the presence of neoclassical canons of facial beauty among young people in Croatia and to question possible psychosocial repercussions occurring in those who demonstrate deviations in relation to canons. The study was cross-sectional and the sample included 249 subjects (60% female) aged 12-39 (median 20). Their en face and profile photographs were taken in Natural Head Position. Photogrammetry included analysis of nine neoclassical canons of facial beauty originating from the Renaissance. Psychosocial issues were assessed using the Self-Esteem Scale, Big Five Inventory and three domains of Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire. Significant deviations from neoclassical facial beauty canons were observed in 55-65% of adolescents and young adults. Gender and age showed no relation to deviations. The deviations from canons that influenced the quality of life were mainly those related to vertical facial proportions and demonstrated increased facial aesthetics concern and social impact, and higher self-reported treatment need (p < 0.05). Deviations from canons were not related to self-esteem but a decrease in openness, agreeableness and neuroticism was observed. Neoclassical canons were not valid for the majority of adolescents and young adults in Croatia. Only deviations from some canons appear to provoke mild psychosocial repercussions. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary analysis of facial hair follicle distribution for forensic identification using OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chengming; Li, Zhigang; Xie, Lanchi; Guo, Jingjing; Xu, Lei; Yan, Yuwen; Li, Zhihui; Huang, Wei; Xu, Xiaojing

    2018-02-01

    In most deaths caused by explosions, the fragment of explosive remained on the victim's body can provide valuable clues to forensic investigation. However, the examination of the skin and appendages at the scene of explosion, which may reveal clue to the identity of an individual, has not been extensively studied. Compared with visual appearance of the epidermis surface that affected by various wounds, skin adnexa embedded in the dermis has a more stable morphology as an inner biometric. Hair follicles are formed when a fetus is 5 months old and distributed fairly evenly throughout the body, with the exception of hairless palms and soles. Therefore, we focus on the distribution of hair follicles in order to infer information of age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel forensic imaging method, which achieves non-destructive, high-resolution and most importantly cross-sectional imaging. In this study, we design and develop a custom-built spectral-domain three-dimensional (3D) OCT system with a portable handheld probe to detect and reconstruct the hair follicles in the facial skin. We test our system on the forehead and preauricular skin of 2 adult volunteers and demonstrate the high quality visualization of hair follicles beneath the epidermis. The diameter, orientation, density and shape of hair follicles can be extracted from the 3D volume data. The preliminary analysis suggests that these parameters vary from different part of body and have individual difference. Eventually, we believe 3D OCT is promising tool for the examination of hair follicles for forensic purpose.

  7. The use of optical coherence tomography to analyze the efficacy of skin care products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irani, Sarosh; Turani, Zahra; Fotouhi, Audrey; Daveluy, Steven; Mehregan, Darius; Chen, Wei; Gelovani, Juri; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we assess the applicability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for non-invasive imaging of skin morphology for the assessment of efficacy of cosmetic skin wrinkle-reduction products in humans. Evaluation of skin care products for reduction of facial wrinkles is largely limited to photographic (non-quantitative) comparison of skin surface texture before and after either single or prolonged application of skin care product. OCT could be a technique for monitoring changes in cross-sectional skin morphology. An optical attenuation coefficient analysis is also carried out to quantitatively study the changes in different layers of the skin.

  8. Effect of the Duck Skin on Quality Characteristics of Duck Hams

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Young-Boong; Sung, Jung-Min; Jang, YoungJin; Shim, Jae-Yun; Han, Sung-Gu; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of duck skin on cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, protein solubility, texture profile analysis (TPA), apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of press type duck ham with different ratio of duck breast meat and duck skin. Five duck ham formulations were produced with the following compositions: T1 (duck breast 70% + duck skin 30%), T2 (duck breast 60% + duck skin 40%), T3 (duck breast 50% + duck skin 50%), T4 (duck breast 40% + duck skin 60%), and T5 (duck breast 30% + duck skin 70%). The cooking loss and fat separation were lower in T1, and the total expressible fluid separations were lower in T1 and T2 than others. The pH ranged from 6.48 to 6.59, with the highest values in T4 and T5. T5 had the highest CIE L*-value, and T1 and T2 had the highest CIE a*-values; however, CIE b*-values did not differ significantly between the duck ham samples. The protein solubility and TPA (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness) were the highest in T1. T1 and T2 had higher scores for color, tenderness, and overall acceptability. T1, T2, and T3 showed significantly higher values, but there were no significant differences for flavor and juiciness. Regarding apparent viscosity properties, T1 and T2 had higher viscosity values than the other formulations. In conclusion, the T1 (duck breast 70% + duck skin 30%) and T2 (duck breast 60% + duck skin 40%) duck hams show the highest quality characteristics. PMID:28747821

  9. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  10. Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation colour affect perceived human health.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Ian D; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice.

  11. How much related to skin wrinkles between facial and body site? Age-related changes in skin wrinkle on the knee assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.

    PubMed

    Yoo, M A; Seo, Y K; Shin, M K; Koh, J S

    2016-02-01

    Skin aging has been focused the wrinkle on the face than on the body, so most studies have been studied the change in Crow's feet for ages. Only little is known about the age-dependent changes of wrinkles on body sites. The aim of this study was to establish new grading criteria for severity of wrinkles on knees and to investigate the relationship of wrinkle severity with age- and site-dependent. The skin on the knee of 38 healthy Korean female volunteers, divided into two groups young and old, were photographed. Standard photograph for body wrinkle was established (grade 0~7), and then visual assessment, skin wrinkle, and skin elasticity were evaluated on Crow's feet and the knee. We examined for any significant differences and the correlation of skin aging parameters with age and two different sites. Skin wrinkle severity with standard photograph and wrinkle parameters (Ra, Rmax, Rz, and Rv) had a significantly positive correlation with age-dependent on the knee (P < 0.001). Also, skin elastic parameters (R2, R5, R6, R7, and Q1) showed a significant negative correlation with age on the knee (P < 0.001). Skin wrinkle severity with standard photograph was highly correlated with all skin wrinkle parameters and skin elastic parameters (R2, R5, R7, and Q1) on the knee (P < 0.001). In addition, all the skin aging parameters on the knee were significantly correlated with Crow's feet (P < 0.01). Skin aging on the knee had the same tendency as the Crow's feet. This study has shown the new grading criteria of wrinkles on the knee. Skin wrinkle and elasticity on the knee are age-dependent related and aging on the knee is highly related to Crow's feet. Those parameters are using a quantitative method to evaluate body aging. Also, the knee is considered that it could be a suitable site to evaluate body aging. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Application of 1% lauromacrogol in the treatment of facial refractory hemangioma and vascular malformations].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Zhu, Fei; Ning, Jin-long; Li, Xiao-jing; Liu, Ye

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of 1% lauromacrogol for the treatment of facial refractory hemangioma and vascular malformation. From Sept 2009 to Nov 2011, 55 patients (20 male, 35 female, 1 month to 30 years) with different types of facial hemangiorwa and vascular malformation about 1.0 cm x (0. 5-5.0) cm x 10.0 cm in size, underwent 1% lauromacrogol intratumor injection therapy. Generally, the injection dose, concentration, frequency were determined by the age of the patients, the volume and depth of the lesion. The dose was limited to 10 mg every time. The injection interval is 14 weeks. After followed up for 3-16 months, 41 cases were cured, 9 cases were greatly improved, and 5 were partially improved. Skin necrosis happened in only 2 cases. Lauromacrogol is safe, simple and effective as a sderosing agent for the treatment of facial refractory hemangioma and vascular malformation. It provides a new and alternative way for the treatment of facial refractory hemangioma and vascular malformation.

  13. The role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in facial nerve damage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Rat models of facial nerve cut (FC), facial nerve end to end anastomosis (FF), facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy (FG), and control (Ctrl) were established. Apex nasi amesiality observation, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays were employed to investigate the function and mechanism. In apex nasi amesiality observation, it was found apex nasi amesiality of FG group was partly recovered. Additionally, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays revealed that facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy could transfer nerve impulse and express AChR which was better than facial nerve cut and worse than facial nerve end to end anastomosis. The present study indicated that great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy is a substantial solution for facial lesion repair, as it is efficiently preventing facial muscles atrophy by generating neurotransmitter like ACh.

  14. Facial approximation-from facial reconstruction synonym to face prediction paradigm.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Carl N

    2015-05-01

    Facial approximation was first proposed as a synonym for facial reconstruction in 1987 due to dissatisfaction with the connotations the latter label held. Since its debut, facial approximation's identity has morphed as anomalies in face prediction have accumulated. Now underpinned by differences in what problems are thought to count as legitimate, facial approximation can no longer be considered a synonym for, or subclass of, facial reconstruction. Instead, two competing paradigms of face prediction have emerged, namely: facial approximation and facial reconstruction. This paper shines a Kuhnian lens across the discipline of face prediction to comprehensively review these developments and outlines the distinguishing features between the two paradigms. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Viewing distance matter to perceived intensity of facial expressions

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardsson, Andreas; Högman, Lennart; Fischer, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    In our daily perception of facial expressions, we depend on an ability to generalize across the varied distances at which they may appear. This is important to how we interpret the quality and the intensity of the expression. Previous research has not investigated whether this so called perceptual constancy also applies to the experienced intensity of facial expressions. Using a psychophysical measure (Borg CR100 scale) the present study aimed to further investigate perceptual constancy of happy and angry facial expressions at varied sizes, which is a proxy for varying viewing distances. Seventy-one (42 females) participants rated the intensity and valence of facial expressions varying in distance and intensity. The results demonstrated that the perceived intensity (PI) of the emotional facial expression was dependent on the distance of the face and the person perceiving it. An interaction effect was noted, indicating that close-up faces are perceived as more intense than faces at a distance and that this effect is stronger the more intense the facial expression truly is. The present study raises considerations regarding constancy of the PI of happy and angry facial expressions at varied distances. PMID:26191035

  16. Quality of life and female sexual function after skinning vulvectomy with split-thickness skin graft in women with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or vulvar Paget disease.

    PubMed

    Lavoué, V; Lemarrec, A; Bertheuil, N; Henno, S; Mesbah, H; Watier, E; Levêque, J; Morcel, K

    2013-12-01

    Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and vulvar Paget disease are managed with either vulvectomy, destructive treatments (laser, antimitotic drugs) or immunostimulants. All these options are associated with functional complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical technique consisting of skinning vulvectomy with split-thickness skin graft, and its effect on overall quality of life and sexual function. A retrospective study was conducted on thirteen patients who underwent skinning vulvectomy with split-thickness skin graft between 1999 and 2009. Overall quality of life and sexual function were assessed with the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), respectively. The median age of patients was 54 (range: 33-77) years. Three patients had Paget disease and 10 patients had VIN lesions. The excision margins were clear in 46% of cases. The incidence of occult cancer was 31%. The mean follow-up period was 77 (±35) months. Four patients experienced a relapse of their intraepithelial disease. The mean disease-free survival was 58 (±44) months. There was no significant difference in MOS SF-36 scores between the study population and the general population. The patients assessed with the FSFI regained normal sexual function after the surgical procedure. Skinning vulvectomy with split-thickness skin graft is a feasible technique yielding good results in terms of quality of life and sexual function. It enables occult cancer to be diagnosed in patients with VIN or Paget disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Facial Expressions as Adaptations:Evolutionary Questions in Facial Expression Research

    PubMed Central

    SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed. PMID:11786989

  18. Interactions of donor sources and media influence the histo-morphological quality of full-thickness skin models.

    PubMed

    Lange, Julia; Weil, Frederik; Riegler, Christoph; Groeber, Florian; Rebhan, Silke; Kurdyn, Szymon; Alb, Miriam; Kneitz, Hermann; Gelbrich, Götz; Walles, Heike; Mielke, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Human artificial skin models are increasingly employed as non-animal test platforms for research and medical purposes. However, the overall histopathological quality of such models may vary significantly. Therefore, the effects of manufacturing protocols and donor sources on the quality of skin models built-up from fibroblasts and keratinocytes derived from juvenile foreskins is studied. Histo-morphological parameters such as epidermal thickness, number of epidermal cell layers, dermal thickness, dermo-epidermal adhesion and absence of cellular nuclei in the corneal layer are obtained and scored accordingly. In total, 144 full-thickness skin models derived from 16 different donors, built-up in triplicates using three different culture conditions were successfully generated. In univariate analysis both media and donor age affected the quality of skin models significantly. Both parameters remained statistically significant in multivariate analyses. Performing general linear model analyses we could show that individual medium-donor-interactions influence the quality. These observations suggest that the optimal choice of media may differ from donor to donor and coincides with findings where significant inter-individual variations of growth rates in keratinocytes and fibroblasts have been described. Thus, the consideration of individual medium-donor-interactions may improve the overall quality of human organ models thereby forming a reproducible test platform for sophisticated clinical research. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Ex vivo study of the home-use TriPollar RF device using an experimental human skin model.

