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Sample records for facial skin rejuvenation

  1. Multifractional microablative laser combined with spacially modulated ablative (SMA) technology for facial skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Hersant, Barbara; SidAhmed-Mezi, Mounia; Chossat, Adrien; Meningaud, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for aesthetic procedures, especially facial aesthetic surgery, a new laser technology has been developed for facial skin rejuvenation and wrinkle treatment. The aim of this study was to objectively and subjectively assess the clinical efficacy and safety of Erbium:YAG laser combined with Spatially Modulated Ablation (Er:YAG + SMA) on facial skin rejuvenation. Patients with Fitzpatrick skin type's I-IV were prospectively included. Inclusion criteria consisted of having wrinkles and irregular skin texture. All patients underwent two Er:YAG + SMA sessions (1 month apart) to stimulate tissue regeneration. Er:YAG laser emits wavelength at 2,940 nm and when combined with SMA, a resonance effect is produced in the dermis to promote tissue regeneration. Facial skin elasticity and firmness were objectively assessed by Cutometer at baseline and month 6 (M6). Aesthetic improvement was qualitatively assessed using digital photographs. Patient satisfaction with regard to their facial appearance was self-assessed using the validated FACE-Q scale and the patient-perceived age VAS scale at baseline, M1, and M6. Side effects were investigated after each session. Thirty-four patients were included, 50% (18 patients) had Fitzpatrick skin type III and 41% (14 patients) were smokers. Skin elasticity indices were significantly improved: from 0.335 ± 0.015 at baseline to 0.387 ± 0.021 at M6 (P = 0.05*) for R5 (net elasticity). Skin firmness was assessed through R7 (biological elasticity) and R6 (viscoelastic ratio) at baseline and M6: a significant increase from 0.235 ± 0.01 to 0.2709 ± 0.009 (P < 0.03**) and decrease from 0.486 ± 0.022 to 0.3918 ± 0.023 (P < 0.006***) were respectively observed. A negative value for R6 corresponded to an improved skin condition. The FACE-Q scores were significantly increased from 39.4 ± 6.7 at baseline to 45.4 ± 9.1 at M1 (P < 0.006***) and 50.4 ± 9.8 at

  2. A single-blinded randomised controlled study to determine the efficacy of Omnilux Revive facial treatment in skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jaideep; Birch, Jan; Whitehurst, Colin; Lanigan, Sean W

    2005-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of Omnilux Revive facial treatment in skin rejuvenation, twenty-three volunteers received randomised 20 min treatments three times a week for three weeks to one half of their face, with the untreated side acting as control. Regular assessments were carried out, focusing on parameters of subject satisfaction, photographic assessments, skin elasticity (Cutometer) and skin hydration (Corneometer CM825). Ninety-one percent of the volunteers reported visible changes to their skin. Blinded photographic evaluation reported a clinical response in 59% of the subjects. Objective analysis failed to show statistically significant changes in skin hydration or elasticity. The Omnilux Revive LED lamp is a safe alternative non-ablative skin rejuvenation treatment.

  3. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 1: Patient-Directed

    PubMed Central

    Commander, Sarah Jane; Chang, Daniel; Fakhro, Abdulla; Nigro, Marjory G.; Lee, Edward I.

    2016-01-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin and rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but the patients are in control of this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the first in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. The authors focus on patient-directed facial rejuvenation. It is important, however, to emphasize that even in a patient-directed modality, a physician's involvement through education and guidance is integral to its success. PMID:27478421

  4. Histopathologic and Ultrastructural Features of Gold Thread Implanted in the Skin for Facial Rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Moulonguet, Isabelle; Arnaud, Eric; Plantier, Françoise; da Costa, Patrick; Zaleski, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    The authors report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of gold threads, which were implanted in the cheek subcutis of a 77-year-old woman 10 years ago. These particles did not give rise to any adverse reactions and were fortuitously discovered by the surgeon during a facelift. Histopathology showed a nonpolarizing exogenous material consisting of black oval structures surrounded by a capsule of fibrosis and by a discrete inflammatory reaction with a few giant cells. In some cases, only a long fibrous tract surrounded by a moderate mononucleate infiltrate was observed. The wires were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis revealed a specific peak at 2.2 keV representative of gold that was absent in the control skin sample. As this value is specific for gold, it confirms the presence of the metal in the patient's skin. The histopathologic appearance of gold threads is particularly distinctive and easily recognizable by dermatopathologists.

  5. Radiofrequency facial rejuvenation: evidence-based effect.

    PubMed

    el-Domyati, Moetaz; el-Ammawi, Tarek S; Medhat, Walid; Moawad, Osama; Brennan, Donna; Mahoney, My G; Uitto, Jouni

    2011-03-01

    Multiple therapies involving ablative and nonablative techniques have been developed for rejuvenation of photodamaged skin. Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) is emerging as a gentler, nonablative skin-tightening device that delivers uniform heat to the dermis at a controlled depth. We evaluated the clinical effects and objectively quantified the histologic changes of the nonablative RF device in the treatment of photoaging. Six individuals of Fitzpatrick skin type III to IV and Glogau class I to II wrinkles were subjected to 3 months of treatment (6 sessions at 2-week intervals). Standard photographs and skin biopsy specimens were obtained at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after the start of treatment. We performed quantitative evaluation of total elastin, collagen types I and III, and newly synthesized collagen using computerized histometric and immunohistochemical techniques. Blinded photographs were independently scored for wrinkle improvement. RF produced noticeable clinical results, with high satisfaction and corresponding facial skin improvement. Compared with the baseline, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean of collagen types I and III, and newly synthesized collagen, while the mean of total elastin was significantly decreased, at the end of treatment and 3 months posttreatment. A limitation of this study is the small number of patients, yet the results show a significant improvement. Although the results may not be as impressive as those obtained by ablative treatments, RF is a promising treatment option for photoaging with fewer side effects and downtime. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanofat-derived stem cells with platelet-rich fibrin improve facial contour remodeling and skin rejuvenation after autologous structural fat transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Hai; Zhu, Mao-Guang; Xu, Fang-Tian; He, Ning; Wei, Xiao-Juan; Li, Hong-Mian

    2017-01-01

    Traditional autologous fat transplantation is a common surgical procedure for treating facial soft tissue depression and skin aging. However, the transplanted fat is easily absorbed, reducing the long-term efficacy of the procedure. Here, we examined the efficacy of nanofat-assisted autologous fat structural transplantation. Nanofat-derived stem cells (NFSCs) were isolated, mechanically emulsified, cultured, and characterized. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) enhanced proliferation and adipogenic differentiation of NFSCs in vitro. We then compared 62 test group patients with soft tissue depression or signs of aging who underwent combined nanofat, PRF, and autologous fat structural transplantation to control patients (77 cases) who underwent traditional autologous fat transplantation. Facial soft tissue depression symptoms and skin texture were improved to a greater extent after nanofat transplants than after traditional transplants, and the nanofat group had an overall satisfaction rate above 90%. These data suggest that NFSCs function similarly to mesenchymal stem cells and share many of the biological characteristics of traditional fat stem cell cultures. Transplants that combine newly-isolated nanofat, which has a rich stromal vascular fraction (SVF), with PRF and autologous structural fat granules may therefore be a safe, highly-effective, and long-lasting method for remodeling facial contours and rejuvenating the skin. PMID:28978136

  7. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 2: Physician-Directed—Neuromodulators and Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Ryan M.; Louis, Matthew R.; Cox, Joshua A.; Mohan, Kriti; Lee, Edward I.; Nigro, Marjory G.

    2016-01-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin as well as rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but patients are in control with this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the second in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. Here the authors discuss neuromodulators and fillers in detail, focusing on indications for use, techniques, and common side effects. PMID:27478422

  8. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 3: Physician-Directed—Lasers, Chemical Peels, and Other Noninvasive Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Meaike, Jesse D.; Agrawal, Nikhil; Chang, Daniel; Lee, Edward I.; Nigro, Marjory G.

    2016-01-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin and rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but patients are in control with this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the last in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. Here the authors review the mechanism, indications, and possible complications of lasers, chemical peels, and other commonly used noninvasive modalities. PMID:27478423

  9. Impact on facial rejuvenation with dermatological preparations

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    The treatment options for facial rejuvenation using dermatological, nonsurgical techniques have dramatically increased in the past 10 years. This follows the introduction of botulinum toxin and a variety of dermal fillers. The public interest in noninvasive treatments has changed the market beyond recognition with more physicians involved in providing services to satiate the demand. The impact on the public and medical profession is discussed. PMID:19503770

  10. Effect of a Facial Muscle Exercise Device on Facial Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ui-jae; Kwon, Oh-yun; Jung, Sung-hoon; Ahn, Sun-hee; Gwak, Gyeong-tae

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The efficacy of facial muscle exercises (FMEs) for facial rejuvenation is controversial. In the majority of previous studies, nonquantitative assessment tools were used to assess the benefits of FMEs. Objectives This study examined the effectiveness of FMEs using a Pao (MTG, Nagoya, Japan) device to quantify facial rejuvenation. Methods Fifty females were asked to perform FMEs using a Pao device for 30 seconds twice a day for 8 weeks. Facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area were measured sonographically. Facial surface distance, surface area, and volumes were determined using a laser scanning system before and after FME. Facial muscle thickness, cross-sectional area, midfacial surface distances, jawline surface distance, and lower facial surface area and volume were compared bilaterally before and after FME using a paired Student t test. Results The cross-sectional areas of the zygomaticus major and digastric muscles increased significantly (right: P < 0.001, left: P = 0.015), while the midfacial surface distances in the middle (right: P = 0.005, left: P = 0.047) and lower (right: P = 0.028, left: P = 0.019) planes as well as the jawline surface distances (right: P = 0.004, left: P = 0.003) decreased significantly after FME using the Pao device. The lower facial surface areas (right: P = 0.005, left: P = 0.006) and volumes (right: P = 0.001, left: P = 0.002) were also significantly reduced after FME using the Pao device. Conclusions FME using the Pao device can increase facial muscle thickness and cross-sectional area, thus contributing to facial rejuvenation. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:29365050

  11. Energy-Based Facial Rejuvenation: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Britt, Christopher J; Marcus, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The market for nonsurgical, energy-based facial rejuvenation techniques has increased exponentially since lasers were first used for skin rejuvenation in 1983. Advances in this area have led to a wide range of products that require the modern facial plastic surgeon to have a large repertoire of knowledge. To serve as a guide for current trends in the development of technology, applications, and outcomes of laser and laser-related technology over the past 5 years. We performed a review of PubMed from January 1, 2011, to March 1, 2016, and focused on randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and clinical practice guidelines including case control, case studies and case reports when necessary, and included 14 articles we deemed landmark articles before 2011. Three broad categories of technology are leading non-energy-based rejuvenation technology: lasers, light therapy, and non-laser-based thermal tightening devices. Laser light therapy has continued to diversify with the use of ablative and nonablative resurfacing technologies, fractionated lasers, and their combined use. Light therapy has developed for use in combination with other technologies or stand alone. Finally, thermally based nonlaser skin-tightening devices, such as radiofrequency (RF) and intense focused ultrasonography (IFUS), are evolving technologies that have changed rapidly over the past 5 years. Improvements in safety and efficacy for energy-based treatment have expanded the patient base considering these therapies viable options. With a wide variety of options, the modern facial plastic surgeon can have a frank discussion with the patient regarding nonsurgical techniques that were never before available. Many of these patients can now derive benefit from treatments requiring significantly less downtime than before while the clinician can augment the treatment to maximize benefit to fit the patient's time schedule.

  12. Rejuvenation of aged pig facial skin by transplanting allogeneic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced peripheral blood stem cells from a young pig.

    PubMed

    Harn, Horng-Jyh; Huang, Mao-Hsuan; Huang, Chi-Ting; Lin, Po-Cheng; Yen, Ssu-Yin; Chou, Yi-Wen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Chu, Hen-Yi; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2013-01-01

    Following a stroke, the administration of stem cells that have been treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) can ameliorate functional deficits in both rats and humans. It is not known, however, whether the application of GCSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) to human skin can function as an antiaging treatment. We used a Lanyu pig (Sus scrofa) model, since compared with rodents, the structure of a pig's skin is very similar to human skin, to provide preliminary data on whether these cells can exert antiaging effects over a short time frame. GCSF-mobilized PBSCs from a young male Lanyu pig (5 months) were injected intradermally into the cheek skin of aged female Lanyu pigs, and tissues before and after the cell injections were compared to determine whether this treatment caused skin rejuvenation. Increased levels of collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, and the hyaluronic acid receptor CD44 were observed in both dermal and subcutaneous layers following the injection of PBSCs. In addition, the treated skin tissue was tighter and more elastic than adjacent control regions of aged skin tissue. In the epidermal layer, PBSC injection altered the levels of both involucrin and integrin, indicating an increased rate of epidermal cell renewal as evidenced by reductions in both cornified cells and cells of the spinous layers and increases in the number of dividing cells within the basal layer. We found that the exogenous PBSCs, visualized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, were located primarily in hair follicles and adjacent tissues. In summary, PBSC injection restored young skin properties in the skin of aged (90 months) pigs. On the basis of our preliminary data, we conclude that intradermal injection of GCSF-mobilized PBSCs from a young pig can rejuvenate the skin in aged pigs.

  13. Facial rejuvenation starts in the midface: three-dimensional volumetric facial rejuvenation has beneficial effects on nontreated neighboring esthetic units.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Facial aging is a major indication for minimal invasive esthetic procedures. Dermal fillers are a cornerstone in the approach for facial sculpturing. But where to start? Our concept is midfacial volume restoration in first place. This will result in a healthy and youthful appearance creating a facial V-shape. But midfacial filler injection does not only improve the malar area. It has also beneficial effects on neighboring esthetic units. We report on such improvements in periocular and nasolabial region, upper lips and perioral tissue, and the jaw line and discuss anatomical background. We hypothesize that midfacial deep filler injections also may activate subdermal white adipose tissue stem cells contributing to longer lasting rejuvenation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Development of Facial Rejuvenation Procedures: Thirty Years of Clinical Experience with Face Lifts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Jun; Choi, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation procedures can be roughly divided into face lift surgery and nonoperative, less invasive procedures, such as fat grafts, fillers, botulinum toxin injections, thread lifts, or laserbrasion. Face lift surgery or rhytidectomy is the procedure most directly associated with rejuvenation, due to its fundamental ability to restore the anatomical changes caused by aging. Various methods of face lift surgery have been developed over the last hundred years, thanks to advances in the understanding of facial anatomy and the mechanisms of aging, as well as the dedication of innovative surgeons. However, no generally applicable standard method exists, because the condition of each patient is different, and each operative method has advantages and disadvantages. Specific characteristics of the skin of Asians and their skeletal anatomy should be considered when determining the operative method to be used on Asian patients. Plastic surgeons should improve their ability to analyze the original aesthetic properties and problem areas of each patient, drawing on scientific knowledge about the aging process, and they should develop the skills necessary to perform various rejuvenative techniques. In the present article, we reviewed various face lift procedures and the current methods of modified double plane face lift, based on our clinical experience of over 30 years. PMID:26430622

  15. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C., Jr.; Austen, William G., Jr.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-05-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.

  16. Photopneumatic Technology in Acne Treatment and Skin Rejuvenation: Histological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Tokuya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent reports indicate that a variety of light-based devices have been used for acne treatment and skin rejuvenation. A new technology combining intense pulsed light with negative pressure, photopneumatic technology, has recently attracted interest. The present study assessed acne treatment and skin rejuvenation with this novel approach Subjects and Methods: Acne, 450 nm tip. Five Japanese volunteers (1 male, 4 female; mean age 28.6 yr; skin type III) with mild to moderate/moderate active acne participated. The face was treated with 2 sessions, 2 weeks apart. Biopsies were obtained immediately after the first session and 1 week after the second session, and routinely processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rejuvenation, profusion tip with topical preparation. In 5 Japanese volunteers (3 male, 2 female; mean age 37.6 yr, skin type III), the volar aspect of both forearms was treated with the 530 nm head at P6 (around 12 J/cm2). The left arm was then treated with a pre-infused profusion tip and vacuum only. Four sessions were given, 14-day intervals. Biopsies were taken from both arms 2 weeks after the 2nd session and 3 weeks after the 4th session. One-half of each biopsy was assessed with histo-and immunohistochemistry, and the other with TEM. Results Acne trial: A combination of physical extraction of comedones, mild photothermal damage of the follicle and damage to identified bacilli was noted post-treatment, with macroscopic improvement of the skin. Rejuvenation with profusion: Significant morphological and immunohistochemical differences were seen between the control and profusion-treated arms at the first assessment. These differences became less significant at the 2nd assessment. Conclusions Macroscopically and histologically, photopneumatic technology improved acne lesions, suggesting a synergistic effect between the components of the technology. In skin rejuvenation, the profusion therapy accelerated the regenerative

  17. Extracellular Matrix Modulation: Optimizing Skin Care and Rejuvenation Procedures.

    PubMed

    Widgerow, Alan D; Fabi, Sabrina G; Palestine, Roberta F; Rivkin, Alexander; Ortiz, Arisa; Bucay, Vivian W; Chiu, Annie; Naga, Lina; Emer, Jason; Chasan, Paul E

    2016-04-01

    Normal aging and photoaging of the skin are chronic processes that progress gradually. The extracellular matrix (ECM), constituting over 70% of the skin, is the central hub for repair and regeneration of the skin. As such, the ECM is the area where changes related to photodamage are most evident. Degradation of the ECM with fragmentation of proteins significantly affects cross talk and signaling between cells, the matrix, and its constituents. The accumulation of collagen fragments, amorphous elastin agglutinations, and abnormal cross-linkages between the collagen fragments impedes the ECM from its normal repair and regenerative capacity, which manifests as wrinkled, non-elastic skin. Similar to how the chronic wound healing process requires wound bed preparation before therapeutic intervention, treatment of chronic aging of the skin would likely benefit from a "skin bed preparation" to optimize the outcome of rejuvenation procedures and skin maintenance programs. This involves introducing agents that can combat stress-induced oxidation, proteasome dysfunction, and non-enzymatic cross linkages involved in glycation end products, to collectively modulate this damaged ECM, and upregulate neocollagenesis and elastin production. Agents of particular interest are matrikines, peptides originating from the fragmentation of matrix proteins that exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Peptides of this type (tripeptide and hexapeptide) are incorporated in ALASTIN™ Skin Nectar with TriHex™ technology (ALASTIN Skincare, Inc., Carlsbad, CA), which is designed to target ECM modulation with a goal of optimizing results following invasive and non-invasive dermal rejuvenating procedures.

  18. Corticosteroid transdermal delivery to target swelling, edema and inflammation following facial rejuvenation procedures

    PubMed Central

    Iannitti, T; Rottigni, V; Palmieri, B

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim The use of transdermal therapeutic systems has spread worldwide since they allow effective local drug delivery. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new betamethasone valerate medicated plaster (Betesil®) to manage facial swelling, edema, inflammation, ecchymosis, and hematoma, when applied immediately after a facial rejuvenation procedure. Materials and methods We applied the plaster to the skin of 20 healthy patients for 12 hours immediately after hyaluronic acid-based procedure performed with the aim of erasing facial wrinkles of perioral and nasolabial folds and improving chin and eye contour. A further 20 patients underwent the same cosmetic procedure, but they were treated with an aescin 10% cream (applied immediately after the procedure, in the evening, and the morning after) and served as control group. Results Betesil® application resulted in a significant improvement in swelling/edema/inflammation score, if compared with aescin 10% cream (P < 0.01). As for facial ecchymosis and hematoma around the needle injection track, only two patients in the active treatment group displayed minimal ecchymosis and hematoma. In the control group, two patients presented minimal ecchymosis and three slight hematoma. However, using the ecchymosis/hematoma score, no significant difference between Betesil® and aescin 10% cream groups was observed. Patients’ satisfaction was significantly higher among subjects receiving Betesil®, if compared to patients receiving aescin 10% cream (P < 0.01). Conclusion The present study supports the use of Betesil® plaster immediately after facial cosmetic procedures in order to safely control swelling, edema, and inflammation. PMID:24101860

  19. A possible mechanism for visible-light-induced skin rejuvenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Leonardo; Lubart, Rachel; Friedman, Harry; Lavie, R.

    2004-09-01

    In recent years there has been intensive research in the field of non-ablative skin rejuvenation. This comes as a response to the desire for a simple method of treating rhytids caused by aging, UV exposure and acne scars. In numerous studies intense visible light pulsed systems (20-30J/cm2) are used. The mechanism of action was supposed to be a selective heat induced denaturalization of dermal collagen that leads to subsequent reactive synthesis. In this study we suggest a different mechanism for photorejuvenation based on light induced Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) formation. We irradiated collagen in-vitro with a broad band of visible light, 400-800 nm, 12-22J/cm2, and used the spin trapping coupled with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to detect ROS. In vivo, we used dose 30 J in average (35 for acnis scars, 25 for wrinkles and redness). Irradiated collagen results in hydroxyl and methyl radicals formation. We propose, as a new concept, that visible light at the intensity used for skin rejuvenation, 20-30J/cm2, produces high amounts of ROS which destroy old collagen fibers encouraging the formation of new ones. On the other hand at inner depths of the skin, where the light intensity is much weaker, low amounts of ROS are formed which are well known to stimulate fibroblast proliferation.

  20. Fractional versus ablative erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser resurfacing for facial rejuvenation: an objective evaluation.

    PubMed

    El-Domyati, Moetaz; Abd-El-Raheem, Talal; Abdel-Wahab, Hossam; Medhat, Walid; Hosam, Wael; El-Fakahany, Hasan; Al Anwer, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Laser is one of the main tools for skin resurfacing. Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) was the second ablative laser, after carbon dioxide, emitting wavelength of 2940 nm. Fractional laser resurfacing has been developed to overcome the drawbacks of ablative lasers. We aimed to objectively evaluate the histopathological and immunohistochemical effects of Er:YAG 2940-nm laser for facial rejuvenation (multiple sessions of fractional vs single session of ablative Er:YAG laser). Facial resurfacing with single-session ablative Er:YAG laser was performed on 6 volunteers. Another 6 were resurfaced using fractional Er:YAG laser (4 sessions). Histopathological (hematoxylin-eosin, orcein, Masson trichrome, and picrosirius red stains) and immunohistochemical assessment for skin biopsy specimens were done before laser resurfacing and after 1 and 6 months. Histometry for epidermal thickness and quantitative assessment for neocollagen formation; collagen I, III, and VII; elastin; and tropoelastin were done for all skin biopsy specimens. Both lasers resulted in increased epidermal thickness. Dermal collagen showed increased neocollagen formation with increased concentration of collagen types I, III, and VII. Dermal elastic tissue studies revealed decreased elastin whereas tropoelastin concentration increased after laser resurfacing. Neither laser showed significant difference between their effects clinically and on dermal collagen. Changes in epidermal thickness, elastin, and tropoelastin were significantly more marked after ablative laser. The small number of patients is a limitation, yet the results show significant improvement. Multiple sessions of fractional laser have comparable effects to a single session of ablative Er:YAG laser on dermal collagen but ablative laser has more effect on elastic tissue and epidermis. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, Marc Oliver; Rettinger, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance. Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors. Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:22073066

  2. The efficacy of conditioned media of adipose-derived stem cells combined with ablative carbon dioxide fractional resurfacing for atrophic acne scars and skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bing-Rong; Zhang, Ting; Bin Jameel, Afzaal Ahmed; Xu, Yang; Xu, Yan; Guo, Shi-Lei; Wang, Ying; Permatasari, Felicia; Luo, Dan

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of conditioned medium of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC-CM) on efficacy and side effects after fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing (FxCR) when treating subjects with facial atrophic acne scars or with skin rejuvenation needs. Twenty-two subjects were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups. Nine subjects were included in skin rejuvenation group and thirteen subjects were included in acne scar group, and all subjects underwent three sessions of FxCR. ADSC-CM was applied on FxCR site of one randomly selected face side. Evaluations were done at baseline, 1 week after first treatment, and 1 month after each treatment. The outcome assessments included subjective satisfaction scale; blinded clinical assessment; and the biophysical parameters of roughness, elasticity, skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and the erythema and melanin index. Biopsies taken from one subject in skin rejuvenation group were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and Gomori's aldehyde fuchsin staining. ADSC-CM combined with FxCR increased subject satisfaction, elasticity, skin hydration, and skin elasticity and decreased TEWL, roughness, and the melanin index in both acne scars and skin rejuvenation groups. Histologic analysis showed that ADSC-CM increased dermal collagen density, elastin density, and arranged them in order. ADSC-CM with FxCR is a good combination therapy for treating atrophic acne scars and skin rejuvenation. JSPH2012-082 - Registered 14 Feb 2012.

  3. The Clinical Efficacy of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma Combined with Ultra-Pulsed Fractional CO2 Laser Therapy for Facial Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Qiang; Chang, Peng; Guo, Bingyu; Zhang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser is an efficient, precise, and safe therapeutic intervention for skin refreshing, although accompanied with prolonged edema and erythema. In recent years, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proven to promote wound and soft tissue healing and collagen regeneration. To investigate whether the combination of PRP and ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser had a synergistic effect on therapy for facial rejuvenation. Totally, 13 facial aging females were treated with ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser. One side of the face was randomly selected as experimental group and injected with PRP, the other side acted as the control group and was injected with physiological saline at the same dose. Comprehensive assessment of clinical efficacy was performed by satisfaction scores, dermatologists' double-blind evaluation and the VISIA skin analysis system. After treatment for 3 months, subjective scores of facial wrinkles, skin texture, and skin elasticity were higher than that in the control group. Similarly, improvement of skin wrinkles, texture, and tightness in the experimental group was better compared with the control group. Additionally, the total duration of erythema, edema, and crusting was decreased, in the experimental group compared with the control group. PRP combined with ultra-pulsed fractional CO2 laser had a synergistic effect on facial rejuvenation, shortening duration of side effects, and promoting better therapeutic effect. PMID:27222038

  4. Association Between Facial Rejuvenation and Observer Ratings of Youth, Attractiveness, Success, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Bater, Kristin L.; Papel, Ira D.; Kontis, Theda C.; Byrne, Patrick J.; Boahene, Kofi D. O.; Nellis, Jason C.; Ishii, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Importance Surgical procedures for the aging face—including face-lift, blepharoplasty, and brow-lift—consistently rank among the most popular cosmetic services sought by patients. Although these surgical procedures are broadly classified as procedures that restore a youthful appearance, they may improve societal perceptions of attractiveness, success, and health, conferring an even larger social benefit than just restoring a youthful appearance to the face. Objectives To determine if face-lift and upper facial rejuvenation surgery improve observer ratings of age, attractiveness, success, and health and to quantify the effect of facial rejuvenation surgery on each individual domain. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized clinical experiment was performed from August 30 to September 18, 2016, using web-based surveys featuring photographs of patients before and after facial rejuvenation surgery. Observers were randomly shown independent images of the 12 patients; within a given survey, observers saw either the preoperative or postoperative photograph of each patient to reduce the possibility of priming. Observers evaluated patient age using a slider bar ranging from 30 to 80 years that could be moved up or down in 1-year increments, and they ranked perceived attractiveness, success, and health using a 100-point visual analog scale. The bar on the 100-point scale began at 50; moving the bar to the right corresponded to a more positive rating in these measures and moving the bar to the left, a more negative rating. Main Outcomes and Measures A multivariate mixed-effects regression model was used to understand the effect of face-lift and upper facial rejuvenation surgery on observer perceptions while accounting for individual biases of the participants. Ordinal rank change was calculated to understand the clinical effect size of changes across the various domains after surgery. Results A total of 504 participants (333 women, 165 men, and 6 unspecified; mean

  5. Versatility of erbium YAG laser: from fractional skin rejuvenation to full-field skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, J David

    2011-05-01

    For the laser surgeon, the Er-YAG laser is an invaluable tool that delivers unsurpassed ablation efficiency, and with appropriate functionality (quasi long-pulse feature) provides sufficient tissue coagulation to remodel deep rhytids. As such, the 2940-nm wavelength is well suited for routine laser skin rejuvenation in full-field, fractional, and point-beam modes with additional benefits, including applicability to diverse skin types, short healing times, and a low likelihood of energy-related complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Skin rejuvenation using cosmetic products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Aldag, Caroline; Nogueira Teixeira, Diana; Leventhal, Phillip S

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging is primarily due to alterations in the dermal extracellular matrix, especially a decrease in collagen I content, fragmentation of collagen fibrils, and accumulation of amorphous elastin material, also known as elastosis. Growth factors and cytokines are included in several cosmetic products intended for skin rejuvenation because of their ability to promote collagen synthesis. Matrikines and matrikine-like peptides offer the advantage of growth factor-like activities but better skin penetration due to their much smaller molecular size. In this review, we summarize the commercially available products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines for which there is evidence that they promote skin rejuvenation. PMID:27877059

  7. Efficacy of mesotherapy in facial rejuvenation: a histological and immunohistochemical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    El-Domyati, Moetaz; El-Ammawi, Tarek S.; Moawad, Osama; El-Fakahany, Hasan; Medhat, Walid; Mahoney, Mỹ G.; Uitto, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Background Mesotherapy, commonly known as “biorejuvenation” or “biorevitalization”, is a technique used to rejuvenate the skin by means of a transdermal injection of a multivitamin solution and natural plant extracts that are thought to improve the signs of skin aging. Objectives This prospective study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of mesotherapy applied to periorbital wrinkles and to quantitatively evaluate histological changes in the skin occurring in response to the same treatment. Methods Six volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types III or IV and Glogau class I–III wrinkles were subjected to a three-month course of mesotherapy injections in the periocular area (six sessions administered at two-week intervals). Standard photographs and skin biopsies were obtained from the treatment area at baseline, at the end of treatment, and at three months post-treatment. Quantitative evaluation of collagen types I, III, and VII, newly synthesized collagen, total elastin, and tropoelastin was performed using a computerized morphometric analysis. Results The clinical evaluation of volunteers at baseline, end of treatment, and three months post-treatment revealed no significant differences. Histological and immunostaining analysis of collagen types I, III, and VII, newly synthesized collagen, total elastin, and tropoelastin showed no statistically significant changes (P > 0.05) after mesotherapy injection. Conclusions The present study indicates that mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation does not result in statistically significant histological changes or clinical improvement. PMID:22788806

  8. Vapocoolant Anesthesia for Cosmetic Facial Rejuvenation Injections: A Randomized, Prospective, Split-Face Trial.

    PubMed

    Zeiderman, Matthew R; Kelishadi, Shahrooz Sean; Tutela, John Paul; Rao, Arun; Chowdhry, Saeed; Brooks, Ronald M; Wilhelmi, Bradon J

    2018-01-01

    Background: Minimally invasive cosmetic procedures are the most commonly performed aesthetic techniques by plastic surgeons. Patients are interested in a pain-free experience. Surgeons desire patient satisfaction and time-efficient utilization of office staff and resources. Clinical evidence exists for use of vapocoolant technology to reduce pain associated with intravenous cannulation in the pediatric population and in hemodialysis patients. Applying vapocoolant technology to facial rejuvenation is a novel approach to decrease pain associated with neurotoxin or filler injection. Methods: A randomized, prospective study was conducted, testing 15 subjects receiving filler injections and another 15 patients receiving neurotoxin injections using a split-face model. The vapocoolant spray used was composed of a 95:5 ratio of 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane. Within each group, individual patients randomly received injection (filler or neurotoxin) alone versus injection (filler or neurotoxin) plus vapocoolant on an equivalent half of his or her face. An independent examiner recorded from each patient on a scale of 1 to 10 perceived pain for injection alone versus injection plus vapocoolant spray. Results were calculated as a percentage change of pain scores experienced after injection for each person between the control (nonvapocoolant) and treatment (vapocoolant) sides of the face. Results: Vapocoolant spray at the time of cosmetic facial injections leads to a 59% decrease in perceived pain score with neurotoxin injections (range, 0%-100% change) and 64% decrease in perceived pain score with filler injections (range, 0%-100% change). These results were statistically significant with P < .05. Conclusion: Vapocoolant spray reduces pain associated with facial rejuvenation procedures.

  9. Comparison of efficacy of chemical peeling with 25% trichloroacetic acid and 0.1% retinoic acid for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Selda; Gurel, Mehmet Salih; Gungor, Sule; Tekeli, Omur; Canat, Dilek

    2016-06-01

    Skin aging is a problem which negatively affects the psyche of the person, social relations, as well as work life and health and which compels the patients to find appropriate treatment methods. Numerous treatment methods have been developed in order to delay aging and to reduce the aging effects in addition to having a younger, healthier and more beautiful facial appearance. To compare the efficiency, cosmetic results and possible adverse effects of the peeling treatment with 25% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and 0.1% retinoic acid for facial rejuvenation in patients presenting with skin aging. Fifty female patients in total presenting with medium and advanced degree skin aging were subject to this study. Two separate treatment groups were formed; the first group underwent chemical skin treatment with 25% TCA while the other group was applied with 0.1% retinoic acid treatment. Following the 4 months' treatment the patients were controlled three times in total for post lesional hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, scars, skin irritation and other possible changes per month. The pretreatment and first follow-up visit, and final control images were comparatively evaluated by three observers via specific software. The healing rates of the group subject to retinoic acid were statistically higher (p < 0.05) compared to patients in the TCA group in the final follow-up visit following the treatment according to the first and second observers. On the other hand, according to the third observer, patients applied with retinoic acid presented with higher healing rates compared to those treated with TCA, however; this rate was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The frequency of TCA- and retinoic acid-associated adverse effects was similar in both groups (p > 0.05). As a result of both treatments, a reduction in the quality of life scores as well as a pronounced recovery (p = 0.001) in the quality of life of those patients with skin aging was observed. The photo aging

  10. Comparison of efficacy of chemical peeling with 25% trichloroacetic acid and 0.1% retinoic acid for facial rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Gurel, Mehmet Salih; Gungor, Sule; Tekeli, Omur; Canat, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Skin aging is a problem which negatively affects the psyche of the person, social relations, as well as work life and health and which compels the patients to find appropriate treatment methods. Numerous treatment methods have been developed in order to delay aging and to reduce the aging effects in addition to having a younger, healthier and more beautiful facial appearance. Aim To compare the efficiency, cosmetic results and possible adverse effects of the peeling treatment with 25% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and 0.1% retinoic acid for facial rejuvenation in patients presenting with skin aging. Material and methods Fifty female patients in total presenting with medium and advanced degree skin aging were subject to this study. Two separate treatment groups were formed; the first group underwent chemical skin treatment with 25% TCA while the other group was applied with 0.1% retinoic acid treatment. Following the 4 months’ treatment the patients were controlled three times in total for post lesional hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, scars, skin irritation and other possible changes per month. The pretreatment and first follow-up visit, and final control images were comparatively evaluated by three observers via specific software. Results The healing rates of the group subject to retinoic acid were statistically higher (p < 0.05) compared to patients in the TCA group in the final follow-up visit following the treatment according to the first and second observers. On the other hand, according to the third observer, patients applied with retinoic acid presented with higher healing rates compared to those treated with TCA, however; this rate was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The frequency of TCA- and retinoic acid-associated adverse effects was similar in both groups (p > 0.05). As a result of both treatments, a reduction in the quality of life scores as well as a pronounced recovery (p = 0.001) in the quality of life of those patients

  11. Facial microcirculatory and biomechanical skin properties after single high energy (Er):YAG laser application.

    PubMed

    Medved, Fabian; Wurm, Antonia; Held, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Owing to skin aging and the growing demand for skin rejuvenation, minimal invasive aesthetic treatments such as laser procedures are increasingly coming into focus. However, until now, little has been known about the objective effects of these procedures with respect to skin microcirculation or changes in skin elasticity. Facial skin rejuvenation was performed on 32 volunteers using ablative Erbium: YAG laser. Skin microcirculation and skin elasticity have then been evaluated objectively. Microcirculation (flow, SO 2 , velocity, and rHB) has been analyzed before and directly after the laser session by using the O2C device. Skin elasticity has been evaluated by using the Cutometer device (Uf, Ua, Ur, and Ue) before and directly after the laser treatment, as well as 1 week and then 1, 3, and 6 months post treatment. Further, the outcome for the volunteers regarding their satisfactory level after laser treatment was evaluated. Twenty volunteers were available for a complete follow-up. Microcirculation displayed statistically significant increase in all values to 2 mm depth. The biomechanical skin parameter of firmness of skin displayed statistically significant improvement in superficial skin layer after 6 months. Concerning microcirculation and skin elasticity the ablative Erbium: YAG laser treatment revealed similar effects on the skin like a superficial burn injury. In contrast to the determined skin elasticity parameters, firmness of skin objectively revealed a skin tightening effect after 6 months. Along with the important epidermal effect, the suitability of ablative laser treatment for skin rejuvenation has been proved in a long-term follow-up. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:891-898, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Rejuvenation of Gene Expression Pattern of Aged Human Skin by Broadband Light Treatment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne Lynn S; Bitter, Patrick H; Qu, Kun; Lin, Meihong; Rapicavoli, Nicole A; Chang, Howard Y

    2013-01-01

    Studies in model organisms suggest that aged cells can be functionally rejuvenated, but whether this concept applies to human skin is unclear. Here we apply 3′-end sequencing for expression quantification (“3-seq”) to discover the gene expression program associated with human photoaging and intrinsic skin aging (collectively termed “skin aging”), and the impact of broadband light (BBL) treatment. We find that skin aging was associated with a significantly altered expression level of 2,265 coding and noncoding RNAs, of which 1,293 became “rejuvenated” after BBL treatment; i.e., they became more similar to their expression level in youthful skin. Rejuvenated genes (RGs) included several known key regulators of organismal longevity and their proximal long noncoding RNAs. Skin aging is not associated with systematic changes in 3′-end mRNA processing. Hence, BBL treatment can restore gene expression pattern of photoaged and intrinsically aged human skin to resemble young skin. In addition, our data reveal, to our knowledge, a previously unreported set of targets that may lead to new insights into the human skin aging process. PMID:22931923

  13. Exosomes derived from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells stimulates rejuvenation of human skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Jin; Yoo, Sae Mi; Park, Hwan Hee; Lim, Hye Jin; Kim, Yu-Lee; Lee, Seunghee; Seo, Kwang-Won; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2017-11-18

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) play an important role in cutaneous wound healing, and recent studies suggested that MSC-derived exosomes activate several signaling pathways, which are conducive in wound healing and cell growth. In this study, we investigated the roles of exosomes that are derived from USC-CM (USC-CM Exos) in cutaneous collagen synthesis and permeation. We found that USC-CM has various growth factors associated with skin rejuvenation. Our in vitro results showed that USC-CM Exos integrate in Human Dermal Fibroblasts (HDFs) and consequently promote cell migration and collagen synthesis of HDFs. Moreover, we evaluated skin permeation of USC-CM Exos by using human skin tissues. Results showed that Exo-Green labeled USC-CM Exos approached the outermost layer of the epidermis after 3 h and gradually approached the epidermis after 18 h. Moreover, increased expressions of Collagen I and Elastin were found after 3 days of treatment on human skin. The results showed that USC-CM Exos is absorbed into human skin, it promotes Collagen I and Elastin synthesis in the skin, which are essential to skin rejuvenation and shows the potential of USC-CM integration with the cosmetics or therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians.

    PubMed

    Chan, Nicola P Y; Ho, Stephanie G Y; Yeung, Chi K; Shek, Samantha Y N; Chan, Henry H

    2010-11-01

    Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) is a new modality for photorejuvenation and acne scars which combines carbon dioxide (CO₂) laser ablation with fractional photothermolysis. The objective is to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of a new fractional CO₂ ablative device (Fraxel Re:pair) for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians. Nine patients underwent one full-face treatment. The energy levels ranged from 30-70 mJ with coverage between 30% and 45%. Improvement in skin texture, laxity, wrinkles, enlarged pores, overall pigmentation irregularity, and adverse effects were assessed up to 6 months post-treatment. Standardized photographs using the Canfield Visia CR system® were assessed by two independent observers. Subjective improvement was assessed by patient questionnaires. Nine Chinese patients (skin types III and IV, mean age 44.8) were included. Statistically significant improvements were seen for skin texture, skin laxity, wrinkles, enlarged pores, and acne scars. The post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation rate was 55.5% and 11.1% at 1 and 6 months post-treatment, respectively. Eighty-six percent of patients were overall satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment. Ablative fractional CO₂ laser resurfacing was overall safe and effective for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians. However, in view of the high post-inflammatory rate and the statistically significant but only mild to moderate improvement after a single treatment as observed in this study, there is a need to review the current role of fractional ablative CO₂ laser treatment as compared to fractional non-ablative for skin rejuvenation and acne scar treatment in Asians. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. LATEST LASER AND LIGHT-BASED ADVANCES FOR ETHNIC SKIN REJUVENATION

    PubMed Central

    Elsaie, Mohamed Lotfy; Lloyd, Heather Woolery

    2008-01-01

    Background: Advances in nonablative skin rejuvenation technologies have sparked a renewed interest in the cosmetic treatment of aging skin. More options exist now than ever before to reverse cutaneous changes caused by long-term exposure to sunlight. Although Caucasian skin is more prone to ultraviolet light injury, ethnic skin (typically classified as types IV to VI) also exhibits characteristic photoaging changes. Widespread belief that inevitable or irreversible textural changes or dyspigmentation occurs following laser- or light-based treatments, has been challenged in recent years by new classes of devices capable of protecting the epidermis from injury during treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to review recent clinical advances in the treatment of photoaging changes in ethnic skin. This article provides a basis for the classification of current advances in nonablative management of ethnic skin. PMID:19881986

  16. Beneficial effects of pro-/antioxidant-based nutraceuticals in the skin rejuvenation techniques.

    PubMed

    de Luca, C; Deeva, I; Mikhal'Chik, E; Korkina, L

    2007-04-15

    Modern technologies of skin rejuvenation include many physical and chemical intervention tools--laser irradiation, oxygen and ozone therapy, chemical peels, plastic surgery operations--affecting by different mechanisms the sensitive physiological free radical/antioxidant balance in the skin. All these interventions induce from mild to severe tissue damage, providing beneficial biochemical stimuli for skin re-epithelization and rejuvenation. Paradoxically, free radical production in the course of tissue inflammation helps to combat free radical damage consequent to the ageing process. We have studied two animal models (experimental burn and trichloracetic peeling), reproducing on the Wistar rat the effects generated by the commonly practiced aesthetic medicine procedures of laser resurfacing and chemical peels, demonstrating that the severe oxidative stress induced both systemically and on skin can be modulated by the oral pre- and post treatment administration of specific nutraceutical formulations. Potent antioxidants (RRR-alpha-tocopherol, coenzyme Q10), enhancing antioxidant defences, coupled with mild pro-oxidants, enhancers of a specific immune defense (soy phospholipids, L-methionine), at the blood and the skin levels, proved in fact to be beneficial in vivo, on the rat, for skin healing, trophism and accelerated re-epithelization. Data obtained allow us to predict the possibility of innovative protocols for dermocosmetology, enabling successful lowering of the risk of permanent adverse effects, and prolonging the duration of the beneficial effects of dermocosmetologic procedures.

  17. The comparison of skin rejuvenation effects of vitamin A, fractional laser, and their combination on rat.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Han, Chunyu; Gao, Dong; Jin, Waishu; Liang, Jinning; Xia, Xiujuan

    2018-03-15

    Because of long-term exposure of skin, skin aging is an unavoidable natural law with age. Traditional Vitamin A and novel ablative fractional laser technique both have the effects of skin rejuvenation, and studies have demonstrated both of them have apparent clinical efficacy and histology-improving effects on photo-aging skin. 45 female healthy Wistar rats were selected and the depilation areas of every rat were divided into four regions: control region(Region A), Vitamin A acid region(Region B), combination treatment region(Region C), and fractional laser region(Region D). 0.025% Vitamin A acid cream was applied to Region B and C every day for 3 weeks; Region C and D were irradiated once with 10600nm CO 2 fractional laser on the first day of the trail. The skin tissue was dissected and placed into liquid nitrogen according to the design. The real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting methods were taken to detect the expression changes of miR-29a, Akt, TGF-β, and mRNA of type III pre-collagen. It can be seen from the results of the real-time quantitative PCR that the mRNA expression levels of type III pre-collagen, Akt, and TGF-β in the treatment regions are up-regulated and the expression levels of miR-29a mRNA are down-regulated compared to the Region A. The hybridization tests showed that changes of the expression of type III pre-collagen, Akt gene, miR-29a gene, and TGF-β gene across the experiment regions are all significantly different in the third week, and the expression levels of them all achieve the highest value in the third week, the expression level of miR-29a gene achieves the lowest value in the third week, which are consistent with the results of real-time quantitative PCR. It is indicated that the combination region of Vitamin A acid and fractional laser may lead to low expression of miR-29a, thus the inhibition of downstream Akt activation is loss, Akt activation is enhanced, enhancement of the expression of TGF-β is induced, leading to

  18. The Efficacy, Longevity, and Safety of Combined Radiofrequency Treatment and Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Skin Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyuk; Park, Kui Young; Choi, Sun Young; Koh, Hyun-Ju; Park, Sun-Young; Park, Won-Seok; Bae, Il-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers and radiofrequency (RF) devices have been made in the context of skin rejuvenation and cosmetic surgery. Moreover, combination regimens with both techniques are currently being developed. Objective The present study was designed to examine the clinical and histologic effects of a new needle that incorporates an RF device for HA injections. Methods A new intradermal needle RF device (INNOfill; Pacific Pharma, Korea) was assessed in the present study. In the animal arm, procollagen production was measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the filler volume was quantified by incorporating a dye with filler, and the filler distribution was assessed through the changes in tissue structure. In the human arm, the efficacy of the combination regimen was assessed by using the wrinkle severity rating scale (WSRS). Results In the animal study, RF treatment increased procollagen production in a time-dependent fashion. The total volume was significantly increased with the RF treatment when compared with the filler injections alone, and lasted for up to 7 weeks after treatment. Additionally, the filler distribution was reduced in animals treated with RF when compared with the untreated group. In the human study, the nasolabial folds of subjects treated with RF before filler injections exhibited a significantly greater change in the WSRS score from baseline when compared with the nasolabial folds treated with filler injections alone. Conclusion A new device incorporating RF treatment before HA filler injection may represent a biocompatible and long-lasting advance in skin rejuvenation. PMID:25143672

  19. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study

    PubMed Central

    Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2) and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore’s morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed. PMID:25733918

  20. Picosecond laser with specialized optic for facial rejuvenation using a compressed treatment interval.

    PubMed

    Khetarpal, Shilpi; Desai, Shraddha; Kruter, Laura; Prather, Heidi; Petrell, Kathleen; Depina, Joahinha; Arndt, Kenneth; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2016-10-01

    Studies using a 755 nm picosecond laser with a focus lens array have been reported to be effective for facial wrinkles and pigmentation. This study reports the safety and efficacy using a shorter interval of 2-3 weeks between treatments. Nineteen female subjects and one male subject, primarily Fitzpatrick skin types II and III (one skin type I), who had mild to moderate wrinkles and sun-induced pigmentation were enrolled and treated using the 755 nm PicoSure Laser with focus lens array. The skin was cleansed then wiped with an alcohol wipe prior to treatment. Lidocaine 30% ointment and/or forced air cooling could be used to increase subject comfort. Adjacent pulses, with minimal overlap (10% or less), were delivered to the full face. Subjects received four treatments, performed at 2-3-week intervals. The laser energy used was 0.71 J/cm 2 . The physician administered 3-7 passes with an average total of 6,253 pulses per treatment. Follow-up visits occurred at 1 and 3 months post-last treatment at which the physician scored satisfaction and improvement and subjects scored satisfaction and likelihood to recommend to others. The most common side effects were mild swelling, pain, redness, and crusting, most of which subsided within hours of the treatment, with the latest resolving within 48 hours. This is similar to a previous reported study (Weiss et al. ASLMS 2015) where treatments were performed every 6 weeks with side effects resolving within 24 hours. At the 1 and 3 month follow-up visits, 94% (n = 19) and 93% (n = 15) of subjects scored themselves as satisfied or extremely satisfied with their overall results and 81% and 93% were likely to recommend the treatment based on global assessment, respectively. The treating physician was satisfied with 93% of subject's overall results. Three blinded evaluators were able to correctly identify the baseline from post-treatment photographs in 77% of the subjects at the 1 month follow-up and 69% of the subjects

  1. Meristem Plant Cells as a Sustainable Source of Redox Actives for Skin Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Korkina, Liudmila G.; Mayer, Wolfgang; de Luca, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Recently, aggressive advertisement claimed a “magic role” for plant stem cells in human skin rejuvenation. This review aims to shed light on the scientific background suggesting feasibility of using plant cells as a basis of anti-age cosmetics. When meristem cell cultures obtained from medicinal plants are exposed to appropriate elicitors/stressors (ultraviolet, ultrasound ultraviolet (UV), ultrasonic waves, microbial/insect metabolites, heavy metals, organic toxins, nutrient deprivation, etc.), a protective/adaptive response initiates the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Highly bioavailable and biocompatible to human cells, low-molecular weight plant secondary metabolites share structural/functional similarities with human non-protein regulatory hormones, neurotransmitters, pigments, polyamines, amino-/fatty acids. Their redox-regulated biosynthesis triggers in turn plant cell antioxidant and detoxification molecular mechanisms resembling human cell pathways. Easily isolated in relatively large quantities from contaminant-free cell cultures, plant metabolites target skin ageing mechanisms, above all redox imbalance. Perfect modulators of cutaneous oxidative state via direct/indirect antioxidant action, free radical scavenging, UV protection, and transition-metal chelation, they are ideal candidates to restore photochemical/redox/immune/metabolic barriers, gradually deteriorating in the ageing skin. The industrial production of plant meristem cell metabolites is toxicologically and ecologically sustainable for fully “biological” anti-age cosmetics. PMID:28498360

  2. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J.

    1990-04-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

  3. Multiple minimally invasive Erbium:YAG laser mini-peels for skin rejuvenation: An objective assessment

    PubMed Central

    El-Domyati, Moetaz; El-Ammawi, Tarek S.; Medhat, Walid; Moawad, Osama; Mahoney, Mỹ G.; Uitto, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background As the demand for minimally invasive rejuvenation is increasing, micro-peel resurfacing using Erbium:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG ) laser 2940 nm has been reported for the treatment of photoaged skin without ablation of the epidermis. However, little is known about the efficacy and underlying histologic changes associated with this type of treatment. Aims The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect and objectively quantify the histological changes in response to multiple sessions of Er:YAG laser 2940 nm mini-peels. Patients and methods Six female volunteers of Fitzpatrick skin type III-IV and Glogau’s class I-III wrinkles were subjected to six microresurfacing peels at 2-week intervals using Er:YAG 2940 nm laser at sub-ablative fluences of 2 - 3 J/cm2 to treat periorbital rhytides. Quantitative evaluation of collagen types I, III and VII, newly synthesized collagen, total elastin and tropoelastin was performed by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry coupled with computerized morphometric analysis at base line, end of treatment, and three months post treatment. Results Compared to the base line, evaluation of volunteers revealed obvious clinical improvement in response to Er:YAG mini-peels. Collagen types I, III, and VII, as well as newly synthesized collagen, together with tropoelastin showed a statistically significant increase in response to treatment, while the mean level of total elastin was significantly decreased in response to treatment. However, this was followed by regression of improvement at 3 months post treatment, but was still better than baseline. Conclusions The present study revealed that multiple Er:YAG mini-peels is a promising treatment option for photoaging as it reverses the signs of photoaged skin with little downtime and side effects. However, to maintain the short term improvement achieved after treatment, continued Er:YAG 2940 nm laser mini-peels is required. PMID:22672276

  4. Fractional CO2 Laser: From Skin Rejuvenation to Vulvo-Vaginal Reshaping.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Maurizio; Del Duca, Ester; Negosanti, Francesca; Bonciani, Diletta; Negosanti, Luca; Sannino, Mario; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Nisticò, Steven Paul

    2017-03-01

    The CO 2 laser has become the gold standard treatment in dermatologic surgery for the treatment of a large number of skin and mucosal lesions. The introduction of the fractional micro-ablative technology represented an integration to the ablative resurfacing technique, reducing the healing time and the side effects. Vaginal rejuvenation performed with this technique is a minimally invasive procedure that stimulates internal tissues of the female lower genital tract to regenerate the mucosa, improving tissue trophism and restoring the correct functionality. In our experience, 386 menopausal women affected with vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA) were treated with three section of fractional micro-ablative CO 2 laser. After three treatments, patients reported a complete improvement of the symptoms (59.94% dryness, 56.26% burn, sensation, 48.75% dyspareunia, 56.37% itch, 73.15% soreness, and 48.79% vaginal introitus pain). Fractional micro-ablative CO 2 laser seems to reduce symptoms related to vaginal atrophy. The beneficial effects were reported just after the first session and confirmed 12 months after the last session.

  5. Oxygeneo®—A Unique Three-in-one Treatment of Exfoliation, Infusion, and Oxygenation via the Bohr Effect and TriPollar™ Radiofrequency for Skin Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Deanna; Boonsiri, Metavee; Okawa, Joyce; Dekranes, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxygenation of the skin has been shown to improve cell growth and cell biosynthesis, which can subsequently improve the skin’s appearance.1,2 However, the majority of skin oxygenation techniques are invasive.3,4 A noninvasive skin oxygenation treatment, also known as a carboxytherapy facial, with TriPollar® radiofrequency device has emerged called OxyGeneo™, which is provided by the geneO+™ skin care platform (Pollogen Ltd., Tel Aviv, Israel). Objective: This study addresses the clinical effectiveness of the aforementioned noninvasive skin oxygenation treatment on skin texture, fine lines/wrinkles, and skin pigmentation over an eight-week time period. Methods and materials: Ten patients with fine lines, wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, and rough skin texture received six weekly treatments over a two-month period. Five patients received NeoRevive™ and five received NeoBright™ topical infusions, with the selection made according to each individual’s skin conditions and type. These patients were evaluated using the VISIA complexion analysis system (Canfield Scientific, Inc., Parsippany, New Jersey) and patient and evaluator assessments and satisfaction surveys. Results: Each individual measurement varied by patient, but the change in value of each category that was assessed prior to treatment and post-treatment indicated an improvement. All patients in the study stated an improvement in overall skin appearance, skin texture, brightness, and shininess. Nine out of the 10 patients reported that their skin was softer and had a more youthful appearance after the treatments, and seven out of the 10 patients saw a minor improvement in fine lines and wrinkles. Lastly, five out of the 10 patients noticed an improvement in skin pigmentation. Conclusion: The results indicated the combination of the three-in-one OxyGeneo treatment of exfoliation, infusion and oxygenation using TriPolar radiofrequency prompted an improvement in skin texture and tone. This is

  6. Current Trends in Facial Rejuvenation: An Assessment of ASPS Members' Use of Fat Grafting during Face Lifting.

    PubMed

    Sinno, Sammy; Mehta, Karan; Reavey, Patrick L; Simmons, Christopher; Stuzin, James M

    2015-07-01

    Fat grafting can be used to improve the results of face lifting. The extent to which plastic surgeons use fat grafting in their face-lift practices is unknown. The goals of this study were to understand the current use of fat grafting during facial rejuvenation surgery and identify the most common techniques used. A 28-item questionnaire was formulated for distribution to a randomized cohort of American Society of Plastic Surgeons members. Data were collected and statistically analyzed using Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. A total of 309 questionnaires were collected. The questionnaire revealed that 85.2 percent of respondents use fat grafting during face lifts. Currently, the most common techniques used include abdominal harvest, centrifuge processing, blunt cannula injection without pretunneling, and placing less than 0.1 cc per pass. The deep central malar, lower lid cheek junction, and nasolabial folds are the most commonly injected areas. Combining surgical repositioning of fat with fat grafting offers surgeons a greater degree of aesthetic control for correcting contour in the aging face. Although there is controversy regarding the best method to surgically reposition fat, there is a growing consensus that volume augmentation is preferred by most face-lift surgeons.

  7. Keloid Skin Flap Retention and Resurfacing in Facial Keloid Treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Liang, Weizhong; Song, Kexin; Wang, Youbin

    2018-02-01

    Facial keloids commonly occur in young patients. Multiple keloid masses often converge into a large lesion on the face, representing a significant obstacle to keloid mass excision and reconstruction. We describe a new surgical method that excises the keloid mass and resurfaces the wound by saving the keloid skin as a skin flap during facial keloid treatment. Forty-five patients with facial keloids were treated in our department between January 2013 and January 2016. Multiple incisions were made along the facial esthetic line on the keloid mass. The keloid skin was dissected and elevated as a skin flap with one or two pedicles. The scar tissue in the keloid was then removed through the incision. The wound was covered with the preserved keloid skin flap and closed without tension. Radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen were applied after surgery. Patients underwent follow-up examinations 6 and 12 months after surgery. Of the 45 total patients, 32 patients were cured and seven patients were partially cured. The efficacy rate was 88.9%, and 38 patients (84.4%) were satisfied with the esthetic result. We describe an efficacious and esthetically satisfactory surgical method for managing facial keloids by preserving the keloid skin as a skin flap. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Patient satisfaction and efficacy of accent radiofrequency for facial skin wrinkle reduction

    PubMed Central

    Jaffary, Fariba; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Zarkoob, Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency (RF) is a new technique to treat facial wrinkles. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Accent RF in wrinkle reduction of different areas of the face. Materials and Methods: Patients with mild to severe facial wrinkles were treated with Accent using RF energies of 35-145 W. The average energy used in this study was 83.11 W. Patients received four subsequent weekly RF sessions. Wrinkle improvement was rated by two physicians comparing 6-month post treatment photographs with pretreatment photos. Moreover, patient satisfaction was assessed at 1 and 6 months after the last session of the treatment. Results: A total of 45 women participated in this study. In terms of patient satisfaction one month after the last treatment, 8.9% of the patients declared their dissatisfaction, 53.3% were somehow satisfied, 33.3% were satisfied, and 4.4% were very satisfied. At 6 months, patient satisfaction was as follows: 4.4% dissatisfied, 31.1% somehow satisfied, 46.7% satisfied, and 17.8% very satisfied. Patient satisfaction 6 months after the last treatment was significantly higher than 1 month post treatment (P = 0.006). At 6 months, patient satisfaction was not more than 75% in any treatment areas of the face. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Accent RF may be considered as a possible effective option for facial skin rejuvenation although its efficacy and safety needs to be evaluated further in randomized controlled trials. PMID:24523783

  9. The male beard hair and facial skin - challenges for shaving.

    PubMed

    Maurer, M; Rietzler, M; Burghardt, R; Siebenhaar, F

    2016-06-01

    The challenge of shaving is to cut the beard hair as closely as possible to the skin without unwanted effects on the skin. To achieve this requires the understanding of beard hair and male facial skin biology as both, the beard hair and the male facial skin, contribute to the difficulties in obtaining an effective shave without shaving-induced skin irritation. Little information is available on the biology of beard hairs and beard hair follicles. We know that, in beard hairs, the density, thickness, stiffness, as well as the rates of elliptical shape and low emerging angle, are high and highly heterogeneous. All of this makes it challenging to cut it, and shaving techniques commonly employed to overcome these challenges include shaving with increased pressure and multiple stroke shaving, which increase the probability and extent of shaving-induced skin irritation. Several features of male facial skin pose problems to a perfect shave. The male facial skin is heterogeneous in morphology and roughness, and male skin has a tendency to heal slower and to develop hyperinflammatory pigmentation. In addition, many males exhibit sensitive skin, with the face most often affected. Finally, the hair follicle is a sensory organ, and the perifollicular skin is highly responsive to external signals including mechanical and thermal stimulation. Perifollicular skin is rich in vasculature, innervation and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. This makes perifollicular skin a highly responsive and inflammatory system, especially in individuals with sensitive skin. Activation of this system, by shaving, can result in shaving-induced skin irritation. Techniques commonly employed to avoid shaving-induced skin irritation include shaving with less pressure, pre- and post-shave skin treatment and to stop shaving altogether. Recent advances in shaving technology have addressed some but not all of these issues. A better understanding of beard hairs, beard hair follicles and male

  10. Facial skin color measurement based on camera colorimetric characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Boquan; Zhou, Changhe; Wang, Shaoqing; Fan, Xin; Li, Chao

    2016-10-01

    The objective measurement of facial skin color and its variance is of great significance as much information can be obtained from it. In this paper, we developed a new skin color measurement procedure which includes following parts: first, a new skin tone color checker made of pantone Skin Tone Color Checker was designed for camera colorimetric characterization; second, the chromaticity of light source was estimated via a new scene illumination estimation method considering several previous algorithms; third, chromatic adaption was used to convert the input facial image into output facial image which appears taken under canonical light; finally the validity and accuracy of our method was verified by comparing the results obtained by our procedure with these by spectrophotometer.

  11. Hypodermal delivery of cosmetic actives for improved facial skin morphology and functionality.

    PubMed

    Bojanowski, K

    2013-12-01

    Skin compartments traditionally targeted by cosmetic actives - epidermis and dermis - are anchored and nourished by the underlying hypodermis, which therefore should be a key target for skin-rejuvenating formulations. However, given the difficulty to reach even the superficial layers of the skin, and to its 'unglamorous' fatty composition, the regenerative potential of hypodermis remains largely untapped. Therefore, this study was to investigate the capacity of a cosmetic material to trigger a regenerative response in dermis and epidermis through a selective action on hypodermis. Furthermore, it aimed to establish the effect of such cosmetic material in transbuccal hypodermal delivery form, on the hypodermal precursor cells - the preadipocytes. A combination of grape seed extract and soy phospholipids was formulated and standardized for elastase activity and free radical inhibition. This formulation was then used to contact the hypodermal layer of human skin biopsies and - under a transbuccal delivery vehicle form - the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and its effects were quantified using PCR arrays and histochemistry. Application of the standardized grape/soy material to the hypodermal layer of skin triggered modulation of gene expression in the upper layers of the skin and resulted in the clear morphological improvement at the dermal and epidermal levels. Furthermore, when this material was formulated in a mucoadhesive, intraoral film and applied on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the resulting modulation of gene expression in these cells was consistent with differentiation and detoxification effects. These results suggest that transbuccal formulations of nutraceutical grade cosmetics have potential to induce signal transduction pathways in facial hypodermis, resulting in anti-aging effects throughout all skin compartments, including dermal and epidermal layers. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Visual attention to variation in female facial skin color distribution.