    PubMed

    Boisnic, Sylvie; Branchet, Marie Christine

    2010-09-01

    A wide variety of professional radio frequency (RF) aesthetic treatments for anti-aging are available aiming at skin tightening. A new home-use RF device for facial treatments has recently been developed based on TriPollar technology. To evaluate the mechanism of the new home-use device, in the process of collagen remodeling, using an ex vivo skin model. Human skin samples were collected in order to evaluate the anti-aging effect of a home-use device for facial treatments on an ex vivo human skin model. Skin tightening was evaluated by dermal histology, quantitative analysis of collagen fibers and dosage of collagen synthesis. Significant collagen remodeling following RF treatment with the device was found in the superficial and mid-deep dermis. Biochemical measurement of newly synthesized collagen showed an increase of 41% in the treated samples as compared to UV-aged control samples. The new home-use device has been demonstrated to affect significant collagen remodeling, in terms of the structural and biochemical improvement of dermal collagen on treated skin samples.

  20. Relationship between natural tooth shade and skin colour.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, M; Mousavinejad, N; Adli, A R; Harati, M

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of skin colour and tooth shade. One hundred and twenty six individuals aging between 18 to 25 years participated in this study. Colour of the maxillary central incisors was examined by VITA easy shade. Tooth shades were assigned to four ordinal values. Nivea Beauty Protect Foundation shade sample was used as a guide to assess facial skin colour Shin colours were also assigned to four ordinal values. Spearman test revealed that there was a significant relationship between tooth shade and skin colour Total co-relation factor was 51.6% (p <0 .01). Co-relation factors were 57% for women and 27% for men (p <0 .01). The highest tooth shade prevalence belonged to the second group and the highest skin colour prevalence was also in the second skin colour group.

  1. Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

  2. The role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in facial nerve damage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Methods: Rat models of facial nerve cut (FC), facial nerve end to end anastomosis (FF), facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy (FG), and control (Ctrl) were established. Apex nasi amesiality observation, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays were employed to investigate the function and mechanism. Results: In apex nasi amesiality observation, it was found apex nasi amesiality of FG group was partly recovered. Additionally, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays revealed that facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy could transfer nerve impulse and express AChR which was better than facial nerve cut and worse than facial nerve end to end anastomosis. Conclusions: The present study indicated that great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy is a substantial solution for facial lesion repair, as it is efficiently preventing facial muscles atrophy by generating neurotransmitter like ACh. PMID:26550216

  3. Combined aesthetic interventions for prevention of facial ageing, and restoration and beautification of face and body.

    PubMed

    Fabi, Sabrina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Braz, André; Green, Jeremy B; Seo, Kyle; van Loghem, Jani Aj

    2017-01-01

    The Merz Institute of Advanced Aesthetics Expert Summit was held in Prague, Czech Republic, from 19-20 November 2016. The meeting had a distinct advisory board character and invited aesthetic practitioners from all over the world to hear an international faculty present a range of keynote lectures and conduct live injection sessions with an emphasis on recent developments in combination aesthetic interventions for face and body rejuvenation and beautification. Aging is associated with changes in bones, muscles, ligaments, adipose tissue, and skin and, moreover, involves interactions among these tissue types. To achieve the most natural and harmonious rejuvenation of the face, all changes that result from the aging process should be corrected, which generally involves treatment with more than a single agent or technology. Presentations described innovative treatment algorithms for the face and body and focused on patients' desires for natural-looking rejuvenation and how this requires a three-dimensional approach combining products that relax the musculature, volumize, and re-drape the skin. Besides treating the aging face, these procedures are increasingly used to enhance facial features as well as to delay facial aging in younger patients. The presentations covered patients from different ethnicities as well as the treatment of non-facial areas, with a particular focus on the use of Ultherapy ® for skin lifting and tightening, and new aesthetic procedures such as Cellfina ® and diluted Radiesse ® . The current report provides a summary of key presentations from the meeting.

  4. Botulinum toxin in the management of facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Cabin, Jonathan A; Massry, Guy G; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2015-08-01

    Complete flaccid facial paralysis, as well as the synkinetic and hyperkinetic sequelae of partial recovery, has significant impact on quality of life. Patients suffer from functional deficiencies, cosmetic deformity, discomfort and social consequences leading to emotional distress. Despite an extensive and sophisticated array of available interventions for facial reanimation, most patients have persistent issues that require consistent follow-up. In long-term management, botulinum toxin (BT) injection remains a critical tool in the treatment of the facial paralysis patient, particularly in the case of synkinesis, hyperkinesis and imbalance. We review the recent scientific literature and highlight key principles and developments in the use of BT in the management of facial paralysis, including less common applications for acute facial paralysis, hyperlacrimation and pseudoptosis. We reviewed the literature for the latest advances in the use of BT in facial paralysis, including applications and technique, as well as measurement tools and adjunct exercises. We also share our experience in treating our own patient population. BT continues to be a well tolerated and effective tool in the long-term management of facial paralysis, specifically in treating synkinesis, imbalance and hyperkinesis, as well as hyperlacrimation and pseudoptosis. Consistent measurement tools and adjunct neuromuscular retraining are crucial in the successful deployment of BT. Controversy exists as to whether BT should be used to manage facial paralysis during the acute phase, and whether BT application to the nonparalyzed face can improve long-term recovery in the paralyzed side.

  5. Impact of Cosmetic Camouflage on the Quality of Life of Children With Skin Disease and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Salsberg, Jennifer M; Weinstein, Miriam; Shear, Neil; Lee, Michelle; Pope, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Cosmetic camouflage is known to improve quality of life in adults. Few data are available regarding cosmetic camouflage in children, and thus it is not often selected as a mode of treatment. We sought to determine whether cosmetic camouflage leads to improved quality of life of pediatric patients with visible dermatoses and their parent or primary caregiver. Patients aged 5 to 17 years with visible skin disease and their parent were assessed with the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and the Family Dermatology Life Quality Index (FDLQI) before and after consultation regarding cosmetic camouflage. Twenty-two children with skin conditions were included in the study. The mean CDLQI decreased from 6.82 (SD = 1.28) to 3.05 (SD = 0.65; P = .0014), while the mean FDLQI decreased from 7.68 (SD = 1.15) to 4.68 (SD = 0.92; P = .0012). Our study highlighted improvement in quality of life in patients with skin disorders who were managed with cosmetic camouflage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. A comparative study of the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on histological, molecular, and clinical properties of human skin.

    PubMed

    Kong, Rong; Cui, Yilei; Fisher, Gary J; Wang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Yinbei; Schneider, Louise M; Majmudar, Gopa

    2016-03-01

    All-trans retinol, a precursor of retinoic acid, is an effective anti-aging treatment widely used in skin care products. In comparison, topical retinoic acid is believed to provide even greater anti-aging effects; however, there is limited research directly comparing the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on skin. In this study, we compare the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on skin structure and expression of skin function-related genes and proteins. We also examine the effect of retinol treatment on skin appearance. Skin histology was examined by H&E staining and in vivo confocal microscopy. Expression levels of skin genes and proteins were analyzed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The efficacy of a retinol formulation in improving skin appearance was assessed using digital image-based wrinkle analysis. Four weeks of retinoic acid and retinol treatments both increased epidermal thickness, and upregulated genes for collagen type 1 (COL1A1), and collagen type 3 (COL3A1) with corresponding increases in procollagen I and procollagen III protein expression. Facial image analysis showed a significant reduction in facial wrinkles following 12 weeks of retinol application. The results of this study demonstrate that topical application of retinol significantly affects both cellular and molecular properties of the epidermis and dermis, as shown by skin biopsy and noninvasive imaging analyses. Although the magnitude tends to be smaller, retinol induces similar changes in skin histology, and gene and protein expression as compared to retinoic acid application. These results were confirmed by the significant facial anti-aging effect observed in the retinol efficacy clinical study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Radiation Effects of Mobile Phones and Tablets on the Skin: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Keykhosravi, A; Neamatshahi, M; Mahmoodi, R; Navipour, E

    2018-01-01

    Skin health has become a worldwide concern. Most of the studies investigated the effect of mobile phone radiation on DNA and animals, but a few studies were carried out about skin diseases in mobile phone and tablet users. Few systematic studies have examined the relationship between mobile phone exposure and skin diseases. We evaluated the association between mobile phones and tablets and skin diseases. We checked databases including PubMed, Scopus, Springer, Cochrane, and Google Scholar from 1995 to 2013. The eligibility criteria were descriptive, and observational studies were in English and Persian language, and the subjects were of all ages and reported skin disease. Most of the studies focused on signs and less on skin cancer. In total, 6 studies were included with 392119 participants with age over 25 years. In a nationwide cohort study in Denmark for BCC, the IRR (incidence rate ratios) estimates remained near unity among men and women. In the other studies, they reported an increase in temperature, hypersensitivity of warmth, facial dermatitis, angiosarcoma of the scalp, and burning sensations in the facial skin after mobile phone use on the exposed side and more within the auricle and behind/around the ear. Overall evaluations showed that the level of evidence associated with the effects of radiation from the mobile phone and tablet on the skin is poor. This review shows a necessity for more studies in this area.

  8. BMI and WHR Are Reflected in Female Facial Shape and Texture: A Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Christine; Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3-10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception.

  9. Societal Value of Surgery for Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Su, Peiyi; Ishii, Lisa E; Joseph, Andrew; Nellis, Jason; Dey, Jacob; Bater, Kristin; Byrne, Patrick J; Boahene, Kofi D O; Ishii, Masaru

    2017-03-01

    Patients with facial paralysis are perceived negatively by society in a number of domains. Society's perception of the health utility of varying degrees of facial paralysis and the value society places on reconstructive surgery for facial reanimation need to be quantified. To measure health state utility of varying degrees of facial paralysis, willingness to pay (WTP) for a repair, and the subsequent value of facial reanimation surgery as perceived by society. This prospective observational study conducted in an academic tertiary referral center evaluated a group of 348 casual observers who viewed images of faces with unilateral facial paralysis of 3 severity levels (low, medium, and high) categorized by House-Brackmann grade. Structural equation modeling was performed to understand associations among health utility metrics, WTP, and facial perception domains. Data were collected from July 16 to September 26, 2015. Observer-rated (1) quality of life (QOL) using established health utility metrics (standard gamble, time trade-off, and a visual analog scale) and (2) their WTP for surgical repair. Among the 348 observers (248 women [71.3%]; 100 men [28.7%]; mean [SD] age, 29.3 [11.6] years), mixed-effects linear regression showed that WTP increased nonlinearly with increasing severity of paralysis. Participants were willing to pay $3487 (95% CI, $2362-$4961) to repair low-grade paralysis, $8571 (95% CI, $6401-$11 234) for medium-grade paralysis, and $20 431 (95% CI, $16 273-$25 317) for high-grade paralysis. The dominant factor affecting the participants' WTP was perceived QOL. Modeling showed that perceived QOL decreased with paralysis severity (regression coefficient, -0.004; 95% CI, -0.005 to -0.004; P < .001) and increased with attractiveness (regression coefficient, 0.002; 95% CI, 0.002 to 0.003; P < .001). Mean (SD) health utility scores calculated by the standard gamble metric for low- and high-grade paralysis were 0.98 (0.09) and 0.77 (0

  10. Societal Value of Surgery for Facial Reanimation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Peiyi; Ishii, Lisa E.; Joseph, Andrew; Nellis, Jason; Dey, Jacob; Bater, Kristin; Byrne, Patrick J.; Boahene, Kofi D. O.; Ishii, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Patients with facial paralysis are perceived negatively by society in a number of domains. Society’s perception of the health utility of varying degrees of facial paralysis and the value society places on reconstructive surgery for facial reanimation need to be quantified. OBJECTIVE To measure health state utility of varying degrees of facial paralysis, willingness to pay (WTP) for a repair, and the subsequent value of facial reanimation surgery as perceived by society. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective observational study conducted in an academic tertiary referral center evaluated a group of 348 casual observers who viewed images of faces with unilateral facial paralysis of 3 severity levels (low, medium, and high) categorized by House-Brackmann grade. Structural equation modeling was performed to understand associations among health utility metrics, WTP, and facial perception domains. Data were collected from July 16 to September 26, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Observer-rated (1) quality of life (QOL) using established health utility metrics (standard gamble, time trade-off, and a visual analog scale) and (2) their WTP for surgical repair. RESULTS Among the 348 observers (248 women [71.3%]; 100 men [28.7%]; mean [SD] age, 29.3 [11.6] years), mixed-effects linear regression showed that WTP increased nonlinearly with increasing severity of paralysis. Participants were willing to pay $3487 (95% CI, $2362–$4961) to repair low-grade paralysis, $8571 (95% CI, $6401–$11 234) for medium-grade paralysis, and $20 431 (95% CI, $16 273–$25 317) for high-grade paralysis. The dominant factor affecting the participants’ WTP was perceived QOL. Modeling showed that perceived QOL decreased with paralysis severity (regression coefficient, −0.004; 95% CI, −0.005 to −0.004; P < .001) and increased with attractiveness (regression coefficient, 0.002; 95% CI, 0.002 to 0.003; P < .001). Mean (SD) health utility scores calculated by the

  11. Easy facial analysis using the facial golden mask.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ha

    2007-05-01

    For over 2000 years, many artists and scientists have tried to understand or quantify the form of the perfect, ideal, or most beautiful face both in art and in vivo (life). A mathematical relationship has been consistently and repeatedly reported to be present in beautiful things. This particular relationship is the golden ratio. It is a mathematical ratio of 1.618:1 that seems to appear recurrently in beautiful things in nature as well as in other things that are seen as beautiful. Dr. Marquardt made the facial golden mask that contains and includes all of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional geometric golden elements formed from the golden ratio. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the golden facial mask. In 40 cases, the authors applied the facial golden mask to preoperative and postoperative photographs and scored each photograph on a 1 to 5 scale from the perspective of their personal aesthetic views. The score was lower when the facial deformity was severe, whereas it was higher when the face was attractive. Compared with the average scores of facial mask applied photographs and nonapplied photographs using a nonparametric test, statistical significance was not reached (P > 0.05). This implies that the facial golden mask may be used as an analytical tool. The facial golden mask is easy to apply, inexpensive, and relatively objective. Therefore, the authors introduce it as a useful facial analysis.

  12. A new design of facial artery perforator flaps for the reconstruction of small- to medium-sized intraoral defects.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-fei; Zhou, Wei-na; Li, Jie; Jiang, Hong-bing; Yuan, Hua; Wan, Lin-zhong

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and outcomes of a new design of facial artery perforator flaps, extending from the angle of the mouth to the border of the mandible, for the reconstruction of small- to medium-sized intraoral defects. The technique had been used in 23 patients between February 2009 and August 2012. The locations of intraoral defects included the tongue, the floor of the mouth, the inferior gingival mucosa, and the sublingual gland. All flaps were monitored for complications including skin loss and ischemia. The functions of appearance, swallowing, and speech were assessed 6 months after operation with the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire. All flaps presented with satisfactory results except for one, which demonstrated superficial tip necrosis that settled after conservative treatment. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 12 months, and 1 patient died as a result of pulmonary metastasis, and 3 patients underwent second surgery because of local tumor recurrence (2patients) and cervical recurrence (1 patient). Nineteen patients were assessed with the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the mean (SD) scores of appearance, swallowing, and speech were 57.89 (14.45), 83.68 (19.98), and 81.58 (23.16), respectively. This design of facial artery perforator flaps could provide an efficient and cost-effective method for reconstruction of small- to medium-sized intraoral defects with a low surgical morbidity and satisfactory levels of quality of life.

  13. Extensive actinomycosis of the face requiring radical resection and facial nerve reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Iida, Takuya; Takushima, Akihiko; Asato, Hirotaka; Harii, Kiyonori

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of extensive actinomycosis of the face, which appeared after dental surgery. Since antibiotic therapy was ineffective, the lesion was radically resected, and the skin, soft tissue and facial nerve were reconstructed using a free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap and simultaneously harvested intercostal nerves. Successful reanimation of the face was achieved 14 months postoperatively.

  14. Current drug therapies for rosacea: a chronic vascular and inflammatory skin disease.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Steven R; Huang, William W; Huynh, Tu T

    2014-06-01

    Rosacea is a chronic skin disorder that presents with abnormal vascular and inflammatory conditions. Clinical manifestations include flushing, facial erythema, inflammatory papules and pustules, telangiectasias, edema, and watery or irritated eyes. To discuss the evolving pathophysiology of rosacea, factors involved in promoting the chronic vascular and inflammatory abnormalities seen in rosacea, and the available drug therapies for the condition. Chronic inflammation and vascular changes are believed to be underlying factors in the pathophysiology of rosacea. Aberrant cathelicidin expression, elevated kallikrein 5 (KLK5) proteolytic activity, and altered toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expression have been reported in rosacea skin leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Until recently, drug therapies only targeted the inflammatory lesions (papules and pustules) and transient erythema associated with these inflammatory lesions of rosacea. Brimonidine tartrate gel 0.5% was recently approved for the treatment of persistent (nontransient) facial erythema of rosacea, acting primarily on the cutaneous vascular component of the disease. Rosacea is a chronic vascular and inflammatory skin disease. Understanding the role of factors that trigger the onset of rosacea symptoms and exacerbate the condition is crucial in treating this skin disease.

  15. Skin quality in red potatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  16. Impact of TNF-α antagonists on the quality of life in selected skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Gisondi, P; Girolomoni, G

    2013-06-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the impact of TNF-α antagonists on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in selected skin diseases, i.e. chronic plaque psoriasis, Behçet's disease (BD), hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). We have carried out a systematic literature search of Medline (2000 to April 2013) using the Cochrane highly sensitive and specific search strategy. Citations were screened for randomized, controlled trials of TNF-α antagonists (adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab) versus placebo in adults with psoriasis, BD, HS or PG. From the literature it is evident that skin diseases can affect physical, psychological, social and occupational aspects of everyday life. TNF-α antagonists induced consistent benefits across health outcomes in psoriasis, but only monoclonal antibodies, infliximab and adalimumab were effective in improving QoL in patients with BD, HS and PG. Dermatology Life Quality Index was the most common used tool for investigating HRQoL. For the majority of patients with skin diseases, the most important negative impacts on QoL were appearance related. Generally, the burden on QoL was correlated to the severity of skin disease and the improvement in QoL achieved by TNF-α blockers was proportional to the degree of disease remission. HRQoL issues are becoming even more important in evaluating medical care, including treatment of skin diseases. In general, achieving the highest clearing of skin disease with anti-TNF-α agents is required for optimal improvement in QoL.

  17. Novel magnet-retained prosthetic system for facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mostafa M; Piper, James M; Hansen, Nancy A; Sutton, Alan J; Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic facial defects negatively impact speech, mastication, deglutition, dental hygiene, and psychosocial well-being. Reconstruction must address restoration of function and aesthetics to provide quality of life. This report describes soft-tissue reconstruction using a novel magnet-retained facial prosthesis without osseointegrated abutments, performed in a patient after traumatic loss of the entire left lower part of the face, including lips, commissure, and mentum. This reconstructive technique successfully addressed the cosmetic defect while also restoring function with respect to speech and oral nutrition. For this reason, magnet-retained facial prosthesis should be added to free tissue transfer and regional flaps as a reasonable option in the reconstructive algorithm for complex soft-tissue defects of the lower face.

  18. History and current concepts in the analysis of facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Bashour, Mounir

    2006-09-01

    Facial attractiveness research has yielded many discoveries in the past 30 years, and facial cosmetic, plastic, and reconstructive surgeons should have a thorough understanding of these findings. Many of the recent studies were conducted by social, developmental, cognitive, and evolutionary psychologists, and although the findings have been published in the psychology literature, they have not been presented in a comprehensive manner appropriate to surgeons. The author reviews the findings of facial attractiveness research from antiquity to the present day and highlights and analyzes important concepts necessary for a thorough understanding of facial attractiveness. Four important cues emerge as being the most important determinants of attractiveness: averageness (prototypicality), sexual dimorphism, youthfulness, and symmetry. A surgeon planning facial cosmetic, plastic, or reconstructive surgery can potentially gain both profound insight and better quality surgical results by appreciating these findings.

  19. Reproducibility of the dynamics of facial expressions in unilateral facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Alagha, M A; Ju, X; Morley, S; Ayoub, A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of non-verbal facial expressions in unilateral facial paralysis using dynamic four-dimensional (4D) imaging. The Di4D system was used to record five facial expressions of 20 adult patients. The system captured 60 three-dimensional (3D) images per second; each facial expression took 3-4seconds which was recorded in real time. Thus a set of 180 3D facial images was generated for each expression. The procedure was repeated after 30min to assess the reproducibility of the expressions. A mathematical facial mesh consisting of thousands of quasi-point 'vertices' was conformed to the face in order to determine the morphological characteristics in a comprehensive manner. The vertices were tracked throughout the sequence of the 180 images. Five key 3D facial frames from each sequence of images were analyzed. Comparisons were made between the first and second capture of each facial expression to assess the reproducibility of facial movements. Corresponding images were aligned using partial Procrustes analysis, and the root mean square distance between them was calculated and analyzed statistically (paired Student t-test, P<0.05). Facial expressions of lip purse, cheek puff, and raising of eyebrows were reproducible. Facial expressions of maximum smile and forceful eye closure were not reproducible. The limited coordination of various groups of facial muscles contributed to the lack of reproducibility of these facial expressions. 4D imaging is a useful clinical tool for the assessment of facial expressions. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the impacts of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive method.