    PubMed

    Fink, Bernhard; Matts, Paul J; Klingenberg, Heiner; Kuntze, Sebastian; Weege, Bettina; Grammer, Karl

    2008-06-01

    Visible skin condition of women is argued to influence human physical attraction. Recent research has shown that people are sensitive to variation in skin color distribution, and such variation affects visual perception of female facial attractiveness, healthiness, and age. The eye gaze of 39 males and females, aged 13 to 45 years, was tracked while they viewed images of shape- and topography-standardized stimulus faces that varied only in terms of skin color distribution. The number of fixations and dwell time were significantly higher when viewing stimulus faces with the homogeneous skin color distribution of young people, compared with those of more elderly people. In accordance with recent research, facial stimuli with even skin tones were also judged to be younger and received higher attractiveness ratings. Finally, visual attention measures were negatively correlated with perceived age, but positively associated with attractiveness judgments. Variation in visible skin color distribution (independent of facial form and skin surface topography) is able to selectively attract people's attention toward female faces, and this higher attention results in more positive statements about a woman's face.

  13. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing of photoaged facial and non-facial skin: histologic and clinical results and side effects.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Gordon H; Travis, Heather M; Tucker, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    CO(2) fractional ablation offers the potential for facial and non-facial skin resurfacing with minimal downtime and rapid recovery. The purpose of this study was (i) to document the average depths and density of adnexal structures in non-lasered facial and non-facial body skin; (ii) to determine injury in ex vivo human thigh skin with varying fractional laser modes; and (iii) to evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of treatments. Histologies were obtained from non-lasered facial and non-facial skin from 121 patients and from 14 samples of excised lasered thigh skin. Seventy-one patients were evaluated after varying energy (mJ) and density settings by superficial ablation, deeper penetration, and combined treatment. Skin thickness and adnexal density in non-lasered skin exhibited variable ranges: epidermis (47-105 mum); papillary dermis (61-105 mum); reticular dermis (983-1986 mum); hair follicles (2-14/ HPF); sebaceous glands (2-23/HPF); sweat glands (2-7/HPF). Histological studies of samples from human thigh skin demonstrated that increased fluencies in the superficial, deep and combined mode resulted in predictable deeper levels of ablations and thermal injury. An increase in density settings results in total ablation of the epidermis. Clinical improvement of rhytids and pigmentations in facial and non-facial skin was proportional to increasing energy and density settings. Patient assessments and clinical gradings by the Wilcoxon's test of outcomes correlated with more aggressive settings. Prior knowledge of normal skin depths and adnexal densities, as well as ex vivo skin laser-injury profiles at varying fluencies and densities, improve the safety and efficiency of fractional CO(2) for photorejuvenation of facial and non-facial skin.

  14. Photoaging versus intrinsic aging: a morphologic assessment of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Bhawan, J; Andersen, W; Lee, J; Labadie, R; Solares, G

    1995-04-01

    Histologic studies have become increasingly important in recognizing morphologic differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged skin. Earlier histologic studies have attempted to evaluate these changes by examining anatomical sites which are not comparable, such as face and buttocks. As part of a multicenter study, we have quantitatively examined a panel of 16 histologic features in baseline facial skin biopsies from 158 women with moderate to severe photodamage. When compared to the postauricular area (photo protected), biopsies of the crow's feet area (photo exposed) had a twofold increase in melanocytes and a statistically significant increase in melanocytic atypia (p < .0001) and epidermal melanin (p < .0001). Other epidermal changes included reduced epidermal thickness (p < .01), more compact stratum corneum (p < .0001) and increased granular layer thickness (p < .0001) in the crow's feet skin. There was increased solar elastosis (p < .0001), dermal elastic tissue (p < .0001), melanophages (p < .0001), perivascular inflammation (p < .05) and perifollicular fibrosis (p < .01) but no change in the number of mast cells or dermal mucin in the photo exposed skin. Our data document quantitative differences in photoaged versus intrinsically aged facial skin and provides the groundwork for future studies to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments for photoaged skin.

  15. Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?

    PubMed

    Kim, B Y; Choi, J W; Park, K C; Youn, S W

    2013-02-01

    Enlarged facial pores have been esthetic problems and have become a matter of cosmetic concern. Several factors are supposed to be related to the enlargement of facial pores, although scientific evaluations were not performed yet. To assess the correlation between facial pores and possible relating factors such as age, gender, sebum secretion, skin elasticity, and the presence of acne, using objective bioengineering instruments. Sixty volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, participated in this study. Various parameters of facial pores were assessed using the Robo Skin Analyzer. The facial sebum secretion and skin elasticity were measured using the Sebumeter and the Cutometer, respectively. These data were compared and correlated to examine the possible relationship between facial pores and age, sebum secretion and skin elasticity, according to gender and the presence of acne. Male gender and the existence of acne were correlated with higher number of facial pores. Sebum secretion levels showed positive correlation with facial pores. The R7 parameter of skin elasticity was negatively correlated with facial pores, suggesting increased facial pores with decreased skin elasticity. However, the age and the severity of acne did not show a definite relationship with facial pores. Male, increased sebum and decreased skin elasticity were mostly correlated with facial pore development. Further studies on population with various demographic profiles and more severe acne may be helpful to elucidate the potential effect of aging and acne severity on facial pores. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Scrotal Rejuvenation

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Genital rejuvenation is applicable not only to women (vaginal rejuvenation) but also to men (scrotal rejuvenation). There is an increased awareness, reflected by the number of published medical papers, of vaginal rejuvenation; however, rejuvenation of the scrotum has not received similar attention in the medical literature. Scrotal rejuvenation includes treatment of hair-associated scrotal changes (alopecia and hypertrichosis), morphology-associated scrotal changes (wrinkling and laxity), and vascular-associated scrotal changes (angiokeratomas). Rejuvenation of the scrotum potentially may utilize medical therapy, such as topical minoxidil and oral finasteride, for scrotal alopecia and conservative modalities, such as depilatories and electrolysis, for scrotal hypertrichosis. Lasers and energy-based devices may be efficacious for scrotal hypertrichosis and scrotal angiokeratomas. Surgical intervention is the mainstay of therapy for scrotal laxity; however, absorbable suspension sutures are postulated as a potential intervention to provide an adequate scrotal lift. Hair transplantation for scrotal alopecia and injection of botulinum toxin into the dartos muscle for scrotal wrinkling are hypothesized as possible treatments for these conditions. The interest in scrotal rejuvenation is likely to increase as men and their physicians become aware of both the conditions of the scrotum that may warrant rejuvenation and the potential treatments of the scrotum for these individuals. PMID:29755912

  17. FEM modeling and histological analyses on thermal damage induced in facial skin resurfacing procedure with different CO2 laser pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Zingoni, Tiziano; Di Cicco, Emiliano; Manetti, Leonardo; Pini, Roberto; Fortuna, Damiano

    2011-07-01

    Laser light is nowadays routinely used in the aesthetic treatments of facial skin, such as in laser rejuvenation, scar removal etc. The induced thermal damage may be varied by setting different laser parameters, in order to obtain a particular aesthetic result. In this work, it is proposed a theoretical study on the induced thermal damage in the deep tissue, by considering different laser pulse duration. The study is based on the Finite Element Method (FEM): a bidimensional model of the facial skin is depicted in axial symmetry, considering the different skin structures and their different optical and thermal parameters; the conversion of laser light into thermal energy is modeled by the bio-heat equation. The light source is a CO2 laser, with different pulse durations. The model enabled to study the thermal damage induced into the skin, by calculating the Arrhenius integral. The post-processing results enabled to study in space and time the temperature dynamics induced in the facial skin, to study the eventual cumulative effects of subsequent laser pulses and to optimize the procedure for applications in dermatological surgery. The calculated data where then validated in an experimental measurement session, performed in a sheep animal model. Histological analyses were performed on the treated tissues, evidencing the spatial distribution and the entity of the thermal damage in the collageneous tissue. Modeling and experimental results were in good agreement, and they were used to design a new optimized laser based skin resurfacing procedure.

  18. Skin Rejuvenation and Volume Enhancement with the Micro Superficial Enhanced Fluid Fat Injection (M-SEFFI) for Skin Aging of the Periocular and Perioral Regions.

    PubMed

    Gennai, Alessandro; Zambelli, Alessandra; Repaci, Erica; Quarto, Rodolfo; Baldelli, Ilaria; Fraternali, Giulio; Bernardini, Francesco P

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived stromal and stem cells (ADSC) in autologous fat promises regenerative advantages, and injected into the dermal and subdermal layers, enhances rejuvenation and volume. However, extremely superficial fat injection with current techniques is limited. Efficacy and viability evaluation of fat harvested with extremely small side port (0.3 mm) cannulae without further tissue manipulation for the correction of aging/thin skin in the periocular and perioral regions. Micro-superficial enhanced fluid fat injection (M-SEFFI) harvests adipose tissue with a multi-perforated cannula (0.3 mm), and autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) is added. The tissue is injected into the dermal region of the periocular and perioral zones. Efficacy and viability were evaluated by histological and cell culture analysis. Clinical assessment included retrospective evaluation according to 1 = no effect, 2 = fair effect, 3 = good effect, 4 = excellent effect. Between June 2014 and July 2015, 65 patients (7 men; mean age 49.7 years) were treated with M-SEFFI. No intraoperative complications or visible lumpiness were recorded. Analysis demonstrated mature, viable adipocytes with a strong stromal component. Following PRP addition, there was a greater proliferation noted in the M-SEFFI compared to the SEFFI (0.5 mm). Mean follow-up was 4.1 months. Clinical assessment by surgeons and patients at 1 month was 3.52 and 3.74, and 6 months 3.06 and 2.6 respectively. M-SEFFI is effective and viable for lump free skin rejuvenation and volume enhancement, through the extraction of smoother ADSC rich, autologous fat tissue that does not require further tissue manipulation, to correct skin aging. 4 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Natural Substances for Prevention of Skin Photoaging: Screening Systems in the Development of Sunscreen and Rejuvenation Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, Vladimir; Potapovich, Alla; Albuhaydar, Ahmed R; Mayer, Wolfgang; De Luca, Chiara; Korkina, Liudmila

    2018-04-01

    Solar broadband UV irradiation is commonly regarded as a major causative reason for cutaneous photoaging. The pro-aging molecular pathways and cellular targets affected by UVA+UVB light in human skin have been extensively investigated. Notwithstanding growing knowledge in mechanisms of photoaging, research and development of clinically efficient, nontoxic, and sustainable topical preparations providing full physical, chemical, and biological photoprotection still remain a great challenge for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this study, we are proposing a panel of the in vitro methods for preselection of natural photoprotective substances with high photostability and low phototoxicity able of absorbing a broadband UVA+UVB irradiation (physical sunscreen), reducing UV-related overproduction of free radicals and loss of endogenous antioxidants (chemical protection), and attenuating UV-induced cytotoxicity and immune and metabolic responses (biological protection) in primary human epidermal keratinocytes and immortalized human keratinocyte cultures. Our data showed that secondary metabolites biosynthesized in plant cells in response to UV irradiation, such as phenylpropanoids and their glycosylated metabolites, aglycons and glycosylated flavonoids, and leontopodic acids, hold the best promise for complete natural topical prevention of photoaging and rejuvenation of photoaged skin. Meristem plant cell cultures elicited by solar simulating UV could be the most environmentally sustainable biotechnological source of polyphenols with combined photoprotective and antiaging properties.

  20. Natural Substances for Prevention of Skin Photoaging: Screening Systems in the Development of Sunscreen and Rejuvenation Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Kostyuk, Vladimir; Potapovich, Alla; Albuhaydar, Ahmed R.; Mayer, Wolfgang; De Luca, Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Solar broadband UV irradiation is commonly regarded as a major causative reason for cutaneous photoaging. The pro-aging molecular pathways and cellular targets affected by UVA+UVB light in human skin have been extensively investigated. Notwithstanding growing knowledge in mechanisms of photoaging, research and development of clinically efficient, nontoxic, and sustainable topical preparations providing full physical, chemical, and biological photoprotection still remain a great challenge for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this study, we are proposing a panel of the in vitro methods for preselection of natural photoprotective substances with high photostability and low phototoxicity able of absorbing a broadband UVA+UVB irradiation (physical sunscreen), reducing UV-related overproduction of free radicals and loss of endogenous antioxidants (chemical protection), and attenuating UV-induced cytotoxicity and immune and metabolic responses (biological protection) in primary human epidermal keratinocytes and immortalized human keratinocyte cultures. Our data showed that secondary metabolites biosynthesized in plant cells in response to UV irradiation, such as phenylpropanoids and their glycosylated metabolites, aglycons and glycosylated flavonoids, and leontopodic acids, hold the best promise for complete natural topical prevention of photoaging and rejuvenation of photoaged skin. Meristem plant cell cultures elicited by solar simulating UV could be the most environmentally sustainable biotechnological source of polyphenols with combined photoprotective and antiaging properties. PMID:28661208

  1. A Fractional Bipolar Radiofrequency Device Combined with a Bipolar Radiofrequency and Infrared Light Treatment for Improvement in Facial Wrinkles and Overall Skin Tone and Texture.

    PubMed

    Gold, Alan H; Pozner, Jason; Weiss, Robert

    2016-10-01

    A variety of techniques and energy-based technologies are currently utilized for the treatment of facial wrinkles. Fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light have both been reported to be safe and effective for the non-invasive treatment of wrinkles and overall facial rejuvenation. A multicenter, prospective clinical trial evaluated a protocol of treatment with a device incorporating bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light followed by treatment with a fractional bipolar radiofrequency device for facial wrinkle reduction and improvement in the overall appearance of aged facial skin. Fifty-six patients with mild to moderate facial wrinkles received three full-face treatments (forehead, nose, cheeks, periorbital, and perioral areas) at 4 to 6 week intervals and were evaluated at 12 and 24 weeks after the last treatment. Clinical photographs at baseline and follow-ups were assessed by both the investigators and patients using the Global Aesthetic Improvement scale. Treatment safety was evaluated. Study participants also completed a satisfaction and improvement questionnaire. Fitzpatrick Wrinkling and Elastosis Score was decreased significantly at three months (P < .01; paired t test) and at six months (P < .001; paired t test) after the final treatment. Investigators' assessments of overall improvement in facial appearance, demonstrated 88% improvement at 12 weeks and 82% at 24 weeks after the final treatment. Subject evaluations were similar, consistently reporting improvement in wrinkles and overall facial skin appearance throughout the study, and high a degree of satisfaction with their final results. Subjects tolerated the procedures well, with only transient mild to moderate erythema and edema occurring in most patients, and without complications. A combined protocol of bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light treatment followed by fractionated bipolar radiofrequency treatment results in

  2. Enhanced full-face skin rejuvenation using synchronous intense pulsed optical and conducted bipolar radiofrequency energy (ELOS): introducing selective radiophotothermolysis.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene; Bitter, Patrick; Hruza, George; Mulholland, R Stephen

    2005-01-01

    in one patient. This study demonstrates the safety and efficacy of a new technology using combined optical and conducted bipolar RF energies for noninvasive skin rejuvenation. The results show improvement in wrinkle reduction and amelioration of erythema, telangiectasia, and hyperpigmentation comparable to that reported for other intense pulsed light technologies.

  3. Skin rejuvenating effects of chemical peeling: a study in photoaged hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Hyup; Kim, Hong Jig; Kim, Si Yong; Kim, You Chan; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeong Hyun

    2011-09-01

    Chemical peeling is a dermatologic treatment for skin aging. However, the mechanism by which the chemical peel achieves its results is not clear. We investigated the effects of chemical peeling and the mechanism of wrinkle reduction in photoaged hairless mice skin. After inducing photoaged skin in hairless mice by repetitive ultraviolet-B irradiation applied over 14 weeks, we applied trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 30%, TCA 50%, and phenol on areas of the same size on the backs of the mice. Punch biopsies were obtained 7, 14, 28, and 60 days after the procedure for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Histologic examination showed an increase in dermal thickness, collagen fibers, and elastic fibers in the dermis of intervention groups compared with control groups. These increases were maintained significantly for 60 days. This study demonstrates that chemical peeling reduces wrinkles and regenerates skin by increasing dermal thickness and the amount of collagen and elastic fibers in photoaged skin. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Image analysis of skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and the age-related changes in facial skin.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kumiko; Masuda, Yuji; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Kawai, Eriko; Hirao, Tetsuji

    2015-05-01

    Heterogeneity with respect to skin color tone is one of the key factors in visual perception of facial attractiveness and age. However, there have been few studies on quantitative analyses of the color heterogeneity of facial skin. The purpose of this study was to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and then characterize ethnic differences and age-related changes. A facial imaging system equipped with an illumination unit and a high-resolution digital camera was used to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity. First, melanin and/or hemoglobin images were obtained using pigment-specific image-processing techniques, which involved conversion from Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage XYZ color values to melanin and/or hemoglobin indexes as measures of their contents. Second, a spatial frequency analysis with threshold settings was applied to the individual images. Cheek skin images of 194 healthy Asian and Caucasian female subjects were acquired using the imaging system. Applying this methodology, the skin color heterogeneity of Asian and Caucasian faces was characterized. The proposed pigment-specific image-processing techniques allowed visual discrimination of skin redness from skin pigmentation. In the heterogeneity analyses of cheek skin color, age-related changes in melanin were clearly detected in Asian and Caucasian skin. Furthermore, it was found that the heterogeneity indexes of hemoglobin were significantly higher in Caucasian skin than in Asian skin. We have developed evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity by image analyses based on the major chromophores, melanin and hemoglobin, with special reference to their size. This methodology focusing on skin color heterogeneity should be useful for better understanding of aging and ethnic differences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Multimodal digital color imaging system for facial skin lesion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Lee, Youn-Heum; Jung, Byungjo

    2008-02-01

    In dermatology, various digital imaging modalities have been used as an important tool to quantitatively evaluate the treatment effect of skin lesions. Cross-polarization color image was used to evaluate skin chromophores (melanin and hemoglobin) information and parallel-polarization image to evaluate skin texture information. In addition, UV-A induced fluorescent image has been widely used to evaluate various skin conditions such as sebum, keratosis, sun damages, and vitiligo. In order to maximize the evaluation efficacy of various skin lesions, it is necessary to integrate various imaging modalities into an imaging system. In this study, we propose a multimodal digital color imaging system, which provides four different digital color images of standard color image, parallel and cross-polarization color image, and UV-A induced fluorescent color image. Herein, we describe the imaging system and present the examples of image analysis. By analyzing the color information and morphological features of facial skin lesions, we are able to comparably and simultaneously evaluate various skin lesions. In conclusion, we are sure that the multimodal color imaging system can be utilized as an important assistant tool in dermatology.

  6. Noninvasive measurement of advanced glycation end-products in the facial skin: New data for skin aging studies.

    PubMed

    Qu, Di; Venzon, Dawna; Murray, Mary; Depauw, Mathew

    Using skin autofluorescence (SAF) as a marker of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) has been extensively studied in the last decade since the introduction of the noninvasive in vivo measurement technique. Data have shown the level of skin AGEs increases with chronological age in healthy human beings, and this increase is substantially higher in age-matched diabetic patients. In skin research, glycation with the accompanying accumulation of skin AGEs has been regarded as one of the primary skin aging mechanisms that contribute to skin wrinkling and the loss of skin elasticity. To date, the totality of SAF data reported in literature has been obtained from measurements on the arm, and noninvasive measurement of facial skin AGE accumulation would add great value to skin aging research. In this study, we report the levels of facial and forearm skin AGEs in 239 men and women of 21-65 year of age. Significantly lower levels of AGEs were detected in the facial skin than in the forearm skin from the young Caucasian groups, and the difference was much larger for men than for women. The rate of change in skin AGE level over age was found to be about 50% higher in men than in women, which further highlights the gender difference. A statistically significant correlation between the levels of skin AGE and facial wrinkling was also observed. The facial skin AGE data may provide new insight into skin aging research.

  7. Total Defense + Repair: A Novel Concept in Solar Protection and Skin Rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, David H; Hamzavi, Iltefat H; Zeichner, Joshua A; Fabi, Sabrina G; Bucay, Vivian W; Harper, Julie C; Comstock, Jody A; Makino, Elizabeth T; Mehta, Rahul C; Vega, Virginia L

    2015-07-01

    For more than a century, solar radiation has been known to contribute significantly to the extrinsic aging of skin. Until recently, this was almost exclusively attributed to the photodamage caused by ultraviolet (UV) light. However, a growing body of evidence now indicates that both infrared (IR) and visible light may also contribute to extrinsic skin aging. Infrared radiation, comprised of IR-A, IR-B, and IR-C, accounts for 54.3% of the total solar radiation reaching the skin. Studies have shown that IR radiation is also responsible for skin aging. Thus, IR-A radiation regulates hundreds of genes in skin, with roles in extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis regulation, apoptosis, cell growth, and stress responses. IR-B and IR-C radiation are primarily responsible for the increase in skin temperature associated with solar exposure, and are implicated in heat-related skin destruction of collagen and elastin, which is characterized by an increase in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The contribution of visible light to photoaging is less well understood; however, some preliminary indication associates visible light with the upregulation of MMPs' expression, DNA damage, and keratinocyte proliferation. Interestingly, the common denominator that links skin damage to the different solar wavelengths is the enhanced production of reactive molecule species (RMS) and therewith increased oxidative stress. SkinMedica® Total Defense + Repair (TD+R; SkinMedica Inc., an Allergan company, Irvine, CA) is a "superscreen," which combines broad spectrum UV protection with a unique blend of antioxidants (SOL-IR Advanced Antioxidant Complex™) that provide protection from IR radiation while promoting skin repair. Preclinical studies have indicated that TD+R SPF34 prevents the formation of UV-induced sunburn cells and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers while preserving or improving the expression of ECM genes. In addition, it prevents IR-A-triggered fragmentation of

  8. Expanded Stem Cells, Stromal-Vascular Fraction, and Platelet-Rich Plasma Enriched Fat: Comparing Results of Different Facial Rejuvenation Approaches in a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rigotti, Gino; Charles-de-Sá, Luiz; Gontijo-de-Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Amable, Paola Romina; Borojevic, Radovan; Benati, Donatella; Bernardi, Paolo; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that treatment with expanded adipose-derived stem cells or stromal vascular fraction (SVF)-enriched fat modify the pattern of the dermis in human beings, representing a skin rejuvenation effect. Considering that expanded stem cells require a cell factor, the authors wanted to assess similar results by replacing them with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which is easier to obtain and for which an empirical regenerative effect has been already described. Objectives To determine if PRP injection could replace the cutaneous regenerative effect of adipose-derived stem cells. Methods This study was performed in 13 patients who were candidates for facelift. The patients underwent sampling of fat by liposuction from the abdomen and submitted to one of three protocols: injection of SVF-enriched fat or expanded adipose-derived stem cells or fat plus PRP in the preauricular areas. Fragments of skin were removed before and 3 months after treatment and analyzed by optical and electron microscopy. Results The use of fat plus PRP led to the presence of more pronounced inflammatory infiltrates and a greater vascular reactivity, increasing in vascular permeability and a certain reactivity of the nervous component. The addition of PRP did not improve the regenerative effect. Conclusion The use of PRP did not have significant advantages in skin rejuvenation over the use of expanded adipose-derived stem cells or SVF-enriched fat. The effect of increased vascular reactivity may be useful in pathological situations in which an intense angiogenesis is desirable, such as tissular ischemia. Level of Evidence: 4 Therapeutic PMID:26879294

  9. Age-related differences in morphological characteristics of residual skin surface components collected from the surface of facial skin of healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chalyk, N E; Bandaletova, T Y; Kyle, N H; Petyaev, I M

    2017-05-01

    Global increase of human longevity results in the emergence of previously ignored ageing-related problems. Skin ageing is a well-known phenomenon, but active search for scientific approaches to its prevention and even skin rejuvenation is a relatively new area. Although the structure and composition of the stratum corneum (SC), the superficial layer of epidermis, is well studied, relatively little is known about the residual skin surface components (RSSC) that overlay the surface of the SC. The aim of this study was to examine morphological features of RSSC samples non-invasively collected from the surface of human facial skin for the presence of age-related changes. Residual skin surface component samples were collected by swabbing from the surface of facial skin of 60 adult male volunteers allocated in two age groups: 34 subjects aged in the range 18-32 years and 26 subjects aged in the range 58-72 years. The collected samples were analysed microscopically: the size of the lipid droplets was measured; desquamated corneocytes and lipid crystals were counted; and microbial presence was assessed semi-quantitatively. Age-related changes were revealed for all studied components of the RSSC. There was a significant (P = 0.0126) decrease in the size of lipid droplets among older men. Likewise, significantly (P = 0.0252) lower numbers of lipid crystals were present in this group. In contrast, microbial presence in the RSSC was significantly (P = 0.0019) increased in the older group. There was also a trend towards more abundant corneocyte desquamation among older men, but the difference has not reached statistical significance (P = 0.0636). Non-invasively collected RSSC samples present an informative material for studying age-related changes on the surface of the SC of human facial skin. The results of this study confirm earlier observations regarding age-associated decline of the efficiency of the epidermal barrier and can be used for testing new approaches to skin

  10. 120: THE CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF FRACTIONAL CO2 LASER IN ACNE SCARS AND SKIN REJUVENATION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION

    PubMed Central

    Yaaghoobian, Barmak; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Skin rejuvenation is one of high demand cosmetic interventions in Iran. Fractional CO2 Laser is a high power ablative laser which has variety of utilization in medicine including treatment of acne scars and rejuvenation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of Fractional CO2 Laser in comparison with other methods of rejuvenation and acne scar treatment. Methods A systematic database search including Medline (via OVID and PubMed), EMBASE, CINHAL, Cochrane Library, CRD, SCOPUS and Web of Science conducted. After screening search results, selected publications appraised by CASP and Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias and eligible studies included in the systematic review. In economic evaluation, all costs and benefits analyzed from Iran ministry of health's perspective. Results From 2667 publications, two randomized control trials were eligible and included in the study. The affectivity and complications of Fractional CO2 laser were comparable with Er: YAG but Fractional CO2 laser was 14.7% (P=0.01) more effective than Q-Switched ND: YAG laser. Cost affectivity of this method was the same as other alternative lasers. Conclusions Fractional CO2 laser is an effective and safe method for curing several kinds of skin. Never the less there was not sufficient evidence to support its advantage. This device has equal or lower price in comparison to competent technologies except for the non- fractional ablative Co2 laser that has the same or lower price and comparable effects.

  11. Ultrastructural observations of chemical peeling for skin rejuvenation (ultrastructural changes of the skin due to chemical peeling).

    PubMed

    Omi, Tokuya; Sato, Shigeru; Numano, Kayoko; Kawana, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    Chemical peeling of the skin is commonly used as a means to treat photoaging, but the mechanism underlying its efficacy has not yet been fully clarified. We recently conducted chemical peeling of the skin with glycolic acid and lactic acid and observed it at the ultrastructural level. No changes in the horny layer or the upper epidermal layer were observed but there was dissociation and vacuolation between the basal cells and increases in vimentin filaments within fibroblasts and endothelial cells were seen. These findings suggest that chemical peeling of the skin with this type of agent directly induces collagen formation within the dermis and thus directly stimulates remodeling of the dermis.

  12. Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, I.; Tseng, S. H.; Cula, G. O.; Bargo, P. R.; Kollias, N.

    2009-02-01

    The activity of certain bacteria in skin is known to correlate to the presence of porphyrins. In particular the presence of coproporphyrin produced by P.acnes inside plugged pores has been correlated to acne vulgaris. Another porphyrin encountered in skin is protoporphyrin IX, which is produced by the body in the pathway for production of heme. In the present work, a fluorescence spectroscopy system was developed to measure the characteristic spectrum and quantify the two types of porphyrins commonly present in human facial skin. The system is comprised of a Xe lamp both for fluorescence excitation and broadband light source for diffuse reflectance measurements. A computer-controlled filter wheel enables acquisition of sequential spectra, first excited by blue light at 405 nm then followed by the broadband light source, at the same location. The diffuse reflectance spectrum was used to correct the fluorescence spectrum due to the presence of skin chromophores, such as blood and melanin. The resulting fluorescence spectra were employed for the quantification of porphyrin concentration in a population of healthy subjects. The results show great variability on the concentration of these porphyrins and further studies are being conducted to correlate them with skin conditions such as inflammation and acne vulgaris.

  13. Epigenetic rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Manukyan, Maria; Singh, Prim B

    2012-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided a rational means of obtaining histo-compatible tissues for 'patient-specific' regenerative therapies (Hanna et al. 2010; Yamanaka & Blau 2010). Despite the obvious potential of iPS cell-based therapies, there are certain problems that must be overcome before these therapies can become safe and routine (Ohi et al. 2011; Pera 2011). As an alternative, we have recently explored the possibility of using 'epigenetic rejuvenation', where the specialized functions of an old cell are rejuvenated in the absence of any change in its differentiated state (Singh & Zacouto 2010). The mechanism(s) that underpin 'epigenetic rejuvenation' are unknown and here we discuss model systems, using key epigenetic modifiers, which might shed light on the processes involved. Epigenetic rejuvenation has advantages over iPS cell techniques that are currently being pursued. First, the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities that arise through the cycle of dedifferentiation of somatic cells to iPS cells followed by redifferentiation of iPS cells into the desired cell type are avoided (Gore et al. 2011; Hussein et al. 2011; Pera 2011): epigenetic rejuvenation does not require passage through the de-/redifferentiation cycle. Second, because the aim of epigenetic rejuvenation is to ensure that the differentiated cell type retains its specialized function it makes redundant the question of transcriptional memory that is inimical to iPS cell-based therapies (Ohi et al. 2011). Third, to produce unrelated cell types using the iPS technology takes a long time, around three weeks, whereas epigenetic rejuvenation of old cells will take only a matter of days. Epigenetic rejuvenation provides the most safe, rapid and cheap route to successful regenerative medicine. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Intense pulsed light, near infrared pulsed light, and fractional laser combination therapy for skin rejuvenation in Asian subjects: a prospective multi-center study in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Wu, Jiaqiang; Qian, Hui; Lu, Zhong; Li, Yuanhong; Wang, Weizhen; Zhao, Xiaozhong; Tu, Ping; Yin, Rui; Xiang, Leihong

    2015-09-01

    Ablative skin rejuvenation therapies have limitations for Asian people, including post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and long down time. Non-ablative lasers are safer but have limited efficacy. This study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of a combination therapy consisting of intense pulsed light (IPL), near infrared (NIR) light, and fractional erbium YAG (Er:YAG) laser for skin rejuvenation in Asian people. This study recruited 113 subjects from six sites in China. Subjects were randomly assigned to a full-face group, who received combination therapy, and split-face groups, in which one half of the face received combination therapy and the other half received IPL monotherapy. Each subject received five treatment sessions during a period of 90 days. Subjects were followed up at 1 and 3 months post last treatment. Three months after last treatment, the full-face group (n = 57) had a global improvement rate of 29 % and 29 % for wrinkles, 32 % for skin texture, 33 % for pigment spots, 28 % for pore size, respectively. For patients in the split-face groups (n = 54), monotherapy side had a global improvement rate of 23 % and 20 % for wrinkles, 27 % for skin texture, 25 % for pigment spots, 25 % for pore size, respectively. Both combination therapy and monotherapy resulted in significant improvements at the follow-up visits compared to baseline (P < 0.001). Combination therapy showed significantly greater improvements compared to monotherapy at two follow-up visits (P < 0.05). Combination therapy is a safe and more effective strategy than IPL monotherapy for skin rejuvenation in Asian people.

  15. Attractiveness as a Function of Skin Tone and Facial Features: Evidence from Categorization Studies.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Participants rated the attractiveness and racial typicality of male faces varying in their facial features from Afrocentric to Eurocentric and in skin tone from dark to light in two experiments. Experiment 1 provided evidence that facial features and skin tone have an interactive effect on perceptions of attractiveness and mixed-race faces are perceived as more attractive than single-race faces. Experiment 2 further confirmed that faces with medium levels of skin tone and facial features are perceived as more attractive than faces with extreme levels of these factors. Black phenotypes (combinations of dark skin tone and Afrocentric facial features) were rated as more attractive than White phenotypes (combinations of light skin tone and Eurocentric facial features); ambiguous faces (combinations of Afrocentric and Eurocentric physiognomy) with medium levels of skin tone were rated as the most attractive in Experiment 2. Perceptions of attractiveness were relatively independent of racial categorization in both experiments.

  16. Fractional ablative and nonablative radiofrequency for skin resurfacing and rejuvenation of Thai patients.

    PubMed

    Thanasarnaksorn, Wilai; Siramangkhalanon, Vorapot; Duncan, Diane Irvine; Belenky, Inna

    2018-04-01

    Fractional radiofrequency (RF) technology is often the preferable skin resurfacing treatment, especially among Asian patients. Second generation fractional RF technology has exclusive capability to produce separate biological responses (ablation, coagulation, or a combination of both) with 3 distinguished penetration depth programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fractional RF handpiece such as this, on the Thai population. Fifty-five Thai patients were treated with a fractional RF handpiece. The clinical assessment included a pain score, satisfaction survey, physician assessment, a combined patient and physician's assessment of skin condition, and clinical photographic assessments. The wound healing response was evaluated according to 5-time points: immediately after applying a pulse, post 24 hours, post 7 days, post 1 month and post 8 weeks. The obtained patient satisfaction score was "very satisfied" among 74% of the patients, post 3 sessions. Positive correlation was found between patient satisfaction and the physician's assessment. The skin condition assessment showed an increase from an average of 4.2 to 7.9. All treated symptoms improved after each treatment and the clinical outcome lasted at least up to 3-5 months. No significant adverse events were recorded. The in vivo prospective study showed a dose-related response in the deepness of the coagulation injury. In addition, there was evidence for a progressive healing process beginning shortly after exposure and completed within a week. This study clinically and histologically supports the efficacy of fractional RF handpiece in question with a high safety profile. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Skin and Bones: The Contribution of Skin Tone and Facial Structure to Racial Prototypicality Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Michael A.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Zhang, Shunan; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Lee, Hoon Koo

    2012-01-01

    Previous research reveals that a more ‘African’ appearance has significant social consequences, yielding more negative first impressions and harsher criminal sentencing of Black or White individuals. This study is the first to systematically assess the relative contribution of skin tone and facial metrics to White, Black, and Korean perceivers’ ratings of the racial prototypicality of faces from the same three groups. Our results revealed that the relative contribution of metrics and skin tone depended on both perceiver race and face race. White perceivers’ racial prototypicality ratings were less responsive to variations in skin tone than were Black or Korean perceivers’ ratings. White perceivers ratings’ also were more responsive to facial metrics than to skin tone, while the reverse was true for Black perceivers. Additionally, across all perceiver groups, skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics on racial prototypicality ratings of White faces, with the reverse for Korean faces. For Black faces, the relative impact varied with perceiver race: skin tone had a more consistent impact than metrics for Black and Korean perceivers, with the reverse for White perceivers. These results have significant implications for predicting who will experience racial prototypicality biases and from whom. PMID:22815966

  18. Nonablative skin rejuvenation devices and the role of heat shock protein 70: results of a human skin explant model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, Doris; Moebius, Anne; Simon, Jan C.; Paasch, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    Nonablative thermal laser therapy with a 1540-nm laser induces controlled, spatially determined thermal damage, allowing subsequent collagen remodeling while preserving the epidermis. A photorejuvenation effect using nonthermal nonablative stimulation of cells with low energy and narrow band light has been termed photomodulation. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are narrow band emitters that lead to photomodulation via stimulation of mitochondrial cell organelles. In a previous study, we demonstrated in a human skin explant model that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) plays a pivotal role in the initiation of skin remodeling after ablative fractional photothermolysis. To test its importance in nonablative laser therapy and photomodulation, the spatio-temporal expression of HSP70 is investigated in response to a 1540-nm laser treatment and six different LED therapies. An Er:glass laser is used with a 1-Hz repetition rate, 30-J/cm2 fluence, and a hand piece with a 2-mm spot size. Nonthermal nonablative treatment is performed using two LED (LEDA SCR red light: 635 nm, 40 to 120 W/cm2, 40 to 120 J/cm2 LEDA SCR yellow light: 585 nm, 16 to 35 W/cm2, 20 to 100 J/cm2 spot size 16×10 cm). Immediate responses as well as responses 1, 3, or 7 days postprocedure are studied; untreated skin explants serve as control. Immunohistochemical investigation (HSP70) is performed in all native, nontreated, and Er:glass laser- or LED-treated samples (n=175). Nonablative laser therapy leads to a clear time-dependent induction of epidermally expressed HSP70, peaking between one to three days post-treatment. In contrast, none of the various LED treatments up-regulated the HSP70 expression in our skin explant model. HSP70 is up-regulated by nonablative but thermal laser devices, but does not seem to play a significant role in the induction of skin remodeling induced by photomodulation. The maximum of HSP70 expression is reached later after Er:glass laser intervention compared to ablative fractional

  19. [Body experience and self-esteem after minimally invasive skin rejuvenation : Study of female patients using botulinum toxin A and/or dermal fillers].

    PubMed

    Scharschmidt, D; Preiß, S; Brähler, E; Fischer, T; Borkenhagen, A

    2017-12-01

    More and more people worldwide and also in Germany are using botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) and hyaluronic acid injections for skin rejuvenation. Study on body image and self-esteem of women with BoNT-A and/or hyaluronic acid filler treatment. A total of 145 women who requested BoNT-A and/or hyaluronic acid injections completed a survey comprised of the body dysmorphic disorder questionnaire, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and questionnaires on the attitudes and motives on measures for optimization of the body and demographic features. Using this instrument data on the body image and self-esteem as well as attitudes and motives for utilization of minimally invasive skin rejuvenation were collated. Female users of minimally invasive skin rejuvenation showed an overall higher socioeconomic status and an above average high monthly income. They lived in a partnership more often in comparison to women of equal age living in Berlin. The users of BoNT-A and/or hyaluronic acid fillers showed no conspicuous differences in body image and self-esteem. They showed a moderately positive attitude to body optimization procedures and 91% achieved their standard weight with a body mass index (BMI) of ≤25 kg/m 2 in comparison to 56% of German women in the same age range (25 to ≥75 years old). In the first study of body image and self-esteem in users of BoNT‑A and/or dermal fillers in German women, the users showed no signs of body dysmorphic patterns or disorders of self-esteem.

  20. Electro therapy facial and laser skin whitening: Clients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, D; Manimaran, S; Bhagyalakshmi, K

    2018-01-01

    There are so many beauty salons in Metropolis who provide services to women exclusively [1]. These beauty salons depend mostly on electricity for their services to customers, without it there is no effective means of operation [2]. These beauty salons are definitely leading to women empowerment. The beauty salons are run by the women for women. Since they fall under the category of micro and small enterprises, these salons may avail so many financial and non- financial advantages from the Government of India. They also provide employment opportunities to the women employees. The development of such beauty salons rests on the clients' satisfaction on the provision of their services. Hence it is essential to measure the clients attitude towards the services offered by the beauty salons, especially electro therapy facial, laser skin whitening and laser hair removal treatments, which are coming under micro current treatment as a cosmetic tool.

  1. The Effect in Topical Use of Lycogen(TM) via Sonophoresis for Anti-aging on Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Hsin-Ti, Lai; Wen-Sheng, Liu; Yi-Chia, Wu; Ya-Wei, Lai; Wen, Zhi-Hong; David, Wang Hui-Min; Su-Shin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Anti-aging skin care is a growing popular topic in cosmetic and aesthetic fields, and skin care rather then makeup tips draw more attention nowadays. The phenomenon of skin aging includes thinning of skin losses of elasticity and moisture, pigmented spot formation, and wrinkle development. Along with growth in age, the decreased rates of epithelium renewal and cellular recovery as well as the reduced contents of elastin, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans all contribute to creases or folds of skin. Available strategies for wrinkle treatments include topical use of skin care products with anti-aging contents, dermabrasion, laser, Botox injection, fillers injection, and facelift. Though all of these above options can provide different degrees of improvement in facial wrinkles, the cost-effect, pain of intervention therapy, and necessity of repetitive treatment may impact on choices made. Topical use of anti-aging skin products is the most convenient and cheap way to achieve skin anti-aging effect. Lycogen(TM) is an antioxidant, which can prevent the downregulation of pro-collagen I, intracellular accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and achieve the aim of skin rejuvenation. Twenty-six female patients were included in our study with ages between 30 and 45. They were randomly assigned to two groups: the vehicle control group and the experimental group. Patients in the control group applied a skin care product without Lycogen(TM)to the face via sonophoresis after facial cleanser use in the morning and at night. The experimental group applied a Lycogen(TM) -containing skin care product via sonophoresis in the same time schedule. We evaluated results, including pigmented spots, wrinkles, texture, pores, and red area by VISIA on weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 respectively. In the aspect of pigmented spots, the experimental group showed significant difference in comparison with the vehicle control group on weeks 2, 6, 8, and 10. For wrinkles, the experimental group had

  2. Computational Simulation on Facial Expressions and Experimental Tensile Strength for Silicone Rubber as Artificial Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amijoyo Mochtar, Andi

    2018-02-01

    Applications of robotics have become important for human life in recent years. There are many specification of robots that have been improved and encriched with the technology advances. One of them are humanoid robot with facial expression which closer with the human facial expression naturally. The purpose of this research is to make computation on facial expressions and conduct the tensile strength for silicone rubber as artificial skin. Facial expressions were calculated by determining dimension, material properties, number of node elements, boundary condition, force condition, and analysis type. A Facial expression robot is determined by the direction and the magnitude external force on the driven point. The expression face of robot is identical with the human facial expression where the muscle structure in face according to the human face anatomy. For developing facial expression robots, facial action coding system (FACS) in approached due to follow expression human. The tensile strength is conducting due to check the proportional force of artificial skin that can be applied on the future of robot facial expression. Combining of calculated and experimental results can generate reliable and sustainable robot facial expression that using silicone rubber as artificial skin.

  3. The asymmetric facial skin perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy discovered by laser speckle imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Cui, Han; Chen, Yi; Zhong, Weizheng; Yu, Haibo; Li, Zhifeng; He, Yuhai; Yu, Wenlong; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Bell's palsy is a kind of peripheral neural disease that cause abrupt onset of unilateral facial weakness. In the pathologic study, it was evidenced that ischemia of facial nerve at the affected side of face existed in Bell's palsy patients. Since the direction of facial nerve blood flow is primarily proximal to distal, facial skin microcirculation would also be affected after the onset of Bell's palsy. Therefore, monitoring the full area of facial skin microcirculation would help to identify the condition of Bell's palsy patients. In this study, a non-invasive, real time and full field imaging technology - laser speckle imaging (LSI) technology was applied for measuring facial skin blood perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy patients. 85 participants with different stage of Bell's palsy were included. Results showed that Bell's palsy patients' facial skin perfusion of affected side was lower than that of the normal side at the region of eyelid, and that the asymmetric distribution of the facial skin perfusion between two sides of eyelid is positively related to the stage of the disease (P <  0.001). During the recovery, the perfusion of affected side of eyelid was increasing to nearly the same with the normal side. This study was a novel application of LSI in evaluating the facial skin perfusion of Bell's palsy patients, and we discovered that the facial skin blood perfusion could reflect the stage of Bell's palsy, which suggested that microcirculation should be investigated in patients with this neurological deficit. It was also suggested LSI as potential diagnostic tool for Bell's palsy.

  4. Facial peeling skin syndrome: a case report and a brief review.

    PubMed

    Janjua, Shahbaz Ahmad; Hussain, Ijaz; Khachemoune, Amor

    2007-03-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is an extremely rare genodermatosis of possible autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by asymptomatic spontaneous exfoliation of the stratum corneum at a subcorneal or intracorneal level. It usually presents at birth or appears later in early childhood. The condition may be generalized or localized. Here we describe a case of localized continual skin peeling limited to the facial skin in a 6-month-old infant, with two other members of the family affected with the same condition. A few cases of localized skin peeling limited to the acral surfaces have been described in the literature, but a familial case of localized skin peeling limited to the facial skin has not been described before. We believe that our patient represents a new subtype of peeling skin syndrome, limited to the skin of the face.

  5. Efficacy of diode laser (810 and 940 nm) for facial skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Voravutinon, Nataya; Seawthaweesin, Kanikar; Bureethan, Apron; Srivipatana, Anchisa; Vejanurug, Patnapa

    2015-12-01

    Laser treatment has been introduced for facial skin tightening. However, no prior study has used a diode laser to treat facial skin laxity. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 810- and 940-nm diode laser (MeDioStarNeXT) for treating facial skin laxity. Thirty patients, with facial skin laxity grading scale II-IV, were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent four sessions with a 810- and 940-nm diode laser (MeDioStarNeXT) treatment over 3-week intervals. Improvement in the laxity of facial skin was evaluated using a Cutometer MPA 580, spectrophotometer, and a grading scale. Significant improvement was observed with the Cutometer F3 and R7 parameters at 1 and 3 months after complete treatment, respectively. Physician assessment showed significant improvement in the laxity scale at 1 and 6 months after treatment. Approximately 10% of the patients reported mild pain or minor adverse events. Ninety-eight percent of the patients were satisfied with the treatments. Treatment with a diode laser (810 and 940 nm) is safe and may be effective for facial skin tightening. Maintenance treatment is necessary to sustain the effect of treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Proposed shade guide for human facial skin and lip: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wee, Alvin G; Beatty, Mark W; Gozalo-Diaz, David J; Kim-Pusateri, Seungyee; Marx, David B

    2013-08-01

    Currently, no commercially available facial shade guide exists in the United States for the fabrication of facial prostheses. The purpose of this study was to measure facial skin and lip color in a human population sample stratified by age, gender, and race. Clustering analysis was used to determine optimal color coordinates for a proposed facial shade guide. Participants (n=119) were recruited from 4 racial/ethnic groups, 5 age groups, and both genders. Reflectance measurements of participants' noses and lower lips were made by using a spectroradiometer and xenon arc lamp with a 45/0 optical configuration. Repeated measures ANOVA (α=.05), to identify skin and lip color differences, resulting from race, age, gender, and location, and a hierarchical clustering analysis, to identify clusters of skin colors) were used. Significant contributors to L*a*b* facial color were race and facial location (P<.01). b* affected all factors (P<.05). Age affected only b* (P<.001), while gender affected only L* (P<.05) and b* (P<.05). Analyses identified 5 clusters of skin color. The study showed that skin color caused by age and gender primarily occurred within the yellow-blue axis. A significant lightness difference between gender groups was also found. Clustering analysis identified 5 distinct skin shade tabs. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser in acne scars and skin rejuvenation: A meta-analysis and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Fereshteh; Sadeghi-Ghyassi, Fatemeh; Yaaghoobian, Barmak

    2018-01-31

    Fractional CO 2 has many indications in medicine including in treatment of acne scars and rejuvenation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of Fractional CO 2 Laser in comparison with other methods of rejuvenation and acne scar treatment. Several databases including Medline, OVID, EMBASE, CINHAL, SCOPUS, Web of science, CRD, and Cochrane were searched. After conducting the search and evaluation of selected publications, critical appraisal was done and eligible studies were accepted for inclusion in the systematic review. From 2667 identified publications two of the trials were eligible. The effectiveness and complications of Fractional CO 2 laser were comparable with Er:YAG but Fractional CO 2 laser was 14.7% (p = 0.01) more effective than Q-Switched ND:YAG laser. Cost affectivity of this method was the same as other alternative lasers. In conclusion Fractional CO 2 laser is an effective and safe method for curing of several kinds of skin diseases. Nevertheless there was not sufficient evidence to support its advantage. This device has equal or lower price in comparison to competent technologies except for the non- fractional ablative CO 2 laser that has the same or lower price and comparable effects.

  8. Addressing Male Facial Skin Concerns: Clinical Efficacy of a Topical Skincare Treatment Product for Men.

    PubMed

    Makino, Elizabeth T; Jiang, Lily I; Tan, Priscilla; Cheng, Tsing; Mehta, Rahul C

    2018-03-01

    The growing male skincare market reflects the increased interest of men in addressing facial aging concerns and maintaining a healthy youthful appearance. Because of differences in skin structure and aging as well as in lifestyle and behavior, male facial skin presents unique challenges that may result in different priorities or treatment strategies compared to female skin. A clinical study was conducted to assess clinical efficacy and tolerability of a topical skincare treatment product that was developed to address several male facial skin concerns related to skin quality, skin aging, and shaving. The treatment product provided significant improvements in all clinical efficacy parameters including overall photodamage, tactile roughness, fine line/wrinkles, and coarse lines/wrinkles. Furthermore, significant improvements in erythema as well as dryness/scaling were observed. Subject self-assessment questionnaires showed that the treatment product was highly rated in both self-perceived efficacy as well as product attributes. Use of skincare treatment products that tackle specific male facial skin concerns could further optimize skin quality and support healthy and youthful looking skin in men.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(3):301-306.

    .

  9. Combination of microneedle radiofrequency (RF), fractional RF skin resurfacing and multi-source non-ablative skin tightening for minimal-downtime, full-face skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Haim; Kaplan, Lilach

    2016-12-01

    In the recent years, there is a growth in demand for radiofrequency (RF)-based procedures to improve skin texture, laxity and contour. The new generation of systems allow non-invasive and fractional resurfacing treatments on one platform. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new treatment protocol using a multisource RF, combining 3 different modalities in each patient: [1] non-ablative RF skin tightening, [2] fractional skin resurfacing, and [3] microneedling RF for non-ablative coagulation and collagen remodelling. 14 subjects were enrolled in this study using EndyMed PRO ™ platform. Each patient had 8 non-ablative treatments and 4 fractional treatments (fractional skin resurfacing and Intensif). The global aesthetic score was used to evaluate improvement. All patients had improvement in skin appearance. About 43% had excellent or very good improvement above 50%, 18% had good improvement between 25 and 50%, and the rest 39% had a mild improvement of < 25%. Downtime was minimal and no adverse effect was reported. Our data show significant improvement of skin texture, skin laxity and wrinkle reduction achieved using RF treatment platform.

  10. Potential role of S100A8 in skin rejuvenation with the 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yan; Qin, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Zhi, Yuanting; Xia, Weili; Dang, Yongyan; Gu, Jun; Ye, Xiyun

    2018-04-01

    The 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is demonstrated to be effective for non-ablative skin rejuvenation, but the molecular mechanism by which dermis responses to laser-induced damage and initiates skin remodeling is still unclear. HaCaT cells and 3T3 skin fibroblasts were irradiated with the 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at the different doses. Then, cells were collected and lysed for PCR and Western blot analysis. Cell viability was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) before and after laser irradiation. The expressions of S100A8, advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor (RAGE) and inflammatory cytokines in two cell lines were markedly upregulated after laser treatments. The PCR, Western blot, and ELISA analysis showed the significant increase of type I and III procollagen in the 3T3 cells treated with the 1064-nm laser. Interestingly, si S100A8 effectively inhibited the expression of cytokines and collagen, while S100A8 treatments significantly increased them. P-p38 and p-p65 levels were also elevated after the 1064-nm laser irradiation, which is positively related with S100A8. Cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were not changed, while the content of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) in two cells was increased after laser irradiation. Our results demonstrated that the overexpression of S100A8 induced by the 1064-nm laser irradiation triggered inflammatory reactions in skin cells. The inflammatory microenvironment and improvement of skin antioxidant capacity contribute to new collagen synthesis in the skin cells. Thus, S100A8 was required for laser-induced new collagen synthesis in skin cells. p38/MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways were involved in S100A8-mediated inflammatory reactions in response to laser irradiation.

  11. Photobiomodulation of distinct lineages of human dermal fibroblasts: a rational approach towards the selection of effective light parameters for skin rejuvenation and wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignon, Charles; Uzunbajakava, Natallia E.; Raafs, Bianca; Moolenaar, Mitchel; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Tobin, Desmond J.

    2016-03-01

    Distinct lineages of human dermal fibroblasts play complementary roles in skin rejuvenation and wound healing, which makes them a target of phototherapy. However, knowledge about differential responses of specific cell lineages to different light parameters and moreover the actual molecular targets remain to be unravelled. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of a range of parameters of light on the metabolic activity, collagen production, and cell migration of distinct lineages of human dermal fibroblasts. A rational approach was used to identify parameters with high therapeutic potential. Fibroblasts exhibited both inhibitory and cytotoxic change when exposed to a high dose of blue and cyan light in tissue culture medium containing photo-reactive species, but were stimulated by high dose red and near infrared light. Cytotoxic effects were eliminated by refreshing the medium after light exposure by removing potential ROS formed by extracellular photo-reactive species. Importantly, distinct lineages of fibroblasts demonstrated opposite responses to low dose blue light treatment when refreshing the medium after exposure. Low dose blue light treatment also significantly increased collagen production by papillary fibroblasts; high dose significantly retarded closure of the scratch wound without signs of cytotoxicity, and this is likely to have involved effects on both cell migration and proliferation. We recommend careful selection of fibroblast subpopulations and their culture conditions, a systematic approach in choosing and translating treatment parameters, and pursuit of fundamental research on identification of photoreceptors and triggered molecular pathways, while seeking effective parameters to address different stages of skin rejuvenation and wound healing.

  12. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-01-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA® Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging. PMID:24910280

  13. Changes of oxygen content in facial skin before and after cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guo-Biao; Wu, Pei-Lan; Wang, Xue-Min

    2012-11-01

    Cigarette smoking not only causes systemic health problems, but may also be an underlying cause of premature skin aging. Cigarette smokers frequently have morphological changes in facial skin that may be attributed to reduced oxygen in this region. The purpose of this study was to measure the oxygen content in facial skin before and after smoking. Twenty-five volunteers participated in this study. Changes in oxygen content of the facial skin were measured before and after 30 min of cigarette smoking. Skin temperature and oxygen content were evaluated in the periorbital and periolar regions. There was a significant increase in temperature after smoking. The oxy hemoglobin and partial pressure of oxygen decreased in both the periocular and perioral areas after smoking. There were no changes in deoxy hemoglobin and partial pressure of carbon dioxide at these areas. Significant changes were seen in temperature and oxygen content after only 30 min of smoking. The results from this study suggest that alterations in the skin temperature and oxygen content in facial skin after smoking may be an underlying cause of premature skin aging. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness in relation to skin texture and color.

    PubMed

    Fink, B; Grammer, K; Thornhill, R

    2001-03-01

    The notion that surface texture may provide important information about the geometry of visible surfaces has attracted considerable attention for a long time. The present study shows that skin texture plays a significant role in the judgment of female facial beauty. Following research in clinical dermatology, the authors developed a computer program that implemented an algorithm based on co-occurrence matrices for the analysis of facial skin texture. Homogeneity and contrast features as well as color parameters were extracted out of stimulus faces. Attractiveness ratings of the images made by male participants relate positively to parameters of skin homogeneity. The authors propose that skin texture is a cue to fertility and health. In contrast to some previous studies, the authors found that dark skin, not light skin, was rated as most attractive.

  15. Facial skin blood flow responses during exposures to emotionally charged movies.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Endo, Kana; Ishii, Kei; Ito, Momoka; Liang, Nan

    2018-03-01

    The changes in regional facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance have been assessed for the first time with noninvasive two-dimensional laser speckle flowmetry during audiovisually elicited emotional challenges for 2 min (comedy, landscape, and horror movie) in 12 subjects. Limb skin blood flow and vascular conductance and systemic cardiovascular variables were simultaneously measured. The extents of pleasantness and consciousness for each emotional stimulus were estimated by the subjective rating from -5 (the most unpleasant; the most unconscious) to +5 (the most pleasant; the most conscious). Facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance, especially in the lips, decreased during viewing of comedy and horror movies, whereas they did not change during viewing of a landscape movie. The decreases in facial skin blood flow and vascular conductance were the greatest with the comedy movie. The changes in lip, cheek, and chin skin blood flow negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective ratings of pleasantness and consciousness. The changes in lip skin vascular conductance negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective rating of pleasantness, while the changes in infraorbital, subnasal, and chin skin vascular conductance negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with the subjective rating of consciousness. However, none of the changes in limb skin blood flow and vascular conductance and systemic hemodynamics correlated with the subjective ratings. The mental arithmetic task did not alter facial and limb skin blood flows, although the task influenced systemic cardiovascular variables. These findings suggest that the more emotional status becomes pleasant or conscious, the more neurally mediated vasoconstriction may occur in facial skin blood vessels.

  16. The comparison of the rejuvenation effects on the skin of Wistar rats between 10600 nm CO2 fractional laser and retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Qu, Y; Ma, W-Y; Sun, Q

    2017-04-01

    The fractional laser and topical retinoic acid treatment have been applied for skin rejuvenation; however, the possible molecular mechanism of promoting remodeling of dermis is not clearly. Here we aimed to compare the effects of 10600 nm CO2 fractional laser and topical retinoic acid formulation on the skin collagen proliferation of Wistar rats, and to further explore the possible molecular mechanism of promoting remodeling of dermis. The hair on the back of Wistar rats was removed, and the back was divided equally into four regions with the cross-streaking method: A (the control group), B (the retinoic acid group), C (retinoic acid and fractional laser combination treatment group), and D (the fractional laser group). Specimens were collected at 3rd day and in 1-8 weeks after CO2 fractional laser irradiation; then they were used for detection of the changes of dermis thickness and content of hydroxyproline in the four regions of the rats' back. Real-time PCR method was used to detect the dynamic changes of the expression level of type III procollagen mRNA and the expression levels of miR-29a, Akt and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA at 3rd week in the skin tissue of Wistar rats. The thickness of dermis, content of hydroxyproline and expression level of type III procollagen mRNA in the treatment groups (B, C, and D) were found all significantly increased compared with those in the control group (A) (p<0.05); at 3rd week, up-regulation of Akt and TGF-β mRNA expression and down-regulation of miR-29a mRNA expression were observed in the treatment groups (B, C, and D). The difference in the combination treatment group (C) was the most significant (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that retinoic acid formulation and CO2 fractional laser both can promote collagen proliferation and reconstruction, with the skin rejuvenation efficacy in group C > group D > group B. miR-29a/Akt/TGF-β signal pathways may play a certain role in the promotion of collagen

  17. Home-use TriPollar RF device for facial skin tightening: Clinical study results.

    PubMed

    Beilin, Ghislaine

    2011-04-01

    Professional, non-invasive, anti-aging treatments based on radio-frequency (RF) technologies are popular for skin tightening and improvement of wrinkles. A new home-use RF device for facial treatments has recently been developed based on TriPollar™ technology. To evaluate the STOP™ home-use device for facial skin tightening using objective and subjective methods. Twenty-three female subjects used the STOP at home for a period of 6 weeks followed by a maintenance period of 6 weeks. Facial skin characteristics were objectively evaluated at baseline and at the end of the treatment and maintenance periods using a three-dimensional imaging system. Additionally, facial wrinkles were classified and subjects scored their satisfaction and sensations. Following STOP treatment, a statistically significant reduction of perioral and periorbital wrinkles was achieved in 90% and 95% of the patients, respectively, with an average periorbital wrinkle reduction of 41%. This objective result correlated well with the periorbital wrinkle classification result of 40%. All patients were satisfied to extremely satisfied with the treatments and all reported moderate to excellent visible results. The clinical study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the STOP home-use device for facial skin tightening. Treatment can maintain a tighter and suppler skin with improvement of fine lines and wrinkles.

  18. Visible skin colouration predicts perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fink, B; Bunse, L; Matts, P J; D'Emiliano, D

    2012-08-01

    Although there is evidence that perception of facial age, health and attractiveness is informed by shape characteristics as well as by visible skin condition, studies on the latter have focused almost exclusively on female skin. Recent research, however, suggests that a decrease in skin colour homogeneity leads to older, less healthy and less attractive ratings of facial skin in both women and men. Here, we elaborate on the significance of the homogeneity of visible skin colouration in men by testing the hypothesis that perception of age, health and attractiveness of (non-contextual) digitally isolated fields of cheek skin only can predict that of whole facial images. Facial digital images of 160 British men (all Caucasian) aged between 10 and 70 were blind-rated for age, health and attractiveness by a total of 147 men and 154 women (mean age = 22.95, SD = 4.26), and these ratings were related to those of corresponding images of cheek skin reported by Fink et al. (J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. in press). Linear regression analysis showed that age, health and attractiveness perception of men's faces could be predicted by the ratings of cheek skin only, such that older men were viewed as older, less healthy and less attractive. This result underlines once again the potent signalling role of skin in its own right, independent of shape or other factors and suggests strongly that visible skin condition, and skin colour homogeneity in particular, plays a significant role in the perception of men's faces. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. What's in a face? The role of skin tone, facial physiognomy, and color presentation mode of facial primes in affective priming effects.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Participants (N = 106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this effect depended on the mode of color presentation. The results suggest that in affective priming tasks, faces might not be processed holistically, and instead, visual features of facial priming stimuli independently affect implicit evaluations.