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael G; Guo, Yuming

    2012-05-15

    Ultraviolet radiation exposure during an individuals' lifetime is a known risk factor for the development of skin cancer. However, less evidence is available on assessing the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. This study aims to assess the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive measure of exposure. We recruited 180 participants (73 males, 107 females) aged 18-83 years. Digital imaging of skin hyperpigmentation (skin damage) and skin wrinkling (skin aging) on the facial region was measured. Lifetime sun exposure (presented as hours) was calculated from the participants' age multiplied by the estimated annual time outdoors for each year of life. We analyzed the effects of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging. We adjust for the influence of age, sex, occupation, history of skin cancer, eye color, hair color, and skin color. There were non-linear relationships between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Younger participant's skin is much more sensitive to sun exposure than those who were over 50 years of age. As such, there were negative interactions between lifetime sun exposure and age. Age had linear effects on skin damage and skin aging. The data presented showed that self reported lifetime sun exposure was positively associated with skin damage and skin aging, in particular, the younger people. Future health promotion for sun exposure needs to pay attention to this group for skin cancer prevention messaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of acne and facial post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation on quality of life and self-esteem of newly admitted Nigerian undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Akinboro, Adeolu Oladayo; Ezejiofor, Ogochukwu Ifeanyi; Olanrewaju, Fatai Olatunde; Oripelaye, Mufutau Muphy; Olabode, Olatunde Peter; Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward; Onayemi, Emmanuel Olaniyi

    2018-01-01

    Background Acne and facial post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation are relatively common clinical conditions among adolescents and young adults, and inflict psychosocial injuries on sufferers. Objective To document the psychosocial and self-esteem implications of acne and facial hyperpigmentation on newly admitted undergraduates. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 undergraduates. Demographics and clinical characteristics were obtained and acne was graded using the US Food and Drug Administration 5-category global system of acne classification. Participants completed the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES), and data were analyzed using SPSS 20. Results Mean age of acne onset was 16.24 ± 3.32 years. There were 168 (84.0%) cases categorized as almost clear, 24 (12.0%) as mild acne, 4 (2.0%) as moderate acne and 4 (2.0%) as severe acne. Acne with facial hyperpigmentation, compared to acne without hyperpigmentation, was associated with significant level of anxiety in 30 participants (26.5% vs 10.3%, p=0.004) and emotional distress in 40 (35.4% vs 10.3%, p<0.001). Acne severity correlated with total CADI score but not with total RSES score. Quality of life (QoL) was significantly reduced among acne patients with facial hyperpigmentation (1.77±1.62, vs 1.07±1.02, p<0.001) compared to those without hyperpigmentation. Acne and facial hyperpigmentation was associated with social life interference, avoidance of public facilities, poor body image and self-esteem and perception of worse disease. There was no association between gender and QoL but acne was related to a reduction of self-worth. Low self-esteem was present in 1.5%, and severe acne was associated with an occasional feeling of uselessness in the male gender. Conclusion Acne with facial hyperpigmentation induces poorer QoL and self-esteem is impaired only in severe acne. Beyond the medical treatment of acne, dermatologists should routinely

  2. The impact of acne and facial post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation on quality of life and self-esteem of newly admitted Nigerian undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Adeolu Oladayo; Ezejiofor, Ogochukwu Ifeanyi; Olanrewaju, Fatai Olatunde; Oripelaye, Mufutau Muphy; Olabode, Olatunde Peter; Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward; Onayemi, Emmanuel Olaniyi

    2018-01-01

    Acne and facial post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation are relatively common clinical conditions among adolescents and young adults, and inflict psychosocial injuries on sufferers. To document the psychosocial and self-esteem implications of acne and facial hyperpigmentation on newly admitted undergraduates. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 undergraduates. Demographics and clinical characteristics were obtained and acne was graded using the US Food and Drug Administration 5-category global system of acne classification. Participants completed the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES), and data were analyzed using SPSS 20. Mean age of acne onset was 16.24 ± 3.32 years. There were 168 (84.0%) cases categorized as almost clear, 24 (12.0%) as mild acne, 4 (2.0%) as moderate acne and 4 (2.0%) as severe acne. Acne with facial hyperpigmentation, compared to acne without hyperpigmentation, was associated with significant level of anxiety in 30 participants (26.5% vs 10.3%, p =0.004) and emotional distress in 40 (35.4% vs 10.3%, p <0.001). Acne severity correlated with total CADI score but not with total RSES score. Quality of life (QoL) was significantly reduced among acne patients with facial hyperpigmentation (1.77±1.62, vs 1.07±1.02, p <0.001) compared to those without hyperpigmentation. Acne and facial hyperpigmentation was associated with social life interference, avoidance of public facilities, poor body image and self-esteem and perception of worse disease. There was no association between gender and QoL but acne was related to a reduction of self-worth. Low self-esteem was present in 1.5%, and severe acne was associated with an occasional feeling of uselessness in the male gender. Acne with facial hyperpigmentation induces poorer QoL and self-esteem is impaired only in severe acne. Beyond the medical treatment of acne, dermatologists should routinely assess the QoL and give attention to treatment of facial

  3. Using a colorimeter to develop an intrinsic silicone shade guide for facial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Over, L M; Andres, C J; Moore, B K; Goodacre, C J; Muñoz, C A

    1998-12-01

    To determine if using CIE L*a*b* color measurements of white facial skin could be correlated to those of silicone shade samples that visually matched the skin. Secondly, to see if a correlation in color measurements could be achieved between the silicone shade samples and duplicated silicone samples made using a shade-guide color formula. A color booth was designed according to ASTM specifications, and painted using a Munsell Value 8 gray. A Minolta colorimeter was used to make facial skin measurements on 15 white adults. The skin color was duplicated using custom-shaded silicone samples. A 7-step wedge silicone shade guide was then fabricated, representing the commonly encountered thicknesses when fabricating facial prostheses. The silicone samples were then measured with the Minolta colorimeter. The readings were compared with the previous L*a*b* readings from the corresponding patient's skin measurements, and the relative color difference was then calculated. Silicone samples were fabricated and analyzed for three of the patients to determine if duplication of the visually matched silicone specimen was possible using the silicone color formula, and if the duplicates were visually and colorimetrically equivalent to each other. The color difference Delta E and chromaticity was calculated, and the data were analyzed using a coefficient-of-variation formula expressed by percent. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was performed to determine if a correlation existed between the skin and the silicone samples at the p < or = .05 level. The highest correlation was found in the b* dimension for silicone thicknesses of 1 to 4 mm. For silicone thicknesses of 6 to 10 mm, the highest correlation was found in the L* dimension. All three dimensions had positive correlations (R2 > 0), but only the 1-mm and 4-mm b* readings were very strong. Patient and silicone L*a*b* measurement results showed very little change in the a* axis, while the L* and b* measurements

  4. Use of Fat Grafts in Facial Reconstruction on the Wounded Soldiers From the First World War (WWI) by Hippolyte Morestin (1869-1919).

    PubMed

    Benmoussa, Nadia; Hansen, Kevin; Charlier, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    During the Great War of 1914 to 1918, spectacular progress was made in the field of facial reconstruction. The sheer number and severity of facial lesions inflicted during the fighting obliged French and German surgeons to take a close interest in the treatment of patients wounded in such a manner. As head surgeon of the fifth division "blessés de la face" at the hospital of Val-de-Grace, Hippolyte Morestin was responsible for one of the largest surgical departments specializing in facial surgery and reconstruction during the war. During his time of service, he developed various surgical techniques such as autoplasties using cartilaginous and adipose grafts to reconstruct tissue defects. This study focuses primarily on the adipose graft techniques and their aesthetic outcome used by Morestin during and in the aftermath of World War I. This is a historical descriptive study. Our research is based on documents available at the museum and archives of the Val-de-Grace Army Health Service (hospital activity reports, pre- and postoperative patient photographs, newspaper clippings, documented accounts of ward nurses, wax anatomy models). Thirty-four clinical cases published by Hippolyte Morestin dealing with facial reconstruction during the World War I were studied. Fat was mainly used to fill craniofacial substance losses after carrying out often complex reconstructions. The surgical technique is well documented and subdivided into 3 succeeding procedures. Most of the time, the grafts were of autologous origin but sometimes heterologous samples were used. Although the primary objective was to increase volume, an improved quality of skin healing and better skin flexibility were observed. The fat thus allowed the filling of substance losses, and its positive effects on scarring were noticed even before the regenerative properties of the stem cells present in body fat were discovered. Hippolyte Morestin can be named one of the pioneers of facial reconstruction. A

  5. The Prevalence of Cosmetic Facial Plastic Procedures among Facial Plastic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Moayer, Roxana; Sand, Jordan P; Han, Albert; Nabili, Vishad; Keller, Gregory S

    2018-04-01

    This is the first study to report on the prevalence of cosmetic facial plastic surgery use among facial plastic surgeons. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency with which facial plastic surgeons have cosmetic procedures themselves. A secondary aim is to determine whether trends in usage of cosmetic facial procedures among facial plastic surgeons are similar to that of nonsurgeons. The study design was an anonymous, five-question, Internet survey distributed via email set in a single academic institution. Board-certified members of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) were included in this study. Self-reported history of cosmetic facial plastic surgery or minimally invasive procedures were recorded. The survey also queried participants for demographic data. A total of 216 members of the AAFPRS responded to the questionnaire. Ninety percent of respondents were male ( n  = 192) and 10.3% were female ( n  = 22). Thirty-three percent of respondents were aged 31 to 40 years ( n  = 70), 25% were aged 41 to 50 years ( n  = 53), 21.4% were aged 51 to 60 years ( n  = 46), and 20.5% were older than 60 years ( n  = 44). Thirty-six percent of respondents had a surgical cosmetic facial procedure and 75% has at least one minimally invasive cosmetic facial procedure. Facial plastic surgeons are frequent users of cosmetic facial plastic surgery. This finding may be due to access, knowledge base, values, or attitudes. By better understanding surgeon attitudes toward facial plastic surgery, we can improve communication with patients and delivery of care. This study is a first step in understanding use of facial plastic procedures among facial plastic surgeons. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Folliculotropism in pigmented facial macules: Differential diagnosis with reflectance confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Persechino, Flavia; De Carvalho, Nathalie; Ciardo, Silvana; De Pace, Barbara; Casari, Alice; Chester, Johanna; Kaleci, Shaniko; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Longo, Caterina; Farnetani, Francesca; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2018-03-01

    Pigmented facial macules are common on sun damage skin. The diagnosis of early stage lentigo maligna (LM) and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) is challenging. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been proven to increase diagnostic accuracy of facial lesions. A total of 154 pigmented facial macules, retrospectively collected, were evaluated for the presence of already-described RCM features and new parameters depicting aspects of the follicle. Melanocytic nests, roundish pagetoid cells, follicular infiltration, bulgings from the follicles and many bright dendrites and infiltration of the hair follicle (ie, folliculotropism) were found to be indicative of LM/LMM compared to non-melanocytic skin neoplasms (NMSNs), with an overall sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 83%. Concerning NMSNs, solar lentigo and lichen planus-like keratosis resulted better distinguishable from LM/LMM because usually lacking malignant features and presenting characteristic diagnostic parameters, such as epidermal cobblestone pattern and polycyclic papillary contours. On the other hand, distinction of pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK) resulted more difficult, and needing evaluation of hair follicle infiltration and bulging structures, due to the frequent observation of few bright dendrites in the epidermis, but predominantly not infiltrating the hair follicle (estimated specificity for PAK 53%). A detailed evaluation of the components of the folliculotropism may help to improve the diagnostic accuracy. The classification of the type, distribution and amount of cells, and the presence of bulging around the follicles seem to represent important tools for the differentiation between PAK and LM/LMM at RCM analysis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Radiofrequency facial rejuvenation: evidence-based effect.

    PubMed

    el-Domyati, Moetaz; el-Ammawi, Tarek S; Medhat, Walid; Moawad, Osama; Brennan, Donna; Mahoney, My G; Uitto, Jouni

    2011-03-01

    Multiple therapies involving ablative and nonablative techniques have been developed for rejuvenation of photodamaged skin. Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) is emerging as a gentler, nonablative skin-tightening device that delivers uniform heat to the dermis at a controlled depth. We evaluated the clinical effects and objectively quantified the histologic changes of the nonablative RF device in the treatment of photoaging. Six individuals of Fitzpatrick skin type III to IV and Glogau class I to II wrinkles were subjected to 3 months of treatment (6 sessions at 2-week intervals). Standard photographs and skin biopsy specimens were obtained at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after the start of treatment. We performed quantitative evaluation of total elastin, collagen types I and III, and newly synthesized collagen using computerized histometric and immunohistochemical techniques. Blinded photographs were independently scored for wrinkle improvement. RF produced noticeable clinical results, with high satisfaction and corresponding facial skin improvement. Compared with the baseline, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean of collagen types I and III, and newly synthesized collagen, while the mean of total elastin was significantly decreased, at the end of treatment and 3 months posttreatment. A limitation of this study is the small number of patients, yet the results show a significant improvement. Although the results may not be as impressive as those obtained by ablative treatments, RF is a promising treatment option for photoaging with fewer side effects and downtime. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reconstruction Techniques of Choice for the Facial Cosmetic Units.

    PubMed

    Russo, F; Linares, M; Iglesias, M E; Martínez-Amo, J L; Cabo, F; Tercedor, J; Costa-Vieira, R; Toledo-Pastrana, T; Ródenas, J M; Leis, V

    2017-10-01

    A broad range of skin flaps can be used to repair facial surgical defects after the excision of a tumor. The aim of our study was to develop a practical guideline covering the most useful skin grafts for each of the distinct facial cosmetic units. This was a multicenter study in which 10 dermatologists with extensive experience in reconstructive surgery chose their preferred technique for each cosmetic unit. The choice of flaps was based on personal experience, taking into account factors such as suitability of the reconstruction technique for the specific defect, the final cosmetic result, surgical difficulty, and risk of complications. Each dermatologist proposed 2 flaps in order of preference for each cosmetic subunit. A score of 10 was given to the first flap and a score of 5 to the second. The total score obtained for each of the options proposed by the participating dermatologists was used to draw up a list of the 3 best grafts for each site. There was notable unanimity of criteria among most of the dermatologists for reconstructive techniques such as the glabellar flap for defects of the medial canthus of the eye, the bilateral advancement flag flap or H flap for the forehead, the rotary door flap for the auricle of the ear, the Mustarde flap for the infraorbital cheek, the O-Z rotation flap for the scalp, the Tenzel flap for the lower eyelid, and the island flap for the upper lip. The results of this study will be useful as a practical guide to choosing the best reconstruction technique for each of the facial cosmetic units. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy-Based Facial Rejuvenation: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Britt, Christopher J; Marcus, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The market for nonsurgical, energy-based facial rejuvenation techniques has increased exponentially since lasers were first used for skin rejuvenation in 1983. Advances in this area have led to a wide range of products that require the modern facial plastic surgeon to have a large repertoire of knowledge. To serve as a guide for current trends in the development of technology, applications, and outcomes of laser and laser-related technology over the past 5 years. We performed a review of PubMed from January 1, 2011, to March 1, 2016, and focused on randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and clinical practice guidelines including case control, case studies and case reports when necessary, and included 14 articles we deemed landmark articles before 2011. Three broad categories of technology are leading non-energy-based rejuvenation technology: lasers, light therapy, and non-laser-based thermal tightening devices. Laser light therapy has continued to diversify with the use of ablative and nonablative resurfacing technologies, fractionated lasers, and their combined use. Light therapy has developed for use in combination with other technologies or stand alone. Finally, thermally based nonlaser skin-tightening devices, such as radiofrequency (RF) and intense focused ultrasonography (IFUS), are evolving technologies that have changed rapidly over the past 5 years. Improvements in safety and efficacy for energy-based treatment have expanded the patient base considering these therapies viable options. With a wide variety of options, the modern facial plastic surgeon can have a frank discussion with the patient regarding nonsurgical techniques that were never before available. Many of these patients can now derive benefit from treatments requiring significantly less downtime than before while the clinician can augment the treatment to maximize benefit to fit the patient's time schedule.

  10. Hyperspectral imaging for detection of cholesterol in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanič, Matija; Bjorgan, Asgeir; Larsson, Marcus; Marraccini, Paolo; Strömberg, Tomas; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2015-03-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high levels of cholesterol in the blood and is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Early detection of hypercholesterolemia is necessary to prevent onset and progress of cardiovascular disease. Optical imaging techniques might have a potential for early diagnosis and monitoring of hypercholesterolemia. In this study, hyperspectral imaging was investigated for this application. The main aim of the study was to identify spectral and spatial characteristics that can aid identification of hypercholesterolemia in facial skin. The first part of the study involved a numerical simulation of human skin affected by hypercholesterolemia. A literature survey was performed to identify characteristic morphological and physiological parameters. Realistic models were prepared and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain hyperspectral images. Based on the simulations optimal wavelength regions for differentiation between normal and cholesterol rich skin were identified. Minimum Noise Fraction transformation (MNF) was used for analysis. In the second part of the study, the simulations were verified by a clinical study involving volunteers with elevated and normal levels of cholesterol. The faces of the volunteers were scanned by a hyperspectral camera covering the spectral range between 400 nm and 720 nm, and characteristic spectral features of the affected skin were identified. Processing of the images was done after conversion to reflectance and masking of the images. The identified features were compared to the known cholesterol levels of the subjects. The results of this study demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging of facial skin can be a promising, rapid modality for detection of hypercholesterolemia.

  11. Polylactic acid vs. polyacrylamide hydrogel for treatment of facial lipoatrophy: a randomized controlled trial [Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales (ANRS) 132 SMILE].

    PubMed

    Lafaurie, M; Dolivo, M; Girard, P-M; May, T; Bouchaud, O; Carbonnel, E; Madelaine, I; Loze, B; Porcher, R; Molina, J-M

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the noninferiority of polyacrylamide hydrogel (PH) vs. polylactic acid (PLA) for the treatment of facial lipoatrophy in HIV-infected adults. A randomized, blinded, multicentre, noninferiority 96-week study was carried out. Patients with facial lipoatrophy were randomly assigned to receive intradermal injections with PH or PLA, and were blinded to the filler. The primary efficacy endpoint was patient satisfaction at week 48 assessed using a visual analogue scale score (VAS). Secondary efficacy end-points included cheek thickness and skin-fold, lipoatrophy grading and quality of life. Safety was assessed by the reporting of adverse events. A total of 148 patients were included in the study; 93% were men, the median age was 47 years, the median CD4 count was 528 cells/μL, and the median duration of antiretroviral therapy was 12 years. Mean VAS increased from 2.8 at baseline to 7.1 and 7.5 in the PLA and PH arms, respectively, at week 48 (P=0.0002 for noninferiority) and was sustained at week 96 (6.7 and 7.9 in the PLA and PH arms, respectively; P=0.003 for noninferiority). Cheek thickness and skin-fold increases and lipoatrophy improvement were similar in the two arms. Quality of life remained unchanged or improved depending on the questionnaire used. In injected patients, subcutaneous nodules emerged in 28 (41%) and 26 (37%) patients in the PLA and PH arms, respectively (P=0.73). Four patients in the PH arm developed severe inflammatory nodules, a median of 17 months after the last injection. PH and PLA have similar efficacies in the treatment of facial lipoatrophy, but PH may be associated with more delayed inflammatory nodules. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  12. Surface Facial Electromyography, Skin Conductance, and Self-Reported Emotional Responses to Light- and Season-Relevant Stimuli in Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Kathryn Tierney; Rohan, Kelly J.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Mahon, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Learned associations between depressive behavior and environmental stimuli signaling low light availability and winter season may play a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether light and season environmental cues elicit emotional responses that are distinct in individuals with SAD. Methods Twenty-four currently depressed SAD participants were compared to 24 demographically-matched controls with no depression history on emotional responses to outdoor scenes captured under two light intensity (i.e., clear, sunny vs. overcast sky) and three season (i.e., summer with green leaves, fall with autumn foliage, and winter with bare trees) conditions. Emotion measures included surface facial electromyography (EMG) activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions, skin conductance, and self-reported mood state on the Profile of Mood States Depression–Dejection Subscale. Results Light intensity was a more salient cue than season in determining emotional reactions among SAD participants. Relative to controls, SAD participants displayed more corrugator activity, more frequent significant skin conductance responses (SCR), greater SCR magnitude, and more self-reported depressed mood in response to overcast stimuli and less corrugator activity, lower SCR magnitude, and less self-reported depressed mood in response to sunny stimuli. Limitations Study limitations include the single, as opposed to repeated, assessment and the lack of a nonseasonal depression group. Conclusions These findings suggest that extreme emotional reactivity to light-relevant stimuli may be a correlate of winter depression; and future work should examine its potential onset or maintenance significance. PMID:21600661

  13. Facial neuropathy with imaging enhancement of the facial nerve: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Sehreen; Jensen, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    A young women developed unilateral facial neuropathy 2 weeks after a motor vehicle collision involving fractures of the skull and mandible. MRI showed contrast enhancement of the facial nerve. We review the literature describing facial neuropathy after trauma and facial nerve enhancement patterns with different causes of facial neuropathy. PMID:25574155

  14. BMI and WHR Are Reflected in Female Facial Shape and Texture: A Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christine; Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3–10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception. PMID:28052103

  15. A novel method for real-time skin impedance measurement during radiofrequency skin tightening treatments.

    PubMed

    Harth, Yoram; Lischinsky, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    The thermal effects of monopolar and bipolar radiofrequency (RF) have been proven to be beneficial in skin tightening. Nevertheless, these effects were frequently partial or unpredictable because of the uncontrolled nature of monopolar or unipolar RF and the superficial nature of energy flow for bipolar or tripolar configurations. One of the hypotheses for lack or predictability of efficacy of the first-generation RF therapy skin tightening systems is lack of adaptation of delivered power to differences in individual skin impedance. A novel multisource phase-controlled system was used (1 MHz, power range 0-65 W) for treatment and real-time skin impedance measurements in 24 patients (EndyMed PRO™; EndyMed, Cesarea, Israel). This system allows continuous real-time measurement of skin impedance delivering constant energy to the patient skin independent of changes in its impedance. More than 6000 unique skin impedance measurements on 22 patients showed an average session impedance range was 215-584 Ohm with an average of 369 Ohm (standard deviation of 49 Ohm). Analyzing individual pulses (total of 600 readings) showed a significant decrease in impedance during the pulse. These findings validate the expected differences in skin impedance between individual patients and in the same patients during the treatment pulse. Clinical study on 30 patients with facial skin aging using the device has shown high predictability of efficacy (86.7% of patients had good results or better at 3 months' follow-up [decrease of 2 or more grades in Fitzpatrick's wrinkle scale]). The real-time customization of energy according to skin impedance allows a significantly more accurate and safe method of nonablative skin tightening with more consistent and predictable results. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  17. Effect of a Facial Muscle Exercise Device on Facial Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ui-jae; Kwon, Oh-yun; Jung, Sung-hoon; Ahn, Sun-hee; Gwak, Gyeong-tae

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The efficacy of facial muscle exercises (FMEs) for facial rejuvenation is controversial. In the majority of previous studies, nonquantitative assessment tools were used to assess the benefits of FMEs. Objectives This study examined the effectiveness of FMEs using a Pao (MTG, Nagoya, Japan) device to quantify facial rejuvenation. Methods Fifty females were asked to perform FMEs using a Pao device for 30 seconds twice a day for 8 weeks. Facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area were measured sonographically. Facial surface distance, surface area, and volumes were determined using a laser scanning system before and after FME. Facial muscle thickness, cross-sectional area, midfacial surface distances, jawline surface distance, and lower facial surface area and volume were compared bilaterally before and after FME using a paired Student t test. Results The cross-sectional areas of the zygomaticus major and digastric muscles increased significantly (right: P < 0.001, left: P = 0.015), while the midfacial surface distances in the middle (right: P = 0.005, left: P = 0.047) and lower (right: P = 0.028, left: P = 0.019) planes as well as the jawline surface distances (right: P = 0.004, left: P = 0.003) decreased significantly after FME using the Pao device. The lower facial surface areas (right: P = 0.005, left: P = 0.006) and volumes (right: P = 0.001, left: P = 0.002) were also significantly reduced after FME using the Pao device. Conclusions FME using the Pao device can increase facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area, thus contributing to facial rejuvenation. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:29365050

  18. The Development of White-Asian Categorization: Contributions from Skin Color and Other Physiognomic Cues

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Yarrow; Dotsch, Ron; Clark, Amelia R.; Stepanova, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the development of racial categorizations of faces spanning the European–East Asian (“White–Asian”) categorical continuum in children between the ages of four and nine as well as adults. We employed a stimulus set that independently varied skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, allowing the contribution of each to be assessed independently and in interaction with each other. Results demonstrated substantial development across this age range in children’s ability to draw on both sorts of cue, with over twice as much variance explained by stimulus variation in adults than children. Nonetheless, children were clearly sensitive to both skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, suggesting that understanding of the White-Asian category boundary develops in a somewhat different way than understanding of the White-Black category boundary, in which attention to features other than skin color appear only somewhat later. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for theories of social categorization. PMID:27355683

  19. The Development of White-Asian Categorization: Contributions from Skin Color and Other Physiognomic Cues.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Yarrow; Dotsch, Ron; Clark, Amelia R; Stepanova, Elena V

    2016-01-01

    We examined the development of racial categorizations of faces spanning the European-East Asian ("White-Asian") categorical continuum in children between the ages of four and nine as well as adults. We employed a stimulus set that independently varied skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, allowing the contribution of each to be assessed independently and in interaction with each other. Results demonstrated substantial development across this age range in children's ability to draw on both sorts of cue, with over twice as much variance explained by stimulus variation in adults than children. Nonetheless, children were clearly sensitive to both skin color and other aspects of facial physiognomy, suggesting that understanding of the White-Asian category boundary develops in a somewhat different way than understanding of the White-Black category boundary, in which attention to features other than skin color appear only somewhat later. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for theories of social categorization.