  20. Prefabricated neck expanded skin flap with the superficial temporal vessels for facial resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Davide; Su, Weijie; Qian, Yunliang; Messmer, Caroline; Agostini, Tommaso; Spinelli, Giuseppe; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Levin, L Scott; Zenn, Micheal R; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2013-05-01

    The achievement of a normal-appearing face after surgical resurfacing remains an elusive goal. This is due in part to insufficient color matching, restoration of contours, and the persistence of visible scars. Flap prefabrication is a staged procedure that provides an independent axial blood supply to local expanded tissues. We describe a new reconstructive alternative with superior reconstructive surgical options for facial resurfacing that better matches damaged or discarded facial tissues. A superficial temporal fascial flap was harvested as the vascular supply of the prefabricated neck flap and located in a subcutaneous neck pocket over a tissue expander. After a 5-month period for expansion and maturation, the prefabricated skin flap was raised, islanded, and rotated to resurface the facial defect. Four patients with hemifacial postburn contracture and two patients affected by hemifacial vascular malformations aged 17 to 42 years (mean 29 years) were successfully treated with no major complication after a mean period of 15 months. Prefabricated neck-expanded skin flap demonstrated an excellent color and texture match with facial skin that surrounded the repair sites, and optimal aesthetic results were obtained. Importantly, facial expression was completely maintained due to thinness and pliability of the rotated skin. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. The effect of skin surface topography and skin colouration cues on perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fink, B; Matts, P J; Brauckmann, C; Gundlach, S

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of skin surface topography and colouration cues on the perception of female faces reported a differential weighting for the perception of skin topography and colour evenness, where topography was a stronger visual cue for the perception of age, whereas skin colour evenness was a stronger visual cue for the perception of health. We extend these findings in a study of the effect of skin surface topography and colour evenness cues on the perceptions of facial age, health and attractiveness in males. Facial images of six men (aged 40 to 70 years), selected for co-expression of lines/wrinkles and discolouration, were manipulated digitally to create eight stimuli, namely, separate removal of these two features (a) on the forehead, (b) in the periorbital area, (c) on the cheeks and (d) across the entire face. Omnibus (within-face) pairwise combinations, including the original (unmodified) face, were presented to a total of 240 male and female judges, who selected the face they considered younger, healthier and more attractive. Significant effects were detected for facial image choice, in response to skin feature manipulation. The combined removal of skin surface topography resulted in younger age perception compared with that seen with the removal of skin colouration cues, whereas the opposite pattern was found for health preference. No difference was detected for the perception of attractiveness. These perceptual effects were seen particularly on the forehead and cheeks. Removing skin topography cues (but not discolouration) in the periorbital area resulted in higher preferences for all three attributes. Skin surface topography and colouration cues affect the perception of age, health and attractiveness in men's faces. The combined removal of these features on the forehead, cheeks and in the periorbital area results in the most positive assessments. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    Background The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry) and skin roughness (Ra) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow’s feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. PMID:25552908

  3. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin.

    PubMed

    Tran, Diana; Townley, Joshua P; Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2015-01-01

    The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry ) and skin roughness (Ra ) were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow's feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity), R5 (net elasticity), R6 (viscoelastic portion), and R7 (recovery after deformation) were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001) and 42.9% (P<0.0001), respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001) and 12.5% (P=0.0449), respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001) after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects.

  4. Tolerance of fragranced and fragrance-free facial cleansers in adults with clinically sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe D; Fowler, Joseph; Larsen, Walter G; Hornby, Sidney; Walters, Russel M; Appa, Yohini

    2015-10-01

    Although mild, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleansers generally are recommended for individuals with sensitive skin, many consumers choose fragranced foaming cleansers. The addition of hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs) to mild facial cleansers has been shown to improve product tolerability in individuals with sensitive skin while facilitating foaming. The objective of the 2 studies reported here was to assess the tolerability of a mild, HMP-containing, foaming facial cleanser with a fragrance that was free of common allergens and irritating essential oils in patients with sensitive skin. In the first study, 8 participants with clinically diagnosed fragrance sensitivity used a gentle foaming HMP-containing facial cleanser with or without fragrance for 3 weeks. Both cleansers improved global disease severity, irritation, and erythema with similar cleansing effectiveness. The second study was a 3-week, prospective, double-blind, randomized, 2-center study of 153 participants with clinically diagnosed sensitive skin. In this study, the fragranced gentle foaming cleanser with HMP was as well tolerated as a benchmark gentle, fragrance-free, nonfoaming cleanser. Itching, irritation, and desquamation were most improved from baseline in both groups. The participant-rated effectiveness of the cleanser with HMP was similar or better than the benchmark cleanser after 3 weeks of use. In conclusion, the gentle facial cleanser with HMPs and a fragrance offers a new option for adults with sensitive skin who may prefer, and commonly use, a fragranced and foaming product.

  5. Patient experiences and outcomes following facial skin cancer surgery: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Erica H; Klassen, Anne F; Lawson, Jessica L; Cano, Stefan J; Scott, Amie M; Pusic, Andrea L

    2016-08-01

    Early melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer of the facial area are primarily treated with surgery. Little is known about the outcomes of treatment for facial skin cancer patients. The objective of the study was to identify concerns about aesthetics, procedures and health from the patients' perspective after facial skin surgery. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 participants. Line-by-line coding was used to establish categories and develop themes. We identified five major themes on the impact of skin cancer surgery: appearance-related concerns; psychological (e.g., fear of new cancers or recurrence); social (e.g. impact on social activities and interaction); physical (e.g. pain and swelling) concerns and satisfaction with the experience of care (e.g., satisfaction with surgeon). The priority of participants was the removal of the facial skin cancer, as this reduced their overall worry. The aesthetic outcome was secondary but important, as it had important implications on the participants' social and psychological functioning. The participants' experience with the care provided by the surgeon and staff also contributed to their satisfaction with their treatment. This conceptual framework provides the basis for the development of a new patient-reported outcome instrument. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  6. Determinants of satisfaction with the health state of the facial skin in patients undergoing surgery for facial basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Essers, Brigitte A B; Nieman, Fred H M; Prins, Martin H; Krekels, Gertruud A M; Smeets, Nicole W J; Neumann, H A Martino

    2006-02-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess which health beliefs predict and explain satisfaction with the facial health state of patients undergoing surgery for basal cell carcinoma. Data were collected by administering a newly developed questionnaire pre-operatively and 6 months post-operatively (n = 222). Results show that satisfaction as measured by post-operative worrying, susceptibility and fear of developing a new BCC at other facial sites can be predicted by pre-operative health beliefs. In addition, some patients an increase in perceived susceptibility, fear of recurrence of BCC on the same site or fear of developing a new BCC at other facial sites. Our findings indicate that both pre- and post-operative perceptions predict and explain for a substantial part the extent to which patients are satisfied with their facial health state 6 months after surgery. Administering a short questionnaire at the start of the treatment period will give physicians a better understanding of how patients experience this skin disease. It will also help them to adjust information about BCC and its consequences to the needs of the patient.

  7. Human facial skin detection in thermal video to effectively measure electrodermal activity (EDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Leonard, Kevin R.; Nelson, Jill K.

    2011-06-01

    In the past, autonomic nervous system response has often been determined through measuring Electrodermal Activity (EDA), sometimes referred to as Skin Conductance (SC). Recent work has shown that high resolution thermal cameras can passively and remotely obtain an analog to EDA by assessing the activation of facial eccrine skin pores. This paper investigates a method to distinguish facial skin from non-skin portions on the face to generate a skin-only Dynamic Mask (DM), validates the DM results, and demonstrates DM performance by removing false pore counts. Moreover, this paper shows results from these techniques using data from 20+ subjects across two different experiments. In the first experiment, subjects were presented with primary screening questions for which some had jeopardy. In the second experiment, subjects experienced standard emotion-eliciting stimuli. The results from using this technique will be shown in relation to data and human perception (ground truth). This paper introduces an automatic end-to-end skin detection approach based on texture feature vectors. In doing so, the paper contributes not only a new capability of tracking facial skin in thermal imagery, but also enhances our capability to provide non-contact, remote, passive, and real-time methods for determining autonomic nervous system responses for medical and security applications.

  8. Characterizing Facial Skin Ageing in Humans: Disentangling Extrinsic from Intrinsic Biological Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Trojahn, Carina; Dobos, Gabor; Lichterfeld, Andrea; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Facial skin ageing is caused by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Intrinsic ageing is highly related to chronological age. Age related skin changes can be measured using clinical and biophysical methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether and how clinical characteristics and biophysical parameters are associated with each other with and without adjustment for chronological age. Twenty-four female subjects of three age groups were enrolled. Clinical assessments (global facial skin ageing, wrinkling, and sagging), and biophysical measurements (roughness, colour, skin elasticity, and barrier function) were conducted at both upper cheeks. Pearson's correlations and linear regression models adjusted for age were calculated. Most of the measured parameters were correlated with chronological age (e.g., association with wrinkle score, r = 0.901) and with each other (e.g., residual skin deformation and wrinkle score, r = 0.606). After statistical adjustment for age, only few associations remained (e.g., mean roughness (R z) and luminance (L *),  β = −0.507, R 2 = 0.377). Chronological age as surrogate marker for intrinsic ageing has the most important influence on most facial skin ageing signs. Changes in skin elasticity, wrinkling, sagging, and yellowness seem to be caused by additional extrinsic ageing. PMID:25767806

  9. An alternative method for facial resurfacing: supraclavicular skin prefabrication by perforator fascia flap.

    PubMed

    Hocaoğlu, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Prefabrication of supraclavicular skin provides a useful source for flaps congruent with the face skin. Among various vascular sources that have been used for this purpose, anterolateral thigh fascia seems to represent a greater value because of having a long and strong vascular pedicle and negligible donor-site morbidity. In this regard, we present a technical report on using the lateral circumflex femoral artery perforator flap harvest technique in preparing an anterolateral thigh fascia flap for the prefabrication of the supraclavicular skin. The technique proved successful in resurfacing the facial skin of a young female patient with a giant congenital melanocytic hairy nevus on the left side of her face.

  10. Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream.

    PubMed

    Ali, Atif; Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

    2014-05-01

    Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan(®) VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects.

  11. Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. Aim To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Material and methods Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan® VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Results Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. Conclusions The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects. PMID:25097471

  12. Establishing a profitable skin care practice in a facial plastic surgery office.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Edwin A

    2010-11-01

    Facial plastic surgeons seeking information about establishing and maintaining a first-rate skin care program and practice in their office will learn practice management tips and business advice. This content begins with presenting steps in patient evaluation and continues through development of a care plan. Discussion includes approach to skin care products, sunscreen, and related preventive and restorative methods. Detailed discussion is included of developing a personalized skin care plan. The content concludes with essential business tips and marketing advice for the facial plastic surgeon to include skin care in the surgical practice, including the way in which these are handled in the author's practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The importance of skin color and facial structure in perceiving and remembering others: an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Brebner, Joanne L; Krigolson, Olav; Handy, Todd C; Quadflieg, Susanne; Turk, David J

    2011-05-04

    The own-race bias (ORB) is a well-documented recognition advantage for own-race (OR) over cross-race (CR) faces, the origin of which remains unclear. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while Caucasian participants age-categorized Black and White faces which were digitally altered to display either a race congruent or incongruent facial structure. The results of a subsequent surprise memory test indicated that regardless of facial structure participants recognized White faces better than Black faces. Additional analyses revealed that temporally-early ERP components associated with face-specific perceptual processing (N170) and the individuation of facial exemplars (N250) were selectively sensitive to skin color. In addition, the N200 (a component that has been linked to increased attention and depth of encoding afforded to in-group and OR faces) was modulated by color and structure, and correlated with subsequent memory performance. However, the LPP component associated with the cognitive evaluation of perceptual input was influenced by racial differences in facial structure alone. These findings suggest that racial differences in skin color and facial structure are detected during the encoding of unfamiliar faces, and that the categorization of conspecifics as members of our social in-group on the basis of their skin color may be a determining factor in our ability to subsequently remember them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Facial resurfacing with a monoblock full-thickness skin graft after multiple malignant melanomas excision in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Selahattin; Uygur, Safak; Eryilmaz, Tolga; Ak, Betul

    2012-09-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is an autosomal recessive disease, characterized by vulnerability of the skin to solar radiation. Increase in sunlight-induced cancer is a direct consequence of an increase in mutated cells of the skin of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. There is no specific technique for facial resurfacing in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. In this article, a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum with multiple malignant melanomas on her face and radical excision of total facial skin followed by facial resurfacing with monoblock full-thickness skin graft from the abdomen is presented.

  15. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-10-01

    The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p -values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion.

  16. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. Objective To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Methods Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Results Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p-values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. Conclusion In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion. PMID:27746642

  17. Stress Evaluation while Prolonged Driving Operation Using the Facial Skin Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hirotoshi; Muto, Takumi; Ide, Hideto

    There is a relation to the accident of a car and the physiological and psychological state of a driver. The stress may lead to the fall of a fatigue or attentiveness. Therefore, it is an important subject from viewpoint such as accident prevention to evaluate the mental state of a driver. The study aimed at the development of a quantitative instrumentation technology of the stress when a subject is driving for a long time. First of all, we measured the physiological and psychological stress of a driver. The facial skin temperature and ventricular rate that was driver's physiological amount were measured and compared it with visual analog scale of the subjective amount. It was able to be obtaining of the high correlation in facial skin temperature and visual analog scale from the outcome of the experiment. Therefore, the possibility of appreciable of driver's stress at a facial skin temperature was shown. As a result of the experiment, we showed a possibility that facial skin temperature could evaluate long driving stress.

  18. Colour homogeneity and visual perception of age, health and attractiveness of male facial skin.

    PubMed

    Fink, B; Matts, P J; D'Emiliano, D; Bunse, L; Weege, B; Röder, S

    2012-12-01

    Visible facial skin condition in females is known to affect perception of age, health and attractiveness. Skin colour distribution in shape- and topography-standardized female faces, driven by localized melanin and haemoglobin, can account for up to twenty years of apparent age perception. Although this is corroborated by an ability to discern female age even in isolated, non-contextual skin images, a similar effect in the perception of male skin is yet to be demonstrated. To investigate the effect of skin colour homogeneity and chromophore distribution on the visual perception of age, health and attractiveness of male facial skin. Cropped images from the cheeks of facial images of 160 Caucasian British men aged 10-70 years were blind-rated for age, health and attractiveness by a total of 308 participants. In addition, the homogeneity of skin images and corresponding eumelanin/oxyhaemoglobin concentration maps were analysed objectively using Haralick's image segmentation algorithm. Isolated skin images taken from the cheeks of younger males were judged as healthier and more attractive. Perception of age, health and attractiveness was strongly related to melanin and haemoglobin distribution, whereby more even distributions led to perception of younger age and greater health and attractiveness. The evenness of melanized features was a stronger cue for age perception, whereas haemoglobin distribution was associated more strongly with health and attractiveness perception. Male skin colour homogeneity, driven by melanin and haemoglobin distribution, influences perception of age, health and attractiveness. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. The efficacy of facial skin cancer treatment with high-energy pulsed neodymium and Nd:YAG lasers.

    PubMed

    Moskalik, Konstantin; Kozlov, Alexander; Demin, Eugeny; Boiko, Ernest

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the curative and cosmetic efficacy of treatment for facial skin cancer using neodymium laser irradiation. Due to the complex anatomy of the area, therapy for facial skin cancer is difficult. Laser irradiation was used for the treatment of 3461 patients with 3624 facial skin cancer lesions of stages T(1-2)N(0)M(0:) 3346 basal cell skin cancers, 188 limited basal cell skin cancer recurrences, and 90 squamous cell skin cancers. Pulsed neodymium (Nd) and Nd:YAG lasers were used as the energy sources. The patients were followed-up from 3 mo to 5 y or more. Patients with basal cell skin cancer treated by irradiation with the Nd laser developed recurrences in 1.8% of cases, and patients treated with the Nd:YAG laser had a recurrence rate of 2.5%. Recurrences following treatment for basal cell skin cancer, and those of squamous cell skin cancer, after irradiation with the Nd laser appeared in 3.7% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Overall, the frequency of facial skin cancer recurrences after treatment with laser irradiation was 2.1% of all the irradiated tumors. Neodymium laser irradiation is an effective method to treat facial skin cancer of stages T(1-2)N(0)M(0), and results in acceptable cosmetic results.

  20. Overview of Facial Plastic Surgery and Current Developments

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Jessica; Barnes, Christian; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Facial plastic surgery is a multidisciplinary specialty largely driven by otolaryngology but includes oral maxillary surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology, and plastic surgery. It encompasses both reconstructive and cosmetic components. The scope of practice for facial plastic surgeons in the United States may include rhinoplasty, browlifts, blepharoplasty, facelifts, microvascular reconstruction of the head and neck, craniomaxillofacial trauma reconstruction, and correction of defects in the face after skin cancer resection. Facial plastic surgery also encompasses the use of injectable fillers, neural modulators (e.g., BOTOX Cosmetic, Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Westport, Ireland), lasers, and other devices aimed at rejuvenating skin. Facial plastic surgery is a constantly evolving field with continuing innovative advances in surgical techniques and cosmetic adjunctive technologies. This article aims to give an overview of the various procedures that encompass the field of facial plastic surgery and to highlight the recent advances and trends in procedures and surgical techniques. PMID:28824978

  1. Evaluation of psychological stress in confined environments using salivary, skin, and facial image parameters.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Mariko; Haze, Shinichiro; Gozu, Yoko; Hosoi, Junichi; Onodera, Tomoko; Tojo, Yosuke; Katsuyama, Masako; Hara, Yusuke; Katagiri, Chika; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Furukawa, Satoshi; Suzuki, Go

    2018-05-29

    Detecting the influence of psychological stress is particularly important in prolonged space missions. In this study, we determined potential markers of psychological stress in a confined environment. We examined 23 Japanese subjects staying for 2 weeks in a confined facility at Tsukuba Space Center, measuring salivary, skin, and facial image parameters. Saliva was collected at four points in a single day to detect diurnal variation. Increases in salivary cortisol were detected after waking up on the 4th and 11th days, and at 15:30 on the 1st and in the second half of the stay. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and sebum content of the skin were higher compared with outside the facility on the 4th and 1st days respectively. Increased IL-1β in the stripped stratum corneum was observed on the 14th day, and 7 days after leaving. Differences in facial expression symmetry at the time of facial expression changes were observed on 11th and 14th days. Thus, we detected a transition of psychological stress using salivary cortisol profiles and skin physiological parameters. The results also suggested that IL-1β in the stripped stratum corneum and facial expression symmetry are possible novel markers for conveniently detecting psychological stress.

  2. Random fractional ultrapulsed CO2 resurfacing of photodamaged facial skin: long-term evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tretti Clementoni, Matteo; Galimberti, Michela; Tourlaki, Athanasia; Catenacci, Maximilian; Lavagno, Rosalia; Bencini, Pier Luca

    2013-02-01

    Although numerous papers have recently been published on ablative fractional resurfacing, there is a lack of information in literature on very long-term results. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy, adverse side effects, and long-term results of a random fractional ultrapulsed CO2 laser on a large population with photodamaged facial skin. Three hundred twelve patients with facial photodamaged skin were enrolled and underwent a single full-face treatment. Six aspects of photodamaged skin were recorded using a 5 point scale at 3, 6, and 24 months after the treatment. The results were compared with a non-parametric statistical test, the Wilcoxon's exact test. Three hundred one patients completed the study. All analyzed features showed a significant statistical improvement 3 months after the procedure. Three months later all features, except for pigmentations, once again showed a significant statistical improvement. Results after 24 months were similar to those assessed 18 months before. No long-term or other serious complications were observed. From the significant number of patients analyzed, long-term results demonstrate not only how fractional ultrapulsed CO2 resurfacing can achieve good results on photodamaged facial skin but also how these results can be considered stable 2 years after the procedure.

  3. A phosphatidylcholine hyaluronic acid chitin–nanofibrils complex for a fast skin remodeling and a rejuvenating look

    PubMed Central

    Morganti, Pierfrancesco; Palombo, Paolo; Palombo, Marco; Fabrizi, Giuseppe; Cardillo, Antonio; Svolacchia, Fabiano; Guevara, Luis; Mezzana, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background The reduction of mortality worldwide has led older individuals to seek intervention modalities to improve their appearance and reverse signs of aging. Objective We formulated a medical device as innovative block-polymer nanoparticles based on phosphatidylcholine, hyaluronan, and chitin nanofibrils entrapping amino acids, vitamins, and melatonin. Methods Viability and collagen synthesis were controlled on fibroblasts ex vivo culture while adenosine triphosphate production was evaluated on keratinocytes culture. Subjective and objective evaluations were performed in vivo on selected volunteer patients. Results In accordance with our previous studies, both the in vitro and in vivo obtained results demonstrate the efficacy of the injected block-polymer nanoparticles in reducing skin wrinkling and ameliorating the signs of aging. PMID:23293530

  4. Warty skin changes, chronic scrotal lymphoedema, and facial dysmorphism

    PubMed Central

    Felcht, Moritz; Dikow, Nicola; Goebeler, Matthias; Stroebel, Philipp; Booken, Nina; Voßmerbäumer, Urs; Merx, Kirsten; Henzler, Thomas; Marx, Alexander; Moog, Ute; Goerdt, Sergij; Klemke, Claus-Detlev

    2010-01-01

    We present the case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man whose main complaints were wart-like skin changes and scrotal lymphoedema. Furthermore, our patient showed signs of a common hereditary disease: lymphoedema, short stature, webbed neck, low frontal and posterior hairline, downslanting palpebral fissures, pale blue iris, broad nose, flat philtrum, and prominent nasolabial folds. His ears were low set and retroverted with a thick helix. However, no diagnosis was made for 49 years. The interdisciplinary dialogue of various specialists to make the final diagnosis is presented and discussed. PMID:22750922

  5. Ways of Noninvasive Facial Skin Tightening and Fat Reduction.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Klaus; Salavastru, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    For skin tightening, ablative and nonablative lasers have been used with various parameters full or fractionated. Currently, other energy-based technologies have been developed such as radiofrequency (RF) from mono- to multipolar, microneedling RF, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. They heat up the tissue to a clinical endpoint. Temperatures above 42°C stimulate fibroblasts to produce more collagen and some technologies produce small coagulation points that allow to shrink and to tighten the tissue with less downtime or side effects. Alternative treatments not based on heat can be chemical peels from light to deep and microneedling without RF. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage.

  7. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. Methods A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Results Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Conclusion Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage. PMID:23152694

  8. Prefrontal oxygenation correlates to the responses in facial skin blood flows during exposure to pleasantly charged movie.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Endo, Kana; Asahara, Ryota; Yoshikawa, Miho; Kusunoki, Shinya; Ishida, Tomoko

    2017-11-01

    Our laboratory reported that facial skin blood flow may serve as a sensitive tool to assess an emotional status. Cerebral neural correlates during emotional interventions should be sought in relation to the changes in facial skin blood flow. To test the hypothesis that prefrontal activity has positive relation to the changes in facial skin blood flow during emotionally charged stimulation, we examined the dynamic changes in prefrontal oxygenation (with near-infrared spectroscopy) and facial skin blood flows (with two-dimensional laser speckle and Doppler flowmetry) during emotionally charged audiovisual challenges for 2 min (by viewing comedy, landscape, and horror movie) in 14 subjects. Hand skin blood flow and systemic hemodynamics were simultaneously measured. The extents of pleasantness and consciousness for each emotional stimulus were estimated by subjective rating from -5 (the most unpleasant; the most unconscious) to +5 (the most pleasant; the most conscious). Positively charged emotional stimulation (comedy) simultaneously decreased ( P  <   0.05) prefrontal oxygenation and facial skin blood flow, whereas negatively charged (horror) or neutral (landscape) emotional stimulation did not alter or slightly decreased them. Any of hand skin blood flow and systemic cardiovascular variables did not change significantly during positively charged emotional stimulation. The changes in prefrontal oxygenation had a highly positive correlation with the changes in facial skin blood flow without altering perfusion pressure, and they were inversely correlated with the subjective rating of pleasantness. The reduction in prefrontal oxygenation during positively charged emotional stimulation suggests a decrease in prefrontal neural activity, which may in turn elicit neurally mediated vasoconstriction of facial skin blood vessels. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American

  9. Assessment of the effects of skin microneedling as adjuvant therapy for facial melasma: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lima, Emerson V A; Lima, Mariana Modesto D A; Paixão, Mauricio Pedreira; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-11-28

    Melasma is a common chronic and relapsing acquired dyschromia. Skin microneedling was reported resulting sustained long-term improvement of recalcitrant melasma, however, the exact mechanism that promotes this skin lightening is not known. This study aimed to investigate clinical and histologic alterations promoted by skin microneedling in facial melasma. Open pilot trial including six women with facial refractory melasma submitted to two sessions of microneedling (1.5 mm) each 30 days followed by daily triple combination and broad-spectrum sunscreen. Comparison of pretreatment (T0) and 15 days after last microneedling procedure (T45) was made by standardized pictures, skin colorimetry, MASI, MELASQoL and histological parameters (haematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius-red, periodic acid Schiff and Fontana-Masson staining). The age of the subjects varied from 34 to 46 years-old, the phototypes were III and IV (Fitzpatrick), and age of melasma onset was 20 to 38 years. Improvement of melasma was perceived in all subjects. There was a significant reduction of MASI score (-70%), MELASQoL (-55%) and increase in L* (+13%) colorimetric value (p < 0.03). All cases evidenced epithelium thickening, decrease in melanin pigmentation and densification of upper dermis collagen (p = 0.03). Patients were followed by 6 months under broad-spectrum sunscreen and triple combination without relapse. In addition to classic treatment (broad-spectrum sunscreen and triple combination), skin microneedling promoted clinical and histological improvement of refractory facial melasma.

  10. High dose rate brachytherapy with customized applicators for malignant facial skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Jumeau, R; Renard-Oldrini, S; Courrech, F; Buchheit, I; Oldrini, G; Vogin, G; Peiffert, D

    2016-07-01

    Brachytherapy is a well-known treatment in the management of skin tumors. For facial or scalp lesions, applicators have been developed to deliver non-invasive treatment. We present cases treated with customized applicators with high dose rate system. Patients with poor performance status treated for malignant skin lesions of the scalp or the facial skin between 2011 and 2014 were studied. Afterloading devices were chosen between Freiburg(®) Flap, silicone-mold or wax applicators. The clinical target volume (CTV) was created by adding margins to lesions (10mm to 20mm). The dose schedules were 25Gy in five fractions for postoperative lesions, 30Gy in six fractions for exclusive treatments and a single session of 8Gy could be considered for palliative treatments. In 30 months, 11 patients received a treatment for a total of 12 lesions. The median age was 80 years. The median follow-up was 17 months and the 2-year local control rate was 91%. The mean CTV surface was 41.1cm(2) with a mean thickness of 6.1mm. We conceived three wax applicators, used our silicone-mold eight times and the Freiburg(®) Flap one time. We observed only low-grade radiodermitis (grade I: 50%, grade II: 33%), and no high-grade skin toxicity. High dose rate brachytherapy with customized applicators for facial skin and scalp lesions is efficient and safe. It is a good modality to treat complex lesions in patients unfit for invasive treatment. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

    2014-08-01

    Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception of Chinese and Caucasian faces.

  12. Assessment of cumulative exposure to UVA through the study of asymmetrical facial skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mac-Mary, Sophie; Sainthillier, Jean-Marie; Jeudy, Adeline; Sladen, Christelle; Williams, Cara; Bell, Mike; Humbert, Philippe

    2010-09-23

    Published studies assessing whether asymmetrical facial ultraviolet light exposure leads to underlying differences in skin physiology and morphology report only clinical observations. The aim of this study was to assess the visual impact on the skin of repeated ultraviolet-A (UVA) exposure through a window. Eight women and two men presenting with asymmetrical signs of photoaging due to overexposure of one side of their face to the sun through a window over a long period of time were enrolled in the study. Split-face biometrologic assessments were performed (clinical scoring, hydration with Corneometer, mechanical properties with Cutometer, transepidermal water loss with AquaFlux, skin relief with fringe projection, photography, stripping, and then lipid peroxidation analysis). Significant differences were observed in clinical scores for wrinkles, skin roughness assessed by fringe projection on the cheek, and skin heterogeneity assessed with spectrocolorimetry on the cheekbone. Other differences were observed for skin hydration, as well as skin laxity, which tended towards significance. This study suggests the potential benefit of daily UVA protection during nondeliberate exposure indoors as well as outside.

  13. [Reconstruction of zygomatic-facial massive defect using modified bilobed flap after resection of skin cancer].

    PubMed

    Ling, Bin; Abass, Keremu; Hu, Mei; Yin, Xiaopeng; Hu, Lulu; Lin, Zhaoquan; Gong, Zhongcheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the clinical application of the modified bilobed flap in the reconstruction of zygomatic-facial massive defect after resection of skin cancer. Between August 2009 and October 2011, 15 patients with skin cancer in the zygomatic-facial region underwent defect reconstruction using modified bilobed flaps after surgical removal. There were 12 males and 3 females, aged 52-78 years (mean, 64.1 years). The disease duration was 1-14 months (mean, 4.6 months). Among the patients, there were 11 cases of basal cell carcinoma and 4 cases of squamous cell carcinoma; 1 patient had infection and the others had no skin ulceration; and tumor involved the skin layer in all patients. According to TNM staging, 13 cases were rated as T2N0M2 and 2 cases as T3N0M3. The defect size ranged from 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 4.0 cm after cancer resection. The modified bilobed flaps consisting of pre-auricular flap and post-auricular flap was used to repair the defect after cancer resection. The size ranged from 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 4.0 cm of the first flap and from 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm to 5.0 cm x 3.0 cm of the second flap. Partial incision dehiscence occurred in 1 case, and was cured after dressing change; the flaps survived and incision healed primarily in the other cases. Fourteen patients were followed up 12-24 months (mean, 18.7 months). No recurrence was found, and the patients had no obvious face asymmetry or skin scar with normal closure of eyelid and facial nerve function. At last follow-up, the results were very satisfactory in 5 cases, satisfactory in 7 cases, generally satisfactory in 1 case, and dissatisfactory in 1 case. The pre- and post-auricular bilobed flaps could be used to reconstruct the massive defects in the zygomatic-facial region after resection of skin cancer.

  14. Chemical Peeling with a Modified Phenol Formula for the Treatment of Facial Freckles on Asian Skin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Feng; Lu, Hai-Shan; Sun, Le-Qi; Ping, Wei-Dong; Mao, Dong-Sheng; Li, Dan

    2018-04-01

    Chemical peeling is an efficient method for the treatment of pigment disorders. For freckles, medium-depth to deep peeling using a phenol solution is one of the most effective chemical peels, and modifications of facial skin can be observed up to 20 years after peeling. However, applying phenol to the skin may cause serious side effects. Phenol peeling has been rarely used in Asia due to its tendency to cause permanent pigmentary changes and hypertrophic scars. In total, 896 Chinese inpatients with facial freckles were enrolled in this study. The phenol formula was modified with crystalline phenol, dyclonine, camphor, anhydrous alcohol and glycerin and adjusted to a concentration of 73.6-90.0%. The entire peeling treatment was divided into two procedures performed separately on 2 days. All patients exhibited 26% or greater improvement, and 99.66% of patients exhibited 51% or greater improvement (good and excellent). Scarring and systemic complications were not observed in any patient. The modified phenol formula is very effective and safe for the treatment of facial freckles in Asian patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  15. Influence of facial skin ageing characteristics on the perceived age in a Russian female population.

    PubMed

    Merinville, E; Grennan, G Z; Gillbro, J M; Mathieu, J; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    The desire for a youthful look remains a powerful motivator in the purchase of cosmetics by women globally. To develop an anti-ageing solution that targets the need of end consumers, it is critical to understand which signs of ageing really matter to them and which influence their age perception. To date, such research has not been performed in a Russian population. The aim of this work was to identify the signs of ageing that contribute the most to an 'older' or 'younger' look for Russian women aged 40 years old and above. The age of 203 Russian female volunteers was estimated from their standard photographs by a total of 629 female naïve assessors aged 20-65 years old. Perceived age data were related to 23 facial skin features previously measured using linear correlation coefficients. Differences in average severity of the correlating skin ageing features were evaluated between women perceived older and women perceived younger than their chronological age. Volunteers' responses to a ranking question on their key ageing skin concerns previously collected were analysed to provide an additional view on facial ageing from the consumer perspective. Nine facial skin ageing features were found to correlate the most with perceived age out of the 23 measured. Such results showed the importance of wrinkles in the upper part of the face (crow's feet, glabellar, under eye and forehead wrinkles), but also wrinkles in the lower half of the face associated with facial sagging (upper lip, nasolabial fold). Sagging was confirmed of key importance to female volunteers aged 41-65 years old who were mostly concerned by the sagging of their jawline, ahead of under eye and crow's feet wrinkle. The severity of hyperpigmented spots, red and brown, was also found to contribute to perceived age although to a weaker extent. By providing a clear view on the signs of ageing really matter to Russian women who are aged 40 years old and above, this research offers key information for the

  16. Development of the Facial Skin Care Index: A Health-Related Outcomes Index for Skin Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, B. Alex; Rhee, John S.; Neuburg, Marcy; Burzynski, Mary L.; Nattinger, Ann B.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Existing health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) tools do not appear to capture patients' specific skin cancer concerns. OBJECTIVE To describe the conceptual foundation, item generation, reduction process, and reliability testing for the Facial Skin Cancer Index (FSCI), a HRQOL outcomes tool for skin cancer researchers and clinicians. METHODS Participants in Phases I to III consisted of adult patients (N = 134) diagnosed with biopsy-proven nonmelanoma cervicofacial skin cancer. Data were collected via self-report surveys and clinical records. RESULTS Seventy-one distinct items were generated in Phase I and rated for their importance by an independent sample during Phase II; 36 items representing six theoretical HRQOL domains were retained. Test–retest I results indicated that four subscales showed adequate reliability coefficients (α = 0.60 to 0.91). Twenty-six items remained for test–retest II. Results indicated excellent internal consistency for emotional, social, appearance, and modified financial/work subscales (range 0.79 to 0.95); test–retest correlation coefficients were consistent across time (range 0.81 to 0.97; lifestyle omitted). CONCLUSION Pretesting afforded the opportunity to select items that optimally met our a priori conceptual and psychometric criteria for high data quality. Phase IV testing (validity and sensitivity before surgery and 4 months after Mohs micrographic surgery) for the 20-item FSCI is under way. PMID:16875475

  17. Repair of a facial defect with an interpolation skin flap in a cat.

    PubMed

    Allen, S W; Miller, M A; Haas, K M

    1997-05-01

    A 9-year-old domestic shorthair cat was referred for removal of a rostrally located fibrosarcoma on the face, which had previously recurred twice following excision. A wide excision was performed, using a neodymium:yttrium-aluminumgarnet (Nd:YAG) laser, resulting in a facial defect that could not be closed by primary suture. An interpolation skin flap was elevated, using skin from the side of the cat's face, and sutured in place over the defect. Recurrence of the tumor at the medial canthus of the left eye, which was observed 4 months after surgery, was treated by laser excision and cryotherapy. Other recurrences of the fibrosarcoma were not noticed for 2.5 years after referral, at which time the cat was euthanatized for other reasons. Necropsy revealed that the fibrosarcoma had not recurred. In this cat, an interpolation skin flap was useful in repairing a large rostral facial defect. Care should be taken when elevating this flap to preserve the palpebral nerve.

  18. A Comparison of the Local Flap and Skin Graft by Location of Face in Reconstruction after Resection of Facial Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Kim, Jun Oh; Kim, Nam Gyun; Lee, Yoon Jung; Park, Young Ji; Kim, Jun Sik

    2017-12-01

    Surgery for reconstruction of defects after surgery should be performed selectively and the many points must be considered. The authors conducted this study to compare the local flap and skin graft by facial location in the reconstruction after resection of facial skin cancer. The authors performed the study in patients that had received treatment in Department of Plastic Surgery, Gyeongsang National University. The cases were analyzed according to the reconstruction methods for the defects after surgery, sex, age, tumor site, and tumor size. Additionally, the authors compared differences of aesthetic satisfaction (out of 5 points) of patients in the local flap and skin graft by facial location after resection of facial skin cancer by dividing the face into eight areas. A total of 153 cases were confirmed. The most common facial skin cancer was basal cell carcinoma (56.8%, 87 cases), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (37.2%, 57 cases) and bowen's disease (5.8%, 9 cases). The most common reconstruction method was local flap 119 cases (77.7%), followed by skin graft 34 cases (22.3%). 86 patients answered the questionnaire and mean satisfaction of the local flap and skin graft were 4.3 and 3.5 ( p =0.04), respectively, indicating that satisfaction of local flap was significantly high. When comparing satisfaction of patients according to results, local flap shows excellent effects in functional and cosmetic aspects would be able to provide excellent results rather than using a skin graft with poor touch and tone compared to the surrounding normal skin.

  19. Management of facial burns with a collagen/glycosaminoglycan skin substitute-prospective experience with 12 consecutive patients with large, deep facial burns.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthew B; Engrav, Loren H; Holmes, James H; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Costa, Beth A; Honari, Shari; Gibran, Nicole S

    2005-05-01

    Management of deep facial burns remains one of the greatest challenges in burn care. We have developed a protocol over the past 20 years for management of facial burns that includes excision and coverage with thick autograft. However, the results were not perfect. Deformities of the eyelids, nose and mouth as well as the prominence of skin graft junctures demonstrated the need to explore novel approaches. Integra has been used with success in the management of burns of the trunk and extremities. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the aesthetic outcome of the use of Integra for deep facial burns. Twelve consecutive patients underwent excision of large, deep facial burns and placement of Integra. Integra provides excellent color and minimally visible skin graft junctures. The texture is good but not as supple as thick autograft. Integra is not well suited for use in the coverage of eyelid burns due to the need to wait 2 weeks for adequate vascularization. In summary, thick autograft remains the gold standard for deep facial burns. However, for patients with extensive burns and limited donor sites, Integra provides an acceptable alternative.

  20. Dermal carbonyl modification is related to the yellowish color change of photo-aged Japanese facial skin.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuki; Kuwahara, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Minoru; Tajima, Shingo; Hattori, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kouhei; Okawa, Shinpei; Yamada, Yukio; Tagami, Hachiro; Takahashi, Motoji; Hirao, Tetsuji

    2011-10-01

    The photo-aged facial skin is characterized by various unique features such as dark spots, wrinkles, and sagging. Elderly people, particularly Asians, tend to show a yellowish skin color change with photo-aging. However, there has been no analytical study conducted on this unique skin color change of the aged facial skin. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether the carbonyl modification in the dermal protein is involved in the yellowish color change that occurs in the photo-aged skin. Normal skin samples excised from the face, abdomen and buttock of variously aged Japanese were separated into the epidermal and the dermal portions. These skin samples were histologically examined for carbonyl modification. Moreover, an in vitro constructed dermis model composed of a contracted collagen gel was treated with acrolein or 4-hydroxynonenal. All these samples were also studied colorimetrically. The dermal samples obtained from the photo-aged facial skin exhibited an appearance of yellowish color, whereas neither the facial epidermis nor the dermis obtained from the abdomen or buttock showed such a yellowish discoloration. The upper layer of the dermis that revealed the yellowish color showed elastosis whose elastic fibers were found to colocalize with carbonyl protein as detected by a labeled hydrazide, as well as by an immunohistochemical examination using the antibody against acrolein adduct. Experimental induction of carbonyl modification in a dermis model in vitro by a long-term treatment with acrolein or 4-hydroxynonenal was found to show the appearance of the yellowish change which was also proven by an increase in b* value of colorimetry. It was more pronounced than that induced by glycation. Our present results strongly suggest that carbonyl modification of the dermal protein is involved in the production of the yellowish color change that is noted in the photo-aged facial skin. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology

  1. Skin and Composite Grafting Techniques in Facial Reconstruction for Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Michael J; Moyer, Jeffrey S

    2017-08-01

    Skin and composite grafting provide effective resurfacing and reconstruction for cutaneous defects after excision of the malignancy. The goal is to restore a natural appearance and function while preventing distortion of the eyelid, nose, or lips. With careful planning and attention to aesthetic subunits, the surgeon can camouflage incisions and avoid blunting aesthetically sensitive sulci. The surgical plan is also informed by the pathology, as basal or squamous cell carcinomas removed by Mohs micrographic excision have different prognostic and logistical considerations from melanoma. Skin and composite grafting are useful as stand-alone procedures or may complement local flaps and other soft tissue reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ice slurry ingestion reduces both core and facial skin temperatures in a warm environment.

    PubMed

    Onitsuka, Sumire; Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Internal body cooling by ingesting ice slurry has recently attracted attention. Because ice slurries are ingested through the mouth, it is possible that this results in conductive cooling of the facial skin and brain. However, no studies have investigated this possibility. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ice slurry ingestion on forehead skin temperature at the point of conductive cooling between the forehead skin and brain. Eight male subjects ingested either 7.5g/kg of ice slurry (-1°C; ICE), a cold sports drink (4°C; COOL), or a warm sports drink (37°C; CON) for 15min in a warm environment (30°C, 80% relative humidity). Then, they remained at rest for 1h. As physiological indices, rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature, forehead skin temperature (Thead), heart rate, nude body mass, and urine specific gravity were measured. Subjective thermal sensation (TS) was measured at 5-min intervals throughout the experiment. With ICE, Tre and Thead were significantly reduced compared with CON and COOL conditions (p<0.05). The results of the other physiological indices were not significantly different. TS with ICE was significantly lower than that with CON and COOL (p<0.05) and was correlated with Tre or Thead (p<0.05). These results indicate that ice slurry ingestion may induce conductive cooling between forehead skin and brain, and reduction in core and forehead skin temperature reduced thermal sensation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel continuous colour mapping approach for visualization of facial skin hydration and transepidermal water loss for four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Voegeli, R; Rawlings, A V; Seroul, P; Summers, B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to develop a novel colour mapping approach to visualize and interpret the complexity of facial skin hydration and barrier properties of four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Indians, Chinese and Black Africans) living in Pretoria, South Africa. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance on 30 pre-defined sites on the forehead, cheek, jaw and eye areas of sixteen women (four per ethnic group) and took digital images of their faces. Continuous colour maps were generated by interpolating between each measured value and superimposing the values on the digital images. The complexity of facial skin hydration and skin barrier properties is revealed by these measurements and visualized by the continuous colour maps of the digital images. Overall, the Caucasian subjects had the better barrier properties followed by the Black African subjects, Chinese subjects and Indian subjects. Nevertheless, the two more darkly pigmented ethnic groups had superior skin hydration properties. Subtle differences were seen when examining the different facial sites. There exists remarkable skin capacitance and TEWL gradients within short distances on selected areas of the face. These gradients are distinctive in the different ethnic groups. In contrast to other reports, we found that darkly pigmented skin does not always have a superior barrier function and differences in skin hydration values are complex on the different parts of the face among the different ethnic groups. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. EFFICACY OF PULSED DYE LASER IN COSMETICALLY DISTRESSING FACIAL DERMATOSES IN SKIN TYPES IV AND V

    PubMed Central

    Khandpur, Sujay; Sharma, Vinod K

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) has revolutionized treatment of vascular dermatoses. It has been successfully employed to treat several non-vascular conditions in fair skinned individuals without producing significant pigmentary and textural complications. Aim: A preliminary study was undertaken to assess its efficacy in cosmetically distressing facial, vascular and non-vascular dermatoses in Indian patients with skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: Nine patients of ages 7 to 55 years, with facial verruca plana (VP- 4 cases), angiofibromas (AF- 4 cases) and multiple pyogenic granulomas (PG- one case) were recruited. They had no systemic complaints. Laser parameters used were (spot size/fluence/wavelength/pulse duration):VP- 5mm/5.5-7.5J/585nm/0.45ms; AF-5mm/6-8.5J/585nm/0.45ms;PG- 5mm/7J/585 and 595nm alternately/1.5ms. Response was assessed clinically and photographically. Results and Conclusions: All VP lesions completely resolved after 2-4 sessions (mean 3.25 sessions), AF showed 50% regression in all cases after 2-3 sessions (mean 2.5 sessions) and ≥75% subsidence after 3-7 sessions (mean 5.5 sessions) and in PG, after 3 sessions, there was complete subsidence of small satellite lesions with moderate shrinkage of larger papules and complete resolution after 5 sessions. Complications included transient hyperpigmentation/hypopigmentation only. There was no recurrence during next 6 months. PDL offers significant cosmetic improvement in facial dermatoses in Indian patients. PMID:19882031

  5. Validation of image analysis techniques to measure skin aging features from facial photographs.

    PubMed

    Hamer, M A; Jacobs, L C; Lall, J S; Wollstein, A; Hollestein, L M; Rae, A R; Gossage, K W; Hofman, A; Liu, F; Kayser, M; Nijsten, T; Gunn, D A

    2015-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the extent skin has aged is crucial for skin aging research. Image analysis offers a quick and consistent approach for quantifying skin aging features from photographs, but is prone to technical bias and requires proper validation. Facial photographs of 75 male and 75 female North-European participants, randomly selected from the Rotterdam Study, were graded by two physicians using photonumeric scales for wrinkles (full face, forehead, crow's feet, nasolabial fold and upper lip), pigmented spots and telangiectasia. Image analysis measurements of the same features were optimized using photonumeric grades from 50 participants, then compared to photonumeric grading in the 100 remaining participants stratified by sex. The inter-rater reliability of the photonumeric grades was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.65-0.93). Correlations between the digital measures and the photonumeric grading were moderate to excellent for all the wrinkle comparisons (Spearman's rho ρ = 0.52-0.89) bar the upper lip wrinkles in the men (fair, ρ = 0.30). Correlations were moderate to good for pigmented spots and telangiectasia (ρ = 0.60-0.75). These comparisons demonstrate that all the image analysis measures, bar the upper lip measure in the men, are suitable for use in skin aging research and highlight areas of improvement for future refinements of the techniques. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons.

  6. Development and Validation of a Photonumeric Scale for Evaluation of Facial Skin Texture

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Alastair; Hardas, Bhushan; Murphy, Diane K.; Carruthers, Jean; Jones, Derek; Sykes, Jonathan M.; Creutz, Lela; Marx, Ann; Dill, Sara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A validated scale is needed for objective and reproducible comparisons of facial skin roughness before and after aesthetic treatment in practice and in clinical studies. OBJECTIVE To describe the development and validation of the 5-point photonumeric Allergan Skin Roughness Scale. METHODS The scale was developed to include an assessment guide, verbal descriptors, morphed images, and real subject images for each grade. The clinical significance of a 1-point score difference was evaluated in a review of image pairs representing varying differences in severity. Interrater and intrarater reliability was evaluated in a live-subject validation study (N = 290) completed during 2 sessions occurring 3 weeks apart. RESULTS A score difference of ≥1 point was shown to reflect a clinically meaningful difference (mean [95% confidence interval] absolute score difference 1.09 [0.96–1.23] for clinically different image pairs and 0.53 [0.38–0.67] for not clinically different pairs). Intrarater agreement between the 2 validation sessions was almost perfect (weighted kappa = 0.83). Interrater agreement was almost perfect during the second rating session (0.81, primary end point). CONCLUSION The Allergan Skin Roughness Scale is a validated and reliable scale for physician rating of midface skin roughness. PMID:27661744

  7. Changes in Women’s Facial Skin Color over the Ovulatory Cycle are Not Detectable by the Human Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Burriss, Robert P.; Troscianko, Jolyon; Lovell, P. George; Fulford, Anthony J. C.; Stevens, Martin; Quigley, Rachael; Payne, Jenny; Saxton, Tamsin K.; Rowland, Hannah M.

    2015-01-01

    Human ovulation is not advertised, as it is in several primate species, by conspicuous sexual swellings. However, there is increasing evidence that the attractiveness of women’s body odor, voice, and facial appearance peak during the fertile phase of their ovulatory cycle. Cycle effects on facial attractiveness may be underpinned by changes in facial skin color, but it is not clear if skin color varies cyclically in humans or if any changes are detectable. To test these questions we photographed women daily for at least one cycle. Changes in facial skin redness and luminance were then quantified by mapping the digital images to human long, medium, and shortwave visual receptors. We find cyclic variation in skin redness, but not luminance. Redness decreases rapidly after menstrual onset, increases in the days before ovulation, and remains high through the luteal phase. However, we also show that this variation is unlikely to be detectable by the human visual system. We conclude that changes in skin color are not responsible for the effects of the ovulatory cycle on women’s attractiveness. PMID:26134671

  8. Changes in Women's Facial Skin Color over the Ovulatory Cycle are Not Detectable by the Human Visual System.

    PubMed

    Burriss, Robert P; Troscianko, Jolyon; Lovell, P George; Fulford, Anthony J C; Stevens, Martin; Quigley, Rachael; Payne, Jenny; Saxton, Tamsin K; Rowland, Hannah M

    2015-01-01

    Human ovulation is not advertised, as it is in several primate species, by conspicuous sexual swellings. However, there is increasing evidence that the attractiveness of women's body odor, voice, and facial appearance peak during the fertile phase of their ovulatory cycle. Cycle effects on facial attractiveness may be underpinned by changes in facial skin color, but it is not clear if skin color varies cyclically in humans or if any changes are detectable. To test these questions we photographed women daily for at least one cycle. Changes in facial skin redness and luminance were then quantified by mapping the digital images to human long, medium, and shortwave visual receptors. We find cyclic variation in skin redness, but not luminance. Redness decreases rapidly after menstrual onset, increases in the days before ovulation, and remains high through the luteal phase. However, we also show that this variation is unlikely to be detectable by the human visual system. We conclude that changes in skin color are not responsible for the effects of the ovulatory cycle on women's attractiveness.

  9. Regional and seasonal variations in facial sebum secretions: a proposal for the definition of combination skin type.

    PubMed

    Youn, Sang Woong; Na, Jung Im; Choi, Sun Young; Huh, Chang Hun; Park, Kyoung Chan

    2005-08-01

    Facial sebum secretions are known to change under various circumstances. Facial skin types have been categorized as oily, normal, dry, and combination types. However, these have been evaluated subjectively by individuals to date, and no objective accepted standard measurement method exists. The combination skin type is most common, but its definition is vaguer than the definitions of the other skin types. We measured facial sebum secretions with Sebumeter. Sebum secretions were measured at five sites of the face seasonally for a year, in the same volunteers. Using the data obtained we developed a set of rules to define the combination skin type. Regional differences in sebum secretion were confirmed. Sebum secretions on forehead, nose, and chin were higher than on both cheeks. Summer was found to be the highest sebum-secreting season, and seasonal variations were found in the T- and U-zones. A mismatch of skin type in the T- and U-zones in more than two seasons appears to be close to subjective ratings of what is described as the 'combination' skin type. We showed that the face shows definitive regional and seasonal variations in sebum secretion. To define the combination skin type, seasonal variations in sebum secretion should be considered in addition to regional variations.

  10. Cosmeceuticals for rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Beer, Kenneth; Kellner, Erinn; Beer, Jacob

    2009-12-01

    Facial plastic surgeons are frequently called upon to enhance the appearance of their patients. Typically, this involves surgery of the face or neck. Increasingly, this may also require the use of injectables such as botulinum toxins, fillers, and volumizers. Lasers and light sources are used to enhance the appearance of the surface of the skin. Each of these modalities will help to improve the patient but are limited by the fact that they require the patient to be treated in the office. With the advent of effective topical agents, patients are increasingly able to improve their appearance with the use of prescription and nonprescription topical products. It is incumbent upon the facial plastic surgeon to have an understanding of these topical agents so that they can assist the patient in deciding what does and does not make sense. In addition, many cosmetic physicians will dispense these products in their office, and it behooves them to understand the various products available and what will likely be produced in the future. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  11. Comparison of Neurovascular Characteristics of Facial Skin in Patients After Primary and Revision Rhytidectomies.

    PubMed

    Ardeshirpour, Farhad; Hurliman, Elisabeth; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; McAdams, Brian; Hilger, Peter A; Kennedy, William R; Lassig, Amy Anne D; Brenner, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Wound healing influences both the cosmetic and functional outcomes of facial surgery. Study of cutaneous innervation may afford insight into patients' preoperative wound healing potential and aid in their selection of appropriate surgical procedures. To present the quantitative and qualitative differences of epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs), neurotransmitters, vasculature, and mast cells in facial skin among patients after primary and revision rhytidectomies. This pilot study collected cutaneous specimens from 8 female patients aged 42 to 66 years who underwent primary rhytidectomy (n = 5) and revision rhytidectomy (n = 3) at Centennial Lakes Surgery Center, Edina, Minnesota, from July 2010 to March 2014. Tissue was processed for confocal/epifluorescence microscopy and indirect immunofluorescent localization of several neural and tissue antigens as well as basement membrane and mast cell markers. Primary rhytidectomy vs revision rhytidectomy with selection of a small area of redundant, otherwise disposed of tissue anterior to the tragus for ENF study. Demographic characteristics included smoking status; 10-point rating scales for facial sensation, pain, and paresthesias; and confocal/epifluorescence microscopy to quantify ENFs, neurotransmitters, vasculature, and mast cells. Patients in the primary rhytidectomy group had a mean (SD) of 54.4 (31.6) ENFs/mm (range, 14.2-99.2 ENFs/mm), and those in the revision rhytidectomy group had a mean (SD) of 18.6 (5.8) ENFs/mm (range, 13.8-25.0 ENFs/mm). A patient in the primary rhytidectomy group was a 25-pack-year smoker and had 14.2 ENFs/mm, the lowest in both groups. In addition to these structural neural changes, functional neural changes in revision rhytidectomy samples included qualitative changes in normal neural antigen prevalence (substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide). Capillary loops appeared less robust and were less common in dermal papilla among samples from both the

  12. The impact of face skin tone on perceived facial attractiveness: A study realized with an innovative methodology.

    PubMed

    Vera Cruz, Germano

    2017-12-19

    This study aimed to assess the impact of target faces' skin tone and perceivers' skin tone on the participants' attractiveness judgment regarding a symmetrical representative range of target faces as stimuli. Presented with a set of facial features, 240 Mozambican adults rated their attractiveness along a continuous scale. ANOVA and Chi-square were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that the skin tone of the target faces had an impact on the participants' attractiveness judgment. Overall, participants preferred light-skinned faces over dark-skinned ones. This finding is not only consistent with previous results on skin tone preferences, but it is even more powerful because it demonstrates that the light skin tone preference occurs regardless of the symmetry and baseline attractiveness of the stimuli.

  13. The PAVE (peeling-assisted volume-enhancing) lift: A retrospective 6-year clinical analysis of a combined approach for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Kai Oliver; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Jaminet, Patrick; Gonser, Phillipp

    2016-08-01

    The peeling-assisted volume-enhancing (PAVE) lift is a single-stage approach that combines superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) plication techniques with fat grafting and different peeling agents. To evaluate the safety of this approach, we analyzed the records of 159 patients who underwent surgery between 2008 and 2014. The percentage of complications observed was not higher than values reported in the literature for each treatment entity: surgical facelift: n=3 haematomas (1.89 %), n=2; temporary apraxia of the mandibular branch (1.26%); fat transfer: minor asymmetry in n = 5 cases (3.14%); peeling: temporary hyperpigmentation in trichloroacetic acid (n = 5; 3.8%) and phenol peels (n = 4; 3.1%), permanent hypopigmentation (n = 6; 5.6%), formation of skin miliae persisting longer than 2 to 3 months (n = 5; 4.6%) and prolonged erythema (n = 3; 0.28%) in phenol peels. The single-stage use of chemical peels, autologous fat transfer, and surgical rhytidectomy was safe. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined aesthetic interventions for prevention of facial ageing, and restoration and beautification of face and body.

    PubMed

    Fabi, Sabrina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Braz, André; Green, Jeremy B; Seo, Kyle; van Loghem, Jani Aj

    2017-01-01

    The Merz Institute of Advanced Aesthetics Expert Summit was held in Prague, Czech Republic, from 19-20 November 2016. The meeting had a distinct advisory board character and invited aesthetic practitioners from all over the world to hear an international faculty present a range of keynote lectures and conduct live injection sessions with an emphasis on recent developments in combination aesthetic interventions for face and body rejuvenation and beautification. Aging is associated with changes in bones, muscles, ligaments, adipose tissue, and skin and, moreover, involves interactions among these tissue types. To achieve the most natural and harmonious rejuvenation of the face, all changes that result from the aging process should be corrected, which generally involves treatment with more than a single agent or technology. Presentations described innovative treatment algorithms for the face and body and focused on patients' desires for natural-looking rejuvenation and how this requires a three-dimensional approach combining products that relax the musculature, volumize, and re-drape the skin. Besides treating the aging face, these procedures are increasingly used to enhance facial features as well as to delay facial aging in younger patients. The presentations covered patients from different ethnicities as well as the treatment of non-facial areas, with a particular focus on the use of Ultherapy ® for skin lifting and tightening, and new aesthetic procedures such as Cellfina ® and diluted Radiesse ® . The current report provides a summary of key presentations from the meeting.

  15. A randomized controlled trial of skin care protocols for facial resurfacing: lessons learned from the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation's Skin Products Assessment Research study.

    PubMed

    Pannucci, Christopher J; Reavey, Patrick L; Kaweski, Susan; Hamill, Jennifer B; Hume, Keith M; Wilkins, Edwin G; Pusic, Andrea L

    2011-03-01

    The Skin Products Assessment Research Committee was created by the Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation in 2006. The Skin Products Assessment Research study aims were to (1) develop an infrastructure for Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation-conducted, industry-sponsored research in facial aesthetic surgery and (2) test the research process by comparing outcomes of the Obagi Nu-Derm System versus conventional therapy as treatment adjuncts for facial resurfacing procedures. The Skin Products Assessment Research study was designed as a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. The study was conducted in women with Fitzpatrick type I to IV skin, moderate to severe facial photodamage, and periocular and/or perioral fine wrinkles. Patients underwent chemical peel or laser facial resurfacing and were randomized to the Obagi Nu-Derm System or a standard care regimen. The study endpoints were time to reepithelialization, erythema, and pigmentation changes. Fifty-six women were enrolled and 82 percent were followed beyond reepithelialization. There were no significant differences in mean time to reepithelialization between Obagi Nu-Derm System and control groups. The Obagi Nu-Derm System group had a significantly higher median erythema score on the day of surgery (after 4 weeks of product use) that did not persist after surgery. Test-retest photographic evaluations demonstrated that both interrater and intrarater reliability were adequate for primary study outcomes. The authors demonstrated no significant difference in time to reepithelialization between patients who used the Obagi Nu-Derm System or a standard care regimen as an adjunct to facial resurfacing procedures. The Skin Products Assessment Research team has also provided a discussion of future challenges for Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation-sponsored clinical research for readers of this article.

  16. Facial and Periorbital Cellulitis due to Skin Peeling with Jet Stream by an Unauthorized Person.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Mullaaziz, Didem; Suer, Kaya

    2014-01-01

    Technologies and devices for cosmetic procedures are developing with each passing day. However, increased and unauthorized use of such emerging technologies may also lead to increases in unexpected results and complications as well. Here, we report a case of facial cellulitis after a "beauty parlor" session of skin cleaning with jet stream peeling device in 19-year old female patient for the first time. Complications due to improper and unauthorized use of jet stream peeling devices may also cause doubts about the safety and impair the reputation of the technology as well. In order to avoid irreversible complications, local authorities should follow the technology and update the regulations where the dermatologists should take an active role.

  17. Visualization of drug distribution of topical minocycline in human facial skin with fluorescence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermsmeier, Maiko; Sawant, Tanvee; Lac, Diana; Yamamoto, Akira; Chen, Xin; Nagavarapu, Usha; Evans, Conor L.; Chan, Kin Foong

    2017-02-01

    Minocycline is an antibiotic regularly prescribed to treat acne vulgaris. The only commercially available minocycline comes in an oral dosage form, which often results in systemic adverse effects. A topical minocycline composition (BPX-01) was developed to provide localized and targeted delivery to the epidermis and pilosebaceous unit where acne-related bacteria, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), reside. As minocycline is a known fluorophore, fluorescence microscopy was performed to investigate its potential use in visualizing minocycline distribution within tissues. BPX-01 with various concentrations of minocycline, was applied topically to freshly excised human facial skin specimens. Spatial distribution of minocycline and its fluorescence intensity within the stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis, and pilosebaceous unit were assessed. The resulting fluorescence intensity data as a function of minocycline concentration may indicate clinically relevant therapeutic doses of topical BPX-01 needed to kill P. acnes and reduce inflammation for successful clinical outcomes.

  18. Biometric correspondence between reface computerized facial approximations and CT-derived ground truth skin surface models objectively examined using an automated facial recognition system.

    PubMed

    Parks, Connie L; Monson, Keith L

    2018-05-01

    This study employed an automated facial recognition system as a means of objectively evaluating biometric correspondence between a ReFace facial approximation and the computed tomography (CT) derived ground truth skin surface of the same individual. High rates of biometric correspondence were observed, irrespective of rank class (R k ) or demographic cohort examined. Overall, 48% of the test subjects' ReFace approximation probes (n=96) were matched to his or her corresponding ground truth skin surface image at R 1 , a rank indicating a high degree of biometric correspondence and a potential positive identification. Identification rates improved with each successively broader rank class (R 10 =85%, R 25 =96%, and R 50 =99%), with 100% identification by R 57 . A sharp increase (39% mean increase) in identification rates was observed between R 1 and R 10 across most rank classes and demographic cohorts. In contrast, significantly lower (p<0.01) increases in identification rates were observed between R 10 and R 25 (8% mean increase) and R 25 and R 50 (3% mean increase). No significant (p>0.05) performance differences were observed across demographic cohorts or CT scan protocols. Performance measures observed in this research suggest that ReFace approximations are biometrically similar to the actual faces of the approximated individuals and, therefore, may have potential operational utility in contexts in which computerized approximations are utilized as probes in automated facial recognition systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A cleanser based on sodium laureth carboxylate and alkyl carboxylates washes facial sebum well but does not induce dry skin.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Aya; Endo, Koji; Ozawa, Toshiaki; Miyaki, Masahiro; Matsuo, Keiko; Nozawa, Kazumi; Manabe, Motomu; Takagi, Yutaka

    2014-12-01

    Because excess sebum and/or metabolites of sebum induce skin problems, cleansers that can remove those kinds of sebum are sought after. However, many people, especially who have little facial sebum, are afraid to wash off sebum well because that may induce dry skin. This concern may be caused by the result that cleansers with a high cleansing ability tend to decrease not only facial sebum but also natural moisturizing factors and intercellular lipids that are essential for cutaneous function. Recently, we have developed a new cleanser based on sodium laureth carboxylate and alkyl carboxylates (AEC/soap) that cleans sebum well without penetrating the stratum corneum. This trial was aim to clarify the effects of sebum removal by AEC/soap-based cleanser on the induction of dry skin. We designed a controlled single blind parallel trial. Thirty female subjects with mild dry skin were assigned randomly to two groups: one group used AEC/soap-based cleanser while the other group kept using their usual facial cleanser twice a day for 4 weeks in the winter season. Using a colored artificial sebum mixture, it was demonstrated that this cleanser washed sebum well. Following usage of this cleanser, their dry skin improved rather than worsen which was indicated by instrumental analysis and visual assessment. These improvements were recognized by subjects. These results suggest that AEC/soap-based cleanser washes off facial sebum well, but it has little effect on the induction of dry skin because of less penetration into stratum corneum. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol(®)) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin.