  20. Clinical characteristics of patients with facial psoriasis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Syed Nong Chek, Sharifah Rosniza; Robinson, Suganthy; Mohd Affandi, Azura; Baharum, Nurakmal

    2016-10-01

    Psoriasis involving the face is visible and can cause considerable emotional distress to patients. Its presence may also confer a poorer prognosis for the patient. This study sought to evaluate the characteristics of facial psoriasis in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study conducted using data from the Malaysian Psoriasis Registry from 2007 to 2011. Specific risk factors, i.e., age, age of onset, gender, duration of disease, obesity group, body surface area, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), family history of psoriasis, nail involvement, psoriatic arthritis, phototherapy, systemic therapy, clinic visit, days of work/school, and hospital admission due to psoriasis in the last 6 months were analyzed. A total of 48.4% of patients had facial psoriasis. Variables significantly associated with facial psoriasis are younger age, younger age of onset of psoriasis of ≤ 40 years, male, severity of psoriasis involving >10% of the body surface area, higher DLQI of >10, nail involvement, and history of hospitalization due to psoriasis. This study found that facial psoriasis is not as rare as previously thought. Ambient ultraviolet light, sebum, and contact with chemicals from facial products may reduce the severity of facial psoriasis, but these factors do not reduce the prevalence of facial psoriasis. The association with younger age, younger age of onset, higher percentage of body surface area involvement, higher DLQI of > 10, nail involvement, and hospitalization due to psoriasis support the notion that facial psoriasis is a marker of severe disease. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of a novel fractional unipolar radiofrequency device on facial tightening: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Hye; Byun, Eun Jung; Lee, Sang Jun; Song, Kye Yong; Kim, Hei Sung

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that radiofrequency (RF) energy is safe and effective for improving skin laxity. Unlike monopolar and bipolar devices, little has been studied with the unipolar hand piece. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel fractional unipolar RF device on facial tightening. This was a retrospective, single-center study of 14 subjects with age-related facial laxity who underwent five sessions of fractional unipolar RF at an interval of 2 weeks, and then followed-up for 3 months. Standardized photos were taken at baseline and at 3-months follow-up, and were assessed by two independent dermatologists using a 4-point scale (0=no improvement, 1=mild improvement, 2=moderate improvement, 3=significant improvement). Punch biopsies (2 mm) were performed and a questionnaire was used to evaluate the patient's satisfaction and the incidence of adverse reactions. Fourteen subjects with mild to moderate age-related facial laxity were included in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 49.7 years (range 32-80). 35.7% of the subjects showed significant improvement, 50% moderate improvement, and 14.3% slight improvement of facial laxity in their follow-up photos. About 85.7% of the patients replied that they were either greatly satisfied or satisfied with the results at 3-months follow-up. Skin biopsies revealed an increase in collagen in the dermis. None of the subjects experienced any serious adverse events during or after the procedure. Our findings suggest that fractional Unipolar RF can be safely performed on the face and is effective in skin tightening. It has a great advantage over other forms of RF by being entirely painless. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Randomized, Investigator-Blinded Comparison of Two Topical Regimens in Fitzpatrick Skin Types III-VI With Moderate to Severe Facial Hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Vanaman Wilson, Monique J; Jones, Isabela T; Bolton, Joanna; Larsen, Lisa; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2017-11-01

    Purpose: Though hydroquinone (HQ) remains the gold standard for treatment of hyperpigmentation, concerns about its safety have prompted the development of HQ-free topical skin lightening systems. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of a new HQ-free system and a popular HQ-based system for the improvement of facial hyperpigmentation and photoaging in darker skin types. This investigator-blinded trial randomized 30 subjects of Fitzpatrick skin types III to VI with moderate to severe hyperpigmentation to a new 7-product HQ-free system or a 7-product HQ-based system for 12 weeks. At 4, 8, and 12 week follow-up visits, a blinded investigator assessed efficacy and tolerability using standardized scales. Subjects also performed a self-assessment at each visit. Both the HQ-free and HQ-based systems produced significant improvements in Overall Hyperpigmentation that were sustained through week 12 (P=0.008, 0.0003). The HQ-based system demonstrated better improvement in overall hyperpigmentation at weeks 4, 8, 12 (P=0.01, 0.001, 0.003, respectively). Mottled Pigmentation Area Severity Index (MoPASI) scores improved with both systems (P=0.02, 0.01), with no statistically significant differences between the two treatment groups. Subject-rated hyperpigmentation was not different between groups. Subjects reported significantly more discomfort with the HQ-free system at week 8 (P=0.02); otherwise, measures of irritation were the same between groups. All irritation was described as mild to moderate. At week 12, 100% of subjects in the HQ-free group and 92.3% of subjects in the HQ-based group were satisfied with their outcome. Both a new HQ-free skincare system and a widely-available HQ-based system improved hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin types III to VI. Though the HQ-based system produced greater improvement in hyperpigmentation when compared to the HQ-free system, there was no difference in MoPASI scores between the treatment groups. Subjects were satisfied with

  3. Facial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rajarshi; Gopalkrishnan, Kulandaswamy

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the incidence of facial fractures along with age, gender predilection, etiology, commonest site, associated dental injuries, and any complications of patients operated in Craniofacial Unit of SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital. This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of OMFS, SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad from January 2003 to December 2013. Data were recorded for the cause of injury, age and gender distribution, frequency and type of injury, localization and frequency of soft tissue injuries, dentoalveolar trauma, facial bone fractures, complications, concomitant injuries, and different treatment protocols.All the data were analyzed using statistical analysis that is chi-squared test. A total of 1146 patients reported at our unit with facial fractures during these 10 years. Males accounted for a higher frequency of facial fractures (88.8%). Mandible was the commonest bone to be fractured among all the facial bones (71.2%). Maxillary central incisors were the most common teeth to be injured (33.8%) and avulsion was the most common type of injury (44.6%). Commonest postoperative complication was plate infection (11%) leading to plate removal. Other injuries associated with facial fractures were rib fractures, head injuries, upper and lower limb fractures, etc., among these rib fractures were seen most frequently (21.6%). This study was performed to compare the different etiologic factors leading to diverse facial fracture patterns. By statistical analysis of this record the authors come to know about the relationship of facial fractures with gender, age, associated comorbidities, etc.

  4. Accuracy of computer-assisted navigation: significant augmentation by facial recognition software.

    PubMed

    Glicksman, Jordan T; Reger, Christine; Parasher, Arjun K; Kennedy, David W

    2017-09-01

    Over the past 20 years, image guidance navigation has been used with increasing frequency as an adjunct during sinus and skull base surgery. These devices commonly utilize surface registration, where varying pressure of the registration probe and loss of contact with the face during the skin tracing process can lead to registration inaccuracies, and the number of registration points incorporated is necessarily limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of novel facial recognition software for image guidance registration. Consecutive adults undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) were prospectively studied. Patients underwent image guidance registration via both conventional surface registration and facial recognition software. The accuracy of both registration processes were measured at the head of the middle turbinate (MTH), middle turbinate axilla (MTA), anterior wall of sphenoid sinus (SS), and nasal tip (NT). Forty-five patients were included in this investigation. Facial recognition was accurate to within a mean of 0.47 mm at the MTH, 0.33 mm at the MTA, 0.39 mm at the SS, and 0.36 mm at the NT. Facial recognition was more accurate than surface registration at the MTH by an average of 0.43 mm (p = 0.002), at the MTA by an average of 0.44 mm (p < 0.001), and at the SS by an average of 0.40 mm (p < 0.001). The integration of facial recognition software did not adversely affect registration time. In this prospective study, automated facial recognition software significantly improved the accuracy of image guidance registration when compared to conventional surface registration. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  5. The Safety and Efficacy of Treatment With a 1,927-nm Diode Laser With and Without Topical Hydroquinone for Facial Hyperpigmentation and Melasma in Darker Skin Types.

    PubMed

    Vanaman Wilson, Monique J; Jones, Isabela T; Bolton, Joanna; Larsen, Lisa; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen

    2018-04-13

    The nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser is theoretically a safe and effective treatment for hyperpigmentation and melasma in darker skin and may potentiate topical cosmeceutical delivery. To evaluate the use of a nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser with and without topical 2% hydroquinone (HQ) cream for moderate-to-severe facial hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin Types III-V. Forty adults underwent 4 laser treatments at 2-week intervals and were randomized to daily application of 2% HQ cream or moisturizer. Follow-ups were conducted 4 and 12 weeks after the final laser treatment. Hydroquinone and moisturizer groups demonstrated Mottled Pigmentation Area and Severity Index improvements of approximately 50% at post-treatment Weeks 4 and 12. Blinded investigator-assessed hyperpigmentation and photodamage improved significantly for both the groups at post-treatment Weeks 4 and 12. Subject satisfaction improved significantly in both the groups by post-treatment Week 4. Although investigator-rated Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores were significantly better in the HQ group at post-treatment Week 12, satisfaction was higher among those using moisturizer. No adverse events were noted. The nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser produced significant improvement in hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin Types III-V by 4 weeks, with maintenance of results at 12 weeks after treatment even without HQ.

  6. A case report on a burned ear: Elastic memory of cartilage following temporary burial in a skin pocket.

    PubMed

    Visscher, D O; van Zuijlen, P P M

    2017-05-01

    Preserving exposed ear cartilage following a facial burn remains a major challenge. Normally, burned ear cartilage cannot be preserved in case of a full thickness burn of the overlying skin, and the cartilage has to be surgically removed. Sometimes, reconstructions can be performed at a later stage. We report a case where burned ear cartilage was directly surgically buried in a retroauricular skin pocket showing remarkable elastic memory: the buried ear cartilage, in this case the antihelix, regenerated over time and regained its original position protruding from the facial area. This case illustrates that ear cartilage is highly resilient, even when it has sustained significant thermal damage, and can be buried in a retroauricular skin pocket to avoid radical excision of the framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies in fat grafting: Part III. Fat grafting irradiated tissue--improved skin quality and decreased fat graft retention.

    PubMed

    Garza, Rebecca M; Paik, Kevin J; Chung, Michael T; Duscher, Dominik; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2014-08-01

    Following radiation therapy, skin becomes fibrotic and can present a difficult problem for reconstructive surgeons. There is an increasing belief that fat grafting under irradiated skin can reverse the damage caused by radiation. The present study evaluated the effect of fat grafting on irradiated skin, along with fat graft quality and retention rates in irradiated tissue. Nine adult Crl:NU-Foxn1 CD-1 mice underwent 30-Gy external beam irradiation of the scalp. Four weeks after irradiation, scalp skin from irradiated and nonirradiated mice was harvested and compared histologically for dermal thickness, collagen content, and vascular density. Human fat grafts were then injected in the subcutaneous plane of the scalp. Skin assessment was performed in the irradiated group at 2 and 8 weeks after grafting, and fat graft retention was measured at baseline and every 2 weeks up to 8 weeks after grafting using micro-computed tomography. Finally, fat graft samples were explanted at 8 weeks, and quality scoring was performed. Fat grafting resulted in decreased dermal thickness, decreased collagen content, and increased vascular density in irradiated skin. Computed tomographic analysis revealed significantly decreased fat graft survival in the irradiated group compared with the nonirradiated group. Histologic scoring of explanted fat grafts demonstrated no difference in quality between the irradiated and nonirradiated groups. Fat grafting attenuates dermal collagen deposition and vessel depletion characteristic of radiation fibrosis. Although fat graft retention rates are significantly lower in irradiated than in nonirradiated tissue, the quality of retained fat between the groups is similar.

  8. The Hand-Foot Skin Reaction and Quality of Life Questionnaire: An Assessment Tool for Oncology.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Roger T; Keating, Karen N; Doll, Helen A; Camacho, Fabian

    2015-07-01

    Skin toxicity (hand-foot syndrome/hand-foot skin reaction, HFS/R) related to antineoplastic therapy is a significant issue in oncology practice, with potentially large impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQL). A patient-reported questionnaire, the hand-foot skin reaction and quality of life (HF-QoL) questionnaire was developed to measure the HFS/R symptoms associated with cancer therapeutic agents and their effect on daily activities. The validity and reliability of the HF-QoL questionnaire was tested in a randomized trial of capecitabine with sorafenib/placebo in 223 patients with locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer. Other measures completed included patient ratings of condition severity, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast cancer (FACT-B), and the clinician-rated National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE), version 3.0, hand-foot skin reaction grade. The psychometric properties of the HF-QoL tested included structural validity, internal consistency, construct validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness. Finally, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was estimated. The HF-QoL instrument comprises a 20-item symptom scale and an 18-item daily activity scale. Each scale demonstrated excellent measurement properties and discriminated between NCI-CTCAE grade and patient-rated condition severity with large effect sizes. The daily activity scale had excellent internal consistency and correlated with the FACT-B and HF-QoL symptom scores. Both HF-QoL scale scores increased linearly with increasing patient-rated condition severity. The MCIDs were estimated as 5 units for daily activities and 8 units for symptoms mean scores. The HF-QoL was sensitive to symptoms and HRQL issues associated with HFS/R among participants treated with capecitabine with and without sorafenib. The HF-QoL appears suitable for assessing the HRQL impairment associated with HFS/R to cancer therapies. Skin

  9. Extra-facial melasma: clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C G; Fiss, D V C; Borges da Costa, J A T; de Carvalho, R R; Bauermann, G; Cestari, T F

    2013-09-01

    Extra-facial melasma is a prevalent dermatosis in some populations with special characteristics in relation to its clinical aspects and probable etiopathogenic factors. Few studies have attempted to address this alteration of pigmentation, which has become a challenge in clinical Dermatology. To assess the clinical histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of extra-facial melasma, comparing affected, and unaffected sites. Case-control study with 45 patients in each group (melasma and disease-free volunteers), assessing their clinical characteristics. In 36 patients, biopsies were performed on the lesion and the normal perilesional skin. Specimens were stained with HE and Fontana-Masson, and melanocytes analysed by immunohistochemistry. Objective measurements were accomplished by a specifically designed image analysis software. The melasma group had a mean age ± SD of 56.67 ± 8 years, the majority of them were women (86.7%) and 82.1% of the female cases had reached menopause. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of presence of comorbidities, use of medications or hormone therapies. For extra-facial melasma patients, family history of this dermatose and of previous facial melasma was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The HE staining showed increased rectification and basal hyperpigmentation, solar elastosis, and collagen degeneration in the pigmented area (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in melanin density in melasma biopsies, but the immunohistochemical tests did not detect a difference between the groups in terms of number of melanocytes. Extra-facial melasma appears to be related to menopause, family history, and personal history of facial melasma, in the studied population. Histopathology revealed a pattern similar to what has been described for facial melasma, with signs of solar degeneration, and a similar number of melanocytes, when comparing patients, and controls, suggesting that

  10. Late outcomes after grafting of the severely burned face: a quality improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Philp, Lauren; Umraw, Nisha; Cartotto, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches to surgical management of the severely burned face are described, but there are few objective outcome studies. The purpose of this study was to perform a detailed evaluation of the late outcomes in adult patients who have undergone grafting using a standardized surgical and rehabilitation approach for full-thickness (FT) facial burns to identify areas for improvement in the treatment strategy of authors. This was a prospective observational study in which patients who had undergone grafting for FT facial burns by the senior investigator at a regional burn centre between 1999 and 2010 were examined by a single evaluator. The surgical approach included tangential excision based on the facial aesthetic units, temporary cover with allograft then autografting with scalp skin preferentially, split grafts for the upper eyelid, and FT grafts for the lower eyelid. Rehabilitation included compression (uvex and or soft cloth), scar massage, and silicone gel sheeting. Of 35 patients with facial grafts, 14 subjects (age 43 ± 16 years with 22 ± 21% TBSA burns) returned for late follow-up at 40 ± 33 months (range, 5-91 months). A mean of four facial aesthetic units per patient were grafted (range, 1-9 units), with six full facial grafts performed. Scalp was used as donor in 10 of 14 cases. Scalp donor sites were well tolerated with minor alopecia visible in only one case although the donor site visibly extended slightly past the hairline in two cases. Color match with native skin was rated at 8.8 ± 0.8 of 10 when scalp skin was used compared with 7.5 ± 1.6 with other donor sites (P = .06). On the lip and chin, hypertrophic scars were significantly worse compared with the rest of the facial grafts (Vancouver scar scale 8 ± 2 vs 3 ± 1, P < .01). Sensory recovery was poor with overall moving two-point discrimination at 11 ± 3 mm (range, 4-15 mm), and monofilament light touch was 3.8 ± 0.6. Graft borders were significantly more elevated than graft seams. On

  11. Skin-to-skin contact and/or oral 25% dextrose for procedural pain relief for term newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Chermont, Aurimery Gomes; Falcão, Luis Fábio Magno; de Souza Silva, Eduardo Henrique Laurindo; de Cássia Xavier Balda, Rita; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to compare the efficacy of oral 25% dextrose treatment and/or skin-to-skin contact for analgesia in term newborns during intramuscular injection of a hepatitis B vaccine. A prospective, randomized, partially blinded, clinical trial was performed with 640 healthy term newborns. Infants at 12 to 72 hours of life were assigned randomly to receive an intramuscular injection of hepatitis B vaccine in the right thigh according to 4 analgesia groups, that is, no analgesia (routine); oral 25% dextrose treatment, given 2 minutes before the injection; skin-to-skin contact, initiated 2 minutes before the injection and persisting throughout the procedure; and a combination of the oral dextrose treatment and skin-to-skin contact strategies. For all groups, Neonatal Facial Coding System and Neonatal Infant Pain Scale scores were evaluated before the procedure, during thigh cleansing, during the injection, and 2 minutes after the injection. Premature Infant Pain Profile scores also were assessed for all infants. Pain scores were compared among the 4 groups. The use of oral 25% dextrose treatment reduced the duration of procedural pain in the studied population. Skin-to-skin contact decreased injection pain and duration. The combination of the 2 analgesic measures was more effective than either measure separately for term newborns. Nonpharmacologic analgesic measures were effective for the treatment of procedural pain in term infants. The combination of oral 25% dextrose treatment and skin-to-skin contact acted synergistically to decrease acute pain in healthy neonates.

  12. Retinoids: Literature Review and Suggested Algorithm for Use Prior to Facial Resurfacing Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Patrick J; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A-containing products have been used topically since the early 1940s to treat various skin conditions. To date, there are four generations of retinoids, a family of Vitamin A-containing compounds. Tretinoin, all-trans-retinoic acid, is a first-generation, naturally occurring, retinoid. It is available, commercially, as a gel or cream. The authors conducted a complete review of all studies, clinical- and basic science-based studies, within the literature involving tretinoin treatment recommendations for impending facial procedures. The literature currently lacks definitive recommendations for the use of tretinoin-containing products prior to undergoing facial procedures. Tretinoin pretreatment regimens vary greatly in terms of the strength of retinoid used, the length of the pre-procedure treatment, and the ideal time to stop treatment before the procedure. Based on the current literature and personal experience, the authors set forth a set of guidelines for the use of tretinoin prior to various facial procedures. PMID:27761082

  13. Evaluation of a kojic acid, emblica extract, and glycolic acid formulation compared with hydroquinone 4% for skin lightening.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Yatskayer, Margarita; Bhushan, Pragya; Pillai, Sreekumar; Oresajo, Christian

    2010-09-01

    Hydroquinone has been the standard prescription agent for skin lightening; however, its use recently has become controversial. Hydroquinone is banned in Europe and parts of Asia because of potential long-term consequences, including carcinogenesis when orally consumed. These concerns have stimulated research to develop alternative skin lightening agents with efficacy comparable to hydroquinone but with a better safety profile. This double-blind study examined the skin lightening ability of a topical formulation containing kojic acid, emblica extract, and glycolic acid compared with prescription generic hydroquinone cream 4%. Eighty multiethnic participants with mild to moderate facial dyschromia were randomly assigned to use the study product or hydroquinone 4% twice daily for 12 weeks to evaluate product efficacy, tolerability, and safety using investigator assessment, participant assessment, and dermospectrophotometry. Study results demonstrated efficacy parity between the study product and hydroquinone 4%. Thus this novel skin lightening preparation is an alternative to hydroquinone 4% for participants with mild to moderate facial dyschromia.

  14. Automatic Contour Extraction of Facial Organs for Frontal Facial Images with Various Facial Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Seiji; Takahashi, Hisanori; Tange, Akira; Kikuchi, Kohki

    This study deals with a method to realize automatic contour extraction of facial features such as eyebrows, eyes and mouth for the time-wise frontal face with various facial expressions. Because Snakes which is one of the most famous methods used to extract contours, has several disadvantages, we propose a new method to overcome these issues. We define the elastic contour model in order to hold the contour shape and then determine the elastic energy acquired by the amount of modification of the elastic contour model. Also we utilize the image energy obtained by brightness differences of the control points on the elastic contour model. Applying the dynamic programming method, we determine the contour position where the total value of the elastic energy and the image energy becomes minimum. Employing 1/30s time-wise facial frontal images changing from neutral to one of six typical facial expressions obtained from 20 subjects, we have estimated our method and find it enables high accuracy automatic contour extraction of facial features.

  15. Three-Dimensional Accuracy of Facial Scan for Facial Deformities in Clinics: A New Evaluation Method for Facial Scanner Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi-Jiao; Xiong, Yu-Xue; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the practical accuracy (PA) of optical facial scanners for facial deformity patients in oral clinic was evaluated. Ten patients with a variety of facial deformities from oral clinical were included in the study. For each patient, a three-dimensional (3D) face model was acquired, via a high-accuracy industrial "line-laser" scanner (Faro), as the reference model and two test models were obtained, via a "stereophotography" (3dMD) and a "structured light" facial scanner (FaceScan) separately. Registration based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm was executed to overlap the test models to reference models, and "3D error" as a new measurement indicator calculated by reverse engineering software (Geomagic Studio) was used to evaluate the 3D global and partial (upper, middle, and lower parts of face) PA of each facial scanner. The respective 3D accuracy of stereophotography and structured light facial scanners obtained for facial deformities was 0.58±0.11 mm and 0.57±0.07 mm. The 3D accuracy of different facial partitions was inconsistent; the middle face had the best performance. Although the PA of two facial scanners was lower than their nominal accuracy (NA), they all met the requirement for oral clinic use.