    PubMed

    Furumura, Minao; Sato, Noriko; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Takagaki, Kinya; Nakayama, Juichiro

    2012-01-01

    French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE. One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily. A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements. Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE.

  1. Effects of cosmetics on the skin microbiome of facial cheeks with different hydration levels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeong, Sang Eun; Lee, Soyoun; Kim, Sungwoo; Han, Hyuntak; Jeon, Che Ok

    2018-04-01

    Basic cosmetics was used by volunteers belonging to high (HHG) and low (LHG) hydration groups for 4 weeks, and bacterial communities and biophysical parameters in facial skin were analyzed. Hydration level increases and transepidermal water loss and roughness decreases were observed in both groups after cosmetic use. Bacterial diversity was greater in LHG than HHG, and increased after cosmetic use in both groups. Bray-Curtis dissimilarities that were higher in LHG than HHG increased in HHG after cosmetic use, whereas they decreased in LHG. The phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes and the genera Propionibacterium, Ralstonia, Burkholderia, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Cupriavidus, and Pelomonas were identified as common groups and they were not significantly different between LHG and HHG except for Propionibacterium that was more abundant in HHG. After cosmetic use, Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium decreased, whereas Ralstonia, not a core genus, increased, as did KEGG categories of lipid metabolism and xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, suggesting that Ralstonia in skin may have the ability to metabolize cosmetics components. Bacterial communities after cosmetic use were different from those in both LHG and HHG before the cosmetic use, indicating that bacterial communities in LHG were not shifted to resemble those in HHG by cosmetics use. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Influence of skin ageing features on Chinese women's perception of facial age and attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Porcheron, A; Latreille, J; Jdid, R; Tschachler, E; Morizot, F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Ageing leads to characteristic changes in the appearance of facial skin. Among these changes, we can distinguish the skin topographic cues (skin sagging and wrinkles), the dark spots and the dark circles around the eyes. Although skin changes are similar in Caucasian and Chinese faces, the age of occurrence and the severity of age-related features differ between the two populations. Little is known about how the ageing of skin influences the perception of female faces in Chinese women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different age-related skin features to the perception of age and attractiveness in Chinese women. Methods Facial images of Caucasian women and Chinese women in their 60s were manipulated separately to reduce the following skin features: (i) skin sagging and wrinkles, (ii) dark spots and (iii) dark circles. Finally, all signs were reduced simultaneously (iv). Female Chinese participants were asked to estimate the age difference between the modified and original images and evaluate the attractiveness of modified and original faces. Results Chinese women perceived the Chinese faces as younger after the manipulation of dark spots than after the reduction in wrinkles/sagging, whereas they perceived the Caucasian faces as the youngest after the manipulation of wrinkles/sagging. Interestingly, Chinese women evaluated faces with reduced dark spots as being the most attractive whatever the origin of the face. The manipulation of dark circles contributed to making Caucasian and Chinese faces being perceived younger and more attractive than the original faces, although the effect was less pronounced than for the two other types of manipulation. Conclusion This is the first study to have examined the influence of various age-related skin features on the facial age and attractiveness perception of Chinese women. The results highlight different contributions of dark spots, sagging/wrinkles and dark circles to their perception

  3. Assessment of Combined Ascorbyl Palmitate (AP) and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP) on Facial Skin Sebum Control in Female Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Khan, H; Akhtar, N; Ali, A

    2017-01-01

    The skin is fortified with a setup of lipophilic and hydrophilic, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) and sodium ascorbyl phosphate (SAP) are reported as lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, respectively used for skin care. Present study was aimed to assess the combined AP (in oil phase) and SAP (in aqueous phase) via multiple emulsion (ME 1 ) for controlling sebum secretions in healthy human females. FTIR analysis of AP and SAP was performed for identification. Multiple emulsions (ME 1 and control) were prepared and analyzed for physical stability. Antioxidant activities of AP, SAP as well as ME 1 (with combination of these compounds) were determined by DPPH method. 11 female volunteers were included in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled, split-face comparative study. Volunteers were instructed to apply ME 1 on left cheek while control (without AP and SAP) on right cheek, for a period of 90 days. A non-invasive photometric device (Sebumeter ® ) was used for the measurement of sebum secretions on both sides of the face with subsequent time intervals. A good antioxidant activity of ME 1 was observed. ME 1 treatments reduced significant facial sebum secretions as compared with control/placebo treatments. It was concluded that combined AP and SAP supplementations to skin proved a promising choice for controlling facial sebum secretions and could be evaluated for undesired oily skin and acne reductions for beautifying the facial appearance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Sebum and Hydration Levels in Specific Regions of Human Face Significantly Predict the Nature and Diversity of Facial Skin Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Mitra, Rupak; Maitra, Arindam; Gupta, Satyaranjan; Kumaran, Srikala; Chakrabortty, Amit; Majumder, Partha P.

    2016-01-01

    The skin microbiome varies across individuals. The causes of these variations are inadequately understood. We tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in facial skin microbiome can be significantly explained by variation in sebum and hydration levels in specific facial regions of humans. We measured sebum and hydration from forehead and cheek regions of healthy female volunteers (n = 30). Metagenomic DNA from skin swabs were sequenced for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Altogether, 34 phyla were identified; predominantly Actinobacteria (66.3%), Firmicutes (17.7%), Proteobacteria (13.1%) and Bacteroidetes (1.4%). About 1000 genera were identified; predominantly Propionibacterium (58.6%), Staphylococcus (8.6%), Streptococcus (4.0%), Corynebacterium (3.6%) and Paracoccus (3.3%). A subset (n = 24) of individuals were sampled two months later. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that cheek sebum level was the most significant predictor of microbiome composition and diversity followed by forehead hydration level; forehead sebum and cheek hydration levels were not. With increase in cheek sebum, the prevalence of Actinobacteria (p = 0.001)/Propionibacterium (p = 0.002) increased, whereas microbiome diversity decreased (Shannon Index, p = 0.032); this was opposite for other phyla/genera. These trends were reversed for forehead hydration levels. Therefore, the nature and diversity of facial skin microbiome is jointly determined by site-specific lipid and water levels in the stratum corneum. PMID:27786295

  5. Sebum and Hydration Levels in Specific Regions of Human Face Significantly Predict the Nature and Diversity of Facial Skin Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Mitra, Rupak; Maitra, Arindam; Gupta, Satyaranjan; Kumaran, Srikala; Chakrabortty, Amit; Majumder, Partha P

    2016-10-27

    The skin microbiome varies across individuals. The causes of these variations are inadequately understood. We tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in facial skin microbiome can be significantly explained by variation in sebum and hydration levels in specific facial regions of humans. We measured sebum and hydration from forehead and cheek regions of healthy female volunteers (n = 30). Metagenomic DNA from skin swabs were sequenced for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Altogether, 34 phyla were identified; predominantly Actinobacteria (66.3%), Firmicutes (17.7%), Proteobacteria (13.1%) and Bacteroidetes (1.4%). About 1000 genera were identified; predominantly Propionibacterium (58.6%), Staphylococcus (8.6%), Streptococcus (4.0%), Corynebacterium (3.6%) and Paracoccus (3.3%). A subset (n = 24) of individuals were sampled two months later. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that cheek sebum level was the most significant predictor of microbiome composition and diversity followed by forehead hydration level; forehead sebum and cheek hydration levels were not. With increase in cheek sebum, the prevalence of Actinobacteria (p = 0.001)/Propionibacterium (p = 0.002) increased, whereas microbiome diversity decreased (Shannon Index, p = 0.032); this was opposite for other phyla/genera. These trends were reversed for forehead hydration levels. Therefore, the nature and diversity of facial skin microbiome is jointly determined by site-specific lipid and water levels in the stratum corneum.

  6. Nitroglycerin-induced changes in facial skin temperature: 'cold nose' as a predictor of headache?

    PubMed

    Zaproudina, Nina; Närhi, Matti; Lipponen, Jukka A; Tarvainen, Mika P; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Karhu, Jari; Airaksinen, Olavi; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-11-01

    Nitroglycerin (NTG) often induces headaches when used to treat cardiac diseases. Such property of NTG has been widely used in modelling of migraine-like headaches. However, background reasons, predisposing to the development of NTG-headache, are less studied. The main aim of our study was to find, using NTG model, easily accessible markers of the vascular changes associated with headache. Because changes in the blood flow alter the local skin temperature (Tsk), we studied the relationship between the regional changes in the facial Tsk and NTG-induced headaches. Tsk was measured with infrared thermography in 11 healthy women during 3 h after sublingual NTG administration. NTG caused headache in five women, and four of them were the first-degree relatives of migraine patients. Notably, before NTG administration, subjects in the headache group had lower Tsk values, especially in the nose area, than women in the pain-free group (n = 6). NTG-induced headache was associated with a long-lasting increase of Tsk over the baseline. In sharp contrast, in the pain-free group, the Tsk reduced and returned rapidly to the baseline. Thus, the low baseline level and greater increase of regional Tsk correlated with the incidence of headache that supports a role of greater vascular changes in headache happening on the basis of the dissimilarities in vascular tone. An easily accessible phenomenon of 'cold nose' may indicate background vascular dysfunctions in individuals with predisposition to headache. Facial infrared thermography, coupled with NTG administration, suggests a novel temporally controlled approach for non-invasive investigation of vascular processes accompanying headaches. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Gene and protein expression of oestrogen-β and progesterone receptors in facial melasma and adjacent healthy skin in women.

    PubMed

    Tamega, A de A; Miot, H A; Moço, N P; Silva, M G; Marques, M E A; Miot, L D B

    2015-04-01

    Compare gene and protein expression for oestrogen receptor-β (ER-β) and progesterone receptor (PR) in facial melasma and adjacent healthy skin. A cross-sectional study including 42 women with facial melasma, conducted at the Dermatology Service of Botucatu Medical School of São Paulo State University, Brazil. Biopsies of the melasma skin were performed, together with healthy surrounding skin. The gene expression (real-time PCR) of the hormone receptors in the tissue was evaluated. Subsequently, skin fragments were immunostained for nuclear ER-β and PR, evaluated according to their HSCORE (epidermis) and percentage of staining per microscopic field (dermis). Messenger RNA tissue expression for ER-β and PR showed no difference between melasma-affected skin fragments and the healthy perilesional areas (P > 0.2). Median nuclear epithelial expression for ER-β and PR was higher in lesioned skin (HSCORE 157 and 58) than in the healthy perilesional skin (HSCORE 97 and 19; P < 0.01), with no difference in dermal immunostaining. Nuclear histological expression for ER-β was associated to sun-induced melasma and negative familiar background; PR expression was associated to sun-induced melasma and darker phototypes. No difference was observed in gene expression for oestrogen-β and progesterone receptors in melasma-affected skin compared with adjacent healthy skin. However, the higher protein expression of these receptors in melasma-affected epithelia suggests hormonal participation in the pathogenesis of this disease. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Clay jojoba oil facial mask for lesioned skin and mild acne--results of a prospective, observational pilot study.

    PubMed

    Meier, Larissa; Stange, Rainer; Michalsen, Andreas; Uehleke, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    External application of clay facial masks is a cosmetic procedure generally used to reduce skin lesions and to improve overall skin condition. Collecting pilot data about self-treatment with clay jojoba oil masks on participants with acne-prone, lesioned skin and acne. Open, prospective, observational pilot study: Participants received written information, instructions, and questionnaires without direct contact with the study physician. For 6 weeks, they applied the masks 2-3 times per week. The primary outcome is the difference of skin lesions: baseline vs. after 6 weeks. 194 participants (192 female, 2 male, mean age (± SE) (32.3 ± 0.7 years) returned questionnaires and diaries. 133 of these participants returned complete and precise lesion counts (per-protocol (PP) collective). A 54% mean reduction in total lesion count was observed after 6 weeks of treatment with clay facial mask. Both inflammatory and non-inflammatory skin lesions were reduced significantly after treatment compared to baseline: Median counts (MC) of pustules per affected participant were reduced from 7.0 ± 0.9 to 3.0 ± 0.5 (mean individual reduction (MIR) = 49.4%), the MC of the papules from 3.5 ± 2.2 to 1.0 ± 0.4 (MIR = 57.3%), the MC of cysts from 2.0 ± 0.8 to 0.5 ± 0.4 (MIR = 68.6%) and the MC of comedones from 26.5 ± 6.3 to 16.0 ± 4.0 (MIR = 39.1%). DLQI-average score decreased from 5.0 ± 4.5 (mean ± SE) before to 2.1 ± 2.8 after treatment. The present study gives preliminary evidence that healing clay jojoba oil facial masks can be effective treatment for lesioned skin and mild acne vulgaris. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Facial skin photo-aging and development of hyperpigmented spots from children to middle-aged Japanese woman.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Fukushima, Y; Kondo, K; Ichihashi, M

    2017-11-01

    Facial skin hyperpigmention caused by chronic sun exposure is a major skin complaint, however, its characteristics and influential factors are still limitedly known. A cross-sectional survey in healthy Japanese women aged from 6 to 62 years (n=169) was conducted using a facial image analyzer VISIA ™ for knowing onset age of hyperpigmented spot formation, its chronological changes, and influence of environmental factors. UV Pigmented Spot (PS) Score was positively correlated with age (R=.487, P=.000). Hyperpigmented spots appeared first around 18 years old in most subjects, and PS score remarkably increased at 20s then gradually increased by ages. The subjects with Skin Type I, one of the three grades of Japanese Skin Type (JST), whose melanin formation is genetically lower, showed higher PS score. A woman aged 31 years was subjected a weekly VISIA measurement for 2 years, and found no changes in the number, place, size and intensity of the pigment spots in this duration. Hyperpigmented spots developed in women over 20 years of age due to chronic sun exposure without sun protection during childhood and adolescent and it was stable afterwards, whose intensity was influenced by age and skin type. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Punctuated 88% Phenol Peeling for the Treatment of Facial Photoaging: A Clinical and Histopathological Study.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Maria Cristina C; Segheto, Natália N; Aarestrup, Fernando M; Aarestrup, Beatriz J V

    2018-02-01

    Phenol peeling is considered an important agent in the treatment of facial rejuvenation; however, its use has limitations due to its high potential for side effects. This article proposes a new peeling application technique for the treatment of photoaging, aiming to evaluate, clinically and histopathologically, the efficacy of a new way of applying 88% phenol, using a punctuated pattern. The procedure was performed in an outpatient setting, with female patients, on static wrinkles and high flaccidity areas of the face. Accompanying photographs and skin samples were taken for histopathological analysis before and after treatment. It was shown that 88% phenol applied topically using a punctuated technique is effective in skin rejuvenation. The authors thus suggest, based on this new proposal, that further studies be conducted with a larger group of patients to better elucidate the action mechanisms of 88% phenol. This new form of application considerably reduced patients' withdrawal from their regular activities, besides reducing the cost, compared with the conventional procedure.

  11. A new quantitative evaluation method for age-related changes of individual pigmented spots in facial skin.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, K; Masuda, Y; Yamashita, T; Sato, K; Katagiri, C; Hirao, T; Mizokami, Y; Yaguchi, H

    2016-08-01

    Facial skin pigmentation is one of the most prominent visible features of skin aging and often affects perception of health and beauty. To date, facial pigmentation has been evaluated using various image analysis methods developed for the cosmetic and esthetic fields. However, existing methods cannot provide precise information on pigmented spots, such as variations in size, color shade, and distribution pattern. The purpose of this study is the development of image evaluation methods to analyze individual pigmented spots and acquire detailed information on their age-related changes. To characterize the individual pigmented spots within a cheek image, we established a simple object-counting algorithm. First, we captured cheek images using an original imaging system equipped with an illumination unit and a high-resolution digital camera. The acquired images were converted into melanin concentration images using compensation formulae. Next, the melanin images were converted into binary images. The binary images were then subjected to noise reduction. Finally, we calculated parameters such as the melanin concentration, quantity, and size of individual pigmented spots using a connected-components labeling algorithm, which assigns a unique label to each separate group of connected pixels. The cheek image analysis was evaluated on 643 female Japanese subjects. We confirmed that the proposed method was sufficiently sensitive to measure the melanin concentration, and the numbers and sizes of individual pigmented spots through manual evaluation of the cheek images. The image analysis results for the 643 Japanese women indicated clear relationships between age and the changes in the pigmented spots. We developed a new quantitative evaluation method for individual pigmented spots in facial skin. This method facilitates the analysis of the characteristics of various pigmented facial spots and is directly applicable to the fields of dermatology, pharmacology, and esthetic

  12. Bryostatin and its synthetic analog, picolog rescue dermal fibroblasts from prolonged stress and contribute to survival and rejuvenation of human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tapan K; Wender, Paul A; Alkon, Daniel L

    2018-02-01

    Skin health is associated with the day-to-day activity of fibroblasts. The primary function of fibroblasts is to synthesize structural proteins, such as collagen, extracellular matrix proteins, and other proteins that support the structural integrity of the skin and are associated with younger, firmer, and more elastic skin that is better able to resist and recover from injury. At sub-nanomolar concentrations (0.03-0.3 nM), bryostatin-1 and its synthetic analog, picolog (0.1-10 nM) sustained the survival and activation of human dermal fibroblasts cultured under the stressful condition of prolonged serum deprivation. Bryostatin-1 treatment stabilized human skin equivalents (HSEs), a bioengineered combination of primary human skin cells (keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts) on an extracellular matrix composed of mainly collagen. Fibroblasts activated by bryostatin-1 protected the structural integrity of HSEs. Bryostatin-1 and picolog prolonged activation of Erk in fibroblasts to promote cell survival. Chronic stress promotes the progression of apoptosis. Dermal fibroblasts constitutively express all components of Fas associated apoptosis, including caspase-8, an initiator enzyme of apoptosis. Prolong bryostatin-1 treatment reduced apoptosis by decreasing caspase-8 and protected dermal fibroblasts. Our data suggest that bryostatin-1 and picolog could be useful in anti-aging skincare, and could have applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Efficacy of the combined use of a facial cleanser and moisturizers for the care of mild acne patients with sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Kenichi; Seki, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yosuke; Umeda, Koji; Nishizaka, Takahiro; Tanabe, Hisateru; Takagi, Yutaka; Ishida, Koichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    Acne is a common skin disease that involves the seborrheic area of the face and results from the obstruction of hair follicles followed by inflammation. Careful face washing helps to improve and prevent acne; however, intensive washing has a risk of inducing skin barrier impairment and dry skin, especially in sensitive skin. We hypothesized that skin care combining mild skin cleansing and intensive moisturizing ("combination skin care") may be effective in the care of acne in subjects with dry skin and/or sensitive skin. We developed a combination skin care with a weakly acidic foaming facial skin cleanser based on a mild detergent, an aqueous lotion with eucalyptus extract and a moisturizing gel containing pseudo-ceramide and eucalyptus extract. To optimize an ideal facial skin care system for mild acne on sensitive skin, we performed a 4-week clinical trial with 29 post-adolescent Japanese women with mild acne with dry and sensitive skin. The acne significantly decreased after this trial accompanied by the improvement of dry skin, a significantly increased endogenous ceramide level in the stratum corneum and an elongated alkyl chain length of the non-hydroxy acyl sphingosine type ceramide. No adverse events due to the test samples were observed. Based on diagnosis by a dermatologist, 97% of the subjects found the combination skin care to be "useful" or "slightly useful". Based on these findings, the combined use of a facial skin cleanser and moisturizers is safe and effective for the care of acne in post-adolescent Japanese women with sensitive skin. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Product evaluation : bituminous pavement rejuvenator

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-07-03

    This report contains a product evaluation of K.A.E. Paving Consultant's Bituminous Pavement Rejuvenator (BPR). BPR is a coal tar product consisting of a low viscosity blend of aromatic oils designed to penetrate the asphalt, and rejuvenate and plasti...

  15. [Propeller facial artery perforator flap for repairing defect after resection of skin malignant tumor at upper lip].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuanzhen; Tang, Xiujun; Wang, Dali; Wei, Zairong; Wang, Bo; Deng, Chengliang; Zhang, Ziyang; Jin, Wenhu

    2018-02-01

    To explore the effectiveness of propeller facial artery perforator flap to repair the defect after resection of skin malignant tumor at upper lip. Between July 2012 and January 2017, 17 cases with skin malignant tumor at upper lip underwent tumor resection and the remained defect was repaired with propeller facial artery perforator flap. Among the 17 patients, 3 were male and 14 were female, with an average age of 57 years (range, 35-82 years). There were 5 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 12 cases of basal cell carcinoma. The disease duration ranged from 4 months to 11 years with an average of 20 months. The tumor size ranged from 1.4 cm×0.3 cm to 3.1 cm×1.4 cm. The extended resection of the tumor tissue was performed according to the characters of tumor. According to the location, size, and shape of the defect and the position of facial artery perforator explored with Doppler ultrasonography, the propeller facial artery perforator flap was designed to repair the defect and partial donor site. The flap size ranged from 5 cm×2 cm to 7 cm×3 cm. The length of the perforator pedicle was 0.5-1.0 cm with an average of 0.8 cm. The defect at donor site was directly closed. Cyanosis occurred in 3 cases of the distal flap after operation, then healing after symptomatic treatment. The remaining flaps survived successfully and the wound healed by first intention. Primary healing was obtained in the donor site. All the patients were followed up 6-36 months with an average of 18 months. The shape of the patient's upper lip was good and the scar on the donor site was unconspicuous. There was no lip deformity, ala nasi deflection, facial tension, entilation dysfunction, or recurrence of tumor during follow-up. At last follow-up, the results of self-evaluation were very satisfactory in 13 cases and satisfactory in 4 cases. Based on multiple advantages of good blood supply, large rotation range, aesthetic outcome, and slight injury of the donor site, propeller facial artery

  16. Rejuvenating the senescent heart

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nathalie; Sussman, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the cardiac stem cell field with an emphasis on aging and to suggest some relevant strategies directed toward rejuvenation of the senescent heart. Recent findings Stem cells were long considered as a fountain of youth and were assumed to be equipped against any form of aging effect. However, it is now clear that stem cells suffer the consequences of aging as well. With the discovery that cardiac stem cells reside in the heart comes the question whether these cells are also impaired upon aging. As cardiac stem cell properties are also altered with age, autologous stem cell-based therapy to treat heart failure will benefit from new improved strategies. Summary With the goal to improve stem cell properties that are impaired upon aging, some strategies are highlighted. Genetic modification of adult human cardiac progenitor cells prior to autologous stem cell-based therapy, delivery of the next generation of stem cells such as CardioChimeras and CardioClusters, and improvement of the myocardial environment with rejuvenating factors constitute some of the possibilities and are discussed in more detail in this review. PMID:25760821

  17. New application of the long-pulsed Nd-YAG laser as an ablative resurfacing tool for skin rejuvenation: a 7-year study.

    PubMed

    Alshami, Mohammad Ali

    2013-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Er-YAG) lasers are the gold standards in ablative skin resurfacing. Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser is considered a nonablative skin resurfacing laser whose usage is limited due to its high cost. To assess the efficacy and safety of Nd-YAG as an ablative resurfacing laser and to compare the results with those previously published for CO2 and Erbium-YAG lasers. A total of 296 patients (251 female and 45 male) with Fitzpatrick skin types III-IV and dermatological conditions amenable to ablative skin resurfacing participated in this study. Nd-YAG laser parameters assessed were wavelength (1064 nm), pulse duration (5 ms), fluence (10 J/cm(2) ), and spot size (8-10 mm). Efficacy of Nd-YAG laser was assessed by comparing pre- and posttreatment photographs. An improvement of 30-80% was observed in treated patients. The degree of improvement correlated positively with the number of laser sessions. The most common side effect was hyperpigmentation. Other side effects were less common and mild in intensity compared with published results for gold standard ablative lasers. Not only was the Nd-YAG laser found to be as effective as Er-YAG and CO2 lasers, but treated patients also had shorter recovery and treatment times, and at lower cost. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The effects of a daily facial lotion containing vitamins B3 and E and provitamin B5 on the facial skin of Indian women: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Jerajani, Hemangi R; Mizoguchi, Haruko; Li, James; Whittenbarger, Debora J; Marmor, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The B vitamins niacinamide and panthenol have been shown to reduce many signs of skin aging, including hyperpigmentation and redness. To measure the facial skin effects in Indian women of the daily use of a lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopherol acetate using quantitative image analysis. Adult women 30-60 years of age with epidermal hyperpigmentation were recruited in Mumbai and randomly assigned to apply a test or control lotion to the face daily for 10 weeks. Effects on skin tone were measured using an image capturing system and associated software. Skin texture was assessed by expert graders. Barrier function was evaluated by transepithelial water loss measurements. Subjects and evaluators were blinded to the product assignment. Of 246 women randomized to treatment, 207 (84%) completed the study. Women who used the test lotion experienced significantly reduced appearance of hyperpigmentation, improved skin tone evenness, appearance of lightening of skin, and positive effects on skin texture. Improvements versus control were seen as early as 6 weeks. The test lotion was well tolerated. The most common adverse event was a transient, mild burning sensation. Daily use of a facial lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate improved skin tone and texture and was well tolerated in Indian women with facial signs of aging.

  19. Evaluation of a Low Energy, Low Density, Non-Ablative Fractional 1927 nm Wavelength Laser for Facial Skin Resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jeremy A; Alabdulrazzaq, Hamad; Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Geronemus, Roy G

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a low energy low density, non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser in the treatment of facial photodamage, melasma, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Prospective non-randomized trial. Single center, private practice with a dedicated research department. Subjects with clinically diagnosed facial photodamage, melasma, or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Subjects received four to six treatments at 14-day intervals (+/- 3 days) with a low energy low density non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser (Solta Hayward, CA) with an energy level of 5 mJ, and density coverage of either 5%, 7.5%, or 10%, with a total of up to 8 passes. Blinded assessment of clinical photos for overall improvement at one and three months post final treatment. Investigator improvement scores, and subject pain and satisfaction scores for overall improvement were recorded as well. We enrolled 23 subjects, average age 45.0 years (range, 25-64 years), 22 with Fitzpatrick Skin Types I-IV and 1 with Type VI, with facial photodamage, melasma, or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Approximately 55% of subjects reported marked to very significant improvement at one and three months post final treatment. Blinded assessment of photography of 20 subjects revealed an average of moderate improvement at one-month follow up and mild to moderate improvement at three months. Average subject pain score was 3.4/10 during treatment. Favorable outcomes were demonstrated using the low energy low density, non-ablative fractional 1,927-nm laser in facial resurfacing for photodamage, melasma, and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Results were maintained at the 3-month follow up, as demonstrated by investigator and subject assessments, as well as blinded evaluations by three independent dermatologists utilizing photographs obtained from a standardized facial imaging device.

  20. Witnessing Solar Rejuvenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    At the end of last year, the Suns large-scale magnetic field suddenly strengthened, reaching its highest value in over two decades. Here, Neil Sheeley and Yi-Ming Wang (both of the Naval Research Laboratory) propose an explanation for why this happened and what it predicts for the next solar cycle.Magnetic StrengtheningUntil midway through 2014, solar cycle 24 the current solar cycle was remarkably quiet. Even at its peak, it averaged only 79 sunspots per year, compared to maximums of up to 190 in recent cycles. Thus it was rather surprising when, toward the end of 2014, the Suns large-scale magnetic field underwent a sudden rejuvenation, with its mean field leaping up to its highest values since 1991 and causing unprecedentedly large numbers of coronal loops to collapse inward.Yet in spite of the increase we observed in the Suns open flux (the magnetic flux leaving the Suns atmosphere, measured from Earth), there was not a significant increase in solar activity, as indicated by sunspot number and the rate of coronal mass ejections. This means that the number of sources of magnetic flux didnt increase so Sheeley and Wang conclude that flux must instead have been emerging from those sources in a more efficient way! But how?Aligned ActivityWSO open flux and the radial component of the interplanetary magnetic field (measures of the magnetic flux leaving the Suns photosphere and heliosphere, respectively), compared to sunspot number (in units of 100 sunspots). A sudden increase in flux is visible after the peak of each of the last four sunspot cycles. Click for a larger view! [Sheeley Wang 2015]The authors show that the active regions on the solar surface in late 2014 lined up in such a way that the emerging flux was enhanced, forming a strong equatorial dipole field that accounts for the sudden rejuvenation observed.Interestingly, this rejuvenation of the Suns open flux wasnt just a one-time thing; similar bursts have occurred shortly after the peak of every sunspot

  1. A preclinical study testing "Focused multiple laser beams," a new concept of irradiation with the 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser for skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Masatoshi; Miyata, Nariaki; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    In order to avoid epidermal heat damage, we developed a novel irradiation method termed "Focused multiple laser beams (FMLB)," which allows long-pulse neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser beams to be irradiated from several directions in a concentric fashion followed by focusing into the dermis without epidermal damage. This study aimed to assess whether FMLB achieves the desired dermal improvement without epidermal damage. The dorsal skin of New Zealand White rabbits was irradiated with FMLB. Macroscopic and histological analyses were performed after 1 hour and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Real-time PCR analysis of type I and III collagen expression was performed at two and four weeks. Control groups exhibited skin ulcers which were healed with scar formation whereas FMLB groups remained intact macroscopically. Histologically, FMLB group showed increase in dermal thickness at four weeks while the epidermis remained intact. Real-time PCR demonstrated that both type I and III collagen increased at two weeks but decreased at four weeks. FMLB can deliver the target laser energy to the dermis without significantly affecting the epidermis.

  2. Reversal of skin aging with topical retinoids.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Bradley A; Unger, Jacob G; Rohrich, Rod J

    2014-04-01

    Topical skin care and its place in plastic surgery today are often overlooked by clinicians formulating a plan for facial rejuvenation. Not only is it important to consider topical skin care as part of comprehensive care, but clinicians should also be educated with the data available in today's literature. This review aims to familiarize the reader with the biological processes of skin aging and evidence-based clinical outcomes afforded by various topical therapies. Furthermore, this review will focus on solar damage, the value of retinoids, and how they can be used in conjunction with forms of treatment such as chemical peel, dermabrasion, and lasers. Finally, guidelines will be provided to help the physician administer appropriate skin care based on the data presented.

  3. Daily Consumption of a Fruit and Vegetable Smoothie Alters Facial Skin Color.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A; Mitra, Soma R; Stephen, Ian D

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants' skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin.

  4. Thermal rejuvenation in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saida, Junji; Yamada, Rui; Wakeda, Masato; Ogata, Shigenobu

    2017-12-01

    Structural rejuvenation in metallic glasses by a thermal process (i.e. through recovery annealing) was investigated experimentally and theoretically for various alloy compositions. An increase in the potential energy, a decrease in the density, and a change in the local structure as well as mechanical softening were observed after thermal rejuvenation. Two parameters, one related to the annealing temperature, Ta/Tg, and the other related to the cooling rate during the recovery annealing process, Vc/Vi, were proposed to evaluate the rejuvenation phenomena. A rejuvenation map was constructed using these two parameters. Since the thermal history of metallic glasses is reset above 1.2Tg, accompanied by a change in the local structure, it is essential that the condition of Ta/Tg ≥ 1.2 is satisfied during annealing. The glassy structure transforms into a more disordered state with the decomposition of icosahedral short-range order within this temperature range. Therefore, a new glassy structure (rejuvenation) depending on the subsequent quenching rate is generated. Partial rejuvenation also occurs in a Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 bulk metallic glass when annealing is performed at a low temperature (Ta/Tg 1.07) followed by rapid cooling. This behavior probably originates from disordering in the weakly bonded (loosely packed) region. This study provides a novel approach to improving the mechanical properties of metallic glasses by controlling their glassy structure.

  5. Validity and reliability of a structured-light 3D scanner and an ultrasound imaging system for measurements of facial skin thickness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Woo; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Gil, Young-Chun; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3 D)-scanning-based morphological studies of the face are commonly included in various clinical procedures. This study evaluated validity and reliability of a 3 D scanning system by comparing the ultrasound (US) imaging system versus the direct measurement of facial skin. The facial skin thickness at 19 landmarks was measured using the three different methods in 10 embalmed adult Korean cadavers. Skin thickness was first measured using the ultrasound device, then 3 D scanning of the facial skin surface was performed. After the skin on the left half of face was gently dissected, deviating slightly right of the midline, to separate it from the subcutaneous layer, and the harvested facial skin's thickness was measured directly using neck calipers. The dissected specimen was then scanned again, then the scanned images of undissected and dissected faces were superimposed using Morpheus Plastic Solution (version 3.0) software. Finally, the facial skin thickness was calculated from the superimposed images. The ICC value for the correlations between the 3 D scanning system and direct measurement showed excellent reliability (0.849, 95% confidence interval = 0.799-0.887). Bland-Altman analysis showed a good level of agreement between the 3 D scanning system and direct measurement (bias = 0.49 ± 0.49 mm, mean±SD). These results demonstrate that the 3 D scanning system precisely reflects structural changes before and after skin dissection. Therefore, an in-depth morphological study using this 3 D scanning system could provide depth data about the main anatomical structures of face, thereby providing crucial anatomical knowledge for utilization in various clinical applications. Clin. Anat. 30:878-886, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Concealing a shiny facial skin appearance by an Aerogel-based formula. In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Cassin, G; Diridollou, S; Flament, F; Adam, A S; Pierre, P; Colomb, L; Morancais, J L; Qiu, H

    2018-02-01

    To explore, in vitro and in vivo, the potential interest of an Aerogel-based formula, in concealing a naturally shiny facial skin. In vitro, various formulae and ingredients were applied as a thin film onto contrast plates and studied through measuring the shine induced following pump spraying of a mixture of oleic acid and mineral water as a sebum/sweat mix model. In such a test, an Aerogel ingredient led to very positive results. In vivo, two different formulae with various concentrations of Aerogel were randomly tested on half side of the face vs. bare side of Chinese women, under some provocative environmental conditions, known to enhance facial shine. These conditions comprised a normal activity under a hot and highly humid summer time followed - or not - by a hamam session. Both studies included comparative evaluations using a half-face procedure (treated/untreated or vehicle). In the first case, evaluations were quantitatively carried out, whereas the second one was based on a quantitative self-evaluations from standardized full-face photographs RESULTS: In vitro, the tested Aerogel, incorporated at 1% or 2% concentration in a common O/W cosmetic emulsion, shows an immediate light scattering effect, thereby masking shine. Such effect appears of much higher amplitude than that of two other tested particulate ingredients (Talc and Perlite). A noticeable remanence of anti-shine effect was confirmed in vivo in extreme conditions. The latter was self-perceived by all participants in the second study. This result is likely related to the super hydrophobic behaviour of the Aerogel. As cosmetic ingredient, this new Aerogel appears as a highly promising ingredient for concealing the facial skin shine, a source of complaint from many consumers living in hot and humid regions. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Daily Consumption of a Fruit and Vegetable Smoothie Alters Facial Skin Color

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kok Wei; Graf, Brigitte A.; Mitra, Soma R.; Stephen, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids or carotenoid supplements can alter the color (yellowness) of human skin through increased carotenoid deposition in the skin. As fruit and vegetables are the main dietary sources of carotenoids, skin yellowness may be a function of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. However, most previous studies have used tablets or capsules to supplement carotenoid intake, and less is known of the impact of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on skin color. Here, we examined skin color changes in an Asian population (Malaysian Chinese ethnicity) over a six week dietary intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie. Eighty one university students (34 males, 47 females; mean age 20.48) were assigned randomly to consuming either a fruit smoothie (intervention group) or mineral water (control group) daily for six weeks. Participants’ skin yellowness (CIELab b*), redness (a*) and luminance (L*) were measured at baseline, twice during the intervention period and at a two-week follow-up, using a handheld reflectance spectrophotometer. Results showed a large increment in skin yellowness (p<0.001) and slight increment in skin redness (p<0.001) after 4 weeks of intervention for participants in the intervention group. Skin yellowness and skin redness remained elevated at the two week follow up measurement. In conclusion, intervention with a carotenoid-rich fruit smoothie is associated with increased skin redness and yellowness in an Asian population. Changes in the reflectance spectrum of the skin suggest that this color change was caused by carotenoid deposition in the skin. PMID:26186449

  8. Signals of Personality and Health: The Contributions of Facial Shape, Skin Texture, and Viewing Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alex L.; Kramer, Robin S. S.; Ward, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To what extent does information in a person's face predict their likely behavior? There is increasing evidence for association between relatively neutral, static facial appearance and personality traits. By using composite images rendered from three dimensional (3D) scans of women scoring high and low on health and personality dimensions, we aimed…

  9. Dietary Aloe Vera Supplementation Improves Facial Wrinkles and Elasticity and It Increases the Type I Procollagen Gene Expression in Human Skin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soyun; Lee, Serah; Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Dong Hun; Won, Chong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Min

    2009-01-01

    Background No studies have yet been undertaken to determine the effect of aloe gel on the clinical signs and biochemical changes of aging skin. Objective We wanted to determine whether dietary aloe vera gel has anti-aging properties on the skin. Methods Thirty healthy female subjects over the age of 45 were recruited and they received 2 different doses (low-dose: 1,200 mg/d, high-dose: 3,600 mg/d) of aloe vera gel supplementation for 90 days. Their baseline status was used as a control. At baseline and at completion of the study, facial wrinkles were measured using a skin replica, and facial elasticity was measured by an in vivo suction skin elasticity meter. Skin samples were taken before and after aloe intake to compare the type I procollagen and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) mRNA levels by performing real-time RT-PCR. Results After aloe gel intake, the facial wrinkles improved significantly (p<0.05) in both groups, and facial elasticity improved in the lower-dose group. In the photoprotected skin, the type I procollagen mRNA levels were increased in both groups, albeit without significance; the MMP-1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the higher-dose group. Type I procollagen immunostaining was substantially increased throughout the dermis in both groups. Conclusion Aloe gel significantly improves wrinkles and elasticity in photoaged human skin, with an increase in collagen production in the photoprotected skin and a decrease in the collagen-degrading MMP-1 gene expression. However, no dose-response relationship was found between the low-dose and high-dose groups. PMID:20548848

  10. Highly polymorphic colour vision in a New World monkey with red facial skin, the bald uakari (Cacajao calvus).

    PubMed

    Corso, Josmael; Bowler, Mark; Heymann, Eckhard W; Roos, Christian; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-04-13

    Colour vision is highly variable in New World monkeys (NWMs). Evidence for the adaptive basis of colour vision in this group has largely centred on environmental features such as foraging benefits for differently coloured foods or predator detection, whereas selection on colour vision for sociosexual communication is an alternative hypothesis that has received little attention. The colour vision of uakaris (Cacajao) is of particular interest because these monkeys have the most dramatic red facial skin of any primate, as well as a unique fission/fusion social system and a specialist diet of seeds. Here, we investigate colour vision in a wild population of the bald uakari,C. calvus, by genotyping the X-linked opsin locus. We document the presence of a polymorphic colour vision system with an unprecedented number of functional alleles (six), including a novel allele with a predicted maximum spectral sensitivity of 555 nm. This supports the presence of strong balancing selection on different alleles at this locus. We consider different hypotheses to explain this selection. One possibility is that trichromacy functions in sexual selection, enabling females to choose high-quality males on the basis of red facial coloration. In support of this, there is some evidence that health affects facial coloration in uakaris, as well as a high prevalence of blood-borne parasitism in wild uakari populations. Alternatively, the low proportion of heterozygous female trichromats in the population may indicate selection on different dichromatic phenotypes, which might be related to cryptic food coloration. We have uncovered unexpected diversity in the last major lineage of NWMs to be assayed for colour vision, which will provide an interesting system to dissect adaptation of polymorphic trichromacy. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Non tuberculous mycobacterial lesion of the parotid gland and facial skin in a 4year old girl: A proposed treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Berkovic, Juraj; Vanchiere, John A; Gungor, Anil

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a parotid-facial caseating granulomatous infection caused by atypical mycobacteria (Mycobacterium avium) in an immuno-competent child. The size and depth of the lesion and its proximity to the facial nerve present a challenge for a purely surgical treatment strategy. An alternative treatment strategy is developed to avoid severe disfigurement. Atypical mycobacterial infection of the parotid region in a 5 year old girl: timeline and definition of a planned combined treatment strategy with antibiotics and surgical excision. Cervicofacial infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may present surgical challenges due to the size and depth of the lesion and its proximity to the facial nerve and major vascular structures. Even minor scars are highly visible and poorly tolerated. Close clinical monitoring combined with judicious treatment strategies is necessary for successful treatment and good cosmesis. Recent literature provides insufficient guidance in formulating the best treatment strategy for the individual patient. Comparisons of antibiotic therapy with variations of surgical excision are abundant but poorly formulated. Our case presented with a lesion involving skin, superficial and deep lobe of the parotid gland. Lesion was in immediate proximity to the distribution of the facial nerve through the parotid gland. The risk of surgical damage to the facial nerve in the acute phase of the inflammation and the required extent of skin excision were significant. We decided to start treatment with combination antimycobacterial antibiotics in close cooperation with the pediatric infectious disease specialists. We observed and documented the regress and executed a delayed surgical excision when the lesion was reduced to skin only. In our opinion this was the best treatment strategy that helped us avoid extensive dissection in the vicinity of the facial nerve as well as a parotidectomy. Excision of the involved skin with the deep portion

  12. The Pelleve procedure: an effective method for facial wrinkle reduction and skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Stampar, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Devices using radiofrequency (RF) energy and electrical energy to deliver a controlled thermal injury to heat skin have proliferated within the nonablative skin treatment market since the introduction of Thermage in 2002. By delivering continuous monopolar RF energy, rather than pulsed heating, and repeatedly bringing the skin to therapeutic temperatures until maximal contraction is obtained, the Pelleve Procedure can give obvious cosmetic results confluently over all treated areas painlessly and with no downtime. In this article, the technique, mechanism of continuous RF heating, and apparent treatment requirements to produce these results are presented. Some controversies are also addressed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impact of Face Skin Tone vs. Face Symmetry on Perceived Facial Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Vera Cruz, Germano

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the relative contribution of skin tone and symmetry on judgment of attractiveness regarding female faces. Two hundred and fifteen Mozambican adults were presented with a set of faces, and instructed to rate their degree of attractiveness along a continuous scale. Chi-square, factorial weight analyses and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Face skin tone had a significant impact on the participants' attractiveness judgment of target faces. However, the target face skin tone contribution to the participants' attractiveness judgment (5% of the total variance) was much weaker than the contribution of the target face symmetry (85% of the total variance). These results imply that skin bleaching, common among Black people across sub-Saharan African countries, is not only dangerous to the health of those who practice it, but it is unlikely to make them appear much more attractive.

  14. UK-based prospective cohort study to anglicise and validate the FACE-Q Skin Cancer Module in patients with facial skin cancer undergoing surgical reconstruction: the PROMISCR (Patient-Reported Outcome Measure in Skin Cancer Reconstruction) study.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Thomas; Hutchings, Hayley A; Whitaker, Iain S

    2017-09-24

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide, often occurring on the face, where the cosmetic outcome of treatment is paramount. A number of skin cancer-specific patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) exist, however none adequately consider the difference in type of reconstruction from a patient's point of view. It is the aim of this study to 'anglicise' (to UK English) a recently developed US PROM for facial skin cancer (the FACE-Q Skin Cancer Module) and to validate this UK version of the PROM. The validation will also involve an assessment of the items for relevance to facial reconstruction patients. This will either validate this new measure for the use in clinical care and research of various facial reconstructive options, or provide evidence that a more specific PROM is required. This is a prospective validation study of the FACE-Q Skin Cancer Module in a UK facial skin cancer population with a specific focus on the difference between types of reconstruction. The face and content validity of the FACE-Q questionnaire will initially be assessed by a review process involving patients, skin cancer specialists and methodologists. An assessment of whether questions are relevant and any missing questions will be made. Initial validation will then be carried out by recruiting a cohort of 100 study participants with skin cancer of the face pre-operatively. All eligible patients will be invited to complete the questionnaire preoperatively and postoperatively. Psychometric analysis will be performed to test validity, reliability and responsiveness to change. Subgroup analysis will be performed on patients undergoing different forms of reconstruction postexcision of their skin cancer. This study has been approved by the West Midlands, Edgbaston Research Ethics Committee (Ref 16/WM/0445). All personal data collected will be anonymised and patient-specific data will only be reported in terms of group demographics. Identifiable data collected will include the

  15. How much related to skin wrinkles between facial and body site? Age-related changes in skin wrinkle on the knee assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.

    PubMed

    Yoo, M A; Seo, Y K; Shin, M K; Koh, J S

    2016-02-01

    Skin aging has been focused the wrinkle on the face than on the body, so most studies have been studied the change in Crow's feet for ages. Only little is known about the age-dependent changes of wrinkles on body sites. The aim of this study was to establish new grading criteria for severity of wrinkles on knees and to investigate the relationship of wrinkle severity with age- and site-dependent. The skin on the knee of 38 healthy Korean female volunteers, divided into two groups young and old, were photographed. Standard photograph for body wrinkle was established (grade 0~7), and then visual assessment, skin wrinkle, and skin elasticity were evaluated on Crow's feet and the knee. We examined for any significant differences and the correlation of skin aging parameters with age and two different sites. Skin wrinkle severity with standard photograph and wrinkle parameters (Ra, Rmax, Rz, and Rv) had a significantly positive correlation with age-dependent on the knee (P < 0.001). Also, skin elastic parameters (R2, R5, R6, R7, and Q1) showed a significant negative correlation with age on the knee (P < 0.001). Skin wrinkle severity with standard photograph was highly correlated with all skin wrinkle parameters and skin elastic parameters (R2, R5, R7, and Q1) on the knee (P < 0.001). In addition, all the skin aging parameters on the knee were significantly correlated with Crow's feet (P < 0.01). Skin aging on the knee had the same tendency as the Crow's feet. This study has shown the new grading criteria of wrinkles on the knee. Skin wrinkle and elasticity on the knee are age-dependent related and aging on the knee is highly related to Crow's feet. Those parameters are using a quantitative method to evaluate body aging. Also, the knee is considered that it could be a suitable site to evaluate body aging. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Collagen concentration on the facial skin of postmenopausal women after topical treatment with estradiol and genistein: a randomized double-blind controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lidia Aragão; Ferraz Carbonel, Adriana Aparecida; de Moraes, Andréa Regina Barbosa; Simões, Ricardo S; Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Goes, Lívia; Nunes, Winnie; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Patriarca, Marisa Teresinha

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effects of topical estrogen and genistein (a soy isoflavone) on the facial skin collagen of postmenopausal women not undergoing systemic hormonal therapy. This is a prospective, double blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Volunteer women (N = 30) 45-55 year old from the Endocrine Gynecology sector of the Gynecology Department of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP). The Ethical Committee of the Federal University of São Paulo approved the study (report no. 386/2004; registration on ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01553773), were assigned to topical treatment with either estrogen or genistein for 24 weeks. We quantified and compared facial collagen concentration before and after each treatment by performing pre-auricular skin biopsies. Our data showed an increase in the amount of both type I and type III facial collagen by the end of both treatments. However, the outcomes of the estrogen GI (ER) group were superior to the genistein GII (GEN) group, with statistical significance p < 000.1 Conclusion: Treatment with topical estrogen is superior to genistein, but both have positive impacts on facial skin collagen. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether prolonged use of genistein and other topical phytoestrogens could produce systemic effects and further research is needed to clarify this question.

  17. In vivo evaluation of some biophysical parameters of the facial skin of Indian subjects living in Mumbai. Part II: Variability with age and gender.

    PubMed

    Colomb, L; Flament, F; Wagle, A; Idelcaid, Y; Agrawal, D

    2018-04-01

    A previously published work explored the diversity of some biophysical parameters (colour, elasticity, sebum production, skin microrelief, etc.) of the skin of 1204 Indian women, differently aged, living in four Indian cities (Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai). The present work aimed at completing such research by focusing on possible gender-related differences in the same skin parameters, between Indian men and women living in the same Indian city (Mumbai). A total of 297 Indian men, differently aged (18-70y), were recruited in Mumbai, completing the panel of 303 women who were previously recruited in this same city. The same instrumental measurements of facial skin colour and its homogeneity, its mechanical properties, the sebum production, skin pores size, skin relief, etc. as in the previous work, were conducted. Overall, the facial skin colour shows a darker complexion in men as compared to women, on forehead, ocular region, lips, chin and cheek. The skin colour unevenness, which increases with age, was found higher in men, as compared to women. At comparable age, women and men present a same density of skin pores, whereas those of men appear larger, up to 55y. The deepness of Crow's feet wrinkles does not significantly differ between genders. A lesser extensibility was found on the cheeks of men. In men, the sebum production was found significantly higher than that of women at ages above 40y. This work indicates some commonly shared age-related skin features between women and men from Mumbai, despite slight different characteristics such as skin pigmentation, forehead/cheek colour contrast, mechanical properties and sebum production. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Effects of glycolic acid chemical peeling on facial pigment deposition: evaluation using novel computer analysis of digital-camera-captured images.

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Kushida, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2013-12-01

    Chemical peeling is becoming increasingly popular for skin rejuvenation in dermatological cosmetic medicine. However, the improvements seen with chemical peeling are often very minor, and it is difficult to conduct a quantitative assessment of pre- and post-treatment appearance. We report the pre- and postpeeling effects for facial pigment deposition using a novel computer analysis method for digital-camera-captured images. Glycolic acid chemical peeling was performed a total of 5 times at 2-week intervals in 23 healthy women. We conducted a computer image analysis by utilizing Robo Skin Analyzer CS 50 and Clinical Suite 2.1 and then reviewed each parameter for the area of facial pigment deposition pre- and post-treatment. Parameters were pigmentation size and four pigmentation categories: little pigmentation and three levels of marked pigmentation (Lv1, 2, and 3) based on detection threshold. Each parameter was measured, and the total area of facial pigmentation was calculated. The total area of little pigmentation and marked pigmentation (Lv1) was significantly reduced. On the other hand, a significant difference was not observed for the total area of marked pigmentation Lv2 and Lv3. This suggests that glycolic acid chemical peeling has an effect on small facial pigment disposition or has an effect on light pigment deposition. As the Robo Skin Analyzer is useful for objectively quantifying and analyzing minor changes in facial skin, it is considered to be an effective tool for accumulating treatment evidence in the cosmetic and esthetic skin field. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies the Skin Color Genes IRF4, MC1R, ASIP, and BNC2 Influencing Facial Pigmented Spots.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Leonie C; Hamer, Merel A; Gunn, David A; Deelen, Joris; Lall, Jaspal S; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Beekman, Marian; Slagboom, P Eline; Kayser, Manfred; Liu, Fan; Nijsten, Tamar

    2015-07-01

    Facial pigmented spots are a common skin aging feature, but genetic predisposition has yet to be thoroughly investigated. We conducted a genome-wide association study for pigmented spots in 2,844 Dutch Europeans from the Rotterdam Study (mean age: 66.9±8.0 years; 47% male). Using semi-automated image analysis of high-resolution digital facial photographs, facial pigmented spots were quantified as the percentage of affected skin area (mean women: 2.0% ±0.9, men: 0.9% ±0.6). We identified genome-wide significant association with pigmented spots at three genetic loci: IRF4 (rs12203592, P=1.8 × 10(-27)), MC1R (compound heterozygosity score, P=2.3 × 10(-24)), and RALY/ASIP (rs6059655, P=1.9 × 10(-9)). In addition, after adjustment for the other three top-associated loci the BNC2 locus demonstrated significant association (rs62543565, P=2.3 × 10(-8)). The association signals observed at all four loci were successfully replicated (P<0.05) in an independent Dutch cohort (Leiden Longevity Study n=599). Although the four genes have previously been associated with skin color variation and skin cancer risk, all association signals remained highly significant (P<2 × 10(-8)) when conditioning the association analyses on skin color. We conclude that genetic variations in IRF4, MC1R, RALY/ASIP, and BNC2 contribute to the acquired amount of facial pigmented spots during aging, through pathways independent of the basal melanin production.

  20. Characterization of facial skin of various Asian populations through visual and non-invasive instrumental evaluations: influence of age and skincare habits.

    PubMed

    Galzote, Carlos; Estanislao, Roderico; Suero, Michael Oliver; Khaiat, Alain; Mangubat, Maria Isabel; Moideen, Rafeeq; Tagami, Hachiro; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of age and skincare habits on facial skin of different Asian ethnicities by comparing skin properties and skincare habits among various Asian populations of varying age groups. We evaluated approximately 100 female subjects each from a total of eight Asian cities in China, India, South Korea, Japan, and the Philippines grouped according to age ranging from 14 to 75 years during a summer season. Facial skin was characterized using dermatological examinations of the cheek and instrumental evaluations of the forehead and cheek. Information regarding personal skincare habits was collected using a questionnaire. In 834 female subjects, characteristics related to skin surface moisture, elasticity, and sebum level decreased with age. Differences in skincare habits corresponded with variations in skin parameters. Subjects with the least severe photodamage reported a generally early onset of their skincare habits. These results demonstrate common trends as well as inherent differences in skin characteristics among Asian populations, reflecting the impact of age and the diversity of skincare habits of Asian women. These results may be beneficial when developing new skincare products that are well suited to these Asian populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cell-assisted lipotransfer in the clinical treatment of facial soft tissue deformity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Wen, Huicai; Jian, Xueping; Liao, Huaiwei; Sui, Yunpeng; Liu, Yanping; Xu, Guizhen

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic surgeons have experimented with a variety of substances to improve soft tissue deformities of the face. Autologous fat grafting provides significant advantages over other modalities because it leaves no scar, is easy to use and is well tolerated by most patients. Autologous fat grafting has become one of the most popular techniques in the field of facial plastic surgery. Unfortunately, there are still two major problems affecting survival rate and development: revascularization after transplantion; and cell reservation proliferation and survival. Since Zuk and Yosra developed a technology based on adipose-derived stem cells and cell-assisted lipotrophy, researchers have hoped that this technology would promote the survival and reduce the absorption of grafted fat cells. Autologous adipose-derived stem cells may have great potential in skin repair applications, aged skin rejuvenation and other aging-related skin lesion treatments. Recently, the study of adipose-derived stem cells has gained increased attention. More researchers have started to adopt this technology in the clinical treatment of facial soft tissue deformity. The present article reviews the history of facial soft tissue augmentation and the advent of adipose-derived stem cells in the area of the clinical treatment of facial soft tissue deformity. PMID:26361629

  2. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  3. A dietary supplement improves facial photoaging and skin sebum, hydration and tonicity modulating serum fibronectin, neutrophil elastase 2, hyaluronic acid and carbonylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Laurino, Carmen; Palmieri, Beniamino; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2015-03-01

    Excessive exposure to the sun can cause severe photoaging as early as the second decade of life resulting in a loss of physiological elastic fiber functions. We designed a first study to assess differences in facial skin pH, sebum, elasticity, hydration and tonicity and serum levels of fibronectin, elastin, neutrophil elastase 2, hyaluronic acid and carbonylated proteins between patients affected by facial photoaging and healthy controls. In a second study we tested the hypothesis that a dietary supplement would improve facial photoaging, also promoting changes in the above mentioned skin and serum parameters. In the first study we enrolled 30 women [age: 47.5 ± 1.6 years (mean ± standard error of the mean)] affected by moderate facial photoaging (4 cm ≤ Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)<7 cm) and 30 healthy women [age: 45.9 ± 1.6 years (mean ± standard error of the mean)]. In the second study we enrolled a cohort of 30 women [age: 43.6 ± 1.2 years (mean ± standard error of the mean)], affected by moderate (n = 22) and severe (VAS ≥ 7 cm; n = 8) facial photoaging, who were randomized to receive a pharmaceutical formulation (VISCODERM Pearls; IBSA FARMACEUTICI ITALIA Srl, Lodi, Italy) containing Pycnogenol, collagen, coenzyme Q10, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15). Dietary supplement and placebo were administered 2 times a day for 4 weeks. Facial photoaging was assessed by VAS in the first cohort of patients affected by facial photoaging and healthy controls and, at baseline and 2 weeks after the end of treatment, in the second cohort of patients who underwent treatment with VISCODERM Pearls and placebo. Skin Tester was used to analyze differences in facial skin parameters between patients affected by facial photoaging and healthy controls. Skin Tester was also used to assess the effect of VISCODERM Pearls on facial skin parameters and compared with placebo 2 weeks after the end of

  4. Hypothetical Rejuvenated Planets Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-25

    This artist's concept shows a hypothetical "rejuvenated" planet -- a gas giant that has reclaimed its youthful infrared glow. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found tentative evidence for one such planet around a dead star, or white dwarf, called PG 0010+280 (depicted as white dot in illustration). When planets are young, they are warm and toasty due to internal heat left over from their formation. Planets cool over time -- until they are possibly rejuvenated. The theory goes that this Jupiter-like planet, which orbits far from its star, would accumulate some of the material sloughed off by its star as the star was dying. The material would cause the planet to swell in mass. As the material fell onto the planet, it would heat up due to friction and glow with infrared light. The final result would be an old planet, billions of years in age, radiating infrared light as it did in its youth. Spitzer detected an excess infrared light around the white dwarf PG 0010+280. Astronomers aren't sure where the light is coming from, but one possibility is a rejuvenated planet. Future observations may help solve the mystery. A Jupiter-like planet is about ten times the size of a white dwarf. White dwarfs are about the size of Earth, so one white dwarf would easily fit into the Great Red Spot on Jupiter! http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19346

  5. A new evaluation of heat distribution on facial skin surface by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Denise S; Brioschi, Marcos L; Baladi, Marina G; Arita, Emiko S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the facial areas defined by thermal gradient, in individuals compatible with the pattern of normality, and to quantify and describe them anatomically. The sample consisted of 161 volunteers, of both genders, aged between 26 and 84 years (63 ± 15 years). The results demonstrated that the thermal gradient areas suggested for the study were present in at least 95% of the thermograms evaluated and that there is significant difference in temperature between the genders, racial group and variables "odontalgia", "dental prothesis" and "history of migraine" (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in the absolute temperatures between ages, and right and left sides of the face, in individuals compatible with the pattern of normality (ΔT = 0.11°C). The authors concluded that according to the suggested areas of thermal gradients, these were present in at least 95% of all the thermograms evaluated, and the areas of high intensity found in the face were medial palpebral commissure, labial commissure, temporal, supratrochlear and external acoustic meatus, whereas the points of low intensity were inferior labial, lateral palpebral commissure and nasolabial.

  6. A new evaluation of heat distribution on facial skin surface by infrared thermography

    PubMed Central

    Brioschi, Marcos L; Baladi, Marina G; Arita, Emiko S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the facial areas defined by thermal gradient, in individuals compatible with the pattern of normality, and to quantify and describe them anatomically. Methods: The sample consisted of 161 volunteers, of both genders, aged between 26 and 84 years (63 ± 15 years). Results: The results demonstrated that the thermal gradient areas suggested for the study were present in at least 95% of the thermograms evaluated and that there is significant difference in temperature between the genders, racial group and variables “odontalgia”, “dental prothesis” and “history of migraine” (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in the absolute temperatures between ages, and right and left sides of the face, in individuals compatible with the pattern of normality (ΔT = 0.11°C). Conclusions: The authors concluded that according to the suggested areas of thermal gradients, these were present in at least 95% of all the thermograms evaluated, and the areas of high intensity found in the face were medial palpebral commissure, labial commissure, temporal, supratrochlear and external acoustic meatus, whereas the points of low intensity were inferior labial, lateral palpebral commissure and nasolabial. PMID:26891669

  7. An Open Label Clinical Trial of a Peptide Treatment Serum and Supporting Regimen Designed to Improve the Appearance of Aging Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2016-09-01

    A 14-week single-center clinical usage study was conducted to test the efficacy of a peptide treatment serum and supporting skincare regimen in 29 women with mild to moderately photodamaged facial skin. The peptide treatment serum contained gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and various peptides with neurotransmitter inhibiting and cell signaling properties. It was hypothesized that the peptide treatment serum would ameliorate eye and facial expression lines including crow's feet and forehead lines. The efficacy of the supporting skincare regimen was also evaluated. An expert investigator examined the subjects at rest and at maximum smile. Additionally, the subjects completed self-assessment questionnaires. At week 14, the expert investigator found a statistically significant improvement in facial lines, facial wrinkles, eye lines, and eye wrinkles at rest when compared to baseline results. The expert investigator also found statistically significant improvement at week 14 in facial lines, eye lines, and eye wrinkles when compared to baseline results at maximum smile. In addition, there was continued highly statistically significant improvement in smoothness, softness, firmness, radiance, luminosity, and overall appearance at rest when compared to baseline results at the 14-week time point. The test regimen was well perceived by the subjects for efficacy and product attributes. The products were well tolerated with no adverse events.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1100-1106.

  8. The Relationship Between Facial Skin Surface Temperature Reactivity and Traditional Polygraph Measures Used in the Psychophysiological Detection of Deception: A Preliminary Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Surface Temperature and Polygraph Measures 19 References Cook , E. and Turpin , G. ( 1997 ). Differentiating orienting, startle, and defense responses... Turpin , 1997 ). The results of the present study also suggest that, in the forehead and periorbital region, the situation is complex. A multivariate...Facial Skin Surface Temperature and Polygraph Measures 3 areas would be differentially affected by participants’ fear-induced central and ANS responses to

  9. A novel method to measure conspicuous facial pores using computer analysis of digital-camera-captured images: the effect of glycolic acid chemical peeling.

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Kushida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Nobuko; Minakata, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Kenji; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2011-11-01

    Chemical peeling is becoming increasingly popular for skin rejuvenation in dermatological esthetic surgery. Conspicuous facial pores are one of the most frequently encountered skin problems in women of all ages. This study was performed to analyze the effectiveness of reducing conspicuous facial pores using glycolic acid chemical peeling (GACP) based on a novel computer analysis of digital-camera-captured images. GACP was performed a total of five times at 2-week intervals in 22 healthy women. Computerized image analysis of conspicuous, open, and darkened facial pores was performed using the Robo Skin Analyzer CS 50. The number of conspicuous facial pores decreased significantly in 19 (86%) of the 22 subjects, with a mean improvement rate of 34.6%. The number of open pores decreased significantly in 16 (72%) of the subjects, with a mean improvement rate of 11.0%. The number of darkened pores decreased significantly in 18 (81%) of the subjects, with a mean improvement rate of 34.3%. GACP significantly reduces the number of conspicuous facial pores. The Robo Skin Analyzer CS 50 is useful for the quantification and analysis of 'pore enlargement', a subtle finding in dermatological esthetic surgery. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. P16INK4a Positive Cells in Human Skin Are Indicative of Local Elastic Fiber Morphology, Facial Wrinkling, and Perceived Age

    PubMed Central

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E. C.; Gunn, David A.; Adams, Peter D.; Pawlikowski, Jeff S.; Griffiths, Christopher E. M.; van Heemst, Diana; Slagboom, P. Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells are more prevalent in aged human skin compared to young, but evidence that senescent cells are linked to other biomarkers of aging is scarce. We counted cells positive for the tumor suppressor and senescence associated protein p16INK4a in sun-protected upper-inner arm skin biopsies from 178 participants (aged 45–81 years) of the Leiden Longevity Study. Local elastic fiber morphology, facial wrinkles, and perceived facial age were compared to tertiles of p16INK4a counts, while adjusting for chronological age and other potential confounders. The numbers of epidermal and dermal p16INK4a positive cells were significantly associated with age-associated elastic fiber morphologic characteristics, such as longer and a greater number of elastic fibers. The p16INK4a positive epidermal cells (identified as primarily melanocytes) were also significantly associated with more facial wrinkles and a higher perceived age. Participants in the lowest tertile of epidermal p16INK4a counts looked 3 years younger than those in the highest tertile, independently of chronological age and elastic fiber morphology. In conclusion, p16INK4a positive cell numbers in sun-protected human arm skin are indicative of both local elastic fiber morphology and the extent of aging visible in the face. PMID:26286607

  11. Further enhancement of facial appearance with a hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin in patients previously treated with botulinum toxin Type A.

    PubMed

    Schlessinger, Joel; Kenkel, Jeffrey; Werschler, Philip

    2011-07-01

    A hydroquinone (HQ) skin care system has been designed for use in conjunction with nonsurgical procedures. The authors evaluate the efficacy of this system plus tretinoin for improving facial appearance in comparison to a standard skin care regimen in users of botulinum toxin Type A (BoNT-A). In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, parallel-group study, 61 patients who received upper facial treatment with BoNT-A at a plastic surgery or dermatology clinic were randomly assigned to apply either the HQ system (cleanser, toner, proprietary 4% hydroquinone, exfoliant, and sunscreen) plus 0.05% tretinoin cream or a standard skin care regimen (cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen) for 120 days. Outcomes were assessed by the investigators and through a patient questionnaire. Compared with standard skin care, the HQ system plus tretinoin resulted in significantly milder fine lines/wrinkles and hyperpigmentation at Days 30, 90, and 120 (p ≤ .05) and significantly superior overall ratings for each of nine patient assessments at Days 90 and 120 (p ≤ .05). A relatively greater proportion of patients using the HQ system plus tretinoin believed that their study treatment had further enhanced the improvements attained with BoNT-A (86% vs 8%). Both regimens were generally well tolerated. Adjunctive use of the HQ system plus tretinoin can further enhance the improvements in facial appearance attained with BoNT-A. Applying the HQ system plus tretinoin offers multiple clinical benefits over standard skin care, including significantly greater improvements in fine lines/wrinkles and hyperpigmentation.

  12. Effect of Exercise-induced Sweating on facial sebum, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface pH in normal population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyu; Zhang, Guirong; Meng, Huimin; Li, Li

    2013-02-01

    Evidence demonstrated that sweat was an important factor affecting skin physiological properties. We intended to assess the effects of exercise-induced sweating on the sebum, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH of facial skin. 102 subjects (aged 5-60, divided into five groups) were enrolled to be measured by a combination device called 'Derma Unit SSC3' in their frontal and zygomatic regions when they were in a resting state (RS), at the beginning of sweating (BS), during excessive sweating (ES) and an hour after sweating (AS), respectively. Compared to the RS, SC hydration in both regions increased at the BS or during ES, and sebum increased at the BS but lower during ES. Compared to during ES, Sebum increased in AS but lower than RS. Compared to the RS, pH decreased in both regions at the BS in the majority of groups, and increased in frontal region during ES and in zygomatic region in the AS. There was an increase in pH in both regions during ES in the majority of groups compared to the BS, but a decrease in the AS compared to during ES. The study implies that even in summer, after we sweat excessively, lipid products should be applied locally in order to maintain stability of the barrier function of the SC. The study suggests that after a short term(1 h or less) of self adjustment, excessive sweat from moderate exercise will not impair the primary acidic surface pH of the facial skin. Exercise-induced sweating significantly affected the skin physiological properties of facial region. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. An Open Label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerance of a Retinol and Vitamin C Facial Regimen in Women With Mild-to-Moderate Hyperpigmentation and Photodamaged Facial Skin.

    PubMed

    Herndon, James H; Jiang, Lily I; Kononov, Tatiana; Fox, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    A 12-week open-label, single-center clinical usage trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a dual product regimen consisting of a 0.5% retinol treatment and an anti-aging moisturizer with 30% vitamin C in women with mild to moderate hyperpigmented and photodamaged facial skin. Clinical grading of several efficacy parameters, tolerability evaluations, subject self-assessment questionnaires, and digital photography were completed at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. A total of 44 women completed the study. Effective ingredients incorporated into the 0.5% retinol treatment included encapsulated retinol for a retinol concentration of 0.5%, bakuchiol, and Ophiopogon japonicus root extract. The anti-aging moisturizer with 30% vitamin C contained 30% vitamin C in the form of tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD ascorbate), alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). The facial regimen produced a statistically significant decrease (improvement) in clinical grading scores for all parameters assessed at weeks 8 and 12 when compared with baseline scores. In addition, the majority of these parameters were improved at week 4. The test regimen was well-perceived by the subjects for various inquiries regarding facial skin condition, product efficacy, and product attributes. Several tolerability parameters were assessed with no statistically significant increase except for dryness. A statistically significant increase in clinical grading scores for dryness on the face occurred at weeks 4 and 8 when compared to baseline scores. The increase in dryness is expected when introducing a retinol product to a facial regimen and the dryness did not persist to the week 12 time point.

  14. Is facial skin tone sufficient to produce a cross-racial identification effect?

    PubMed

    Alley, T R; Schultheis, J A

    2001-06-01

    Research clearly supports the existence of an other race effect for human faces whereby own-race faces are more accurately perceived and recognized. Why this occurs remains unclear. A computerized program (Mac-a-Mug Pro) for face composition was used to create pairs of target and distractor faces that differed only in skin tone. The six target faces were rated on honesty and aggressiveness by 72 university students, with just one 'Black' and one 'White' face viewed by each student. One week later, they attempted to identify these faces in four lineups: two with target-present and two with target-absent. The order of presentation of targets, lineups, and faces within lineups was varied. Own-race identification was slightly better than cross-racial identification. There was no significant difference in the confidence of responses to own- versus other-race faces. These results indicate that neither morphological variation nor differential confidence is necessary for a cross-racial identification effect.

  15. Two-dimensional auto-correlation analysis and Fourier-transform analysis of second-harmonic-generation image for quantitative analysis of collagen fiber in human facial skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Yuki; Tanaka, Yuji; Hase, Eiji; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    We compare two-dimensional auto-correlation (2D-AC) analysis and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FT) for evaluation of age-dependent structural change of facial dermal collagen fibers caused by intrinsic aging and extrinsic photo-aging. The age-dependent structural change of collagen fibers for female subjects' cheek skin in their 20s, 40s, and 60s were more noticeably reflected in 2D-AC analysis than in 2D-FT analysis. Furthermore, 2D-AC analysis indicated significantly higher correlation with the skin elasticity measured by Cutometer® than 2D-AC analysis. 2D-AC analysis of SHG image has a high potential for quantitative evaluation of not only age-dependent structural change of collagen fibers but also skin elasticity.

  16. Clinical and Histological Evaluations of Enlarged Facial Skin Pores After Low Energy Level Treatments With Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in Korean Patients.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Choi, Sun Chul; Lee, Won-Yong; Jung, Jae Yoon; Park, Gyeong-Hun

    2018-03-01

    Enlarged facial pores can be an early manifestation of skin aging and they are a common aesthetic concern for Asians. However, studies of improving the appearance of enlarged pores have been limited. The authors aimed to study the application of CO2 fractional laser treatment in patients with enlarged facial pores. A total of 32 patients with dilated facial pores completed 3 consecutive sessions of low energy level treatments with a fractional CO2 laser at 4-week intervals. Image analysis was performed to calculate the number of enlarged pores before each treatment session and 12 weeks after the final treatment. After application of laser treatments, there was a significant decrease in the number of enlarged pores. The mean number of enlarged pores was decreased by 28.8% after the second session and by 54.5% at post-treatment evaluation. Post-treatment side effects were mild and transitory. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated clear increases in the number of collagen fibers and the expression of transforming growth factor-β1. The short-term results showed that treatment with low energy level CO2 fractional laser therapy could be a safe and effective option for patients with Fitzpatrick skin Types III and IV who are concerned with enlarged pores.

  17. Prefabricated Cervical Skin Flaps for Hemi-Facial Resurfacing: Elucidating the Natural History of Postoperative Edema Using Indocyanine Green.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Min, Peiru; Sadigh, Parviz; Grassetti, Luca; Lazzeri, Davide; Torresetti, Matteo; Marsili, Riccardo; Feng, Shaoqing; Liu, Ningfei; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2018-02-01

    The increases in capillary wall permeability and capillary hydrostatic pressure are considered to be the causes for the acute swelling seen in flaps; however, disruption of the circulating flap lymphatics could be another contributory factor. In this study we monitor the development of flap edema in a series of 18 prefabricated flaps and aim to delineate the natural history of this phenomenon by use of lymphography. Postoperative swelling was monitored in a series of 18 pre-expanded prefabricated cervical skin flaps used for hemi-facial burns-scar resurfacing. Time to spontaneous resolution, presence or absence of venous congestion, and clinical outcome were recorded. In two cases, indocyanine-green (ICG) lymphography was used to monitor the dermal backflow pattern until swelling had completely resolved. Average moving velocity of ICG after injection as well as flap thickness was also recorded over the follow-up period. The average moving velocity of ICG in the flap lymphatics improved from 0.48 cm/min to 1.5 cm/min in the first 12 days after flap transfer. The dermal backflow pattern was stardust in the first 12 days, indicating moderate lymphedema, transforming to splash from week three, and a robust collecting lymphatic vessel occurring from the fifth month, indicating mild lymphedema and lymphatic channel recovery, respectively. Transient swelling was observed in all prefabricated flaps in our series. We postulate that this is mostly secondary to lymphatic disruption that subsides as lymphangiogenesis takes place. ICG lymphography is an inexpensive, safe, and easy-to-use imaging technology that could be used in the monitoring of postoperative lymphedema seen in prefabricated flaps.

  18. Ethnic and Gender Considerations in the Use of Facial Injectables: Asian Patients.

    PubMed

    Liew, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Asians have distinct facial characteristics due to underlying skeletal and morphological features that differ greatly with those of whites. This together with the higher sun protection factor and the differences in the quality of the skin and soft tissue create a profound effect on their aging process. Understanding of these differences and their effects in the aging process in Asians is crucial in determining effective utilization and placement of injectable products to ensure optimal aesthetic outcomes. For younger Asian women, the main treatment goal is to address the inherent structural deficits through reshaping and the provision of facial support. Facial injectables are used to provide anterior projection, to reduce facial width, and to lengthen facial height. In the older group, the aim is for rejuvenation and also to address the underlying structural issues that has compounded due to age-related volume loss. Asian women requesting cosmetic procedures do not want to be Westernized but rather seeking to enhance and optimize their Asian ethnic features.

  19. Results of fractional ablative facial skin resurfacing with the erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser 1 week and 2 months after one single treatment in 30 patients.

    PubMed

    Trelles, Mario A; Mordon, Serge; Velez, Mariano; Urdiales, Fernando; Levy, Jean Luc

    2009-03-01

    The erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser has recently been used in the fractional resurfacing of photo-aged skin. Our study evaluated the results after one single session of fractional resurfacing with Er:YAG. Thirty women participated in the study, with an average age of 46 years, skin types from II to IV, and wrinkle grades I to III. The 2,940 nm Er:YAG system used (Pixel, Alma Laser, Israel) had variable pulse durations (1 ms to 2 ms) and energy densities (800 mJ/cm(2) to 1,400 mJ/cm(2)) which, together with the number of passes (four to eight), were selected as a function of wrinkle severity. All patients received only one treatment. Postoperative side effects were evaluated. The number of wrinkles was documented with clinical photography and was scored. Histological assessment was carried out on two patients before and 2 months after treatment. All patients completed the study. Of the patients, 93% reported good or very good improvement of the degree of their wrinkles, with a satisfaction index of 83%. Pain was not a problem during treatment, and there were no side effects except for in one phototype IV patient, who had hyperpigmentation. Histology 2 months after the single treatment demonstrated younger morphology of both the epidermis and dermis, with improvement of the pretreatment typical elastotic appearance. At the parameters used in our study, only one treatment session of Er:YAG laser could achieve effective skin rejuvenation, with effects recognized in both the dermis and, more importantly, the epidermis. This regimen offers an interesting alternative to the conventional approach of multi-session fractional resurfacing.

  20. Efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser versus fractional Er:YAG laser in the treatment of facial skin wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Robati, Reza M; Asadi, Elmira

    2017-02-01

    Ablative fractional lasers were introduced for treating facial rhytides. Few studies have compared fractional CO 2 and Er:YAG lasers on cutaneous photodamages by a split trial. The aim of the present study was to compare these modalities in a randomized controlled double-blind split-face design with multiple sessions and larger sample size compared to previous studies done before. Forty patients with facial wrinkles were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive three monthly treatments on each side of the face, one with a fractional CO 2 and one with a fractional Er:YAG laser. The evaluations included investigating clinical outcome determined by two independent dermatologists not enrolled in the treatment along with measuring skin biomechanical property of cheeks using a sensitive biometrologic device with the assessment of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT). Moreover, possible side effects and patients' satisfaction have been recorded at baseline, 1 month after each treatment, and 3 months after the last treatment session. Clinical assessment showed both modalities significantly reduce facial wrinkles (p value < 0.05), with no appreciable difference between two lasers. Mean CRRT values also decreased significantly after the laser treatment compared to the baseline in both laser groups. There was no serious long-standing adverse effect after both laser treatments, but the discomfort was more pronounced by the participants after CO 2 laser treatment. According to the present study, both fractional CO 2 and fractional Er:YAG lasers show considerable clinical improvement of facial skin wrinkles with no serious adverse effects, but post-treatment discomfort seems to be lower with Er:YAG laser.

  1. Enhanced high-energy protocol using a fractional bipolar radiofrequency device combined with bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light for improving facial skin appearance and wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H; Biesman, Brian S; Taylor, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light have been shown in previous trials to safely and effectively improve the appearance of facial wrinkles. To evaluate a high-energy protocol with combined bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light energies for improvement in photoaged facial skin. Seventy-two patients presenting with mild to moderate facial wrinkles underwent a single full-face treatment (n=54) or two treatments (n=18) at 6-week intervals. Independent blinded assessment and investigator assessment were performed, using the Fitzpatrick Wrinkle and Elastosis Scale (0-9) and the Global Aesthetic Improvement scale. Patients also completed a self-assessment questionnaire concerning satisfaction with the treatment. All patients achieved some degree of improvement in their wrinkles and skin appearance, following a single treatment or two treatments with the enhanced-energy protocol. Blinded evaluation demonstrated 71% and 70% of the patients showing improvement of one unit or greater on the Fitzpatrick Scale, at the 12-week and 24-week follow-ups post-treatment, respectively. Similar results were reported by investigators. Under the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale, investigators observed 87%, 91% and 81% of patients showing improvement at the 6-, 12-, and 24-week post-treatment end, respectively. Patients tolerated the treatments well and were satisfied with the clinical results. The enhanced-energy treatment protocol, with fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light applications, yields significant improvement of skin texture, wrinkling, and overall appearance following a single treatment. The results appear gradually over time and are maintained for at least 6 months' post-treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rejuvenation of the Aging Arm: Multimodal Combination Therapy for Optimal Results.

    PubMed

    Wu, Douglas C; Green, Jeremy B

    2016-05-01

    The aging arm is characterized by increased dyspigmentation, a proliferation of ectactic blood vessels, excessive adiposity, excessive skin laxity, and actinic keratosis. A variety of laser, energy, and surgical techniques can be used to improve these features. The objective of this article is to describe the treatment modalities that have proven efficacious in rejuvenating the aging arm and combination therapies that have the potential to optimize patient outcomes while maintaining safety and tolerability. A Medline search was performed on nonsurgical aesthetic combination treatments because it relates to arm rejuvenation, and results are summarized. Practical applications for these combination treatments are also discussed. Although there is significant evidence supporting the effective use of nonsurgical treatments for arm rejuvenation, little in the literature was found on the safety and efficacy of combining such procedures and devices. However, in the authors' clinical experience, combining arm rejuvenation techniques can be done safely and often result in optimal outcomes. Arm rejuvenation can be safely and effectively achieved with combination nonsurgical aesthetic treatments.

  3. Ablative skin resurfacing with a novel microablative CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Gotkin, Robert H; Sarnoff, Deborah S; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Sadick, Neil S; Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene

    2009-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin resurfacing has been a mainstay of facial rejuvenation since its introduction in the mid 1990s. Recently, a new generation of fractional or microablative CO2 lasers has been introduced to the marketplace. According to the concept of fractional photothermolysis, these lasers ablate only a fraction of the epidermal and dermal architecture in the treatment area. An array of microscopic thermal wounds is created that ablates the epidermis and dermis within very tiny zones; adjacent to these areas, the epidermis and dermis are spared. This microablative process of laser skin resurfacing has proven safe and effective not only for facial rejuvenation, but elsewhere on the body as well. It is capable of improving wrinkles, acne scars, and other types of atrophic scars and benign pigmented lesions associated with elastotic, sun-damaged skin. Because of the areas of spared epidermis and dermis inherent in a procedure that employs fractional photothermolysis, healing is more rapid compared to fully ablative CO2 laser skin resurfacing and downtime is proportionately reduced. A series of 32 consecutive patients underwent a single laser resurfacing procedure with the a new microablative CO2 laser. All patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months and were asked to complete patient satisfaction questionnaires; a 6 month postoperative photographic evaluation by an independent physician, not involved in the treatment, was also performed. Both sets of data were graded and reported on a quartile scale. Results demonstrated greater than 50% improvement in almost all patients with those undergoing treatment for wrinkles, epidermal pigment or solar elastosis deriving the greatest change for the better (>75%).

  4. Assessment of the efficacy and safety of single platelet-rich plasma injection on different types and grades of facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Elnehrawy, Naema Y; Ibrahim, Zeinab A; Eltoukhy, Azza M; Nagy, Hala M

    2017-03-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is considered as a growing modality for tissue regeneration and a developing research area for clinicians and researchers. PRP injection treatment provides supraphysiological concentrations of growth factors that may help in accelerated tissue remodeling and regeneration. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of single autologous PRP intradermal injection for treatment of facial wrinkles and for facial rejuvenation. A total of 20 subjects with different types of facial wrinkles were included in this study. All subjects received single PRP intradermal injection and were clinically assessed before and after treatment for a period of 8 weeks using Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS), Skin Homogeneity and Texture (SHnT) Scale, Physician Assessment Scale, and Subject Satisfaction Scale. The mean value of WSRS reduced from 2.90 ± 0.91 before treatment to 2.10 ± 0.79 after 8 weeks of treatment. The most significant results were with younger subjects that have mild and moderate wrinkles of the nasolabial folds (NLFs). Fourteen of seventeen subjects with NLFs showed more than 25% improvement in their appearance. Side effects of PRP treatment were minimal to mild and with excellent tolerability. Single PRP intradermal injection is well tolerated and capable of rejuvenating the face and producing a significant correction of wrinkles especially the NLFs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Perioral Rejuvenation With Ablative Erbium Resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L

    2015-11-01

    Since the introduction of the scanning full-field erbium laser, misconceptions regarding ablative erbium resurfacing have resulted in its being largely overshadowed by ablative fractional resurfacing. This case report illustrates the appropriateness of full-field erbium ablation for perioral resurfacing. A patient with profoundly severe perioral photodamage etched-in lines underwent full-field ablative perioral resurfacing with an erbium laser (Contour TRL, Sciton Inc., Palo Alto, CA) that allows separate control of ablation and coagulation. The pre-procedure consultations included evaluation of the severity of etched-in lines, and discussion of patient goals, expectations, and appropriate treatment options, as well as a review of patient photos and post-treatment care required. The author generally avoids full-field erbium ablation in patients with Fitzpatrick type IV and above. For each of 2 treatment sessions (separated by approximately 4 months), the patient received (12 cc plain 2% lidodaine) sulcus blocks before undergoing 4 passes with the erbium laser at 150 μ ablation, no coagulation, and then some very focal 30 μ ablation to areas of residual lines still visualized through the pinpoint bleeding. Similarly, full-field ablative resurfacing can be very reliable for significant wrinkles and creping in the lower eyelid skin--where often a single treatment of 80 μ ablation, 50 μ coagulation can lead to a nice improvement. Standardized digital imaging revealed significant improvement in deeply etched rhytides without significant adverse events. For appropriately selected patients requiring perioral (or periorbital) rejuvenation, full-field ablative erbium resurfacing is safe, efficacious and merits consideration.

  6. High superficial musculoaponeurotic system facelift with finger-assisted facial spaces dissection for Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Min-Hee; Moon, Victor A

    2015-01-01

    Few facelift methods are designed specifically for Asian patients. Because of their characteristic thick skin and flat, wide facial geometry, satisfactory facelift results can be difficult to achieve in these patients. The authors evaluated outcomes achieved with a high superficial musculoaponeurotic system (high-SMAS) facelift with finger-assisted facial spaces dissection to rejuvenate the aging Asian face. Fifty-three patients underwent this facelift procedure. The indication for surgery was typical sagging of the face associated with aging; the relative contraindications were previous facelift and severe facial atrophy. Mean patient age was 50.7 years. Patients received follow-up for a mean of 19 months. In all cases, improvement was seen in soft-tissue sagging of the midface and lower face. One patient experienced unilateral temporal nerve injury, 3 experienced hematoma, and 2 had wound dehiscence. Understanding surgical anatomy including facial layers, spaces, and retaining ligaments is crucial for stable application of facelift techniques in Asian patients. Because of the small number of patients evaluated in this study and the limited follow-up period, more research is needed to define suitable facelift methods for these patients. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Micropunch blepharopeeling versus blepharoplasty; what is the best procedure for upper eyelid rejuvenation?

    PubMed

    Asilian, Ali; Bafandeh, Behzad; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Faghihi, Gita; Bostakian, Anis; Mozafarpoor, Samaneh; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2018-05-17

    Periocular rejuvenation is the most common aesthetic plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to determine effects of micropunch blepharopeeling (MBP) approach vs blepharoplasty (BP) in periocular rejuvenation. This is a clinical trial study on 22 patients who underwent periorbital rejuvenation referred to University Skin Clinics. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of blepharoplasty or micropunch blepharopeeling. After procedure, all patients were followed in 2 weeks and 2 months and were asked about complications. Patients' satisfaction was scored based on 5-grade scale. Physician satisfaction was assessed based on patients' photographs taken before and 2 months after surgery based on 4-grade scale. The mean age of group MBP was 48.45 ± 7.71 and group BP was 45.45 ± 7.20 (P-value = .36) and Fitzpatrick skin type was not significantly different. Scar was significantly different between groups that 4 (36.4%) patients of BP complained from scars, while none of MBP had significant scar (P-value = .04). Patients were statistically more satisfied with MBP in terms of symmetry, pain, and scar (P-value = .048, .040, and<.001, respectively). Also, MBP was significantly more satisfying for physicians in terms of symmetry and scar (P-value = .047 and <.001, respectively). Micropunch blepharopeeling can be considered as an acceptable procedure of upper eyelid rejuvenation mentioned by patients and physicians. Micropunch blepharopeeling causes fewer scars, better symmetry, and less pain. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Patient-specific rhytidectomy: finding the angle of maximal rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Jacono, Andrew A; Ransom, Evan R

    2012-09-01

    Rhytidectomy is fundamentally an operation of tissue release and resuspension, although the manner and direction of suspension are subject to perpetual debate. The authors describe a method for identifying the angle of maximal rejuvenation during rhytidectomy and quantify the resulting angle and its relationship to patient age. Patients were prospectively enrolled; demographic data, history, and operative details were recorded. Rhytidectomies were performed by the senior author (AAJ). After complete elevation, the face-lift flap was rotated in a medially-based arc (0-90°) while attention was given to the submental area, jawline, and midface. The angle of maximal rejuvenation for each hemiface was identified as described, and the flap was resuspended. During redraping, measurements of vertical and horizontal skin excess were recorded in situ. The resulting angle of lift was then calculated for each hemiface using trigonometry. Symmetry between sides was determined, and the effect of patient age on this angle was assessed. Three hundred hemifaces were operated (147 women; 3 men). Mean age was 60 years (range, 37-80 years). Mean resulting angle for the cohort was 60° from horizontal (range, 46-77°). This was inversely correlated with patient age (r = -.3). Younger patients (<50 years, 64°) had a significantly more vertical angle than older patients (≥70 years, 56°; P < .0002). No significant intersubject difference was found between hemifaces (P = .53). The authors present a method for identifying the angle of maximal rejuvenation during rhytidectomy. This angle was more superior than posterior in all cases and is intimately related to patient age. Lasting results demand a detailed anatomical understanding and strict attention to the direction and degree of laxity.

  9. Facial Specialty. Teacher Edition. Cosmetology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to direct and support instruction in vocational cosmetology programs in the State of Oklahoma. It contains seven units for the facial specialty: identifying enemies of the skin, using aromatherapy on the skin, giving facials without the aid of machines, giving facials with the aid…

  10. Bilayered, non-cross-linked collagen matrix for regeneration of facial defects after skin cancer removal: a new perspective for biomaterial-based tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Kovács, Adorján; Barbeck, Mike; Lorenz, Jonas; Teiler, Anna; Sadeghi, Nader; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Sader, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Classically skin defects are covered by split thickness skin grafts or by means of local or regional skin flaps. In the presented case series for the first time a bilayered, non-crossed-linked collagen matrix has been used in an off-label fashion in order to reconstruct facial skin defects following different types of skin cancer resection. The material is of porcine origin and consists of a spongy and a compact layer. The ratio of the two layers is 1:3 in favour of the spongy layer. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of this matrix for skin regeneration as an alternative to the standard techniques of skin grafts or flaps. Six patients between 39 and 83 years old were included in the study based on a therapeutic trial. The collagen matrix was used in seven defects involving the nose, eyelid, forehead- and posterior scalp regions, and ranging from 1,2 to 6 cm in diameter. Two different head and neck surgeons at two different institutions performed the operations. Each used a different technique in covering the wound following surgery, i.e. with and without a latex-based sheet under the pressure dressing. In three cases cylindrical biopsies were taken after 14 days. In all cases the biomaterial application was performed without any complication and no adverse effects were observed. Clinically, the collagen matrix contributed to a tension-free skin regeneration, independent of the wound dressing used. The newly regenerated skin showed strong similarity to the adjacent normal tissue both in quality and colour. Histological analysis indicated that the spongy layer replaced the defective connective tissue, by providing stepwise integration into the surrounding implantation bed, while the compact layer was infiltrated by mononuclear cells and contributed to its epithelialization by means of a "conductive"process from the surrounding epithelial cells. The clinical and histological data demonstrate that the collagen bilayered matrix used in this series

  11. Effects of a skin-massaging device on the ex-vivo expression of human dermis proteins and in-vivo facial wrinkles

    PubMed Central

    Caberlotto, Elisa; Ruiz, Laetitia; Miller, Zane; Poletti, Mickael; Tadlock, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical and geometrical cues influence cell behaviour. At the tissue level, almost all organs exhibit immediate mechanical responsiveness, in particular by increasing their stiffness in direct proportion to an applied mechanical stress. It was recently shown in cultured-cell models, in particular with fibroblasts, that the frequency of the applied stress is a fundamental stimulating parameter. However, the influence of the stimulus frequency at the tissue level has remained elusive. Using a device to deliver an oscillating torque that generates cyclic strain at different frequencies, we studied the effect(s) of mild skin massage in an ex vivo model and in vivo. Skin explants were maintained ex vivo for 10 days and massaged twice daily for one minute at various frequencies within the range of 65–85 Hz. Biopsies were analysed at D0, D5 and D10 and processed for immuno-histological staining specific to various dermal proteins. As compared to untreated skin explants, the massaging procedure clearly led to higher rates of expression, in particular for decorin, fibrillin, tropoelastin, and procollagen-1. The mechanical stimulus thus evoked an anti-aging response. Strikingly, the expression was found to depend on the stimulus frequency with maximum expression at 75Hz. We then tested whether this mechanical stimulus had an anti-aging effect in vivo. Twenty Caucasian women (aged 65-75y) applied a commercial anti-aging cream to the face and neck, followed by daily treatments using the anti-aging massage device for 8 weeks. A control group of twenty-two women, with similar ages to the first group, applied the cream alone. At W0, W4 and W8, a blinded evaluator assessed the global facial wrinkles, skin texture, lip area, cheek wrinkles, neck sagging and neck texture using a clinical grading scale. We found that combining the massaging device with a skin anti-aging formulation amplified the beneficial effects of the cream. PMID:28249037

  12. Effects of a skin-massaging device on the ex-vivo expression of human dermis proteins and in-vivo facial wrinkles.

    PubMed

    Caberlotto, Elisa; Ruiz, Laetitia; Miller, Zane; Poletti, Mickael; Tadlock, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical and geometrical cues influence cell behaviour. At the tissue level, almost all organs exhibit immediate mechanical responsiveness, in particular by increasing their stiffness in direct proportion to an applied mechanical stress. It was recently shown in cultured-cell models, in particular with fibroblasts, that the frequency of the applied stress is a fundamental stimulating parameter. However, the influence of the stimulus frequency at the tissue level has remained elusive. Using a device to deliver an oscillating torque that generates cyclic strain at different frequencies, we studied the effect(s) of mild skin massage in an ex vivo model and in vivo. Skin explants were maintained ex vivo for 10 days and massaged twice daily for one minute at various frequencies within the range of 65-85 Hz. Biopsies were analysed at D0, D5 and D10 and processed for immuno-histological staining specific to various dermal proteins. As compared to untreated skin explants, the massaging procedure clearly led to higher rates of expression, in particular for decorin, fibrillin, tropoelastin, and procollagen-1. The mechanical stimulus thus evoked an anti-aging response. Strikingly, the expression was found to depend on the stimulus frequency with maximum expression at 75Hz. We then tested whether this mechanical stimulus had an anti-aging effect in vivo. Twenty Caucasian women (aged 65-75y) applied a commercial anti-aging cream to the face and neck, followed by daily treatments using the anti-aging massage device for 8 weeks. A control group of twenty-two women, with similar ages to the first group, applied the cream alone. At W0, W4 and W8, a blinded evaluator assessed the global facial wrinkles, skin texture, lip area, cheek wrinkles, neck sagging and neck texture using a clinical grading scale. We found that combining the massaging device with a skin anti-aging formulation amplified the beneficial effects of the cream.

  13. The Safety and Efficacy of Treatment With a 1,927-nm Diode Laser With and Without Topical Hydroquinone for Facial Hyperpigmentation and Melasma in Darker Skin Types.

    PubMed

    Vanaman Wilson, Monique J; Jones, Isabela T; Bolton, Joanna; Larsen, Lisa; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen

    2018-04-13

    The nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser is theoretically a safe and effective treatment for hyperpigmentation and melasma in darker skin and may potentiate topical cosmeceutical delivery. To evaluate the use of a nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser with and without topical 2% hydroquinone (HQ) cream for moderate-to-severe facial hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin Types III-V. Forty adults underwent 4 laser treatments at 2-week intervals and were randomized to daily application of 2% HQ cream or moisturizer. Follow-ups were conducted 4 and 12 weeks after the final laser treatment. Hydroquinone and moisturizer groups demonstrated Mottled Pigmentation Area and Severity Index improvements of approximately 50% at post-treatment Weeks 4 and 12. Blinded investigator-assessed hyperpigmentation and photodamage improved significantly for both the groups at post-treatment Weeks 4 and 12. Subject satisfaction improved significantly in both the groups by post-treatment Week 4. Although investigator-rated Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores were significantly better in the HQ group at post-treatment Week 12, satisfaction was higher among those using moisturizer. No adverse events were noted. The nonablative, fractional, 1,927-nm diode laser produced significant improvement in hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin Types III-V by 4 weeks, with maintenance of results at 12 weeks after treatment even without HQ.

  14. Effects of asphalt cement rejuvenating agents : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-08-01

    Louisiana's initial work in the recycling of asphaltic concrete pavements has demonstrated the need to obtain a base of knowledge in the area of rejuvenating age-hardened reclaimed asphalt cement. In this report, eight rejuvenating agents are examine...

  15. Eighteen-point abobotulinum toxin a upper face rejuvenation: an eye plastic perspective on 845 subjects.

    PubMed

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Amani, Afsaneh; Jamshidian-Tehrani, Mansooreh; Yousefi, Sahar; Jazayeri, Anis Alsadat

    2014-01-01

    To report the method and results of 18-point Abobotulinum toxin A (ABO-BTA, Dysport) upper face rejuvenation on 845 subjects. In a retrospective chart review, all subjects (the first cycle of injection) with ABO-BTA upper face rejuvenation from 2003 to 2009 were included. Excluded were subjects with facial spastic disorders, injection after upper face lifting, and aberrant regeneration of facial nerves. Upper face rejuvenation included 18 points of injection at forehead creases (4), frown lines (5), bunny line (1), crow's feet (4 on both sides), and lower eyelid crease (4 on both sides). They were revisited in 10 to 14 days for assessment of the effects and possible touch-up injection. Demographics, year of injection, topical anesthetic usage, touch-up injection, and adverse effects (AE) were recorded. There were 845 subjects (85.8% women) whose age was below 40 in 49.3%. All but 68 (8%) were happy with the touch-up visit, 10 to 14 days after injection. Touch-up injection was performed in 8% of subjects mainly for the eyebrow asymmetry. AE (22/845, 2.6%) were bruise (15/845, 1.8%), blepharoptosis (3/845, 0.3%), remained eyebrow asymmetry after touch-up injection (2/845, 0.2%), and headache (2/845, 0.2%). They were significantly more in subjects with touch-up injection, younger than 40 years, and in the first and second year of experience (especially for the bruise). Eighteen-point ABO-BTA upper face rejuvenation had a low rate of AE in this series in which majority was bruise at the lateral canthal area. They were significantly more in the first years of experience, subjects younger than 40, and who had touch-up injections.

  16. Variant facial artery in the submandibular region.

    PubMed

    Vadgaonkar, Rajanigandha; Rai, Rajalakshmi; Prabhu, Latha V; Bv, Murlimanju; Samapriya, Neha

    2012-07-01

    Facial artery has been considered to be the most important vascular pedicle in facial rejuvenation procedures and submandibular gland (SMG) resection. It usually arises from the external carotid artery and passes from the carotid to digastric triangle, deep to the posterior belly of digastric muscle, and lodges in a groove at the posterior end of the SMG. It then passes between SMG and the mandible to reach the face after winding around the base of the mandible. During a routine dissection, in a 62-year-old female cadaver, in Kasturba Medical College Mangalore, an unusual pattern in the cervical course of facial artery was revealed. The right facial artery was found to pierce the whole substance of the SMG before winding around the lower border of the mandible to enter the facial region. Awareness of existence of such a variant and its comparison to the normal anatomy will be useful to oral and maxillofacial surgeons.

  17. Aging and brain rejuvenation as systemic events

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Jill; Villeda, Saul A

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging were traditionally thought to be immutable, particularly evident in the loss of plasticity and cognitive abilities occurring in the aged central nervous system (CNS). However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that extrinsic systemic manipulations such as exercise, caloric restriction, and changing blood composition by heterochronic parabiosis or young plasma administration can partially counteract this age-related loss of plasticity in the aged brain. In this review, we discuss the process of aging and rejuvenation as systemic events. We summarize genetic studies that demonstrate a surprising level of malleability in organismal lifespan, and highlight the potential for systemic manipulations to functionally reverse the effects of aging in the CNS. Based on mounting evidence, we propose that rejuvenating effects of systemic manipulations are mediated, in part, by blood-borne ‘pro-youthful’ factors. Thus, systemic manipulations promoting a younger blood composition provide effective strategies to rejuvenate the aged brain. As a consequence, we can now consider reactivating latent plasticity dormant in the aged CNS as a means to rejuvenate regenerative, synaptic, and cognitive functions late in life, with potential implications even for extending lifespan. PMID:25327899

  18. Cosmetic medicine: facial resurfacing and injectables.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Alexander T; Ahmad, Jamil; Fagien, Steven; Rohrich, Rod J

    2012-01-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the most common options available for minimally invasive facial rejuvenation. 2. Identify key elements essential to each treatment option. 3. Know how to avoid and manage complications for these procedures. Minimally invasive cosmetic procedures continue to increase in popularity. This article is intended to provide a broad and practical overview of common minimally invasive cosmetic techniques available to the plastic surgeon.

  19. Alterations in the Elasticity, Pliability, and Viscoelastic Properties of Facial Skin After Injection of Onabotulinum Toxin A.

    PubMed

    Bonaparte, James P; Ellis, David

    2015-01-01

    This prospective cohort study provides evidence and information on the mechanism of action of onabotulinum toxin A on the reduction of skin elasticity and pliability. Understanding the natural course that onabotulinum toxin A has on the elasticity of skin may help physicians understand why there appears to be a progressive reduction in wrinkle levels with repeated treatments. To determine whether onabotulinum toxin A increases skin pliability and elasticity with a corresponding decrease in the contribution of the viscoelastic component of skin resistance. From October 1, 2012, through June 31, 2013, this prospective cohort study enrolled 48 onabotulinum toxin A-naive women (mean [SD] age, 55.2 [11.3] years) with a minimum of mild wrinkle levels at the glabella and lateral orbit (43 completed the study). Patients were treated at a private cosmetic surgery clinic with onabotulinum toxin A and assessed at baseline and 2 weeks, 2 months, 3 months, and 4 months after injection. Standardized onabotulinum toxin A was administered to patients' glabella, supraorbit, and lateral orbit. Skin pliability, elastic recoil, and the ratio of viscoelastic resistance (Uv) to elastic resistance (Ue). For the supraorbit, there was a significant effect of time on pliability (F = 20.5), elastic recoil (F = 6.92), and Uv/Ue ratio (F = 5.6) (P < .001 for all). For the glabella, there was a significant effect of time on pliability (F = 32.23), elastic recoil (F = 31.66), and Uv/Ue ratio (F = 10.11) (P < .001 for all). For the lateral orbit, there was a significant effect of time on pliability (F = 15.83, P < .001), elastic recoil (F = 11.43, P < .001), and Uv/Ue ratio (F = 10.60, P = .009). This study provides further evidence that there is an alteration in biomechanical properties of the skin after injection with onabotulinum toxin A. This effect appears to last up to 4 months in the glabella and up to 3 months at other sites. The

  20. Use of micro-focused ultrasound with visualization to lift and tighten lax knee skin (1.).

    PubMed

    Gold, Michael H; Sensing, Whitney; Biron, Julie

    2014-10-01

    Public interest in noninvasive, aesthetic treatments for the rejuvenation of appearance continues to grow. The following prospective, open-label, nonrandomized trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of micro-focused ultrasound with visualization (MFU-V) for achieving lift and tightening of lax skin above the knee. Healthy adult women (N = 30) with mild- to moderate bilateral skin laxity above the knees were enrolled. MFU-V was applied to a grid of eight 25 mm(2) squares above each knee. MFU-V was first applied using a 4 MHz, 4.5 mm transducer followed by a 7 MHz, 3.0 mm transducer. Approximately 320 treatment lines applied to each knee [corrected]. The primary efficacy endpoint was lifting and tightening of lax skin above the knee as determined by the principle investigator using the Physician Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (PGAIS). Among 28 evaluable subjects, 24 subjects (86%) showed improved lifting and tightening of knee skin laxity at 90- and 180-day follow-up visits. Three subjects showed no change and the appearance of one subject worsened. There were no adverse events or evidence of skin injury. Similar to its safety and efficacy for tightening facial skin and reducing wrinkles, MFU-V is an effective, noninvasive method for reducing skin laxity and improving the appearance of skin above the knee. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01708434.

  1. Skin barrier function recovery after diamond microdermabrasion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hei Sung; Lim, Sook Hee; Song, Ji Youn; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Lee, Ji Ho; Park, Jong Gap; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2009-10-01

    Microdermabrasion is a popular method for facial rejuvenation and is performed worldwide. Despite its extensive usage, there are few publications on skin barrier change after microdermabrasion and none concerning diamond microdermabrasion. Our object was to see changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration and erythema of the face following diamond microdermabrasion. Twenty-eight patients were included in this spilt face study. TEWL, stratum corneum hydration and the degree of erythema were measured from the right and left sides of the face (forehead and cheek) at baseline. One side of the face was treated with diamond microdermabrasion and the other side was left untreated. Measurements were taken right after the procedure and repeated at set time intervals. Diamond microdermabrasion was associated with a statistically significant increase in TEWL immediately after the procedure and at 24 h. However, on day 2, levels of TEWL were back to baseline. An increase in hydration and erythema was observed right after microdermabrasion, but both returned to baseline on day 1. The results show that skin barrier function of the forehead and cheek recovers within 2 days of diamond microdermabrasion. Diamond microdermabrasion performed on a weekly basis, as presently done, is expected to allow sufficient time for the damaged skin to recover its barrier function in most parts of the face.

  2. A Randomized, Investigator-Blinded Comparison of Two Topical Regimens in Fitzpatrick Skin Types III-VI With Moderate to Severe Facial Hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Vanaman Wilson, Monique J; Jones, Isabela T; Bolton, Joanna; Larsen, Lisa; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2017-11-01

    Purpose: Though hydroquinone (HQ) remains the gold standard for treatment of hyperpigmentation, concerns about its safety have prompted the development of HQ-free topical skin lightening systems. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of a new HQ-free system and a popular HQ-based system for the improvement of facial hyperpigmentation and photoaging in darker skin types. This investigator-blinded trial randomized 30 subjects of Fitzpatrick skin types III to VI with moderate to severe hyperpigmentation to a new 7-product HQ-free system or a 7-product HQ-based system for 12 weeks. At 4, 8, and 12 week follow-up visits, a blinded investigator assessed efficacy and tolerability using standardized scales. Subjects also performed a self-assessment at each visit. Both the HQ-free and HQ-based systems produced significant improvements in Overall Hyperpigmentation that were sustained through week 12 (P=0.008, 0.0003). The HQ-based system demonstrated better improvement in overall hyperpigmentation at weeks 4, 8, 12 (P=0.01, 0.001, 0.003, respectively). Mottled Pigmentation Area Severity Index (MoPASI) scores improved with both systems (P=0.02, 0.01), with no statistically significant differences between the two treatment groups. Subject-rated hyperpigmentation was not different between groups. Subjects reported significantly more discomfort with the HQ-free system at week 8 (P=0.02); otherwise, measures of irritation were the same between groups. All irritation was described as mild to moderate. At week 12, 100% of subjects in the HQ-free group and 92.3% of subjects in the HQ-based group were satisfied with their outcome. Both a new HQ-free skincare system and a widely-available HQ-based system improved hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin types III to VI. Though the HQ-based system produced greater improvement in hyperpigmentation when compared to the HQ-free system, there was no difference in MoPASI scores between the treatment groups. Subjects were satisfied with

  3. Identification and quantitation of vitamins K1 and K3 in cosmetic products for facial skin protection.

    PubMed

    De Orsi, D; Giannini, G; Gagliardi, L; Carpani, I; Tonelli, D

    2008-01-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method was developed for the determination of vitamins K1 and K3 in facial anti-rash creams. The procedure is based on an ultrasonic extraction of the cosmetic sample with dimethylacetamide, in the presence of an internal standard, followed by HPLC separation. HPLC was performed using a C18 column and spectrophotometric detection at 333 nm. A linear gradient elution was carried out starting with 50% acetonitrile-methanol (75:25 v/v) and water up to 100% acetonitrile-methanol for 5 min. Linearity was established over the concentration range from 0.2 to 1.0 mg/ml for vitamin K1 and from 0.02 to 0.1 mg/ml for vitamin K3, with LOD values of 100 ng and 20 ng injected, respectively. The accuracy was verified by spiking experiments on model cosmetic samples. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the analysis of commercial samples of creams.

  4. Structural rejuvenation in bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yang; Iwashita, T.; Dmowski, Wojciech

    Using high-energy X-ray diffraction we study structural changes in bulk metallic glasses after uniaxial compressive homogeneous deformation at temperatures slightly below the glass transition. We observe that deformation results in structural disordering corresponding to an increase in the fictive, or effective, temperature. However, the structural disordering saturates after yielding. Lastly, examination of the experimental structure and molecular dynamics simulation suggests that local changes in the atomic connectivity network are the main driving force of the structural rejuvenation.

  5. Structural rejuvenation in bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Tong, Yang; Iwashita, T.; Dmowski, Wojciech; ...

    2015-01-05

    Using high-energy X-ray diffraction we study structural changes in bulk metallic glasses after uniaxial compressive homogeneous deformation at temperatures slightly below the glass transition. We observe that deformation results in structural disordering corresponding to an increase in the fictive, or effective, temperature. However, the structural disordering saturates after yielding. Lastly, examination of the experimental structure and molecular dynamics simulation suggests that local changes in the atomic connectivity network are the main driving force of the structural rejuvenation.

  6. A Software Rejuvenation Framework for Distributed Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio

    2009-01-01

    A performability-oriented conceptual framework for software rejuvenation has been constructed as a means of increasing levels of reliability and performance in distributed stateful computing. As used here, performability-oriented signifies that the construction of the framework is guided by the concept of analyzing the ability of a given computing system to deliver services with gracefully degradable performance. The framework is especially intended to support applications that involve stateful replicas of server computers.

  7. J85 Rejuvenation Through Technology Insertion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    and Sabre 75 business addition to military production, the J85 was jets . Number Model Produced Aircraft Type(s) Engine Type Thrust (lbs) J85-GE-4 740...REJUVENATION THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INSERTION T.A. Brisken, P.N. Howell, A.C. Ewing Military Engines Operation GE Aircraft Engines 1 Neumann Way Cincinnati...OH 45215, USA Summary thrust to weight ratio turbojet engines with potential application to early cruise missiles and drones. The history of the

  8. Effect of rejuvenation hormones on spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jared L; Crosnoe, Lindsey E; Kim, Edward D

    2013-06-01

    To review the current literature for the effect of hormones used in rejuvenation clinics on the maintenance of spermatogenesis. Review of published literature. Not applicable. Men who have undergone exogenous testosterone (T) and/or anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) therapies. None. Semen analysis, pregnancy outcomes, and time to recovery of spermatogenesis. Exogenous testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids suppress intratesticular testosterone production, which may lead to azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Therapies that protect spermatogenesis involve human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) therapy and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). The studies examining the effect of human growth hormone (HGH) on infertile men are uncontrolled and unconvincing, but they do not appear to negatively impact spermatogenesis. At present, routine use of aromatase inhibitors is not recommended based on a lack of long-term data. The use of hormones for rejuvenation is increasing with the aging of the Baby Boomer population. Men desiring children at a later age may be unaware of the side-effect profile of hormones used at rejuvenation centers. Testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids have well-established detrimental effects on spermatogenesis, but recovery may be possible with cessation. Clomiphene citrate, human growth hormone (HGH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and aromatase inhibitors do not appear to have significant negative effects on sperm production, but quality data are lacking. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface Facial Electromyography, Skin Conductance, and Self-Reported Emotional Responses to Light- and Season-Relevant Stimuli in Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Kathryn Tierney; Rohan, Kelly J.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Mahon, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Learned associations between depressive behavior and environmental stimuli signaling low light availability and winter season may play a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether light and season environmental cues elicit emotional responses that are distinct in individuals with SAD. Methods Twenty-four currently depressed SAD participants were compared to 24 demographically-matched controls with no depression history on emotional responses to outdoor scenes captured under two light intensity (i.e., clear, sunny vs. overcast sky) and three season (i.e., summer with green leaves, fall with autumn foliage, and winter with bare trees) conditions. Emotion measures included surface facial electromyography (EMG) activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions, skin conductance, and self-reported mood state on the Profile of Mood States Depression–Dejection Subscale. Results Light intensity was a more salient cue than season in determining emotional reactions among SAD participants. Relative to controls, SAD participants displayed more corrugator activity, more frequent significant skin conductance responses (SCR), greater SCR magnitude, and more self-reported depressed mood in response to overcast stimuli and less corrugator activity, lower SCR magnitude, and less self-reported depressed mood in response to sunny stimuli. Limitations Study limitations include the single, as opposed to repeated, assessment and the lack of a nonseasonal depression group. Conclusions These findings suggest that extreme emotional reactivity to light-relevant stimuli may be a correlate of winter depression; and future work should examine its potential onset or maintenance significance. PMID:21600661

  10. Facial skin resurfacing with a very short-pulsed CO2 laser: beam characterization and initial histological results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David M.; Bell, Thomas; From, Lynn; Schachter, Daniel

    1996-05-01

    The beam characteristics and spot geometry of a short pulsed (15 - 1000 microsecond) carbon- dioxide, multimode laser were measured. At a distance of 1.0 - 3.0 cm from the handpiece the laser produced a 5 mm2 square spot with an even fluence across the entire spot area (Mesa Mode). Human eyelid skin was irradiated both in vivo and ex-vivo immediately after excision with 1, 2, 3, or 4 pulses, a pulse duration of 62.5 microseconds, and at a fluence of 6 J/cm2. H&E stained sections showed an even removal of tissue across the impact site. The depth of thermal damage was measured as 38 micrometer plus or minus 22.7 with a range of 0 - 100 micrometer.

  11. Childhood Sarcoidosis Presenting as Recurrent Facial Palsy.

    PubMed

    Passi, Gouri Rao; Arora, Kriti; Gokhale, Narendra

    2018-04-15

    Recurrent facial palsy in a patient merits investigation for underlying etiology. 8-year-old boy with erythematous itchy skin lesion and recurrent facial palsy. He had a past history of aseptic meningitis and nephrocalcinosis. Raised angiotensin converting enzyme levels, interstitial lung disease on CT chest, and non caseating granulomas on skin biopsy clinched the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Multisystem involvement and recurrent lower motor facial nerve palsy is a clinical clue for sarcoidosis.

  12. UV imaging reveals facial areas that are prone to skin cancer are disproportionately missed during sunscreen application.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Harry; Hassanin, Kareem; Troughton, Lee D; Czanner, Gabriela; Zheng, Yalin; McCormick, Austin G; Hamill, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Application of sunscreen is a widely used mechanism for protecting skin from the harmful effects of UV light. However, protection can only be achieved through effective application, and areas that are routinely missed are likely at increased risk of UV damage. Here we sought to determine if specific areas of the face are missed during routine sunscreen application, and whether provision of public health information is sufficient to improve coverage. To investigate this, 57 participants were imaged with a UV sensitive camera before and after sunscreen application: first visit; minimal pre-instruction, second visit; provided with a public health information statement. Images were scored using a custom automated image analysis process designed to identify areas of high UV reflectance, i.e. missed during sunscreen application, and analysed for 5% significance. Analyses revealed eyelid and periorbital regions to be disproportionately missed during routine sunscreen application (median 14% missed in eyelid region vs 7% in rest of face, p<0.01). Provision of health information caused a significant improvement in coverage to eyelid areas in general however, the medial canthal area was still frequently missed. These data reveal that a public health announcement-type intervention could be effective at improving coverage of high risk areas of the face, however high risk areas are likely to remain unprotected therefore other mechanisms of sun protection should be widely promoted such as UV blocking sunglasses.

  13. UV imaging reveals facial areas that are prone to skin cancer are disproportionately missed during sunscreen application

    PubMed Central

    Troughton, Lee D.; Czanner, Gabriela; Zheng, Yalin; McCormick, Austin G.

    2017-01-01

    Application of sunscreen is a widely used mechanism for protecting skin from the harmful effects of UV light. However, protection can only be achieved through effective application, and areas that are routinely missed are likely at increased risk of UV damage. Here we sought to determine if specific areas of the face are missed during routine sunscreen application, and whether provision of public health information is sufficient to improve coverage. To investigate this, 57 participants were imaged with a UV sensitive camera before and after sunscreen application: first visit; minimal pre-instruction, second visit; provided with a public health information statement. Images were scored using a custom automated image analysis process designed to identify areas of high UV reflectance, i.e. missed during sunscreen application, and analysed for 5% significance. Analyses revealed eyelid and periorbital regions to be disproportionately missed during routine sunscreen application (median 14% missed in eyelid region vs 7% in rest of face, p<0.01). Provision of health information caused a significant improvement in coverage to eyelid areas in general however, the medial canthal area was still frequently missed. These data reveal that a public health announcement-type intervention could be effective at improving coverage of high risk areas of the face, however high risk areas are likely to remain unprotected therefore other mechanisms of sun protection should be widely promoted such as UV blocking sunglasses. PMID:28968413

  14. Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Fractional Laser in Skin Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to confirm the efficiency and safety of the fractional CO2 laser in skin renewal and to check the possibility of having a synergistic effect in patients who besides carbon dioxide laser are treated with PRP (platelet-rich plasma) too. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The first group (Examined Group 1 or EG1) included 107 patients treated with fractional CO2 laser (Lutronic eCO2) as mono-therapy. The second group (Control Group or CG) covered 100 patients treated with neither laser nor plasma in the same period but subjected to local therapy with drugs or other physio-procedures under the existing protocols for treatment of certain diseases. The third group (Examined Group 2 or EG2) treated 25 patients with combined therapy of CO2 laser and PRP in the treatment of facial rejuvenation or treatment of acne scars. RESULTS: Patient’s satisfaction, in general, is significantly greater in both examined groups (EG1 and EG2) (p < 0.001). It was found the significant difference between control and examined group from the treatment in acne scar (Fisher exact two tailed p < 0.001). Patients satisfaction with the treatment effect in rejuvenation of the skin is significant (χ2 = 39.41; df = 4; p < 0.001). But, patients satisfaction from the treatment with HPV on the skin was significantly lower in examined group (treated with laser), p = 0.0002. CONCLUSION: Multifunctional fractional carbon dioxide laser used in treatment of patients with acne and pigmentation from acne, as well as in the treatment of scars from different backgrounds, is an effective and safe method that causes statistically significant better effect of the treatment, greater patients’ satisfaction, minimal side effects and statistically better response to the therapy, according to assessments by the patient and the therapist. PMID:27335599

  15. Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Fractional Laser in Skin Resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Andrej

    2016-06-15

    The aim of the study was to confirm the efficiency and safety of the fractional CO2 laser in skin renewal and to check the possibility of having a synergistic effect in patients who besides carbon dioxide laser are treated with PRP (platelet-rich plasma) too. The first group (Examined Group 1 or EG1) included 107 patients treated with fractional CO2 laser (Lutronic eCO2) as mono-therapy. The second group (Control Group or CG) covered 100 patients treated with neither laser nor plasma in the same period but subjected to local therapy with drugs or other physio-procedures under the existing protocols for treatment of certain diseases. The third group (Examined Group 2 or EG2) treated 25 patients with combined therapy of CO2 laser and PRP in the treatment of facial rejuvenation or treatment of acne scars. Patient's satisfaction, in general, is significantly greater in both examined groups (EG1 and EG2) (p < 0.001). It was found the significant difference between control and examined group from the treatment in acne scar (Fisher exact two tailed p < 0.001). Patients satisfaction with the treatment effect in rejuvenation of the skin is significant (χ2 = 39.41; df = 4; p < 0.001). But, patients satisfaction from the treatment with HPV on the skin was significantly lower in examined group (treated with laser), p = 0.0002. Multifunctional fractional carbon dioxide laser used in treatment of patients with acne and pigmentation from acne, as well as in the treatment of scars from different backgrounds, is an effective and safe method that causes statistically significant better effect of the treatment, greater patients' satisfaction, minimal side effects and statistically better response to the therapy, according to assessments by the patient and the therapist.

  16. A Skin Cancer Prevention Facial-Aging Mobile App for Secondary Schools in Brazil: Appearance-Focused Interventional Study.

    PubMed

    Brinker, Titus Josef; Heckl, Marlene; Gatzka, Martina; Heppt, Markus V; Resende Rodrigues, Henrique; Schneider, Sven; Sondermann, Wiebke; de Almeida E Silva, Carolina; Kirchberger, Michael C; Klode, Joachim; Enk, Alexander H; Knispel, Sarah; von Kalle, Christof; Stoffels, Ingo; Schadendorf, Dirk; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Esser, Stefan; Assis, Aisllan; Bernardes-Souza, Breno

    2018-03-09

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other major cancer both in Brazil and worldwide. Southeast Brazil has especially high incidences of melanoma, and early detection is low. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a primary risk factor for developing melanoma. Increasing attractiveness is a major motivation among adolescents for tanning. A medical student-delivered intervention that takes advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones and adolescents' interest in their appearance indicated effectiveness in a recent study from Germany. However, the effect in a high-UV index country with a high melanoma prevalence and the capability of medical students to implement such an intervention remain unknown. In this pilot study, our objective was to investigate the preliminary success and implementability of a photoaging intervention to prevent skin cancer in Brazilian adolescents. We implemented a free photoaging mobile phone app (Sunface) in 15 secondary school classes in southeast Brazil. Medical students "mirrored" the pupils' altered 3-dimensional (3D) selfies reacting to touch on tablets via a projector in front of their whole grade accompanied by a brief discussion of means of UV protection. An anonymous questionnaire capturing sociodemographic data and risk factors for melanoma measured the perceptions of the intervention on 5-point Likert scales among 356 pupils of both sexes (13-19 years old; median age 16 years) in grades 8 to 12 of 2 secondary schools in Brazil. We measured more than 90% agreement in both items that measured motivation to reduce UV exposure and only 5.6% disagreement: 322 (90.5%) agreed or strongly agreed that their 3D selfie motivated them to avoid using a tanning bed, and 321 (90.2%) that it motivated them to improve their sun protection; 20 pupils (5.6%) disagreed with both items. The perceived effect on motivation was higher in female pupils in both tanning bed avoidance (n=198, 92.6% agreement in females vs n=123

  17. Platelet-rich plasma, the ultimate secret for youthful skin elixir and hair growth triggering.

    PubMed

    Elghblawi, Ebtisam

    2018-06-01

    The clinical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is based on the increase in the concentration of growth factors that are released from alpha-granule of the concentrated platelets and in the secretion of proteins which are able to capitalize on the healing process at the cellular level. It has been invented to restore the natural beauty by starting the natural rejuvenation process of the skin and aiming to make it function as a younger one and to keep the skin youthful and maintain it. Besides that, it is also emerged to include hairs as a new injectable procedure to enable stimulating hair growth locally and topically; preventing its fall; improving hair shaft, hair stem, and its caliber; increasing its shine, vitality, and pliability; and declining hair splitting and breakage. Thus, youth is in your blood as it has a magical power imposed in the platelet factors. There is, however, no standardization of the techniques besides insufficient description of the adopted procedures. Not long, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has surfaced strongly in diverse medical specialties including plastic, wound healing and diabetic ulcers, orthopedic, trauma, ocular surgery, dry eye for eyelid injection, urology for urinary incontinence, sexual wellness, cutaneous surgery, sport medicine, dentistry and dermatology, and aesthetic applications. PRP proved to promote wound healing and aid in facelift, volumetric skin, skin rejuvenation, regeneration, and reconstruction; improve wrinkling; stimulate hair growth; increase hair follicle viability and its survival rate; prevent apoptosis; increase and prolong the anagen hair growth stage; and delay the progression to catagen hair cycle stage with increased density in hair loss and hair transplantation. The aims of this extensive review were to cover all PRP application aspects that are carried out in aesthetic dermatology and to assess the literature on platelet-rich plasma outcomes on main aesthetic practices of general

  18. Resurfacing of Facial Acne Scars With a New Variable-Pulsed Er:YAG Laser in Fitzpatrick Skin Types IV and V

    PubMed Central

    Chathra, Namitha; Mysore, Venkataram

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The Er:YAG laser, considered to be less effective than CO2 laser in its traditional form, in its new modulated version has variable pulse technology that is claimed to be superior to the earlier versions of the laser. Aim: The aim of the study was to check efficacy and safety of the new variable square pulse (VSP) Er:YAG laser in the management of acne scar in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 80 patients (Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V) with atrophic and hypertrophic facial acne scars. Records of the patients who had undergone four treatment sessions with VSP technology equipped with Er:YAG laser were extracted. Each patient had undergone a minimum of four sessions. Fractional mode at medium laser pulse (SP) and long pulse (LP) was employed for the depressed center of the scars to stimulate neocollagenogenesis. Short laser pulse (MSP) in nonfractionated mode was used for ablating the raised scar border and hypertrophic scars. Goodman and Baron global scarring grading system was used for qualitative and quantitative assessments. Patient’s satisfaction to the treatment and observer’s assessment of improvement (based on photographs) was graded as poor (<25% improvement), fair (25–50% improvement), good (51–75% improvement), and excellent (>75% improvement). Results: At the end of the four sessions, the number of patients in grade IV postacne scarring reduced from 16 to 2 and that in grade III from 47 to 29. The mean score significantly dropped from 36.94 to 27.5. Subjective assessment revealed that 78 of 80 patients had noticed more than 25% improvement, with 50 of them showing more than 50% improvement at the end of four sessions. Eight patients perceived an excellent response and 42 reported a good response. This is notably higher than the observer’s grading, which showed an excellent response in only 2 patients and a good response in 35. Adverse effects were limited

  19. Resurfacing of Facial Acne Scars With a New Variable-Pulsed Er:YAG Laser in Fitzpatrick Skin Types IV and V.

    PubMed

    Chathra, Namitha; Mysore, Venkataram

    2018-01-01

    The Er:YAG laser, considered to be less effective than CO 2 laser in its traditional form, in its new modulated version has variable pulse technology that is claimed to be superior to the earlier versions of the laser. The aim of the study was to check efficacy and safety of the new variable square pulse (VSP) Er:YAG laser in the management of acne scar in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V. This retrospective study consisted of 80 patients (Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V) with atrophic and hypertrophic facial acne scars. Records of the patients who had undergone four treatment sessions with VSP technology equipped with Er:YAG laser were extracted. Each patient had undergone a minimum of four sessions. Fractional mode at medium laser pulse (SP) and long pulse (LP) was employed for the depressed center of the scars to stimulate neocollagenogenesis. Short laser pulse (MSP) in nonfractionated mode was used for ablating the raised scar border and hypertrophic scars. Goodman and Baron global scarring grading system was used for qualitative and quantitative assessments. Patient's satisfaction to the treatment and observer's assessment of improvement (based on photographs) was graded as poor (<25% improvement), fair (25-50% improvement), good (51-75% improvement), and excellent (>75% improvement). At the end of the four sessions, the number of patients in grade IV postacne scarring reduced from 16 to 2 and that in grade III from 47 to 29. The mean score significantly dropped from 36.94 to 27.5. Subjective assessment revealed that 78 of 80 patients had noticed more than 25% improvement, with 50 of them showing more than 50% improvement at the end of four sessions. Eight patients perceived an excellent response and 42 reported a good response. This is notably higher than the observer's grading, which showed an excellent response in only 2 patients and a good response in 35. Adverse effects were limited to prolonged erythema (two patients), prolonged crusting

  20. Validating Facial Aesthetic Surgery Results with the FACE-Q.

    PubMed

    Kappos, Elisabeth A; Temp, Mathias; Schaefer, Dirk J; Haug, Martin; Kalbermatten, Daniel F; Toth, Bryant A

    2017-04-01

    In aesthetic clinical practice, surgical outcome is best measured by patient satisfaction and quality of life. For many years, there has been a lack of validated questionnaires. Recently, the FACE-Q was introduced, and the authors present the largest series of face-lift patients evaluated by the FACE-Q with the longest follow-up to date. Two hundred consecutive patients were identified who underwent high-superficial musculoaponeurotic system face lifts, with or without additional facial rejuvenation procedures, between January of 2005 and January of 2015. Patients were sent eight FACE-Q scales and were asked to answer questions with regard to their satisfaction. Rank analysis of covariance was used to compare different subgroups. The response rate was 38 percent. Combination of face lift with other procedures resulted in higher satisfaction than face lift alone (p < 0.05). Patients who underwent lipofilling as part of their face lift showed higher satisfaction than patients without lipofilling in three subscales (p < 0.05). Facial rejuvenation surgery, combining a high-superficial musculoaponeurotic system face lift with lipofilling and/or other facial rejuvenation procedures, resulted in a high level of patient satisfaction. The authors recommend the implementation of the FACE-Q by physicians involved in aesthetic facial surgery, to validate their clinical outcomes from a patient's perspective.

  1. Photodamaged skin. Update on therapeutic management.

    PubMed Central

    Goldhar, J. N.; Yong, P. Y.

    1993-01-01

    With baby boomers aging, the medical community is ushered into a new era of patient care, that of cosmetic maintenance and rejuvenation. The authors critically review pharmacologic treatments for preventing and treating photodamaged skin. Issues concerning sunscreens, tretinoin, silicone tissue augmentation, fat transplantation, collagen replacement therapy, and chemical exfoliation of the skin are addressed. Images Figure 1 PMID:8495125

  2. Facial nerve paralysis secondary to occult malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Boahene, Derek O; Olsen, Kerry D; Driscoll, Colin; Lewis, Jean E; McDonald, Thomas J

    2004-04-01

    This study reviewed patients with unilateral facial paralysis and normal clinical and imaging findings who underwent diagnostic facial nerve exploration. Study design and setting Fifteen patients with facial paralysis and normal findings were seen in the Mayo Clinic Department of Otorhinolaryngology. Eleven patients were misdiagnosed as having Bell palsy or idiopathic paralysis. Progressive facial paralysis with sequential involvement of adjacent facial nerve branches occurred in all 15 patients. Seven patients had a history of regional skin squamous cell carcinoma, 13 patients had surgical exploration to rule out a neoplastic process, and 2 patients had negative exploration. At last follow-up, 5 patients were alive. Patients with facial paralysis and normal clinical and imaging findings should be considered for facial nerve exploration when the patient has a history of pain or regional skin cancer, involvement of other cranial nerves, and prolonged facial paralysis. Occult malignancy of the facial nerve may cause unilateral facial paralysis in patients with normal clinical and imaging findings.

  3. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Surgeon Diagnostic Accuracy in Facial Plastic and Oculoplastic Surgery Clinics.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Andrew W; Ishii, Lisa; Joseph, Shannon S; Smith, Jane I; Su, Peiyi; Bater, Kristin; Byrne, Patrick; Boahene, Kofi; Papel, Ira; Kontis, Theda; Douglas, Raymond; Nelson, Christine C; Ishii, Masaru

    2017-07-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relative contraindication for facial plastic surgery, but formal screening is not common in practice. The prevalence of BDD in patients seeking facial plastic surgery is not well documented. To establish the prevalence of BDD across facial plastic and oculoplastic surgery practice settings, and estimate the ability of surgeons to screen for BDD. This multicenter prospective study recruited a cohort of 597 patients who presented to academic and private facial plastic and oculoplastic surgery practices from March 2015 to February 2016. All patients were screened for BDD using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ). After each clinical encounter, surgeons independently evaluated the likelihood that a participating patient had BDD. Validated instruments were used to assess satisfaction with facial appearance including the FACE-Q, Blepharoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (BOE), Facelift Outcomes Evaluation (FOE), Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE), and Skin Rejuvenation Outcomes Evaluation (SROE). Across participating practices (9 surgeons, 3 sites), a total of 597 patients were screened for BDD: 342 patients from site 1 (mean [SD] age, 44.2 [16.5] years); 158 patients, site 2 (mean [SD] age, 46.0 [16.2] years), site 3, 97 patients (mean [SD] age, 56.3 [15.5] years). Overall, 58 patients [9.7%] screened positive for BDD by the BDDQ instrument, while only 16 of 402 patients [4.0%] were clinically suspected of BDD by surgeons. A higher percentage of patients presenting for cosmetic surgery (37 of 283 patients [13.1%]) compared with those presenting for reconstructive surgery (21 of 314 patients [6.7%]) screened positive on the BDDQ (odds ratio, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.20-3.68; P = .01). Surgeons were only able to correctly identify 2 of 43 patients (4.7%) who screened positive for BDD on the BDDQ, and the positive likelihood ratio was only 1.19 (95% CI, 0.28-5.07). Patients screening positive for BDD by the BDDQ had lower

  4. Rejuvenation of allogenic red cells: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Aujla, H; Woźniak, M; Kumar, T; Murphy, G J

    2018-06-04

    To review preclinical and clinical studies that have evaluated the effects of red cell rejuvenation in vivo and in vitro and to assess the potential risks and benefits from their clinical use. A systematic review and narrative synthesis of the intervention of red cell rejuvenation using a red cell processing solution containing inosine, pyruvate, phosphate and adenine. Outcomes of interest in vitro were changes in red cell characteristics including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), deformability and the accumulation of oxidized lipids and other reactive species in the red cell supernatant. Outcomes in vivo were 24-h post-transfusion survival and the effects on oxygen delivery, organ function and inflammation in transfused recipients. The literature search identified 49 studies evaluating rejuvenated red cells. In vitro rejuvenation restored cellular properties including 2,3-DPG and ATP to levels similar to freshly donated red cells. In experimental models, in vivo transfusion of rejuvenated red cells improved oxygen delivery and myocardial, renal and pulmonary function when compared to stored red cells. In humans, in vivo 24-h survival of rejuvenated red cells exceeded 75%. In clinical studies, rejuvenated red cells were found to be safe, with no reported adverse effects. In one adult cardiac surgery trial, transfusion of rejuvenated red cells resulted in improved myocardial performance. Transfusion of rejuvenated red cells reduces organ injury attributable to the red cell storage lesion without adverse effects in experimental studies in vivo. The clinical benefits of this intervention remain uncertain. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. [Facial palsy].

    PubMed

    Cavoy, R

    2013-09-01

    Facial palsy is a daily challenge for the clinicians. Determining whether facial nerve palsy is peripheral or central is a key step in the diagnosis. Central nervous lesions can give facial palsy which may be easily differentiated from peripheral palsy. The next question is the peripheral facial paralysis idiopathic or symptomatic. A good knowledge of anatomy of facial nerve is helpful. A structure approach is given to identify additional features that distinguish symptomatic facial palsy from idiopathic one. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is idiopathic one, or Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The most common cause of symptomatic peripheral facial palsy is Ramsay-Hunt syndrome. Early identification of symptomatic facial palsy is important because of often worst outcome and different management. The prognosis of Bell's palsy is on the whole favorable and is improved with a prompt tapering course of prednisone. In Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, an antiviral therapy is added along with prednisone. We also discussed of current treatment recommendations. We will review short and long term complications of peripheral facial palsy.

  6. The spectrum of laser skin resurfacing: nonablative, fractional, and ablative laser resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Arndt, Kenneth A

    2008-05-01

    The drive to attain cosmetic facial enhancement with minimal risk and rapid recovery has inspired the field of nonsurgical skin rejuvenation. Laser resurfacing was introduced in the 1980s with continuous wave carbon dioxide (CO(2)) lasers; however, because of a high rate of side effects, including scarring, short-pulse, high-peak power, and rapidly scanned, focused-beam CO(2) lasers and normal-mode erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet lasers were developed, which remove skin in a precisely controlled manner. The prolonged 2-week recovery time and small but significant complication risk prompted the development of non-ablative and, more recently, fractional resurfacing in order to minimize risk and shorten recovery times. Nonablative resurfacing produces dermal thermal injury to improve rhytides and photodamage while preserving the epidermis. Fractional resurfacing thermally ablates microscopic columns of epidermal and dermal tissue in regularly spaced arrays over a fraction of the skin surface. This intermediate approach increases efficacy as compared to nonablative resurfacing, but with faster recovery as compared to ablative resurfacing. Neither nonablative nor fractional resurfacing produces results comparable to ablative laser skin resurfacing, but both have become much more popular than the latter because the risks of treatment are limited in the face of acceptable improvement. At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be familiar with the spectrum of lasers and light technologies available for skin resurfacing, published studies of safety and efficacy, indications, methodologies, side effects, complications, and management.

  7. In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2013-03-01

    In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology.

  8. Extreme rejuvenation and softening in a bulk metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Pan, J; Wang, Y X; Guo, Q; Zhang, D; Greer, A L; Li, Y

    2018-02-08

    Rejuvenation of metallic glasses, bringing them to higher-energy states, is of interest in improving their plasticity. The mechanisms of rejuvenation are poorly understood, and its limits remain unexplored. We use constrained loading in compression to impose substantial plastic flow on a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass. The maximum measured effects are that the hardness of the glass decreases by 36%, and its excess enthalpy (above the relaxed state) increases to 41% of the enthalpy of melting. Comparably high degrees of rejuvenation have been reported only on microscopic scales at the centre of shear bands confined to low volume fractions. This extreme rejuvenation of a bulk glass gives a state equivalent to that obtainable by quenching the liquid at ~10 10  K s -1 , many orders of magnitude faster than is possible for bulk specimens. The contrast with earlier results showing relaxation in similar tests under tension emphasizes the importance of hydrostatic stress.

  9. Facial animation on an anatomy-based hierarchical face model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C.; Sung, Eric

    2003-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new hierarchical 3D facial model based on anatomical knowledge that provides high fidelity for realistic facial expression animation. Like real human face, the facial model has a hierarchical biomechanical structure, incorporating a physically-based approximation to facial skin tissue, a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. The deformable skin model has multi-layer structure to approximate different types of soft tissue. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the skin and the fact that soft tissue is almost incompressible. Different types of muscle models have been developed to simulate distribution of the muscle force on the skin due to muscle contraction. By the presence of the skull model, our facial model takes advantage of both more accurate facial deformation and the consideration of facial anatomy during the interactive definition of facial muscles. Under the muscular force, the deformation of the facial skin is evaluated using numerical integration of the governing dynamic equations. The dynamic facial animation algorithm runs at interactive rate with flexible and realistic facial expressions to be generated.

  10. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment ... face like the eyes or lips. A facial plastic surgeon has many options for treating and improving ...

  11. Motion-artifact-robust, polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on rapid polarization switching with electro-optic Pockells cell and its application to in vivo visualization of collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yuji; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shuichiro; Ogura, Yuki; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Hirao, Tetsuji; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation (PR-SHG) microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating collagen fiber orientation quantitatively with low invasiveness. However, the waiting time for the mechanical polarization rotation makes it too sensitive to motion artifacts and hence has hampered its use in various applications in vivo. In the work described in this article, we constructed a motion-artifact-robust, PR-SHG microscope based on rapid polarization switching at every pixel with an electro-optic Pockells cell (PC) in synchronization with step-wise raster scanning of the focus spot and alternate data acquisition of a vertical-polarization-resolved SHG signal and a horizontal-polarization-resolved one. The constructed PC-based PR-SHG microscope enabled us to visualize orientation mapping of dermal collagen fiber in human facial skin in vivo without the influence of motion artifacts. Furthermore, it implied the location and/or age dependence of the collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin. The robustness to motion artifacts in the collagen orientation measurement will expand the application scope of SHG microscopy in dermatology and collagen-related fields. PMID:24761292

  12. Small RNAs of Sequoia sempervirens during rejuvenation and phase change.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-T; Shen, C-H; Lin, W-D; Chu, H-A; Huang, B-L; Kuo, C-I; Yeh, K-W; Huang, L-C; Chang, I-F

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the population of small RNAs (sRNAs) was studied in the gymnosperm Sequoia sempervirens during phase changes, specifically in the juvenile, adult and rejuvenated plants obtained in vitro. The potential target genes of Sequoia sRNAs were predicted through bioinformatics. Rejuvenation is a pivotal process in woody plants that enables them to regain their growth potential, which results in the recovery of physiologic and molecular characteristics that were lost when the juveniles mature into adult plants. The results from the five repeated graftings of juvenile, adult and rejuvenated plants in vitro showed that sRNAs could be classified into structural RNAs (Group I), small interfering RNAs (Group II), annotated microRNAs (Group III, and unannotated sRNAs (Group IV). The results indicate that only 573 among 15,485,415 sRNAs (Groups III and IV) had significantly different expression patterns associated with rejuvenation and phase change. A total of 215 sRNAs exhibited up-regulated expression patterns in adult shoots, and 358 sRNAs were down-regulated. Expression profiling and prediction of possible target genes of these unique small RNAs indicate possible functions in the control of photosynthetic efficiency and rooting competence abundance during plant rejuvenation. Moreover, the increase in SsmiR156 and decrease in SsmiR172 during plant rejuvenation suggested that these two microRNAs extensively affect phase transition. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Synergistic efficacy of salicylic acid with a penetration enhancer on human skin monitored by OCT and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Dai, Cuixia; Fan, Shanhui; Lv, Jing; Nie, Liming

    2016-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been frequently used as a facial chemical peeling agent (FCPA) in various cosmetics for facial rejuvenation and dermatological treatments in the clinic. However, there is a tradeoff between therapeutic effectiveness and possible adverse effects caused by this agent for cosmetologists. To optimize the cosmetic efficacy with minimal concentration, we proposed a chemical permeation enhancer (CPE) azone to synergistically work with SA on human skin in vivo. The optical properties of human skin after being treated with SA alone and SA combined with azone (SA@azone) were successively investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Our results revealed that as the SA concentration increased, the light reflectance decreased and the absorption increased. We also found that SA@azone exhibited a synergistic effect on enhancing light penetration and OCT imaging depth. We demonstrated that the combination of DRS and OCT techniques could be used as a noninvasive, rapid and accurate measurement method to monitor the subtle changes of skin tissue after treatment with FCPA and CPE. The approach will greatly benefit the development of clinical cosmetic surgery, dermatosis diagnosis and therapeutic effect inspection in related biomedical studies.

  14. Systemic and topical drugs for aging skin.

    PubMed

    Kockaert, Michael; Neumann, Martino

    2003-08-01

    The rejuvenation of aging skin is a common desire for our patients, and several options are available. Although there are some systemic methods, the most commonly used treatments for rejuvenation of the skin are applied topically. The most frequently used topical drugs include retinoids, alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), vitamin C, beta hydroxy acids, anti-oxidants, and tocopherol. Combination therapy is frequently used; particularly common is the combination of retinoids and AHAs. Systemic therapies available include oral retinoids and vitamin C. Other available therapies such as chemical peels, face-lifts, collagen, and botulinum toxin injections are not discussed in this article.

  15. Monopolar radiofrequency facial tightening: a retrospective analysis of efficacy and safety in over 600 treatments.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Robert A; Weiss, Margaret A; Munavalli, Girish; Beasley, Karen L

    2006-09-01

    .v. sedation, indicate that monopolar RF for skin tightening is a very safe procedure. The treatment algorithm and tips have evolved over several years leading to increased safety and efficacy. Side effects are infrequent, self-limited, and minor, comparing favorably to other nonablative devices utilized for facial rejuvenation.

  16. Shield Through Rejuvenated Stage Volcanism On Kauai and Niihau, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousens, B.; Clague, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Kauai and Niihau are the northwesternmost large islands in the Hawaiian chain and consist of shield, rare postshield, and abundant rejuvenated stage lavas. We present new geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data for all phases of volcanic activity on the adjacent islands. K-Ar ages show Niihau shield volcanism occurred from 6.3-4.4 Ma, and K-Ar and new Ar-Ar ages for postshield volcanism range from 5.4-4.7 Ma. Kauai shield volcanism (K-Ar) overlaps with shield volcanism on Niihau. A new Ar-Ar age for a Kauai postshield dike is 4.4 Ma, older than previously-dated postshield lavas (3.95-3.58 Ma). New Ar-Ar ages show that Kauai rejuvenated stage volcanism began prior to 3.42 Ma (Izuka & Sherrod, 2011), compared to ~2.3 Ma on Niihau. Tholeiitic shield lavas from Kauai vary only slightly in trace element chemistry but have variable isotopic compositions. Subtle trends in some trace element and isotopic ratios between Napali Member shield lavas from the east and west side of Kauai support the two-shield hypothesis of Holcomb et al. (1997). Shield lavas from Niihau are chemically similar to those on Kauai, although Niihau tholeiites extend to higher 143Nd/144Nd ratios. Onland and submarine postshield rocks from Niihau are slightly more alkaline and LREE-enriched compared to shield lavas, but postshield rocks from Kauai are more chemically evolved, more LREE-enriched, and have more depleted Sr and Nd isotopic signatures than Kauai tholeiites. Postshield rocks on Kauai overlap in apparent age with lavas that are chemically like later rejuvenated stage lavas, suggesting either interfingering of the chemically distinct lavas or problems with the K-Ar ages. Rejuvenated stage lavas from the two islands differ dramatically; Kauai lavas are alkaline, LREE-enriched, and have even more depleted Sr and Nd isotopic compositions than postshield lavas, whereas Niihau lavas are only mildly alkaline, have lower REE abundances than postshield basalts, but isotopically are like

  17. In vivo evaluation of some biophysical parameters of the facial skin of Indian women. Part I: variability with age and geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Colomb, L; Flament, F; Wagle, A; Agrawal, D

    2018-02-01

    India is a large country (a subcontinent) of about 3.3 million km 2 that covers large ranges in latitude and longitude. The last Indian census counted about 1.21 billion of inhabitants of many origins, creating a vast human diversity and skin types, the variability of which having been previously established. The present study aimed at deepening this knowledge through a set of biophysical measurements to describe, along the skin ageing process, the specificities of various Indian subjects living in different geographical locations. A total of 1204 women, aged 18-84 years, of all socio-economic status, were recruited in four Indian cities (Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Delhi). Measurements of face skin colour properties, elastic properties, sebum production, skin pores and microrelief roughness were performed. With regard skin colour, this study indicates, with age, a darkening of very low amplitude that leads to an increased skin colour heterogeneity. In all subjects, at all ages, the ocular region (dark circles) presents a much darker pigmentation than the cheeks, creating a contrast that appears constant at all ages. In addition to an increased skin colour heterogeneity, a progressive alteration of the skin surface relief, increased sizes of skin pores, a loss of skin elasticity and a drop in sebum production, post-menopause, are observed. This study confirms, in Indian women, some skin ageing measurements found on women from other ethnic groups (i.e. sebum, firmness, wrinkles and pores size) and also identifies some Indian specificities: a high and constant contrast between the ocular region and the cheek colour, associated to a very slow darkening effect along the lifespan. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Influence of gravity upon some facial signs.

    PubMed

    Flament, F; Bazin, R; Piot, B

    2015-06-01

    Facial clinical signs and their integration are the basis of perception than others could have from ourselves, noticeably the age they imagine we are. Facial modifications in motion and their objective measurements before and after application of skin regimen are essential to go further in evaluation capacities to describe efficacy in facial dynamics. Quantification of facial modifications vis à vis gravity will allow us to answer about 'control' of facial shape in daily activities. Standardized photographs of the faces of 30 Caucasian female subjects of various ages (24-73 year) were successively taken at upright and supine positions within a short time interval. All these pictures were therefore reframed - any bias due to facial features was avoided when evaluating one single sign - for clinical quotation by trained experts of several facial signs regarding published standardized photographic scales. For all subjects, the supine position increased facial width but not height, giving a more fuller appearance to the face. More importantly, the supine position changed the severity of facial ageing features (e.g. wrinkles) compared to an upright position and whether these features were attenuated or exacerbated depended on their facial location. Supine station mostly modifies signs of the lower half of the face whereas those of the upper half appear unchanged or slightly accentuated. These changes appear much more marked in the older groups, where some deep labial folds almost vanish. These alterations decreased the perceived ages of the subjects by an average of 3.8 years. Although preliminary, this study suggests that a 90° rotation of the facial skin vis à vis gravity induces rapid rearrangements among which changes in tensional forces within and across the face, motility of interstitial free water among underlying skin tissue and/or alterations of facial Langer lines, likely play a significant role. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Fran

  19. Facial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Facial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rajarshi; Gopalkrishnan, Kulandaswamy

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the incidence of facial fractures along with age, gender predilection, etiology, commonest site, associated dental injuries, and any complications of patients operated in Craniofacial Unit of SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital. This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of OMFS, SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad from January 2003 to December 2013. Data were recorded for the cause of injury, age and gender distribution, frequency and type of injury, localization and frequency of soft tissue injuries, dentoalveolar trauma, facial bone fractures, complications, concomitant injuries, and different treatment protocols.All the data were analyzed using statistical analysis that is chi-squared test. A total of 1146 patients reported at our unit with facial fractures during these 10 years. Males accounted for a higher frequency of facial fractures (88.8%). Mandible was the commonest bone to be fractured among all the facial bones (71.2%). Maxillary central incisors were the most common teeth to be injured (33.8%) and avulsion was the most common type of injury (44.6%). Commonest postoperative complication was plate infection (11%) leading to plate removal. Other injuries associated with facial fractures were rib fractures, head injuries, upper and lower limb fractures, etc., among these rib fractures were seen most frequently (21.6%). This study was performed to compare the different etiologic factors leading to diverse facial fracture patterns. By statistical analysis of this record the authors come to know about the relationship of facial fractures with gender, age, associated comorbidities, etc.

  1. “Home of Younger Skin” (HOYS) program: Defining the change in apparent skin age after facial treatment with botulinum toxin and dermal fillers

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Greg J; Roberts, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Background Objective and subjective scales estimating improvement in both clinical studies and clinical practice are becoming more mainstream. However, the use of a system to analyze improvement in aging with a multiplicity of treatments would be useful. The purpose of this study was to use a recently developed educative and patient self-assessment program (“Home of Younger Skin”, HOYS) for assessment of the effect of facial treatment with neurotoxins and filling agents in terms of decreasing apparent age. Methods Four patients underwent facial treatments with neurotoxins and dermal fillers by an experienced blinded physician and were assessed twice utilizing an age analysis program (HOYS), once before and then 6 weeks after completion of treatment. Results The four patients showed an average reduction in apparent facial age of 7.5 years. The individual “regions” differed in their reductions. The upper face showed a decline of 13.5 years, the periorbital region 9.25 years, the mid face 4.5 years, and the lower face 12.25 years. Conclusion Use of this previously validated self-assessment program may prove to be a useful measure of patient-reported improvement with treatment. PMID:22956881

  2. Melanoma risk: adolescent females' perspectives on skin protection pre/post-viewing a ultraviolet photoaged photograph of their own facial sun damage.

    PubMed

    Eastabrook, Suzette; Chang, Paul; Taylor, Myra F

    2018-03-01

    Suntanning increases skin cancer risk and prematurely ages skin. Photoageing photography is an effective means of increasing adult ultraviolet radiation (UVR) awareness and skin-protection practices. While adults' largely positive suntanning-deterrence responses to photoageing photography are well-documented, comparatively little is known about the deterrence effectiveness of photoageing photography with adolescents. To help fill this knowledge gap, in-depth interviews were collected from 10 adolescent females and were subsequently subjected to interpretive phenomenological analysis. The emergent central theme - Having a tan and looking good in the short-term is okay, however, in the longer-term you can end up looking far worse… but still a tan is worth it - and its component subthemes reveal that the adolescent female's desire for a suntan is largely appearance driven. While photoaged photography is effective in increasing their awareness of the skin damage that UVR exposure causes, it does not alter their suntanning intentions. The analysis also revealed that one of the major barriers to adolescent females' adoption of skin-protective behaviours is their belief in their own invincibility. Hence, skin-protection interventions that lessen the aura of invincibility around adolescent females' understanding of their risk for developing skin cancers are vital to reducing the incidence of malignant melanoma.

  3. Facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C

    2014-11-01

    Facial attractiveness has important social consequences. Despite a widespread belief that beauty cannot be defined, in fact, there is considerable agreement across individuals and cultures on what is found attractive. By considering that attraction and mate choice are critical components of evolutionary selection, we can better understand the importance of beauty. There are many traits that are linked to facial attractiveness in humans and each may in some way impart benefits to individuals who act on their preferences. If a trait is reliably associated with some benefit to the perceiver, then we would expect individuals in a population to find that trait attractive. Such an approach has highlighted face traits such as age, health, symmetry, and averageness, which are proposed to be associated with benefits and so associated with facial attractiveness. This view may postulate that some traits will be universally attractive; however, this does not preclude variation. Indeed, it would be surprising if there existed a template of a perfect face that was not affected by experience, environment, context, or the specific needs of an individual. Research on facial attractiveness has documented how various face traits are associated with attractiveness and various factors that impact on an individual's judgments of facial attractiveness. Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces. A fuller understanding of facial beauty will come with an understanding of how these various factors interact with each other. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:621-634. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1316 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Systemic Problems: A perspective on stem cell aging and rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Conboy, Irina M; Conboy, Michael J; Rebo, Justin

    2015-10-01

    This review provides balanced analysis of the advances in systemic regulation of young and old tissue stem cells and suggests strategies for accelerating development of therapies to broadly combat age-related tissue degenerative pathologies. Many highlighted recent reports on systemic tissue rejuvenation combine parabiosis with a "silver bullet" putatively responsible for the positive effects. Attempts to unify these papers reflect the excitement about this experimental approach and add value in reproducing previous work. At the same time, defined molecular approaches, which are "beyond parabiosis" for the rejuvenation of multiple old organs represent progress toward attenuating or even reversing human tissue aging.

  5. Nonsurgical Rejuvenation of the Eyelids with Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injections

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seongmu; Yen, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increased recognition for the role volume deflation plays in the aging periorbital area, and as such, rejuvenation strategies to augment and restore volume have developed and evolved. Hyaluronic acid fillers provide an efficient option for volume augmentation with good efficacy, longevity, and safety. An understanding of the changes in the upper and lower periocular area due to aging, the meticulous identification of focal hollows, and the precise delivery of filler to these areas can smooth contours and restore a rejuvenated periorbital area. PMID:28255285

  6. Objective estimation of patient age through a new composite scale for facial aging assessment: The face - Objective assessment scale.

    PubMed

    La Padula, Simone; Hersant, Barbara; SidAhmed, Mounia; Niddam, Jeremy; Meningaud, Jean Paul

    2016-07-01

    Most patients requesting aesthetic rejuvenation treatment expect to look healthier and younger. Some scales for ageing assessment have been proposed, but none is focused on patient age prediction. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new facial rating scale assessing facial ageing sign severity. One thousand Caucasian patients were included and assessed. The Rasch model was used as part of the validation process. A score was attributed to each patient, based on the scales we developed. The correlation between the real age and scores obtained, the inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability were analysed. The objective was to develop a tool enabling the assigning of a patient to a specific age range based on the calculated score. All scales exceeded criteria for acceptability, reliability and validity. The real age strongly correlated with the total facial score in both sex groups. The test-retest reliability confirmed this strong correlation. We developed a facial ageing scale which could be a useful tool to assess patients before and after rejuvenation treatment and an important new metrics to be used in facial rejuvenation and regenerative clinical research. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions: evidence from an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hui; Chau, Desmond K. P.; Su, Jianpo; Zeng, Ling-Li; Jiang, Weixiong; He, Jufang; Fan, Jintu; Hu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions are investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in 41 young adults (22 males and 19 females). The subjects underwent fMRI while they were presented with computer-generated, yet realistic face images, which had varying facial proportions, but the same neutral facial expression, baldhead and skin tone, as stimuli. Statistical parametric mapping with parametric modulation was used to explore the brain regions with the response modulated by facial attractiveness ratings (ARs). The results showed significant linear effects of the ARs in the caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex for all of the subjects, and a non-linear response profile in the right amygdala for only the male subjects. Furthermore, canonical correlation analysis was used to learn the most relevant facial ratios that were best correlated with facial attractiveness. A regression model on the fMRI-derived facial ratio components demonstrated a strong linear relationship between the visually assessed mean ARs and the predictive ARs. Overall, this study provided, for the first time, direct neurophysiologic evidence of the effects of facial ratios on facial attractiveness and suggested that there are notable gender differences in perceiving facial attractiveness as induced by facial proportions. PMID:27779211

  8. Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions: evidence from an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Chau, Desmond K P; Su, Jianpo; Zeng, Ling-Li; Jiang, Weixiong; He, Jufang; Fan, Jintu; Hu, Dewen

    2016-10-25

    Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions are investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in 41 young adults (22 males and 19 females). The subjects underwent fMRI while they were presented with computer-generated, yet realistic face images, which had varying facial proportions, but the same neutral facial expression, baldhead and skin tone, as stimuli. Statistical parametric mapping with parametric modulation was used to explore the brain regions with the response modulated by facial attractiveness ratings (ARs). The results showed significant linear effects of the ARs in the caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex for all of the subjects, and a non-linear response profile in the right amygdala for only the male subjects. Furthermore, canonical correlation analysis was used to learn the most relevant facial ratios that were best correlated with facial attractiveness. A regression model on the fMRI-derived facial ratio components demonstrated a strong linear relationship between the visually assessed mean ARs and the predictive ARs. Overall, this study provided, for the first time, direct neurophysiologic evidence of the effects of facial ratios on facial attractiveness and suggested that there are notable gender differences in perceiving facial attractiveness as induced by facial proportions.

  9. Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind

    Cancer.gov

    Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind; Relieve Stress; best ways to relieve stress; best way to relieve stress; different ways to relieve stress; does smoking relieve stress; does tobacco relieve stress; how can I relieve stress; how can you relieve stress; how do I relieve stress; reduce stress; does smoking reduce stress; how can I reduce stress; how to reduce stress; reduce stress; reduce stress levels; reducing stress; smoking reduce stress; smoking reduces stress; stress reducing techniques; techniques to reduce stress; stress relief; best stress relief; natural stress relief; need stress relief; relief for stress; relief from stress; relief of stress; smoking and stress relief; smoking for stress relief; smoking stress relief; deal with stress; dealing with stress; dealing with anger; dealing with stress; different ways of dealing with stress; help dealing with stress; how to deal with anger; how to deal with stress; how to deal with stress when quitting smoking; stress management; free stress management; how can you manage stress; how do you manage stress; how to manage stress; manage stress; management of stress; management stress; managing stress; strategies for managing stress; coping with stress; cope with stress; copeing with stress; coping and stress; coping skills for stress; coping strategies for stress; coping strategies with stress; coping strategy for stress; coping with stress; coping with stress and anxiety; emotional health; emotional health; emotional health article; emotional health articles; deep relaxation; deep breathing relaxation techniques; deep muscle relaxation; deep relaxation; deep relaxation meditation; deep relaxation technique; deep relaxation techniques; meditation exercises; mindful exercises; mindful meditation exercises; online relaxation exercises; relaxation breathing exercises; relaxation exercise; relaxation exercises; stress relaxation; methods of relaxation for stress; relax stress; relax techniques stress

  10. Facial trauma.

    PubMed

    Peeters, N; Lemkens, P; Leach, R; Gemels B; Schepers, S; Lemmens, W

    Facial trauma. Patients with facial trauma must be assessed in a systematic way so as to avoid missing any injury. Severe and disfiguring facial injuries can be distracting. However, clinicians must first focus on the basics of trauma care, following the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system of care. Maxillofacial trauma occurs in a significant number of severely injured patients. Life- and sight-threatening injuries must be excluded during the primary and secondary surveys. Special attention must be paid to sight-threatening injuries in stabilized patients through early referral to an appropriate specialist or the early initiation of emergency care treatment. The gold standard for the radiographic evaluation of facial injuries is computed tomography (CT) imaging. Nasal fractures are the most frequent isolated facial fractures. Isolated nasal fractures are principally diagnosed through history and clinical examination. Closed reduction is the most frequently performed treatment for isolated nasal fractures, with a fractured nasal septum as a predictor of failure. Ear, nose and throat surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons and ophthalmologists must all develop an adequate treatment plan for patients with complex maxillofacial trauma.

  11. Damage and recovery of skin barrier function after glycolic acid chemical peeling and crystal microdermabrasion.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji Youn; Kang, Hyun A; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Park, Young Min; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2004-03-01

    Superficial chemical peeling and microdermabrasion have become increasingly popular methods for producing facial rejuvenation. However, there are few studies reporting the skin barrier function changes after these procedures. To evaluate objectively the degree of damage visually and the time needed for the skin barrier function to recover after glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion using noninvasive bioengineering methods. Superficial chemical peeling using 30%, 50%, and 70% glycolic acid and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion were used on the volar forearm of 13 healthy women. The skin response was measured by a visual observation and using an evaporimeter, corneometer, and colorimeter before and after peeling at set time intervals. Both glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion induced significant damage to the skin barrier function immediately after the procedure, and the degree of damage was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with glycolic acid peeling. The damaged skin barrier function had recovered within 24 hours after both procedures. The degree of erythema induction was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with the glycolic acid peeling procedure. The degree of erythema induced after the glycolic acid peeling procedure was not proportional to the peeling solution concentration used. The erythema subsided within 1 day after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure and within 4 days after the glycolic acid peeling procedure. These results suggest that the skin barrier function is damaged after the glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure but recovers within 1 to 4 days. Therefore, repeating the superficial peeling procedure at 2-week intervals will allow sufficient time for the damaged skin to recover its barrier function.

  12. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Split-face Clinical Trial Comparing the Efficacy of Two Topical Human Growth Factors for the Rejuvenation of the Aging Face

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Mitchel P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cosmeceutical products represent an increasingly important therapeutic option for anti-aging and rejuvenation, either used alone or in combination with dermatologic surgical procedures. Among this group of products, topical growth factors have demonstrated efficacy in randomized, controlled clinical trials. However, comparisons between different products remain uncommon. Objective: The objective of this randomized, double-blind, split-face clinical trial was to compare two different topical growth factor formulations derived from either human fibroblasts or human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells. Methods: This was an institutional review board-approved, randomized, double-blind, split-face clinical trial involving 20 healthy subjects with moderate-to-severe facial wrinkling secondary to photodamage. One half of the face was randomized to receive topical human fibroblast growth factors and the other topical human mesenchymal stem cell growth factors. Treatment was continued for three months, and evaluations were performed in a double-blind fashion. Results: Both growth factor formulations achieved significant improvement in facial wrinkling. Blinded investigator and subject evaluations did not detect any significant differences between the two formulations in terms of efficacy, safety, or tolerability. Conclusion: Both human fibroblast growth factors and human mesenchymal stem cell growth factors are effective at facial rejuvenation. Topical growth factors represent a useful therapeutic modality. PMID:28670356

  13. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Split-face Clinical Trial Comparing the Efficacy of Two Topical Human Growth Factors for the Rejuvenation of the Aging Face.

    PubMed

    Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cosmeceutical products represent an increasingly important therapeutic option for anti-aging and rejuvenation, either used alone or in combination with dermatologic surgical procedures. Among this group of products, topical growth factors have demonstrated efficacy in randomized, controlled clinical trials. However, comparisons between different products remain uncommon. Objective: The objective of this randomized, double-blind, split-face clinical trial was to compare two different topical growth factor formulations derived from either human fibroblasts or human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells. Methods: This was an institutional review board-approved, randomized, double-blind, split-face clinical trial involving 20 healthy subjects with moderate-to-severe facial wrinkling secondary to photodamage. One half of the face was randomized to receive topical human fibroblast growth factors and the other topical human mesenchymal stem cell growth factors. Treatment was continued for three months, and evaluations were performed in a double-blind fashion. Results: Both growth factor formulations achieved significant improvement in facial wrinkling. Blinded investigator and subject evaluations did not detect any significant differences between the two formulations in terms of efficacy, safety, or tolerability. Conclusion: Both human fibroblast growth factors and human mesenchymal stem cell growth factors are effective at facial rejuvenation. Topical growth factors represent a useful therapeutic modality.

  14. Effects of Multiple Rejuvenation Cycles on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of IN-738 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Cosimo; Giorgetti, Alessandro; Tognarelli, Leonardo; Mastromatteo, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    The scope of this work is to show the effects of multiple applications of a rejuvenation treatment studied for IN-738 on both the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the creep-damaged superalloy and to check the recovery obtained after one and two rejuvenation cycles through creep and tensile tests, whose results will be compared with the performance of the virgin material. This work will show that this rejuvenation treatment is able to recover the microstructure of creep-damaged specimens after one and two applications and that the mechanical properties of the rejuvenated alloy are very similar to the virgin material even after two rejuvenation cycles.

  15. Facial transplantation: A concise update

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Pulido, Fernando; Gomez-Cia, Tomas; Sicilia-Castro, Domingo; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto; Gacto-Sanchez, Purificacion; Hernandez-Guisado, Jose-Maria; Lagares-Borrego, Araceli; Narros-Gimenez, Rocio; Gonzalez-Padilla, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Update on clinical results obtained by the first worldwide facial transplantation teams as well as review of the literature concerning the main surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow-up aspects described on facial transplanted patients. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on “face transplantation” until March 2012. Results: Eighteen clinical cases were studied. The mean patient age was 37.5 years, with a higher prevalence of men. Main surgical indication was gunshot injuries (6 patients). All patients had previously undergone multiple conventional surgical reconstructive procedures which had failed. Altogether 8 transplant teams belonging to 4 countries participated. Thirteen partial face transplantations and 5 full face transplantations have been performed. Allografts are varied according to face anatomical components and the amount of skin, muscle, bone, and other tissues included, though all were grafted successfully and remained viable without significant postoperative surgical complications. The patient with the longest follow-up was 5 years. Two patients died 2 and 27 months after transplantation. Conclusions: Clinical experience has demonstrated the feasibility of facial transplantation as a valuable reconstructive option, but it still remains considered as an experimental procedure with unresolved issues to settle down. Results show that from a clinical, technical, and immunological standpoint, facial transplantation has achieved functional, aesthetic, and social rehabilitation in severely facial disfigured patients. Key words:Face transplantation, composite tissue transplantation, face allograft, facial reconstruction, outcomes and complications of face transplantation. PMID:23229268

  16. Facial paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... a physical, speech, or occupational therapist. If facial paralysis from Bell palsy lasts for more than 6 to 12 months, plastic surgery may be recommended to help the eye close and improve the appearance of the face. Alternative Names Paralysis of the face Images Ptosis, drooping of the ...

  17. Cell junction protein armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome is expressed in the skin and colocalizes with autoantibodies of patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Yi, Hong; Howard, Michael S

    2017-10-01

    We previously described a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia, South America (El Bagre-EPF, or pemphigus Abreu-Manu). El Bagre-EPF differs from other types of EPF clinically, epidemiologically, immunologically and in its target antigens. We reported the presence of patient autoantibodies colocalizing with armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (ARVCF), a catenin cell junction protein colocalizing with El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies in the heart and within pilosebaceous units along their neurovascular supply routes. Here we investigate the presence of ARVCF in skin and its possibility as a cutaneous El Bagre-EPF antigen. We used a case-control study, testing sera of 45 patients and 45 controls via direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF/IIF), confocal microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting for the presence of ARVCF and its relationship with El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies in the skin. We also immunoadsorbed samples with desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) ectodomain (El Bagre-EPF antigen) by incubating with the positive ARVCF samples from DIF and IIF. ARVCF was expressed in all the samples from the cases and controls. Immunoadsorption with Dsg1 on positive ARVCF immunofluorescence DIF/IIF cases showed that the immune response was present against non-desmoglein 1 antigen(s). Overall, 40/45 patients showed colocalization of their autoantibodies with ARVCF in the epidermis; no controls from the endemic area displayed colocalization. We demonstrate that ARVCF is expressed in many areas of human skin, and colocalizes with the majority of El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies as a putative antigen.

  18. Cell junction protein armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome is expressed in the skin and colocalizes with autoantibodies of patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Yi, Hong; Howard, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Background We previously described a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia, South America (El Bagre-EPF, or pemphigus Abreu-Manu). El Bagre-EPF differs from other types of EPF clinically, epidemiologically, immunologically and in its target antigens. We reported the presence of patient autoantibodies colocalizing with armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (ARVCF), a catenin cell junction protein colocalizing with El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies in the heart and within pilosebaceous units along their neurovascular supply routes. Here we investigate the presence of ARVCF in skin and its possibility as a cutaneous El Bagre-EPF antigen. Methods We used a case-control study, testing sera of 45 patients and 45 controls via direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF/IIF), confocal microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting for the presence of ARVCF and its relationship with El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies in the skin. We also immunoadsorbed samples with desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) ectodomain (El Bagre-EPF antigen) by incubating with the positive ARVCF samples from DIF and IIF. Results ARVCF was expressed in all the samples from the cases and controls. Immunoadsorption with Dsg1 on positive ARVCF immunofluorescence DIF/IIF cases showed that the immune response was present against non-desmoglein 1 antigen(s). Overall, 40/45 patients showed colocalization of their autoantibodies with ARVCF in the epidermis; no controls from the endemic area displayed colocalization. Conclusions We demonstrate that ARVCF is expressed in many areas of human skin, and colocalizes with the majority of El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies as a putative antigen. PMID:29214101

  19. Plasma skin resurfacing: personal experience and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Bentkover, Stuart H

    2012-05-01

    This article presents a comprehensive clinical approach to plasma resurfacing for skin regeneration. Plasma technology, preoperative protocols, resurfacing technique, postoperative care, clinical outcomes, evidence-based results, and appropriate candidates for this procedure are discussed. Specific penetration depth and specific laser energy measurements are provided. Nitrogen plasma skin regeneration is a skin-resurfacing technique that offers excellent improvement of mild to moderate skin wrinkles and overall skin rejuvenation. It also provides excellent improvement in uniformity of skin color and texture in patients with hyperpigmentation with Fitzpatrick skin types 1 through 4. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biorevitalizing effect of a novel facial serum containing apple stem cell extract, pro-collagen lipopeptide, creatine, and urea on skin aging signs.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Maria Teresa; Campos, Celia; Milani, Massimo; Foyaca, Monica; Lamy, Amandine; Kurdian, Karine; Trullas, Carles

    2016-03-01

    Epithelial regeneration in skin is achieved by the constant turnover and differentiation of keratinocytes. Epidermal and dermal stem cells compartments are fundamental for the continuous renewal of the skin. Adult stem cells are the unique source for skin tissue renewal. Plants have stem cells and plant derived stem cell extracts are now used in topical products for their potential anti-ageing and anti-wrinkle effects. A new dermocosmetic product containing apple stem cell extract, urea, creatine and palmitoyl tripeptide-38 (Ureadin Fusion Serum Lift Antiarrugas, ISDIN S.A), has been recently developed to target different aspects involved in skin aging. To assess in vitro the effects of this new serum on the metabolic functions of human senescent fibroblasts and in vivo the anti-aging effects by clinical and instrumental evaluation. We evaluated the effects of the serum on the mitochondrial ROS (reactive oxygen species) production in human senescent cultured fibroblasts measured at 0.1% and 1% using the Mitoread AntiOx mtROS method. In addition we evaluated the anti-ageing in vivo effect of this new serum applied on the face twice daily for 28 consecutive days and assessed by clinical and instrumental evaluation in 32 women with sensitive skin bearing wrinkles on crow's feet. The tested serum both at 0.1% and 1% induces a significant increase in 02 consumption, cellular ATP level and a reduction in extra-cellular lactate concentration. The product reduces also significantly the mitochondrial ROS production. The clinical study shows a relevant anti-wrinkle effect in 71% of the treated women with visible effects in 68% of the subjects as soon as 7 days of treatment. A significant increase in dermal density and skin elasticity was also observed. The use of this novel anti-aging serum demonstrated a significant improvement of aging skin signs with first visible results achieved after one week of use. The product seemed to optimize the metabolic functions in human

  1. A grayscale skin and facial detection mechanism for use in conjunction with security system technology via graphical block methodologies on field programmable gate arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Smith, Jeremy S.; Wu, Q. Henry

    2008-04-01

    Presented in this paper is the design of a skin filter which unlike many systems already developed for use, this system will not use RGB or HSI colour but an 8-bit greyscale instead. This is done in order to make the system more convenient to employ on an FPGA, to increase the speed to better enable real-time imaging and to make it easier to combine with the previously designed binary based algorithms. This paper will discuss the many approaches and methods that could be considered such as Bayes format and thresholds, pixel extraction, mathematical morphological strings, edge detection or a combination of the previous and a discussion about which provided the best performance. The research for this skin filter was carried out in two stages, firstly on people who had an ethnic origin of White - British, Asian or Asian British, Chinese and Mixed White and Asian. The second phase which won't be included here in great detail will cover the same principles for the other ethnic backgrounds of Black or Black British - Caribbean or Africa, Other Black background, Asian or Asian British - Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi. This is due to the fact that we have to modify the parameters that govern the detection process to account for greyscale changes in the skin tone, texture and intensity; however the same principles would still be applied for general detection and integration into the previous algorithm. The latter is discussed and what benefits it will give.

  2. Skin resurfacing procedures: new and emerging options

    PubMed Central

    Loesch, Mathew M; Somani, Ally-Khan; Kingsley, Melanie M; Travers, Jeffrey B; Spandau, Dan F

    2014-01-01

    The demand for skin resurfacing and rejuvenating procedures has progressively increased in the last decade and has sparked several advances within the skin resurfacing field that promote faster healing while minimizing downtime and side effects for patients. Several technological and procedural skin resurfacing developments are being integrated into clinical practices today allowing clinicians to treat a broader range of patients’ skin types and pathologies than in years past, with noteworthy outcomes. This article will discuss some emerging and developing resurfacing therapies and treatments that are present today and soon to be available. PMID:25210469

  3. Skin resurfacing procedures: new and emerging options.

    PubMed

    Loesch, Mathew M; Somani, Ally-Khan; Kingsley, Melanie M; Travers, Jeffrey B; Spandau, Dan F

    2014-01-01

    The demand for skin resurfacing and rejuvenating procedures has progressively increased in the last decade and has sparked several advances within the skin resurfacing field that promote faster healing while minimizing downtime and side effects for patients. Several technological and procedural skin resurfacing developments are being integrated into clinical practices today allowing clinicians to treat a broader range of patients' skin types and pathologies than in years past, with noteworthy outcomes. This article will discuss some emerging and developing resurfacing therapies and treatments that are present today and soon to be available.

  4. Biomask: An Advanced Robotic System for the Real-time, Autonomous Monitoring and Treatment of Facial Burns of Wounded Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    bioreactor systems, a microfluidic -based flexible fluid exchange patch was developed for porcine wound models. A novel design and fabrication process...to be established. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Biomask, burn injury, facial reconstruction, wound-healing, bioreactor, flexible microfluidic , and...and layers of facial skin using different cell types and matrices to produce a reliable, physiologic facial and skin construct to restore functional

  5. Therapeutic potential of systemic brain rejuvenation strategies for neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Alana M.; Villeda, Saul A.

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a devastating group of conditions that cause progressive loss of neuronal integrity, affecting cognitive and motor functioning in an ever-increasing number of older individuals. Attempts to slow neurodegenerative disease advancement have met with little success in the clinic; however, a new therapeutic approach may stem from classic interventions, such as caloric restriction, exercise, and parabiosis. For decades, researchers have reported that these systemic-level manipulations can promote major functional changes that extend organismal lifespan and healthspan. Only recently, however, have the functional effects of these interventions on the brain begun to be appreciated at a molecular and cellular level. The potential to counteract the effects of aging in the brain, in effect rejuvenating the aged brain, could offer broad therapeutic potential to combat dementia-related neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. In particular, results from heterochronic parabiosis and young plasma administration studies indicate that pro-aging and rejuvenating factors exist in the circulation that can independently promote or reverse age-related phenotypes. The recent demonstration that human umbilical cord blood similarly functions to rejuvenate the aged brain further advances this work to clinical translation. In this review, we focus on these blood-based rejuvenation strategies and their capacity to delay age-related molecular and functional decline in the aging brain. We discuss new findings that extend the beneficial effects of young blood to neurodegenerative disease models. Lastly, we explore the translational potential of blood-based interventions, highlighting current clinical trials aimed at addressing therapeutic applications for the treatment of dementia-related neurodegenerative disease in humans. PMID:28815019

  6. Months between rejuvenation and volcanic eruption at Yellowstone caldera, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Christy B.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Boyce, Jeremy W

    2015-01-01

    Rejuvenation of previously intruded silicic magma is an important process leading to effusive rhyolite, which is the most common product of volcanism at calderas with protracted histories of eruption and unrest such as Yellowstone, Long Valley, and Valles, USA. Although orders of magnitude smaller in volume than rare caldera-forming super-eruptions, these relatively frequent effusions of rhyolite are comparable to the largest eruptions of the 20th century and pose a considerable volcanic hazard. However, the physical pathway from rejuvenation to eruption of silicic magma is unclear particularly because the time between reheating of a subvolcanic intrusion and eruption is poorly quantified. This study uses geospeedometry of trace element profiles with nanometer resolution in sanidine crystals to reveal that Yellowstone’s most recent volcanic cycle began when remobilization of a near- or sub-solidus silicic magma occurred less than 10 months prior to eruption, following a 220,000 year period of volcanic repose. Our results reveal a geologically rapid timescale for rejuvenation and effusion of ~3 km3 of high-silica rhyolite lava even after protracted cooling of the subvolcanic system, which is consistent with recent physical modeling that predict a timescale of several years or less. Future renewal of rhyolitic volcanism at Yellowstone is likely to require an energetic intrusion of mafic or silicic magma into the shallow subvolcanic reservoir and could rapidly generate an eruptible rhyolite on timescales similar to those documented here.

  7. Evidence and Considerations in the Application of Chemical Peels in Skin Disorders and Aesthetic Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Berson, Diane S.; Cohen, Joel L.; Roberts, Wendy E.; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing times and the potential for complications. A wide variety of peels are available, utilizing various topical agents and concentrations, including a recent salicylic acid derivative, β-lipohydroxy acid, which has properties that may expand the clinical use of peels. Superficial peels, penetrating only the epidermis, can be used to enhance treatment for a variety of conditions, including acne, melasma, dyschromias, photodamage, and actinic keratoses. Medium-depth peels, penetrating to the papillary dermis, may be used for dyschromia, multiple solar keratoses, superficial scars, and pigmentary disorders. Deep peels, affecting reticular dermis, may be used for severe photoaging, deep wrinkles, or scars. Peels can be combined with other in-office facial resurfacing techniques to optimize outcomes and enhance patient satisfaction and allow clinicians to tailor the treatment to individual patient needs. Successful outcomes are based on a careful patient selection as well as appropriate use of specific peeling agents. Used properly, the chemical peel has the potential to fill an important therapeutic need in the dermatologist's and plastic surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:20725555

  8. Enhanced facial texture illumination normalization for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Guan, Ye-Peng

    2015-08-01

    An uncontrolled lighting condition is one of the most critical challenges for practical face recognition applications. An enhanced facial texture illumination normalization method is put forward to resolve this challenge. An adaptive relighting algorithm is developed to improve the brightness uniformity of face images. Facial texture is extracted by using an illumination estimation difference algorithm. An anisotropic histogram-stretching algorithm is proposed to minimize the intraclass distance of facial skin and maximize the dynamic range of facial texture distribution. Compared with the existing methods, the proposed method can more effectively eliminate the redundant information of facial skin and illumination. Extensive experiments show that the proposed method has superior performance in normalizing illumination variation and enhancing facial texture features for illumination-insensitive face recognition.

  9. Analysis of the Relationships between Waste Cooking Oil Qualities and Rejuvenated Asphalt Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Chen, Meizhu; Wu, Shaopeng; Liu, Jingxiang; Amirkhanian, Serji

    2017-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO), in many cases, can rejuvenate aged asphalt and restore its properties. However, the influence of WCO qualities on rejuvenation behaviors of aged asphalt has not been investigated in detail. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of WCO viscosity and acid value on the basic, rheological, and chemical properties of a typical rejuvenated asphalt. Penetration, ring and ball (R and B) softening point, and ductility were tested to evaluate the influence of WCO qualities on basic properties of rejuvenated asphalts. Then, the rheological properties of rejuvenated asphalt were characterized based on rotational viscometer (RV), dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), and bending beam rheometer (BBR) test results. Further, SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) fraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) tests were performed to investigate the effects of WCO qualities on asphalt chemical composition. Finally, grey correlation coefficients were calculated and the relationships between WCO qualities and rejuvenated asphalt properties were quantitatively evaluated. The experimental results indicated that WCO qualities influence the rejuvenation behaviors of aged asphalt significantly, and the WCO with higher qualities (low acid value and viscosity, as defined in this research) tends to achieve better rejuvenation effects. Based on the results of grey correlation analyses, the acid value is, relatively, a better indicator than viscosity in predicting the rejuvenation efficiency of WCO. The rejuvenation thresholds of WCO are varied with the categories of properties of rejuvenated asphalts, and WCO with an acid value of 0.4–0.7 mg KOH/g, or a viscosity of 140–540 mm2/s, can meet all of the performance requirements for asphalt rejuvenation used in this research. PMID:28772862

  10. Analysis of the Relationships between Waste Cooking Oil Qualities and Rejuvenated Asphalt Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Chen, Meizhu; Wu, Shaopeng; Liu, Jingxiang; Amirkhanian, Serji

    2017-05-06

    Waste cooking oil (WCO), in many cases, can rejuvenate aged asphalt and restore its properties. However, the influence of WCO qualities on rejuvenation behaviors of aged asphalt has not been investigated in detail. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of WCO viscosity and acid value on the basic, rheological, and chemical properties of a typical rejuvenated asphalt. Penetration, ring and ball (R and B) softening point, and ductility were tested to evaluate the influence of WCO qualities on basic properties of rejuvenated asphalts. Then, the rheological properties of rejuvenated asphalt were characterized based on rotational viscometer (RV), dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), and bending beam rheometer (BBR) test results. Further, SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) fraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) tests were performed to investigate the effects of WCO qualities on asphalt chemical composition. Finally, grey correlation coefficients were calculated and the relationships between WCO qualities and rejuvenated asphalt properties were quantitatively evaluated. The experimental results indicated that WCO qualities influence the rejuvenation behaviors of aged asphalt significantly, and the WCO with higher qualities (low acid value and viscosity, as defined in this research) tends to achieve better rejuvenation effects. Based on the results of grey correlation analyses, the acid value is, relatively, a better indicator than viscosity in predicting the rejuvenation efficiency of WCO. The rejuvenation thresholds of WCO are varied with the categories of properties of rejuvenated asphalts, and WCO with an acid value of 0.4-0.7 mg KOH/g, or a viscosity of 140-540 mm²/s, can meet all of the performance requirements for asphalt rejuvenation used in this research.

  11. Microbial biofilms on facial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Nina; Vissink, Arjan; van Oort, Robert P; Kusdhany, Lindawati; Djais, Ariadna; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W; van der Mei, Henny C; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2012-01-01

    The composition of microbial biofilms on silicone rubber facial prostheses was investigated and compared with the microbial flora on healthy and prosthesis-covered skin. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of mixed bacterial and yeast biofilms on and deterioration of the surface of the prostheses. Microbial culturing confirmed the presence of yeasts and bacteria. Microbial colonization was significantly increased on prosthesis-covered skin compared to healthy skin. Candida spp. were exclusively isolated from prosthesis-covered skin and from prostheses. Biofilms from prostheses showed the least diverse band-profile in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) whereas prosthesis-covered skin showed the most diverse band-profile. Bacterial diversity exceeded yeast diversity in all samples. It is concluded that occlusion of the skin by prostheses creates a favorable niche for opportunistic pathogens such as Candida spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. Biofilms on healthy skin, skin underneath the prosthesis and on the prosthesis had a comparable composition, but the numbers present differed according to the microorganism.

  12. Poster – 39: Using Optical Scanner and 3D Printer Technology to Create Lead Shielding for Radiotherapy of Facial Skin Cancer with Low Energy Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Rickey, Daniel; Leylek, Ahmet; Dubey, Arbind

    Purpose: Treatment of skin cancers of the face using orthovoltage radiotherapy often requires lead shielding. However, creating a lead shield can be difficult because the face has complex and intricate contours. The traditional process involved creating a plaster mould of the patient’s face can be difficult for patients. Our goal was to develop an improved process by using an optical scanner and 3D printer technology. Methods: The oncologist defined the treatment field by drawing on each patient’s skin. Three-dimensional images were acquired using a consumer-grade optical scanner. A 3D model of each patient’s face was processed with mesh editing softwaremore » before being printed on a 3D printer. Using a hammer, a 3 mm thick layer of lead was formed to closely fit the contours of the model. A hole was then cut out to define the field. Results: The lead shields created were remarkably accurate and fit the contours of the patients. The hole defining the field exposed only a minimally sized site to be exposed to radiation, while the rest of the face was protected. It was easy to obtain perfect symmetry for the definition of parallel opposed beams. Conclusion: We are routinely using this technique to build lead shielding that wraps around the patient as an alternative to cut-outs. We also use it for treatment of the tip of the nose using a parallel opposed pair beams with a wax nose block. We found this technique allows more accurate delineation of the cut-out and a more reproducible set-up.« less

  13. Analysis of the efficacy of marketing tools in facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Zavod, Matthew B; Adamson, Peter A

    2008-06-01

    To compare referral sources to a facial plastic surgery practice and to develop models correlating the referral source with the decision for surgery. Retrospective descriptive study. Well-established, metropolitan, private facial plastic surgery practice with training fellowship affiliated with an academic centre. One-thousand eighty-nine new consecutive patients presenting between January 2001 and December 2005 recorded intake data including age, gender, and chief complaint. Final data input was their decision for or against surgery. Main outcome measures included differences in referral sources based on data collected and how those sources related to decision for surgery. A 50% conversion rate was found. Women and older patients were more likely to be referred from magazines, television, and newspapers and for facial rejuvenation. Men and younger patients were more likely to be referred from the website and for rhinoplasty. For facial rejuvenation, both the number of patients interested in and the probability that they agreed to the procedure increased with age. For rhinoplasty, the converse was true. The most likely patients to schedule surgery were those who were referred from other patients, friends, or family members in our practice. The data confirm that word-of-mouth referrals are the most important source for predicting which patients will elect to proceed with surgery in this established facial cosmetic surgery practice.

  14. Young Children's Ability to Match Facial Features Typical of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacoste, Ronald J.

    This study examined (1) the ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to racially classify Negro and Caucasian facial features in the absence of skin color as a racial cue; and (2) the relative value attached to the facial features of Negro and Caucasian races. Subjects were 21 middle income, Caucasian children from a privately owned nursery school in…

  15. Meloplication of the malar fat pads by percutaneous cable-suture technique for midface rejuvenation: outcome study (392 cases, 6 years' experience).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Gordon H; Cohen, Andrew T

    2002-08-01

    The aging anterior midface is restored by reversing the contour undulations produced by sagging of the malar fat pad complex toward the nasolabial line. The convex irregularities include the exposed bulges of the post-septal fat, the unveiled malar bag, and the prominent nasolabial fold. The depressed irregularities are represented by the cresent-shaped hollow at the lid-cheek junction, the accentuated nasojugal groove, and the deepening nasolabial line. Repositioning of the ptotic malar fat pad, among other elements of meloplasty, represents a key procedure. In this study, the malar fat pad has been defined as a fan-shaped structure by external anatomic landmarks that correlate closely to the findings in cadaveric dissections and clinical cases, confirmed by the findings of spiral computed tomographic scanning. A simple but powerful adjustable and long-lasting percutaneous suture elevation technique was developed over the past 6 years by the senior author (G.H.S.) to reposition the fat pad in a superolateral direction. Through a dot incision within the nasolabial line, a permanent CV-3 Gore-Tex (or 4-0 clear Prolene) suspension suture, looped through a Gore-Tex anchor graft, suspends the malar fat pad in a direction perpendicular to the nasolabial line. A second suspension system is identically passed through another lower dot incision to broaden the repositioning vectors on the malar fat pad. Tension on each of the paired suture ends elevates the malar fat pad by 1 to 3 mm as measured from the nasolabial dot incisions. The sutures are fixed to the deep temporal fascia through a Gore-Tex tab, effectively stabilizing the soft-tissue repositioning. This maneuver may be performed in younger patients who present with an isolated malar fat pad ptosis without excess facial skin. The procedure may also be incorporated into open rhytidectomies to address this recalcitrant area along with superficial musculoaponeurotic system tightening. A total of 392 patients since 1995

  16. Marker optimization for facial motion acquisition and deformation.

    PubMed

    Le, Binh H; Zhu, Mingyang; Deng, Zhigang

    2013-11-01

    A long-standing problem in marker-based facial motion capture is what are the optimal facial mocap marker layouts. Despite its wide range of potential applications, this problem has not yet been systematically explored to date. This paper describes an approach to compute optimized marker layouts for facial motion acquisition as optimization of characteristic control points from a set of high-resolution, ground-truth facial mesh sequences. Specifically, the thin-shell linear deformation model is imposed onto the example pose reconstruction process via optional hard constraints such as symmetry and multiresolution constraints. Through our experiments and comparisons, we validate the effectiveness, robustness, and accuracy of our approach. Besides guiding minimal yet effective placement of facial mocap markers, we also describe and demonstrate its two selected applications: marker-based facial mesh skinning and multiresolution facial performance capture.

  17. Split-face comparative study of 1550 nm fractional photothermolysis and trichloroacetic acid 15% chemical peeling for facial melasma in Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Phil; Han, Seung-Seog; Choi, Seok-Joo; Kim, Myoung-Shin; Won, Chong-Hyun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan; Kim, Youn Jin; Chang, Sung-Eun

    2012-04-01

    Fractional photothermolysis (FP) therapy and chemical peels have been reported to be effective in patients with recalcitrant melasma. However, there is little information to compare the efficacy of single treatment session in Asian women. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy, long-lasting outcomes and safety of a single session of 1550-nm erbium-doped FP in Asian patients, compared with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel with a medium depth. Eighteen Korean women (Fitzpatrick skin type III or IV) with moderate-to-severe bilateral melasma were randomly treated with a single session of 1550-nm FP on one cheek, and with a 15% TCA peel on the other cheek. Outcome measures included an objective melasma area severity index and subjective patient-rated overall improvement at 4 and 12 weeks after treatment. Melasma lesions were significantly improved 4 weeks after either treatment, but melasma recurred at 12 weeks. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation developed in 28% of patients at 4 weeks but resolved in all but one patient by 12 weeks. There was no difference between FP treatment and TCA peeling with respect to any outcome measure. FP laser and TCA peel treatments were equally effective and safe when used to treat moderate-to-severe melasma, but neither treatment was long-lasting. We suggest that multiple or periodic maintenance treatments and/or supplemental procedures may be required for the successful treatment of melasma in Asian women.

  18. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Measuring Facial Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  20. Rejuvenation of the male scalp using 1,927 nm non-ablative fractional thulium fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Boen, Monica; Wilson, Monique J Vanaman; Goldman, Mitchel P; Wu, Douglas C

    2017-07-01

    The male scalp undergoes extensive photodamage due to a high prevalence of androgenic alopecia and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This photodamage presents as solar lentigines, fine rhytides, and keratosis, and can prematurely age a patient. In this study, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the fractionated 1,927 nm thulium fiber laser using high density and high energy settings to achieve rejuvenation of the male scalp after a single treatment session. Four male patients with Fitzpatrick skin types II-III and extensive photodamage on the scalp underwent one treatment with the fractional non-ablative 1,927 nm thulium fiber laser. The patients had a 60-90% improvement in dyspigmentation, lentigines, and keratosis. No adverse events were observed and the patients tolerated the procedure well. This case series is the first report in the literature demonstrating the successful rejuvenation of the scalp using the 1,927 nm thulium fiber laser. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:475-479, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Perception of health from facial cues

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Audrey J.; Holzleitner, Iris J.; Talamas, Sean N.

    2016-01-01

    Impressions of health are integral to social interactions, yet poorly understood. A review of the literature reveals multiple facial characteristics that potentially act as cues to health judgements. The cues vary in their stability across time: structural shape cues including symmetry and sexual dimorphism alter slowly across the lifespan and have been found to have weak links to actual health, but show inconsistent effects on perceived health. Facial adiposity changes over a medium time course and is associated with both perceived and actual health. Skin colour alters over a short time and has strong effects on perceived health, yet links to health outcomes have barely been evaluated. Reviewing suggested an additional influence of demeanour as a perceptual cue to health. We, therefore, investigated the association of health judgements with multiple facial cues measured objectively from two-dimensional and three-dimensional facial images. We found evidence for independent contributions of face shape and skin colour cues to perceived health. Our empirical findings: (i) reinforce the role of skin yellowness; (ii) demonstrate the utility of global face shape measures of adiposity; and (iii) emphasize the role of affect in facial images with nominally neutral expression in impressions of health. PMID:27069057

  2. Dermatological Feasibility of Multimodal Facial Color Imaging Modality for Cross-Evaluation of Facial Actinic Keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Youngwoo; Son, Taeyoon; Nelson, J. Stuart; Kim, Jae-Hong; Choi, Eung Ho; Jung, Byungjo

    2010-01-01

    Background/Purpose Digital color image analysis is currently considered as a routine procedure in dermatology. In our previous study, a multimodal facial color imaging modality (MFCIM), which provides a conventional, parallel- and cross-polarization, and fluorescent color image, was introduced for objective evaluation of various facial skin lesions. This study introduces a commercial version of MFCIM, DermaVision-PRO, for routine clinical use in dermatology and demonstrates its dermatological feasibility for cross-evaluation of skin lesions. Methods/Results Sample images of subjects with actinic keratosis or non-melanoma skin cancers were obtained at four different imaging modes. Various image analysis methods were applied to cross-evaluate the skin lesion and, finally, extract valuable diagnostic information. DermaVision-PRO is potentially a useful tool as an objective macroscopic imaging modality for quick prescreening and cross-evaluation of facial skin lesions. Conclusion DermaVision-PRO may be utilized as a useful tool for cross-evaluation of widely distributed facial skin lesions and an efficient database management of patient information. PMID:20923462

  3. Aging, Rejuvenation, and Epigenetic Reprogramming: Resetting the Aging Clock

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Thomas A.; Chang, Howard Y.

    2012-01-01

    The underlying cause of aging remains one of the central mysteries of biology. Recent studies in several different systems suggest that not only may the rate of aging be modified by environmental and genetic factors, but also that the aging clock can be reversed, restoring characteristics of youthfulness to aged cells and tissues. This Review focuses on the emerging biology of rejuvenation through the lens of epigenetic reprogramming. By defining youthfulness and senescence as epigenetic states, a framework for asking new questions about the aging process emerges. PMID:22265401

  4. A Prospective Split-Face Study of the Picosecond Alexandrite Laser With Specialized Lens Array for Facial Photoaging in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yiping; Guo, Lifang; Wu, Qiuju; Zhang, Mengli; Zeng, Rong; Lin, Tong

    2016-11-01

    A 755nm picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array has been reported for the treatment of acne scar and photoaging with clinical ef cacy. In this study, we evaluated the application of the 755nm picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array for facial photoaging in Chinese. Ten subjects with moderate facial photoaging were enrolled in a prospective, evaluator-blinded, open-label, and split-face trial to assess the ef cacy and safety of the 755nm picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array for facial photoaging. Each subject received a series of four treatment sessions on the right side of the face at two-week intervals. The left side of the face served as the control side. Blinded evaluation of baseline, pre-treatment, and two-month follow-up visit was performed by two independent dermatologists on a 5-point global photoaging scale (GPS) and a 6/8-point Asian photographic scale (APS). Adverse events and discomfort associated with the treatment were also assessed. Signi cant improvement in photoaged tissue was observed on the treated side of the face, with a mean GPS score decrease from 2.67 to 1.44 at the two-month follow-up visit. A greater improvement in wrinkles was observed (2.78 vs 1.89; P less than 0.05) when com- pared to the improvement in pigmentation (2.67 vs 2.11; P less than 0.05). No changes were observed on the control side. Treatment results improved gradually throughout the treatment program and continued to the two-month follow up. In addition, skin tightening was perceived in all subjects, and shallower nasolabial folds were observed in 60% of the subjects on the treated side of face. Moderate pain and transient erythema were observed as the two main discomforts associated with the treatment. The 755nm picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array is efficacious and safe for rejuvenation of photodamaged facial tissue in Chinese. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1390-1396..

  5. TRACING REJUVENATION EVENTS IN NEARBY S0 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Antonietta; Bianchi, Luciana; Thilker, David A.

    2011-08-01

    With the aim of characterizing rejuvenation processes in early-type galaxies, we analyzed five barred S0 galaxies showing a prominent outer ring in ultraviolet (UV) imaging. We analyzed Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV), and optical data using stellar population models and estimated the age and the stellar mass of the entire galaxies and the UV-bright ring structures. Outer rings consist of young ({approx}<200 Myr old) stellar populations, accounting for up to 70% of the FUV flux but containing only a few percent of the total stellar mass. Integrated photometry of the whole galaxies places four of these objectsmore » on the green valley, indicating a globally evolving nature. We suggest such galaxy evolution is likely driven by bar-induced instabilities, i.e., inner secular evolution, that conveys gas to the nucleus and the outer rings. At the same time, H I observations of NGC 1533 and NGC 2962 suggest external gas re-fueling can play a role in the rejuvenation processes of such galaxies.« less

  6. Toothpaste microstructure and rheological behaviors including aging and partial rejuvenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Huan; Wang, Jiali; Deng, Linhong

    2015-08-01

    Toothpastes are mainly composed of a dense suspension of abrasive substances, flavors, and therapeutic ingredients in a background liquid of humectants and water, and usually exhibit complex rheological behaviors. However, the relationship between the rheology and microstructure of toothpaste remains to be studied. In this paper, three commonly used toothpastes, namely Colgate, Darlie and Yunnan Baiyao (Ynby), were qualitatively and quantitatively studied as soft glassy materials. We found that although the three toothpastes generally behaved in similar fashion in terms of rheology, each particular one was distinct from others in terms of the quantitative magnitude of the rheologcial properties including thixotropy, creep and relaxation, yield stress, and power-law dependence of modulus on frequency. In addition, the history-dependent effects were interpreted in terms of aging and rejuvenation phenomena, analogous to those existing in glassy systems, and Ynby seemed to result in greater extent of aging and rejuvenation as compared to the other two. All these differences in toothpaste rheology may well be attributed to the different microscopic network microstructures as observed in this study. Therefore, this study provides first evidence of microstructurebased rheological behaviors of toothpaste, which may be useful for optimizing its composition, manufacturing processing as well as end-user applications.

  7. The beneficial effects of honeybee-venom serum on facial wrinkles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Mi; Hong, In Phyo; Woo, Soon Ok; Chun, Sung Nam; Park, Kwan Kyu; Nicholls, Young Mee; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Facial wrinkles are an undesirable outcome caused by extrinsic photodamage and intrinsic aging processes. Currently, no effective strategies are known to prevent facial wrinkles. We assessed the beneficial effects of bee-venom serum on the clinical signs of aging skin. Our results show that bee-venom serum treatment clinically improved facial wrinkles by decreasing total wrinkle area, total wrinkle count, and average wrinkle depth. Therefore, bee-venom serum may be effective for the improvement of skin wrinkles. PMID:26491274

  8. Facial nerve conduction after sclerotherapy in children with facial lymphatic malformations: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Jung; Guo, Yuh-Cherng; Lin, Jan-You; Chang, Yu-Tang

    2007-04-01

    Surgical excision is thought to be the standard treatment of choice for lymphatic malformations. However, when the lesions are limited to the face only, surgical scar and facial nerve injury may impair cosmetics and facial expression. Sclerotherapy, an injection of a sclerosing agent directly through the skin into a lesion, is an alternative method. By evaluating facial nerve conduction, we observed the long-term effect of facial lymphatic malformations after intralesional injection of OK-432 and correlated the findings with anatomic outcomes. One 12-year-old boy with a lesion over the right-side preauricular area adjacent to the main trunk of facial nerve and the other 5-year-old boy with a lesion in the left-sided cheek involving the buccinator muscle were enrolled. The follow-up data of more than one year, including clinical appearance, computed tomography (CT) scan and facial nerve evaluation were collected. The facial nerve conduction study was normal in both cases. Blink reflex in both children revealed normal results as well. Complete resolution was noted on outward appearance and CT scan. The neurophysiologic data were compatible with good anatomic and functional outcomes. Our report suggests that the inflammatory reaction of OK-432 did not interfere with adjacent facial nerve conduction.

  9. Face and labial rejuvenation with the new Nd-Yag 1064 picoseconds laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Heitor; Teixeira, Carolina

    2018-04-01

    Lips are the component of the oral cavity which synthesizes more functions and emotions. The nonverbal communication is established by the body, every movement gesture, posture and facial expression which shows a willingness to communicate directly or subtly, consciously or unconsciously. The smile is one of the expressions that attract us the most, for its simplicity and mainly for its puzzle. In Lips aging implies a loss of mucous membranes' density; lips' dehydrate and resect themselves, reducing its' thickness which causes an appearance of aging of the all face. The demands of public opinion of being young and stay young are becoming more and more pressing, therefore it is necessary to meet this demand. The responsibility of achieving this task is up to the doctor, the anti-aging medicine and the actual existing physical means, which are available to correct and prevent this disease. Having the possibility of using the new picoseconds Nd-Yag Laser in Lips' rejuvenation we must use them together and in accordance between them and the guideline we presented what we believe to be the guideline which allows us to obtain good results in a new and simple effective treatment that can be proved by the major aspect of the lip and by evidence and monitoring that we went through for about ten month. Obtained results of labial cracks' disappearance inside of the red mucosa increase in lips' volume and contour and disappearance of oral wrinkles creates an aesthetic appearance witch is remarkable. This is a non invasive method with minimal complications with low morbidity and in our opinion superior results when compared to other traditional methods considered soft tissue augmentation including peelings, botox injections, injectable fillers such as hyaluronic acid injections temporary and permanent injectable bio-implants, bio- catalysts and even surgery of the upper lip.

  10. LCL: (Locked Cheek Lift) Three-Dimensional Cheek Lift and Inferior Palpebral Rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Divaris, Marc; Sabri, Ebaa; Cancemi, Gianfranco; Daury, Richard

    2018-06-01

    Many recent advances in face lift techniques have been made to reverse the aging process of the mid-face. In this study, we present a new technique by which mid-face rejuvenation can be achieved in double-angle vectors and allows adaption to the underlying bony structure. The locked cheek lift (LCL) allows effective, simple and rapid lifting of the malar fat pad in two planes. Correction of the curvature of the face and reduction of the height of lid cheek junction distance can be achieved without an incision at the lower eyelid. In total, 115 patients (77 females and 38 males) have been operated on using the LCL technique by a single surgeon; patient ages ranged between 37 and 71 years old (average = 51). Follow-up was performed by the same team for a year postoperatively. The facial expression and lid cheek distance have been evaluated during this period. After a year from the operation, the lid cheek distance correction was maintained in 95.7% of the cases, with stable position of the ascended malar fat pad. Postoperative edema and ecchymosis were limited. LCL is an effective, simple and rapid surgical technique, which is capable of correcting the cheek gravitational migration, reducing the lid cheek distance (LCD), maintaining the ascended stable malar fat pad for a long time with a short recovery period and minimal risk of complications. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  11. Facial fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Jennings R

    2014-10-01

    Facial trauma in children differs from adults. The growing facial skeleton presents several challenges to the reconstructive surgeon. A thorough understanding of the patterns of facial growth and development is needed to form an individualized treatment strategy. A proper diagnosis must be made and treatment options weighed against the risk of causing further harm to facial development. This article focuses on the management of facial fractures in children. Discussed are common fracture patterns based on the development of the facial structure, initial management, diagnostic strategies, new concepts and old controversies regarding radiologic examinations, conservative versus operative intervention, risks of growth impairment, and resorbable fixation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of facial expressions on respirators contact pressures.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mang; Shen, Shengnan; Li, Hui

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of four typical facial expressions (calmness, happiness, sadness and surprise) on contact characteristics between an N95 filtering facepiece respirator and a headform. The respirator model comprised two layers (an inner layer and an outer layer) and a nose clip. The headform model was comprised of a skin layer, a fatty tissue layer embedded with eight muscles, and a skull layer. Four typical facial expressions were generated by the coordinated contraction of four facial muscles. After that, the distribution of the contact pressure on the headform, as well as the contact area, were calculated. Results demonstrated that the nasal clip could help make the respirator move closer to the nose bridge while causing facial discomfort. Moreover, contact areas varied with different facial expressions, and facial expressions significantly altered contact pressures at different key areas, which may result in leakage.

  13. Copious, Long-lived Rejuvenated Volcanism in the Northern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D.; Hanano, D. W.; Jicha, B. R.; Ito, G.

    2015-12-01

    New marine surveying and submersible sampling of Kaul'a Volcano, located 100 km off the axis of the Hawaiian Chain, have revealed widespread areas of young volcanism. New 40Ar/39Ar and geochemical analyses of the olivine-phyric submarine and subaerial volcanic rocks show that Kaul'a is shrouded with young alkalic basalts (1.9 to 0.5 Ma). The ages and chemistry of these rocks overlap with rejuvenated lavas from nearby shields Ni'ihau, Kaua'i and South Kaua'i Swell. Collectively, rejuvenated lavas cover a vast area (~7000 km2) in the northern Hawaiian Islands. Kaul'a rejuvenated lavas show a much larger (5x) variation of incompatible elements than those from adjacent Ni'ihau but comparable to Honolulu rejuvenated lavas. Unlike both suites, heavy REE elements in Kaul'a lavas are pinned at Ybn 10, indicating a strong garnet signature in the source. Rejuvenated lavas from the Kaua'i Ridge have slightly higher radiogenic Pb isotope ratios than those from the southern Hawaiian Islands (Maui to O'ahu) and partly straddle the LOA-KEA boundary. Rejuvenated volcanism was nearly coeval occurrence from ~0.3 to 0.6 Ma along a 450 km segment of the Hawaiian Islands (West Maui to north of Ni'ihau), which is inconsistent with most models for rejuvenated volcanism except the Ballmer et al.2 dynamic melting model. This model invokes increasing pyroxenite contributions and the interaction with scale-scale convection rolls in the lithosphere to enhance the volume and duration of rejuvenation volcanism. Thus, a pyroxenite-bearing, mixed Kea-Loa source component may have contributed to the prolonged and extensive rejuvenated volcanism in the northern Hawaiian Islands. 1Robinson & Eakins 2006, J. Vol. Geotherm. Res., 151, 309-317; 2Ballmer et al. 2011, Nat. Geosc. 4, 457-460.

  14. The Rejuvenating Effect in Hot Asphalt Recycling by Mortar Transfer Ratio and Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fusong; Wang, Zipeng; Li, Chao; Xiao, Yue; Wu, Shaopeng; Pan, Pan

    2017-01-01

    Using a rejuvenator to improve the performance of asphalt pavement is an effective and economic way of hot asphalt recycling. This research analyzes the rejuvenating effect on aged asphalt by means of a Mortar Transfer Ratio (MTR) test, which concerns the ratio of asphalt mortar that moves from recycled aggregates (RAP aggregates) to fresh added aggregates when aged asphalt is treated with a regenerating agent and comes into contact with fresh aggregates. The proposed MTR test analyzes the regeneration in terms of the softening degree on aged asphalt when the rejuvenator is applied. The covered area ratio is studied with an image analyzing tool to understand the possibility of mortar transferring from RAP aggregates to fresh aggregates. Additionally, a micro-crack closure test is conducted and observed through a microscope. The repairing ability and diffusion characteristics of micro-cracks can therefore be analyzed. The test results demonstrate that the proposed mortar transfer ratio is a feasible way to evaluate rejuvenator diffusion during hot recycling. The mortar transfer ratio and uncovered area ratio on fresh aggregates are compatible, and can be used to quantify the contribution of the rejuvenator. Within a certain temperature range, the diffusing effect of the rejuvenator is better when the diffusing temperature is higher. The diffusion time of the rejuvenator is optimum when diffusion occurs for 4–8 h. When the rejuvenator is properly applied, the rough and cracking surface can be repaired, resulting in better covered aggregates. The micro-closure analysis visually indicates that rejuvenators can be used to repair the RAP aggregates during hot recycling. PMID:28772935

  15. The Rejuvenating Effect in Hot Asphalt Recycling by Mortar Transfer Ratio and Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fusong; Wang, Zipeng; Li, Chao; Xiao, Yue; Wu, Shaopeng; Pan, Pan

    2017-05-24

    Using a rejuvenator to improve the performance of asphalt pavement is an effective and economic way of hot asphalt recycling. This research analyzes the rejuvenating effect on aged asphalt by means of a Mortar Transfer Ratio (MTR) test, which concerns the ratio of asphalt mortar that moves from recycled aggregates (RAP aggregates) to fresh added aggregates when aged asphalt is treated with a regenerating agent and comes into contact with fresh aggregates. The proposed MTR test analyzes the regeneration in terms of the softening degree on aged asphalt when the rejuvenator is applied. The covered area ratio is studied with an image analyzing tool to understand the possibility of mortar transferring from RAP aggregates to fresh aggregates. Additionally, a micro-crack closure test is conducted and observed through a microscope. The repairing ability and diffusion characteristics of micro-cracks can therefore be analyzed. The test results demonstrate that the proposed mortar transfer ratio is a feasible way to evaluate rejuvenator diffusion during hot recycling. The mortar transfer ratio and uncovered area ratio on fresh aggregates are compatible, and can be used to quantify the contribution of the rejuvenator. Within a certain temperature range, the diffusing effect of the rejuvenator is better when the diffusing temperature is higher. The diffusion time of the rejuvenator is optimum when diffusion occurs for 4-8 h. When the rejuvenator is properly applied, the rough and cracking surface can be repaired, resulting in better covered aggregates. The micro-closure analysis visually indicates that rejuvenators can be used to repair the RAP aggregates during hot recycling.

  16. Complications and posttreatment care following invasive laser skin resurfacing: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Lin, Shi-Bin; Cheng, Biao

    2018-06-01

    Laser skin resurfacing (LSR) has been used for facial rejuvenation for the last 20 years. Posttreatment care after LSR is essential to decrease the risk of complications. Currently, no unified standards or criteria exist for invasive LSR posttreatment care. We aimed to identify the optimal wound care timing and choice of specific local, systemic, and general medical measures required to decrease complications. We performed a systematic search of the PubMed/MEDLINE electronic databases and included only articles written and published in the English language, with no restrictions on the publication time (year). The search yielded 316 potentially relevant articles, 133 of which met our review criteria. Most of the studies on this topic have focused on wound care during the early stage, typically the first 2 weeks. Closed dressings may offer a more ideal, moist wound environment. The use of medications must be judicious. The ongoing emergence of new methods and products warrants evaluation in future large clinical trials. Familiarity with the complications following invasive LSR and the provision of optimal, effective, and timely posttreatment care may substantially decrease the risks associated with the treatment modality.

  17. Aging, Clonality and Rejuvenation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Akunuru, Shailaja; Geiger, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with reduced organ function and increased disease incidence. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) aging driven by both cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors is linked to impaired HSC self-renewal and regeneration, aging-associated immune remodeling, and increased leukemia incidence. Compromised DNA damage responses and increased production of reactive oxygen species have been previously causatively attributed to HSC aging. However, recent paradigm-shifting concepts such as global epigenetic and cytoskeletal polarity shifts, cellular senescence, as well as clonal selection of HSCs upon aging provide new insights into HSC aging mechanisms. Rejuvenating agents that can reprogram the epigenetic status of aged HSCs or senolytic drugs that selectively deplete senescent cells provide promising translational avenues for attenuating hematopoietic aging and potentially, alleviating aging-associated immune remodeling and myeloid malignancies. PMID:27380967

  18. [The opportunities, challenges and trends in the rejuvenation of microbiology].

    PubMed

    Shen, Ping; Chen, Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    In history, the development of microbiology had undergone two golden ages and some depression time as well. In the last two decades, the application of many physiochemical technologies including genomics, structural biology, bioinformatics, PCR, and high-resolution microscopy has led to a series of breakthroughs in microbiology. Microbiology has now awakened and entered its third golden age for development. This review discusses our view of the opportunities, challenges, and trends in the current advancement of microbiology. The topics include: (1) The two golden ages for microbiology in history. (2) The opportunities and challenges in the rejuvenation of microbiology. (3) The characteristics and trends of the current development of microbiology. (4) Integral microbiology--the hallmark of the third golden age.

  19. Medical Rejuvenation in Georgia in the past: the Sukhumi Station.

    PubMed

    Musajo-Somma, Laura; Musajo-Somma, Alfredo

    2016-12-01

    If youth and body appearance enhancement is as old as Homo Sapiens, reliable medical technology for such activities is only about 100 years old. At the dawn of the 20th century, surgical operations performed under the Voronoff's treatment plan (monkey gonads' tissue grafting into humans) or the Steinach's technique (vasoligation) offered a promise of longevity, beauty and therefore youth restoration. The many links with a newly recognized discipline, endocrinology, offer a critical insight on the strong interactions between medicine and surgery in the promise of successful antiaging. On the front-line of scientific research, the Institute of Experimental Endocrinology's primate station in Sukhumi (West Georgia, now Abkhazia, on the Black Sea coast) developed a leadership role in the medical research, including rejuvenation with testis' tissues. Authors focus their attention to the everlasting commitment to experimental and clinical research as developed by Sukhumi scholars and the related moral, practical and ideological implications.

  20. REJUVENATION OF PERIOSTEAL CHONDROGENESIS USING LOCAL GROWTH FACTOR INJECTION

    PubMed Central

    Reinholz, G.G.; Fitzsimmons, J.S.; Casper, M.; Ruesink, T.J.; Chung, H.W.; Schagemann, J.C.; O’Driscoll, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the potential for rejuvenation of aged periosteum by local injection of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) alone or in combination to induce cambium cell proliferation and enhance in vitro periosteal cartilage formation. Methods A total of 367 New Zealand white rabbits (6, 12, and 24+ month-old) received subperiosteal injections of TGF-β1 and/or IGF-1 percutaneously. After 1, 3, 5, or 7 days, the rabbits were sacrificed and cambium cellularity or in vitro cartilage forming capacity was determined. Results A significant increase in cambium cellularity and thickness, and in vitro cartilage formation was observed after injection of TGF-β1 alone or in combination with IGF-1. In 12 month-old rabbits, mean cambium cellularity increased 5-fold from 49 to 237 cells/mm and in vitro cartilage production increased 12-fold from 0.8 to 9.7 mg seven days after TGF-β1 (200 ng) injection compared to vehicle controls (p<0.0001). A correlation was observed between cambium cellularity and in vitro cartilage production (R2=0.98). An added benefit of IGF-1 plus TGF-β1 on in vitro cartilage production compared to TGF-β1 alone was observed in the 2 year old rabbits. IGF-1 alone generally had no effect on either cambium cellularity or in vitro cartilage production in any of the age groups. Conclusions These results clearly demonstrate that it is possible to increase cambium cellularity and in vitro cartilage production in aged rabbit periosteum, to levels comparable to younger rabbits, using local injection of TGF-β1 alone or in combination with IGF-1, thereby rejuvenating aged periosteum. PMID:19064326

  1. Rejuvenation of human cardiac progenitor cells with Pim-1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Sadia; Khan, Mohsin; Nguyen, Jonathan; Alkatib, Monique; Siddiqi, Sailay; Hariharan, Nirmala; Wallach, Kathleen; Monsanto, Megan; Gude, Natalie; Dembitsky, Walter; Sussman, Mark A

    2013-10-25

    Myocardial function is enhanced by adoptive transfer of human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) into a pathologically challenged heart. However, advanced age, comorbidities, and myocardial injury in patients with heart failure constrain the proliferation, survival, and regenerative capacity of hCPCs. Rejuvenation of senescent hCPCs will improve the outcome of regenerative therapy for a substantial patient population possessing functionally impaired stem cells. Reverse phenotypic and functional senescence of hCPCs by ex vivo modification with Pim-1. C-kit-positive hCPCs were isolated from heart biopsy samples of patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation. Growth kinetics, telomere lengths, and expression of cell cycle regulators showed significant variation between hCPC isolated from multiple patients. Telomere length was significantly decreased in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics concomitant with decreased proliferation and upregulation of senescent markers compared with hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. Desirable youthful characteristics were conferred on hCPCs by genetic modification using Pim-1 kinase, including increases in proliferation, telomere length, survival, and decreased expression of senescence markers. Senescence characteristics of hCPCs are ameliorated by Pim-1 kinase resulting in rejuvenation of phenotypic and functional properties. hCPCs show improved cellular properties resulting from Pim-1 modification, but benefits were more pronounced in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics relative to hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. With the majority of patients with heart failure presenting advanced age, infirmity, and impaired regenerative capacity, the use of Pim-1 modification should be incorporated into cell-based therapeutic approaches to broaden inclusion criteria and address limitations associated with the senescent phenotype of aged hCPC.

  2. Rejuvenation of Human Cardiac Progenitor Cells With Pim-1 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Mohsin, Sadia; Khan, Mohsin; Nguyen, Jonathan; Alkatib, Monique; Siddiqi, Sailay; Hariharan, Nirmala; Wallach, Kathleen; Monsanto, Megan; Gude, Natalie; Dembitsky, Walter; Sussman, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Myocardial function is enhanced by adoptive transfer of human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) into a pathologically challenged heart. However, advanced age, comorbidities, and myocardial injury in patients with heart failure constrain the proliferation, survival, and regenerative capacity of hCPCs. Rejuvenation of senescent hCPCs will improve the outcome of regenerative therapy for a substantial patient population possessing functionally impaired stem cells. Objective Reverse phenotypic and functional senescence of hCPCs by ex vivo modification with Pim-1. Methods and Results C-kit–positive hCPCs were isolated from heart biopsy samples of patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation. Growth kinetics, telomere lengths, and expression of cell cycle regulators showed significant variation between hCPC isolated from multiple patients. Telomere length was significantly decreased in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics concomitant with decreased proliferation and upregulation of senescent markers compared with hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. Desirable youthful characteristics were conferred on hCPCs by genetic modification using Pim-1 kinase, including increases in proliferation, telomere length, survival, and decreased expression of senescence markers. Conclusions Senescence characteristics of hCPCs are ameliorated by Pim-1 kinase resulting in rejuvenation of phenotypic and functional properties. hCPCs show improved cellular properties resulting from Pim-1 modification, but benefits were more pronounced in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics relative to hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. With the majority of patients with heart failure presenting advanced age, infirmity, and impaired regenerative capacity, the use of Pim-1 modification should be incorporated into cell-based therapeutic approaches to broaden inclusion criteria and address limitations associated with the senescent phenotype of aged hCPC. PMID:24044948

  3. Automated facial acne assessment from smartphone images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Mohammad; Vasefi, Fartash; Valdebran, Manuel; Huang, Kevin; Zhang, Haomiao; Kemp, William; MacKinnon, Nicholas

    2018-02-01

    A smartphone mobile medical application is presented, that provides analysis of the health of skin on the face using a smartphone image and cloud-based image processing techniques. The mobile application employs the use of the camera to capture a front face image of a subject, after which the captured image is spatially calibrated based on fiducial points such as position of the iris of the eye. A facial recognition algorithm is used to identify features of the human face image, to normalize the image, and to define facial regions of interest (ROI) for acne assessment. We identify acne lesions and classify them into two categories: those that are papules and those that are pustules. Automated facial acne assessment was validated by performing tests on images of 60 digital human models and 10 real human face images. The application was able to identify 92% of acne lesions within five facial ROIs. The classification accuracy for separating papules from pustules was 98%. Combined with in-app documentation of treatment, lifestyle factors, and automated facial acne assessment, the app can be used in both cosmetic and clinical dermatology. It allows users to quantitatively self-measure acne severity and treatment efficacy on an ongoing basis to help them manage their chronic facial acne.

  4. Expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Donghong; Ma, Xinrong; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Lingfeng; Zhu, Baozhen

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the feasibility and clinical efficacy of expanded flap to repair facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma. From March 2000 to April 2011, 13 cases of facial cicatrices left by radiotherapy of hemangioma have been treated with implantation surgery of facial skin dilator under local anesthesia. After water flood expansion for 1-2 months, resection of facial scar was performed, and wound repairing with expansion flap transfer was done. Thirteen patients were followed up from 5 months to 3 years. All patients tolerated flap transfer well; no contracture occurred during the facial expansion flap transfer. The incision scar was not obvious, and its color and texture were identical to surrounding skin. In conclusion, the use of expanded flap transfer to repair the facial scar left by radiotherapy of hemangioma is advantageous due to its simplicity, flexibility, and large area of repairing. This method does not affect the subsequent facial appearance.

  5. Male skin and ingredients relevant to male skin care.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2012-03-01

    Male skin care needs are heavily influenced by the need to remove facial hair on a regular basis. Facial skin issues associated with poor hair removal approaches are common and include razor burn and irritation. This paper evaluates current research on shaving technology and how careful ingredient selection can contribute to male skin health. The importance of maintaining hair softness during the shave and restoring facial hydration post-shave is discussed. Data are presented on how post-shave moisturizers containing glycerine and emollients can create an environment for improved barrier function which can be further improved by incorporating specific ingredients such as niacinamide. © 2012 The Author. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Dermofat graft in deep nasolabial fold and facial rhytidectomy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Han, Jin Yi; Kim, Dae Joong

    2003-01-01

    Fat and dermis or the combined tissues are used commonly in augmentation of the nasolabial fold. Guyuron obtained the dermofat graft from either the suprapubic or the groin region. The thickness of the preauricular skin was measured in seven Korean cadavers, five male and two female. We used the dermofat graft out of the preauricular skin remnant after facial rhytidectomy to augment the deep nasolabial fold in a patient. The average thickness of the epidermis was 56 +/- 12 microm, the dermis was 1820 +/- 265 microm thick, and the subcutaneous tissue was 4783 +/- 137 microm. More dense connective tissues, such as SMAS, are seen in the preauricular skin. The dermofat graft was easily obtained and prepared from the leftover preauricular skin after dissection of the lax skin in face lifting. This technique could be employed effectively and successfully to alleviate a deep nasolabial fold and concomitant facial rhytidectomy in an Asian with a thick preauricular skin.

  7. Field application of Z-spike rejuvenation to salvage timber railroad bridges.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-12-01

    The technique of rejuvenating wood and timber members by shear spiking (vertically inserting fiberglass reinforced polymer rods into deteriorated members) evolved over several years of laboratory research at Colorado State University (CSU). Specimens...

  8. Research on High-RAP Asphalt Mixtures with Rejuvenators and WMA Additives.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-09-27

    This study is to evaluate the mechanical and chemical properties of the asphalt concrete (AC) mixture, fine aggregate matrix (FAM), and binder modified by three different rejuvenators and warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive. In this regard, for testing o...

  9. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of 980-nm diode laser-assisted lipolysis versus traditional liposuction for submental rejuvenation: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Neda; Jalaly, Niloofar Y; Zarghampour, Manijeh; Barikbin, Behrooz; Haghighatkhah, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Submental fat accumulation and skin laxity is a frequent concern of cosmetic patients. The aim of this randomized prospective controlled clinical trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of laser-assisted lipolysis and liposuction in the submental rejuvenation. Thirty-six female adults were enrolled in this clinical trial and were categorized into two groups: group 1 underwent 980-nm diode laser with the power of 6-8 W and group 2 underwent traditional liposuction. Patients were evaluated with ultrasonography 2 weeks and 2 months after the procedures. Ultrasonographic evaluation reported the significant reduction of fat thickness in each group compared with the baseline (p value < 0.001). At the 2 weeks and 2 months follow-up visit, fat thickness reduction was significantly higher in the lipolysis group (p value < 0.05). Overall patients' satisfaction in lipolysis group was higher than liposuction with 11 (61%) of lipolysis patients being very satisfied in contrast to 10 (55.5%) of liposuction patients reporting "dissatisfied or neutral" results. Laser-assisted lipolysis using 980-nm diode is approved to be safe and effective for skin tightening and rejuvenation of the submental area and seems to be a better option than traditional techniques for treatment of this cosmetic problem.

  10. Predicting gully rejuvenation after wildfire using remotely sensed burn severity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Kevin; Woods, Scott W.; Donahue, Jack

    2007-05-01

    The loss of surface vegetation and reduced infiltration caused by wildfires can trigger gully rejuvenation, resulting in damage to downstream aquatic resources and risk to human life and property. We developed a spatially explicit metric of burn severity — the Burn Severity Distribution Index (BSDI) — and tested its ability to predict post-fire gully rejuvenation in 1st and 2nd order basins burned in the 2000 Valley Complex fires in the Sapphire Mountains of western Montana. The BSDI was derived from burn severity data interpreted from Landsat 7 satellite imagery using the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) method, and ranged from 0.0 for completely unburned basins to 4.0 for basins burned entirely at high severity. In July 2001 rainstorms with peak 30-minute intensities of up to 17 mm h - 1 triggered gully rejuvenation in 66 of the 171 basins examined. The frequency of gully rejuvenation was higher in basins with higher BSDI values, increasing from zero for basins with a BSDI less than 1.3 to 67% for basins with a BSDI greater than 3.0. Binary logistic regression indicated that BSDI was a more significant predictor of gully rejuvenation than basin morphometric variables. The absence of gully rejuvenation in several basins with a high BSDI was attributed to low gradient, dense riparian vegetation, or concentration of high burn severity at lower elevations in the basin. The presence of gully rejuvenation in several basins with a low BSDI was associated with false negative NBR classification errors in northwest aspects, and concentration of severe burn impacts in the drainage headslopes. BSDI is a useful metric for predicting gully rejuvenation after wildfire. The use of the BSDI in Burned Area Emergency Response team assessments could improve the planning, implementation, and monitoring of burned area recovery treatments.

  11. 'Recharge my exhausted batteries': Overbeck's Rejuvenator, Patenting, and Public Medical Consumers, 1924-37.

    PubMed

    Stark, James F

    2014-10-01

    Although historians have shown that there has been a complex and multi-layered relationship between the body, medicine and the force of electricity, many avenues remain to be explored. One of the most prominent of these is the way in which electrotherapy technologies were marketed to a wide variety of different end users and intermediaries. This paper offers the first historical analysis of one such device - the Overbeck Rejuvenator - a 1920s electrotherapy machine designed for use by the general public. Its inventor, Otto Overbeck, was not a medical man and this enabled him to use aggressive strategies of newspaper advertising, using testimonials to market his product alongside appeals to his own scientific authority. He commissioned the prestigious Ediswan Company to manufacture the Rejuvenator on a large scale, and took out patents in eleven countries to persuade users of the efficacy of the device. In response to Overbeck's activities, the British Medical Association enlisted an electrical engineer to examine the Rejuvenator, contacted practitioners whose endorsements were being used in publicity material, and denied Overbeck permission to advertise in the British Medical Journal. Despite this, the Rejuvenator brought its inventor wealth and notoriety, and helped redefine the concept of 'rejuvenation', even if the professional reception of such a device was almost universally hostile. This paper shows how the marketing, patenting and publishing of Overbeck combined to persuade members of the laity to try the Rejuvenator as an alternative form of therapy, bypassing the medical profession in the process.

  12. A new physical model with multilayer architecture for facial expression animation using dynamic adaptive mesh.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C; Sung, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new physically-based 3D facial model based on anatomical knowledge which provides high fidelity for facial expression animation while optimizing the computation. Our facial model has a multilayer biomechanical structure, incorporating a physically-based approximation to facial skin tissue, a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators, and underlying skull structure. In contrast to existing mass-spring-damper (MSD) facial models, our dynamic skin model uses the nonlinear springs to directly simulate the nonlinear visco-elastic behavior of soft tissue and a new kind of edge repulsion spring is developed to prevent collapse of the skin model. Different types of muscle models have been developed to simulate distribution of the muscle force applied on the skin due to muscle contraction. The presence of the skull advantageously constrain the skin movements, resulting in more accurate facial deformation and also guides the interactive placement of facial muscles. The governing dynamics are computed using a local semi-implicit ODE solver. In the dynamic simulation, an adaptive refinement automatically adapts the local resolution at which potential inaccuracies are detected depending on local deformation. The method, in effect, ensures the required speedup by concentrating computational time only where needed while ensuring realistic behavior within a predefined error threshold. This mechanism allows more pleasing animation results to be produced at a reduced computational cost.

  13. Facial Soft Tissue Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries. PMID:22550459

  14. Aging and rejuvenation of active matter under topological constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, Liesbeth M. C.; Kaiser, Andreas; Lowen, Hartmut

    The coupling of active, self-motile particles to topological constraints can give rise to novel nonequilibrium dynamical patterns that lack any passive counterpart. Here we study the behavior of self-propelled rods confined to a compact spherical manifold by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. We establish the state diagram and find that short active rods at sufficiently high density exhibit a glass transition toward a disordered state characterized by persistent self-spinning motion. By periodically melting and revitrifying the spherical spinning glass, we observe clear signatures of time-dependent aging and rejuvenation physics. We quantify the crucial role of activity in these nonequilibrium processes,more » and rationalize the aging dynamics in terms of an absorbing-state transition toward a more stable active glassy state. In conclusion, our results demonstrate both how concepts of passive glass phenomenology can carry over into the realm of active matter, and how topology can enrich the collective spatiotemporal dynamics in inherently non-equilibrium systems.« less

  15. Aging and rejuvenation of active matter under topological constraints

    DOE PAGES

    Janssen, Liesbeth M. C.; Kaiser, Andreas; Lowen, Hartmut

    2017-07-18

    The coupling of active, self-motile particles to topological constraints can give rise to novel nonequilibrium dynamical patterns that lack any passive counterpart. Here we study the behavior of self-propelled rods confined to a compact spherical manifold by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. We establish the state diagram and find that short active rods at sufficiently high density exhibit a glass transition toward a disordered state characterized by persistent self-spinning motion. By periodically melting and revitrifying the spherical spinning glass, we observe clear signatures of time-dependent aging and rejuvenation physics. We quantify the crucial role of activity in these nonequilibrium processes,more » and rationalize the aging dynamics in terms of an absorbing-state transition toward a more stable active glassy state. In conclusion, our results demonstrate both how concepts of passive glass phenomenology can carry over into the realm of active matter, and how topology can enrich the collective spatiotemporal dynamics in inherently non-equilibrium systems.« less

  16. Rejuvenating direct modulation and direct detection for modern optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Di; Li, An; Chen, Xi; Hu, Qian; Shieh, William

    2018-02-01

    High-speed transoceanic optical fiber transmission using direct modulation (DM) and direct detection (DD) was one of the most stirring breakthroughs for telecommunication in 1990s, which drove the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the later evolution of optical coherent communications in 2000s gradually took over the long-haul applications, due to its superior optical spectral efficiency. Nowadays, DM-DD systems are dominant mainly in cost- and power-sensitive short-reach applications, because of its natural characteristics-the simplicity. This paper reviews the recent advances of DM-DD transceivers from both hardware and signal processing perspectives. It introduces a variety of modified DM and/or DD systems for 3 application scenarios: very-short-reach interconnect with little fiber channel impact; single or a few spans of fiber transmission up to several hundred km; and distance beyond the 2nd scenario. Besides the DM-DD and multi-dimension DM-DD with polarization diversity, this paper focuses on how to rejuvenate traditional DM and DD technologies in order to bridge the transmission application gap between DM-DD and coherent transceivers, using technologies such as dispersion compensation, signal field recovery from the intensity-only DD receiver, and complex direct modulation with coherent detection. More than 30 years since the birth, DM and DD still hold indispensable roles in modern optical communications.

  17. Rejuvenating cellular respiration for optimizing respiratory function: targeting mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan

    2016-01-15

    Altered bioenergetics with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and degradation of epithelial function are key aspects of pathogenesis in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This motif is not unique to obstructive airway disease, reported in related airway diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and parenchymal diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Similarly, mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular endothelium or skeletal muscles contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension and systemic manifestations of lung disease. In experimental models of COPD or asthma, the use of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, such as MitoQ, has substantially improved mitochondrial health and restored respiratory function. Modulation of noncoding RNA or protein regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, or degradation has been found to be effective in models of fibrosis, emphysema, asthma, and pulmonary hypertension. Transfer of healthy mitochondria to epithelial cells has been associated with remarkable therapeutic efficacy in models of acute lung injury and asthma. Together, these form a 3R model--repair, reprogramming, and replacement--for mitochondria-targeted therapies in lung disease. This review highlights the key role of mitochondrial function in lung health and disease, with a focus on asthma and COPD, and provides an overview of mitochondria-targeted strategies for rejuvenating cellular respiration and optimizing respiratory function in lung diseases. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Aging and rejuvenation of active matter under topological constraints.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Liesbeth M C; Kaiser, Andreas; Löwen, Hartmut

    2017-07-18

    The coupling of active, self-motile particles to topological constraints can give rise to novel non-equilibrium dynamical patterns that lack any passive counterpart. Here we study the behavior of self-propelled rods confined to a compact spherical manifold by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. We establish the state diagram and find that short active rods at sufficiently high density exhibit a glass transition toward a disordered state characterized by persistent self-spinning motion. By periodically melting and revitrifying the spherical spinning glass, we observe clear signatures of time-dependent aging and rejuvenation physics. We quantify the crucial role of activity in these non-equilibrium processes, and rationalize the aging dynamics in terms of an absorbing-state transition toward a more stable active glassy state. Our results demonstrate both how concepts of passive glass phenomenology can carry over into the realm of active matter, and how topology can enrich the collective spatiotemporal dynamics in inherently non-equilibrium systems.

  19. [Facial tics and spasms].

    PubMed

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; van Dijk, J Marc C; Elting, Jan Willem J; de Koning-Tijssen, Marina A J

    2014-01-01

    Facial tics and spasms are socially incapacitating, but effective treatment is often available. The clinical picture is sufficient for distinguishing between the different diseases that cause this affliction.We describe three cases of patients with facial tics or spasms: one case of tics, which are familiar to many physicians; one case of blepharospasms; and one case of hemifacial spasms. We discuss the differential diagnosis and the treatment possibilities for facial tics and spasms. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, because of the associated social incapacitation. Botulin toxin should be considered as a treatment option for facial tics and a curative neurosurgical intervention should be considered for hemifacial spasms.

  20. Guide to Understanding Facial Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to many different facial muscles. These muscles control facial expression. The coordinated activity of this nerve and these ... involves a weakness of the muscles responsible for facial expression and side-to-side eye movement. Moebius syndrome ...

  1. Effects of polarization and absorption on laser induced optical breakdown threshold for skin rejuvenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Babu; Bonito, Valentina; Turco, Simona; Verhagen, Rieko

    2016-03-01

    Laser induced optical breakdown (LIOB) is a non-linear absorption process leading to plasma formation at locations where the threshold irradiance for breakdown is surpassed. In this paper we experimentally demonstrate the influence of polarization and absorption on laser induced breakdown threshold in transparent, absorbing and scattering phantoms made from water suspensions of polystyrene microspheres. We demonstrate that radially polarized light yields a lower irradiance threshold for creating optical breakdown compared to linearly polarized light. We also demonstrate that the thermal initiation pathway used for generating seed electrons results in a lower irradiance threshold compared to multiphoton initiation pathway used for optical breakdown.

  2. Combat-related facial burns: analysis of strategic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Benjamin W; Madson, Andrew Q; Bong-Thakur, Sarah; Tucker, David; Hale, Robert G; Chan, Rodney K

    2015-01-01

    Burns constitute approximately 10% of all combat-related injuries to the head and neck region. We postulated that the combat environment presents unique challenges not commonly encountered among civilian injuries. The purpose of the present study was to determine the features commonly seen among combat facial burns that will result in therapeutic challenges and might contribute to undesired outcomes. The present study was a retrospective study performed using a query of the Burn Registry at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research Burn Center for all active duty facial burn admissions from October 2001 to February 2011. The demographic data, total body surface area of the burn, facial region body surface area involvement, and dates of injury, first operation, and first facial operation were tabulated and compared. A subset analysis of severe facial burns, defined by a greater than 7% facial region body surface area, was performed with a thorough medical record review to determine the presence of associated injuries. Of all the military burn injuries, 67.1% (n = 558) involved the face. Of these, 81.3% (n = 454) were combat related. The combat facial burns had a mean total body surface area of 21.4% and a mean facial region body surface area of 3.2%. The interval from the date of the injury to the first operative encounter was 6.6 ± 0.8 days and was 19.8 ± 2.0 days to the first facial operation. A subset analysis of the severe facial burns revealed that the first facial operation and the definitive coverage operation was performed at 13.45 ± 2.6 days and 31.9 ± 4.1 days after the injury, respectively. The mortality rate for this subset of patients was 32% (n = 10), with a high rate of associated inhalational injuries (61%, n = 19), limb amputations (29%, n = 9), and facial allograft usage (48%, n = 15) and a mean facial autograft thickness of 10.5/1,000th in. Combat-related facial burns present multiple challenges, which can contribute to suboptimal long

  3. Improving posttraumatic facial scars.

    PubMed

    Ardeshirpour, Farhad; Shaye, David A; Hilger, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Posttraumatic soft-tissue injuries of the face are often the most lasting sequelae of facial trauma. The disfigurement of posttraumatic scarring lies in both their physical deformity and psychosocial ramifications. This review outlines a variety of techniques to improve facial scars and limit their lasting effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Reconstruction of facial soft tissue defects with pedicled expanded flaps].

    PubMed

    Yangqun, Li; Yong, Tang; Wen, Chen; Zhe, Yang; Muxin, Zhao; Lisi, Xu; Chunmei, Hu; Yuanyuan, Liu; Ning, Ma; Jun, Feng; Weixin, Wang

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the application of pedicled expanded flaps for the reconstruction of facial soft tissue defects. The expanded skin flaps, pedicled with orbicularis oculi muscle, submental artery, the branch of facial artery, superficial temporal artery, interior upper arm artery, had similar texture and color as facial soft tissue. The pedicled expanded flaps have repaired the facial soft tissue defects. Between Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2013, 157 cases with facial soft tissue defects were reconstructed by pedicled expanded flaps. Epidermal necrosis happened at the distal end of 8 expanded flaps, pedicled with interior upper arm artery(4 cases), orbicularis oculi muscle(3 cases) and submental artery(1 case), which healed spontaneously after dressing. All the other flaps survived completely with similar color and inconspicuous scar. 112 cases were followed up for 8 months to 8 years. Satisfactory results were achieved in 75 cases. 37 cases with hypertrophic scar at incisions need secondary operation. Island pedicled expanded flap with similar texture and color as facial soft tissue is suitable for facial soft tissue defects. The facial extra-incision and large dog-ear deformity could be avoided.

  5. Proteomic profiling of proteins associated with the rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Restoration of rooting competence is important for rejuvenation in Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl and is achieved by repeatedly grafting Sequoia shoots after 16 and 30 years of cultivation in vitro. Results Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis revealed three proteins that differentially accumulated in different rejuvenation stages, including oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 (OEE2), glycine-rich RNA-binding protein (RNP), and a thaumatin-like protein. OEE2 was found to be phosphorylated and a phosphopeptide (YEDNFDGNSNVSVMVpTPpTDK) was identified. Specifically, the protein levels of OEE2 increased as a result of grafting and displayed a higher abundance in plants during the juvenile and rejuvenated stages. Additionally, SsOEE2 displayed the highest expression levels in Sequoia shoots during the juvenile stage and less expression during the adult stage. The expression levels also steadily increased during grafting. Conclusion Our results indicate a positive correlation between the gene and protein expression patterns of SsOEE2 and the rejuvenation process, suggesting that this gene is involved in the rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens. PMID:21143964

  6. Proteomic profiling of proteins associated with the rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ing-Feng; Chen, Peng-Jen; Shen, Chin-Hui; Hsieh, Tsung-Ju; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Huang, Bau-Lian; Kuo, Ching-I; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chu, Hsiu-An; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Huang, Li-Chun

    2010-12-10

    Restoration of rooting competence is important for rejuvenation in Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl and is achieved by repeatedly grafting Sequoia shoots after 16 and 30 years of cultivation in vitro. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis revealed three proteins that differentially accumulated in different rejuvenation stages, including oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 (OEE2), glycine-rich RNA-binding protein (RNP), and a thaumatin-like protein. OEE2 was found to be phosphorylated and a phosphopeptide (YEDNFDGNSNVSVMVpTPpTDK) was identified. Specifically, the protein levels of OEE2 increased as a result of grafting and displayed a higher abundance in plants during the juvenile and rejuvenated stages. Additionally, SsOEE2 displayed the highest expression levels in Sequoia shoots during the juvenile stage and less expression during the adult stage. The expression levels also steadily increased during grafting. Our results indicate a positive correlation between the gene and protein expression patterns of SsOEE2 and the rejuvenation process, suggesting that this gene is involved in the rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens.

  7. Young Blood Rejuvenates Old Bodies: A Call for Reflection when Moving from Mice to Men.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2018-01-01

    Connecting the circulatory system of old and young mice (parabiosis) is documented to have rejuvenating effects on cells, tissues, organs, and functions. A wide range of benefits are envisioned. Blood-based rejuvenation can come to totally change population health and aging. The first blood rejuvenation studies on humans with Alzheimer's disease have started. It puts blood at the center of therapy and revitalizes the historical line of humoral pathology from Hippocrates and Harvey, creating a new type of 'bloodletting.' However, moving from mice to men requires careful consideration. Parabiosis actualizes well-known ethical challenges, such as just distribution of health care, avoiding disparities, and providing equal access to health care resources, as well as issues of human enhancement. However, it also poses new problems. Using internal substances in some persons as means to rejuvenate others calls for ethical reflection. New type of 'blood bonds' may result from the continuous demand for specific types of blood. Even if rejuvenating substances from blood may be artificially and cheaply produced and justly distributed, problems arise: survival may have to be balanced against reproduction, as reproductive age increases. Eternal youth and endless bliss have always been vital human dreams. Although parabiosis may bring us closer to the fountain of youth than ever, it is still too early to provide full-fledged assessments of its implications or to foresee how it will change health, aging, medicine, and society. However, in order to bring our reflective abilities on par with our technical skills, we need to start reflection now.

  8. Advances in facial reanimation.

    PubMed

    Tate, James R; Tollefson, Travis T

    2006-08-01

    Facial paralysis often has a significant emotional impact on patients. Along with the myriad of new surgical techniques in managing facial paralysis comes the challenge of selecting the most effective procedure for the patient. This review delineates common surgical techniques and reviews state-of-the-art techniques. The options for dynamic reanimation of the paralyzed face must be examined in the context of several patient factors, including age, overall health, and patient desires. The best functional results are obtained with direct facial nerve anastomosis and interpositional nerve grafts. In long-standing facial paralysis, temporalis muscle transfer gives a dependable and quick result. Microvascular free tissue transfer is a reliable technique with reanimation potential whose results continue to improve as microsurgical expertise increases. Postoperative results can be improved with ancillary soft tissue procedures, as well as botulinum toxin. The paper provides an overview of recent advances in facial reanimation, including preoperative assessment, surgical reconstruction options, and postoperative management.

  9. Mitophagy-driven mitochondrial rejuvenation regulates stem cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Van den Haute, Chris; Cufí, Sílvia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni; Rodriguez-Gallego, Esther; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Joven, Jorge; Baekelandt, Veerle; Menendez, Javier A.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding on how selective mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy, can sustain the archetypal properties of stem cells is incomplete. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) plays a key role in the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function and in the selective degradation of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy. Here, using embryonic fibroblasts from PINK1 gene-knockout (KO) mice, we evaluated whether mitophagy is a causal mechanism for the control of cell-fate plasticity and maintenance of pluripotency. Loss of PINK1-dependent mitophagy was sufficient to dramatically decrease the speed and efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming. Mitophagy-deficient iPSC colonies, which were characterized by a mixture of mature and immature mitochondria, seemed unstable, with a strong tendency to spontaneously differentiate and form heterogeneous populations of cells. Although mitophagy-deficient iPSC colonies normally expressed pluripotent markers, functional monitoring of cellular bioenergetics revealed an attenuated glycolysis in mitophagy-deficient iPSC cells. Targeted metabolomics showed a notable alteration in numerous glycolysis- and TCA-related metabolites in mitophagy-deficient iPSC cells, including a significant decrease in the intracellular levels of α-ketoglutarate -a key suppressor of the differentiation path in stem cells. Mitophagy-deficient iPSC colonies exhibited a notably reduced teratoma-initiating capacity, but fully retained their pluripotency and multi-germ layer differentiation capacity in vivo. PINK1-dependent mitophagy pathway is an important mitochondrial switch that determines the efficiency and quality of somatic reprogramming. Mitophagy-driven mitochondrial rejuvenation might contribute to the ability of iPSCs to suppress differentiation by directing bioenergetic transition and metabolome remodeling traits. These findings provide new insights into how mitophagy might influence the stem cell decisions to retain

  10. [Facial nerve neurinomas].

    PubMed

    Sokołowski, Jacek; Bartoszewicz, Robert; Morawski, Krzysztof; Jamróz, Barbara; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of diagnostic, surgical technique, treatment results facial nerve neurinomas and its comparison with literature was the main purpose of this study. Seven cases of patients (2005-2011) with facial nerve schwannomas were included to retrospective analysis in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw. All patients were assessed with history of the disease, physical examination, hearing tests, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, electronystagmography. Cases were observed in the direction of potential complications and recurrences. Neurinoma of the facial nerve occurred in the vertical segment (n=2), facial nerve geniculum (n=1) and the internal auditory canal (n=4). The symptoms observed in patients were analyzed: facial nerve paresis (n=3), hearing loss (n=2), dizziness (n=1). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography allowed to confirm the presence of the tumor and to assess its staging. Schwannoma of the facial nerve has been surgically removed using the middle fossa approach (n=5) and by antromastoidectomy (n=2). Anatomical continuity of the facial nerve was achieved in 3 cases. In the twelve months after surgery, facial nerve paresis was rated at level II-III° HB. There was no recurrence of the tumor in radiological observation. Facial nerve neurinoma is a rare tumor. Currently surgical techniques allow in most cases, the radical removing of the lesion and reconstruction of the VII nerve function. The rate of recurrence is low. A tumor of the facial nerve should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nerve VII paresis. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: An Intra-subject Controlled Trial Examining Treated vs. Untreated Skin Utilizing Clinical Features and Erythema-directed Digital Photography.

    PubMed

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo; Micali, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis.

  12. Reverse-flow retroauricular island flap in facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Benlier, Erol; Top, Husamettin; Cinar, Can; Yazar, Sukru; Aygit, A Cemal; Cetinkale, Oguz

    2007-12-01

    Reconstruction of facial skin defects requires good-quality skin cover to satisfy aesthetic expectations of patient, especially when the skin defect is on the uncovered area of the face. Limitations in the available local tissue and donor-site morbidity restrict the options. In an effort to solve these problems, we have begun to use a subcutaneous pedicled retroauricular reverse-flow flap. Between January 1997 and December 2005, reverse-flow subcutaneous pedicled retroauricular island flap was used to cover facial defects in 12 patients who underwent surgical excision of skin tumor. The patients ranged in age from 44 to 81 years with a mean age of 58 years. Only one case experienced a superficial necrosis in the distal one-quarter part of the flap. The functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory for both patients and surgeons, and no tumor recurrence was observed during the 12 to 28 months (mean, 18.8 months) follow-up period. This flap can be used reliably for the reconstruction of facial skin defects of small and medium size. The preference of frontal branch pedicled flap enables more distal facial area defects to be covered, such as dorsal nasal, nasolabial, and upper lip, than flaps based on parietal branch.

  13. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-06-12

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners.

  14. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  15. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2007-01-01

    Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

  16. Concentric Malar Lift in the Management of Lower Eyelid Rejuvenation or Retraction: A Clinical Retrospective Study on 342 Cases, 13 Years After the First Publication.

    PubMed

    Le Louarn, Claude

    2018-06-01

    Lower eyelid rejuvenation can, unfortunately, induce scleral show even if the lower eyelid procedure is limited. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness and reliability of the concentric malar lift technique in two scenarios: the first, in rejuvenation of the mid-face and, the second, in reconstructive surgery for correction of congenital or acquired eyelids malposition. The concentric malar lift technique was first published by Le Louarn (Aesthet Plast Surg 28(6):359-372, 2004). This retrospective study was carried out by analyzing data on patients operated on between January 2010 and January 2016. Patients operated on before 2010 were excluded because barbed thread sutures were not used in the first version of the technique. Patients after January 2016 were excluded to ensure adequate follow-up, and so 342 patients are included in the study. A total of 256 cases (75%) were for aesthetic mid-face lifting, and 86 cases (25%) were reconstructive surgeries for lower eyelid retraction. A spacer graft was used in 30 of these reconstructive cases (35%). The mean follow-up time was 13.6 months. All the concentric malar lifting procedures included strengthening the lateral canthus, which is a key element of the procedure. None of the patients developed secondary eyelid malposition, and all the cases of lower eyelid retraction displayed marked improvement both functionally and aesthetically. Two patients experienced loss of sensitivity of part in the infra-orbital nerve distribution for 4 months after the procedure. The concentric malar lift procedure enables the recruitment of a significant amount of skin into the lower eyelid: between 10 and 30 mm. It ensures better rejuvenation of the mid-face with minimal risk of lower eyelid malposition. In reconstruction of the lower eyelid lid, the concentric malar lift is able to reduce the need for skin grafting and a skin flap reducing the risks of visible scarring. This journal requires that authors assign a level

  17. Lower Face Rejuvenation with Injections: Botox, Juvederm, and Kybella for Marionette Lines and Jowls.

    PubMed

    Mess, Sarah Ann

    2017-11-01

    A 55-year-old woman requesting noninvasive rejuvenation of the lower face received multimodal injections in a single office visit to rejuvenate the jowls. The patient experienced no adverse events other than self-limiting bruising at the hyaluronic acid injection site and minimal edema. The outcomes were evaluated as follows: (1) by the patient using the self-rated Face-Q assessment and (2) by 5 plastic surgeons (none of whom were the author of this study) based on the WAS scale and before and after photographs to evaluate the corners of the mouth and the marionette lines. This case study report suggests that the combined use of neuromodulator, hyaluronic acid dermal filler, and synthetic deoxycholic acid can rejuvenate the lower face as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery to the satisfaction of the patient and 6 plastic surgeons (including the author).

  18. Lower Face Rejuvenation with Injections: Botox, Juvederm, and Kybella for Marionette Lines and Jowls

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary: A 55-year-old woman requesting noninvasive rejuvenation of the lower face received multimodal injections in a single office visit to rejuvenate the jowls. The patient experienced no adverse events other than self-limiting bruising at the hyaluronic acid injection site and minimal edema. The outcomes were evaluated as follows: (1) by the patient using the self-rated Face-Q assessment and (2) by 5 plastic surgeons (none of whom were the author of this study) based on the WAS scale and before and after photographs to evaluate the corners of the mouth and the marionette lines. This case study report suggests that the combined use of neuromodulator, hyaluronic acid dermal filler, and synthetic deoxycholic acid can rejuvenate the lower face as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery to the satisfaction of the patient and 6 plastic surgeons (including the author). PMID:29263958

  19. Combined use of two formulations containing diacetyl boldine, TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68 with other hypopigmenting/exfoliating agents and sunscreen provides effective and convenient treatment for facial melasma. Either is equal to or is better than 4% hydroquinone on normal skin.

    PubMed

    Pratchyapurit, Walai-Orn

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of melasma remains a challenge and involves multistep approach. Diacetyl boldine (DAB) stabilizes tyrosinase in its inactive form while TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68 inhibits tyrosinase activity. (1) to study the efficacy and safety of the combination use of two formulae containing two principal ingredients: DAB and TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68 on facial melasma, and (2) to compare their efficacy with 2% and 4% hydroquinone cream (HQ) on sun-protected normal skin. A randomized, double-blind, 12-week comparative study of pre-/post-treatment was conducted in 40 females. Melasma was evaluated by manual MASI score and MASI score with instrumentally graded darkness at baseline, 6th week, and 12th week. The author also compared their effect with HQ on the arms, assessed their safety profile throughout the study. Thirty-eight subjects have completed the study. Their melasma showed improvement at the 6th week and 12th week as compared with baseline (P < 0.05). None developed severe reaction. Most subjects had temporary, mild skin reaction. About 2.6% of subjects graded themselves markedly improved, 76.3% moderately improved, and 21.1% slightly improved. Each formula showed either more efficacy or exerted faster action on pigment reduction than HQ. Combination of DAB serum at night and DAB/TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68/sunscreen cream in the morning and at noon was effective and safe for facial melasma. They were superior to HQ in pigment reduction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  1. Conditioning in laser skin resurfacing - betulin emulsion and skin recovery.

    PubMed

    Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Podmelle, Fred; Waite, Peter D; Müller-Debus, Charlotte Friederieke; Hammes, Stefan; Funk, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Laser skin resurfacing of the face by CO₂-laser ablation is causing superficial wounds that need rapid recovery to reduce the risk of infection, the risk of chronification and as a result the risk of unaesthetic scars. The question being addressed by this study is to demonstrate benefit of betulin emulsion skin care after CO₂-laser wounds. The outcome of this aesthetic comparison between betulin emulsion, moist wound dressing and gauze covering in promoting the recovery process in laser skin ablation is to demonstrate improved aesthetic benefit for the patient. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Skin tightening with a combined unipolar and bipolar radiofrequency device.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, Flor A

    2007-02-01

    Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) devices are well established treatment modalities for tightening facial skin. A 60-year-old woman presented with a desire to tighten the lax skin and improve the appearance of both upper arms. A combination unipolar and bipolar RF device may provide volume reduction as well as skin tightening in the upper arm.

  3. Case Report of a Pressure Ulcer Occurring Over the Nasal Bridge Due to a Non-Invasive Ventilation Facial Mask.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Farooq A; Ahmad, Faria; Zahoor, Muhammad Umar U

    2016-10-03

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is used in patients with respiratory failure, sleep apnoea, and dyspnoea related to pulmonary oedema. NIV is provided through a facial mask. Many complications of NIV facial masks have been reported, including the breakdown of facial skin. We report a case of an elderly male admitted with multiple co-morbidities. The facial mask was applied continuously for NIV, without any relief or formal monitoring of the underlying skin. It resulted in a Grade II pressure ulcer. We discuss the possible mechanism and offer advice for prevention of such device-related pressure ulcers.

  4. Facial soft tissue thickness of Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi-Oliveira, Sílvia Virginia; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff; de Almeida, Natalie Haddad; de Paiva, Luiz Airton Saavedra

    2009-12-15

    The auxiliary technique known as Facial Reconstruction enables one to reestablish the contours of the soft tissues over the skull, therefore producing a face and increasing the probability of a facial recognition. The reliability of this technique depends on the evaluation of the mean values of soft tissue thicknesses observed in a given population. Measurements were evaluated in autopsied corpses in "Section of Technical Verification of Deaths" in Guarulhos, São Paulo, Brazil. Thickness was measured manually by puncturing 10 midline craniometrical points and 11 bilateral points on a sample of 40 corpses of both sexes aged between 17 and 90 years, classified by skin color and the nutritional state. The results for the average thickness values are higher for males, variations related to the nutritional state are proportional to the increased fat on the face and age was not significant. The ethnic variable related to skin color when compared to studies with other populations showed differences, with the need for a reference table for a given population application of Facial Reconstruction technique in skulls of non-attributable identity.

  5. The Facially Disfigured Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncada, Georgia A.

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews diagnosis and treatments for facially disfigured children including craniofacial reconstruction and microsurgical techniques. Noted are associated disease processes that affect the social and intellectual outcomes of the afflicted child. (Author/DB)

  6. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... graft; Full thickness skin graft Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Images Skin graft Skin ...

  7. Traumatic facial nerve neuroma with facial palsy presenting in infancy.

    PubMed

    Clark, James H; Burger, Peter C; Boahene, Derek Kofi; Niparko, John K

    2010-07-01

    To describe the management of traumatic neuroma of the facial nerve in a child and literature review. Sixteen-month-old male subject. Radiological imaging and surgery. Facial nerve function. The patient presented at 16 months with a right facial palsy and was found to have a right facial nerve traumatic neuroma. A transmastoid, middle fossa resection of the right facial nerve lesion was undertaken with a successful facial nerve-to-hypoglossal nerve anastomosis. The facial palsy improved postoperatively. A traumatic neuroma should be considered in an infant who presents with facial palsy, even in the absence of an obvious history of trauma. The treatment of such lesion is complex in any age group but especially in young children. Symptoms, age, lesion size, growth rate, and facial nerve function determine the appropriate management.

  8. Facial bacterial infections: folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Laureano, Ana Cristina; Schwartz, Robert A; Cohen, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Facial bacterial infections are most commonly caused by infections of the hair follicles. Wherever pilosebaceous units are found folliculitis can occur, with the most frequent bacterial culprit being Staphylococcus aureus. We review different origins of facial folliculitis, distinguishing bacterial forms from other infectious and non-infectious mimickers. We distinguish folliculitis from pseudofolliculitis and perifolliculitis. Clinical features, etiology, pathology, and management options are also discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Image ratio features for facial expression recognition application.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Liu, Zicheng; Li, Xuelong; Zhou, Mengchu

    2010-06-01

    Video-based facial expression recognition is a challenging problem in computer vision and human-computer interaction. To target this problem, texture features have been extracted and widely used, because they can capture image intensity changes raised by skin deformation. However, existing texture features encounter problems with albedo and lighting variations. To solve both problems, we propose a new texture feature called image ratio features. Compared with previously proposed texture features, e.g., high gradient component features, image ratio features are more robust to albedo and lighting variations. In addition, to further improve facial expression recognition accuracy based on image ratio features, we combine image ratio features with facial animation parameters (FAPs), which describe the geometric motions of facial feature points. The performance evaluation is based on the Carnegie Mellon University Cohn-Kanade database, our own database, and the Japanese Female Facial Expression database. Experimental results show that the proposed image ratio feature is more robust to albedo and lighting variations, and the combination of image ratio features and FAPs outperforms each feature alone. In addition, we study asymmetric facial expressions based on our own facial expression database and demonstrate the superior performance of our combined expression recognition system.

  10. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  11. [Facial paralysis in children].

    PubMed

    Muler, H; Paquelin, F; Cotin, G; Luboinski, B; Henin, J M

    1975-01-01

    Facial paralyses in children may be grouped under headings displaying a certain amount of individuality. Chronologically, first to be described are neonatal facial paralyses. These are common and are nearly always cured within a few days. Some of these cases are due to the mastoid being crushed at birth with or without the use of forceps. The intra-osseous pathway of the facial nerve is then affected throughout its length. However, a cure is often spontaneous. When this desirable development does not take place within three months, the nerve should be freed by decompressive surgery. The special anatomy of the facial nerve in the new-born baby makes this a delicate operation. Later, in all stages of acute otitis, acute mastoiditis or chronic otitis, facial paralysis can be seen. Treatment depends on the stage reached by the otitis: paracentesis, mastoidectomy, various scraping procedures, and, of course, antibiotherapy. The other causes of facial paralysis in children are very much less common: a frigore or viral, traumatic, occur ring in the course of acute poliomyelitis, shingles or tumours of the middle ear. To these must be added exceptional causes such as vitamin D intoxication, idiopathic hypercalcaemia and certain haemopathies.

  12. Depigmented skin and phantom color measurements for realistic prostheses.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of realistic prostheses. Data was analyzed from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared with 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making realistic facial prostheses. The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (P = 0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (P = 0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162). Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for realistic facial prostheses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Medical makeup for concealing facial scars.

    PubMed

    Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F

    2012-10-01

    Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Non-ablative skin tightening with radiofrequency in Asian skin.

    PubMed

    Kushikata, Nobuharu; Negishi, Kei; Tezuka, Yukiko; Takeuchi, Kaori; Wakamatsu, Shingo

    2005-02-01

    The recent successful application of radiofrequency (RF) in non-ablative skin tightening for skin laxity has attracted attention worldwide. The efficacy and clinical effect of RF were assessed in Asian skin, with additional study on the duration of the effect and any complications. Eighty-five Japanese females were enrolled in the study for treatment of nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and sagging jowls with 6-month follow-up. RF treatment was effective for nasolabial folds, marionette lines, and jowls. Objective physician evaluation found relatively good improvement at 3 months post-treatment, and even better improvement at the 6-month evaluation. RF treatment was very satisfactory for skin tightening in Asian facial skin. When compared with published literature from the United States, the results suggested that there might be race-related differences in the treatment parameters. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. The significance of orbital anatomy and periocular wrinkling when performing laser skin resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Trelles, M A; Pardo, L; Benedetto, A V; García-Solana, L; Torrens, J

    2000-03-01

    Knowledge of orbital anatomy and the interaction of muscle contractions, gravitational forces and photoagingis fundamental in understanding the limitations of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin resurfacing when rejuvenating the skin of the periocular area. Laser resurfacing does not change the mimetic behavior of the facial muscles nor does it influence gravitational forces. When resurfacing periocular tissue, the creation of scleral show and ectropion are a potential consequence when there is an over zealous attempt at improving the sagging malar fat pad and eyelid laxity by performing an excess amount of laser passes at the lateral portion of the lower eyelid. This results in an inadvertent widening of the palpebral fissure due to the lateral pull of the Orbicularis oculi. Retrospectively, 85 patients were studied, who had undergone periorbital resurfacing with a CO2 laser using anew treatment approach. The Sharplan 40C CO2 Feather Touchlaser was programmed with a circular scanning pattern and used just for the shoulders of the wrinkles. A final laser pass was performed with the same program over the entire lower eyelid skin surface, excluding the outer lateral portion (e.g. a truncated triangle-like area),corresponding to the lateral canthus. Only a single laser pass was delivered to the lateral canthal triangle to avoid widening the lateral opening of the eyelid, which might lead to the potential complications of scleral show and ectropion. When the area of the crows' feet is to be treated, three passes on the skin of this entire lateral orbital surface are completed by moving laterally and upward toward the hairline. Patients examined on days 1, 7, 15, 30, 60, and one year after laser resurfacing showed good results. At two months after treatment, the clinical improvement was rated by the patient and physician as being "very good" in 81 of the 85 patients reviewed. These patients underwent laser resurfacing without complications. The proposed technique of

  16. Rejuvenation Stage Volcanics at Laeo Kilauea, Kauai, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thordarson, T.; Garcia, M.; Wanless, D.; Tagami, T.; Sano, H.

    2005-12-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene Koloa volcanic series represents the rejuvenated volcanism on Kauai, one of the oldest main Hawaiian Islands. The Koloa series is made up of highly alkalic basalt and associated sedimentary rocks that rest unconformably on the shield-building Waimea Canyon volcanic series. Koloa vents are dispersed across the eastern two-thirds of the island and typically consist of scoria or lava cones that fed broad lava flow fields blanketing the marginal lowlands on the south, east and north side of the island. The northernmost subaerial Koloa vents are found at Laeo Kilauea on the north shore of the island. At Laeo Kilauea the volcanic succession is unusual in that it contains the only phreatomagmatic vent structures of the Koloa series. Here an ~2-km-long costal cliff face reveals a bedded phreatomagmatic tephra sequence that is >90-m-thick and represents the remnant of an a much large tuff cone (>2-km in diameter). The tuff cone sequence is characterized by decimeter to meters thick layers, where cross-bedded ash beds alternate with massive and poorly sorted lapilli tuff beds. The cross-bedded deposits were produced by dry and wet surges, whereas the poorly sorted beds represent fall deposits produced by sustained eruption column (i.e. continuous up-rush) or tephra jets (i.e. rooster-tail explosions). The juvenile clast population of the tephra consists of olivine-phyric foidite, but it also contains abundant wall-rock lithics, including fragments of reef-limestone. The base of the tuff cone outcrops at Mokolea point on the east side of the outcrop, where phreatomagmatic tephra rests directly on an older Koloa pahoehoe flow, a olivine- and mellelite-phyric foidite lava. The tephra sequence is cut by an ~1-m-thick olivine-bearing basanite dike, which acted as a feeder for the fountain-fed spatter and lava (up to 100-m-thick) that cap the phreatomagmatic tephra sequence. These units are separated by a 2-3 m thick soil horizon formed by weathering of the

  17. Facial dynamics and emotional expressions in facial aging treatments.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Thierry; Gassia, Véronique; Belhaouari, Lakhdar

    2015-03-01

    Facial expressions convey emotions that form the foundation of interpersonal relationships, and many of these emotions promote and regulate our social linkages. Hence, the facial aging symptomatological analysis and the treatment plan must of necessity include knowledge of the facial dynamics and the emotional expressions of the face. This approach aims to more closely meet patients' expectations of natural-looking results, by correcting age-related negative expressions while observing the emotional language of the face. This article will successively describe patients' expectations, the role of facial expressions in relational dynamics, the relationship between facial structures and facial expressions, and the way facial aging mimics negative expressions. Eventually, therapeutic implications for facial aging treatment will be addressed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

    2009-08-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two cases of sound-induced facial synkinesis (SFS) after facial nerve injury. As far as we know, this phenomenon has not been described in the English literature before. Patient A presented with right hemifacial palsy after lesion of the facial nerve due to skull base fracture. He reported involuntary muscle activity at the right corner of the mouth, specifically on hearing ringing keys. Patient B suffered from left hemifacial palsy following otitis media and developed involuntary muscle contraction in the facial musculature specifically on hearing clapping hands or a trumpet sound. Both patients were evaluated by means of video, audio and EMG analysis. Possible mechanisms in the pathophysiology of SFS are postulated and therapeutic options are discussed.

  19. Children with facial morphoea managing everyday life: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Stasiulis, E; Gladstone, B; Boydell, K; O'Brien, C; Pope, E; Laxer, R M

    2018-02-16

    Facial morphoea is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder, typically presenting in childhood and adolescence, which can be disfiguring, and which has been suggested to cause mild-to-moderate impairment in quality of life. To explore the everyday experiences of children with facial morphoea by examining the psychosocial impact of living with facial morphoea and how children and their families manage its impact. We used a qualitative, social constructionist approach involving focus groups, in-depth interviews and drawing activities with 10 children with facial morphoea aged 8-17 years and 13 parents. Interpretive thematic analysis was utilized to examine the data. Children and parents reported on the stress of living with facial morphoea, which was related to the lack of knowledge about facial morphoea and the extent to which they perceived themselves as different from others. Self-perceptions were based on the visibility of the lesion, different phases of life transitions and the reactions of others (e.g. intrusive questioning and bullying). Medication routines, and side-effects such as weight gain, added to the stress experienced by the participants. To manage the impact of facial morphoea, children and their parents used strategies to normalize the experience by hiding physical signs of the illness, constructing explanations about what 'it' is, and by connecting with their peers. Understanding what it is like to live with facial morphoea from the perspectives of children and parents is important for devising ways to help children with the disorder achieve a better quality of life. Healthcare providers can help families access resources to manage anxiety, deal with bullying and construct adequate explanations of facial morphoea, in addition to providing opportunities for peer support. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Capturing Physiology of Emotion along Facial Muscles: A Method of Distinguishing Feigned from Involuntary Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Masood Mehmood; Ward, Robert D.; Ingleby, Michael

    The ability to distinguish feigned from involuntary expressions of emotions could help in the investigation and treatment of neuropsychiatric and affective disorders and in the detection of malingering. This work investigates differences in emotion-specific patterns of thermal variations along the major facial muscles. Using experimental data extracted from 156 images, we attempted to classify patterns of emotion-specific thermal variations into neutral, and voluntary and involuntary expressions of positive and negative emotive states. Initial results suggest (i) each facial muscle exhibits a unique thermal response to various emotive states; (ii) the pattern of thermal variances along the facial muscles may assist in classifying voluntary and involuntary facial expressions; and (iii) facial skin temperature measurements along the major facial muscles may be used in automated emotion assessment.

  1. Caricaturing facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Calder, A J; Rowland, D; Young, A W; Nimmo-Smith, I; Keane, J; Perrett, D I

    2000-08-14

    The physical differences between facial expressions (e.g. fear) and a reference norm (e.g. a neutral expression) were altered to produce photographic-quality caricatures. In Experiment 1, participants rated caricatures of fear, happiness and sadness for their intensity of these three emotions; a second group of participants rated how 'face-like' the caricatures appeared. With increasing levels of exaggeration the caricatures were rated as more emotionally intense, but less 'face-like'. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar relationship between emotional intensity and level of caricature for six different facial expressions. Experiments 3 and 4 compared intensity ratings of facial expression caricatures prepared relative to a selection of reference norms - a neutral expression, an average expression, or a different facial expression (e.g. anger caricatured relative to fear). Each norm produced a linear relationship between caricature and rated intensity of emotion; this finding is inconsistent with two-dimensional models of the perceptual representation of facial expression. An exemplar-based multidimensional model is proposed as an alternative account.

  2. Facial Transplantation Surgery Introduction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea. PMID:26028914

  3. Facial transplantation surgery introduction.

    PubMed

    Eun, Seok-Chan

    2015-06-01

    Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea.

  4. Facial preservation following extreme mummification: Shrunken heads.

    PubMed

    Houlton, Tobias M R; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2018-05-01

    Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction. Sixty-five human shrunken heads were assessed: 6 ceremonial, 36 commercial, and 23 ambiguous. Investigations included manual inspection, multi-detector computerised tomography, infrared reflectography, ultraviolet fluorescence and microscopic hair analysis. The mummification process disfigures the outer face, cheeks, nasal root and bridge form, including brow ridge, eyes, ears, mouth, and nose projection. Melanin depletion, epidermal degeneration, and any applied staining changes the natural skin complexion. Papillary and reticular dermis separation is possible. Normal hair structure (cuticle, cortex, medulla) is retained. Hair appears longer (unless cut) and more profuse following shrinkage. Significant features retained include skin defects, facial creases, hairlines and earlobe form. Hair conditions that only affect living scalps are preserved (e.g. nits, hair casts). Ear and nose cartilage helps to retain some morphological information. Commercial heads appear less distorted than ceremonial tsantsa, often presenting a definable eyebrow shape, vermillion lip shape, lip thickness (if mouth is open), philtrum form, and palpebral slit angle. Facial identification capabilities are considered limited, and only perceived possible for commercial heads. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acneiform facial eruptions

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Melody J.; Taher, Muba; Lauzon, Gilles J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To summarize clinical recognition and current management strategies for four types of acneiform facial eruptions common in young women: acne vulgaris, rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Many randomized controlled trials (level I evidence) have studied treatments for acne vulgaris over the years. Treatment recommendations for rosacea, folliculitis, and perioral dermatitis are based predominantly on comparison and open-label studies (level II evidence) as well as expert opinion and consensus statements (level III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Young women with acneiform facial eruptions often present in primary care. Differentiating between morphologically similar conditions is often difficult. Accurate diagnosis is important because treatment approaches are different for each disease. CONCLUSION Careful visual assessment with an appreciation for subtle morphologic differences and associated clinical factors will help with diagnosis of these common acneiform facial eruptions and lead to appropriate management. PMID:15856972

  6. Compensation procedures for facial asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Kozol, F

    1995-01-01

    Why would a patient complain of "fuzzy and uncomfortable" vision with a variety of glasses? Perhaps because the practitioner has failed to take facial asymmetry into account. Methods of measuring facial asymmetry and optically correcting for it are discussed.

  7. Modulation of gene expression as a new skin anti-aging strategy.

    PubMed

    Talbourdet, Sylvie; Sadick, Neil S; Lazou, Kristell; Bonnet-Duquennoy, Mathilde; Kurfurst, Robin; Neveu, Michele; Heusèle, Catherine; André, Patrice; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Draelos, Zoe D; Perrier, Eric

    2007-06-01

    human epidermis model showed that some genes modulated by treatment with the Malva sylvestris extract are also regulated by RA treatment indicating a similar activity at the mRNA level. In the single-center study, a facial skin care product containing the Aframomum angustifolium seed extract significantly improved the homogeneity of the skin. The areas of the detected objects (skin imperfections) decreased significantly on each studied area of the face and the variance decreased significantly over the entire face. In the 2-center study, 28% percent of the subjects reported a greater than 50% overall global improvement in their skin by the end of the study compared to 11% of the subjects after 4 weeks of treatment. Seventy-six percent of subjects said they would purchase the cream. The authors developed a low-density DNA chip method that permitted the study of the transcriptional effect of Malva Sylvestris extract and of Aframomum angustrifolium seed extract. The gene expression profiles obtained demonstrate the anti-aging properties of these compounds. An in vivo single-center study, performed and analyzed with an assay based on image processing analysis, demonstrated the antiwrinkle activity of a formulation containing the Aframomum angustifolium seed extract. The data obtained in the 2-center study suggests that the cosmeceutical containing Aframomum angustifolium seed extract produces a global rejuvenation effect in terms of redness, pigmentation, and fine lines similar to that noted utilizing an intense pulse light source.

  8. Computer Recognition of Facial Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-01

    facial recognition 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side It necessary and Identify by block number) A system for the recognition of human faces from...21 2.6 Classification Algorithms ........... ... 32 III FACIAL RECOGNITION AND AUTOMATIC TRAINING . . . 37 3.1 Facial Profile Recognition...provide a fair test of the classification system. The work of Goldstein, Harmon, and Lesk [81 indicates, however, that for facial recognition , a ten class

  9. Managing the Pediatric Facial Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Patrick; Kaufman, Yoav; Hollier, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Facial fracture management is often complex and demanding, particularly within the pediatric population. Although facial fractures in this group are uncommon relative to their incidence in adult counterparts, a thorough understanding of issues relevant to pediatric facial fracture management is critical to optimal long-term success. Here, we discuss several issues germane to pediatric facial fractures and review significant factors in their evaluation, diagnosis, and management. PMID:22110800

  10. BMI and WHR Are Reflected in Female Facial Shape and Texture: A Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christine; Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3–10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception. PMID:28052103

  11. BMI and WHR Are Reflected in Female Facial Shape and Texture: A Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Christine; Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3-10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception.

  12. Cues of Fatigue: Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Facial Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Design: Experimental laboratory study. Setting: Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Measurements: Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. Results: The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life. Citation: Sundelin T; Lekander M; Kecklund G; Van Someren EJW; Olsson A; Axelsson J. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1355-1360. PMID:23997369

  13. Facial gunshot wound debridement: debridement of facial soft tissue gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Shvyrkov, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Over the period 1981-1985 the author treated 1486 patients with facial gunshot wounds sustained in combat in Afghanistan. In the last quarter of 20th century, more powerful and destructive weapons such as M-16 rifles, AK-47 and Kalashnikov submachine guns, became available and a new approach to gunshot wound debridement is required. Modern surgeons have little experience in treatment of such wounds because of rare contact with similar pathology. This article is intended to explore modern wound debridement. The management of 502 isolated soft tissue injuries is presented. Existing principles recommend the sparing of damaged tissues. The author's experience was that tissue sparing lead to a high rate of complications (47.6%). Radical primary surgical debridement (RPSD) of wounds was then adopted with radical excision of necrotic non-viable wound margins containing infection to the point of active capillary bleeding and immediate primary wound closure. After radical debridement wound infection and breakdown decreased by a factor of 10. Plastic operations with local and remote soft tissue were made on 14, 7% of the wounded. Only 0.7% patients required discharge from the army due to facial muscle paralysis and/or facial skin impregnation with particles of gunpowder from mine explosions. Gunshot face wound; modern debridement. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  15. Metabolomics evaluation of early-storage red blood cell rejuvenation at 4°C and 37°C.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, Sarah; Srinivasan, Amudan J; Culp-Hill, Rachel; Reisz, Julie A; Ansari, Andrea; Gray, Alan; Landrigan, Matthew; Welsby, Ian; D'Alessandro, Angelo

    2018-04-24

    Refrigerated red blood cell (RBC) storage results in the progressive accumulation of biochemical and morphological alterations collectively referred to as the storage lesion. Storage-induced metabolic alterations can be in part reversed by rejuvenation practices. However, rejuvenation requires an incubation step of RBCs for 1 hour at 37°C, limiting the practicality of providing "on-demand," rejuvenated RBCs. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of rejuvenation solution early in storage as an adjunct additive solution would prevent-in a time window consistent with the average age of units transfused to sickle cell recipients at Duke (15 days)-many of the adverse biochemical changes that can be reversed via standard rejuvenation, while obviating the incubation step. Metabolomics analyses were performed on cells and supernatants from AS-1 RBC units (n = 4), stored for 15 days. Units were split into pediatric bag aliquots and stored at 4°C. These were untreated controls, washed with or without rejuvenation, performed under either standard (37°C) or cold (4°C) conditions. All three treatments removed most metabolic storage by-products from RBC supernatants. However, only standard and cold rejuvenation provided significant metabolic benefits as judged by the reactivation of glycolysis and regeneration of adenosine triphosphate and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. Improvements in energy metabolism also translated into increased capacity to restore the total glutathione pool and regenerate oxidized vitamin C in its reduced (ascorbate) form. Cold and standard rejuvenation of 15-day-old RBCs primes energy and redox metabolism of stored RBCs, while providing a logistic advantage for routine blood bank processing workflows. © 2018 AABB.

  16. Reconstruction of Complex Facial Defects Using Cervical Expanded Flap Prefabricated by Temporoparietal Fascia Flap.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Qinghua; Jiang, Haiyue; Liu, Ge; Huang, Wanlu; Dong, Weiwei

    2015-09-01

    Reconstruction of complex facial defects using cervical expanded flap prefabricated by temporoparietal fascia flap. Complex facial defects are required to restore not only function but also aesthetic appearance, so it is vital challenge for plastic surgeons. Skin grafts and traditional flap transfer cannot meet the reconstructive requirements of color and texture with recipient. The purpose of this sturdy is to create an expanded prefabricated temporoparietal fascia flap to repair complex facial defects. Two patients suffered severe burns on the face underwent complex facial resurfacing with prefabricated cervical flap. The vasculature of prefabricated flap, including the superficial temporal vessel and surrounding fascia, was used as the vascular carrier. The temporoparietal fascia flap was sutured underneath the cervical subcutaneous tissue, and expansion was begun in postoperative 1 week. After 4 to 6 months of expansion, the expander was removed, facial scars were excised, and cervical prefabricated flap was elevated and transferred to repair the complex facial defects. Two complex facial defects were repaired successfully by prefabricated temporoparietal fascia flap, and prefabricated flaps survived completely. On account of donor site's skin was thinner and expanded too fast, 1 expanded skin flap was rupture during expansion, but necrosis was not occurred after the 2nd operation. Venous congestion was observed in 1 patient, but after dressing, flap necrosis was not happened. Donor site was closed primarily. Postoperative follow-up 6 months, the color, texture of prefabricated flap was well-matched with facial skin. This method of expanded prefabricated flap may provide a reliable solution to the complex facial resurfacing.

  17. Nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lask, Gary P.; Lee, Patrick K.; Seyfzadeh, Manouchehr; Nelson, J. Stuart; Milner, Thomas E.; Anvari, Bahman; Dave, Digant P.; Geronemus, Roy G.; Bernstein, Leonard J.; Mittelman, Harry; Ridener, Laurie A.; Coulson, Walter F.; Sand, Bruce; Baumgarder, Jon; Hennings, David R.; Menefee, Richard F.; Berry, Michael J.

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the New Star Model 130 neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser system for nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides (e.g., periorbital wrinkles). Facial rhytides are treated with 1.32 micrometer wavelength laser light delivered through a fiberoptic handpiece into a 5 mm diameter spot using three 300 microsecond duration pulses at 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency and pulse radiant exposures extending up to 12 J/cm2. Dynamic cooling is used to cool the epidermis selectively prior to laser treatment; animal histology experiments confirm that dynamic cooling combined with nonablative laser heating protects the epidermis and selectively injures the dermis. In the human clinical study, immediately post-treatment, treated sites exhibit mild erythema and, in a few cases, edema or small blisters. There are no long-term complications such as marked dyspigmentation and persistent erythema that are commonly observed following ablative laser skin resurfacing. Preliminary results indicate that the severity of facial rhytides has been reduced, but long-term follow-up examinations are needed to quantify the reduction. The mechanism of action of this nonablative laser treatment modality may involve dermal wound healing that leads to long- term synthesis of new collagen and extracellular matrix material.

  18. Recognizing Facial Slivers.

    PubMed

    Gilad-Gutnick, Sharon; Harmatz, Elia Samuel; Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Yovel, Galit; Sinha, Pawan

    2018-07-01

    We report here an unexpectedly robust ability of healthy human individuals ( n = 40) to recognize extremely distorted needle-like facial images, challenging the well-entrenched notion that veridical spatial configuration is necessary for extracting facial identity. In face identification tasks of parametrically compressed internal and external features, we found that the sum of performances on each cue falls significantly short of performance on full faces, despite the equal visual information available from both measures (with full faces essentially being a superposition of internal and external features). We hypothesize that this large deficit stems from the use of positional information about how the internal features are positioned relative to the external features. To test this, we systematically changed the relations between internal and external features and found preferential encoding of vertical but not horizontal spatial relationships in facial representations ( n = 20). Finally, we employ magnetoencephalography imaging ( n = 20) to demonstrate a close mapping between the behavioral psychometric curve and the amplitude of the M250 face familiarity, but not M170 face-sensitive evoked response field component, providing evidence that the M250 can be modulated by faces that are perceptually identifiable, irrespective of extreme distortions to the face's veridical configuration. We theorize that the tolerance to compressive distortions has evolved from the need to recognize faces across varying viewpoints. Our findings help clarify the important, but poorly defined, concept of facial configuration and also enable an association between behavioral performance and previously reported neural correlates of face perception.

  19. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, cryotherapy is used to ...

  20. Skin abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  1. [Effects of a Facial Muscle Exercise Program including Facial Massage for Patients with Facial Palsy].

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyoung Ju; Shin, Sung Hee

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a facial muscle exercise program including facial massage on the facial muscle function, subjective symptoms related to paralysis and depression in patients with facial palsy. This study was a quasi-experimental research with a non-equivalent control group non-synchronized design. Participants were 70 patients with facial palsy (experimental group 35, control group 35). For the experimental group, the facial muscular exercise program including facial massage was performed 20 minutes a day, 3 times a week for two weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ²-test, Fisher's exact test and independent sample t-test with the SPSS 18.0 program. Facial muscular function of the experimental group improved significantly compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in symptoms related to paralysis between the experimental group and control group. The level of depression in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group. Results suggest that a facial muscle exercise program including facial massage is an effective nursing intervention to improve facial muscle function and decrease depression in patients with facial palsy.

  2. Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.

    PubMed

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  3. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics. PMID:25136663

  4. Facial diplegia: a clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Debaprasad; Roy, Mukut; Bhattacharyya, Amrit K

    2013-06-01

    Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare clinical entity and presents as a diagnostic challenge. Unlike its unilateral counterpart facial diplegia is seldom secondary to Bell's palsy. Occurring at a frequency of 0.3% to 2% of all facial palsies it often indicates ominous medical conditions. Guillian-Barre syndrome needs to be considered as a differential in all given cases of facial diplegia where timely treatment would be rewarding. Here a case of bilateral facial palsy due to Guillian-Barre syndrome with atypical presentation is reported.

  5. Are dark-skinned people really protected from ultraviolet radiation?

    PubMed

    Young, A L; Levy, S; Nighland, M; Grossman, R; Silvers, D N; Celebi, J T

    2010-06-01

    Premature ageing of the skin (photoageing) results from the action of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on skin. One of the histopathological findings of photoageing is the presence of solar elastosis in the dermis. Skin pigmentation is protective against UVR. To evaluate the presence of solar elastosis in dark-skinned people. Normal facial skin biopsies of 147 dark-skinned and 140 light-skinned people were examined histopathologically for solar elastosis. The degree of solar elastosis was graded on a five-point scale by a panel of dermatopathologists blinded to patient demographics. There were 112 of 140 (80%) light-skinned and 50 of 147 (34%) dark-skinned patients with high-grade solar elastosis. In the dark-skinned patient group, high-grade solar elastosis was seen in 29 of 61 (47.5%) Hispanic and 5 of 49 (10.2%) African American subjects. Dark-skinned people are not completely protected from the effects of UVR.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of rejuvenators to restore embrittlement temperatures in oxidized asphalt mixtures using acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhe; Farace, Nicholas; Arnold, Jacob; Behnia, Behzad; Buttlar, William G.; Reis, Henrique

    2015-03-01

    Towards developing a method capable to assess the efficiency of rejuvenators to restore embrittlement temperatures of oxidized asphalt binders towards their original, i.e., unaged values, three gyratory compacted specimens were manufactured with mixtures oven-aged for 36 hours at 135 °C. In addition, one gyratory compacted specimen manufactured using a short-term oven-aged mixture for two hours at 155 °C was used for control to simulate aging during plant production. Each of these four gyratory compacted specimens was then cut into two cylindrical specimen 5 cm thick for a total of six 36-hour oven-aged specimens and two short term aging specimens. Two specimens aged for 36 hours and the two short-term specimens were then tested using an acoustic emission approach to obtain base acoustic emission response of short-term and severely-aged specimens. The remaining four specimens oven-aged for 36 hours were then treated by spreading their top surface with rejuvenator in the amount of 10% of the binder by weight. These four specimens were then tested using the same acoustic emission approach after two, four, six, and eight weeks of dwell time. It was observed that the embrittlement temperatures of the short-term aged and severely oven-aged specimens were -25 °C and - 15 °C, respectively. It was also observed that after four weeks of dwell time, the rejuvenator-treated samples had recuperated the original embrittlement temperatures. In addition, it was also observed that the rejuvenator kept acting upon the binder after four weeks of dwell time; at eight weeks of dwell time, the specimens had an embrittlement temperature about one grade cooler than the embrittlement temperature corresponding to the short-term aged specimen.

  7. Mechanical rejuvenation in bulk metallic glass induced by thermo-mechanical creep

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yang; Dmowski, W.; Bei, Hongbin

    Using high energy X-ray diffraction we studied the temperature, stress, and time effect on structural changes in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass induced by thermo-mechanical creep. Pair distribution functions obtained from two-dimensional diffraction patterns show that thermo-mechanical creep induces structural disordering, but only when the stress beyond a threshold is applied. A similar threshold behavior was observed for anelastic strain. We conclude that anelastic creep strain induces rejuvenation, whereas plastic strain does not.

  8. Mechanical rejuvenation in bulk metallic glass induced by thermo-mechanical creep

    DOE PAGES

    Tong, Yang; Dmowski, W.; Bei, Hongbin; ...

    2018-02-16

    Using high energy X-ray diffraction we studied the temperature, stress, and time effect on structural changes in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass induced by thermo-mechanical creep. Pair distribution functions obtained from two-dimensional diffraction patterns show that thermo-mechanical creep induces structural disordering, but only when the stress beyond a threshold is applied. A similar threshold behavior was observed for anelastic strain. We conclude that anelastic creep strain induces rejuvenation, whereas plastic strain does not.

  9. Dermabrasion and staged excision of facial lesions in a neurofibromatosis case for improvement of facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Karabekmez, Furkan Erol; Duymaz, Ahmet; Karacor, Zeynep

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis may present with different skin lesions. Disfiguring lesions on the face might be challenging for the surgeon or clinician to correct and may have adverse effects on patients' social lives, especially in young women. To present the dermabrasion technique combined with serial excisions of a deeper accompanying lesion to treat superficial facial lesions in a young neurofibromatosis patient. Dermabrasion was applied to superficial lesions on the face, and staged excision was applied to the deeper lesion located on the forehead. We obtained high patient satisfaction with the result. The deep lesion was excised totally, and superficial lesions were decreased with dermabrasion. Dermabrasion may become a good alternative in cases of neurofibromatosis with superficial facial lesions.

  10. Theory of Aging, Rejuvenation, and the Nonequilibrium Steady State in Deformed Polymer Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kang

    The nonlinear Langevin equation theory of segmental relaxation, elasticity, and mechanical response of polymer glasses is extended to describe the coupled effects of physical aging, mechanical rejuvenation, and thermal history. The key structural variable is the amplitude of density fluctuations, and segmental dynamics proceeds via stress-modified activated barrier hopping on a dynamic free-energy profile. Mechanically generated disorder rejuvenation is quantified by a dissipative work argument and increases the amplitude of density fluctuations, thereby speeding up relaxation beyond that induced by the landscape tilting mechanism. The theory makes testable predictions for the time evolution and nonequilibrium steady state of the alphamore » relaxation time, density fluctuation amplitude, elastic modulus, and other properties. Model calculations reveal a rich dependence of these quantities on preaging time, applied stress, and temperature that reflects the highly nonlinear competition between physical aging and mechanical disordering. Thermal history is erased in the long-time limit, although the nonequilibrium steady state is not the literal fully rejuvenated freshly quenched glass. The present work provides the conceptual foundation for a quantitative treatment of the nonlinear mechanical response of polymer glasses under a variety of deformation protocols.« less

  11. Surface rejuvenation for multilayer metal deposition on polymer microspheres via self-seeded electroless plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagoz, Bunyamin; Sirkecioglu, Okan; Bicak, Niyazi

    2013-11-01

    A surface rejuvenation process was developed for generation variable thickness of metal deposits on polymer microspheres via electroless plating. Thus, Ni(II), Cu(II) and Ag(I) complexes formed on triethylenetetramine (TETA) functional crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres were reduced to zero-valent metals. The resulting metals (1.1-1.5 mmol g-1) were employed as seed points for electroless metal plating (self-seeding) without using Pd or tin pre-activating species. Treatment of the metalized surfaces with hydrazine or hydrazinium formate was demonstrated to reactivate (rejuvenate) the surface and allows further metal deposition from electroless plating solutions. Followed repeating of the surface rejuvenation-metalization steps resulted in step wise increasing of the metal deposits (90-290 mg per g in each cycle), as inferred from metal analyses, ESEM and XPS analysis. Experiments showed that, after 6 times of cycling the metal deposits exceed 1 g per g of the microspheres on average. The process seemed to be promising for tuning up of the metal thickness by stepwise electroless plating.

  12. Seismological constraints on the crustal structures generated by continental rejuvenation in northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Tian-Yu; He, Yu-Mei; Yang, Jin-Hui; Zhao, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Crustal rejuvenation is a key process that has shaped the characteristics of current continental structures and components in tectonic active continental regions. Geological and geochemical observations have provided insights into crustal rejuvenation, although the crustal structural fabrics have not been well constrained. Here, we present a seismic image across the North China Craton (NCC) and Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) using a velocity structure imaging technique for receiver functions from a dense array. The crustal evolution of the eastern NCC was delineated during the Mesozoic by a dominant low seismic wave velocity with velocity inversion, a relatively shallow Moho discontinuity, and a Moho offset beneath the Tanlu Fault Zone. The imaged structures and geochemical evidence, including changes in the components and ages of continental crusts and significant continental crustal growth during the Mesozoic, provide insight into the rejuvenation processes of the evolving crust in the eastern NCC caused by structural, magmatic and metamorphic processes in an extensional setting. The fossil structural fabric of the convergent boundary in the eastern CAOB indicates that the back-arc action of the Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction did not reach the hinterland of Asia. PMID:26443323

  13. In-vivo experimental evaluation of nonablative skin remodeling using a 1.54-μm laser with surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Capon, Alexandre; Creusy, Collette; Fleurisse, Laurence; Buys, Bruno; Faucheux, Marc A.; Servell, Pascal

    2000-05-01

    Selective dermal remodeling using diode or 1.32 micrometer Nd:YAG lasers has been recently proposed for skin rejuvenation. This new technique consists in inducing collagen tightening and/or neocollagen synthesis without significant damage of the overlying epidermis. Such an approach requires (1) a cooling system in order to target dermal collagen with relatively good protection of the epidermal layer, (2) a specific wavelength for confining the thermal damage into the upper dermis (100 to 400 micrometer). Based on previous studies, demonstrating a better water absorption and a reduced melanin absorption at 1.54 micrometer compared to the 1.32 micrometer, this experimental study aimed to evaluate a new laser (co-doped Yb-Er:phosphate glass material, Aramis, Quantel-France) emitting at 1.54 micrometer. This laser was used in combination with the Dermacool system (Dermacool, Mableton, USA) in order to achieve epidermis cooling before, during and after irradiation. Male hairless rats were used for the study. Pulse train irradiation (1.1 J, 3 Hz, 30 pulses) and different cooling temperatures (+5 degree(s)C, 0 degree(s)C, -5 degree(s)C) were screened with clinical examination and histological evaluation at 1, 3, and 7 days after laser irradiation. The clinical effects showed that pulse train irradiation produced reproducible epidermal preservation and confinement of the thermal damage into the dermis. The different cooling temperatures did not provide detectable differences in terms of size and depth of thermal damage. New collagen synthesis was confirmed by a marked fibroblastic proliferation, detected in the lower dermis at D3 and clearly seen in the upper dermis at D7. This new laser appears to be a promising new tool for the treatment of skin laxity, solar elastosis, facial rhytids and mild reduction of wrinkles.

  14. Hyaluronic acid fillers with cohesive polydensified matrix for soft-tissue augmentation and rejuvenation: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Prasetyo, Adri D; Prager, Welf; Rubin, Mark G; Moretti, Ernesto A; Nikolis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Cohesive monophasic polydensified fillers show unique viscoelastic properties and variable density of hyaluronic acid, allowing for a homogeneous tissue integration and distribution of the material. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the clinical data regarding the performance, tolerability, and safety of the Belotero® fillers for soft-tissue augmentation and rejuvenation. Methods A literature search was performed up until May 31, 2015 to identify all relevant articles on Belotero® fillers (Basic/Balance, Hydro, Soft, Intense, Volume) and equivalent products (Esthélis®, Mesolis®, Fortélis®, Modélis®). Results This comprehensive review included 26 papers. Findings from three randomized controlled trials showed a greater reduction in nasolabial fold severity with Belotero® Basic/Balance than with collagen (at 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks, n=118) and Restylane® (at 4 weeks, n=40), and higher patient satisfaction with Belotero® Intense than with Perlane® (at 2 weeks, n=20). With Belotero® Basic/Balance, an improvement of at least 1 point on the severity scale can be expected in ~80% of patients 1–6 months after injection, with an effect still visible at 8–12 months. Positive findings were also reported with Belotero® Volume (no reduction in hyaluronic acid volume at 12 months, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging), Soft (improvement in the esthetic outcomes when used in a sequential approach), and Hydro (improvement in skin appearance in all patients). The most common adverse effects were mild-to-moderate erythema, edema, and hematoma, most of which were temporary. There were no reports of Tyndall effect, nodules, granulomas, or tissue necrosis. Conclusion Clinical evidence indicates sustainable esthetic effects, good safety profile, and long-term tolerability of the Belotero® fillers, particularly Belotero® Basic/Balance and Intense. PMID:27660479

  15. Skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Effects of asphalt rejuvenator on thermal and mechanical properties on oxidized hot mixed asphalt pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farace, Nicholas A.; Buttlar, William G.; Reis, Henrique

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of asphalt rejuvenator, and its effectiveness for restoring thermal and mechanical properties was investigated via Disk-shaped Compact Tension (DC(T)) and acoustic emission (AE) testing for determining mechanical properties and embrittlement temperatures of the mixtures. During the DC(T) testing the fracture energies and peak loads were used to measure the resistance of the rejuvenated asphalt to low temperature cracking. The AE testing monitored the acoustic emission activity while the specimens were cooled from room temperature to -40 °C to estimate the temperature at which thermal cracking began (i.e. the embrittlement temperature). First, a baseline response was obtained by obtaining the mechanical and thermal response of virgin HMA samples and HMA samples that had been exposed to oxidative aging for 36 hours at 135°C. The results showed the virgin samples had much higher peak loads and fracture energies than the 36 hours aged samples. Acoustic Emission showed similar results with the virgin samples having embrittlement temperatures 10 °C cooler than the 36 hours aged specimens. Then, overaged for 36 hours specimens were treated different amounts of rejuvenator (10%, 15%, and 20% by weight of binder content) and left to dwell for increased amount of time periods varying from one to eight weeks. It was observed that the AE results showed an improvement of embrittlement temperature with increasing with the dwell times. The 8 weeks specimens had cooler embrittlement temperatures than the virgin specimens. Finally, the low temperature effects on fracture energy and peak load of the rejuvenated asphalt was investigated. Rejuvenator was applied (10% by weight of binder) to specimens aged 36 hours at 135 °C, and the dwell time was varied from 1 to 4 weeks. The results showed that the peak loads were restored to levels of the virgin specimens, and the fracture energies improved to levels beyond that of the virgin specimens. The results also showed a

  17. Facial contrast is a cue for perceiving health from the face.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard; Porcheron, Aurélie; Sweda, Jennifer R; Jones, Alex L; Mauger, Emmanuelle; Morizot, Frederique

    2016-09-01

    How healthy someone appears has important social consequences. Yet the visual cues that determine perceived health remain poorly understood. Here we report evidence that facial contrast-the luminance and color contrast between internal facial features and the surrounding skin-is a cue for the perception of health from the face. Facial contrast was measured from a large sample of Caucasian female faces, and was found to predict ratings of perceived health. Most aspects of facial contrast were positively related to perceived health, meaning that faces with higher facial contrast appeared healthier. In 2 subsequent experiments, we manipulated facial contrast and found that participants perceived faces with increased facial contrast as appearing healthier than faces with decreased facial contrast. These results support the idea that facial contrast is a cue for perceived health. This finding adds to the growing knowledge about perceived health from the face, and helps to ground our understanding of perceived health in terms of lower-level perceptual features such as contrast. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Facial Asymmetry-Based Age Group Estimation: Role in Recognizing Age-Separated Face Images.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Taj, Imtiaz Ahmad; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Ratyal, Naeem Iqbal

    2018-04-23

    Face recognition aims to establish the identity of a person based on facial characteristics. On the other hand, age group estimation is the automatic calculation of an individual's age range based on facial features. Recognizing age-separated face images is still a challenging research problem due to complex aging processes involving different types of facial tissues, skin, fat, muscles, and bones. Certain holistic and local facial features are used to recognize age-separated face images. However, most of the existing methods recognize face images without incorporating the knowledge learned from age group estimation. In this paper, we propose an age-assisted face recognition approach to handle aging variations. Inspired by the observation that facial asymmetry is an age-dependent intrinsic facial feature, we first use asymmetric facial dimensions to estimate the age group of a given face image. Deeply learned asymmetric facial features are then extracted for face recognition using a deep convolutional neural network (dCNN). Finally, we integrate the knowledge learned from the age group estimation into the face recognition algorithm using the same dCNN. This integration results in a significant improvement in the overall performance compared to using the face recognition algorithm alone. The experimental results on two large facial aging datasets, the MORPH and FERET sets, show that the proposed age group estimation based on the face recognition approach yields superior performance compared to some existing state-of-the-art methods. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Realistic facial animation generation based on facial expression mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.

  20. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J W; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Experimental laboratory study. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01). The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life.

  1. MRI-based finite element modeling of facial mimics: a case study on the paired zygomaticus major muscles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ang-Xiao; Dakpé, Stéphanie; Dao, Tien Tuan; Pouletaut, Philippe; Rachik, Mohamed; Ho Ba Tho, Marie Christine

    2017-07-01

    Finite element simulation of facial mimics provides objective indicators about soft tissue functions for improving diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of facial disorders. There is a lack of in vivo experimental data for model development and validation. In this study, the contribution of the paired Zygomaticus Major (ZM) muscle contraction on the facial mimics was investigated using in vivo experimental data derived from MRI. Maximal relative differences of 7.7% and 37% were noted between MRI-based measurements and numerical outcomes for ZM and skin deformation behaviors respectively. This study opens a new direction to simulate facial mimics with in vivo data.

  2. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Mohd Noor, Nor Farid; Basri, Rehana; Yew, Tan Fo; Wen, Tay Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18-25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects' evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05) but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1%) were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5%) short and 81 (28.3%) long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population.

  3. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18–25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects’ evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05) but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1%) were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5%) short and 81 (28.3%) long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. In conclusion: 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population. PMID:26562655

  4. Dissociation of sad facial expressions and autonomic nervous system responding in boys with disruptive behavior disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Penny; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Williams, Bailey

    2009-01-01

    Although deficiencies in emotional responding have been linked to externalizing behaviors in children, little is known about how discrete response systems (e.g., expressive, physiological) are coordinated during emotional challenge among these youth. We examined time-linked correspondence of sad facial expressions and autonomic reactivity during an empathy-eliciting task among boys with disruptive behavior disorders (n = 31) and controls (n = 23). For controls, sad facial expressions were associated with reduced sympathetic (lower skin conductance level, lengthened cardiac preejection period [PEP]) and increased parasympathetic (higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) activity. In contrast, no correspondence between facial expressions and autonomic reactivity was observed among boys with conduct problems. Furthermore, low correspondence between facial expressions and PEP predicted externalizing symptom severity, whereas low correspondence between facial expressions and RSA predicted internalizing symptom severity. PMID:17868261

  5. In what sense 'familiar'? Examining experiential differences within pathologies of facial recognition.

    PubMed

    Young, Garry

    2009-09-01

    Explanations of Capgras delusion and prosopagnosia typically incorporate a dual-route approach to facial recognition in which a deficit in overt or covert processing in one condition is mirror-reversed in the other. Despite this double dissociation, experiences of either patient-group are often reported in the same way--as lacking a sense of familiarity toward familiar faces. In this paper, deficits in the facial processing of these patients are compared to other facial recognition pathologies, and their experiential characteristics mapped onto the dual-route model in order to provide a less ambiguous link between facial processing and experiential content. The paper concludes that the experiential states of Capgras delusion, prosopagnosia, and related facial pathologies are quite distinct, and that this descriptive distinctiveness finds explanatory equivalence at the level of anatomical and functional disruption within the face recognition system. The role of skin conductance response (SCR) as a measure of 'familiarity' is also clarified.

  6. Limbic and prefrontal responses to facial emotion expressions in depersonalization.

    PubMed

    Lemche, Erwin; Surguladze, Simon A; Giampietro, Vincent P; Anilkumar, Ananthapadmanabha; Brammer, Michael J; Sierra, Mauricio; Chitnis, Xavier; Williams, Steven C R; Gasston, David; Joraschky, Peter; David, Anthony S; Phillips, Mary L

    2007-03-26

    Depersonalization disorder, characterized by emotional detachment, has been associated with increased prefrontal cortical and decreased autonomic activity to emotional stimuli. Event-related fMRI with simultaneous measurements of skin conductance levels occurred in nine depersonalization disorder patients and 12 normal controls to neutral, mild and intense happy and sad facial expressions. Patients, but not controls, showed decreases in subcortical limbic activity to increasingly intense happy and sad facial expressions, respectively. For both happy and sad expressions, negative correlations between skin conductance measures in bilateral dorsal prefrontal cortices occurred only in depersonalization disorder patients. Abnormal decreases in limbic activity to increasingly intense emotional expressions, and increases in dorsal prefrontal cortical activity to emotionally arousing stimuli may underlie the emotional detachment of depersonalization disorder.

  7. Topical Treatment of Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Versteeg, Sarah G

    2017-04-01

    Facial seborrheic dermatitis (SD), a chronic inflammatory skin condition, can impact quality of life, and relapses can be frequent. Three broad categories of agents are used to treat SD: antifungal agents, keratolytics, and corticosteroids. Topical therapies are the first line of defense in treating this condition. Our objective was to critically review the published literature on topical treatments for facial SD. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane library databases for original clinical studies evaluating topical treatments for SD. We then conducted both a critical analysis of the selected studies by grading the evidence and a qualitative comparison of results among and within studies. A total of 32 studies were eligible for inclusion, encompassing 18 topical treatments for facial SD. Pimecrolimus, the focus of seven of the 32 eligible studies, was the most commonly studied topical treatment. Promiseb ® , desonide, mometasone furoate, and pimecrolimus were found to be effective topical treatments for facial SD, as they had the lowest recurrence rate, highest clearance rate, and the lowest severity scores (e.g., erythema, scaling, and pruritus), respectively. Ciclopirox olamine, ketoconazole, lithium (gluconate and succinate), and tacrolimus are also strongly recommended (level A recommendations) topical treatments for facial SD, as they are consistently effective across high-quality trials (randomized controlled trials).

  8. Facial Contrast Is a Cross-Cultural Cue for Perceiving Age.

    PubMed

    Porcheron, Aurélie; Mauger, Emmanuelle; Soppelsa, Frédérique; Liu, Yuli; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Russell, Richard; Morizot, Frédérique

    2017-01-01

    Age is a fundamental social dimension and a youthful appearance is of importance for many individuals, perhaps because it is a relevant predictor of aspects of health, facial attractiveness and general well-being. We recently showed that facial contrast-the color and luminance difference between facial features and the surrounding skin-is age-related and a cue to age perception of Caucasian women. Specifically, aspects of facial contrast decrease with age in Caucasian women, and Caucasian female faces with higher contrast look younger (Porcheron et al., 2013). Here we investigated faces of other ethnic groups and raters of other cultures to see whether facial contrast is a cross-cultural youth-related attribute. Using large sets of full face color photographs of Chinese, Latin American and black South African women aged 20-80, we measured the luminance and color contrast between the facial features (the eyes, the lips, and the brows) and the surrounding skin. Most aspects of facial contrast that were previously found to decrease with age in Caucasian women were also found to decrease with age in the other ethnic groups. Though the overall pattern of changes with age was common to all women, there were also some differences between the groups. In a separate study, individual faces of the 4 ethnic groups were perceived younger by French and Chinese participants when the aspects of facial contrast that vary with age in the majority of faces were artificially increased, but older when they were artificially decreased. Altogether these findings indicate that facial contrast is a cross-cultural cue to youthfulness. Because cosmetics were shown to enhance facial contrast, this work provides some support for the notion that a universal function of cosmetics is to make female faces look younger.

  9. Petrology and geochronology of lavas from Ka'ula Volcano: Implications for rejuvenated volcanism of the Hawaiian mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Michael O.; Weis, Dominique; Jicha, Brian R.; Ito, Garrett; Hanano, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Marine surveying and submersible sampling of Ka'ula Volcano, located 100 km off the axis of the Hawaiian chain, revealed widespread areas of young volcanism. New 40Ar/39Ar and geochemical analyses of the olivine-phyric submarine and subaerial volcanic rocks show that Ka'ula is shrouded with 1.9-0.5 Ma alkalic basalts. The ages and chemistry of these rocks overlap with rejuvenated lavas on nearby, northern Hawaiian Island shields (Ni'ihau, Kaua'i and South Kaua'i Swell). Collectively, these rejuvenated lavas cover a vast area (∼7000 km2), much more extensive than any other area of rejuvenated volcanism worldwide. Ka'ula rejuvenated lavas range widely in alkalinity and incompatible element abundances (e.g., up to 10× P2O5 at a given MgO value) and ratios indicating variable degrees of melting of a heterogeneous source. Heavy REE elements in Ka'ula lavas are pinned at a mantle normalized Yb value of 10 ± 1, reflecting the presence of garnet in the source. Trace element ratios indicate the source also contained phlogopite and an Fe-Ti oxide. The new Ka'ula ages show that rejuvenated volcanism was nearly coeval from ∼0.3 to 0.6 Ma along a 450 km segment of the Hawaiian Islands (from West Maui to north of Ka'ula). The ages and volumes for rejuvenated volcanism are inconsistent with all but one geodynamic melting model proposed to date. This model advocates a significant contribution of pyroxenite to rejuvenated magmas. Analyses of olivine phenocryst compositions suggest a major (33-69%) pyroxenite component in Ka'ula rejuvenated lavas, which correlates positively with radiogenic Pb isotope ratios for Ka'ula. This correlation is also observed in lavas from nearby South Kaua'i lavas, as was reported for Atlantic oceanic islands. The presence of pyroxenite in the source may have extended the duration and volume of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism.

  10. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  11. ‘Recharge My Exhausted Batteries’: Overbeck’s Rejuvenator, Patenting, and Public Medical Consumers, 1924–37

    PubMed Central

    Stark, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Although historians have shown that there has been a complex and multi-layered relationship between the body, medicine and the force of electricity, many avenues remain to be explored. One of the most prominent of these is the way in which electrotherapy technologies were marketed to a wide variety of different end users and intermediaries. This paper offers the first historical analysis of one such device – the Overbeck Rejuvenator – a 1920s electrotherapy machine designed for use by the general public. Its inventor, Otto Overbeck, was not a medical man and this enabled him to use aggressive strategies of newspaper advertising, using testimonials to market his product alongside appeals to his own scientific authority. He commissioned the prestigious Ediswan Company to manufacture the Rejuvenator on a large scale, and took out patents in eleven countries to persuade users of the efficacy of the device. In response to Overbeck’s activities, the British Medical Association enlisted an electrical engineer to examine the Rejuvenator, contacted practitioners whose endorsements were being used in publicity material, and denied Overbeck permission to advertise in the British Medical Journal. Despite this, the Rejuvenator brought its inventor wealth and notoriety, and helped redefine the concept of ‘rejuvenation’, even if the professional reception of such a device was almost universally hostile. This paper shows how the marketing, patenting and publishing of Overbeck combined to persuade members of the laity to try the Rejuvenator as an alternative form of therapy, bypassing the medical profession in the process. PMID:25284892

  12. A personal tribute to a great educator: how Henry Kawamoto influenced my interest in facial soft tissue anatomy and changed my plastic surgery career.

    PubMed

    Stuzin, James M

    2012-11-01

    Henry Kawamoto remains one of the most influential craniofacial surgeons of the 20th century. A Tessier-trained craniofacial surgeon, Dr. Kawamoto has personally influenced not only the lives of his patients, but significantly also the lives of those craniofacial fellows he educated, passing on the Tessier methodology to future generations. This article serves as an anecdote as to how Dr. Kawamoto's mentoring influenced a personal understanding of facial soft tissue anatomy, leading to improved technical approaches for surgical rejuvenation of the aging face.

  13. Quantitative anatomical analysis of facial expression using a 3D motion capture system: Application to cosmetic surgery and facial recognition technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Gi; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Jung-Hyuk; Choi, You-Jin; Bae, Hyun-Sook; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2015-09-01

    The topography of the facial muscles differs between males and females and among individuals of the same gender. To explain the unique expressions that people can make, it is important to define the shapes of the muscle, their associations with the skin, and their relative functions. Three-dimensional (3D) motion-capture analysis, often used to study facial expression, was used in this study to identify characteristic skin movements in males and females when they made six representative basic expressions. The movements of 44 reflective markers (RMs) positioned on anatomical landmarks were measured. Their mean displacement was large in males [ranging from 14.31 mm (fear) to 41.15 mm (anger)], and 3.35-4.76 mm smaller in females [ranging from 9.55 mm (fear) to 37.80 mm (anger)]. The percentages of RMs involved in the ten highest mean maximum displacement values in making at least one expression were 47.6% in males and 61.9% in females. The movements of the RMs were larger in males than females but were more limited. Expanding our understanding of facial expression requires morphological studies of facial muscles and studies of related complex functionality. Conducting these together with quantitative analyses, as in the present study, will yield data valuable for medicine, dentistry, and engineering, for example, for surgical operations on facial regions, software for predicting changes in facial features and expressions after corrective surgery, and the development of face-mimicking robots. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Easy facial analysis using the facial golden mask.