  16. Lip and Lower Lid Supporting Prosthetic Appliance: A Unique Approach of Treating Unilateral Facial Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Pawah, Salil; Sikri, Arpit; Rexwal, Pushpanjali; Aggarwal, Prachi

    2017-01-01

    Along with function, aesthetics plays an important role in treating partially or completely edentulous patients. Ageing, trauma, tooth loss and neuromuscular disorders have a high impact on tonicity of facial musculature, elasticity of skin as well as function of muscles. Patients affected with Bell’s palsy face functional, aesthetic as well as psychological impairment. Common problems are the partial closure of upper eyelid, sagging of lower eyelid and drooping of angle of mouth leading to facial asymmetry, along with difficulty in eating, drinking and speaking. The key to aesthetic restoration is to support and harmonize the collapsed facial musculature with the help of various prosthodontic treatment approaches. This case report attempts to focus on treating completely edentulous patient affected with Bell’s palsy with special prosthesis supporting angle of mouth and lower eyelid using novel technique. PMID:28658922

  17. Stress and skin disease quality of life: the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity social concerns.

    PubMed

    Dixon, L J; Witcraft, S M; McCowan, N K; Brodell, R T

    2018-04-01

    Stress is an important factor in the onset, exacerbation and reoccurrence of many skin diseases. Little is known about psychological risk factors that affect the association between stress and dermatological conditions. One relevant factor that may modulate this link is anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns - the propensity to respond fearfully to anxiety-related sensations (e.g. sweating, flushing) owing to perceived social consequences (e.g. rejection or humiliation). To gain insight into psychological factors affecting skin disease, we examined the moderating role of AS social concerns in the relationship between stress and skin disease quality of life (QoL). Participants [n = 237 (161 female), mean ± SD age 34·18 ± 9·57 years] with active skin disease symptoms were recruited online and completed questionnaires assessing stress, AS social concerns, skin disease QoL and global skin disease symptom severity. AS social concerns moderated the association between stress and skin-related emotional and social functioning in adults with skin disease. Stress was a significant predictor of the impairment associated with skin disease. Stress was linked to skin disease-related emotional and functional impairment associated with skin disease among individuals with high AS social concerns. These results highlight the potential for AS reduction interventions to break the vicious cycle of stress and skin disease symptoms and to improve psychosocial well-being in dermatology patients. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. The impact of skin diseases on quality of life: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, G; Burgos, C; Nova, J; Hernández, F; González, C; Reyes, M I; Córdoba, N; Arévalo, Á; Meléndez, E; Colmenares, J; Ariza, S; Hernández, G

    2017-04-01

    To date, no formal study has been published regarding how Colombian patients with skin disorders could be affected according to their perception of disease. To determine the impact in quality of life of skin diseases in a Colombian population. This multicenter study included patients with skin disease from almost the whole country. Individuals >18 years old; of any gender; with any skin disease and who signed informed consent, were included. We applied the Colombian validated version of the Skindex-29 instrument. A total of 1896 questionnaires had sufficient information for the analyses. No significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics of patients who returned the questionnaire incomplete vs. complete, were found. Participants mean age was 41.5 years. There were no statistical differences in men vs. women regarding the global (p=0.37), symptoms (p=0.71) and emotions (p=0.32) domains, whereas statistical differences were found in the function domain (p=0.04; Mann-Whitney U test). Psoriasis, contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, hair disorders, Hansen's disease, scars, hyperhidrosis and genital human papillomavirus disease scored the highest. Skindex-29 score variability as a result of differences in the location of the skin lesions, their inflammatory or non-inflammatory nature, and the start of therapy. Even the most localized or asymptomatic skin lesion in our population leads to a disruption at some level of patient's wellness. This study adds well supported scientific data of the burden of skin diseases worldwide. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. PRFM enhance wound healing process in skin graft.

    PubMed

    Reksodiputro, Mirta; Widodo, Dini; Bashiruddin, Jenny; Siregar, Nurjati; Malik, Safarina

    2014-12-01

    Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery often used skin graft on defects that cannot be covered primarily by a local flap. However, wound healing using skin graft is slow, most of the time the graft is contractured and the take of graft is not optimal. Platelet rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) is a new generation of concentrated platelets that produce natural fibrin and reported to speed up the healing process. Application of PRFM in the skin graft implants is expected to increase the survival of the graft. We used porcine as animal models to elucidate the effect of autologous PRFM on wound healing in full-thickness (FTSG) and split-thickness (STSG) skin grafts. Survival level of the skin graft was determined by using ImageJ software based on the formation of collagen type 1 and graft take. We observed that the use of PRFM in FTSG and STSG increased type 1 collagen formation. We also found that PRFM addition in STSG gave the best skin graft take. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Facial and bodily correlates of family background.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd, Lynda G; Perrett, David I

    2006-09-22

    It has been suggested that absence of the father during early childhood has long-reaching effects on reproductive strategy and development of offspring. This paper reports two studies designed to investigate the physical characteristics of daughters associated with father absence. Study 1 used a facial averaging method to produce composite images of faces of women whose parents separated during their childhood (who were 'father absent'), women whose parents remained together, but had poor quality relationships and women whose parents were together and had good quality relationships. Images were then rated by male and female judges. Father absence and poor parental relationships were associated with apparent facial masculinity and reduced attractiveness in daughters. Poor parental relationships were also associated with reduced apparent health. Study 2 compared family background with body measurements and found that father absence or a poor quality relationship between parents were associated with body masculinity (high waist-to-hip ratio) and increased weight-for-height and adiposity. These results highlight the possibility of physical masculinization being associated with purported father absence 'effects'.

  1. Women's facial attractiveness is related to their body mass index but not their salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    Han, Chengyang; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Debruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2016-05-01

    Although many theories of human facial attractiveness propose positive correlations between facial attractiveness and measures of actual health, evidence for such correlations is somewhat mixed. Here we sought to replicate a recent study reporting that women's facial attractiveness is independently related to both their adiposity and cortisol. Ninety-six women provided saliva samples, which were analyzed for cortisol level, and their height and weight, which were used to calculate their body mass index (BMI). A digital face image of each woman was also taken under standardized photographic conditions and rated for attractiveness. There was a significant negative correlation between women's facial attractiveness and BMI. By contrast, salivary cortisol and facial attractiveness were not significantly correlated. Our results suggest that the types of health information reflected in women's faces include qualities that are indexed by BMI but do not necessarily include qualities that are indexed by cortisol. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:352-355, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Efficacy and safety of topical depigmenting agent in healthy human fair skin female volunteers: A single-arm study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Saurabh; Chew, Soon-Keong

    2017-11-28

    Skin hyperpigmentation is the darkening of skin due to the increased production of melanin in the body. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a botanical-based Rosa E pigmentation serum in healthy fair skin female volunteers with wrinkles, skin tone, and pigmentation. This was a single-arm, open label study conducted in healthy Indian females; 18 subjects aged 30-55, having fair Caucasian-like skin with at least 2 dark skin pigments with facial wrinkles diagnosed by dermatologist were selected. Rosa E pigmentation serum was applied twice a day for 84 days. Effect was evaluated by (i) instrumental technique (spectrophotometer ® 2600D), (ii) clinically by dermatologist regarding product efficacy (skin tone, antiwrinkle, pigmentation), and (iii) volunteers self-evaluation. The L* value of spectrophotometer reading represents lightness in the skin pigment. Reduction in the pigment was reported from day 14, with significant reductions observed till day 84 compared with baseline. Significant (P < .0001) skin pigmentation lightening was seen on day 14 (1.11) vastly improving on day 84 (1.94) based on photographic assessments. The significant reduction in skin pigment was 76.85%, Felix von Luschan skin color score was 30.24% (P < .0001) with a 7.38-fold reduction in skin tone and 57% reduction in facial wrinkles at day 84 from baseline. Rosa E pigmentation serum was found safe and effective in significant reduction in skin pigments, improvement of skin tone, and antiwrinkle properties instrumentally, clinically, and self-evaluation by volunteers. In these evaluations, best results were seen the longer the Rosa E was used. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-06-12

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners.

  4. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  5. Psychosocial effects of a skin camouflage program in female survivors with head and neck cancer: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Ching; Huang, Bing-Shen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chien; Wu, Shu-Chen; Lai, Yeur-Hur

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a skin camouflage program on disfigurement, self-esteem, social interaction, and body image in female head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. A prospective, repeated-measures, randomized controlled therapeutic intervention design was used. A total of 66 participants were randomly assigned to each group, with 32 in the experimental group and 34 in the control group. The experimental group received a 4-session skin camouflage program, and the control group received routine care. Patients were assessed at 3 time points: baseline assessment (T0) and then at 1, 2, and 3 months (T1, T2, and T3, respectively) after participating in the skin camouflage program. Patients in the experimental group had significantly less facial disfigurement, depression, fear of social interaction, and anxiety regarding social interaction compared with those in the control group. Participants in both groups had significantly lower levels of facial disfigurement, depression, fear of social interaction, anxiety of social interaction, and body image at the final posttest assessment than at the pretest assessment. There were no differences between the groups and within groups with respect to self-esteem. The 3-month skin camouflage program effectively improved facial disfigurement, fear of social interaction, anxiety of social interaction, and body image of female HNC survivors. A survival care plan should include a skin camouflage program to improve body image perception and decrease anxiety after treatment of HNC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Hyperspectral venous image quality assessment for optimum illumination range selection based on skin tone characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous veins localization is usually performed manually by medical staff to find suitable vein to insert catheter for medication delivery or blood sample function. The rule of thumb is to find large and straight enough vein for the medication to flow inside of the selected blood vessel without any obstruction. The problem of peripheral difficult venous access arises when patient’s veins are not visible due to any reason like dark skin tone, presence of hair, high body fat or dehydrated condition, etc. Methods To enhance the visibility of veins, near infrared imaging systems is used to assist medical staff in veins localization process. Optimum illumination is crucial to obtain a better image contrast and quality, taking into consideration the limited power and space on portable imaging systems. In this work a hyperspectral image quality assessment is done to get the optimum range of illumination for venous imaging system. A database of hyperspectral images from 80 subjects has been created and subjects were divided in to four different classes on the basis of their skin tone. In this paper the results of hyper spectral image analyses are presented in function of the skin tone of patients. For each patient, four mean images were constructed by taking mean with a spectral span of 50 nm within near infrared range, i.e. 750–950 nm. Statistical quality measures were used to analyse these images. Conclusion It is concluded that the wavelength range of 800 to 850 nm serve as the optimum illumination range to get best near infrared venous image quality for each type of skin tone. PMID:25087016

  7. Emotional facial activation induced by unconsciously perceived dynamic facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jakob; Davey, Graham C L; Parkhouse, Thomas; Meeres, Jennifer; Scott, Ryan B

    2016-12-01

    Do facial expressions of emotion influence us when not consciously perceived? Methods to investigate this question have typically relied on brief presentation of static images. In contrast, real facial expressions are dynamic and unfold over several seconds. Recent studies demonstrate that gaze contingent crowding (GCC) can block awareness of dynamic expressions while still inducing behavioural priming effects. The current experiment tested for the first time whether dynamic facial expressions presented using this method can induce unconscious facial activation. Videos of dynamic happy and angry expressions were presented outside participants' conscious awareness while EMG measurements captured activation of the zygomaticus major (active when smiling) and the corrugator supercilii (active when frowning). Forced-choice classification of expressions confirmed they were not consciously perceived, while EMG revealed significant differential activation of facial muscles consistent with the expressions presented. This successful demonstration opens new avenues for research examining the unconscious emotional influences of facial expressions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic Factors That Increase Male Facial Masculinity Decrease Facial Attractiveness of Female Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anthony J.; Mitchem, Dorian G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Keller, Matthew C.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

    2014-01-01

    For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153

  9. Genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity decrease facial attractiveness of female relatives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2014-02-01

    For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive