Sample records for facilitates beta-sheet recognition

  1. The Promiscuity of [beta]-Strand Pairing Allows for Rational Design of [beta]-Sheet Face Inversion

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2009-06-17

    Recent studies suggest the dominant role of main-chain H-bond formation in specifying {beta}-sheet topology. Its essentially sequence-independent nature implies a large degree of freedom in designing {beta}-sheet-based nanomaterials. Here we show rational design of {beta}-sheet face inversions by incremental deletions of {beta}-strands from the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. We show that a {beta}-sheet structure can be maintained when a large number of native contacts are removed and that one can design large-scale conformational transitions of a {beta}-sheet such as face inversion by exploiting the promiscuity of strand-strand interactions. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures confirmed the success ofmore » the design and supported the importance of main-chain H-bonds in determining {beta}-sheet topology. This work suggests a simple but effective strategy for designing and controlling nanomaterials based on {beta}-rich peptide self-assemblies.« less

  2. A recipe for designing water-soluble, beta-sheet-forming peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, K. H.; Ilyina, E.; Park, H.

    1996-01-01

    Based on observations of solubility and folding properties of peptide 33-mers derived from the beta-sheet domains of platelet factor-4 (PF4), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and growth related protein (Gro-alpha), as well as other beta-sheet-forming peptides, general guidelines have been developed to aid in the design of water soluble, self-association-induced beta-sheet-forming peptides. CD, 1H-NMR, and pulsed field gradient NMR self-diffusion measurements have been used to assess the degree of folding and state of aggregation. PF4 peptide forms native-like beta-sheet tetramers and is sparingly soluble above pH 6. IL-8 peptide is insoluble between pH 4.5 and pH 7.5, yet forms stable, native-like beta-sheet dimers at higher pH. Gro-alpha peptide is soluble at all pH values, yet displays no discernable beta-sheet structure even when diffusion data indicate dimer-tetramer aggregation. A recipe used in the de novo design of water-soluble beta-sheet-forming peptides calls for the peptide to contain 40-50% hydrophobic residues, usually aliphatic ones (I, L, V, A, M) (appropriately paired and mostly but not always alternating with polar residues in the sheet sequence), a positively charged (K, R) to negatively charged (E, D) residue ratio between 4/2 and 6/2, and a noncharged polar residue (N, Q, T, S) composition of about 20% or less. Results on four de novo designed, 33-residue peptides are presented supporting this approach. Under near physiologic conditions, all four peptides are soluble, form beta-sheet structures to varying degrees, and self-associate. One peptide folds as a stable, compact beta-sheet tetramer, whereas the others are transient beta-sheet-containing aggregates. PMID:8819163

  3. Beating the Heat - Fast Scanning Melts Silk Beta Sheet Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebe, Peggy; Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David L.; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Wurm, Andreas; Arbeiter, Daniela; Schick, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Beta-pleated-sheet crystals are among the most stable of protein secondary structures, and are responsible for the remarkable physical properties of many fibrous proteins, such as silk, or proteins forming plaques as in Alzheimer's disease. Previous thinking, and the accepted paradigm, was that beta-pleated-sheet crystals in the dry solid state were so stable they would not melt upon input of heat energy alone. Here we overturn that assumption and demonstrate that beta-pleated-sheet crystals melt directly from the solid state to become random coils, helices, and turns. We use fast scanning chip calorimetry at 2,000 K/s and report the first reversible thermal melting of protein beta-pleated-sheet crystals, exemplified by silk fibroin. The similarity between thermal melting behavior of lamellar crystals of synthetic polymers and beta-pleated-sheet crystals is confirmed. Significance for controlling beta-pleated-sheet content during thermal processing of biomaterials, as well as towards disease therapies, is envisioned based on these new findings.

  4. Beating the Heat: Fast Scanning Melts Beta Sheet Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebe, Peggy; Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Wurm, Andreas; Arbeiter, Daniella; Schick, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Beta-pleated-sheet crystals are among the most stable of protein secondary structures, and are responsible for the remarkable physical properties of many fibrous proteins, such as silk. Previous thinking was that beta-pleated-sheet crystals in the dry solid state would not melt upon input of heat energy alone. Indeed, at conventional heating rates (~1-50 °C/min), silk exhibits its glass transition (~175 °C), followed by cold crystallization, and then by immediate thermal degradation beginning at about 225 °C. Here we demonstrate that beta-pleated-sheet crystals can melt directly from the solid state to become random coils, helices, and turns. We use fast scanning chip calorimetry at 2,000 K/s to avoid thermal degradation, and report the first reversible thermal melting of protein beta-pleated-sheet crystals, exemplified by silk fibroin. The similarity between thermal melting behavior of lamellar crystals of synthetic polymers and beta-pleated-sheet crystals is confirmed. The authors acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation and German Academic Exchange Service DAAD; EZ acknowledges a European Union funded Marie Curie EST fellowship (ADVATEC); XH and DK acknowledge NIH P41 Tissue Engineering Resource Center.

  5. Determining Beta Sheet Crystallinity in Fibrous Proteins by Thermal Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Kaplan, David; Cebe, Peggy

    2007-03-01

    We report a study of self-assembled beta pleated sheets in Bombyx mori silk fibroin films using thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Crystallization of beta pleated sheets was effected either by heating the films above the glass transition temperature (Tg) and holding isothermally, or by exposure to methanol. The fractions of secondary structural components including random coils, alpha helices, beta pleated sheets, turns, and side chains, were evaluated using Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD) of the infrared absorbance spectra. As crystalline beta sheets form, the heat capacity increment from the TMDSC trace at Tg is systematically decreased and is linearly well correlated with beta sheet content determined from FSD. This analysis of beta sheet content can serve as an alternative to X-ray methods and may have wide applicability to other crystalline beta sheet forming proteins.

  6. Rapid model building of beta-sheets in electron-density maps.

    PubMed

    Terwilliger, Thomas C

    2010-03-01

    A method for rapidly building beta-sheets into electron-density maps is presented. beta-Strands are identified as tubes of high density adjacent to and nearly parallel to other tubes of density. The alignment and direction of each strand are identified from the pattern of high density corresponding to carbonyl and C(beta) atoms along the strand averaged over all repeats present in the strand. The beta-strands obtained are then assembled into a single atomic model of the beta-sheet regions. The method was tested on a set of 42 experimental electron-density maps at resolutions ranging from 1.5 to 3.8 A. The beta-sheet regions were nearly completely built in all but two cases, the exceptions being one structure at 2.5 A resolution in which a third of the residues in beta-sheets were built and a structure at 3.8 A in which under 10% were built. The overall average r.m.s.d. of main-chain atoms in the residues built using this method compared with refined models of the structures was 1.5 A.

  7. Orientation determination of interfacial beta-sheet structures in situ.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khoi Tan; King, John Thomas; Chen, Zhan

    2010-07-01

    Structural information such as orientations of interfacial proteins and peptides is important for understanding properties and functions of such biological molecules, which play crucial roles in biological applications and processes such as antimicrobial selectivity, membrane protein activity, biocompatibility, and biosensing performance. The alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures are the most widely encountered secondary structures in peptides and proteins. In this paper, for the first time, a method to quantify the orientation of the interfacial beta-sheet structure using a combined attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopic study was developed. As an illustration of the methodology, the orientation of tachyplesin I, a 17 amino acid peptide with an antiparallel beta-sheet, adsorbed to polymer surfaces as well as associated with a lipid bilayer was determined using the regular and chiral SFG spectra, together with polarized ATR-FTIR amide I signals. Both the tilt angle (theta) and the twist angle (psi) of the beta-sheet at interfaces are determined. The developed method in this paper can be used to obtain in situ structural information of beta-sheet components in complex molecules. The combination of this method and the existing methodology that is currently used to investigate alpha-helical structures will greatly broaden the application of optical spectroscopy in physical chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and structural biology.

  8. Amyloid-beta-sheet formation at the air-water interface.

    PubMed Central

    Schladitz, C; Vieira, E P; Hermel, H; Möhwald, H

    1999-01-01

    An amyloid(1-40) solution rich in coil, turn, and alpha-helix, but poor in beta-sheet, develops monolayers with a high beta-sheet content when spread at the air-water interface. These monolayers are resistant to repeated compression-dilatation cycles and interaction with trifluoroethanol. The secondary structure motifs were detected by circular dichroism (CD) in solution and with infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) at the interface. Hydrophobic influences are discussed for the structure conversion in an effort to understand the completely unknown reason for the natural change of the normal prion protein cellular (PrP(C)) into the abnormal prion protein scrapie (PrP(Sc)). PMID:10585952

  9. Design and preparation of beta-sheet forming repetitive and block-copolymerized polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Higashiya, Seiichiro; Topilina, Natalya I; Ngo, Silvana C; Zagorevskii, Dmitri; Welch, John T

    2007-05-01

    The design and rapid construction of libraries of genes coding beta-sheet forming repetitive and block-copolymerized polypeptides bearing various C- and N-terminal sequences are described. The design was based on the assembly of DNA cassettes coding for the (GA)3GX amino acid sequence where the (GAGAGA) sequences would constitute the beta-strand units of a larger beta-sheet assembly. The edges of this beta-sheet would be functionalized by the turn-inducing amino acids (GX). The polypeptides were expressed in Escherichia coli using conventional vectors and were purified by Ni-nitriloacetic acid (NTA) chromatography. The correlation of polymer structure with molecular weight was investigated by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The monomer sequences and post-translational chemical modifications were found to influence the mobility of the polypeptides over the full range of polypeptide molecular weights while the electrophoretic mobility of lower molecular weight polypeptides was more susceptible to C- and N-termini polypeptide modifications.

  10. Microphase Separation Controlled Beta Sheet Crystallization Kinetics in Silk Fibroin Protein.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Lu, Qiang; Kaplan, David; Cebe, Peggy

    2009-03-01

    We investigate the mechanism of isothermal crystallization kinetics of beta-sheet crystals in silk multiblock fibrous proteins. The Avrami analysis kinetic theory, for studies of synthetic polymer crystal growth, is for the first time extended to investigate protein self-assembly in beta-sheet rich Bombyx mori silk fibroin samples, using time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and synchrotron real-time wide-angle X-ray scattering. Results indicate formation of beta sheet crystals in silk proteins is different from the 3-D spherulitic crystal growth found in synthetic homopolymers. Observations by scanning electron microscopy support the view that the protein structures vary during the different stages of crystal growth, and show a microphase separation pattern after chymotrypsin enzyme biodegradation. We present a model to explain the crystallization of the multiblock silk fibroin protein, by analogy to synthetic block copolymers. This model could be widely applicable in other proteins with multiblock (i.e., crystallizable and non-crystallizable) domains.

  11. Anatomy of an amyloidogenic intermediate: conversion of beta-sheet to alpha-sheet structure in transthyretin at acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Armen, Roger S; Alonso, Darwin O V; Daggett, Valerie

    2004-10-01

    The homotetramer of transthyretin (TTR) dissociates into a monomeric amyloidogenic intermediate that self-assembles into amyloid fibrils at low pH. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of monomeric TTR at neutral and low pH at physiological (310 K) and very elevated temperature (498 K). In the low-pH simulations at both temperatures, one of the two beta-sheets (strands CBEF) becomes disrupted, and alpha-sheet structure forms in the other sheet (strands DAGH). alpha-sheet is formed by alternating alphaL and alphaR residues, and it was first proposed by Pauling and Corey. Overall, the simulations are in agreement with the available experimental observations, including solid-state NMR results for a TTR-peptide amyloid. In addition, they provide a unique explanation for the results of hydrogen exchange experiments of the amyloidogenic intermediate-results that are difficult to explain with beta-structure. We propose that alpha-sheet may represent a key pathological conformation during amyloidogenesis. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Folding cooperativity in a three-stranded beta-sheet model.

    PubMed

    Roe, Daniel R; Hornak, Viktor; Simmerling, Carlos

    2005-09-16

    The thermodynamic behavior of a previously designed three-stranded beta-sheet was studied via several microseconds of standard and replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations. The system is shown to populate at least four thermodynamic minima, including two partially folded states in which only a single hairpin is formed. Simulated melting curves show different profiles for the C and N-terminal hairpins, consistent with differences in secondary structure content in published NMR and CD/FTIR measurements, which probed different regions of the chain. Individual beta-hairpins that comprise the three-stranded beta-sheet are observed to form cooperatively. Partial folding cooperativity between the component hairpins is observed, and good agreement between calculated and experimental values quantifying this cooperativity is obtained when similar analysis techniques are used. However, the structural detail in the ensemble of conformations sampled in the simulations permits a more direct analysis of this cooperativity than has been performed on the basis of experimental data. The results indicate the actual folding cooperativity perpendicular to strand direction is significantly larger than the lower bound obtained previously.

  13. Natural polypeptide scaffolds: beta-sheets, beta-turns, and beta-hairpins.

    PubMed

    Rotondi, Kenneth S; Gierasch, Lila M

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to fundamental conformational states of polypeptides in the beta-region of phi,psi space, in which the backbone is extended near to its maximal length, and to more complex architectures in which extended segments are linked by turns and loops. There are several variants on these conformations, and they comprise versatile scaffolds for presentation of side chains and backbone amides for molecular recognition and designed catalysts. In addition, the geometry of these fundamental folds can be readily mimicked in peptidomimetics. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evidence for novel beta-sheet structures in Iowa mutant beta-amyloid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L; Orgel, Joseph P R O; Meredith, Stephen C

    2009-07-07

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of beta-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-Abeta40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-Abeta40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10(-3) min(-1) and 1.07 x 10(-4) min(-1) for D23N-Abeta40 and the wild-type peptide WT-Abeta40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-Abeta40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-beta pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 A and a broad reflection at 9.4 A, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-Abeta40 fibrils (10.4 A). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-Abeta40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel beta-sheet structure commonly found in WT-Abeta40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel beta-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through (13)C-(13)C and (15)N-(13)C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-Abeta40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  15. Pain-Related Suppression of Beta Oscillations Facilitates Voluntary Movement

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Gaurav; Ofori, Edward; Chung, Jae Woo; Coombes, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Increased beta oscillations over sensorimotor cortex are antikinetic. Motor- and pain-related processes separately suppress beta oscillations over sensorimotor cortex leading to the prediction that ongoing pain should facilitate movement. In the current study, we used a paradigm in which voluntary movements were executed during an ongoing pain-eliciting stimulus to test the hypothesis that a pain-related suppression of beta oscillations would facilitate the initiation of a subsequent voluntary movement. Using kinematic measures, electromyography, and high-density electroencephalography, we demonstrate that ongoing pain leads to shorter reaction times without affecting the kinematics or accuracy of movement. Reaction time was positively correlated with beta power prior to movement in contralateral premotor areas. Our findings corroborate the view that beta-band oscillations are antikinetic and provide new evidence that pain primes the motor system for action. Our observations provide the first evidence that a pain-related suppression of beta oscillations over contralateral premotor areas leads to shorter reaction times for voluntary movement. PMID:26965905

  16. Reversible thermal denaturation of a 60-kDa genetically engineered beta-sheet polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Lednev, Igor K; Ermolenkov, Vladimir V; Higashiya, Seiichiro; Popova, Ludmila A; Topilina, Natalya I; Welch, John T

    2006-11-15

    A de novo 687-amino-acid residue polypeptide with a regular 32-amino-acid repeat sequence, (GA)(3)GY(GA)(3)GE(GA)(3)GH(GA)(3)GK, forms large beta-sheet assemblages that exhibit remarkable folding properties and, as well, form fibrillar structures. This construct is an excellent tool to explore the details of beta-sheet formation yielding intimate folding information that is otherwise difficult to obtain and may inform folding studies of naturally occurring materials. The polypeptide assumes a fully folded antiparallel beta-sheet/turn structure at room temperature, and yet is completely and reversibly denatured at 125 degrees C, adopting a predominant polyproline II conformation. Deep ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy indicated that melting/refolding occurred without any spectroscopically distinct intermediates, yet the relaxation kinetics depend on the initial polypeptide state, as would be indicative of a non-two-state process. Thermal denaturation and refolding on cooling appeared to be monoexponential with characteristic times of approximately 1 and approximately 60 min, respectively, indicating no detectable formation of hairpin-type nuclei in the millisecond timescale that could be attributed to nonlocal "nonnative" interactions. The polypeptide folding dynamics agree with a general property of beta-sheet proteins, i.e., initial collapse precedes secondary structure formation. The observed folding is much faster than expected for a protein of this size and could be attributed to a less frustrated free-energy landscape funnel for folding. The polypeptide sequence suggests an important balance between the absence of strong nonnative contacts (salt bridges or hydrophobic collapse) and limited repulsion of charged side chains.

  17. Pain-Related Suppression of Beta Oscillations Facilitates Voluntary Movement.

    PubMed

    Misra, Gaurav; Ofori, Edward; Chung, Jae Woo; Coombes, Stephen A

    2017-04-01

    Increased beta oscillations over sensorimotor cortex are antikinetic. Motor- and pain-related processes separately suppress beta oscillations over sensorimotor cortex leading to the prediction that ongoing pain should facilitate movement. In the current study, we used a paradigm in which voluntary movements were executed during an ongoing pain-eliciting stimulus to test the hypothesis that a pain-related suppression of beta oscillations would facilitate the initiation of a subsequent voluntary movement. Using kinematic measures, electromyography, and high-density electroencephalography, we demonstrate that ongoing pain leads to shorter reaction times without affecting the kinematics or accuracy of movement. Reaction time was positively correlated with beta power prior to movement in contralateral premotor areas. Our findings corroborate the view that beta-band oscillations are antikinetic and provide new evidence that pain primes the motor system for action. Our observations provide the first evidence that a pain-related suppression of beta oscillations over contralateral premotor areas leads to shorter reaction times for voluntary movement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Anticipatory coarticulation facilitates word recognition in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Tristan; McMillan, Brianna T M; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Edwards, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries. Previous research has shown that adults can use phonetic cues from anticipatory coarticulation during word recognition. We asked whether 18-24 month-olds (n=29) used coarticulatory cues on the word "the" when recognizing the following noun. We performed a looking-while-listening eyetracking experiment to examine word recognition in neutral vs. facilitating coarticulatory conditions. Participants looked to the target image significantly sooner when the determiner contained facilitating coarticulatory cues. These results provide the first evidence that novice word-learners can take advantage of anticipatory sub-phonemic cues during word recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sequence specificity, statistical potentials, and three-dimensional structure prediction with self-correcting distance geometry calculations of beta-sheet formation in proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, H.; Braun, W.

    1999-01-01

    A statistical analysis of a representative data set of 169 known protein structures was used to analyze the specificity of residue interactions between spatial neighboring strands in beta-sheets. Pairwise potentials were derived from the frequency of residue pairs in nearest contact, second nearest and third nearest contacts across neighboring beta-strands compared to the expected frequency of residue pairs in a random model. A pseudo-energy function based on these statistical pairwise potentials recognized native beta-sheets among possible alternative pairings. The native pairing was found within the three lowest energies in 73% of the cases in the training data set and in 63% of beta-sheets in a test data set of 67 proteins, which were not part of the training set. The energy function was also used to detect tripeptides, which occur frequently in beta-sheets of native proteins. The majority of native partners of tripeptides were distributed in a low energy range. Self-correcting distance geometry (SECODG) calculations using distance constraints sets derived from possible low energy pairing of beta-strands uniquely identified the native pairing of the beta-sheet in pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). These results will be useful for predicting the structure of proteins from their amino acid sequence as well as for the design of proteins containing beta-sheets. PMID:10048326

  20. Entropic stabilization of isolated beta-sheets.

    PubMed

    Dugourd, Philippe; Antoine, Rodolphe; Breaux, Gary; Broyer, Michel; Jarrold, Martin F

    2005-04-06

    Temperature-dependent electric deflection measurements have been performed for a series of unsolvated alanine-based peptides (Ac-WA(n)-NH(2), where Ac = acetyl, W = tryptophan, A = alanine, and n = 3, 5, 10, 13, and 15). The measurements are interpreted using Monte Carlo simulations performed with a parallel tempering algorithm. Despite alanine's high helix propensity in solution, the results suggest that unsolvated Ac-WA(n)-NH(2) peptides with n > 10 adopt beta-sheet conformations at room temperature. Previous studies have shown that protonated alanine-based peptides adopt helical or globular conformations in the gas phase, depending on the location of the charge. Thus, the charge more than anything else controls the structure.

  1. Investigation on the individual contributions of N-H...O=C and C-H...O=C interactions to the binding energies of beta-sheet models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Sheng; Sun, Chang-Liang

    2010-04-15

    In this article, the binding energies of 16 antiparallel and parallel beta-sheet models are estimated using the analytic potential energy function we proposed recently and the results are compared with those obtained from MP2, AMBER99, OPLSAA/L, and CHARMM27 calculations. The comparisons indicate that the analytic potential energy function can produce reasonable binding energies for beta-sheet models. Further comparisons suggest that the binding energy of the beta-sheet models might come mainly from dipole-dipole attractive and repulsive interactions and VDW interactions between the two strands. The dipole-dipole attractive and repulsive interactions are further obtained in this article. The total of N-H...H-N and C=O...O=C dipole-dipole repulsive interaction (the secondary electrostatic repulsive interaction) in the small ring of the antiparallel beta-sheet models is estimated to be about 6.0 kcal/mol. The individual N-H...O=C dipole-dipole attractive interaction is predicted to be -6.2 +/- 0.2 kcal/mol in the antiparallel beta-sheet models and -5.2 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol in the parallel beta-sheet models. The individual C(alpha)-H...O=C attractive interaction is -1.2 +/- 0.2 kcal/mol in the antiparallel beta-sheet models and -1.5 +/- 0.2 kcal/mol in the parallel beta-sheet models. These values are important in understanding the interactions at protein-protein interfaces and developing a more accurate force field for peptides and proteins. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Probing alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures of peptides at solid/liquid interfaces with SFG.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jie; Sniadecki, Jason J; Even, Mark A; Chen, Zhan

    2005-03-29

    We demonstrated that sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy can distinguish different secondary structures of proteins or peptides adsorbed at solid/liquid interfaces. The SFG spectrum for tachyplesin I at the polystyrene (PS)/solution interface has a fingerprint peak corresponding to the B1/B3 mode of the antiparallel beta-sheet. This peak disappeared upon the addition of dithiothreitol, which can disrupt the beta-sheet structure. The SFG spectrum indicative of the MSI594 alpha-helical structure was observed at the PS/MSI594 solution interface. This research validates SFG as a powerful technique for revealing detailed secondary structures of interfacial proteins and peptides.

  3. The paradox of MHC-DRB exon/intron evolution: alpha-helix and beta-sheet encoding regions diverge while hypervariable intronic simple repeats coevolve with beta-sheet codons.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, F W; Weyers, E; Epplen, C; Brün, J; Ruff, G; Crawford, A; Epplen, J T

    1993-09-01

    Twenty-one different caprine and 13 ovine MHC-DRB exon 2 sequences were determined including part of the adjacent introns containing simple repetitive (gt)n(ga)m elements. The positions for highly polymorphic DRB amino acids vary slightly among ungulates and other mammals. From man and mouse to ungulates the basic (gt)n(ga)m structure is fixed in evolution for 7 x 10(7) years whereas ample variations exist in the tandem (gt)n and (ga)m dinucleotides and especially their "degenerated" derivatives. Phylogenetic trees for the alpha-helices and beta-pleated sheets of the ungulate DRB sequences suggest different evolutionary histories. In hoofed animals as well as in humans DRB beta-sheet encoding sequences and adjacent intronic repeats can be assembled into virtually identical groups suggesting coevolution of noncoding as well as coding DNA. In contrast alpha-helices and C-terminal parts of the first DRB domain evolve distinctly. In the absence of a defined mechanism causing specific, site-directed mutations, double-recombination or gene-conversion-like events would readily explain this fact. The role of the intronic simple (gt)n(ga)m repeat is discussed with respect to these genetic exchange mechanisms during evolution.

  4. Activation of Supraoptic Oxytocin Neurons by Secretin Facilitates Social Recognition.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Yuki; Yoshida, Masahide; Takashima, Akihide; Takanami, Keiko; Yoshida, Shoma; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Yamagata, Takanori; Onaka, Tatsushi

    2017-02-01

    Social recognition underlies social behavior in animals, and patients with psychiatric disorders associated with social deficits show abnormalities in social recognition. Oxytocin is implicated in social behavior and has received attention as an effective treatment for sociobehavioral deficits. Secretin receptor-deficient mice show deficits in social behavior. The relationship between oxytocin and secretin concerning social behavior remains to be determined. Expression of c-Fos in oxytocin neurons and release of oxytocin from their dendrites after secretin application were investigated. Social recognition was examined after intracerebroventricular or local injection of secretin, oxytocin, or an oxytocin receptor antagonist in rats, oxytocin receptor-deficient mice, and secretin receptor-deficient mice. Electron and light microscopic immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to determine whether oxytocin neurons extend their dendrites into the medial amygdala. Supraoptic oxytocin neurons expressed the secretin receptor. Secretin activated supraoptic oxytocin neurons and facilitated oxytocin release from dendrites. Secretin increased acquisition of social recognition in an oxytocin receptor-dependent manner. Local application of secretin into the supraoptic nucleus facilitated social recognition, and this facilitation was blocked by an oxytocin receptor antagonist injected into, but not outside of, the medial amygdala. In the medial amygdala, dendrite-like thick oxytocin processes were found to extend from the supraoptic nucleus. Furthermore, oxytocin treatment restored deficits of social recognition in secretin receptor-deficient mice. The results of our study demonstrate that secretin-induced dendritic oxytocin release from supraoptic neurons enhances social recognition. The newly defined secretin-oxytocin system may lead to a possible treatment for social deficits. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. I. The design, synthesis, and structure of antiparallel beta-sheet and beta-strand mimics. II. The design of a scripted chemistry outreach program to high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Amy Sue

    I. Protein structure is not easily predicted from the linear sequence of amino acids. An increased ability to create protein structures would allow researchers to develop new peptide-based therapeutics and materials, and would provide insights into the mechanisms of protein folding. Toward this end, we have designed and synthesized two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet mimics containing conformationally biased scaffolds and semicarbazide, urea, and hydrazide linker groups that attach peptide chains to the scaffold. The mimics exhibited populations of intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded beta-sheet-like conformers as determined by spectroscopic techniques such as FTIR, sp1H NMR, and ROESY studies. During our studies, we determined that a urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimic was able to tightly hydrogen bond to peptides in an antiparallel beta-sheet-like configuration. Several derivatives of the urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimic were synthesized. Preliminary data by electron microscopy indicate that the beta-strand mimics have an effect on the folding of Alzheimer's Abeta peptide. These data suggest that the urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimics and related compounds may be developed into therapeutics which effect the folding of the Abeta peptide into neurotoxic aggregates. II. In recent years, there has been concern about the low level of science literacy and science interest among Americans. A declining interest in science impacts the abilities of people to make informed decisions about technology. To increase the interest in science among secondary students, we have developed the UCI Chemistry Outreach Program to High Schools. The Program features demonstration shows and discussions about chemistry in everyday life. The development and use of show scripts has enabled large numbers of graduate and undergraduate student volunteers to demonstrate chemistry to more than 12,000 local high school students. Teachers, students, and volunteers have expressed their enjoyment of The UCI

  6. Semantic Ambiguity: Do Multiple Meanings Inhibit or Facilitate Word Recognition?

    PubMed

    Haro, Juan; Ferré, Pilar

    2018-06-01

    It is not clear whether multiple unrelated meanings inhibit or facilitate word recognition. Some studies have found a disadvantage for words having multiple meanings with respect to unambiguous words in lexical decision tasks (LDT), whereas several others have shown a facilitation for such words. In the present study, we argue that these inconsistent findings may be due to the approach employed to select ambiguous words across studies. To address this issue, we conducted three LDT experiments in which we varied the measure used to classify ambiguous and unambiguous words. The results suggest that multiple unrelated meanings facilitate word recognition. In addition, we observed that the approach employed to select ambiguous words may affect the pattern of experimental results. This evidence has relevant implications for theoretical accounts of ambiguous words processing and representation.

  7. Rapid acquisition of beta-sheet structure in the prion protein prior to multimer formation.

    PubMed

    Post, K; Pitschke, M; Schäfer, O; Wille, H; Appel, T R; Kirsch, D; Mehlhorn, I; Serban, H; Prusiner, S B; Riesner, D

    1998-11-01

    The N-terminally truncated form of the prion protein, PrP 27-30, and the corresponding recombinant protein, rPrP, were solubilized in 0.2% SDS, and the transitions induced by changing the conditions from 0.2% SDS to physiological conditions, i.e. removing SDS, were characterized with respect to solubility, resistance to proteolysis, secondary structure and multimerization. Circular dichroism, electron microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy were used to study the structural transitions of PrP. Within one minute the alpha-helical structure of PrP was transformed into one that was enriched in beta-sheets and consisted mainly of dimers. Larger oligomers were found after 20 minutes and larger multimers exhibiting resistance to proteolysis were found after several hours. It was concluded that the monomeric alpha-helical conformation was stable in SDS or when attached to the membrane; however, the state of lowest free energy in aqueous solution at neutral pH seems to be the multimeric, beta-sheet enriched conformation.

  8. Estrogens and their receptors in the medial amygdala rapidly facilitate social recognition in female mice.

    PubMed

    Lymer, Jennifer M; Sheppard, Paul A S; Kuun, Talya; Blackman, Andrea; Jani, Nilay; Mahbub, Sahnon; Choleris, Elena

    2018-03-01

    Estrogens have been shown to rapidly (within 1 h) affect learning and memory processes, including social recognition. Both systemic and hippocampal administration of 17β-estradiol facilitate social recognition in female mice within 40 min of administration. These effects were likely mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) α and the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), as administration of the respective receptor agonists (PPT and G-1) also facilitated social recognition on a rapid time scale. The medial amygdala has been shown to be necessary for social recognition and long-term manipulations in rats have implicated medial amygdalar ERα. As such, our objective was to investigate whether estrogens and different ERs within the medial amygdala play a role in the rapid facilitation of social recognition in female mice. 17β-estradiol, G-1, PPT, or ERβ agonist DPN was infused directly into the medial amygdala of ovariectomized female mice. Mice were then tested in a social recognition paradigm, which was completed within 40 min, thus allowing the assessment of rapid effects of treatments. 17β-estradiol (10, 25, 50, 100 nM), PPT (300 nM), DPN (150 nM), and G-1 (50 nM) each rapidly facilitated social recognition. Therefore, estrogens in the medial amygdala rapidly facilitate social recognition in female mice, and the three main estrogen receptors: ERα, ERβ, and the GPER all are involved in these effects. This research adds to a network of brain regions, including the medial amygdala and the dorsal hippocampus, that are involved in mediating the rapid estrogenic facilitation of social recognition in female mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. L2 Gender Facilitation and Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behney, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the role of grammatical gender facilitation and inhibition in second language (L2) learners' spoken word recognition. Native speakers of languages that have grammatical gender are sensitive to gender marking when hearing and recognizing a word. Gender facilitation refers to when a given noun that is preceded by an…

  10. Semantic Ambiguity: Do Multiple Meanings Inhibit or Facilitate Word Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haro, Juan; Ferré, Pilar

    2018-01-01

    It is not clear whether multiple unrelated meanings inhibit or facilitate word recognition. Some studies have found a disadvantage for words having multiple meanings with respect to unambiguous words in lexical decision tasks (LDT), whereas several others have shown a facilitation for such words. In the present study, we argue that these…

  11. Learning From Tests: Facilitation of Delayed Recall by Initial Recognition Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, William B., II; Leonard, Janet Mauriello

    1980-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the effects of multiple-choice recognition test alternatives on subsequent memory for the correct answers. Results of both experiments are interpreted as demonstrations of the principle that long-term retention is facilitated such that memory evaluation occurs during initial recognition tests. (Author/RD)

  12. Folding dynamics of a family of beta-sheet proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Denis

    2008-03-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) consist of ten anti-parallel beta strands and two small alpha helices. The beta strands are arranged into two nearly orthogonal five-strand beta sheets that surround the interior cavity, which binds unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. In the brain isoform (BFABP), these are very important for the development of the central nervous system and neuron differentiation. Furthermore, BFABP is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases including cancer and neuronal degenerative disorders. In this work, site-directed spin labeling combined with EPR techniques have been used to study the folding mechanism of BFABP. In the first series of studies, we labeled the two Cys residues at position 5 and 80 in the wild type protein with an EPR spin marker; in addition, two singly labeled mutants at positions 5 and 80 in the C80A and C5A mutants, respectively, were also produced and used as controls. The changes in the distances between the two residues were examined by a pulsed EPR method, DEER (Double Electron Electron Resonance), as a function of guanidinium hydrochloride concentration. The results were compared with those from CW EPR, circular dichroism and fluorescence measurements, which provide the information regarding sidechain mobility, secondary structure and tertiary structure, respectively. The results will be discussed in the context of the folding mechanism of the family of fatty acid binding proteins.

  13. Distinct spatio-temporal profiles of beta-oscillations within visual and sensorimotor areas during action recognition as revealed by MEG.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, Anastasia; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The neural correlates of action recognition have been widely studied in visual and sensorimotor areas of the human brain. However, the role of neuronal oscillations involved during the process of action recognition remains unclear. Here, we were interested in how the plausibility of an action modulates neuronal oscillations in visual and sensorimotor areas. Subjects viewed point-light displays (PLDs) of biomechanically plausible and implausible versions of the same actions. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we examined dynamic changes of oscillatory activity during these action recognition processes. While both actions elicited oscillatory activity in visual and sensorimotor areas in several frequency bands, a significant difference was confined to the beta-band (∼20 Hz). An increase of power for plausible actions was observed in left temporal, parieto-occipital and sensorimotor areas of the brain, in the beta-band in successive order between 1650 and 2650 msec. These distinct spatio-temporal beta-band profiles suggest that the action recognition process is modulated by the degree of biomechanical plausibility of the action, and that spectral power in the beta-band may provide a functional interaction between visual and sensorimotor areas in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-recognition in corals facilitates deep-sea habitat engineering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hennige, Sebastian J; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Form, Armin U.; Buscher, Janina; Kamenos, Nicholas A.; Roberts, J. Murray

    2014-01-01

    The ability of coral reefs to engineer complex three-dimensional habitats is central to their success and the rich biodiversity they support. In tropical reefs, encrusting coralline algae bind together substrates and dead coral framework to make continuous reef structures, but beyond the photic zone, the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa also forms large biogenic reefs, facilitated by skeletal fusion. Skeletal fusion in tropical corals can occur in closely related or juvenile individuals as a result of non-aggressive skeletal overgrowth or allogeneic tissue fusion, but contact reactions in many species result in mortality if there is no ‘self-recognition’ on a broad species level. This study reveals areas of ‘flawless’ skeletal fusion in Lophelia pertusa, potentially facilitated by allogeneic tissue fusion, are identified as having small aragonitic crystals or low levels of crystal organisation, and strong molecular bonding. Regardless of the mechanism, the recognition of ‘self’ between adjacent L. pertusa colonies leads to no observable mortality, facilitates ecosystem engineering and reduces aggression-related energetic expenditure in an environment where energy conservation is crucial. The potential for self-recognition at a species level, and subsequent skeletal fusion in framework-forming cold-water corals is an important first step in understanding their significance as ecological engineers in deep-seas worldwide.

  15. Interaction between two discontiguous chain segments from the beta-sheet of Escherichia coli thioredoxin suggests an initiation site for folding.

    PubMed

    Tasayco, M L; Fuchs, J; Yang, X M; Dyalram, D; Georgescu, R E

    2000-09-05

    The approach of comparing folding and folding/binding processes is exquisitely poised to narrow down the regions of the sequence that drive protein folding. We have dissected the small single alpha/beta domain of oxidized Escherichia coli thioredoxin (Trx) into three complementary fragments (N, residues 1-37; M, residues 38-73; and C, residues 74-108) to study them in isolation and upon recombination by far-UV CD and NMR spectroscopy. The isolated fragments show a minimum of ellipticity of ca. 197 nm in their far-UV CD spectra without concentration dependence, chemical shifts of H(alpha) that are close to the random coil values, and no medium- and long-range NOE connectivities in their three-dimensional NMR spectra. These fragments behave as disordered monomers. Only the far-UV CD spectra of binary or ternary mixtures that contain N- and C-fragments are different from the sum of their individual spectra, which is indicative of folding and/or binding of these fragments. Indeed, the cross-peaks corresponding to the rather hydrophobic beta(2) and beta(4) regions of the beta-sheet of Trx disappear from the (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra of isolated labeled N- and C-fragments, respectively, upon addition of the unlabeled complementary fragments. The disappearing cross-peaks indicate interactions between the beta(2) and beta(4) regions, and their reappearance at lower temperatures indicates unfolding and/or dissociation of heteromers that are predominantly held by hydrophobic forces. Our results argue that the folding of Trx begins by zippering two discontiguous and rather hydrophobic chain segments (beta(2) and beta(4)) corresponding to neighboring strands of the native beta-sheet.

  16. An exact collisionless equilibrium for the Force-Free Harris Sheet with low plasma beta

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Allanson, O., E-mail: oliver.allanson@st-andrews.ac.uk; Neukirch, T., E-mail: tn3@st-andrews.ac.uk; Wilson, F., E-mail: fw237@st-andrews.ac.uk

    We present a first discussion and analysis of the physical properties of a new exact collisionless equilibrium for a one-dimensional nonlinear force-free magnetic field, namely, the force-free Harris sheet. The solution allows any value of the plasma beta, and crucially below unity, which previous nonlinear force-free collisionless equilibria could not. The distribution function involves infinite series of Hermite polynomials in the canonical momenta, of which the important mathematical properties of convergence and non-negativity have recently been proven. Plots of the distribution function are presented for the plasma beta modestly below unity, and we compare the shape of the distribution functionmore » in two of the velocity directions to a Maxwellian distribution.« less

  17. Composite cell sheet for periodontal regeneration: crosstalk between different types of MSCs in cell sheet facilitates complex periodontal-like tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Shiyu; Zhu, Bin; Xu, Qiu; Ding, Yin; Jin, Yan

    2016-11-14

    Tissue-engineering strategies based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cell sheets have been widely used for periodontal tissue regeneration. However, given the complexity in periodontal structure, the regeneration methods using a single species of MSC could not fulfill the requirement for periodontal regeneration. We researched the interaction between the periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and jaw bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (JBMMSCs), and constructed a composite cell sheet comprising both of the above MSCs to regenerate complex periodontium-like structures in nude mice. Our results show that by co-culturing PDLSCs and JBMMSCs, the expressions of bone and extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes and proteins were significantly improved in both MSCs. Further investigations showed that, compared to the cell sheet using PDLSCs or JBMMSCs, the composite stem cell sheet (CSCS), which comprises these two MSCs, expressed higher levels of bone- and ECM-related genes and proteins, and generated a composite structure more similar to the native periodontal tissue physiologically in vivo. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the crosstalk between PDLSCs and JBMMSCs in cell sheets facilitate regeneration of complex periodontium-like structures, providing a promising new strategy for physiological and functional regeneration of periodontal tissue.

  18. Dissociation of rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks of person recognition.

    PubMed

    Valt, Christian; Klein, Christoph; Boehm, Stephan G

    2015-08-01

    Repetition priming is a prominent example of non-declarative memory, and it increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Major long-hold memory theories posit that repetition priming results from facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks for stimulus recognition and categorization. Stimuli can also be bound to particular responses, and it has recently been suggested that this rapid response learning, not network facilitation, provides a sound theory of priming of object recognition. Here, we addressed the relevance of network facilitation and rapid response learning for priming of person recognition with a view to advance general theories of priming. In four experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions like occupation or nationality judgments for famous faces. The magnitude of rapid response learning varied across experiments, and rapid response learning co-occurred and interacted with facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks. These findings indicate that rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks are complementary rather than competing theories of priming. Thus, future memory theories need to incorporate both rapid response learning and network facilitation as individual facets of priming. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Incorporating beta-turns and a turn mimetic out of context in loop 1 of the WW domain affords cooperatively folded beta-sheets.

    PubMed

    Kaul, R; Angeles, A R; Jäger, M; Powers, E T; Kelly, J W

    2001-06-06

    To probe the conformational requirements of loop 1 in the Pin1 WW domain, the residues at the i + 2 and i + 3 positions of a beta-turn within this loop were replaced by dPro-Gly and Asn-Gly, which are known to prefer the conformations required at the i + 1 and i + 2 positions of type II' and type I' beta-turns. Conformational specificity or lack thereof was further examined by incorporating into the i + 2 and i + 3 positions a non-alpha-amino acid-based beta-turn mimetic (4-(2'-aminoethyl)-6-dibenzofuran propionic acid residue, 1), which was designed to replace the i + 1 and i + 2 positions of beta-turns. All these Pin WW variants are monomeric and folded as discerned by analytical ultracentrifugation, NMR, and CD. They exhibit cooperative two-state transitions and display thermodynamic stability within 0.5 kcal/mol of the wild-type WW domain, demonstrating that the acquisition of native structure and stability does not require a specific sequence and, by extension, conformation within loop 1. However, it could be that these loop 1 mutations alter the kinetics of antiparallel beta-sheet folding, which will be addressed by subsequent kinetic studies.

  20. Verifying visual properties in sentence verification facilitates picture recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Pecher, Diane; Zanolie, Kiki; Zeelenberg, René

    2007-01-01

    According to the perceptual symbols theory (Barsalou, 1999), sensorimotor simulations underlie the representation of concepts. We investigated whether recognition memory for pictures of concepts was facilitated by earlier representation of visual properties of those concepts. During study, concept names (e.g., apple) were presented in a property verification task with a visual property (e.g., shiny) or with a nonvisual property (e.g., tart). Delayed picture recognition memory was better if the concept name had been presented with a visual property than if it had been presented with a nonvisual property. These results indicate that modality-specific simulations are used for concept representation.

  1. Modeling the Alzheimer Abeta17-42 fibril architecture: tight intermolecular sheet-sheet association and intramolecular hydrated cavities.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Jang, Hyunbum; Ma, Buyong; Tsai, Chung-Jun; Nussinov, Ruth

    2007-11-01

    We investigate Abeta(17-42) protofibril structures in solution using molecular dynamics simulations. Recently, NMR and computations modeled the Abeta protofibril as a longitudinal stack of U-shaped molecules, creating an in-parallel beta-sheet and loop spine. Here we study the molecular architecture of the fibril formed by spine-spine association. We model in-register intermolecular beta-sheet-beta-sheet associations and study the consequences of Alzheimer's mutations (E22G, E22Q, E22K, and M35A) on the organization. We assess the structural stability and association force of Abeta oligomers with different sheet-sheet interfaces. Double-layered oligomers associating through the C-terminal-C-terminal interface are energetically more favorable than those with the N-terminal-N-terminal interface, although both interfaces exhibit high structural stability. The C-terminal-C-terminal interface is essentially stabilized by hydrophobic and van der Waals (shape complementarity via M35-M35 contacts) intermolecular interactions, whereas the N-terminal-N-terminal interface is stabilized by hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Hence, shape complementarity, or the "steric zipper" motif plays an important role in amyloid formation. On the other hand, the intramolecular Abeta beta-strand-loop-beta-strand U-shaped motif creates a hydrophobic cavity with a diameter of 6-7 A, allowing water molecules and ions to conduct through. The hydrated hydrophobic cavities may allow optimization of the sheet association and constitute a typical feature of fibrils, in addition to the tight sheet-sheet association. Thus, we propose that Abeta fiber architecture consists of alternating layers of tight packing and hydrated cavities running along the fibrillar axis, which might be possibly detected by high-resolution imaging.

  2. Target recognition of beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI)-dependent anticardiolipin antibodies: evidence for involvement of the fourth domain of beta2GPI in antibody binding.

    PubMed

    George, J; Gilburd, B; Hojnik, M; Levy, Y; Langevitz, P; Matsuura, E; Koike, T; Shoenfeld, Y

    1998-04-15

    Beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) is an absolute requirement for the binding of autoimmune anticardiolipin Abs (aCL) to cardiolipin (CL). We evaluated the target recognition of human beta2GPI by IgG derived from two patients with primary and two with secondary antiphospholipid syndrome. The total IgG serum fractions and beta2GPI affinity-purified IgGs were assessed by using various domain-deleted mutants (DM) of human beta2GPI (DMs: I-III, I-IV, II-V, III-V, IV-V, and V) and mouse mAbs against individual beta2GPI domains. The four IgGs bound slightly to CL in the absence of beta2GPI and showed increased binding in the beta2GPI presence. Following affinity purification of the IgGs on a beta2GPI column, reactivity toward CL was absent. DMs containing domain V inhibited the binding of biotinylated beta2GPI to CL. The addition to CL-coated plates of DM V, but not the other DMs, reduced the binding of all four IgGs. The anti-beta2GPI IgGs bound only to complete beta2GPI and DM I-IV coated on the plates. The binding to plate-adsorbed beta2GPI could be inhibited by complete beta2GPI and DM I-IV, the latter being a more efficient inhibitor. Further, the human anti-beta2GPI IgGs could compete with the binding to beta2GPI of Cof-21 mouse mAb (directed at domain IV), but not with the two other mouse mAbs. The results suggest that some "autoimmune:" beta2GPI-dependent anticardiolipin Abs recognize a beta2GPI target that is distinct from the CL-binding site in domain V. The target site for some antiphospholipid syndrome IgGs appear to reside in domain IV of beta2GPI.

  3. High-Resolution Structure of a Self-Assembly-Competent Form of a Hydrophobic Peptide Captured in a Soluble [beta]-Sheet Scaffold

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Makabe, Koki; Biancalana, Matthew; Yan, Shude

    2010-02-08

    {beta}-Rich self-assembly is a major structural class of polypeptides, but still little is known about its atomic structures and biophysical properties. Major impediments for structural and biophysical studies of peptide self-assemblies include their insolubility and heterogeneous composition. We have developed a model system, termed peptide self-assembly mimic (PSAM), based on the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. PSAM allows for the capture of a defined number of self-assembly-like peptide repeats within a water-soluble protein, making structural and energetic studies possible. In this work, we extend our PSAM approach to a highly hydrophobic peptide sequence. We show that amore » penta-Ile peptide (Ile{sub 5}), which is insoluble and forms {beta}-rich self-assemblies in aqueous solution, can be captured within the PSAM scaffold in a form capable of self-assembly. The 1.1-{angstrom} crystal structure revealed that the Ile{sub 5} stretch forms a highly regular {beta}-strand within this flat {beta}-sheet. Self-assembly models built with multiple copies of the crystal structure of the Ile5 peptide segment showed no steric conflict, indicating that this conformation represents an assembly-competent form. The PSAM retained high conformational stability, suggesting that the flat {beta}-strand of the Ile{sub 5} stretch primed for self-assembly is a low-energy conformation of the Ile{sub 5} stretch and rationalizing its high propensity for self-assembly. The ability of the PSAM to 'solubilize' an otherwise insoluble peptide stretch suggests the potential of the PSAM approach to the characterization of self-assembling peptides.« less

  4. Using molecular recognition of beta-cyclodextrin to determine molecular weights of low-molecular-weight explosives by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Shi, Zhen; Bai, Yinjuan; Gao, Yong; Hu, Rongzu; Zhao, Fenqi

    2006-02-01

    This study presents a novel method for determining the molecular weights of low molecular weight (MW) energetic compounds through their complexes of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in a mass range of 500 to 1700 Da, avoiding matrix interference. The MWs of one composite explosive composed of 2,6-DNT, TNT, and RDX, one propellant with unknown components, and 14 single-compound explosives (RDX, HMX, 3,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, 2,5-DNT, 2,4,6-TNT, TNAZ, DNI, BTTN, NG, TO, NTO, NP, and 662) were measured. The molecular recognition and inclusion behavior of beta-CD to energetic materials (EMs) were investigated. The results show that (1) the established method is sensitive, simple, accurate, and suitable for determining the MWs of low-MW single-compound explosives and energetic components in composite explosives and propellants; and (2) beta-CD has good inclusion and modular recognition abilities to the above EMs.

  5. The discovery of the alpha-helix and beta-sheet, the principal structural features of proteins.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, David

    2003-09-30

    PNAS papers by Linus Pauling, Robert Corey, and Herman Branson in the spring of 1951 proposed the alpha-helix and the beta-sheet, now known to form the backbones of tens of thousands of proteins. They deduced these fundamental building blocks from properties of small molecules, known both from crystal structures and from Pauling's resonance theory of chemical bonding that predicted planar peptide groups. Earlier attempts by others to build models for protein helices had failed both by including nonplanar peptides and by insisting on helices with an integral number of units per turn. In major respects, the Pauling-Corey-Branson models were astoundingly correct, including bond lengths that were not surpassed in accuracy for >40 years. However, they did not consider the hand of the helix or the possibility of bent sheets. They also proposed structures and functions that have not been found, including the gamma-helix.

  6. Mutational analysis of the folding transition state of the C-terminal domain of ribosomal protein L9: a protein with an unusual beta-sheet topology.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Gupta, Ruchi; Cho, Jae-Hyun; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2007-01-30

    The C-terminal domain of ribosomal protein L9 (CTL9) is a 92-residue alpha-beta protein which contains an unusual three-stranded mixed parallel and antiparallel beta-sheet. The protein folds in a two-state fashion, and the folding rate is slow. It is thought that the slow folding may be caused by the necessity of forming this unusual beta-sheet architecture in the transition state for folding. This hypothesis makes CTL9 an interesting target for folding studies. The transition state for the folding of CTL9 was characterized by phi-value analysis. The folding of a set of hydrophobic core mutants was analyzed together with a set of truncation mutants. The results revealed a few positions with high phi-values (> or = 0.5), notably, V131, L133, H134, V137, and L141. All of these residues were found in the beta-hairpin region, indicating that the formation of this structure is likely to be the rate-limiting step in the folding of CTL9. One face of the beta-hairpin docks against the N-terminal helix. Analysis of truncation mutants of this helix confirmed its importance in folding. Mutations at other sites in the protein gave small phi-values, despite the fact that some of them had major effects on stability. The analysis indicates that formation of the antiparallel hairpin is critical and its interactions with the first helix are also important. Thus, the slow folding is not a consequence of the need to fully form the unusual three-stranded beta-sheet in the transition state. Analysis of the urea dependence of the folding rates indicates that mutations modulate the unfolded state. The folding of CTL9 is broadly consistent with the nucleation-condensation model of protein folding.

  7. The evaluation of a mental health facilitator in general practice: effects on recognition, management, and outcome of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Bashir, K; Blizard, B; Bosanquet, A; Bosanquet, N; Mann, A; Jenkins, R

    2000-08-01

    Facilitation uses personal contact between the facilitator and the professional to encourage good practice and better service organisation. The model has been applied to physical illness but not to psychiatric disorders. To determine if a non-specialist facilitator can improve the recognition, management, and outcome of psychiatric illness presenting to general practitioners (GPs). Six practices were visited over an 18-month period by a facilitator whose activities included providing guidelines and organising training initiatives. Six other practices acted as controls. Recognition (identification index of family doctors), management (psychotropic prescribing, psychological consultations with the GP, specialist mental health treatment, and the use of medical interventions and investigations), and patient outcome at four months were assessed before and after intervention. The mean identification index of facilitator GPs rose from 0.51 to 0.64 following intervention, while that of the control GPs fell from 0.67 to 0.59 (P = 0.046). The facilitator had no detectable effect on management or patient outcome. The facilitator improved recognition of psychiatric illness by GPs. Generic facilitators can be trained to take on a mental health role; however, the failure to achieve more fundamental changes in treatment and outcome implies that facilitator intervention requires development.

  8. PB1-F2 influenza A virus protein adopts a beta-sheet conformation and forms amyloid fibers in membrane environments.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Christophe; Al Bazzal, Ali; Vidic, Jasmina; Février, Vincent; Bourdieu, Christiane; Bouguyon, Edwige; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vautherot, Jean-François; Bernard, Julie; Moudjou, Mohammed; Noinville, Sylvie; Chich, Jean-François; Da Costa, Bruno; Rezaei, Human; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-04-23

    The influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein, encoded by an alternative reading frame in the PB1 polymerase gene, displays a high sequence polymorphism and is reported to contribute to viral pathogenesis in a sequence-specific manner. To gain insights into the functions of PB1-F2, the molecular structure of several PB1-F2 variants produced in Escherichia coli was investigated in different environments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that all variants have a random coil secondary structure in aqueous solution. When incubated in trifluoroethanol polar solvent, all PB1-F2 variants adopt an alpha-helix-rich structure, whereas incubated in acetonitrile, a solvent of medium polarity mimicking the membrane environment, they display beta-sheet secondary structures. Incubated with asolectin liposomes and SDS micelles, PB1-F2 variants also acquire a beta-sheet structure. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the presence of beta-sheets is correlated with an oligomerization/aggregation of PB1-F2. Electron microscopy showed that PB1-F2 forms amorphous aggregates in acetonitrile. In contrast, at low concentrations of SDS, PB1-F2 variants exhibited various abilities to form fibers that were evidenced as amyloid fibers in a thioflavin T assay. Using a recombinant virus and its PB1-F2 knock-out mutant, we show that PB1-F2 also forms amyloid structures in infected cells. Functional membrane permeabilization assays revealed that the PB1-F2 variants can perforate membranes at nanomolar concentrations but with activities found to be sequence-dependent and not obviously correlated with their differential ability to form amyloid fibers. All of these observations suggest that PB1-F2 could be involved in physiological processes through different pathways, permeabilization of cellular membranes, and amyloid fiber formation.

  9. Motion of spin label side chains in cellular retinol-binding protein: correlation with structure and nearest-neighbor interactions in an antiparallel beta-sheet.

    PubMed

    Lietzow, Michael A; Hubbell, Wayne L

    2004-03-23

    A goal in the development of site-directed spin labeling in proteins is to correlate the motion of a nitroxide side chain with local structure, interactions, and dynamics. Significant progress toward this goal has been made using alpha-helical proteins of known structure, and the present study is the first step in a similar exploration of a beta-sheet protein, cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP). Nitroxide side chains were introduced along both interior and edge strands. At sites in interior strands, the side-chain motion is strongly influenced by interactions with side chains of neighboring strands, giving rise to a rich variety of dynamic modes (weakly ordered, strongly ordered, immobilized) and complex electron paramagnetic resonance spectra that are modulated by strand twist. The interactions giving rise to the dynamic modes are explored using mutagenesis, and the results demonstrate the particular importance of the non-hydrogen-bonded neighbor residue in giving rise to highly ordered states. Along edge strands of the beta-sheet, the motion of the side chain is simple and weakly ordered, resembling that at solvent-exposed surfaces of an alpha-helix. A simple working model is proposed that can account for the wide variety of dynamic modes encountered. Collectively, the results suggest that the nitroxide side chain is an effective probe of side-chain interactions, and that site-directed spin labeling should be a powerful means of monitoring conformational changes that involve changes in beta-sheet topology.

  10. Recognition of conformational changes in beta-lactoglobulin by molecularly imprinted thin films.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nicholas W; Liu, Xiao; Piletsky, Sergey A; Hlady, Vladimir; Britt, David W

    2007-09-01

    Pathogenesis in protein conformational diseases is initiated by changes in protein secondary structure. This molecular restructuring presents an opportunity for novel shape-based detection approaches, as protein molecular weight and chemistry are otherwise unaltered. Here we apply molecular imprinting to discriminate between distinct conformations of the model protein beta-lactoglobulin (BLG). Thermal- and fluoro-alcohol-induced BLG isoforms were imprinted in thin films of 3-aminophenylboronic acid on quartz crystal microbalance chips. Enhanced rebinding of the template isoform was observed in all cases when compared to the binding of nontemplate isoforms over the concentration range of 1-100 microg mL(-1). Furthermore, it was observed that the greater the changes in the secondary structure of the template protein the lower the binding of native BLG challenges to the imprint, suggesting a strong steric influence in the recognition system. This feasibility study is a first demonstration of molecular imprints for recognition of distinct conformations of the same protein.

  11. Proteopedia: Rossmann Fold: A Beta-Alpha-Beta Fold at Dinucleotide Binding Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The Rossmann fold is one of the most common and widely distributed super-secondary structures. It is composed of a series of alternating beta strand (ß) and alpha helical (a) segments wherein the ß-strands are hydrogen bonded forming a ß-sheet. The initial beta-alpha-beta (ßaß) fold is the most conserved segment of Rossmann folds. As this segment…

  12. Possible participation of transient sheets of 1. -->. 4-. beta. -glucans in the biosynthesis of cellulose I. [Acetobacter xylinum

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Colvin, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that a primary, essential stage in the biologic formation of a microfibril of cellulose I is an extracellular, lateral association of presynthesized (1..-->..4)-..beta..-D-glucans, by hydrogen bonding, to form long, thin sheets. These sheets then superimpose themselves nonenzymatically by London forces to form the nascent microfibril. The ends of the constituent glucans of the nascent microfibril may undergo extension or rearrangement of the type indicated by Maclachlan and colleagues. The formation of the metastable, native structure (cellulose I) may be deduced from the above suggestion as a natural consequence of closest packing of the sheets. The irreversibility ofmore » the change from cellulose I to cellulose II, either by mercerization or regeneration, also follows from the postulate. The suggestion also explains why cellulose microfibrils and chitin microfibrils may be formed contiguously in cell walls without interfering with each other. High-resolution electron micrographs of the tips of newly formed microfibrils of bacterial cellulose which had been very lightly negatively stained with sodium phosphotungstate are consistent with the suggestion. 33 references, 3 figures.« less

  13. Minimalist design of water-soluble cross-beta architecture.

    PubMed

    Biancalana, Matthew; Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2010-02-23

    Demonstrated successes of protein design and engineering suggest significant potential to produce diverse protein architectures and assemblies beyond those found in nature. Here, we describe a new class of synthetic protein architecture through the successful design and atomic structures of water-soluble cross-beta proteins. The cross-beta motif is formed from the lamination of successive beta-sheet layers, and it is abundantly observed in the core of insoluble amyloid fibrils associated with protein-misfolding diseases. Despite its prominence, cross-beta has been designed only in the context of insoluble aggregates of peptides or proteins. Cross-beta's recalcitrance to protein engineering and conspicuous absence among the known atomic structures of natural proteins thus makes it a challenging target for design in a water-soluble form. Through comparative analysis of the cross-beta structures of fibril-forming peptides, we identified rows of hydrophobic residues ("ladders") running across beta-strands of each beta-sheet layer as a minimal component of the cross-beta motif. Grafting a single ladder of hydrophobic residues designed from the Alzheimer's amyloid-beta peptide onto a large beta-sheet protein formed a dimeric protein with a cross-beta architecture that remained water-soluble, as revealed by solution analysis and x-ray crystal structures. These results demonstrate that the cross-beta motif is a stable architecture in water-soluble polypeptides and can be readily designed. Our results provide a new route for accessing the cross-beta structure and expanding the scope of protein design.

  14. Minimalist design of water-soluble cross-[beta] architecture

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Biancalana, Matthew; Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    Demonstrated successes of protein design and engineering suggest significant potential to produce diverse protein architectures and assemblies beyond those found in nature. Here, we describe a new class of synthetic protein architecture through the successful design and atomic structures of water-soluble cross-{beta} proteins. The cross-{beta} motif is formed from the lamination of successive {beta}-sheet layers, and it is abundantly observed in the core of insoluble amyloid fibrils associated with protein-misfolding diseases. Despite its prominence, cross-{beta} has been designed only in the context of insoluble aggregates of peptides or proteins. Cross-{beta}'s recalcitrance to protein engineering and conspicuous absence among the knownmore » atomic structures of natural proteins thus makes it a challenging target for design in a water-soluble form. Through comparative analysis of the cross-{beta} structures of fibril-forming peptides, we identified rows of hydrophobic residues ('ladders') running across {beta}-strands of each {beta}-sheet layer as a minimal component of the cross-{beta} motif. Grafting a single ladder of hydrophobic residues designed from the Alzheimer's amyloid-{beta} peptide onto a large {beta}-sheet protein formed a dimeric protein with a cross-{beta} architecture that remained water-soluble, as revealed by solution analysis and x-ray crystal structures. These results demonstrate that the cross-{beta} motif is a stable architecture in water-soluble polypeptides and can be readily designed. Our results provide a new route for accessing the cross-{beta} structure and expanding the scope of protein design.« less

  15. Neuropeptide S interacts with the basolateral amygdala noradrenergic system in facilitating object recognition memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Han, Ren-Wen; Xu, Hong-Jiao; Zhang, Rui-San; Wang, Pei; Chang, Min; Peng, Ya-Li; Deng, Ke-Yu; Wang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The noradrenergic activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) was reported to be involved in the regulation of object recognition memory. As the BLA expresses high density of receptors for Neuropeptide S (NPS), we investigated whether the BLA is involved in mediating NPS's effects on object recognition memory consolidation and whether such effects require noradrenergic activity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NPS (1nmol) post training facilitated 24-h memory in a mouse novel object recognition task. The memory-enhancing effect of NPS could be blocked by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Furthermore, post-training intra-BLA infusions of NPS (0.5nmol/side) improved 24-h memory for objects, which was impaired by co-administration of propranolol (0.5μg/side). Taken together, these results indicate that NPS interacts with the BLA noradrenergic system in improving object recognition memory during consolidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Distinct roles of beta1 metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS), and ligand-associated metal-binding site (LIMBS) cation-binding sites in ligand recognition by integrin alpha2beta1.

    PubMed

    Valdramidou, Dimitra; Humphries, Martin J; Mould, A Paul

    2008-11-21

    Integrin-ligand interactions are regulated in a complex manner by divalent cations, and previous studies have identified ligand-competent, stimulatory, and inhibitory cation-binding sites. In collagen-binding integrins, such as alpha2beta1, ligand recognition takes place exclusively at the alpha subunit I domain. However, activation of the alphaI domain depends on its interaction with a structurally similar domain in the beta subunit known as the I-like or betaI domain. The top face of the betaI domain contains three cation-binding sites: the metal-ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), the ADMIDAS (adjacent to MIDAS), and LIMBS (ligand-associated metal-binding site). The role of these sites in controlling ligand binding to the alphaI domain has yet to be elucidated. Mutation of the MIDAS or LIMBS completely blocked collagen binding to alpha2beta1; in contrast mutation of the ADMIDAS reduced ligand recognition but this effect could be overcome by the activating monoclonal antibody TS2/16. Hence, the MIDAS and LIMBS appear to be essential for the interaction between alphaI and betaI, whereas occupancy of the ADMIDAS has an allosteric effect on the conformation of betaI. An activating mutation in the alpha2 I domain partially restored ligand binding to the MIDAS and LIMBS mutants. Analysis of the effects of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) on ligand binding to these mutants showed that the MIDAS is a ligand-competent site through which Mn(2+) stimulates ligand binding, whereas the LIMBS is a stimulatory Ca(2+)-binding site, occupancy of which increases the affinity of Mg(2+) for the MIDAS.

  17. Two distinct β-sheet structures in Italian-mutant amyloid-beta fibrils: a potential link to different clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Hubin, Ellen; Deroo, Stéphanie; Schierle, Gabriele Kaminksi; Kaminski, Clemens; Serpell, Louise; Subramaniam, Vinod; van Nuland, Nico; Broersen, Kerensa; Raussens, Vincent; Sarroukh, Rabia

    2015-12-01

    Most Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are late-onset and characterized by the aggregation and deposition of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide in extracellular plaques in the brain. However, a few rare and hereditary Aβ mutations, such as the Italian Glu22-to-Lys (E22K) mutation, guarantee the development of early-onset familial AD. This type of AD is associated with a younger age at disease onset, increased β-amyloid accumulation, and Aβ deposition in cerebral blood vessel walls, giving rise to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). It remains largely unknown how the Italian mutation results in the clinical phenotype that is characteristic of CAA. We therefore investigated how this single point mutation may affect the aggregation of Aβ1-42 in vitro and structurally characterized the resulting fibrils using a biophysical approach. This paper reports that wild-type and Italian-mutant Aβ both form fibrils characterized by the cross-β architecture, but with distinct β-sheet organizations, resulting in differences in thioflavin T fluorescence and solvent accessibility. E22K Aβ1-42 oligomers and fibrils both display an antiparallel β-sheet structure, in comparison with the parallel β-sheet structure of wild-type fibrils, characteristic of most amyloid fibrils described in the literature. Moreover, we demonstrate structural plasticity for Italian-mutant Aβ fibrils in a pH-dependent manner, in terms of their underlying β-sheet arrangement. These findings are of interest in the ongoing debate that (1) antiparallel β-sheet structure might represent a signature for toxicity, which could explain the higher toxicity reported for the Italian mutant, and that (2) fibril polymorphism might underlie differences in disease pathology and clinical manifestation.

  18. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well asmore » four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta

  19. Students' understanding of primary and secondary protein structure: drawing secondary protein structure reveals student understanding better than simple recognition of structures.

    PubMed

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of biochemistry courses requires students to use both chemistry and biology knowledge to understand biochemical concepts. Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations in addition to a fragmented understanding of fundamental biochemistry concepts. This project focuses on students' understanding of primary and secondary protein structure and drawings (representations) of hydrogen-bonding in alpha helices and beta sheets. Analysis demonstrated that students can recognize and identify primary protein structure concepts when given a polypeptide. However, when asked to draw alpha helices and beta sheets and explain the role of hydrogen bonding their drawings students exhibited a fragmented understanding that lacked coherence. Faculty are encouraged to have students draw molecular level representations to make their mental models more explicit, complete, and coherent. This is in contrast to recognition and identification tasks, which do not adequately probe mental models and molecular level understanding. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. A cluster of diagnostic Hsp68 amino acid sites that are identified in Drosophila from the melanogaster species group are concentrated around beta-sheet residues involved with substrate binding.

    PubMed

    Kellett, Mark; McKechnie, Stephen W

    2005-04-01

    The coding region of the hsp68 gene has been amplified, cloned, and sequenced from 10 Drosophila species, 5 from the melanogaster subgroup and 5 from the montium subgroup. When the predicted amino acid sequences are compared with available Hsp70 sequences, patterns of conservation suggest that the C-terminal region should be subdivided according to predominant secondary structure. Conservation levels between Hsp68 and Hsp70 proteins were high in the N-terminal ATPase and adjacent beta-sheet domains, medium in the alpha-helix domain, and low in the C-terminal mobile domain (78%, 72%, 41%, and 21% identity, respectively). A number of amino acid sites were found to be "diagnostic" for Hsp68 (28 of approximately 635 residues). A few of these occur in the ATPase domain (385 residues) but most (75%) are concentrated in the beta-sheet and alpha-helix domains (34% of the protein) with none in the short mobile domain. Five of the diagnostic sites in the beta-sheet domain are clustered around, but not coincident with, functional sites known to be involved in substrate binding. Nearly all of the Hsp70 family length variation occurs in the mobile domain. Within montium subgroup species, 2 nearly identical hsp68 PCR products that differed in length are either different alleles or products of an ancestral hsp68 duplication.

  1. Origin of life. Primordial genetics: Information transfer in a pre-RNA world based on self-replicating beta-sheet amyloid conformers.

    PubMed

    Maury, Carl Peter J

    2015-10-07

    The question of the origin of life on Earth can largely be reduced to the question of what was the first molecular replicator system that was able to replicate and evolve under the presumably very harsh conditions on the early Earth. It is unlikely that a functional RNA could have existed under such conditions and it is generally assumed that some other kind of information system preceded the RNA world. Here, I present an informational molecular system that is stable, self-replicative, environmentally responsive, and evolvable under conditions characterized by high temperatures, ultraviolet and cosmic radiation. This postulated pregenetic system is based on the amyloid fold, a functionally unique polypeptide fold characterized by a cross beta-sheet structure in which the beta strands are arranged perpendicular to the fiber axis. Beside an extraordinary structural robustness, the amyloid fold possesses a unique ability to transmit information by a three-dimensional templating mechanism. In amyloidogenesis short peptide monomers are added one by one to the growing end of the fiber. From the same monomeric subunits several structural variants of amyloid may be formed. Then, in a self-replicative mode, a specific amyloid conformer can act as a template and confer its spatially encoded information to daughter molecular entities in a repetitive way. In this process, the specific conformational information, the spatially changed organization, is transmitted; the coding element is the steric zipper structure, and recognition occurs by amino acid side chain complementarity. The amyloid information system fulfills several basic requirements of a primordial evolvable replicator system: (i) it is stable under the presumed primitive Earth conditions, (ii) the monomeric building blocks of the informational polymer can be formed from available prebiotic compounds, (iii) the system is self-assembling and self-replicative and (iv) it is adaptive to changes in the environment and

  2. Positive, but Not Negative, Facial Expressions Facilitate 3-Month-Olds' Recognition of an Individual Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenna, Viola; Proietti, Valentina; Montirosso, Rosario; Turati, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether and how the presence of a positive or a negative emotional expression may affect the face recognition process at 3 months of age. Using a familiarization procedure, Experiment 1 demonstrated that positive (i.e., happiness), but not negative (i.e., fear and anger) facial expressions facilitate infants' ability to…

  3. Hemi-methylated DNA opens a closed conformation of UHRF1 to facilitate its histone recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jian; Cheng, Jingdong; Wang, Jiaolong; Zhang, Qiao; Liu, Mengjie; Gong, Rui; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiaodan; Feng, Yangyang; Lan, Wenxian; Gong, Zhou; Tang, Chun; Wong, Jiemin; Yang, Huirong; Cao, Chunyang; Xu, Yanhui

    2016-04-01

    UHRF1 is an important epigenetic regulator for maintenance DNA methylation. UHRF1 recognizes hemi-methylated DNA (hm-DNA) and trimethylation of histone H3K9 (H3K9me3), but the regulatory mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that UHRF1 adopts a closed conformation, in which a C-terminal region (Spacer) binds to the tandem Tudor domain (TTD) and inhibits H3K9me3 recognition, whereas the SET-and-RING-associated (SRA) domain binds to the plant homeodomain (PHD) and inhibits H3R2 recognition. Hm-DNA impairs the intramolecular interactions and promotes H3K9me3 recognition by TTD-PHD. The Spacer also facilitates UHRF1-DNMT1 interaction and enhances hm-DNA-binding affinity of the SRA. When TTD-PHD binds to H3K9me3, SRA-Spacer may exist in a dynamic equilibrium: either recognizes hm-DNA or recruits DNMT1 to chromatin. Our study reveals the mechanism for regulation of H3K9me3 and hm-DNA recognition by URHF1.

  4. Sequence swapping does not result in conformation swapping for the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 beta-hairpin turns in human acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaewon; Lee, Jihun; Brych, Stephen R; Logan, Timothy M; Blaber, Michael

    2005-02-01

    The beta-turn is the most common type of nonrepetitive structure in globular proteins, comprising ~25% of all residues; however, a detailed understanding of effects of specific residues upon beta-turn stability and conformation is lacking. Human acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) is a member of the beta-trefoil superfold and contains a total of five beta-hairpin structures (antiparallel beta-sheets connected by a reverse turn). beta-Turns related by the characteristic threefold structural symmetry of this superfold exhibit different primary structures, and in some cases, different secondary structures. As such, they represent a useful system with which to study the role that turn sequences play in determining structure, stability, and folding of the protein. Two turns related by the threefold structural symmetry, the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 turns, were subjected to both sequence-swapping and poly-glycine substitution mutations, and the effects upon stability, folding, and structure were investigated. In the wild-type protein these turns are of identical length, but exhibit different conformations. These conformations were observed to be retained during sequence-swapping and glycine substitution mutagenesis. The results indicate that the beta-turn structure at these positions is not determined by the turn sequence. Structural analysis suggests that residues flanking the turn are a primary structural determinant of the conformation within the turn.

  5. On the facilitative effects of face motion on face recognition and its development

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Naiqi G.; Perrotta, Steve; Quinn, Paul C.; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Yu-Hao P.; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    For the past century, researchers have extensively studied human face processing and its development. These studies have advanced our understanding of not only face processing, but also visual processing in general. However, most of what we know about face processing was investigated using static face images as stimuli. Therefore, an important question arises: to what extent does our understanding of static face processing generalize to face processing in real-life contexts in which faces are mostly moving? The present article addresses this question by examining recent studies on moving face processing to uncover the influence of facial movements on face processing and its development. First, we describe evidence on the facilitative effects of facial movements on face recognition and two related theoretical hypotheses: the supplementary information hypothesis and the representation enhancement hypothesis. We then highlight several recent studies suggesting that facial movements optimize face processing by activating specific face processing strategies that accommodate to task requirements. Lastly, we review the influence of facial movements on the development of face processing in the first year of life. We focus on infants' sensitivity to facial movements and explore the facilitative effects of facial movements on infants' face recognition performance. We conclude by outlining several future directions to investigate moving face processing and emphasize the importance of including dynamic aspects of facial information to further understand face processing in real-life contexts. PMID:25009517

  6. Low-Temperature Forming of Beta Titanium Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, R. S.; Woods, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Low cost methods for titanium structural fabrication using advanced cold-formable beta alloys were investigated for application in a Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle. This work focuses on improving processing and structural efficiencies as compared with standard hot formed and riveted construction of alpha-beta alloy sheet structure. Mechanical property data and manufacturing parameters were developed for cold forming, brazing, welding, and processing Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al sheet, and Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr on a more limited basis. Cost and structural benefits were assessed through the fabrication and evaluation of large structural panels. The feasibility of increasing structural efficiency of beta titanium structure by selective reinforcement with metal matrix composite was also explored.

  7. Computational study of the fibril organization of polyglutamine repeats reveals a common motif identified in beta-helices.

    PubMed

    Zanuy, David; Gunasekaran, Kannan; Lesk, Arthur M; Nussinov, Ruth

    2006-04-21

    The formation of fibril aggregates by long polyglutamine sequences is assumed to play a major role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington. Here, we model peptides rich in glutamine, through a series of molecular dynamics simulations. Starting from a rigid nanotube-like conformation, we have obtained a new conformational template that shares structural features of a tubular helix and of a beta-helix conformational organization. Our new model can be described as a super-helical arrangement of flat beta-sheet segments linked by planar turns or bends. Interestingly, our comprehensive analysis of the Protein Data Bank reveals that this is a common motif in beta-helices (termed beta-bend), although it has not been identified so far. The motif is based on the alternation of beta-sheet and helical conformation as the protein sequence is followed from the N to the C termini (beta-alpha(R)-beta-polyPro-beta). We further identify this motif in the ssNMR structure of the protofibril of the amyloidogenic peptide Abeta(1-40). The recurrence of the beta-bend suggests a general mode of connecting long parallel beta-sheet segments that would allow the growth of partially ordered fibril structures. The design allows the peptide backbone to change direction with a minimal loss of main chain hydrogen bonds. The identification of a coherent organization beyond that of the beta-sheet segments in different folds rich in parallel beta-sheets suggests a higher degree of ordered structure in protein fibrils, in agreement with their low solubility and dense molecular packing.

  8. Colour Based Image Processing Method for Recognizing Ribbed Smoked Sheet Grade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibriani, Ike; Sumardi; Bayu Satriya, Alfredo; Budi Utomo, Satryo

    2017-03-01

    This research proposes a colour based image processing technique to recognize the Ribbed Smoked Sheet (RSS) grade so that the RSS sorting process can be faster and more accurate than the traditional one. The RSS sheet image captured by the camera is transformed into grayscale image to simplify the recognition of rust and mould on the RSS sheet. Then the grayscale image is transformed into binary image using threshold value which is obtained from the RSS 1 reference colour. The grade recognition is determined by counting the white pixel percentage. The result shows that the system has 88% of accuracy. Most faults exist on RSS 2 recognition. This is due to the illumination distribution which is not equal over the RSS image.

  9. The association of GSK3 beta with E2F1 facilitates nerve growth factor-induced neural cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fangfang; Zhang, Long; Wang, Aijun; Song, Bo; Gong, Kai; Zhang, Lihai; Hu, Min; Zhang, Xiufang; Zhao, Nanming; Gong, Yandao

    2008-05-23

    It is widely acknowledged that E2F1 and GSK3beta are both involved in the process of cell differentiation. However, the relationship between E2F1 and GSK3beta in cell differentiation has yet to be discovered. Here, we provide evidence that in the differentiation of PC12 cells induced by nerve growth factor (NGF), GSK3beta was increased at both the mRNA and protein levels, whereas E2F1 at these two levels was decreased. Both wild-type GSK3beta and its kinase-defective mutant GSK3beta KM can inhibit E2F1 by promoting its ubiquitination through physical interaction. In addition, the colocalization of GSK3beta and E2F1 and their subcellular distribution, regulated by NGF, were observed in the process of PC12 differentiation. At the tissue level, GSK3beta colocalized and interacted with E2F1 in mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, GSK3beta facilitated neurite outgrowth by rescuing the promoter activities of Cdk inhibitors p21 and p15 from the inhibition caused by E2F1. To summarize, our findings suggest that GSK3beta can promote the ubiquitination of E2F1 via physical interaction and thus inhibit its transcription activity in a kinase activity independent manner, which plays an important role in the NGF-induced PC12 differentiation.

  10. Protein Secondary Structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) at a Cellular Levle and Protein Fractions in Relation to Rumen Degradation Behaviours of Protein: A New Approach

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yu,P.

    2007-01-01

    Studying the secondary structure of proteins leads to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein, and such an understanding of the structure of the whole protein is often vital to understanding its digestive behaviour and nutritive value in animals. The main protein secondary structures are the {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet. The percentage of these two structures in protein secondary structures influences protein nutritive value, quality and digestive behaviour. A high percentage of {beta}-sheet structure may partly cause a low access to gastrointestinal digestive enzymes, which results in a low protein value. The objectives of the present studymore » were to use advanced synchrotron-based Fourier transform IR (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy as a new approach to reveal the molecular chemistry of the protein secondary structures of feed tissues affected by heat-processing within intact tissue at a cellular level, and to quantify protein secondary structures using multicomponent peak modelling Gaussian and Lorentzian methods, in relation to protein digestive behaviours and nutritive value in the rumen, which was determined using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System. The synchrotron-based molecular chemistry research experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, US Department of Energy. The results showed that, with S-FTIR microspectroscopy, the molecular chemistry, ultrastructural chemical make-up and nutritive characteristics could be revealed at a high ultraspatial resolution ({approx}10 {mu}m). S-FTIR microspectroscopy revealed that the secondary structure of protein differed between raw and roasted golden flaxseeds in terms of the percentages and ratio of {alpha}-helixes and {beta}-sheets in the mid-IR range at the cellular level. By using multicomponent peak modelling, the results show that the roasting reduced (P <0.05) the percentage of {alpha}-helixes (from 47.1% to 36.1%: S

  11. KM+, a mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia: amino acid sequence, predicted tertiary structure, carbohydrate recognition, and analysis of the beta-prism fold.

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, J. C.; De Oliveira, P. S.; Garratt, R.; Beltramini, L.; Resing, K.; Roque-Barreira, M. C.; Greene, L. J.

    1999-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the lectin KM+ from Artocarpus integrifolia (jackfruit), which contains 149 residues/mol, is reported and compared to those of other members of the Moraceae family, particularly that of jacalin, also from jackfruit, with which it shares 52% sequence identity. KM+ presents an acetyl-blocked N-terminus and is not posttranslationally modified by proteolytic cleavage as is the case for jacalin. Rather, it possesses a short, glycine-rich linker that unites the regions homologous to the alpha- and beta-chains of jacalin. The results of homology modeling implicate the linker sequence in sterically impeding rotation of the side chain of Asp141 within the binding site pocket. As a consequence, the aspartic acid is locked into a conformation adequate only for the recognition of equatorial hydroxyl groups on the C4 epimeric center (alpha-D-mannose, alpha-D-glucose, and their derivatives). In contrast, the internal cleavage of the jacalin chain permits free rotation of the homologous aspartic acid, rendering it capable of accepting hydrogen bonds from both possible hydroxyl configurations on C4. We suggest that, together with direct recognition of epimeric hydroxyls and the steric exclusion of disfavored ligands, conformational restriction of the lectin should be considered to be a new mechanism by which selectivity may be built into carbohydrate binding sites. Jacalin and KM+ adopt the beta-prism fold already observed in two unrelated protein families. Despite presenting little or no sequence similarity, an analysis of the beta-prism reveals a canonical feature repeatedly present in all such structures, which is based on six largely hydrophobic residues within a beta-hairpin containing two classic-type beta-bulges. We suggest the term beta-prism motif to describe this feature. PMID:10210179

  12. Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease: amyloid-beta oligomers trigger innate immunity defence via pattern recognition receptors.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Ojala, Johanna; Kauppinen, Anu; Kaarniranta, Kai; Suuronen, Tiina

    2009-02-01

    The inflammatory process has a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that inflammation is not merely a bystander in neurodegeneration but a powerful pathogenetic force in the disease process. Increased production of amyloid-beta peptide species can activate the innate immunity system via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and evoke Alzheimer's pathology. We will focus on the role of innate immunity system of brain in the initiation and the propagation of inflammatory process in AD. We examine here in detail the significance of amyloid-beta oligomers and fibrils as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the activation of a wide array of PRRs in glial cells and neurons, such as Toll-like, NOD-like, formyl peptide, RAGE and scavenger receptors along with complement and pentraxin systems. We also characterize the signaling pathways triggered by different PRRs in evoking inflammatory responses. In addition, we will discuss whether AD pathology could be the outcome of chronic activation of the innate immunity defence in the brain of AD patients.

  13. In silico study of full-length amyloid beta 1-42 tri- and penta-oligomers in solution.

    PubMed

    Masman, Marcelo F; Eisel, Ulrich L M; Csizmadia, Imre G; Penke, Botond; Enriz, Ricardo D; Marrink, Siewert Jan; Luiten, Paul G M

    2009-08-27

    Amyloid oligomers are considered to play causal roles in the pathogenesis of amyloid-related degenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. Using MD simulation techniques, we explored the contributions of the different structural elements of trimeric and pentameric full-length Abeta1-42 aggregates in solution to their stability and conformational dynamics. We found that our models are stable at a temperature of 310 K, and converge toward an interdigitated side-chain packing for intermolecular contacts within the two beta-sheet regions of the aggregates: beta1 (residues 18-26) and beta2 (residues 31-42). MD simulations reveal that the beta-strand twist is a characteristic element of Abeta-aggregates, permitting a compact, interdigitated packing of side chains from neighboring beta-sheets. The beta2 portion formed a tightly organized beta-helix, whereas the beta1 portion did not show such a firm structural organization, although it maintained its beta-sheet conformation. Our simulations indicate that the hydrophobic core comprising the beta2 portion of the aggregate is a crucial stabilizing element in the Abeta aggregation process. On the basis of these structure-stability findings, the beta2 portion emerges as an optimal target for further antiamyloid drug design.

  14. Facilitation of face recognition through the retino-tectal pathway.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tamami; Higashida, Noriko; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2013-08-01

    Humans can shift their gazes faster to human faces than to non-face targets during a task in which they are required to choose between face and non-face targets. However, it remains unclear whether a direct projection from the retina to the superior colliculus is specifically involved in this facilitated recognition of faces. To address this question, we presented a pair of face and non-face pictures to participants modulated in greyscale (luminance-defined stimuli) in one condition and modulated in a blue-yellow scale (S-cone-isolating stimuli) in another. The information of the S-cone-isolating stimuli is conveyed through the retino-geniculate pathway rather than the retino-tectal pathway. For the luminance stimuli, the reaction time was shorter towards a face than towards a non-face target. The facilitatory effect while choosing a face disappeared with the S-cone stimuli. Moreover, fearful faces elicited a significantly larger facilitatory effect relative to neutral faces, when the face (with or without emotion) and non-face stimuli were presented in greyscale. The effect of emotional expressions disappeared with the S-cone stimuli. In contrast to the S-cone stimuli, the face facilitatory effect was still observed with negated stimuli that were prepared by reversing the polarity of the original colour pictures and looked as unusual as the S-cone stimuli but still contained luminance information. These results demonstrate that the face facilitatory effect requires the facial and emotional information defined by luminance, suggesting that the luminance information conveyed through the retino-tectal pathway is responsible for the faster recognition of human faces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reversal of temperature-induced conformational changes in the amyloid-beta peptide, Aβ40, by the β-sheet breaker peptides 16–23 and 17–24

    PubMed Central

    Hatip, Funda F Bölükbaşı; Suenaga, Midori; Yamada, Tatsuo; Matsunaga, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Aggregates of the protein amyloid-beta (Aβ) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most therapeutic approaches to AD do not target Aβ, so determination of the factor(s) that facilitate aggregation and discovering agents that prevent aggregation have great potential therapeutic value. Experimental approach: We investigated ex vivo the temperature-sensitive regions of Aβ1–40 (Aβ40) and their interactions with octapeptides derived from sequences within Aβ40 –β-sheet breaker peptides (βSBP) – using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and dot blot and far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. We measured changes within the physiological limits of temperature, using antibodies targeting epitopes 1–7, 5–10, 9–14 and 17–21 within Aβ40. Key results: Temperature-dependent conformational changes were observed in Aβ40 at epitopes 9–14 and 17–21 at 36–38 and 36–40°C respectively. The βSBPs 16–23 and 17–24, but not 15–22 and 18–25, could inhibit the changes. Moreover, βSBPs 16–23 and 17–24 increased digestion of Aβ40 by protease K, indicating a decreased aggregation of Aβ40, whereas βSBPs 15–22 and 18–25 did not increase this digestion. CD spectra revealed that β-sheet formation in Aβ40 at 38°C was reduced with βSBPs 16–23 and 17–24. Conclusions and implications: The epitopes 9–14 and 17–21 are the temperature-sensitive regions within Aβ40. The βSBPs, Aβ16–23 and 17–24 reversed temperature-induced β-sheet formation, and decreased Aβ40 aggregation. The results suggest that the 17–23 epitope of Aβ40 is crucially involved in preventing Aβ40 aggregation and consequent deposition of Aβ40 in AD brain. PMID:19785651

  16. Reversible Hydrogel–Solution System of Silk with High Beta-Sheet Content

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Silkworm silk has been widely used as a textile fiber, as biomaterials and in optically functional materials due to its extraordinary properties. The β-sheet-rich natural nanofiber units of about 10–50 nm in diameter are often considered the origin of these properties, yet it remains unclear how silk self-assembles into these hierarchical structures. A new system composed of β-sheet-rich silk nanofibers about 10–20 nm in diameter is reported here, where these nanofibers formed into “flowing hydrogels” at 0.5–2% solutions and could be transformed back into the solution state at lower concentrations, even with a high β-sheet content. This is in contrast with other silk processed materials, where significant β-sheet content negates reversibility between solution and solid states. These fibers are formed by regulating the self-assembly process of silk in aqueous solution, which changes the distribution of negative charges while still supporting β-sheet formation in the structures. Mechanistically, there appears to be a shift toward negative charges along the outside of the silk nanofibers in our present study, resulting in a higher zeta potential (above −50 mV) than previous silk materials which tend to be below −30 mV. The higher negative charge on silk nanofibers resulted in electrostatic repulsion strong enough to negate further assembly of the nanofibers. Changing silk concentration changed the balance between hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic repulsion of β-sheet-rich silk nanofibers, resulting in reversible hydrogel–solution transitions. Furthermore, the silk nanofibers could be disassembled into shorter fibers and even nanoparticles upon ultrasonic treatment following the transition from hydrogel to solution due to the increased dispersion of hydrophobic smaller particles, without the loss of β-sheet content, and with retention of the ability to transition between hydrogel and solution states through reversion to longer nanofibers

  17. Reversible hydrogel-solution system of silk with high beta-sheet content.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shumeng; Zhang, Xiuli; Lu, Qiang; Sheng, Weiqin; Liu, Lijie; Dong, Boju; Kaplan, David L; Zhu, Hesun

    2014-08-11

    Silkworm silk has been widely used as a textile fiber, as biomaterials and in optically functional materials due to its extraordinary properties. The β-sheet-rich natural nanofiber units of about 10-50 nm in diameter are often considered the origin of these properties, yet it remains unclear how silk self-assembles into these hierarchical structures. A new system composed of β-sheet-rich silk nanofibers about 10-20 nm in diameter is reported here, where these nanofibers formed into "flowing hydrogels" at 0.5-2% solutions and could be transformed back into the solution state at lower concentrations, even with a high β-sheet content. This is in contrast with other silk processed materials, where significant β-sheet content negates reversibility between solution and solid states. These fibers are formed by regulating the self-assembly process of silk in aqueous solution, which changes the distribution of negative charges while still supporting β-sheet formation in the structures. Mechanistically, there appears to be a shift toward negative charges along the outside of the silk nanofibers in our present study, resulting in a higher zeta potential (above -50 mV) than previous silk materials which tend to be below -30 mV. The higher negative charge on silk nanofibers resulted in electrostatic repulsion strong enough to negate further assembly of the nanofibers. Changing silk concentration changed the balance between hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic repulsion of β-sheet-rich silk nanofibers, resulting in reversible hydrogel-solution transitions. Furthermore, the silk nanofibers could be disassembled into shorter fibers and even nanoparticles upon ultrasonic treatment following the transition from hydrogel to solution due to the increased dispersion of hydrophobic smaller particles, without the loss of β-sheet content, and with retention of the ability to transition between hydrogel and solution states through reversion to longer nanofibers during self

  18. Extension arm facilitated pegylation of alphaalpha-hemoglobin with modifications targeted exclusively to amino groups: functional and structural advantages of free Cys-93(beta) in the PEG-Hb adduct.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxia; Hu, Tao; Manjula, Belur N; Acharya, Seetharama A

    2009-11-01

    Cys-93(beta) of hemoglobin (Hb) was reversibly protected as a mixed disulfide with thiopyridine during extension arm facilitated (EAF) PEGylation and its influence on the structural and functional properties of the EAF-PEG-Hb has been investigated. Avoiding PEGylation of Cys-93(beta) in the EAF-PEG-Hb lowers the level of perturbation of heme pocket, alpha1beta2 interface, autoxidation, heme loss, and the O(2) affinity, as compared to the EAF-PEG-Hb with PEGylation of Cys-93(beta).The structural and functional advantages of reversible protection of Cys-93(beta) during EAF PEGylation of oxy-Hb has been compared with Euro PEG-Hb generated by EAF PEGylation of deoxy Hb where Cys-93(beta) is free in the final product. The alphaalpha-fumaryl cross-linking and EAF PEGylation targeted exclusively to Lys residues has been combined together for generation of second-generation EAF-PEG-Hb with lower oxygen affinity. The PEG chains engineered on Lys as well as PEGylation of Cys-93(beta) independently contribute to the stabilization of oxy conformation of Hb and hence increase the oxygen affinity of Hb. However, oxygen affinity of the EAF-PEG-alphaalpha-Hb is more sensitive to the presence of PEGylation on Cys-93(beta) than that of the EAF-PEG-Hb. The present modified EAF PEGylation platform is expected to facilitate the design of novel versions of the EAF-PEG-Hbs that can now integrate the advantages of avoiding PEGylation of Cys-93(beta).

  19. Structural mechanism of Smad4 recognition by the nuclear oncoprotein Ski: insights on Ski-mediated repression of TGF-beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia Wei; Krawitz, Ariel R; Chai, Jijie; Li, Wenyu; Zhang, Fangjiu; Luo, Kunxin; Shi, Yigong

    2002-11-01

    The Ski family of nuclear oncoproteins represses TGF-beta signaling through interactions with the Smad proteins. The crystal structure of the Smad4 binding domain of human c-Ski in complex with the MH2 domain of Smad4 reveals specific recognition of the Smad4 L3 loop region by a highly conserved interaction loop (I loop) from Ski. The Ski binding surface on Smad4 significantly overlaps with that required for binding of the R-Smads. Indeed, Ski disrupts the formation of a functional complex between the Co- and R-Smads, explaining how it could lead to repression of TGF-beta, activin, and BMP responses. Intriguingly, the structure of the Ski fragment, stabilized by a bound zinc atom, resembles the SAND domain, in which the corresponding I loop is responsible for DNA binding.

  20. Fluctuation dynamics in reconnecting current sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Stechow, Adrian; Grulke, Olaf; Ji, Hantao; Yamada, Masaaki; Klinger, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    During magnetic reconnection, a highly localized current sheet forms at the boundary between opposed magnetic fields. Its steep perpendicular gradients and fast parallel drifts can give rise to a range of instabilities which can contribute to the overall reconnection dynamics. In two complementary laboratory reconnection experiments, MRX (PPPL, Princeton) and VINETA.II (IPP, Greifswald, Germany), magnetic fluctuations are observed within the current sheet. Despite the large differences in geometries (toroidal vs. linear), plasma parameters (high vs. low beta) and magnetic configuration (low vs. high magnetic guide field), similar broadband fluctuation characteristics are observed in both experiments. These are identified as Whistler-like fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range that propagate along the current sheet in the electron drift direction. They are intrinsic to the localized current sheet and largely independent of the slower reconnection dynamics. This contribution characterizes these magnetic fluctuations within the wide parameter range accessible by both experiments. Specifically, the fluctuation spectra and wave dispersion are characterized with respect to the magnetic topology and plasma parameters of the reconnecting current sheet.

  1. Role of Polyalanine Domains in -Sheet Formation in Spider Silk Block Copolymers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rabotyagova, O.; Cebe, P; Kaplan, D

    2010-01-01

    Genetically engineered spider silk-like block copolymers were studied to determine the influence of polyalanine domain size on secondary structure. The role of polyalanine block distribution on {beta}-sheet formation was explored using FT-IR and WAXS. The number of polyalanine blocks had a direct effect on the formation of crystalline {beta}-sheets, reflected in the change in crystallinity index as the blocks of polyalanines increased. WAXS analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of the sample with the largest number of polyalanine blocks. This approach provides a platform for further exploration of the role of specific amino acid chemistries in regulating the assembly of {beta}-sheetmore » secondary structures, leading to options to regulate material properties through manipulation of this key component in spider silks.« less

  2. Prominent facilitation at beta and gamma frequency range revealed with physiological calcium concentration in adult mouse piriform cortex in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gleizes, Marie; Perrier, Simon P.; Fonta, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal activity is characterized by a diversity of oscillatory phenomena that are associated with multiple behavioral and cognitive processes, yet the functional consequences of these oscillations are not fully understood. Our aim was to determine whether and how these different oscillatory activities affect short-term synaptic plasticity (STP), using the olfactory system as a model. In response to odorant stimuli, the olfactory bulb displays a slow breathing rhythm as well as beta and gamma oscillations. Since the firing of olfactory bulb projecting neurons is phase-locked with beta and gamma oscillations, structures downstream from the olfactory bulb should be driven preferentially at these frequencies. We examined STP exhibited by olfactory bulb inputs in slices of adult mouse piriform cortex maintained in vitro in an in vivo-like ACSF (calcium concentration: 1.1 mM). We replaced the presynaptic neuronal firing rate by repeated electrical stimulation (frequency between 3.125 and 100 Hz) applied to the lateral olfactory tract. Our results revealed a considerable enhancement of postsynaptic response amplitude for stimulation frequencies in the beta and gamma range. A phenomenological model of STP fitted to the data suggests that the experimental results can be explained by the interplay between three mechanisms: a short-term facilitation mechanism (time constant ≈160 msec), and two short-term depression mechanisms (recovery time constants <20 msec and ≈140 msec). Increasing calcium concentration (2.2 mM) resulted in an increase in the time constant of facilitation and in a strengthening of the slowest depression mechanism. As a result, response enhancement was reduced and its peak shifted toward the low beta and alpha ranges while depression became predominant in the gamma band. Using environmental conditions corresponding to those that prevail in vivo, our study shows that STP in the lateral olfactory tract to layer Ia synapse allows amplification of

  3. Pauling and Corey's alpha-pleated sheet structure may define the prefibrillar amyloidogenic intermediate in amyloid disease.

    PubMed

    Armen, Roger S; DeMarco, Mari L; Alonso, Darwin O V; Daggett, Valerie

    2004-08-10

    Transthyretin, beta(2)-microglobulin, lysozyme, and the prion protein are four of the best-characterized proteins implicated in amyloid disease. Upon partial acid denaturation, these proteins undergo conformational change into an amyloidogenic intermediate that can self-assemble into amyloid fibrils. Many experiments have shown that pH-mediated changes in structure are required for the formation of the amyloidogeneic intermediate, but it has proved impossible to characterize these conformational changes at high resolution using experimental means. To probe these conformational changes at atomic resolution, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of these proteins at neutral and low pH. In low-pH simulations of all four proteins, we observe the formation of alpha-pleated sheet secondary structure, which was first proposed by L. Pauling and R. B. Corey [(1951) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 37, 251-256]. In all beta-sheet proteins, transthyretin and beta(2)-microglobulin, alpha-pleated sheet structure formed over the strands that are highly protected in hydrogen-exchange experiments probing amyloidogenic conditions. In lysozyme and the prion protein, alpha-sheets formed in the specific regions of the protein implicated in the amyloidogenic conversion. We propose that the formation of alpha-pleated sheet structure may be a common conformational transition in amyloidosis.

  4. Recognition and Resistance in TEM [superscript beta]-Lactamase

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Minasov, George; Blazquez, Jesus

    Developing antimicrobials that are less likely to engender resistance has become an important design criterion as more and more drugs fall victim to resistance mutations. One hypothesis is that the more closely an inhibitor resembles a substrate, the more difficult it will be to develop resistant mutations that can at once disfavor the inhibitor and still recognize the substrate. To investigate this hypothesis, 10 transition-state analogues, of greater or lesser similarity to substrates, were tested for inhibition of TEM-1 beta-lactamase, the most widespread resistance enzyme to penicillin antibiotics. The inhibitors were also tested against four characteristic mutant enzymes: TEM-30, TEM-32,more » TEM-52, and TEM-64. The inhibitor most similar to the substrate, compound 10, was the most potent inhibitor of the WT enzyme, with a K(i) value of 64 nM. Conversely, compound 10 was the most susceptible to the TEM-30 (R244S) mutant, for which inhibition dropped by over 100-fold. The other inhibitors were relatively impervious to the TEM-30 mutant enzyme. To understand recognition and resistance to these transition-state analogues, the structures of four of these inhibitors in complex with TEM-1 were determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures suggest a structural basis for distinguishing inhibitors that mimic the acylation transition state and those that mimic the deacylation transition state; they also suggest how TEM-30 reduces the affinity of compound 10. In cell culture, this inhibitor reversed the resistance of bacteria to ampicillin, reducing minimum inhibitory concentrations of this penicillin by between 4- and 64-fold, depending on the strain of bacteria. Notwithstanding this activity, the resistance of TEM-30, which is already extant in the clinic, suggests that there can be resistance liabilities with substrate-based design.« less

  5. Kinetic Studies of Inhibition of the Aβ(1–42) Aggregation Using a Ferrocene-tagged β-Sheet Breaker Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Yagnik, Gargey; Peng, Yong; Wang, Jianxiu; Xu, H. Howard; Hao, Yuanqiang; Liu, You-Nian; Zhou, Feimeng

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins/peptides has been closely linked to the neuropathology of several important neurological disorders. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides and their aggregation are believed to be at least partially responsible for the etiology of AD. The aggregate-inflicted cellular toxicity can be inhibited by short peptides whose sequence are homologous to segments of the Aβ(1–42) peptide responsible for β-sheet stacking (referred to as the β-sheet breaker peptides). Herein a water-soluble ferrocene (Fc)-tagged β-sheet breaker peptide (Fc-KLVFFK6) is used as an electrochemical probe for kinetic studies of the inhibition of the Aβ(1–42) fibrillation process and for determination of the optimal concentration of β-sheet breaker peptide for efficient inhibition. Our results demonstrated that Fc-KLVFFK6 interacts with the Aβ aggregates instantaneously in solution, and sub-stoichiometric amount of Fc-KLVFFK6 is sufficient to inhibit the formation of the Aβ oligomers and fibrils and to reduce the toxicity of Aβ(1–42). The interaction between Fc-KLVFFK6 and Aβ(1–42) follows a pseudo-first-order reaction, with a rate constant of 1.89 ± 0.05 × 10−4 s−1. Tagging β-sheet breaker peptides with a redox label facilitates design, screening, and rational use of peptidic inhibitors for impeding/altering Aβ aggregation. PMID:23232068

  6. Parallel nucleic acid recognition by the LNA (locked nucleic acid) stereoisomers beta-L-LNA and alpha-D-LNA; studies in the mirror image world.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Nanna K; Bryld, Torsten; Sørensen, Mads D; Arar, Khalil; Wengel, Jesper; Nielsen, Poul

    2004-02-07

    Two LNA (locked nucleic acid) stereoisomers (beta-L-LNA and alpha-D-LNA) are evaluated in the mirror-image world, that is by the study of two mixed sequences of LNA and alpha-L-LNA and their L-DNA and L-RNA complements. Both are found to display high-affinity RNA-recognition by the formation of duplexes with parallel strand orientation.

  7. Double-stranded helical twisted beta-sheet channels in crystals of gramicidin S grown in the presence of trifluoroacetic and hydrochloric acids.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L; Grotenbreg, Gijsbert M; Overhand, Mark; van Raaij, Mark J

    2007-03-01

    Gramicidin S is a nonribosomally synthesized cyclic decapeptide antibiotic with twofold symmetry (Val-Orn-Leu-D-Phe-Pro)(2); a natural source is Bacillus brevis. Gramicidin S is active against Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria. However, its haemolytic toxicity in humans limits its use as an antibiotic to certain topical applications. Synthetically obtained gramicidin S was crystallized from a solution containing water, methanol, trifluoroacetic acid and hydrochloric acid. The structure was solved and refined at 0.95 A resolution. The asymmetric unit contains 1.5 molecules of gramicidin S, two trifluoroacetic acid molecules and ten water molecules located and refined in 14 positions. One gramicidin S molecule has an exact twofold-symmetrical conformation; the other deviates from the molecular twofold symmetry. The cyclic peptide adopts an antiparallel beta-sheet secondary structure with two type II' beta-turns. These turns have the residues D-Phe and Pro at positions i + 1 and i + 2, respectively. In the crystals, the gramicidin S molecules line up into double-stranded helical channels that differ from those observed previously. The implications of the supramolecular structure for several models of gramicidin S conformation and assembly in the membrane are discussed.

  8. Characterization of two distinct beta2-microglobulin unfolding intermediates that may lead to amyloid fibrils of different morphology.

    PubMed

    Armen, Roger S; Daggett, Valerie

    2005-12-13

    The self-assembly of beta(2)-microglobulin into fibrils leads to dialysis-related amyloidosis. pH-mediated partial unfolding is required for the formation of the amyloidogenic intermediate that then self-assembles into amyloid fibrils. Two partially folded intermediates of beta(2)-microglobulin have been identified experimentally and linked to the formation of fibrils of distinct morphology, yet it remains difficult to characterize these partially unfolded states at high resolution using experimental approaches. Consequently, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations at neutral and low pH to determine the structures of these partially unfolded amyloidogenic intermediates. In the low-pH simulations, we observed the formation of alpha-sheet structure, which was first proposed by Pauling and Corey. Multiple simulations were performed, and two distinct intermediate state ensembles were identified that may account for the different fibril morphologies. The predominant early unfolding intermediate was nativelike in structure, in agreement with previous NMR studies. The late unfolding intermediate was significantly disordered, but it maintained an extended elongated structure, with hydrophobic clusters and residual alpha-extended chain strands in specific regions of the sequence that map to amyloidogenic peptides. We propose that the formation of alpha-sheet facilitates self-assembly into partially unfolded prefibrillar amyloidogenic intermediates.

  9. Dynamics of beta-amyloid peptide in cholesterol superlattice domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Anton; Zhu, Qing; Vaughn, Mark; Khare, Rajesh; Cheng, K.

    2006-10-01

    Presence of beta-amyloid peptide (beta-A) plagues in membranes of neuron cells is a clinical signature of Alzheimer disease. The onset of beta-A peptide aggregation occurs via a conformational transition from an alpha-helix state to a beta-sheet state. A gradual build-up of beta-A content in the neuronal extracellular space is another characteristic of the beta-A plague formation. Hypothetically, both the pathological conformation and the predominant localization of the beta-A can be a result of specific dynamic characteristics of the interphase between cellular membrane and extracellular milieu. In this study, the beta-A interphase problem has been investigated using a virtual membrane model implemented on the base of GROMACS molecular dynamics simulation package. The detailed folding pattern of beta-A has been examined using a novice interphase model comprised of a cholesterol supperlattice membrane and two water layers.

  10. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  11. Plasma convection and ion beam generation in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Goertz, C. K.; Smith, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the dawn-dusk electric field E(dd), plasma in the magnetotail convects from the lobe toward the central plasma sheet (CPS). In the absence of space or velocity diffusion due to plasma turbulence, convection would yield a steady state distribution function f = V exp (-2/3) g(v exp 2 V exp 2/3), where V is the flux tube volume. Starting with such a distribution function and a plasma beta which varies from beta greater than 1 in the CPS to beta much smaller than 1 in the lobe, the evolution of the ion distribution function was studied considering the combined effects of ion diffusion by kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) in the ULF frequency range (1-10 mHz) and convection due to E(dd) x B drift in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) and outer central plasma sheet (OCPS). The results show that, during the early stages after launching the KAWs, a beamlike ion distribution forms in the PSBL and at the same time the plasma density and temperature decrease in the OCPS. Following this stage, ions in the beams convect toward the CPS resulting in an increase of the plasma temperature in the OCPS.

  12. Careers "Fact Sheets" for clinical engineering & biomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Pacela, A F

    1991-01-01

    Three Careers "Fact Sheets" include information on CE and BMET job titles, job descriptions, and certification. These materials are intended to aid in furthering professional recognition for Clinical Engineers and BMETs, and may be useful in communicating with Administration or Human Resources departments.

  13. SMURFLite: combining simplified Markov random fields with simulated evolution improves remote homology detection for beta-structural proteins into the twilight zone.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Noah M; Hosur, Raghavendra; Berger, Bonnie; Cowen, Lenore J

    2012-05-01

    One of the most successful methods to date for recognizing protein sequences that are evolutionarily related has been profile hidden Markov models (HMMs). However, these models do not capture pairwise statistical preferences of residues that are hydrogen bonded in beta sheets. These dependencies have been partially captured in the HMM setting by simulated evolution in the training phase and can be fully captured by Markov random fields (MRFs). However, the MRFs can be computationally prohibitive when beta strands are interleaved in complex topologies. We introduce SMURFLite, a method that combines both simplified MRFs and simulated evolution to substantially improve remote homology detection for beta structures. Unlike previous MRF-based methods, SMURFLite is computationally feasible on any beta-structural motif. We test SMURFLite on all propeller and barrel folds in the mainly-beta class of the SCOP hierarchy in stringent cross-validation experiments. We show a mean 26% (median 16%) improvement in area under curve (AUC) for beta-structural motif recognition as compared with HMMER (a well-known HMM method) and a mean 33% (median 19%) improvement as compared with RAPTOR (a well-known threading method) and even a mean 18% (median 10%) improvement in AUC over HHPred (a profile-profile HMM method), despite HHpred's use of extensive additional training data. We demonstrate SMURFLite's ability to scale to whole genomes by running a SMURFLite library of 207 beta-structural SCOP superfamilies against the entire genome of Thermotoga maritima, and make over a 100 new fold predictions. Availability and implementaion: A webserver that runs SMURFLite is available at: http://smurf.cs.tufts.edu/smurflite/

  14. Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

  15. Beta-propellers: associated functions and their role in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Pons, Tirso; Gómez, Raú; Chinea, Glay; Valencia, Alfonso

    2003-03-01

    The beta-propeller fold appears as a very fascinating architecture based on four-stranded antiparallel and twisted beta-sheets, radially arranged around a central tunnel. Similar to the alpha/beta-barrel (TIM-barrel) fold, the beta-propeller has a wide range of different functions, and is gaining substantial attention. Some proteins containing beta-propeller domains have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer, Huntington, arthritis, familial hypercholesterolemia, retinitis pigmentosa, osteogenesis, hypertension, and microbial and viral infections. This article reviews some aspects of 3D structure, amino acids sequence regularities, and biological functions of the proteins containing beta-propeller domains. Major emphasis has been laid on beta-propellers whose functions are associated to human diseases. Recent research efforts reported in the fields of protein engineering, drug design, and protein structure-function relationship studies, concerning the beta-propeller architecture, have also been discussed.

  16. Barriers and Facilitators to Recognition and Reporting of Child Abuse by Prehospital Providers.

    PubMed

    Tiyyagura, Gunjan Kamdar; Gawel, Marcie; Alphonso, Aimee; Koziel, Jeannette; Bilodeau, Kyle; Bechtel, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Prehospital care providers are in a unique position to provide initial unadulterated information about the scene where a child is abusively injured or neglected. However, they receive minimal training with respect to detection of Child Abuse and Neglect (CAN) and make few reports of suspected CAN to child protective services. To explore barriers and facilitators to the recognition and reporting of CAN by prehospital care providers. Twenty-eight prehospital care providers participated in a simulated case of infant abusive head trauma prior to participating in one-on-one semi-structured qualitative debriefs. Researchers independently coded transcripts from the debriefing and then collectively refined codes and created themes. Data collection and analysis continued past the point of thematic saturation. Providers described 3 key tasks when caring for a patient thought to be maltreated: (1) Medically managing the patient, which included assessment of the patient's airway, breathing, and circulation and management of the chief complaint, followed by evaluation for CAN; (2) Evaluating the scene and family interactions for signs suggestive of CAN, which included gathering information on the presence of elicit substances and observing how the child behaves in the presence of caregivers; and (3) Creating a safety plan, which included, calling police for support, avoiding confrontation with the caregivers and sharing suspicion of CAN with hospital providers and child protective services. Reported barriers to recognizing CAN included discomfort with pediatric patients; uncertainty related to CAN (accepting parental story about alternative diagnosis and difficulty distinguishing between accidental and intentional injuries); a focus on the chief complaint; and limited opportunity for evaluation. Barriers to reporting included fear of being wrong; fear of caregiver reactions; and working in a fast-paced setting. In contrast, facilitators to reporting included understanding of

  17. Slow Mode Waves in the Heliospheric Plasma Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Edward. J.; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a search for waves/turbulence in the Heliospheric Plasma Sheet (HPS) surrounding the Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS). The HPS is treated as a distinctive heliospheric structure distinguished by relatively high Beta, slow speed plasma. The data used in the investigation are from a previously published study of the thicknesses of the HPS and HCS that were obtained in January to May 2004 when Ulysses was near aphelion at 5 AU. The advantage of using these data is that the HPS is thicker at large radial distances and the spacecraft spends longer intervals inside the plasma sheet. From the study of the magnetic field and solar wind velocity components, we conclude that, if Alfven waves are present, they are weak and are dominated by variations in the field magnitude, B, and solar wind density, NP, that are anti-correlated.

  18. Beta structures of alternating polypeptides and their possible prebiotic significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brack, A.; Orgel, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the commonest amino acids formed in prebiotic conditions suggests that the earliest form of genetic coding may have specified polypeptides with a strong tendency to form stable beta-sheet structures. Poly(Val-Lys), like other polypeptides in which hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues alternate, tends to form beta structures. It is shown that bilayers with a hydrophobic interior and a hydrophilic exterior may be present in aqueous solution.

  19. Collective behavior in two-dimensional biological systems: Receptor clustering and beta-sheet aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chinlin

    We studied two particular biomedical systems which exhibit collective molecular behavior. One is clustering of tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFR1), and another is β-sheet folding and aggregation. Receptor clustering has been shown to be a crucial step in many signaling events but its biological meaning has not been adequately addressed. Here, via a simple lattice model, we show how cells use this clustering machinery to enhance sensitivity as well as robustness. On the other hand, intracellular deposition of aggregated protein rich in β-sheet is a prominent cytopathological feature of most neurodegenerative diseases. How this aggregation occurs and how it responds to therapy is not completely understood. Here, we started from a reconstruction of the H-bond potential and carry out a full investigation of β-sheet thermodynamics as well as kinetics. We show that β-sheet aggregation is most likely due to molecular stacking and found that the minimal length of an aggregate mutant polymer corresponds well with the number observed in adult Huntington's disease. We have also shown that molecular agents such as dendrimers might fail at high-dose therapy; instead, a potential therapy strategy is to block β-turn formation. Our predictions can be used for future experimental tests and clinical trials.

  20. [When shape-invariant recognition ('A' = 'a') fails. A case study of pure alexia and kinesthetic facilitation].

    PubMed

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2011-06-01

    A right-handed patient, aged 72, manifested alexia without agraphia, a right homonymous hemianopia and an impaired ability to identify visually presented objects. He was completely unable to read words aloud and severely deficient in naming visually presented letters. He responded to orthographic familiarity in the lexical decision tasks of the Psycholinguistic Assessments of Language Processing in Aphasia (PALPA) rather than to the lexicality of the letter strings. He was impaired at deciding whether two letters of different case (e.g., A, a) are the same, though he could detect real letters from made-up ones or from their mirror image. Consequently, his core deficit in reading was posited at the level of the abstract letter identifiers. When asked to trace a letter with his right index finger, kinesthetic facilitation enabled him to read letters and words aloud. Though he could use intact motor representations of letters in order to facilitate recognition and reading, the slow, sequential and error-prone process of reading letter by letter made him abandon further training.

  1. Sing that Tune: Infants’ Perception of Melody and Lyrics and the Facilitation of Phonetic Recognition in Songs

    PubMed Central

    Lebedeva, Gina C.; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how infants process complex auditory input, this study investigated whether 11-month-old infants perceive the pitch (melodic) or the phonetic (lyric) components within songs as more salient, and whether melody facilitates phonetic recognition. Using a preferential looking paradigm, uni-dimensional and multi-dimensional songs were tested; either the pitch or syllable order of the stimuli varied. As a group, infants detected a change in pitch order in a 4-note sequence when the syllables were redundant (Experiment 1), but did not detect the identical pitch change with variegated syllables (Experiment 2). Infants were better able to detect a change in syllable order in a sung sequence (Experiment 2) than the identical syllable change in a spoken sequence (Experiment 1). These results suggest that by 11 months, infants cannot “ignore” phonetic information in the context of perceptually salient pitch variation. Moreover, the increased phonetic recognition in song contexts mirrors findings that demonstrate advantages of infant-directed speech. Findings are discussed in terms of how stimulus complexity interacts with the perception of sung speech in infancy. PMID:20472295

  2. A unique serpin P1' glutamate and a conserved β-sheet C arginine are key residues for activity, protease recognition and stability of serpinA12 (vaspin).

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, David; Pippel, Jan; Schultz, Stephan; Meier, René; Sträter, Norbert; Heiker, John T

    2015-09-15

    SerpinA12 (vaspin) is thought to be mainly expressed in adipose tissue and has multiple beneficial effects on metabolic, inflammatory and atherogenic processes related to obesity. KLK7 (kallikrein 7) is the only known protease target of vaspin to date and is inhibited with a moderate inhibition rate. In the crystal structure, the cleavage site (P1-P1') of the vaspin reactive centre loop is fairly rigid compared with the flexible residues before P2, possibly supported by an ionic interaction of P1' glutamate (Glu(379)) with an arginine residue (Arg(302)) of the β-sheet C. A P1' glutamate seems highly unusual and unfavourable for the protease KLK7. We characterized vaspin mutants to investigate the roles of these two residues in protease inhibition and recognition by vaspin. Reactive centre loop mutations changing the P1' residue or altering the reactive centre loop conformation significantly increased inhibition parameters, whereas removal of the positive charge within β-sheet C impeded the serpin-protease interaction. Arg(302) is a crucial contact to enable vaspin recognition by KLK7 and it supports moderate inhibition of the serpin despite the presence of the detrimental P1' Glu(379), which clearly represents a major limiting factor for vaspin-inhibitory activity. We also show that the vaspin-inhibition rate for KLK7 can be modestly increased by heparin and demonstrate that vaspin is a heparin-binding serpin. Noteworthily, we observed vaspin as a remarkably thermostable serpin and found that Glu(379) and Arg(302) influence heat-induced polymerization. These structural and functional results reveal the mechanistic basis of how reactive centre loop sequence and exosite interaction in vaspin enable KLK7 recognition and regulate protease inhibition as well as stability of this adipose tissue-derived serpin. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  3. False recognition correlates with amyloid-beta (1-42) but not with total tau in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Helmut; Haldenwanger, Andreas; Eling, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Severe memory impairment forms the core symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is present early in the disease course. Recent studies show that AD patients not only suffer from forgetfulness, but also differ in their response bias, when having to decide whether information has been perceived recently, or whether it is only familiar or semantically related to perceived information. Changes in total tau-protein and amyloid-beta (Abeta) (1-42) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid are also features of AD, and they predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. In this study we correlated recognition scores with total tau and Abeta (1-42) concentrations in patients with suggested dementia. We studied 40 patients and 21 healthy controls, using an incidental recognition memory task and a neuropsychological test battery. False recognition scores correlated with delayed recall and with Abeta(1-42), and Abeta (1-42) tended to correlate with delayed recall. Total tau, however, did not correlate with memory scores or with neuropsychological performance in general. We suggest that Abeta (1-42) may indicate a reduction in the specificity of the neuronal response in the limbic cortex, due to agglomeration of plaques. This process might be more specific for AD than the increase of tau, and therefore it is stronger correlated with recognition errors.

  4. Apply lightweight recognition algorithms in optical music recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Viet-Khoi; Nguyen, Hai-Dang; Nguyen-Khac, Tung-Anh; Tran, Minh-Triet

    2015-02-01

    The problems of digitalization and transformation of musical scores into machine-readable format are necessary to be solved since they help people to enjoy music, to learn music, to conserve music sheets, and even to assist music composers. However, the results of existing methods still require improvements for higher accuracy. Therefore, the authors propose lightweight algorithms for Optical Music Recognition to help people to recognize and automatically play musical scores. In our proposal, after removing staff lines and extracting symbols, each music symbol is represented as a grid of identical M ∗ N cells, and the features are extracted and classified with multiple lightweight SVM classifiers. Through experiments, the authors find that the size of 10 ∗ 12 cells yields the highest precision value. Experimental results on the dataset consisting of 4929 music symbols taken from 18 modern music sheets in the Synthetic Score Database show that our proposed method is able to classify printed musical scores with accuracy up to 99.56%.

  5. Topological side-chain classification of beta-turns: ideal motifs for peptidomimetic development.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tran Trung; McKie, Jim; Meutermans, Wim D F; Bourne, Gregory T; Andrews, Peter R; Smythe, Mark L

    2005-08-01

    Beta-turns are important topological motifs for biological recognition of proteins and peptides. Organic molecules that sample the side chain positions of beta-turns have shown broad binding capacity to multiple different receptors, for example benzodiazepines. Beta-turns have traditionally been classified into various types based on the backbone dihedral angles (phi2, psi2, phi3 and psi3). Indeed, 57-68% of beta-turns are currently classified into 8 different backbone families (Type I, Type II, Type I', Type II', Type VIII, Type VIa1, Type VIa2 and Type VIb and Type IV which represents unclassified beta-turns). Although this classification of beta-turns has been useful, the resulting beta-turn types are not ideal for the design of beta-turn mimetics as they do not reflect topological features of the recognition elements, the side chains. To overcome this, we have extracted beta-turns from a data set of non-homologous and high-resolution protein crystal structures. The side chain positions, as defined by C(alpha)-C(beta) vectors, of these turns have been clustered using the kth nearest neighbor clustering and filtered nearest centroid sorting algorithms. Nine clusters were obtained that cluster 90% of the data, and the average intra-cluster RMSD of the four C(alpha)-C(beta) vectors is 0.36. The nine clusters therefore represent the topology of the side chain scaffold architecture of the vast majority of beta-turns. The mean structures of the nine clusters are useful for the development of beta-turn mimetics and as biological descriptors for focusing combinatorial chemistry towards biologically relevant topological space.

  6. Automatic Inspection Of Heat Seals Between Plastic Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Kula R.; Lew, Thomas M.; Sinclair, Robert B.

    1995-01-01

    Automatic inspection apparatus detects flaws in heat seals between films of polyethylene or other thermoplastic material. Heat-sealed strip in multilayer plastic sheet continuously moved lengthwise over illuminators. Variations in light transmitted through sheet interpreted to find flaws in heat seal. Site of flaw marked to facilitate subsequent manual inspection. Heat sealing used to join plastic films in manufacturing of variety of products, including inflatable toys and balloons carrying scientific instruments to high altitudes.

  7. Off-lexicon online Arabic handwriting recognition using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahia, Hamdi; Chaabouni, Aymen; Boubaker, Houcine; Alimi, Adel M.

    2017-03-01

    This paper highlights a new method for online Arabic handwriting recognition based on graphemes segmentation. The main contribution of our work is to explore the utility of Beta-elliptic model in segmentation and features extraction for online handwriting recognition. Indeed, our method consists in decomposing the input signal into continuous part called graphemes based on Beta-Elliptical model, and classify them according to their position in the pseudo-word. The segmented graphemes are then described by the combination of geometric features and trajectory shape modeling. The efficiency of the considered features has been evaluated using feed forward neural network classifier. Experimental results using the benchmarking ADAB Database show the performance of the proposed method.

  8. Crystal structure and novel recognition motif of rho ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme from Clostridium botulinum: structural insights for recognition specificity and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Han, S; Arvai, A S; Clancy, S B; Tainer, J A

    2001-01-05

    Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme inactivates the small GTP-binding protein family Rho by ADP-ribosylating asparagine 41, which depolymerizes the actin cytoskeleton. C3 thus represents a major family of the bacterial toxins that transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to specific amino acids in acceptor proteins to modify key biological activities in eukaryotic cells, including protein synthesis, differentiation, transformation, and intracellular signaling. The 1.7 A resolution C3 exoenzyme structure establishes the conserved features of the core NAD-binding beta-sandwich fold with other ADP-ribosylating toxins despite little sequence conservation. Importantly, the central core of the C3 exoenzyme structure is distinguished by the absence of an active site loop observed in many other ADP-ribosylating toxins. Unlike the ADP-ribosylating toxins that possess the active site loop near the central core, the C3 exoenzyme replaces the active site loop with an alpha-helix, alpha3. Moreover, structural and sequence similarities with the catalytic domain of vegetative insecticidal protein 2 (VIP2), an actin ADP-ribosyltransferase, unexpectedly implicates two adjacent, protruding turns, which join beta5 and beta6 of the toxin core fold, as a novel recognition specificity motif for this newly defined toxin family. Turn 1 evidently positions the solvent-exposed, aromatic side-chain of Phe209 to interact with the hydrophobic region of Rho adjacent to its GTP-binding site. Turn 2 evidently both places the Gln212 side-chain for hydrogen bonding to recognize Rho Asn41 for nucleophilic attack on the anomeric carbon of NAD ribose and holds the key Glu214 catalytic side-chain in the adjacent catalytic pocket. This proposed bipartite ADP-ribosylating toxin turn-turn (ARTT) motif places the VIP2 and C3 toxin classes into a single ARTT family characterized by analogous target protein recognition via turn 1 aromatic and turn 2 hydrogen-bonding side-chain moieties. Turn 2 centrally anchors

  9. The J beta segment of the T cell receptor contributes to the V beta-specific T cell expansion caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin B and Urtica dioica superantigens.

    PubMed

    Musette, P; Galelli, A; Truffa-Bachi, P; Peumans, W; Kourilsky, P; Gachelin, G

    1996-03-01

    We have used a new polymerase chain reaction-based technique to analyze at the clonal level the CDR3 diversity and the J beta usage associated with the V beta-dependent T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of two superantigens: the staphylococcal enterotoxin B and the Urtica dioica agglutinin. Our results show that subset of J beta elements is preferentially expanded in a given V beta family, independently of the nature of the superantigen. By contrast, the CDR3 loop does not contribute significantly to the T cell expansion induced by the superantigens. We conclude that the J beta segment of the TCR beta chain, but not the CDR3 region, participates in superantigen binding, presumably by influencing the quaternary structure of the TCR beta chain.

  10. Stem loop recognition by DDX17 facilitates miRNA processing and antiviral defense

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Ryan H.; Cole, Brian S.; Yasunaga, Ari; Gold, Beth; Shankarling, Ganesh; Varble, Andrew; Molleston, Jerome M.; tenOever, Benjamin R.; Lynch, Kristen W.; Cherry, Sara

    2014-01-01

    DEAD-box helicases play essential roles in RNA metabolism across species, but emerging data suggest that they have additional functions in immunity. Through RNAi screening we identify an evolutionarily conserved and interferon-independent role for the DEAD-box helicase DDX17 in restricting Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-transmitted virus in the bunyavirus family that causes severe morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. Loss of Drosophila DDX17 (Rm62) in cells and flies enhanced RVFV infection. Similarly, depletion of DDX17 but not the related helicase DDX5 increased RVFV replication in human cells. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq), we show that DDX17 binds the stem loops of host pri-miRNA to facilitate their processing, and also an essential stem loop in bunyaviral RNA to restrict infection. Thus, DDX17 has dual roles in the recognition of stem loops: in the nucleus for endogenous miRNA biogenesis and in the cytoplasm for surveillance against structured non-self elements. PMID:25126784

  11. Mechanical characteristics of beta sheet-forming peptide hydrogels are dependent on peptide sequence, concentration and buffer composition

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Michael; König, Finja; Meyer, Nina; Gattlen, Jasmin; Pieles, Uwe; Peters, Kirsten; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Mathes, Stephanie; Saxer, Sina

    2018-01-01

    Self-assembling peptide hydrogels can be modified regarding their biodegradability, their chemical and mechanical properties and their nanofibrillar structure. Thus, self-assembling peptide hydrogels might be suitable scaffolds for regenerative therapies and tissue engineering. Owing to the use of various peptide concentrations and buffer compositions, the self-assembling peptide hydrogels might be influenced regarding their mechanical characteristics. Therefore, the mechanical properties and stability of a set of self-assembling peptide hydrogels, consisting of 11 amino acids, made from four beta sheet self-assembling peptides in various peptide concentrations and buffer compositions were studied. The formed self-assembling peptide hydrogels exhibited stiffnesses ranging from 0.6 to 205 kPa. The hydrogel stiffness was mostly affected by peptide sequence followed by peptide concentration and buffer composition. All self-assembling peptide hydrogels examined provided a nanofibrillar network formation. A maximum self-assembling peptide hydrogel dissolution of 20% was observed for different buffer solutions after 7 days. The stability regarding enzymatic and bacterial digestion showed less degradation in comparison to the self-assembling peptide hydrogel dissolution rate in buffer. The tested set of self-assembling peptide hydrogels were able to form stable scaffolds and provided a broad spectrum of tissue-specific stiffnesses that are suitable for a regenerative therapy. PMID:29657766

  12. Oligopeptides and copeptides of homochiral sequence, via beta-sheets, from mixtures of racemic alpha-amino acids, in a one-pot reaction in water; relevance to biochirogenesis.

    PubMed

    Illos, Roni A; Bisogno, Fabricio R; Clodic, Gilles; Bolbach, Gerard; Weissbuch, Isabelle; Lahav, Meir

    2008-07-09

    As part of our studies on the biochirogenesis of peptides of homochiral sequence during early evolution, the formation of oligopeptides composed of 14-24 residues of the same handedness in the polymerization of dl-leucine (Leu), dl-phenylalanine (Phe), and dl-valine (Val) in aqueous solutions, by activation with N, N'-carbonyldiimidazole and then initiation with a primary amine, in a one-pot reaction, was demonstrated by MALDI-TOF MS using deuterium enantio-labeled alpha-amino acids. The formation of long isotactic peptides is rationalized by the following steps occurring in tandem: (i) creation of a library of short diasteroisomeric oligopeptides containing isotactic peptides in excess in comparison to a binomial kinetics, as a result of an asymmetric induction exerted by the N-terminal residue of a given handedness; (ii) precipitation of the less soluble racemic isotactic penta- and hexapeptides in the form of beta-sheets that are delineated by homochiral rims; (iii) regio-enantiospecific chain elongation occurring heterogeneously at the beta-sheets/solution interface. Polymerization of l-Leu with l-isoleucine (Ile) or l-Phe with l- (1) N-Me-histidine yielded mixtures of copeptides containing both residues. In contrast, in the polymerization of the corresponding mixtures of l- + d-alpha-amino acids, the long oligopeptides were composed mainly from oligo- l-Leu and oligo- d-Ile in the first system and oligo- d-Phe in the second. Furthermore, in the polymerization of mixtures of hydrophobic racemic alpha-amino acids dl-Leu, dl-Val, and dl-Phe and with added racemic dl-alanine and dl-tyrosine, copeptides of homochiral sequences are most dominantly represented. Possible routes for a spontaneous "mirror-symmetry breaking" process of the racemic mixtures of homochiral peptides are presented.

  13. Structural and biological mimicry of protein surface recognition by [alpha/beta]-peptide foldamers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Horne, W. Seth; Johnson, Lisa M.; Ketas, Thomas J.

    Unnatural oligomers that can mimic protein surfaces offer a potentially useful strategy for blocking biomedically important protein-protein interactions. Here we evaluate an approach based on combining {alpha}- and {beta}-amino acid residues in the context of a polypeptide sequence from the HIV protein gp41, which represents an excellent testbed because of the wealth of available structural and biological information. We show that {alpha}/{beta}-peptides can mimic structural and functional properties of a critical gp41 subunit. Physical studies in solution, crystallographic data, and results from cell-fusion and virus-infectivity assays collectively indicate that the gp41-mimetic {alpha}/{beta}-peptides effectively block HIV-cell fusion via a mechanism comparablemore » to that of gp41-derived {alpha}-peptides. An optimized {alpha}/{beta}-peptide is far less susceptible to proteolytic degradation than is an analogous {alpha}-peptide. Our findings show how a two-stage design approach, in which sequence-based {alpha} {yields} {beta} replacements are followed by site-specific backbone rigidification, can lead to physical and biological mimicry of a natural biorecognition process.« less

  14. Synthesis of porous sheet-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microstructure by precipitation method and its potential applications in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lu Shanshan; Jing Xiaoyan; Liu Jingyuan

    2013-01-15

    Porous sheet-like cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were successfully synthesized by precipitation method combined with calcination of cobalt hydroxide precursors. The structure, morphology and porosity properties of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. The as-prepared sheet-like microstructures were approximately 2-3 {mu}m in average diameter, and the morphology of the cobalt hydroxide precursors was retained after the calcination process. However, it appeared a large number of uniform pores in the sheets after calcination. In order to calculate the potential catalytic activity, the thermal decomposition of ammoniummore » perchlorate (AP) has been analyzed, in which cobalt oxide played a role of an additive and the porous sheet-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microstructures exhibited high catalytic performance and considerable decrease in the thermal decomposition temperature of AP. Moreover, a formation mechanism for the sheet-like microstructures has been discussed. - Graphical abstract: Porous sheet-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} were synthesized by facile precipitation method combined with calcination of {beta}-Co(OH){sub 2} precursors. Thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric analysis indicates potential catalytic activity in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of sheet-like {beta}-Co(OH){sub 2} precursors by precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous sheet-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} were obtained by calcining {beta}-Co(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible formation mechanism of porous sheet-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} has been discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous sheet-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} decrease the thermal decomposition temperature of ammonium perchlorate.« less

  15. The specificity of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP): a single amino acid substitution in the solvent-exposed beta-strand/beta-turn region of the leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) confers a new recognition capability.

    PubMed Central

    Leckie, F; Mattei, B; Capodicasa, C; Hemmings, A; Nuss, L; Aracri, B; De Lorenzo, G; Cervone, F

    1999-01-01

    Two members of the pgip gene family (pgip-1 and pgip-2) of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were expressed separately in Nicotiana benthamiana and the ligand specificity of their products was analysed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein-1 (PGIP-1) was unable to interact with PG from Fusarium moniliforme and interacted with PG from Aspergillus niger; PGIP-2 interacted with both PGs. Only eight amino acid variations distinguish the two proteins: five of them are confined within the beta-sheet/beta-turn structure and two of them are contiguous to this region. By site-directed mutagenesis, each of the variant amino acids of PGIP-2 was replaced with the corresponding amino acid of PGIP-1, in a loss-of-function approach. The mutated PGIP-2s were expressed individually in N.benthamiana, purified and subjected to SPR analysis. Each single mutation caused a decrease in affinity for PG from F.moniliforme; residue Q253 made a major contribution, and its replacement with a lysine led to a dramatic reduction in the binding energy of the complex. Conversely, in a gain-of-function approach, amino acid K253 of PGIP-1 was mutated into the corresponding amino acid of PGIP-2, a glutamine. With this single mutation, PGIP-1 acquired the ability to interact with F.moniliforme PG. PMID:10228150

  16. Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (ISMIP6) contribution to CMIP6

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Sophie M.J.; Payne, Tony; Larour, Eric; Seroussi, Helene; Goelzer, Heiko; Lipscomb, William; Gregory, Jonathan; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Shepherd, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Reducing the uncertainty in the past, present and future contribution of ice sheets to sea-level change requires a coordinated effort between the climate and glaciology communities. The Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6) is the primary activity within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project – phase 6 (CMIP6) focusing on the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. In this paper, we describe the framework for ISMIP6 and its relationship to other activities within CMIP6. The ISMIP6 experimental design relies on CMIP6 climate models and includes, for the first time within CMIP, coupled ice sheet – climate models as well as standalone ice sheet models. To facilitate analysis of the multi-model ensemble and to generate a set of standard climate inputs for standalone ice sheet models, ISMIP6 defines a protocol for all variables related to ice sheets. ISMIP6 will provide a basis for investigating the feedbacks, impacts, and sea-level changes associated with dynamic ice sheets and for quantifying the uncertainty in ice-sheet-sourced global sea-level change. PMID:29697697

  17. Crystal Structures of T Cell Receptor (Beta) Chains Related to Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li,H.; van Vranken, S.; Zhao, Y.

    The crystal structures of the V{beta}17+ {beta} chains of two human T cell receptors (TCRs), originally derived from the synovial fluid (SF4) and tissue (C5-1) of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), have been determined in native (SF4) and mutant (C5-1{sub F104{yields}Y/C187{yields}S}) forms, respectively. These TCR {beta} chains form homo-dimers in solution and in crystals. Structural comparison reveals that the main-chain conformations in the CDR regions of the C5-1 and SF4 V{beta}17 closely resemble those of a V{beta}17 JM22 in a bound form; however, the CDR3 region shows different conformations among these three V{beta}17 structures. At the side-chain level, conformationalmore » differences were observed at the CDR2 regions between our two ligand-free forms and the bound JM22 form. Other significant differences were observed at the V{beta} regions 8-12, 40-44, and 82-88 between C5-1/SF4 and JM22 V{beta}17, implying that there is considerable variability in the structures of very similar {beta} chains. Structural alignments also reveal a considerable variation in the V{beta}-C{beta} associations, and this may affect ligand recognition. The crystal structures also provide insights into the structure basis of T cell recognition of Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen (MAM), a superantigen that may be implicated in the development of human RA. Structural comparisons of the V{beta} domains of known TCR structures indicate that there are significant similarities among V{beta} regions that are MAM-reactive, whereas there appear to be significant structural differences among those V{beta} regions that lack MAM-reactivity. It further reveals that CDR2 and framework region (FR) 3 are likely to account for the binding of TCR to MAM.« less

  18. Beta-catenin is required for memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Maguschak, Kimberly A; Ressler, Kerry J

    2008-11-01

    beta-catenin has been implicated in neuronal synapse regulation and remodeling. Here we have examined beta-catenin expression in the adult mouse brain and its role in amygdala-dependent learning and memory. We found alterations in beta-catenin mRNA and protein phosphorylation during fear-memory consolidation. Such alterations correlated with a change in the association of beta-catenin with cadherin. Pharmacologically, this consolidation was enhanced by lithium-mediated facilitation of beta-catenin. Genetically, the role of beta-catenin was confirmed with site-specific deletions of loxP-flanked Ctnnb1 (encoding beta-catenin) in the amygdala. Baseline locomotion, anxiety-related behaviors and acquisition or expression of conditioned fear were normal. However, amygdala-specific deletion of Ctnnb1 prevented the normal transfer of newly formed fear learning into long-term memory. Thus, beta-catenin may be required in the amygdala for the normal consolidation, but not acquisition, of fear memory. This suggests a general role for beta-catenin in the synaptic remodeling and stabilization underlying long-term memory in adults.

  19. Usage of semantic representations in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Hirano, Tetsuji; Ukita, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Meanings of words facilitate false acceptance as well as correct rejection of lures in recognition memory tests, depending on the experimental context. This suggests that semantic representations are both directly and indirectly (i.e., mediated by perceptual representations) used in remembering. Studies using memory conjunction errors (MCEs) paradigms, in which the lures consist of component parts of studied words, have reported semantic facilitation of rejection of the lures. However, attending to components of the lures could potentially cause this. Therefore, we investigated whether semantic overlap of lures facilitates MCEs using Japanese Kanji words in which a whole-word image is more concerned in reading. Experiments demonstrated semantic facilitation of MCEs in a delayed recognition test (Experiment 1), and in immediate recognition tests in which participants were prevented from using phonological or orthographic representations (Experiment 2), and the salient effect on individuals with high semantic memory capacities (Experiment 3). Additionally, analysis of the receiver operating characteristic suggested that this effect is attributed to familiarity-based memory judgement and phantom recollection. These findings indicate that semantic representations can be directly used in remembering, even when perceptual representations of studied words are available.

  20. Dissecting the structural determinants for the difference in mechanical stability of silk and amyloid beta-sheet stacks.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Senbo; Xiao, Shijun; Gräter, Frauke

    2013-06-14

    Stacking of β-sheets results in a protein super secondary structure with remarkable mechanical properties. β-Stacks are the determinants of a silk fiber's resilience and are also the building blocks of amyloid fibrils. While both silk and amyloid-type crystals are known to feature a high resistance against rupture, their structural and mechanical similarities and particularities are yet to be fully understood. Here, we systematically compare the rupture force and stiffness of amyloid and spider silk poly-alanine β-stacks of comparable sizes using Molecular Dynamics simulations. We identify the direction of force application as the primary determinant of the rupture strength; β-sheets in silk are orientated along the fiber axis, i.e. the pulling direction, and consequently require high forces in the several nanoNewton range for shearing β-strands apart, while β-sheets in amyloid are oriented vertically to the fiber, allowing a zipper-like rupture at sub-nanoNewton forces. A secondary factor rendering amyloid β-stacks softer and weaker than their spider silk counterparts is the sub-optimal side-chain packing between β-sheets due to the sequence variations of amyloid-forming proteins as opposed to the perfectly packed poly-alanine β-sheets of silk. Taken together, amyloid fibers can reach the stiffness of silk fibers in spite of their softer and weaker β-sheet arrangement as they are missing a softening amorphous matrix.

  1. Adrenergic enhancement of consolidation of object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Dornelles, Arethuza; de Lima, Maria Noemia Martins; Grazziotin, Manoela; Presti-Torres, Juliana; Garcia, Vanessa Athaide; Scalco, Felipe Siciliani; Roesler, Rafael; Schröder, Nadja

    2007-07-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that epinephrine (EPI) modulates memory consolidation for emotionally arousing tasks in animals and human subjects. However, previous studies have not examined the effects of EPI on consolidation of recognition memory. Here we report that systemic administration of EPI enhances consolidation of memory for a novel object recognition (NOR) task under different training conditions. Control male rats given a systemic injection of saline (0.9% NaCl) immediately after NOR training showed significant memory retention when tested at 1.5 or 24, but not 96h after training. In contrast, rats given a post-training injection of EPI showed significant retention of NOR at all delays. In a second experiment using a different training condition, rats treated with EPI, but not SAL-treated animals, showed significant NOR retention at both 1.5 and 24-h delays. We next showed that the EPI-induced enhancement of retention tested at 96h after training was prevented by pretraining systemic administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. The findings suggest that, as previously observed in experiments using aversively motivated tasks, epinephrine modulates consolidation of recognition memory and that the effects require activation of beta-adrenoceptors.

  2. Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (ISMIP6) Contribution to CMIP6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowicki, Sophie M. J.; Payne, Tony; Larour, Eric; Seroussi, Helene; Goelzer, Heiko; Lipscomb, William; Gregory, Jonathan; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Shepherd, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the uncertainty in the past, present, and future contribution of ice sheets to sea-level change requires a coordinated effort between the climate and glaciology communities. The Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6) is the primary activity within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) focusing on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. In this paper, we describe the framework for ISMIP6 and its relationship with other activities within CMIP6. The ISMIP6 experimental design relies on CMIP6 climate models and includes, for the first time within CMIP, coupled ice-sheetclimate models as well as standalone ice-sheet models. To facilitate analysis of the multi-model ensemble and to generate a set of standard climate inputs for standalone ice-sheet models, ISMIP6 defines a protocol for all variables related to ice sheets. ISMIP6 will provide a basis for investigating the feedbacks, impacts, and sea-level changes associated with dynamic ice sheets and for quantifying the uncertainty in ice-sheet-sourced global sea-level change.

  3. Origin of higher affinity to RNA of the N-terminal RNA-binding domain than that of the C-terminal one of a mouse neural protein, musashi1, as revealed by comparison of their structures, modes of interaction, surface electrostatic potentials, and backbone dynamics.

    PubMed

    Miyanoiri, Youhei; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Imai, Takao; Watanabe, Michinao; Nagata, Takashi; Uesugi, Seiichi; Okano, Hideyuki; Katahira, Masato

    2003-10-17

    Musashi1 is an RNA-binding protein abundantly expressed in the developing mouse central nervous system. Its restricted expression in neural precursor cells suggests that it is involved in maintenance of the character of progenitor cells. Musashi1 contains two ribonucleoprotein-type RNA-binding domains (RBDs), RBD1 and RBD2, the affinity to RNA of RBD1 being much higher than that of RBD2. We previously reported the structure and mode of interaction with RNA of RBD2. Here, we have determined the structure and mode of interaction with RNA of RBD1. We have also analyzed the surface electrostatic potential and backbone dynamics of both RBDs. The two RBDs exhibit the same ribo-nucleoprotein-type fold and commonly make contact with RNA on the beta-sheet side. On the other hand, there is a remarkable difference in surface electrostatic potential, the beta-sheet of RBD1 being positively charged, which is favorable for binding negatively charged RNA, but that of RBD2 being almost neutral. There is also a difference in backbone dynamics, the central portion of the beta-sheet of RBD1 being flexible, but that of RBD2 not being flexible. The flexibility of RBD1 may be utilized in the recognition process to facilitate an induced fit. Thus, comparative studies have revealed the origin of the higher affinity of RBD1 than that of RBD2 and indicated that the affinity of an RBD to RNA is not governed by its fold alone but is also determined by its surface electrostatic potential and/or backbone dynamics. The biological role of RBD2 with lower affinity is also discussed.

  4. Folding thermodynamics of model four-strand antiparallel beta-sheet proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyunbum; Hall, Carol K; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2002-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties for three different types of off-lattice four-strand antiparallel beta-strand protein models interacting via a hybrid Go-type potential have been investigated. Discontinuous molecular dynamic simulations have been performed for different sizes of the bias gap g, an artificial measure of a model protein's preference for its native state. The thermodynamic transition temperatures are obtained by calculating the squared radius of gyration R(g)(2), the root-mean-squared pair separation fluctuation Delta(B), the specific heat C(v), the internal energy of the system E, and the Lindemann disorder parameter Delta(L). Despite these models' simplicity, they exhibit a complex set of protein transitions, consistent with those observed in experimental studies on real proteins. Starting from high temperature, these transitions include a collapse transition, a disordered-to-ordered globule transition, a folding transition, and a liquid-to-solid transition. The high temperature transitions, i.e., the collapse transition and the disordered-to-ordered globule transition, exist for all three beta-strand proteins, although the native-state geometry of the three model proteins is different. However the low temperature transitions, i.e., the folding transition and the liquid-to-solid transition, strongly depend on the native-state geometry of the model proteins and the size of the bias gap. PMID:11806908

  5. The three-dimensional structure of a T-cell antigen receptor V alpha V beta heterodimer reveals a novel arrangement of the V beta domain.

    PubMed Central

    Housset, D; Mazza, G; Grégoire, C; Piras, C; Malissen, B; Fontecilla-Camps, J C

    1997-01-01

    The crystal structure of a mouse T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) Fv fragment complexed to the Fab fragment of a specific anti-clonotypic antibody has been determined to 2.6 A resolution. The polypeptide backbone of the TCR V alpha domain is very similar to those of other crystallographically determined V alphas, whereas the V beta structure is so far unique among TCR V beta domains in that it displays a switch of the c" strand from the inner to the outer beta-sheet. The beta chain variable region of this TCR antigen-binding site is characterized by a rather elongated third complementarity-determining region (CDR3beta) that packs tightly against the CDR3 loop of the alpha chain, without leaving any intervening hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the conformation of the CDR loops with the highest potential diversity distinguishes the structure of this TCR antigen-binding site from those for which crystallographic data are available. On the basis of all these results, we infer that a significant conformational change of the CDR3beta loop found in our TCR is required for binding to its cognate peptide-MHC ligand. PMID:9250664

  6. Inhibition of beta-amyloid aggregation by fluorescent dye labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, Mariana; Wellbrock, Thorben; Birch, David J. S.; Rolinski, Olaf J.

    2014-02-01

    The fluorescence decay of beta-amyloid's (Aβ) intrinsic fluorophore tyrosine has been used for sensing the oligomer formation of dye-labelled Aβ monomers and the results compared with previously studied oligomerization of the non-labelled Aβ peptides. It has been demonstrated that two different sized, covalently bound probes 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carbonyl and Hilyte Fluor 488 (HLF), alter the rate and character of oligomerization to different extents. The ability of HLF to inhibit formation of highly ordered structures containing beta-sheets was also shown. The implications of our findings for using fluorescence methods in amyloidosis research are discussed and the advantages of this auto-fluorescence approach highlighted.

  7. Aligned carbon nanotube-silicon sheets: a novel nano-architecture for flexible lithium ion battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Yildiz, Ozkan; Bhanushali, Hardik; Wang, Yongxin; Stano, Kelly; Xue, Leigang; Zhang, Xiangwu; Bradford, Philip D

    2013-09-25

    Aligned carbon nanotube sheets provide an engineered scaffold for the deposition of a silicon active material for lithium ion battery anodes. The sheets are low-density, allowing uniform deposition of silicon thin films while the alignment allows unconstrained volumetric expansion of the silicon, facilitating stable cycling performance. The flat sheet morphology is desirable for battery construction. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Detecting beta-amyloid aggregation from time-resolved emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghamdi, A.; Vyshemirsky, V.; Birch, D. J. S.; Rolinski, O. J.

    2018-04-01

    The aggregation of beta-amyloids is one of the key processes responsible for the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Early molecular-level detection of beta-amyloid oligomers may help in early diagnosis and in the development of new intervention therapies. Our previous studies on the changes in beta-amyloid’s single tyrosine intrinsic fluorescence response during aggregation demonstrated a four-exponential fluorescence intensity decay, and the ratio of the pre-exponential factors indicated the extent of the aggregation in the early stages of the process before the beta-sheets were formed. Here we present a complementary approach based on the time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) of amyloid’s tyrosine excited at 279 nm and fluorescence in the window 240-450 nm. TRES have been used to demonstrate sturctural changes occuring on the nanosecond time scale after excitation which has significant advantages over using steady-state spectra. We demonstrate this by resolving the fluorescent species and revealing that beta-amyloid’s monomers show very fast dielectric relaxation, and its oligomers display a substantial spectral shift due to dielectric relaxation, which gradually decreases when the oligomers become larger.

  9. Parallel-multiplexed excitation light-sheet microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongli; Zhou, Weibin; Peng, Leilei

    2017-02-01

    Laser scanning light-sheet imaging allows fast 3D image of live samples with minimal bleach and photo-toxicity. Existing light-sheet techniques have very limited capability in multi-label imaging. Hyper-spectral imaging is needed to unmix commonly used fluorescent proteins with large spectral overlaps. However, the challenge is how to perform hyper-spectral imaging without sacrificing the image speed, so that dynamic and complex events can be captured live. We report wavelength-encoded structured illumination light sheet imaging (λ-SIM light-sheet), a novel light-sheet technique that is capable of parallel multiplexing in multiple excitation-emission spectral channels. λ-SIM light-sheet captures images of all possible excitation-emission channels in true parallel. It does not require compromising the imaging speed and is capable of distinguish labels by both excitation and emission spectral properties, which facilitates unmixing fluorescent labels with overlapping spectral peaks and will allow more labels being used together. We build a hyper-spectral light-sheet microscope that combined λ-SIM with an extended field of view through Bessel beam illumination. The system has a 250-micron-wide field of view and confocal level resolution. The microscope, equipped with multiple laser lines and an unlimited number of spectral channels, can potentially image up to 6 commonly used fluorescent proteins from blue to red. Results from in vivo imaging of live zebrafish embryos expressing various genetic markers and sensors will be shown. Hyper-spectral images from λ-SIM light-sheet will allow multiplexed and dynamic functional imaging in live tissue and animals.

  10. Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activation and myogenic differentiation are induced by cholesterol depletion.

    PubMed

    Mermelstein, Cláudia S; Portilho, Débora M; Mendes, Fábio A; Costa, Manoel L; Abreu, José Garcia

    2007-03-01

    Myogenic differentiation is a multistep process that begins with the commitment of mononucleated precursors that withdraw from cell cycle. These myoblasts elongate while aligning to each other, guided by the recognition between their membranes. This step is followed by cell fusion and the formation of long and striated multinucleated myotubes. We have recently shown that cholesterol depletion by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) induces myogenic differentiation by enhancing myoblast recognition and fusion. Here, we further studied the signaling pathways responsible for early steps of myogenesis. As it is known that Wnt plays a role in muscle differentiation, we used the chemical MbetaCD to deplete membrane cholesterol and investigate the involvement of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway during myogenesis. We show that cholesterol depletion promoted a significant increase in expression of beta-catenin, its nuclear translocation and activation of the Wnt pathway. Moreover, we show that the activation of the Wnt pathway after cholesterol depletion can be inhibited by the soluble protein Frzb-1. Our data suggest that membrane cholesterol is involved in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the early steps of myogenic differentiation.

  11. A self-excising beta-recombinase/six cassette for repetitive gene deletion and homokaryon purification in Neurospora crassa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a previous study we developed a cassette employing a bacterial beta-recombinase acting on six recognition sequences (beta-rec/six), which allowed repetitive site-specific gene deletion and marker recycling in Neurospora crassa. However, only one positive selection marker was used in the cassette...

  12. Development of anti-adhesive spongy sheet composed of hyaluronic acid and collagen containing epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, Misato; Yamamoto, Akiko; Shimizu, Nahoko; Toi, Ayako; Inomata, Tomonori; Takeda, Akira; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    Anti-adhesive products need to be designed while considering the concept of wound healing. Two main events must proceed simultaneously: facilitating wound healing in surgically excised tissue, as well as preventing injured tissue from adhering to the surrounding tissue. The present study aimed to develop an anti-adhesive spongy sheet composed of hyaluronic acid and collagen (Col) containing epidermal growth factor, and to investigate the potential of this spongy sheet using an in vitro wound surface model (placing a spongy sheet on a fibroblast-incorporating Col gel sheet) and an in vitro inter-tissue model (placing a spongy sheet between two fibroblast-incorporating Col gel sheets). These in vitro experiments demonstrated that this spongy sheet effectively stimulates fibroblasts to release an increased amount of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor, which are essential for wound healing to proceed succesfully. In addition, anti-adhesive performance of this spongy sheet was evaluated in animal experiments using Sprague Dawley rats. Under anesthesia, a 1 cm × 2 cm segment of peritoneum was superficially excised from walls, and the cecum was then abraded by scraping with a scalpel blade over a 1 cm × 2 cm area. A piece of spongy sheet was placed on the peritoneal defect. Both defects were placed in contact, and the incision was closed by suturing. Peritoneal condition was evaluated after one week. This spongy sheet was capable of facilitating the wound healing of surgically excised tissue and preventing surgically excised tissue from adhering to surrounding tissues.

  13. Liquid Crystal Based Sensor to Detect Beta-Sheet Formation of Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadati, Monirosadat; Izmitli Apik, Aslin; Abbott, Nicholas L.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-03-01

    Protein aggregation into amyloid fibrils is involved in the progression of Alzheimer's, typeII diabetes and Huntington's diseases. Although larger aggregates remain important for clinical determination, small oligomers are of great interest due to their potentially toxic nature. It is therefore crucial to develop methods that probe the aggregation process at early stages and in the vicinity of biological membranes. Here, we present a simple method that relies on liquid crystalline materials and a Langmuir monolayer at the aqueous-liquid crystal (LC) interface. The approach is based on the LC's specific response to β-sheet structures, which abound in amyloid fibrils. When the system is observed under polarized light, the fibrils formed by amyloidogenic peptides give rise to the formation of elongated and branched structures in the LCs. Moreover, the PolScope measurements prove that the LCs are predominantly aligned along the fibrils when exposed to a β-sheet forming peptide. In contrast, non-amyloidogenic peptides form ellipsoidal domains of irregularly tilted LCs. This method is capable of reporting aggregation at lipid-aqueous interfaces at nanomolar concentrations of the peptide, and much earlier than commonly used fluorescence-based techniques. We thank Prof. Oleg D. Levrentovich and Young-Ki Kim from the Liquid Crystal Institute of Kent State University for the use of their PolScope instrument. This work was partially supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (P300P2_151342).

  14. Characterization of arrangement and expression of the beta-2 microglobulin locus in the sandbar and nurse shark.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Kshirsagar, Sarika; Jensen, Ingvill; Lau, Kevin; Simonson, Caitlin; Schluter, Samuel F

    2010-02-01

    Beta 2 microglobulin (beta2m) is an essential subunit of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) type I molecules. In this report, beta2m cDNAs were identified and sequenced from sandbar shark spleen cDNA library. Sandbar shark beta2m gene encodes one amino acid less than most teleost beta2m genes, and 3 amino acids less than mammal beta2m genes. Although sandbar shark beta2m protein contains one beta sheet less than that of human in the predicted protein structure, the overall structure of beta2m proteins is conserved during evolution. Germline gene for the beta2m in sandbar and nurse shark is present as a single locus. It contains three exons and two introns. CpG sites are evenly distributed in the shark beta2m loci. Several DNA repeat elements were also identified in the shark beta2m loci. Sequence analysis suggests that the beta2m locus is not linked to the MHC I loci in the shark genome.

  15. Speaker information affects false recognition of unstudied lexical-semantic associates.

    PubMed

    Luthra, Sahil; Fox, Neal P; Blumstein, Sheila E

    2018-05-01

    Recognition of and memory for a spoken word can be facilitated by a prior presentation of that word spoken by the same talker. However, it is less clear whether this speaker congruency advantage generalizes to facilitate recognition of unheard related words. The present investigation employed a false memory paradigm to examine whether information about a speaker's identity in items heard by listeners could influence the recognition of novel items (critical intruders) phonologically or semantically related to the studied items. In Experiment 1, false recognition of semantically associated critical intruders was sensitive to speaker information, though only when subjects attended to talker identity during encoding. Results from Experiment 2 also provide some evidence that talker information affects the false recognition of critical intruders. Taken together, the present findings indicate that indexical information is able to contact the lexical-semantic network to affect the processing of unheard words.

  16. Catalytic growth and structural characterization of semiconducting beta-Ga2O3 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyo-Hong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Ahn, Hyo-Jun; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2009-06-01

    We have successfully synthesized beta-Ga2O3 nanomaterials with various morphologies, such as wire, rod, belt and sheet-like, through simple thermal evaporation of metal gallium powder in the presence of nickel oxide catalyst. beta-Ga2O3 nanomaterials with different morphology were observed as a function of synthesis time and temperature. In this report, generation sites of the beta-Ga2O3 nanomaterials have been delicately surveyed by FESEM. The growth mechanisms of nanomaterials are distinguished by the view of its generation site. The growth of nanowire follows both VLS and VS mechanism and other kinds of materials such as nanorod, nanobelt and nanosheet follows VS mechanism.

  17. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Miklossy, J.; Miller, L.; Qing, H.

    2008-08-25

    Strong epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes. To determine if amyloid beta (A{beta}) and hyperphosphorylated tau occurs in type 2 diabetes, pancreas tissues from 21 autopsy cases (10 type 2 diabetes and 11 controls) were analyzed. APP and tau mRNAs were identified in human pancreas and in cultured insulinoma beta cells (INS-1) by RT-PCR. Prominent APP and tau bands were detected by Western blotting in pancreatic extracts. Aggregated A{beta}, hyperphosphorylated tau, ubiquitin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein(a), IB1/JIP-1 and JNK1 were detected in Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic patients. A{beta} was co-localized with amylinmore » in islet amyloid deposits. In situ beta sheet formation of islet amyloid deposits was shown by infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS). LPS increased APP in non-neuronal cells as well. We conclude that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau are also associated with type 2 diabetes, highlighting common pathogenetic features in neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and type 2 diabetes and suggesting that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau may also occur in other organs than the brain.« less

  18. Nefiracetam facilitates hippocampal neurotransmission by a mechanism independent of the piracetam and aniracetam action.

    PubMed

    Nomura, T; Nishizaki, T

    2000-07-07

    Nefiracetam, a nootropic (cognition-enhancing) agent, facilitated neurotransmission in the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampal slices in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranged from 1 nM to 1 microM, being evident at 60-min washing-out of the drug. The facilitatory action was blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor antagonists, alpha-bungarotoxin and mecamylamine. A similar facilitation was induced by the other nootropic agents, piracetam and aniracetam, but the facilitation was not inhibited by nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists and it did not occlude the potentiation induced by nefiracetam. In the Xenopus oocyte expression systems, nefiracetam potentiated currents through a variety of neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors (alpha 3beta 2, alpha 3beta 4, alpha 4 beta 2, alpha 4 beta 4, and alpha 7) to a different extent. In contrast, neither piracetam nor aniracetam had any potentiating action on alpha 7 receptor currents. While aniracetam delayed the decay time of currents through the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor, GluR1, -2, -3, expressed in oocytes, nefiracetam or piracetam had no effect on the currents. Nefiracetam, thus, appears to facilitate hippocampal neurotransmission by functionally targeting nicotinic ACh receptors, independently of the action of piracetam and aniracetam.

  19. Chest wall abscesses due to continuous application of silicone gel sheets for keloid management

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hon-Lok; Lau, Keith K; Sam, Ramin; Ing, Todd S

    2015-01-01

    A patient with three episodes of chest wall abscesses as a result of 6 years of round-the-clock, uninterrupted (except during bathing) application of silicone gel sheets to a chest wall keloid is described. Two of the episodes occurred during hot weather. It is suggested that, in the space beneath the silicone sheet, the higher humidity and temperature, both generated as a result of prolonged sheeting, especially during hot weather, might have caused the keloid and its neighbouring skin to become soggy. This sogginess might have facilitated bacterial invasion. It is suggested that some sheeting-free time during a 24 h period might be indicated so that a keloid and its adjacent skin have the time to recover from their sheeting-induced sogginess. A sheeting-free period might especially be needed in the face of sweat accumulation beneath the silicone sheet. PMID:25920733

  20. Chest wall abscesses due to continuous application of silicone gel sheets for keloid management.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hon-Lok; Lau, Keith K; Sam, Ramin; Ing, Todd S

    2015-04-28

    A patient with three episodes of chest wall abscesses as a result of 6 years of round-the-clock, uninterrupted (except during bathing) application of silicone gel sheets to a chest wall keloid is described. Two of the episodes occurred during hot weather. It is suggested that, in the space beneath the silicone sheet, the higher humidity and temperature, both generated as a result of prolonged sheeting, especially during hot weather, might have caused the keloid and its neighbouring skin to become soggy. This sogginess might have facilitated bacterial invasion. It is suggested that some sheeting-free time during a 24 h period might be indicated so that a keloid and its adjacent skin have the time to recover from their sheeting-induced sogginess. A sheeting-free period might especially be needed in the face of sweat accumulation beneath the silicone sheet. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Coupling ligand recognition to protein folding in an engineered variant of rabbit ileal lipid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Kouvatsos, Nikolaos; Meldrum, Jill K; Searle, Mark S; Thomas, Neil R

    2006-11-28

    We have engineered a variant of the beta-clam shell protein ILBP which lacks the alpha-helical motif that caps the central binding cavity; the mutant protein is sufficiently destabilised that it is unfolded under physiological conditions, however, it unexpectedly binds its natural bile acid substrates with high affinity forming a native-like beta-sheet rich structure and demonstrating strong thermodynamic coupling between ligand binding and protein folding.

  2. The processing of auditory and visual recognition of self-stimuli.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Susan M; Nicholson, Shevon E

    2010-12-01

    This study examined self-recognition processing in both the auditory and visual modalities by determining how comparable hearing a recording of one's own voice was to seeing photograph of one's own face. We also investigated whether the simultaneous presentation of auditory and visual self-stimuli would either facilitate or inhibit self-identification. Ninety-one participants completed reaction-time tasks of self-recognition when presented with their own faces, own voices, and combinations of the two. Reaction time and errors made when responding with both the right and left hand were recorded to determine if there were lateralization effects on these tasks. Our findings showed that visual self-recognition for facial photographs appears to be superior to auditory self-recognition for voice recordings. Furthermore, a combined presentation of one's own face and voice appeared to inhibit rather than facilitate self-recognition and there was a left-hand advantage for reaction time on the combined-presentation tasks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of beta-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol on spatial memory and exploratory behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huaying; Mao, Yu; Wang, Jianhong; Ma, Yuanye

    2011-07-08

    The beta-adrenergic system has been suggested to be involved in novelty detection and memory modulation. The present study aimed to investigate the role of beta-adrenergic receptors on novelty-based spatial recognition memory and exploratory behavior in mice using Y-maze test and open-field respectively. Mice were injected with three doses of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol (2, 10 and 20 mg/kg) or saline at three different time points (15 min prior to training, immediately after training and 15 min before test). The results showed that higher doses of propranolol (10 and 20 mg/kg) given before the training trial impaired spatial recognition memory while those injected at other two time points did not. A detailed analysis of exploratory behavior in open-field showed that lower dose (2 mg/kg) of propranolol reduced exploratory behavior of mice. Our findings indicate that higher dose of propranolol can impair acquisition of spatial information in the Y-maze without altering locomotion, suggesting that the beta-adrenergic system may be involved in modulating memory processes at the time of learning. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. The "Decorative" Female Model: Sexual Stimuli and the Recognition of Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaChance, Charles C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the impact of the decorative or functionless female models in print advertising and indicates that models facilitate recognition of model/related information but do little to increase the recognition of brand names.

  5. Continued effects of context reinstatement in recognition.

    PubMed

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Macken, Bill

    2015-07-01

    The context reinstatement effect refers to the enhanced memory performance found when the context information paired with a target item at study is re-presented at test. Here we investigated the consequences of the way that context information is processed in such a setting that gives rise to its beneficial effect on item recognition memory. Specifically, we assessed whether reinstating context in a recognition test facilitates subsequent memory for this context, beyond the facilitation conferred by presentation of the same context with a different study item. Reinstating the study context at test led to better accuracy in two-alternative forced choice recognition for target faces than did re-pairing those faces with another context encountered during the study phase. The advantage for reinstated over re-paired conditions occurred for both within-subjects (Exp. 1) and between-subjects (Exp. 2) manipulations. Critically, in a subsequent recognition test for the contexts themselves, contexts that had previously served in the reinstated condition were recognized better than contexts that had previously served in the re-paired context condition. This constitutes the first demonstration of continuous effects of context reinstatement on memory for context.

  6. Prediction and analysis of beta-turns in proteins by support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tho Hoan; Satou, Kenji; Ho, Tu Bao

    2003-01-01

    Tight turn has long been recognized as one of the three important features of proteins after the alpha-helix and beta-sheet. Tight turns play an important role in globular proteins from both the structural and functional points of view. More than 90% tight turns are beta-turns. Analysis and prediction of beta-turns in particular and tight turns in general are very useful for the design of new molecules such as drugs, pesticides, and antigens. In this paper, we introduce a support vector machine (SVM) approach to prediction and analysis of beta-turns. We have investigated two aspects of applying SVM to the prediction and analysis of beta-turns. First, we developed a new SVM method, called BTSVM, which predicts beta-turns of a protein from its sequence. The prediction results on the dataset of 426 non-homologous protein chains by sevenfold cross-validation technique showed that our method is superior to the other previous methods. Second, we analyzed how amino acid positions support (or prevent) the formation of beta-turns based on the "multivariable" classification model of a linear SVM. This model is more general than the other ones of previous statistical methods. Our analysis results are more comprehensive and easier to use than previously published analysis results.

  7. The Structural Basis of Substrate Recognition in an exo-beta-d-Glucosaminidase Involved in Chitosan Hydrolysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lammerts van Bueren, A.; Ghinet, M; Gregg, K

    2009-01-01

    Family 2 of the glycoside hydrolase classification is one of the largest families. Structurally characterized members of this family include enzymes with beta-galactosidase activity (Escherichia coli LacZ), beta-glucuronidase activity (Homo sapiens GusB), and beta-mannosidase activity (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BtMan2A). Here, we describe the structure of a family 2 glycoside hydrolase, CsxA, from Amycolatopsis orientalis that has exo-beta-D-glucosaminidase (exo-chitosanase) activity. Analysis of a product complex (1.85 A resolution) reveals a unique negatively charged pocket that specifically accommodates the nitrogen of nonreducing end glucosamine residues, allowing this enzyme to discriminate between glucose and glucosamine. This also provides structural evidence for the role ofmore » E541 as the catalytic nucleophile and D469 as the catalytic acid/base. The structures of an E541A mutant in complex with a natural beta-1,4-D-glucosamine tetrasaccharide substrate and both E541A and D469A mutants in complex with a pNP-beta-D-glucosaminide synthetic substrate provide insight into interactions in the +1 subsite of this enzyme. Overall, a comparison with the active sites of other GH2 enzymes highlights the unique architecture of the CsxA active site, which imparts specificity for its cationic substrate.« less

  8. Environmental Identity Development through Social Interactions, Action, and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Sarah Riggs

    2015-01-01

    This article uses sociocultural identity theory to explore how practice, action, and recognition can facilitate environmental identity development. Recognition, a construct not previously explored in environmental identity literature, is particularly examined. The study is based on a group of diverse teens who traveled to South Asia to participate…

  9. Natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds.

    PubMed

    Mitraki, Anna; Papanikolopoulou, Katerina; Van Raaij, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    A distinctive family of beta-structured folds has recently been described for fibrous proteins from viruses. Virus fibers are usually involved in specific host-cell recognition. They are asymmetric homotrimeric proteins consisting of an N-terminal virus-binding tail, a central shaft or stalk domain, and a C-terminal globular receptor-binding domain. Often they are entirely or nearly entirely composed of beta-structure. Apart from their biological relevance and possible gene therapy applications, their shape, stability, and rigidity suggest they may be useful as blueprints for biomechanical design. Folding and unfolding studies suggest their globular C-terminal domain may fold first, followed by a "zipping-up" of the shaft domains. The C-terminal domains appear to be important for registration because peptides corresponding to shaft domains alone aggregate into nonnative fibers and/or amyloid structures. C-terminal domains can be exchanged between different fibers and the resulting chimeric proteins are useful as a way to solve structures of unknown parts of the shaft domains. The following natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds have been discovered by X-ray crystallography: the triple beta-spiral, triple beta-helix, and T4 short tail fiber fold. All have a central longitudinal hydrophobic core and extensive intermonomer polar and nonpolar interactions. Now that a reasonable body of structural and folding knowledge has been assembled about these fibrous proteins, the next challenge and opportunity is to start using this information in medical and industrial applications such as gene therapy and nanotechnology.

  10. Topological switching between an alpha-beta parallel protein and a remarkably helical molten globule.

    PubMed

    Nabuurs, Sanne M; Westphal, Adrie H; aan den Toorn, Marije; Lindhoud, Simon; van Mierlo, Carlo P M

    2009-06-17

    Partially folded protein species transiently exist during folding of most proteins. Often these species are molten globules, which may be on- or off-pathway to native protein. Molten globules have a substantial amount of secondary structure but lack virtually all the tertiary side-chain packing characteristic of natively folded proteins. These ensembles of interconverting conformers are prone to aggregation and potentially play a role in numerous devastating pathologies, and thus attract considerable attention. The molten globule that is observed during folding of apoflavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii is off-pathway, as it has to unfold before native protein can be formed. Here we report that this species can be trapped under nativelike conditions by substituting amino acid residue F44 by Y44, allowing spectroscopic characterization of its conformation. Whereas native apoflavodoxin contains a parallel beta-sheet surrounded by alpha-helices (i.e., the flavodoxin-like or alpha-beta parallel topology), it is shown that the molten globule has a totally different topology: it is helical and contains no beta-sheet. The presence of this remarkably nonnative species shows that single polypeptide sequences can code for distinct folds that swap upon changing conditions. Topological switching between unrelated protein structures is likely a general phenomenon in the protein structure universe.

  11. Beta-hairpin formation in aqueous solution and in the presence of trifluoroethanol: a (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance conformational study of designed peptides.

    PubMed

    Santiveri, Clara M; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Rico, Manuel; Jiménez, M Angeles

    2005-10-15

    In order to check our current knowledge on the principles involved in beta-hairpin formation, we have modified the sequence of a 3:5 beta-hairpin forming peptide with two different purposes, first to increase the stability of the formed 3:5 beta-hairpin, and second to convert the 3:5 beta-hairpin into a 2:2 beta-hairpin. The conformational behavior of the designed peptides was investigated in aqueous solution and in 30% trifluoroethanol (TFE) by analysis of the following nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters: nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) data, and C(alpha)H, (13)C(alpha), and (13)C(beta) conformational shifts. From the differences in the ability to adopt beta-hairpin structures in these peptides, we have arrived to the following conclusions: (i) beta-Hairpin population increases with the statistical propensity of residues to occupy each turn position. (ii) The loop length, and in turn, the beta-hairpin type, can be modified as a function of the type of turn favored by the loop sequence. These two conclusions reinforce previous results about the importance of beta-turn sequence in beta-hairpin folding. (iii) Side-chain packing on each face of the beta-sheet may play a major role in beta-hairpin stability; hence simplified analysis in terms of isolated pair interactions and intrinsic beta-sheet propensities is insufficient. (iv) Contributions to beta-hairpin stability of turn and strand sequences are not completely independent. (v) The burial of hydrophobic surface upon beta-hairpin formation that, in turn, depends on side-chain packing also contributes to beta-hairpin stability. (vi) As previously observed, TFE stabilizes beta-hairpin structures, but the extent of the contribution of different factors to beta-hairpin formation is sometimes different in aqueous solution and in 30% TFE. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 79: 150-162, 2005.

  12. Involvement of estrogen receptor alpha, beta and oxytocin in social discrimination: A detailed behavioral analysis with knockout female mice.

    PubMed

    Choleris, E; Ogawa, S; Kavaliers, M; Gustafsson, J-A; Korach, K S; Muglia, L J; Pfaff, D W

    2006-10-01

    Social recognition, processing, and retaining information about conspecific individuals is crucial for the development of normal social relationships. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is necessary for social recognition in male and female mice, with its effects being modulated by estrogens in females. In previous studies, mice whose genes for the estrogen receptor-alpha (alpha-ERKO) and estrogen receptor-beta (beta-ERKO) as well as OTKO were knocked out failed to habituate to a repeatedly presented conspecific and to dishabituate when the familiar mouse is replaced by a novel animal (Choleris et al. 2003, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100, 6192-6197). However, a binary social discrimination assay, where animals are given a simultaneous choice between a familiar and a previously unknown individual, offers a more direct test of social recognition. Here, we used alpha-ERKO, beta-ERKO, and OTKO female mice in the binary social discrimination paradigm. Differently from their wild-type controls, when given a choice, the KO mice showed either reduced (beta-ERKO) or completely impaired (OTKO and alpha-ERKO) social discrimination. Detailed behavioral analyses indicate that all of the KO mice have reduced anxiety-related stretched approaches to the social stimulus with no overall impairment in horizontal and vertical activity, non-social investigation, and various other behaviors such as, self-grooming, digging, and inactivity. Therefore, the OT, ER-alpha, and ER-beta genes are necessary, to different degrees, for social discrimination and, thus, for the modulation of social behavior (e.g. aggression, affiliation).

  13. The coevolution of recognition and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Smead, Rory; Forber, Patrick

    2016-05-26

    Recognition of behavioral types can facilitate the evolution of cooperation by enabling altruistic behavior to be directed at other cooperators and withheld from defectors. While much is known about the tendency for recognition to promote cooperation, relatively little is known about whether such a capacity can coevolve with the social behavior it supports. Here we use evolutionary game theory and multi-population dynamics to model the coevolution of social behavior and recognition. We show that conditional harming behavior enables the evolution and stability of social recognition, whereas conditional helping leads to a deterioration of recognition ability. Expanding the model to include a complex game where both helping and harming interactions are possible, we find that conditional harming behavior can stabilize recognition, and thereby lead to the evolution of conditional helping. Our model identifies a novel hypothesis for the evolution of cooperation: conditional harm may have coevolved with recognition first, thereby helping to establish the mechanisms necessary for the evolution of cooperation.

  14. The coevolution of recognition and social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Smead, Rory; Forber, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of behavioral types can facilitate the evolution of cooperation by enabling altruistic behavior to be directed at other cooperators and withheld from defectors. While much is known about the tendency for recognition to promote cooperation, relatively little is known about whether such a capacity can coevolve with the social behavior it supports. Here we use evolutionary game theory and multi-population dynamics to model the coevolution of social behavior and recognition. We show that conditional harming behavior enables the evolution and stability of social recognition, whereas conditional helping leads to a deterioration of recognition ability. Expanding the model to include a complex game where both helping and harming interactions are possible, we find that conditional harming behavior can stabilize recognition, and thereby lead to the evolution of conditional helping. Our model identifies a novel hypothesis for the evolution of cooperation: conditional harm may have coevolved with recognition first, thereby helping to establish the mechanisms necessary for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:27225673

  15. Glycation induces formation of amyloid cross-beta structure in albumin.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Barend; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; Wu, Ya-Ping; Brünjes, Bettina; Posthuma, George; Kranenburg, Onno; de Groot, Philip G; Voest, Emile E; Gebbink, Martijn F B G

    2003-10-24

    Amyloid fibrils are components of proteinaceous plaques that are associated with conformational diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and familial amyloidosis. Amyloid polypeptides share a specific quarternary structure element known as cross-beta structure. Commonly, fibrillar aggregates are modified by advanced glycation end products (AGE). In addition, AGE formation itself induces protein aggregation. Both amyloid proteins and protein-AGE adducts bind multiligand receptors, such as receptor for AGE, CD36, and scavenger receptors A and B type I, and the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that glycation induces refolding of globular proteins, accompanied by formation of cross-beta structure. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate here that glycated albumin condensates into fibrous or amorphous aggregates. These aggregates bind to amyloid-specific dyes Congo red and thioflavin T and to tPA. In contrast to globular albumin, glycated albumin contains amino acid residues in beta-sheet conformation, as measured with circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. Moreover, it displays cross-beta structure, as determined with x-ray fiber diffraction. We conclude that glycation induces refolding of initially globular albumin into amyloid fibrils comprising cross-beta structure. This would explain how glycated ligands and amyloid ligands can bind to the same multiligand "cross-beta structure" receptors and to tPA.

  16. Differential mode of interaction of ThioflavinT with native β structural motif in human α 1-acid glycoprotein and cross beta sheet of its amyloid: Biophysical and molecular docking approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Nusrat, Saima; Alam, Parvez; Zaidi, Nida; Badr, Gamal; Mahmoud, Mohamed H.; Rajpoot, Ravi Kant; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-08-01

    The present study details the interaction mechanism of Thioflavin T (ThT) to Human α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) applying various spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. Fluorescence quenching data revealed the binding constant in the order of 104 M-1 and the standard Gibbs free energy change value, ΔG = -6.78 kcal mol-1 for the interaction between ThT and AAG indicating process is spontaneous. There is increase in absorbance of AAG upon the interaction of ThT that may be due to ground state complex formation between ThT and AAG. ThT impelled rise in β-sheet structure in AAG as observed from far-UV CD spectra while there are minimal changes in tertiary structure of the protein. DLS results suggested the reduction in AAG molecular size, ligand entry into the central binding pocket of AAG may have persuaded the molecular compaction in AAG. Isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) results showed the interaction process to be endothermic with the values of standard enthalpy change ΔH0 = 4.11 kcal mol-1 and entropy change TΔS0 = 10.82 kcal.mol- 1. Moreover, docking results suggested hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding played the important role in the binding process of ThT with F1S and A forms of AAG. ThT fluorescence emission at 485 nm was measured for properly folded native form and for thermally induced amyloid state of AAG. ThT fluorescence with native AAG was very low, while on the other hand with amyloid induced state of the protein AAG showed a positive emission peak at 485 nm upon the excitation at 440 nm, although it binds to native state as well. These results confirmed that ThT binding alone is not responsible for enhancement of ThT fluorescence but it also required beta stacked sheet structure found in protein amyloid to give proper signature signal for amyloid. This study gives the mechanistic insight into the differential interaction of ThT with beta structures found in native state of the proteins and amyloid forms, this study reinforce

  17. Development of a new family of conformationally restricted peptides as potent nucleators of beta-turns. Design, synthesis, structure, and biological evaluation of a beta-lactam peptide analogue of melanostatin.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Claudio; Aizpurua, Jesus M; Benito, Ana; Miranda, José Ignacio; Fratila, Raluca M; Matute, Carlos; Domercq, Maria; Gago, Federico; Martin-Santamaria, Sonsoles; Linden, Anthony

    2003-12-31

    Novel enantiopure (i)-(beta-lactam)-(Gly)-(i+3) peptide models, defined by the presence of a central alpha-alkyl-alpha-amino-beta-lactam ring placed as the (i+1) residue, have been synthesized in a totally stereocontrolled way by alpha-alkylation of suitable N-[bis(trimethylsilyl)methyl]-beta-lactams. The structural properties of these beta-lactam pseudopeptides have been studied by X-ray crystallography, Molecular Dynamics simulation, and NOESY-restrained NMR simulated annealing techniques, showing a strong tendency to form stable type II or type II' beta-turns either in the solid state or in highly coordinating DMSO solutions. Tetrapeptide models containing syn- or anti-alpha,beta-dialkyl-alpha-amino-beta-lactam rings have also been synthesized and their conformations analyzed, revealing that alpha-alkyl substitution is essential for beta-turn stabilization. A beta-lactam analogue of melanostatin (PLG amide) has also been prepared, characterized as a type-II beta-turn in DMSO-d6 solution, and tested by competitive binding assay as a dopaminergic D2 modulator in rat neuron cultured cells, displaying moderate agonist activity in the micromolar concentration range. On the basis of these results, a novel peptidomimetic design concept, based on the separation of constraint and recognition elements, is proposed.

  18. Current trends in small vocabulary speech recognition for equipment control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doukas, Nikolaos; Bardis, Nikolaos G.

    2017-09-01

    Speech recognition systems allow human - machine communication to acquire an intuitive nature that approaches the simplicity of inter - human communication. Small vocabulary speech recognition is a subset of the overall speech recognition problem, where only a small number of words need to be recognized. Speaker independent small vocabulary recognition can find significant applications in field equipment used by military personnel. Such equipment may typically be controlled by a small number of commands that need to be given quickly and accurately, under conditions where delicate manual operations are difficult to achieve. This type of application could hence significantly benefit by the use of robust voice operated control components, as they would facilitate the interaction with their users and render it much more reliable in times of crisis. This paper presents current challenges involved in attaining efficient and robust small vocabulary speech recognition. These challenges concern feature selection, classification techniques, speaker diversity and noise effects. A state machine approach is presented that facilitates the voice guidance of different equipment in a variety of situations.

  19. Current and high-β sheets in CIR streams: statistics and interaction with the HCS and the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapov, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Thirty events of CIR streams (corotating interaction regions between fast and slow solar wind) were analyzed in order to study statistically plasma structure within the CIR shear zones and to examine the interaction of the CIRs with the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and the Earth's magnetosphere. The occurrence of current layers and high-beta plasma sheets in the CIR structure has been estimated. It was found that on average, each of the CIR streams had four current layers in its structure with a current density of more than 0.12 A/m2 and about one and a half high-beta plasma regions with a beta value of more than five. Then we traced how and how often the high-speed stream associated with the CIR can catch up with the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and connect to it. The interface of each fourth CIR stream coincided in time within an hour with the HCS, but in two thirds of cases, the CIR connection with the HCS was completely absent. One event of the simultaneous observation of the CIR stream in front of the magnetosphere by the ACE satellite in the vicinity of the L1 libration point and the Wind satellite in the remote geomagnetic tail was considered in detail. Measurements of the components of the interplanetary magnetic field and plasma parameters showed that the overall structure of the stream is conserved. Moreover, some details of the fine structure are also transferred through the magnetosphere. In particular, the so-called "magnetic hole" almost does not change its shape when moving from L1 point to a neighborhood of L2 point.

  20. Self-Assembled Hydrogels from Poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] Grafted with β-Sheet Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Radu-Wu, Larisa C.; Yang, Jiyuan; Wu, Kuangshi; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    A new hybrid hydrogel based on poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] grafted with a β-sheet peptide, Beta11, was designed. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the folding ability of β-sheet peptide was retained in the hybrid system, whereas the sensitivity of the peptide towards temperature and pH variations was hindered. The polymer backbone also prevented the twisting of the fibrils that resulted from the antiparallel arrangement of the β-strands, as proved by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thioflavin T binding experiments and transmission electron microscopy showed fibril formation with minimal lateral aggregation. As a consequence, the graft copolymer self-assembled into a hydrogel in aqueous environment. This process was mediated by association of β-sheet domains. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a particular morphology of the network, characterized by long-range order and uniformly aligned lamellae. Microrheology results confirmed that concentration-dependent gelation occurred. PMID:19591463

  1. Social appraisal influences recognition of emotions.

    PubMed

    Mumenthaler, Christian; Sander, David

    2012-06-01

    The notion of social appraisal emphasizes the importance of a social dimension in appraisal theories of emotion by proposing that the way an individual appraises an event is influenced by the way other individuals appraise and feel about the same event. This study directly tested this proposal by asking participants to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear, happiness, or anger in Experiment 1; fear, happiness, anger, or neutral in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a contextual face, which appeared simultaneously in the periphery of the screen, expressed an emotion (fear, happiness, anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. We manipulated gaze direction to be able to distinguish between a mere contextual effect (gaze away from both the target face and the participant) and a specific social appraisal effect (gaze toward the target face). Results of both experiments provided evidence for a social appraisal effect in emotion recognition, which differed from the mere effect of contextual information: Whereas facial expressions were identical in both conditions, the direction of the gaze of the contextual face influenced emotion recognition. Social appraisal facilitated the recognition of anger, happiness, and fear when the contextual face expressed the same emotion. This facilitation was stronger than the mere contextual effect. Social appraisal also allowed better recognition of fear when the contextual face expressed anger and better recognition of anger when the contextual face expressed fear. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Memantine and recognition memory: possible facilitation of its behavioral effects by the nitric oxide (NO) donor molsidomine.

    PubMed

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos; Sakellaridis, Nikolaos

    2007-10-01

    The effects of the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine on recognition memory were investigated in the rat by using the object recognition task. In addition, a possible interaction between memantine and the nitric oxide (NO) donor molsidomine in antagonizing extinction of recognition memory was also evaluated utilizing the same behavioral procedure. In a first dose-response study, post-training administration of memantine (10 and 20, but not 3 mg/kg) antagonized recognition memory deficits in the rat, suggesting that memantine modulates storage and/or retrieval of information. In a subsequent study, combination of sub-threshold doses of memantine (3 mg/kg) and the NO donor molsidomine (1 mg/kg) counteracted delay-dependent impairments in the same task. Neither memantine (3 mg/kg) nor molsidomine (1 mg/kg) alone reduced object recognition performance deficits. The present findings indicate a) that memantine is involved in recognition memory and b) support a functional interaction between memantine and molsidomine on recognition memory mechanisms.

  3. A Tailward Moving Current Sheet Normal Magnetic Field Front Followed by an Earthward Moving Dipolarization Front

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, K.-J.; Goldstein, M. L.; Moore, T. E.; Walsh, B. M.; Baishev, D. G.; Moiseyev, A. V.; Shevtsov, B. M.; Yumoto, K.

    2014-01-01

    A case study is presented using measurements from the Cluster spacecraft and ground-based magnetometers that show a substorm onset propagating from the inner to outer plasma sheet. On 3 October 2005, Cluster, traversing an ion-scale current sheet at the near-Earth plasma sheet, detected a sudden enhancement of Bz, which was immediately followed by a series of flux rope structures. Both the local Bz enhancement and flux ropes propagated tailward. Approximately 5 min later, another Bz enhancement, followed by a large density decrease, was observed to rapidly propagate earthward. Between the two Bz enhancements, a significant removal of magnetic flux occurred, possibly resulting from the tailward moving Bz enhancement and flux ropes. In our scenario, this flux removal caused the magnetotail to be globally stretched so that the thinnest sheet formed tailward of Cluster. The thinned current sheet facilitated magnetic reconnection that quickly evolved from plasma sheet to lobe and generated the later earthward moving dipolarization front (DF) followed by a reduction in density and entropy. Ground magnetograms located near the meridian of Cluster's magnetic foot points show two-step bay enhancements. The positive bay associated with the first Bz enhancement indicates that the substorm onset signatures propagated from the inner to the outer plasma sheet, consistent with the Cluster observation. The more intense bay features associated with the later DF are consistent with the earthward motion of the front. The event suggests that current disruption signatures that originated in the near-Earth current sheet propagated tailward, triggering or facilitating midtail reconnection, thereby preconditioning the magnetosphere for a later strong substorm enhancement.

  4. Bidirectional Modulation of Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jonathan W.; Poeta, Devon L.; Jacobson, Tara K.; Zolnik, Timothy A.; Neske, Garrett T.; Connors, Barry W.

    2015-01-01

    Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects. For example, animals and humans with perirhinal damage are unable to distinguish familiar from novel objects in recognition memory tasks. In the normal brain, perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by increasing or decreasing firing rates. Recent work also implicates oscillatory activity in the low-beta and low-gamma frequency bands in sensory detection, perception, and recognition. Using optogenetic methods in a spontaneous object exploration (SOR) task, we altered recognition memory performance in rats. In the SOR task, normal rats preferentially explore novel images over familiar ones. We modulated exploratory behavior in this task by optically stimulating channelrhodopsin-expressing perirhinal neurons at various frequencies while rats looked at novel or familiar 2D images. Stimulation at 30–40 Hz during looking caused rats to treat a familiar image as if it were novel by increasing time looking at the image. Stimulation at 30–40 Hz was not effective in increasing exploration of novel images. Stimulation at 10–15 Hz caused animals to treat a novel image as familiar by decreasing time looking at the image, but did not affect looking times for images that were already familiar. We conclude that optical stimulation of PER at different frequencies can alter visual recognition memory bidirectionally. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recognition of novelty and familiarity are important for learning, memory, and decision making. Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects, but how novelty and familiarity are encoded and transmitted in the brain is not known. Perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by changing firing rates, but recent work suggests that brain oscillations may also be important for recognition. In this study, we showed that

  5. Folding control in cyclic peptides through N-methylation pattern selection: formation of antiparallel beta-sheet dimers, double reverse turns and supramolecular helices by 3alpha,gamma cyclic peptides.

    PubMed

    Amorín, Manuel; Castedo, Luis; Granja, Juan R

    2008-01-01

    Peptide foldamers constitute a growing class of nanomaterials with potential applications in a wide variety of chemical, medical and technological fields. Here we describe the preparation and structural characteristics of a new class of cyclic peptide foldamers (3alpha,gamma-CPs) that, depending on their backbone N-methylation patterns and the medium, can either remain as flat rings that dimerize through arrays of hydrogen bonds of antiparallel beta-sheet type, or can fold into twisted double reverse turns that, in the case of double gamma-turns, associate in nonpolar solvents to form helical supramolecular structures. A 3alpha,gamma-CP consists of a number of multiples of a repeat unit made up of four amino acid residues of alternating chirality: three corresponding to alpha-amino acids and one to a gamma-amino acid (a cis-3-aminocycloalkanecarboxylic acid).

  6. Reconnection AND Bursty Bulk Flow Associated Turbulence IN THE Earth'S Plasma Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voros, Z.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Runov, A.; Volwerk, M.; Jankovicova, D.; Balogh, A.; Klecker, B.

    2006-12-01

    Reconnection related fast flows in the Earth's plasma sheet can be associated with several accompanying phenomena, such as magnetic field dipolarization, current sheet thinning and turbulence. Statistical analysis of multi-scale properties of turbulence facilitates to understand the interaction of the plasma flow with the dipolar magnetic field and to recognize the remote or nearby temporal and spatial characteristics of reconnection. The main emphasis of this presentation is on differentiating between the specific statistical features of flow associated fluctuations at different distances from the reconnection site.

  7. An Electrophysiological Signature of Unconscious Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Joel L.; Paller, Ken A.

    2009-01-01

    Contradicting the common assumption that accurate recognition reflects explicit-memory processing, we describe evidence for recognition lacking two hallmark explicit-memory features: awareness of memory retrieval and facilitation by attentive encoding. Kaleidoscope images were encoded in conjunction with an attentional diversion and subsequently recognized more accurately than those encoded without diversion. Confidence in recognition was superior following attentive encoding, though recognition was remarkably accurate when people claimed to be unaware of memory retrieval. This “implicit recognition” was associated with frontal-occipital negative brain potentials at 200-400 ms post-stimulus-onset, which were spatially and temporally distinct from positive brain potentials corresponding to explicit recollection and familiarity. This dissociation between behavioral and electrophysiological characteristics of “implicit recognition” versus explicit recognition indicates that a neurocognitive mechanism with properties similar to those that produce implicit memory can be operative in standard recognition tests. People can accurately discriminate repeat stimuli from new stimuli without necessarily knowing it. PMID:19198606

  8. Structural domains required for channel function of the mouse transient receptor potential protein homologue TRP1beta.

    PubMed

    Engelke, Michael; Friedrich, Olaf; Budde, Petra; Schäfer, Christina; Niemann, Ursula; Zitt, Christof; Jüngling, Eberhard; Rocks, Oliver; Lückhoff, Andreas; Frey, Jürgen

    2002-07-17

    Transient receptor potential proteins (TRP) are supposed to participate in the formation of store-operated Ca(2+) influx channels by co-assembly. However, little is known which domains facilitate the interaction of subunits. Contribution of the N-terminal coiled-coil domain and ankyrin-like repeats and the putative pore region of the mouse TRP1beta (mTRP1beta) variant to the formation of functional cation channels were analyzed following overexpression in HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cells. MTRP1beta expressing cells exhibited enhanced Ca(2+) influx and enhanced whole-cell membrane currents compared to mTRP1beta deletion mutants. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay only the coiled-coil domain facilitated homodimerization of the N-terminus. These results suggest that the N-terminus of mTRP1beta is required for structural organization thus forming functional channels.

  9. Potentiating role of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-1beta type 1 receptors in the medial hypothalamus in defensive rage behavior in the cat.

    PubMed

    Hassanain, M; Bhatt, S; Zalcman, S; Siegel, A

    2005-06-28

    Recently, this laboratory provided evidence that interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), an immune and brain-derived cytokine, microinjected into the medial hypothalamus, potentiates defensive rage behavior in the cat elicited from the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), and that such effects are blocked by a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist. Since this finding represents the first time that a brain cytokine has been shown to affect defensive rage behavior, the present study replicated and extended these findings by documenting the specific potentiating role played by IL-1beta Type 1 receptor (IL-1RI), and the anatomical relationship between IL-1beta and 5-HT2 receptors in the medial hypothalamus. IL-1beta (10 ng) microinjected into the medial hypothalamus induced two separate phases of facilitation, one at 60 min and another at 180 min, post-injection. In turn, these effects were blocked with pretreatment of the selective IL-1 Type I receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) (10 ng), demonstrating the selectivity of the effects of IL-1beta on medial hypothalamic neurons upon PAG-elicited defensive rage behavior. The next stage of the study utilized immunohistochemical methods to demonstrate that IL-1beta and 5-HT2 receptors were present on the same neurons within regions of the medial hypothalamus where IL-1beta and the IL-1beta receptor antagonists were administered. This provided anatomical evidence suggesting a relationship between IL-1RI and 5-HT2 receptors in the medial hypothalamus that is consistent with the previous pharmacological observations in our laboratory. The overall findings show that activation of IL-1RI in the medial hypothalamus potentiates defensive rage behavior in the cat and that these effects may also be linked to the presence of 5-HT2 receptors on the same groups of neurons in this region of hypothalamus.

  10. Prosody and Spoken Word Recognition in Early and Late Spanish-English Bilingual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutsen, Frank R.; Dvorak, Justin D.; Deweber, Derick D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the influence of word properties on gated single-word recognition in monolingual and bilingual individuals under conditions of native and nonnative accent and to determine whether word-form prosody facilitates recognition in bilingual individuals. Method: Word recognition was assessed in monolingual and…

  11. Delta-catenin/NPRAP: A new member of the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta signaling complex that promotes beta-catenin turnover in neurons.

    PubMed

    Bareiss, Sonja; Kim, Kwonseop; Lu, Qun

    2010-08-15

    Through a multiprotein complex, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) phosphorylates and destabilizes beta-catenin, an important signaling event for neuronal growth and proper synaptic function. delta-Catenin, or NPRAP (CTNND2), is a neural enriched member of the beta-catenin superfamily and is also known to modulate neurite outgrowth and synaptic activity. In this study, we investigated the possibility that delta-catenin expression is also affected by GSK-3beta signaling and participates in the molecular complex regulating beta-catenin turnover in neurons. Immunofluorescent light microscopy revealed colocalization of delta-catenin with members of the molecular destruction complex: GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and adenomatous polyposis coli proteins in rat primary neurons. GSK-3beta formed a complex with delta-catenin, and its inhibition resulted in increased delta-catenin and beta-catenin expression levels. LY294002 and amyloid peptide, known activators of GSK-3beta signaling, reduced delta-catenin expression levels. Furthermore, delta-catenin immunoreactivity increased and protein turnover decreased when neurons were treated with proteasome inhibitors, suggesting that the stability of delta-catenin, like that of beta-catenin, is regulated by proteasome-mediated degradation. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that delta-catenin overexpression promoted GSK-3beta and beta-catenin interactions. Primary cortical neurons and PC12 cells expressing delta-catenin treated with proteasome inhibitors showed increased ubiquitinated beta-catenin forms. Consistent with the hypothesis that delta-catenin promotes the interaction of the destruction complex molecules, cycloheximide treatment of cells overexpressing delta-catenin showed enhanced beta-catenin turnover. These studies identify delta-catenin as a new member of the GSK-3beta signaling pathway and further suggest that delta-catenin is potentially involved in facilitating the interaction, ubiquitination, and

  12. "Click" saccharide/beta-lactam hybrids for lectin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Claudio; Aizpurua, Jesus M; Balentová, Eva; Azcune, Itxaso; Santos, J Ignacio; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Cañada, Javier; Miranda, José Ignacio

    2008-06-05

    Hybrid glycopeptide beta-lactam mimetics designed to bind lectins or carbohydrate recognition domains in selectins have been prepared according to a "shape-modulating linker" design. This approach was implemented using the azide-alkyne "click" cycloaddition reaction, and as shown by NMR/MD experiments, binding of the resulting mimetics to Ulex Europaeus Lectin-1 (UEL-1) occurred after a "bent-to-extended" conformational change around a partially rotatable triazolylmethylene moiety.

  13. Dispatcher Recognition of Stroke Using the National Academy Medical Priority Dispatch System

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Brian H; Starkman, Sidney; Eckstein, Marc; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Haines, Jill; Huang, Rainy; Colby, Daniel; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Background Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMDs) play an important role in optimizing stroke care if they are able to accurately identify calls regarding acute cerebrovascular disease. This study was undertaken to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the current national protocol guiding dispatcher questioning of 911 callers to identify stroke, QA Guide v 11.1 of the National Academy Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS). Methods We identified all Los Angeles Fire Department paramedic transports of patients to UCLA Medical Center during the 12 month period from January to December 2005 in a prospectively maintained database. Dispatcher-assigned MPDS codes for each of these patient transports were abstracted from the paramedic run sheets and compared to final hospital discharge diagnosis. Results Among 3474 transported patients, 96 (2.8%) had a final diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Dispatchers assigned a code of potential stroke to 44.8% of patients with a final discharge diagnosis of stroke or TIA. Dispatcher identification of stroke showed a sensitivity of 0.41, specificity of 0.96, positive predictive value of 0.45, and negative predictive value of 0.95. Conclusions Dispatcher recognition of stroke calls using the widely employed MPDS algorithm is suboptimal, with failure to identify more than half of stroke patients as likely stroke. Revisions to the current national dispatcher structured interview and complaint identification algorithm for stroke may facilitate more accurate recognition of stroke by EMDs. PMID:19390065

  14. Self-Recognition in Live Videos by Young Children: Does Video Training Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of the experiment reported here was to establish whether self-recognition in live video can be facilitated when live video training is provided to children aged 2-2.5 years. While the majority of children failed the test of live self-recognition prior to video training, more than half exhibited live self-recognition post video…

  15. Ternary Aligned Nanofibers of RGD Peptide-Displaying M13 Bacteriophage/PLGA/Graphene Oxide for Facilitated Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong Cheol; Kim, Chuntae; Song, Su-Jin; Jun, Seungwon; Kim, Chang-Seok; Hong, Suck Won; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Han, Dong-Wook; Oh, Jin-Woo

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there have been tremendous efforts to develop the biofunctional scaffolds by incorporating various biochemical factors. In the present study, we fabricated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofiber sheets decorated with graphene oxide (GO) and RGD peptide. The decoration of GO and RGD peptide was readily achieved by using RGD peptide-displaying M13 bacteriophage (RGD-M13 phage) and electrospinning. Furthermore, the aligned GO-decorated PLGA/RGD peptide (GO-PLGA/RGD) ternary nanofiber sheets were prepared by magnetic field-assisted electrospinning, and their potentials as bifunctional scaffolds for facilitating myogenesis were explored. We characterized the physicochemical and mechanical properties of the sheets by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, and tensile test. In addition, the C2C12 skeletal myoblasts were cultured on the aligned GO-PLGA/RGD nanofiber sheets, and their cellular behaviors, including initial attachment, proliferation and myogenic differentiation, were evaluated. Our results revealed that the GO-PLGA/RGD nanofiber sheets had suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for supporting cell growth, and could significantly promote the spontaneous myogenic differentiation of C2C12 skeletal myoblasts. Moreover, it was revealed that the myogenic differentiation was further accelerated on the aligned GO-PLGA/RGD nanofiber sheets due to the synergistic effects of RGD peptide, GO and aligned nanofiber structure. Therefore, , it is suggested that the aligned GO-PLGA/RGD ternary nanofiber sheets are one of the most promising approaches for facilitating myogenesis and promoting skeletal tissue regeneration. PMID:29577018

  16. Ternary Aligned Nanofibers of RGD Peptide-Displaying M13 Bacteriophage/PLGA/Graphene Oxide for Facilitated Myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong Cheol; Kim, Chuntae; Song, Su-Jin; Jun, Seungwon; Kim, Chang-Seok; Hong, Suck Won; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Han, Dong-Wook; Oh, Jin-Woo

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there have been tremendous efforts to develop the biofunctional scaffolds by incorporating various biochemical factors. In the present study, we fabricated poly(lactic- co -glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofiber sheets decorated with graphene oxide (GO) and RGD peptide. The decoration of GO and RGD peptide was readily achieved by using RGD peptide-displaying M13 bacteriophage (RGD-M13 phage) and electrospinning. Furthermore, the aligned GO-decorated PLGA/RGD peptide (GO-PLGA/RGD) ternary nanofiber sheets were prepared by magnetic field-assisted electrospinning, and their potentials as bifunctional scaffolds for facilitating myogenesis were explored. We characterized the physicochemical and mechanical properties of the sheets by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, and tensile test. In addition, the C2C12 skeletal myoblasts were cultured on the aligned GO-PLGA/RGD nanofiber sheets, and their cellular behaviors, including initial attachment, proliferation and myogenic differentiation, were evaluated. Our results revealed that the GO-PLGA/RGD nanofiber sheets had suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for supporting cell growth, and could significantly promote the spontaneous myogenic differentiation of C2C12 skeletal myoblasts. Moreover, it was revealed that the myogenic differentiation was further accelerated on the aligned GO-PLGA/RGD nanofiber sheets due to the synergistic effects of RGD peptide, GO and aligned nanofiber structure. Therefore, , it is suggested that the aligned GO-PLGA/RGD ternary nanofiber sheets are one of the most promising approaches for facilitating myogenesis and promoting skeletal tissue regeneration.

  17. Effectiveness of Emotion Recognition Training for Young Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Andrew; Strand, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a basic skill that is thought to facilitate development of social and emotional competence. There is little research available examining whether therapeutic or instructional interventions can improve the emotion recognition skill of young children with various developmental disabilities. Sixteen preschool children with…

  18. Transfer between pose and expression training in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenfeng; Liu, Chang Hong

    2009-02-01

    Prior research has shown that recognition of unfamiliar faces is susceptible to image variations due to pose and expression changes. However, little is known about how these variations on a new face are learnt and handled. We aimed to investigate whether exposures to one type of variation facilitate recognition in the untrained variation. In Experiment 1, faces were trained in multiple or single pose but were tested with a new expression. In Experiment 2, faces were trained in multiple or single expression but were tested in a new pose. We found that higher level of exposure to pose information facilitated recognition of the trained face in a new expression. However, multiple-expression training failed to transfer to a new pose. The findings suggest that generalisation of pose training may be extended to different types of variation whereas generalisation of expression training is largely confined within the trained type of variation.

  19. Support vector machines for prediction and analysis of beta and gamma-turns in proteins.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tho Hoan; Satou, Kenji; Ho, Tu Bao

    2005-04-01

    Tight turns have long been recognized as one of the three important features of proteins, together with alpha-helix and beta-sheet. Tight turns play an important role in globular proteins from both the structural and functional points of view. More than 90% tight turns are beta-turns and most of the rest are gamma-turns. Analysis and prediction of beta-turns and gamma-turns is very useful for design of new molecules such as drugs, pesticides, and antigens. In this paper we investigated two aspects of applying support vector machine (SVM), a promising machine learning method for bioinformatics, to prediction and analysis of beta-turns and gamma-turns. First, we developed two SVM-based methods, called BTSVM and GTSVM, which predict beta-turns and gamma-turns in a protein from its sequence. When compared with other methods, BTSVM has a superior performance and GTSVM is competitive. Second, we used SVMs with a linear kernel to estimate the support of amino acids for the formation of beta-turns and gamma-turns depending on their position in a protein. Our analysis results are more comprehensive and easier to use than the previous results in designing turns in proteins.

  20. Zif268/Egr1 gain of function facilitates hippocampal synaptic plasticity and long-term spatial recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Penke, Zsuzsa; Morice, Elise; Veyrac, Alexandra; Gros, Alexandra; Chagneau, Carine; LeBlanc, Pascale; Samson, Nathalie; Baumgärtel, Karsten; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2014-01-05

    It is well established that Zif268/Egr1, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, is critical for the consolidation of several forms of memory; however, it is as yet uncertain whether increasing expression of Zif268 in neurons can facilitate memory formation. Here, we used an inducible transgenic mouse model to specifically induce Zif268 overexpression in forebrain neurons and examined the effect on recognition memory and hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. We found that Zif268 overexpression during the establishment of memory for objects did not change the ability to form a long-term memory of objects, but enhanced the capacity to form a long-term memory of the spatial location of objects. This enhancement was paralleled by increased long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and by increased activity-dependent expression of Zif268 and selected Zif268 target genes. These results provide novel evidence that transcriptional mechanisms engaging Zif268 contribute to determining the strength of newly encoded memories.

  1. Early Stages of Microstructure and Texture Evolution during Beta Annealing of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilchak, A. L.; Sargent, G. A.; Semiatin, S. L.

    2018-03-01

    The early stages of microstructure evolution during annealing of Ti-6Al-4V in the beta phase field were established. For this purpose, a series of short-time heat treatments was performed using sheet samples that had a noticeable degree of alpha-phase microtexture in the as-received condition. Reconstruction of the beta-grain structure from electron-backscatter-diffraction measurements of the room-temperature alpha-phase texture revealed that microstructure evolution at short times was controlled not by general grain growth, but rather by nucleation-and-growth events analogous to discontinuous recrystallization. The nuclei comprised a small subset of beta grains that were highly misoriented relative to those comprising the principal texture component of the beta matrix. From a quantitative standpoint, the transformation kinetics were characterized by an Avrami exponent of approximately unity, thus suggestive of metadynamic recrystallization. The recrystallization process led to the weakening and eventual elimination of the initial beta texture through the growth of a population of highly misoriented grains.

  2. Dynamics of the last glacial maximum Antarctic ice-sheet and its response to ocean forcing

    PubMed Central

    Golledge, Nicholas R.; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Mackintosh, Andrew N.; Buckley, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Antarctic ice sheet is thought to have been initiated by changes in ocean heat and eustatic sea level propagated from the Northern Hemisphere (NH) as northern ice sheets melted under rising atmospheric temperatures. The extent to which spatial variability in ice dynamics may have modulated the resultant pattern and timing of decay of the Antarctic ice sheet has so far received little attention, however, despite the growing recognition that dynamic effects account for a sizeable proportion of mass-balance changes observed in modern ice sheets. Here we use a 5-km resolution whole-continent numerical ice-sheet model to assess whether differences in the mechanisms governing ice sheet flow could account for discrepancies between geochronological studies in different parts of the continent. We first simulate the geometry and flow characteristics of an equilibrium LGM ice sheet, using pan-Antarctic terrestrial and marine geological data for constraint, then perturb the system with sea level and ocean heat flux increases to investigate ice-sheet vulnerability. Our results identify that fast-flowing glaciers in the eastern Weddell Sea, the Amundsen Sea, central Ross Sea, and in the Amery Trough respond most rapidly to ocean forcings, in agreement with empirical data. Most significantly, we find that although ocean warming and sea-level rise bring about mainly localized glacier acceleration, concomitant drawdown of ice from neighboring areas leads to widespread thinning of entire glacier catchments—a discovery that has important ramifications for the dynamic changes presently being observed in modern ice sheets. PMID:22988078

  3. Dynamics of the last glacial maximum Antarctic ice-sheet and its response to ocean forcing.

    PubMed

    Golledge, Nicholas R; Fogwill, Christopher J; Mackintosh, Andrew N; Buckley, Kevin M

    2012-10-02

    Retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Antarctic ice sheet is thought to have been initiated by changes in ocean heat and eustatic sea level propagated from the Northern Hemisphere (NH) as northern ice sheets melted under rising atmospheric temperatures. The extent to which spatial variability in ice dynamics may have modulated the resultant pattern and timing of decay of the Antarctic ice sheet has so far received little attention, however, despite the growing recognition that dynamic effects account for a sizeable proportion of mass-balance changes observed in modern ice sheets. Here we use a 5-km resolution whole-continent numerical ice-sheet model to assess whether differences in the mechanisms governing ice sheet flow could account for discrepancies between geochronological studies in different parts of the continent. We first simulate the geometry and flow characteristics of an equilibrium LGM ice sheet, using pan-Antarctic terrestrial and marine geological data for constraint, then perturb the system with sea level and ocean heat flux increases to investigate ice-sheet vulnerability. Our results identify that fast-flowing glaciers in the eastern Weddell Sea, the Amundsen Sea, central Ross Sea, and in the Amery Trough respond most rapidly to ocean forcings, in agreement with empirical data. Most significantly, we find that although ocean warming and sea-level rise bring about mainly localized glacier acceleration, concomitant drawdown of ice from neighboring areas leads to widespread thinning of entire glacier catchments-a discovery that has important ramifications for the dynamic changes presently being observed in modern ice sheets.

  4. Breastfeeding experience differentially impacts recognition of happiness and anger in mothers.

    PubMed

    Krol, Kathleen M; Kamboj, Sunjeev K; Curran, H Valerie; Grossmann, Tobias

    2014-11-12

    Breastfeeding is a dynamic biological and social process based on hormonal regulation involving oxytocin. While there is much work on the role of breastfeeding in infant development and on the role of oxytocin in socio-emotional functioning in adults, little is known about how breastfeeding impacts emotion perception during motherhood. We therefore examined whether breastfeeding influences emotion recognition in mothers. Using a dynamic emotion recognition task, we found that longer durations of exclusive breastfeeding were associated with faster recognition of happiness, providing evidence for a facilitation of processing positive facial expressions. In addition, we found that greater amounts of breastfed meals per day were associated with slower recognition of anger. Our findings are in line with current views of oxytocin function and support accounts that view maternal behaviour as tuned to prosocial responsiveness, by showing that vital elements of maternal care can facilitate the rapid responding to affiliative stimuli by reducing importance of threatening stimuli.

  5. Facilitation of Learning by Social-Emotional Feedback in Humans Is Beta-Noradrenergic-Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihov, Yoan; Mayer, Simon; Musshoff, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Kendrick, Keith M.; Hurlemann, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in dynamic environments critically depends on the ability to learn rapidly and flexibly from the outcomes of prior choices. In social environments, facial expressions of emotion often serve as performance feedback and thereby guide declarative learning. Abundant evidence implicates beta-noradrenergic signaling in the modulatory…

  6. Amino Acid Distribution Rules Predict Protein Fold: Protein Grammar for Beta-Strand Sandwich-Like Structures

    PubMed Central

    Kister, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative approach to protein 3D folding prediction based on determination of rules that specify distribution of “favorable” residues, that are mainly responsible for a given fold formation, and “unfavorable” residues, that are incompatible with that fold, in polypeptide sequences. The process of determining favorable and unfavorable residues is iterative. The starting assumptions are based on the general principles of protein structure formation as well as structural features peculiar to a protein fold under investigation. The initial assumptions are tested one-by-one for a set of all known proteins with a given structure. The assumption is accepted as a “rule of amino acid distribution” for the protein fold if it holds true for all, or near all, structures. If the assumption is not accepted as a rule, it can be modified to better fit the data and then tested again in the next step of the iterative search algorithm, or rejected. We determined the set of amino acid distribution rules for a large group of beta sandwich-like proteins characterized by a specific arrangement of strands in two beta sheets. It was shown that this set of rules is highly sensitive (~90%) and very specific (~99%) for identifying sequences of proteins with specified beta sandwich fold structure. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it does not require that query proteins have a high degree of homology to proteins with known structure. So long as the query protein satisfies residue distribution rules, it can be confidently assigned to its respective protein fold. Another advantage of our approach is that it allows for a better understanding of which residues play an essential role in protein fold formation. It may, therefore, facilitate rational protein engineering design. PMID:25625198

  7. Relationship between listeners' nonnative speech recognition and categorization abilities

    PubMed Central

    Atagi, Eriko; Bent, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of the perceptual encoding of talker characteristics (indexical information) in speech can facilitate listeners' recognition of linguistic content. The present study explored this indexical-linguistic relationship in nonnative speech processing by examining listeners' performance on two tasks: nonnative accent categorization and nonnative speech-in-noise recognition. Results indicated substantial variability across listeners in their performance on both the accent categorization and nonnative speech recognition tasks. Moreover, listeners' accent categorization performance correlated with their nonnative speech-in-noise recognition performance. These results suggest that having more robust indexical representations for nonnative accents may allow listeners to more accurately recognize the linguistic content of nonnative speech. PMID:25618098

  8. High post-movement parietal low-beta power during rhythmic tapping facilitates performance in a stop task.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Petra; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Brown, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Voluntary movements are followed by a post-movement electroencephalography (EEG) beta rebound, which increases with practice and confidence in a task. We hypothesized that greater beta modulation reflects less load on cognitive resources and may thus be associated with faster reactions to new stimuli. EEG was recorded in 17 healthy subjects during rhythmically paced index finger tapping. In a STOP condition, participants had to interrupt the upcoming tap in response to an auditory cue, which was timed such that stopping was successful only in ~ 50% of all trials. In a second condition, participants carried on tapping twice after the stop signal (CONTINUE condition). Thus the conditions were distinct in whether abrupt stopping was required as a second task. Modulation of 12-20 Hz power over motor and parietal areas developed with time on each trial and more so in the CONTINUE condition. Reduced modulation in the STOP condition went along with reduced negative mean asynchronies suggesting less confident anticipation of the timing of the next tap. Yet participants were more likely to stop when beta modulation prior to the stop cue was more pronounced. In the STOP condition, expectancy of the stop signal may have increased cognitive load during movement execution given that the task might have to be stopped abruptly. However, within this condition, stopping ability was increased if the preceding tap was followed by a relatively larger beta increase. Significant, albeit weak, correlations confirmed that increased post-movement beta power was associated with faster reactions to new stimuli, consistent with reduced cognitive load. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. MOON for neutrino-less {beta}{beta} decays and {beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ejiri, H.

    2009-11-09

    The MOON project aims at spectroscopic 0v{beta}{beta} studies with the v-mass sensitivity of 100-30 meV by measuring two beta rays from {sup 100}Mo and/or {sup 82}Se. The detector is a compact super-module of multi-layer PL scintillator plates. R and D works made by the pro to-type MOON-1 and the small PL plate show the possible energy resolution of around {sigma}{approx}2.2%, as required for the mass sensitivity. Nuclear matrix elements M{sup 2v} for 2v{beta}{beta} are shown to be given by the sum {sigma}{sub L}M{sub k} of the 2v{beta}{beta} matrix elements M{sub k} through intermediate quasi-particle states in the Fermi-surface, where Mimore » is obtained experimentally by using the GT(J{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +}) matrix elements of M{sub i}(k) and M{sub f}(k) for the successive single-{beta} transitions through the k-th intermediate state.« less

  10. Characteristics of ion flow in the quiet state of the inner plasma sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelopoulos, V.; Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.; Pellat, R.; Spence, H. E.; Kivelson, M. G.; Walker, R. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    We use AMPTE/IRM and ISEE 2 data to study the properties of the high beta plasma sheet, the inner plasma sheet (IPS). Bursty bulk flows (BBFs) are excised from the two databases, and the average flow pattern in the non-BBF (quiet) IPS is constructed. At local midnight this ensemble-average flow is predominantly duskward; closer to the flanks it is mostly earthward. The flow pattern agrees qualitatively with calculations based on the Tsyganenko (1987) model (T87), where the earthward flow is due to the ensemble-average cross tail electric field and the duskward flow is the diamagnetic drift due to an inward pressure gradient. The IPS is on the average in pressure equilibrium with the lobes. Because of its large variance the average flow does not represent the instantaneous flow field. Case studies also show that the non-BBF flow is highly irregular and inherently unsteady, a reason why earthward convection can avoid a pressure balance inconsistency with the lobes. The ensemble distribution of velocities is a fundamental observable of the quiet plasma sheet flow field.

  11. An investigation into IgE-facilitated allergen recognition and presentation by human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergen recognition by dendritic cells (DCs) is a key event in the allergic cascade leading to production of IgE antibodies. C-type lectins, such as the mannose receptor and DC-SIGN, were recently shown to play an important role in the uptake of the house dust mite glycoallergen Der p 1 by DCs. In addition to mannose receptor (MR) and DC-SIGN the high and low affinity IgE receptors, namely FcϵRI and FcϵRII (CD23), respectively, have been shown to be involved in allergen uptake and presentation by DCs. Objectives This study aims at understanding the extent to which IgE- and IgG-facilitated Der p 1 uptake by DCs influence T cell polarisation and in particular potential bias in favour of Th2. We have addressed this issue by using two chimaeric monoclonal antibodies produced in our laboratory and directed against a previously defined epitope on Der p 1, namely human IgE 2C7 and IgG1 2C7. Results Flow cytometry was used to establish the expression patterns of IgE (FcϵRI and FcϵRII) and IgG (FcγRI) receptors in relation to MR on DCs. The impact of FcϵRI, FcϵRII, FcγRI and mannose receptor mediated allergen uptake on Th1/Th2 cell differentiation was investigated using DC/T cell co-culture experiments. Myeloid DCs showed high levels of FcϵRI and FcγRI expression, but low levels of CD23 and MR, and this has therefore enabled us to assess the role of IgE and IgG-facilitated allergen presentation in T cell polarisation with minimal interference by CD23 and MR. Our data demonstrate that DCs that have taken up Der p 1 via surface IgE support a Th2 response. However, no such effect was demonstrable via surface IgG. Conclusions IgE bound to its high affinity receptor plays an important role in Der p 1 uptake and processing by peripheral blood DCs and in Th2 polarisation of T cells. PMID:24330349

  12. An investigation into IgE-facilitated allergen recognition and presentation by human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Sharquie, Inas K; Al-Ghouleh, Abeer; Fitton, Patricia; Clark, Mike R; Armour, Kathryn L; Sewell, Herb F; Shakib, Farouk; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M

    2013-12-13

    Allergen recognition by dendritic cells (DCs) is a key event in the allergic cascade leading to production of IgE antibodies. C-type lectins, such as the mannose receptor and DC-SIGN, were recently shown to play an important role in the uptake of the house dust mite glycoallergen Der p 1 by DCs. In addition to mannose receptor (MR) and DC-SIGN the high and low affinity IgE receptors, namely FcεRI and FcεRII (CD23), respectively, have been shown to be involved in allergen uptake and presentation by DCs. This study aims at understanding the extent to which IgE- and IgG-facilitated Der p 1 uptake by DCs influence T cell polarisation and in particular potential bias in favour of Th2. We have addressed this issue by using two chimaeric monoclonal antibodies produced in our laboratory and directed against a previously defined epitope on Der p 1, namely human IgE 2C7 and IgG1 2C7. Flow cytometry was used to establish the expression patterns of IgE (FcεRI and FcεRII) and IgG (FcγRI) receptors in relation to MR on DCs. The impact of FcεRI, FcεRII, FcγRI and mannose receptor mediated allergen uptake on Th1/Th2 cell differentiation was investigated using DC/T cell co-culture experiments. Myeloid DCs showed high levels of FcεRI and FcγRI expression, but low levels of CD23 and MR, and this has therefore enabled us to assess the role of IgE and IgG-facilitated allergen presentation in T cell polarisation with minimal interference by CD23 and MR. Our data demonstrate that DCs that have taken up Der p 1 via surface IgE support a Th2 response. However, no such effect was demonstrable via surface IgG. IgE bound to its high affinity receptor plays an important role in Der p 1 uptake and processing by peripheral blood DCs and in Th2 polarisation of T cells.

  13. Usefulness of silicone elastomer sheet as another option of adhesion preventive material during craniectomies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon-Hyun; Cho, Do-Sang; Jin, Sung-Chul; Kim, Sung-Hak; Park, Dong-Been

    2007-10-01

    We describe the use of a silicone elastomer sheet (SILASTIC) to prevent peridural fibrosis in patients who underwent a craniectomy and a subsequent cranioplasty. We performed a decompressive craniectomy and a subsequent cranioplasty with an autologous bone flap in 50 patients (mean age, 40 years) between 1996 and 2005 at our institution. Most of the craniectomies were performed as an emergency procedure for relief of brain swelling. The standard decompressive craniectomy technique that we performed included bone removal and a duroplasty in 26 of the 50 patients, however, a SILASTIC sheet was added to the standard decompressive craniectomy in the remaining patients in an attempt to prevent dural adhesions. The development of adhesion formation between the tissue layers was evaluated during the cranioplasty in terms of operative time and the amount of blood loss. During the cranioplasty, we observed that the SILASTIC sheet succeeded in creating a controlled dissection plane, which facilitated access to the epidural space, shortened the operative time by approximately 24.8% and diminished the intraoperative blood loss by 37.9% as compared with the group of patients who underwent the standard cranioplasty. These differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). The use of a SILASTIC sheet to prevent peridural scarring and to facilitate cranioplasty in patients who have previously undergone a craniectomy is a good technique, regardless of the procedural indication.

  14. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets: PHP-c90

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education, Compliance and Assistance, Alternative Dispute Resolution Services provide the option of facilitated IEP (Individualized Education Program) meetings. This option is available for IEP, IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP…

  15. Custom-shaping system for bone regeneration by seeding marrow stromal cells onto a web-like biodegradable hybrid sheet.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Kohei; Mori, Taisuke; Chen, Guoping; Ushida, Takashi; Tateishi, Tetsuya; Matsuno, Takeo; Sakamoto, Michiie; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2004-05-01

    New bone for the repair or the restoration of the function of traumatized, damaged, or lost bone is a major clinical need, and bone tissue engineering has been heralded as an alternative strategy for regenerating bone. A novel web-like structured biodegradable hybrid sheet has been developed for bone tissue engineering by preparing knitted poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) sheets (PLGA sheets) with collagen microsponges in their openings. The PLGA skeleton facilitates the formation of the hybrid sheets into desired shapes, and the collagen microsponges in the pores of the PLGA sheet promote cell adhesion and uniform cell distribution throughout the sheet. A large number of osteoblasts established from marrow stroma adhere to the scaffolds and generate the desired-shaped bone in combination with these novel sheets. These results indicate that the web-like structured novel sheet shows promise for use as a tool for custom-shaped bone regeneration in basic research on osteogenesis and for the development of therapeutic applications. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  16. Periodontal regeneration with multi-layered periodontal ligament-derived cell sheets in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Takanori; Yamato, Masayuki; Tsuchioka, Hiroaki; Takagi, Ryo; Mukobata, Shigeki; Washio, Kaoru; Okano, Teruo; Ishikawa, Isao

    2009-05-01

    Periodontal regeneration has been challenged with chemical reagents and/or biological approaches, however, there is still no sufficient technique that can regenerate complete periodontium, including alveolar bone, cementum, and well-oriented collagen fibers. The purpose of this study was to examine multi-layered sheets of periodontal ligament (PDL)-derived cells for periodontal regeneration. Canine PDL cells were isolated enzymatically and expanded in vitro. The cell population contained cells capable of making single cell-derived colonies at an approximately 20% frequency. Expression of mRNA of periodontal marker genes, S100 calcium binding protein A4 and periostin, was observed. Alkaline phosphatase activity and gene expression of both osteoblastic/cementoblastic and periodontal markers were upregulated by osteoinductive medium. Then, three-layered PDL cell sheets supported with woven polyglycolic acid were transplanted to dental root surfaces having three-wall periodontal defects in an autologous manner, and bone defects were filled with porous beta-tricalcium phosphate. Cell sheet transplantation regenerated both new bone and cementum connecting with well-oriented collagen fibers, while only limited bone regeneration was observed in control group where cell sheet transplantation was eliminated. These results suggest that PDL cells have multiple differentiation properties to regenerate periodontal tissues comprising hard and soft tissues. PDL cell sheet transplantation should prove useful for periodontal regeneration in clinical settings.

  17. Production of beta-glucan and related glucan-hydrolases by Botryosphaeria rhodina.

    PubMed

    Crognale, S; Bruno, M; Fidaleo, M; Moresi, M; Petruccioli, M

    2007-03-01

    Characterization of beta-glucan production from Botryosphaeria rhodina DABAC-P82 by detecting simultaneously glucan-hydrolytic enzymes and their localization, culture medium rheology and oxygen transfer. Mycelium growth, beta-glucan production, substrate consumption and glucan-hydrolytic enzymes were monitored both in shaken flasks and in a 3-l stirred-tank bioreactor. Glucan production (19.7 and 15.2 g l(-1), in flask and bioreactor, respectively) was accompanied by extra-cellular and cell-bound beta-glucanase and beta-glucosidase activities. In the bioreactor scale, in the time interval of 0-78 h the apparent viscosity of the culture broth exhibited a general increase; thereafter, it began to reduce, probably because of the above glucan-hydrolytic activities. Moreover, the culture media collected after 45 h behaved as solid-like materials at shear rates smaller than 0.001 s(-1), as pseudo-plastic liquids in the middle shear rate range and as Newtonian ones at shear rates greater than 1000 s(-1). The greatest beta-glucan accumulation in the bioreactor was found to be associated with nitrogen and dissolved oxygen concentrations smaller than 0.15 g l(-1) and 25%, respectively, and with the peak points of the glucan-degrading enzymes. A careful analysis of the critical factors (such as, culture broth rheology, oxygen mass transfer and glucan-hydrolytic enzymes) limiting the beta-glucan production by B. rhodina is a prerequisite to maximize beta-glucan yield and production, as well as to define the process flow sheet capable of maximizing biopolymer recovery, solvent re-utilization and glucose consumption.

  18. Analysis of hydrophobic interactions of antagonists with the beta2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Novoseletsky, V N; Pyrkov, T V; Efremov, R G

    2010-01-01

    The adrenergic receptors mediate a wide variety of physiological responses, including vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, heart rate modulation, and others. Beta-adrenergic antagonists ('beta-blockers') thus constitute a widely used class of drugs in cardiovascular medicine as well as in management of anxiety, migraine, and glaucoma. The importance of the hydrophobic effect has been evidenced for a wide range of beta-blocker properties. To better understand the role of the hydrophobic effect in recognition of beta-blockers by their receptor, we carried out a molecular docking study combined with an original approach to estimate receptor-ligand hydrophobic interactions. The proposed method is based on automatic detection of molecular fragments in ligands and the analysis of their interactions with receptors separately. A series of beta-blockers, based on phenylethanolamines and phenoxypropanolamines, were docked to the beta2-adrenoceptor binding site in the crystal structure. Hydrophobic complementarity between the ligand and the receptor was calculated using the PLATINUM web-server (http://model.nmr.ru/platinum). Based on the analysis of the hydrophobic match for molecular fragments of beta-blockers, we have developed a new scoring function which efficiently predicts dissociation constant (pKd) with strong correlations (r(2) approximately 0.8) with experimental data.

  19. Secondary structure inducing potential of beta-amino acids: torsion angle clustering facilitates comparison and analysis of the conformation during MD trajectories.

    PubMed

    Guthöhrlein, E W; Malesević, M; Majer, Z; Sewald, N

    2007-01-01

    While numerous examples of beta-peptides--exclusively composed of beta-amino acids--have been investigated during the past decade, there are only few reports on the conformational preference of a single beta-amino acid when incorporated into a cyclopeptide. The conformational bias of beta-amino acids on the secondary structure of cyclopeptides has been investigated by NMR spectroscopy in combination with distance geometry (DG) and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations using experimental constraints. The atomic coordinate RMSD criterion usually employed for clustering of conformations after DG and MD calculations does not necessarily group similar peptide conformations, as there is an insufficient correlation between atomic coordinates and torsion angles. To improve on this shortcoming and to eliminate any arbitrary decisions during this process, a torsion angle clustering procedure has been implemented. For the cyclic pentapeptides cyclo-(-Val-beta-Hala-Phe-Leu-Ile-) 1 and cyclo-(-Ser-Pro-Leu-beta-Hasn-Asp-) 3, the beta-amino acid is found in the central position of an extended gamma-turn (pseudo gamma-turn, Psigamma-turn), while the beta-Hpro residue in the cyclic hexapeptide cyclo-(-Ser-beta-Hpro-Leu-Asn-Ile-Asp-) 5 preferentially occupies position i+1 of a pseudo beta-turn (Psibeta-turn). These results further corroborate the hypothesis of beta-amino acids being reliable inducers of secondary structure in cyclic penta- and hexapeptides. They can be employed in the de novo design of biologically active cyclopeptides in pharmaceutical research, since the three-dimensional presentation of pharmacophoric groups in the side chains can be tailored by incorporation of beta-amino acids in strategic sequential positions. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hydrogels constructed via self-assembly of beta-hairpin molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbas, Bulent

    There is a recent and growing interest in hydrogel materials that are formed via peptide self-assembly for tissue engineering applications. Peptide based materials are excellent candidates for diverse applications in biomedical field due to their responsive behavior and complex self-assembled structures. However, there is very limited information on the self-assembly and resultant network and mechanical properties of these types of hydrogels. The main goal of this dissertation is to investigate the self-assembly mechanism and viscoelastic properties of hydrogels that can be altered by changing solution conditions as well as the primary structure of the peptide. These hydrogels are formed via intramolecular folding and consequent self-assembly of 20 amino acid long beta-hairpin peptide molecules (Max1). The peptide molecules are locally amphiphilic with two linear strands of alternating hydrophobic valine and hydrophilic lysine amino acids connected with a Dproline-LProline turn sequence. Circular dichroism and FTIR spectroscopy show that at physiological conditions peptides are unfolded in the absence of salt. By raising the ionic strength of the solution electrostatic interactions between charged lysines are screened and the peptide arms are forced into a beta-sheet secondary structure stabilized by the turn sequence. These folded molecules intermolecularly assemble via hydrophobic collapse and hydrogen bonding into a three dimensional network. Folding and self-assembly of these molecules can also be triggered by increasing temperature and/or pH of the peptide solution. In addition, the random-coil to beta-sheet transition of the beta-hairpin peptides is pH and, with proper changes in the peptide sequence, thermally reversible. Rheological measurements demonstrate that the resultant supramolecular structure forms an elastic material, whose structure, and thus modulus, can be tuned by magnitude of the stimulus. Hydrogels recover their initial viscoelastic

  1. Detection of defects in formed sheet metal using medial axis transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmu, Naresh C.; Velgan, Roman

    2003-05-01

    In the metal forming processes, the sheet metals are often prone to various defects such as thinning, dents, wrinkles etc. In the present manufacturing environments with ever increasing demand of higher quality, detecting the defects of formed sheet metal using an effective and objective inspection system is the foremost norm to remain competitive in market. The defect detection using optical techniques aspire to satisfy its needs to be non-contact and fast. However, the main difficulties to achieve this goal remain essentially on the development of efficient evaluation technique and accurate interpretation of extracted data. The defect like thinning is detected by evaluating the deviations of the thickness in the formed sheet metal against its nominal value. The present evaluation procedure for determination of thickness applied on the measurements data is not without deficiency. To improve this procedure, a new evaluation approach based on medial axis transformation is proposed here. The formed sheet metals are digitized using fringe projection systems in different orientations, and afterwards registered into one coordinate frame. The medial axis transformation (MAT) is applied on the point clouds, generating the point clouds of MAT. This data is further processed and medial surface is determined. The thinning defect is detected by evaluating local wall thickness and other defects like wrinkles are determined using the shape recognition on the medial surface. The applied algorithm is simple, fast and robust.

  2. Structure and molecular dynamics simulation of archaeal prefoldin: the molecular mechanism for binding and recognition of nonnative substrate proteins.

    PubMed

    Ohtaki, Akashi; Kida, Hiroshi; Miyata, Yusuke; Ide, Naoki; Yonezawa, Akihiro; Arakawa, Takatoshi; Iizuka, Ryo; Noguchi, Keiichi; Kita, Akiko; Odaka, Masafumi; Miki, Kunio; Yohda, Masafumi

    2008-02-29

    Prefoldin (PFD) is a heterohexameric molecular chaperone complex in the eukaryotic cytosol and archaea with a jellyfish-like structure containing six long coiled-coil tentacles. PFDs capture protein folding intermediates or unfolded polypeptides and transfer them to group II chaperonins for facilitated folding. Although detailed studies on the mechanisms for interaction with unfolded proteins or cooperation with chaperonins of archaeal PFD have been performed, it is still unclear how PFD captures the unfolded protein. In this study, we determined the X-ray structure of Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 PFD (PhPFD) at 3.0 A resolution and examined the molecular mechanism for binding and recognition of nonnative substrate proteins by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and mutation analyses. PhPFD has a jellyfish-like structure with six long coiled-coil tentacles and a large central cavity. Each subunit has a hydrophobic groove at the distal region where an unfolded substrate protein is bound. During MD simulation at 330 K, each coiled coil was highly flexible, enabling it to widen its central cavity and capture various nonnative proteins. Docking MD simulation of PhPFD with unfolded insulin showed that the beta subunit is essentially involved in substrate binding and that the alpha subunit modulates the shape and width of the central cavity. Analyses of mutant PhPFDs with amino acid replacement of the hydrophobic residues of the beta subunit in the hydrophobic groove have shown that beta Ile107 has a critical role in forming the hydrophobic groove.

  3. Misfolded opsin mutants display elevated β -sheet structure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Miller, Lisa M.; Gragg, Megan; Kim, Tae Gyun

    Mutations in rhodopsin can cause misfolding and aggregation of the receptor, which leads to retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive retinal degenerative disease. The structure adopted by misfolded opsin mutants and the associated cell toxicity is poorly understood. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy were utilized to probe within cells the structures formed by G188R and P23H opsins, which are misfolding mutants that cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Also, both mutants formed aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum and exhibited altered secondary structure with elevated β-sheet and reduced α-helical content. The newly formed β-sheet structure may facilitate themore » aggregation of misfolded opsin mutants. In conclusion, the effects observed for the mutants were unrelated to retention of opsin molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum itself.« less

  4. Misfolded opsin mutants display elevated β -sheet structure

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, Lisa M.; Gragg, Megan; Kim, Tae Gyun; ...

    2015-09-07

    Mutations in rhodopsin can cause misfolding and aggregation of the receptor, which leads to retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive retinal degenerative disease. The structure adopted by misfolded opsin mutants and the associated cell toxicity is poorly understood. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy were utilized to probe within cells the structures formed by G188R and P23H opsins, which are misfolding mutants that cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Also, both mutants formed aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum and exhibited altered secondary structure with elevated β-sheet and reduced α-helical content. The newly formed β-sheet structure may facilitate themore » aggregation of misfolded opsin mutants. In conclusion, the effects observed for the mutants were unrelated to retention of opsin molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum itself.« less

  5. Exploring Biomolecular Recognition by Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Rebecca

    2007-12-01

    Biomolecular recognition is complex. The balance between the different molecular properties that contribute to molecular recognition, such as shape, electrostatics, dynamics and entropy, varies from case to case. This, along with the extent of experimental characterization, influences the choice of appropriate computational approaches to study biomolecular interactions. I will present computational studies in which we aim to make concerted use of bioinformatics, biochemical network modeling and molecular simulation techniques to study protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions and to facilitate computer-aided drug design.

  6. Facile and efficient electrochemical enantiomer recognition of phenylalanine using β-Cyclodextrin immobilized on reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Shabi Abbas

    2017-08-15

    This work demonstrates the facile and efficient preparation protocol of β-Cyclodextrin-reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (β-CD/RGO/GCE) sensor for an impressive chiral selectivity analysis for phenylalanine enantiomers. In this work, the immobilization of β-CD over graphene sheets allows the excellent enantiomer recognition due to the large surface area and high conductivity of graphene sheets and extraordinary supramolecular (host-guest interaction) property of β-CD. The proposed sensor was well characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The analytical studies demonstrated that the β-CD/RGO/GCE exhibit superior chiral recognition toward L-phenylalanine as compared to D-phenylalanine. Under optimum conditions, the developed sensor displayed a good linear range from 0.4 to 40µM with the limit of detection (LOD) values of 0.10µM and 0.15µM for l- and D-phenylalanine, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed sensor exhibits good stability and regeneration capacity. Thus, the as-synthesized material can be exploited for electrochemical enantiomer recognition successfully. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chiral discrimination in cyclodextrin complexes of amino acid derivatives: beta-cyclodextrin/N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine and N-acetyl-D-phenylalanine complexes.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jennifer M; Clark, Joanna L; Brett, Tom J; Stezowski, John J

    2002-04-16

    In a systematic study of molecular recognition of amino acid derivatives in solid-state beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) complexes, we have determined crystal structures for complexes of beta-cyclodextrin/N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine at 298 and 20 K and for N-acetyl-D-phenylalanine at 298 K. The crystal structures for the N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine complex present disordered inclusion complexes for which the distribution of guest molecules at room temperature is not resolvable; however, they can be located with considerable confidence at low temperature. In contrast, the complex with N-acetyl-D-phenylalanine is well ordered at room temperature. The latter complex presents an example of a complex in this series in which a water molecule is included deeply in the hydrophobic torus of the extended dimer host. In an effort to understand the mechanisms of molecular recognition giving rise to the dramatic differences in crystallographic order in these crystal structures, we have examined the intermolecular interactions in detail and have examined insertion of the enantiomer of the D-complex into the chiral beta-CD complex crystal lattice.

  8. Amyloid beta 25-35 impairs reconsolidation of object recognition memory in rats and this effect is prevented by lithium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ruíz, Yarummy; Carrillo-Mora, Paul

    2013-08-26

    Previous studies in transgenic mice models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have demonstrated an age dependent memory reconsolidation failure, suggesting that this may be an additional mechanism that contributes to the memory impairment observed in AD. However, so far it is unknown whether this effect can be caused by exogenous administration of amyloid beta (Aβ). The purpose was to determine the effects of soluble Aβ 25-35 on reconsolidation of object recognition memory (ORM) in rats, and assess whether these effects can be prevented by lithium carbonate (LiCa). In this study, male Wistar rats were used and the following groups were formed (N=6-13): (a) control, given saline solution; (b) [NMDA antagonist] MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg); (c) LiCa (350 mg/kg); (d) Aβ 25-35 (100 μM) injected into both hippocampi; and (e) Aβ 25-35+LiCa. In all cases, treatments were administered with or without reactivation of memory. The results showed that soluble Aβ 25-35 produces ORM impairment similar to MK-801 when given shortly after memory reactivation, and this effect is prevented by prior administration of LiCa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical properties of coated titanium Beta-21S after exposure to air at 700 and 800 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemann, Karl E.; Bird, R. Keith; Wallace, Terryl A.; Clark, Ronald K.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanical properties of Beta-21S (Ti-15Mo-3Al-2.7Nb-0.2Si, wt percent) with glass, aluminide, and glass-on-aluminide coatings less than 3-micron thick were studied. Coatings were deposited by sol-gel processing or electron-beam evaporation onto 4.5-mil (113-micron) thick Beta-21S sheet from which, after oxidizing in air at 700 or 800 C, tensile test specimens were machined. Plastic elongation was the most severely degraded of the tensile properties; the glass-on-aluminide coatings were the most effective in preventing degradation. It was found that oxygen trapping by forming oxides in the coating, and reactions between the coatings and the Beta-21S alloy played significant roles.

  10. Molecular Mechanism of Thioflavin-T Binding to the Surface of [beta]-Rich Peptide Self-Assemblies

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Biancalana, Matthew; Makabe, Koki; Koide, Akiko

    A number of small organic molecules have been developed that bind to amyloid fibrils, a subset of which also inhibit fibrillization. Among these, the benzothiol dye Thioflavin-T (ThT) has been used for decades in the diagnosis of protein-misfolding diseases and in kinetic studies of self-assembly (fibrillization). Despite its importance, efforts to characterize the ThT-binding mechanism at the atomic level have been hampered by the inherent insolubility and heterogeneity of peptide self-assemblies. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a minimalist approach to designing a ThT-binding site in a 'peptide self-assembly mimic' (PSAM) scaffold. PSAMs are engineered water-soluble proteins that mimicmore » a segment of beta-rich peptide self-assembly, and they are amenable to standard biophysical techniques and systematic mutagenesis. The PSAM beta-sheet contains rows of repetitive amino acid patterns running perpendicular to the strands (cross-strand ladders) that represent a ubiquitous structural feature of fibril-like surfaces. We successfully designed a ThT-binding site that recapitulates the hallmarks of ThT-fibril interactions by constructing a cross-strand ladder consisting of contiguous tyrosines. The X-ray crystal structures suggest that ThT interacts with the beta-sheet by docking onto surfaces formed by a single tyrosine ladder, rather than in the space between adjacent ladders. Systematic mutagenesis further demonstrated that tyrosine surfaces across four or more beta-strands formed the minimal binding site for ThT. Our work thus provides structural insights into how this widely used dye recognizes a prominent subset of peptide self-assemblies, and proposes a strategy to elucidate the mechanisms of fibril-ligand interactions.« less

  11. Familiarity facilitates feature-based face processing.

    PubMed

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Wheeler, Kelsey G; Cipolli, Carlo; Gobbini, M Ida

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of personally familiar faces is remarkably efficient, effortless and robust. We asked if feature-based face processing facilitates detection of familiar faces by testing the effect of face inversion on a visual search task for familiar and unfamiliar faces. Because face inversion disrupts configural and holistic face processing, we hypothesized that inversion would diminish the familiarity advantage to the extent that it is mediated by such processing. Subjects detected personally familiar and stranger target faces in arrays of two, four, or six face images. Subjects showed significant facilitation of personally familiar face detection for both upright and inverted faces. The effect of familiarity on target absent trials, which involved only rejection of unfamiliar face distractors, suggests that familiarity facilitates rejection of unfamiliar distractors as well as detection of familiar targets. The preserved familiarity effect for inverted faces suggests that facilitation of face detection afforded by familiarity reflects mostly feature-based processes.

  12. PLGA nanoparticles loaded with beta-lactoglobulin-derived peptides modulate mucosal immunity and may facilitate cow's milk allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Kostadinova, Atanaska I; Middelburg, Jim; Ciulla, Michele; Garssen, Johan; Hennink, Wim E; Knippels, Leon M J; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2018-01-05

    Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG)-derived peptides may facilitate oral tolerance to whey and prevent cow's milk allergy (CMA). Loading of BLG-peptides in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (Pep-NP) may improve this. Here we studied the uptake of NP and the capacity of NP and Pep-NP to activate bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDC). Furthermore, CMA prevention was evaluated by orally exposing three-week-old female C3H/HeOuJ mice to Pep-NP, NP or free peptides (PepMix) for 6 days before oral sensitization with whole whey protein and effects on the spleen and small intestine lamina propria (SI-LP) were studied. In BMDC, NP and Pep-NP enhanced CD40 expression and IL-6 and TNF-α secretion, while tended to decrease CD80 expression and prevented PepMix-induced IL-12 secretion. In vivo, oral exposure to Pep-NP, but not NP or PepMix, prior to whey sensitization tended to partially prevent the acute allergic skin response to whole whey protein. Splenocytes of NP-pre-exposed mice secreted increased levels of whey-specific IL-6, but this was silenced in Pep-NP-pre-exposed mice which also showed reduced TNF-α and IFN-γ secretion. In the SI-LP, Pep-NP pre-exposure reduced the CD4 + T cell frequency in CMA mice compared to PBS pre-exposure. In addition, while NP increased whey-specific IL-6 secretion in the SI-LP, Pep-NP did not and maintained regulatory TGF-β secretion. This study presents a proof-of-concept that PLGA nanoparticles facilitate the capacity of BLG peptides to suppress the allergic response to whole whey protein. Hence, PLGA nanoparticles may be further developed as an adjunct strategy for BLG-peptide-based oral tolerance induction and CMA prevention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural model of the amyloid fibril formed by beta(2)-microglobulin #21-31 fragment based on vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Hirotsugu; Goto, Yuji; Naiki, Hironobu; Kitagawa, Teizo

    2005-06-08

    A structural model of amyloid fibril formed by the #21-31 fragment of beta2-microglobulin is proposed from microscope IR measurements on specifically 13C-labeled peptide fibrils and Raman spectra of the dispersed fibril solution. The 13C-shifted amide frequency indicated the secondary structure of the labeled residues. The IR spectra have demonstrated that the region between F22 and V27 forms the core part with the extended beta-sheet structure. Raman spectra indicated the formation of a dimer with a disulfide bridge between C25 residues.

  14. A multistream model of visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Allen, Philip A; Smith, Albert F; Lien, Mei-Ching; Kaut, Kevin P; Canfield, Angie

    2009-02-01

    Four experiments are reported that test a multistream model of visual word recognition, which associates letter-level and word-level processing channels with three known visual processing streams isolated in macaque monkeys: the magno-dominated (MD) stream, the interblob-dominated (ID) stream, and the blob-dominated (BD) stream (Van Essen & Anderson, 1995). We show that mixing the color of adjacent letters of words does not result in facilitation of response times or error rates when the spatial-frequency pattern of a whole word is familiar. However, facilitation does occur when the spatial-frequency pattern of a whole word is not familiar. This pattern of results is not due to different luminance levels across the different-colored stimuli and the background because isoluminant displays were used. Also, the mixed-case, mixed-hue facilitation occurred when different display distances were used (Experiments 2 and 3), so this suggests that image normalization can adjust independently of object size differences. Finally, we show that this effect persists in both spaced and unspaced conditions (Experiment 4)--suggesting that inappropriate letter grouping by hue cannot account for these results. These data support a model of visual word recognition in which lower spatial frequencies are processed first in the more rapid MD stream. The slower ID and BD streams may process some lower spatial frequency information in addition to processing higher spatial frequency information, but these channels tend to lose the processing race to recognition unless the letter string is unfamiliar to the MD stream--as with mixed-case presentation.

  15. The first armadillo repeat is involved in the recognition and regulation of beta-catenin phosphorylation by protein kinase CK1.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Victor H; Ferrarese, Anna; Venerando, Andrea; Marin, Oriano; Allende, Jorge E; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2006-12-26

    Multiple phosphorylation of beta-catenin by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in the Wnt pathway is primed by CK1 through phosphorylation of Ser-45, which lacks a typical CK1 canonical sequence. Synthetic peptides encompassing amino acids 38-64 of beta-catenin are phosphorylated by CK1 on Ser-45 with low affinity (K(m) approximately 1 mM), whereas intact beta-catenin is phosphorylated at Ser-45 with very high affinity (K(m) approximately 200 nM). Peptides extended to include a putative CK1 docking motif (FXXXF) at 70-74 positions or a F74AA mutation in full-length beta-catenin had no significant effect on CK1 phosphorylation efficiency. beta-Catenin C-terminal deletion mutants up to residue 181 maintained their high affinity, whereas removal of the 131-181 fragment, corresponding to the first armadillo repeat, was deleterious, resulting in a 50-fold increase in K(m) value. Implication of the first armadillo repeat in beta-catenin targeting by CK1 is supported in that the Y142E mutation, which mimics phosphorylation of Tyr-142 by tyrosine kinases and promotes dissociation of beta-catenin from alpha-catenin, further improves CK1 phosphorylation efficiency, lowering the K(m) value to <50 nM, approximating the physiological concentration of beta-catenin. In contrast, alpha-catenin, which interacts with the N-terminal region of beta-catenin, prevents Ser-45 phosphorylation of CK1 in a dose-dependent manner. Our data show that the integrity of the N-terminal region and the first armadillo repeat are necessary and sufficient for high-affinity phosphorylation by CK1 of Ser-45. They also suggest that beta-catenin association with alpha-catenin and beta-catenin phosphorylation by CK1 at Ser-45 are mutually exclusive.

  16. Can corrective feedback improve recognition memory?

    PubMed

    Kantner, Justin; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2010-06-01

    An understanding of the effects of corrective feedback on recognition memory can inform both recognition theory and memory training programs, but few published studies have investigated the issue. Although the evidence to date suggests that feedback does not improve recognition accuracy, few studies have directly examined its effect on sensitivity, and fewer have created conditions that facilitate a feedback advantage by encouraging controlled processing at test. In Experiment 1, null effects of feedback were observed following both deep and shallow encoding of categorized study lists. In Experiment 2, feedback robustly influenced response bias by allowing participants to discern highly uneven base rates of old and new items, but sensitivity remained unaffected. In Experiment 3, a false-memory procedure, feedback failed to attenuate false recognition of critical lures. In Experiment 4, participants were unable to use feedback to learn a simple category rule separating old items from new items, despite the fact that feedback was of substantial benefit in a nearly identical categorization task. The recognition system, despite a documented ability to utilize controlled strategic or inferential decision-making processes, appears largely impenetrable to a benefit of corrective feedback.

  17. Electrophoretic deposition of fluorescent Cu and Au sheets for light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiale; Wu, Zhennan; Li, Tingting; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Kai; Sheng, Yu; Cui, Jianli; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2015-12-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a conventional method for fabricating film materials from nanometer-sized building blocks, and exhibits the advantages of low-cost, high-efficiency, wide-range thickness adjustment, and uniform deposition. Inspired by the interest in the application of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, the EPD technique has been recently extended to building blocks with 2D features. However, the studies are mainly focused on simplex building blocks. The utilization of multiplex building blocks is rarely reported. In this work, we demonstrate a controlled EPD of Cu and Au sheets, which are 2D assemblies of luminescent Cu and Au nanoclusters. Systematic investigations reveal that both the deposition efficiency and the thickness are determined by the lateral size of the sheets. For Cu sheets with a large lateral size, a high ζ-potential and strong face-to-face van der Waals interactions facilitate the deposition with high efficiency. However, for Au sheets, the small lateral size and ζ-potential limit the formation of a thick film. To solve this problem, the deposition dynamics are controlled by increasing the concentration of the Au sheets and adding acetone. This understanding permits the fabrication of a binary EPD film by the stepwise deposition of Cu and Au sheets, thus producing a luminescent film with both Cu green emission and Au red emission. A white light-emitting diode prototype with color coordinates (x, y) = (0.31, 0.36) is fabricated by employing the EPD film as a color conversion layer on a 365 nm GaN clip and further tuning the amount of deposited Cu and Au sheets.Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a conventional method for fabricating film materials from nanometer-sized building blocks, and exhibits the advantages of low-cost, high-efficiency, wide-range thickness adjustment, and uniform deposition. Inspired by the interest in the application of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, the EPD technique has been recently extended to

  18. Property Criteria for Automotive Al-Mg-Si Sheet Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Prillhofer, Ramona; Rank, Gunther; Berneder, Josef; Antrekowitsch, Helmut; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Pogatscher, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, property criteria for automotive Al-Mg-Si sheet alloys are outlined and investigated in the context of commercial alloys AA6016, AA6005A, AA6063 and AA6013. The parameters crucial to predicting forming behavior were determined by tensile tests, bending tests, cross-die tests, hole-expansion tests and forming limit curve analysis in the pre-aged temper after various storage periods following sheet production. Roping tests were performed to evaluate surface quality, for the deployment of these alloys as an outer panel material. Strength in service was also tested after a simulated paint bake cycle of 20 min at 185 °C, and the corrosion behavior was analyzed. The study showed that forming behavior is strongly dependent on the type of alloy and that it is influenced by the storage period after sheet production. Alloy AA6016 achieves the highest surface quality, and pre-ageing of alloy AA6013 facilitates superior strength in service. Corrosion behavior is good in AA6005A, AA6063 and AA6016, and only AA6013 shows a strong susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. The results are discussed below with respect to the chemical composition, microstructure and texture of the Al-Mg-Si alloys studied, and decision-making criteria for appropriate automotive sheet alloys for specific applications are presented. PMID:28788119

  19. Hypertrophic stimulation increases beta-actin dynamics in adult feline cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Mani, Santhosh K; Kasiganesan, Harinath; Baicu, Catalin C; Kuppuswamy, Dhandapani

    2010-07-12

    The myocardium responds to hemodynamic stress through cellular growth and organ hypertrophy. The impact of cytoskeletal elements on this process, however, is not fully understood. While alpha-actin in cardiomyocytes governs muscle contraction in combination with the myosin motor, the exact role of beta-actin has not been established. We hypothesized that in adult cardiomyocytes, as in non-myocytes, beta-actin can facilitate cytoskeletal rearrangement within cytoskeletal structures such as Z-discs. Using a feline right ventricular pressure overload (RVPO) model, we measured the level and distribution of beta-actin in normal and pressure overloaded myocardium. Resulting data demonstrated enriched levels of beta-actin and enhanced translocation to the Triton-insoluble cytoskeletal and membrane skeletal complexes. In addition, RVPO in vivo and in vitro hypertrophic stimulation with endothelin (ET) or insulin in isolated adult cardiomyocytes enhanced the content of polymerized fraction (F-actin) of beta-actin. To determine the localization and dynamics of beta-actin, we adenovirally expressed GFP-tagged beta-actin in isolated adult cardiomyocytes. The ectopically expressed beta-actin-GFP localized to the Z-discs, costameres, and cell termini. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) measurements of beta-actin dynamics revealed that beta-actin at the Z-discs is constantly being exchanged with beta-actin from cytoplasmic pools and that this exchange is faster upon hypertrophic stimulation with ET or insulin. In addition, in electrically stimulated isolated adult cardiomyocytes, while beta-actin overexpression improved cardiomyocyte contractility, immunoneutralization of beta-actin resulted in a reduced contractility suggesting that beta-actin could be important for the contractile function of adult cardiomyocytes. These studies demonstrate the presence and dynamics of beta-actin in the adult cardiomyocyte and reinforce its usefulness in measuring cardiac

  20. Calmodulin-dependent gating of Ca(v)1.2 calcium channels in the absence of Ca(v)beta subunits.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Arippa; Lao, Qi Zong; Harry, Jo Beth; Abrahimi, Parwiz; Kobrinsky, Evgeny; Soldatov, Nikolai M

    2008-06-10

    It is generally accepted that to generate calcium currents in response to depolarization, Ca(v)1.2 calcium channels require association of the pore-forming alpha(1C) subunit with accessory Ca(v)beta and alpha(2)delta subunits. A single calmodulin (CaM) molecule is tethered to the C-terminal alpha(1C)-LA/IQ region and mediates Ca2+-dependent inactivation of the channel. Ca(v)beta subunits are stably associated with the alpha(1C)-interaction domain site of the cytoplasmic linker between internal repeats I and II and also interact dynamically, in a Ca2+-dependent manner, with the alpha(1C)-IQ region. Here, we describe a surprising discovery that coexpression of exogenous CaM (CaM(ex)) with alpha(1C)/alpha(2)delta in COS1 cells in the absence of Ca(v)beta subunits stimulates the plasma membrane targeting of alpha(1C), facilitates calcium channel gating, and supports Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Neither real-time PCR with primers complementary to monkey Ca(v)beta subunits nor coimmunoprecipitation analysis with exogenous alpha(1C) revealed an induction of endogenous Ca(v)beta subunits that could be linked to the effect of CaM(ex). Coexpression of a calcium-insensitive CaM mutant CaM(1234) also facilitated gating of Ca(v)beta-free Ca(v)1.2 channels but did not support Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Our results show there is a functional matchup between CaM(ex) and Ca(v)beta subunits that, in the absence of Ca(v)beta, renders Ca2+ channel gating facilitated by CaM molecules other than the one tethered to LA/IQ to support Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Thus, coexpression of CaM(ex) creates conditions when the channel gating, voltage- and Ca2+-dependent inactivation, and plasma-membrane targeting occur in the absence of Ca(v)beta. We suggest that CaM(ex) affects specific Ca(v)beta-free conformations of the channel that are not available to endogenous CaM.

  1. Image quality assessment for video stream recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, Timofey S.; Razumnuy, Nikita P.; Kozharinov, Alexander S.; Nikolaev, Dmitry P.; Arlazarov, Vladimir V.

    2018-04-01

    Recognition and machine vision systems have long been widely used in many disciplines to automate various processes of life and industry. Input images of optical recognition systems can be subjected to a large number of different distortions, especially in uncontrolled or natural shooting conditions, which leads to unpredictable results of recognition systems, making it impossible to assess their reliability. For this reason, it is necessary to perform quality control of the input data of recognition systems, which is facilitated by modern progress in the field of image quality evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the approach to designing optical recognition systems with built-in input image quality estimation modules and feedback, for which the necessary definitions are introduced and a model for describing such systems is constructed. The efficiency of this approach is illustrated by the example of solving the problem of selecting the best frames for recognition in a video stream for a system with limited resources. Experimental results are presented for the system for identity documents recognition, showing a significant increase in the accuracy and speed of the system under simulated conditions of automatic camera focusing, leading to blurring of frames.

  2. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human erythrocyte beta-spectrin.

    PubMed Central

    Prchal, J T; Morley, B J; Yoon, S H; Coetzer, T L; Palek, J; Conboy, J G; Kan, Y W

    1987-01-01

    Spectrin is an important structural component of the membrane skeleton that underlies and supports the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It is composed of nonidentical alpha (Mr 240,000) and beta (Mr 220,000) subunits, each of which contains multiple homologous 106-amino acid segments. We report here the isolation and characterization of a human erythroid-specific beta-spectrin cDNA clone that encodes parts of the beta-9 through beta-12 repeat segments. This cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to assign the beta-spectrin gene to human chromosome 14 and to begin molecular analysis of the gene and its mRNA transcripts. RNA transfer blot analysis showed that the reticulocyte beta-spectrin mRNA is 7.8 kilobases in length. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA revealed the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) within the beta-spectrin gene locus. The isolation of human spectrin cDNA probes and the identification of closely linked RFLPs will facilitate analysis of mutant spectrin genes causing congenital hemolytic anemias associated with quantitative and qualitative spectrin abnormalities. Images PMID:3478706

  3. Collaboration in Associative Recognition Memory: Using Recalled Information to Defend "New" Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Steven E.; Abbe, Allison; Larson, Rakel P.

    2006-01-01

    S. E. Clark, A. Hori, A. Putnam, and T. J. Martin (2000) showed that collaboration on a recognition memory task produced facilitation in recognition of targets but had inconsistent and sometimes negative effects regarding distractors. They accounted for these results within the framework of a dual-process, recall-plus-familiarity model but…

  4. Business and Education Transition Alliance (BETA): Opening Doors to Career Opportunities for At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, Phillip

    1996-01-01

    The Business and Education Transition Alliance (BETA) is a model school-to-work transition program that was developed to facilitate the school-to-work transition of at-risk youth in the Boulder Valley School District in Colorado. Among the BETA program's specific goals are the following: increase students' knowledge/understanding of demands of the…

  5. The 3-D description of vertical current sheets with application to solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Davis, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Following a brief review of the processes which have been suggested for explaining the occurrence of solar flares we suggest a new scenario which builds on the achievements of the previous suggestion that the current sheets, which develop naturally in 3-D cases with gravity from impacting independent magnetic structures (i.e., approaching current systems), do not consist of horizontal currents but are instead predominantly vertical current systems. This suggestion is based on the fact that as the subphotospheric sources of the magnetic field displace the upper photosphere and lower chromosphere regions, where plasma beta is near unity, will experience predominantly horizontal mass motions which will lead to a distorted 3-D configurations of the magnetic field having stored free energy. In our scenario, a vertically flowing current sheet separates the plasma regions associated with either of the subphotospheric sources. This reflects the balanced tension of the two stressed fields which twist around each other. This leads naturally to a metastable or unstable situation as the twisted field emerges into a low beta region where vertical motions are not inhibited by gravity. In our flare scenario the impulsive energy release occurs, initially, not by reconnection but mainly by the rapid change of the magnetic field which has become unstable. During the impulsive phase the field lines contort in such way as to realign the electric current sheet into a minimum energy horizontal flow. This contortion produces very large electric fields which will accelerate particles. As the current evolves to a horizontal configuration the magnetic field expands vertically, which can be accompanied by eruptions of material. The instability of a horizontal current is well known and causes the magnetic field to undergo a rapid outward expansion. In our scenario, fast reconnection is not necessary to trigger the flare, however, slow reconnection would occur continuously in the current layer

  6. Iris Recognition Using Feature Extraction of Box Counting Fractal Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotimah, C.; Juniati, D.

    2018-01-01

    Biometrics is a science that is now growing rapidly. Iris recognition is a biometric modality which captures a photo of the eye pattern. The markings of the iris are distinctive that it has been proposed to use as a means of identification, instead of fingerprints. Iris recognition was chosen for identification in this research because every human has a special feature that each individual is different and the iris is protected by the cornea so that it will have a fixed shape. This iris recognition consists of three step: pre-processing of data, feature extraction, and feature matching. Hough transformation is used in the process of pre-processing to locate the iris area and Daugman’s rubber sheet model to normalize the iris data set into rectangular blocks. To find the characteristics of the iris, it was used box counting method to get the fractal dimension value of the iris. Tests carried out by used k-fold cross method with k = 5. In each test used 10 different grade K of K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The result of iris recognition was obtained with the best accuracy was 92,63 % for K = 3 value on K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) method.

  7. Food-Induced Emotional Resonance Improves Emotion Recognition.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Elisa; Sacripante, Riccardo; Cardini, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    The effect of food substances on emotional states has been widely investigated, showing, for example, that eating chocolate is able to reduce negative mood. Here, for the first time, we have shown that the consumption of specific food substances is not only able to induce particular emotional states, but more importantly, to facilitate recognition of corresponding emotional facial expressions in others. Participants were asked to perform an emotion recognition task before and after eating either a piece of chocolate or a small amount of fish sauce-which we expected to induce happiness or disgust, respectively. Our results showed that being in a specific emotional state improves recognition of the corresponding emotional facial expression. Indeed, eating chocolate improved recognition of happy faces, while disgusted expressions were more readily recognized after eating fish sauce. In line with the embodied account of emotion understanding, we suggest that people are better at inferring the emotional state of others when their own emotional state resonates with the observed one.

  8. Food-Induced Emotional Resonance Improves Emotion Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfi, Elisa; Sacripante, Riccardo; Cardini, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    The effect of food substances on emotional states has been widely investigated, showing, for example, that eating chocolate is able to reduce negative mood. Here, for the first time, we have shown that the consumption of specific food substances is not only able to induce particular emotional states, but more importantly, to facilitate recognition of corresponding emotional facial expressions in others. Participants were asked to perform an emotion recognition task before and after eating either a piece of chocolate or a small amount of fish sauce—which we expected to induce happiness or disgust, respectively. Our results showed that being in a specific emotional state improves recognition of the corresponding emotional facial expression. Indeed, eating chocolate improved recognition of happy faces, while disgusted expressions were more readily recognized after eating fish sauce. In line with the embodied account of emotion understanding, we suggest that people are better at inferring the emotional state of others when their own emotional state resonates with the observed one. PMID:27973559

  9. Mechanism of mismatch recognition revealed by human MutS[beta] bound to unpaired DNA loops

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gupta, Shikha; Gellert, Martin; Yang, Wei

    2012-04-17

    DNA mismatch repair corrects replication errors, thus reducing mutation rates and microsatellite instability. Genetic defects in this pathway cause Lynch syndrome and various cancers in humans. Binding of a mispaired or unpaired base by bacterial MutS and eukaryotic MutS{alpha} is well characterized. We report here crystal structures of human MutS{beta} in complex with DNA containing insertion-deletion loops (IDL) of two, three, four or six unpaired nucleotides. In contrast to eukaryotic MutS{alpha} and bacterial MutS, which bind the base of a mismatched nucleotide, MutS{beta} binds three phosphates in an IDL. DNA is severely bent at the IDL; unpaired bases are flippedmore » out into the major groove and partially exposed to solvent. A normal downstream base pair can become unpaired; a single unpaired base can thereby be converted to an IDL of two nucleotides and recognized by MutS{beta}. The C-terminal dimerization domains form an integral part of the MutS structure and coordinate asymmetrical ATP hydrolysis by Msh2 and Msh3 with mismatch binding to signal for repair.« less

  10. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T. V.; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R.; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B.

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly ( P < 0.05) higher during the thermal stress. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the expression of ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated ( P < 0.01) with HSP70, representing that the change in the expression pattern of these genes is positive and synergistic. These may provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  11. Separation of drug stereoisomers by the formation of. beta. -cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Armstrong, D.W.; Ward, T.J.; Armstrong, R.D.

    For many drugs, only racemic mixtures are available for clinical use. Because different stereoisomers of drugs often cause different physiological responses, the use of pure isomers could elicit more exact therapeutic effects. Differential complexation of a variety of drug stereoisomers by immobilized ..beta..-cyclodextrin was investigated. Chiral recognition and racemic resolution were observed with a number of compounds from such clinically useful classes as ..beta..-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, sedative hypnotics, antihistamines, anticonvulsants, diuretics, and synthetic opiates. Separation of the diastereomers of the cardioactive and antimalarial cinchona alkaloids and of two antiestrogens was demonstrated as well. Three dimensional projections of ..beta..-cyclodextrin complexes ofmore » propanol, which is resolved by this technique, and warfarin, which is not, are compared. These studies have improved the understanding and application of the chiral interactions of ..beta..-cyclodextrin, and they have demonstrated a means to measure optical purity and to isolate or produce pure enantiomers of drugs. In addition, this highly specific technique could also be used in the pharmacological evaluation of enantiometric drugs. 27 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.« less

  12. Visual-Motor Symbol Production Facilitates Letter Recognition in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemlock, Deborah; Vinci-Booher, Sophia; James, Karin H.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that handwriting letters may be an important exerciser to facilitate early letter understanding. Experimental studies to date, however, have not investigated whether this effect is general to any visual-motor experience or specific to handwriting letters. In the present work, we addressed this issue by testing…

  13. Activation of beta-major globin gene transcription is associated with recruitment of NF-E2 to the beta-globin LCR and gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Sawado, T; Igarashi, K; Groudine, M

    2001-08-28

    The mouse beta-globin gene locus control region (LCR), located upstream of the beta-globin gene cluster, is essential for the activated transcription of genes in the cluster. The LCR contains multiple binding sites for transactivators, including Maf-recognition elements (MAREs). However, little is known about the specific proteins that bind to these sites or the time at which they bind during erythroid differentiation. We have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments to determine the recruitment of the erythroid-specific transactivator p45 NF-E2/MafK (p18 NF-E2) heterodimer and small Maf proteins to various regions in the globin gene locus before and after the induction of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cell differentiation. We report that, before induction, the LCR is occupied by small Maf proteins, and, on erythroid maturation, the NF-E2 complex is recruited to the LCR and the active globin promoters, even though the promoters do not contain MAREs. This differentiation-coupled recruitment of NF-E2 complex correlates with a greater than 100-fold increase in beta-major globin transcription, but is not associated with a significant change in locus-wide histone H3 acetylation. These findings suggest that the beta-globin gene locus exists in a constitutively open chromatin conformation before terminal differentiation, and we speculate that recruitment of NF-E2 complex to the LCR and active promoters may be a rate-limiting step in the activation of beta-globin gene expression.

  14. Role of IL-1 beta and 5-HT2 receptors in midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in potentiating defensive rage behavior in cat.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Suresh; Bhatt, Rekha; Zalcman, Steven S; Siegel, Allan

    2008-02-01

    Feline defensive rage, a form of aggressive behavior that occurs in response to a threat can be elicited by electrical stimulation of the medial hypothalamus or midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Our laboratory has recently begun a systematic examination of the role of cytokines in the regulation of rage and aggressive behavior. It was shown that the cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), differentially modulates defensive rage when microinjected into the medial hypothalamus and PAG by acting through separate neurotransmitter systems. The present study sought to determine whether a similar relationship exists with respect to interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 beta), whose receptor activation in the medial hypothalamus potentiates defensive rage. Thus, the present study identified the effects of administration of IL-1 beta into the PAG upon defensive rage elicited from the medial hypothalamus. Microinjections of IL-1 beta into the dorsal PAG significantly facilitated defensive rage behavior elicited from the medial hypothalamus in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, the facilitative effects of IL-1 beta were blocked by pre-treatment with anti-IL-1 beta receptor antibody, while IL-1 beta administration into the PAG had no effect upon predatory attack elicited from the lateral hypothalamus. The findings further demonstrated that IL-1 beta's effects were mediated through 5-HT(2) receptors since pretreatment with a 5-HT(2C) receptors antagonist blocked the facilitating effects of IL-1 beta. An extensive pattern of labeling of IL-1 beta and 5-HT(2C) receptors in the dorsal PAG supported these findings. The present study demonstrates that IL-beta in the dorsal PAG, similar to the medial hypothalamus, potentiates defensive rage behavior and is mediated through a 5-HT(2C) receptor mechanism.

  15. The Role of Active Exploration of 3D Face Stimuli on Recognition Memory of Facial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chang Hong; Ward, James; Markall, Helena

    2007-01-01

    Research on face recognition has mainly relied on methods in which observers are relatively passive viewers of face stimuli. This study investigated whether active exploration of three-dimensional (3D) face stimuli could facilitate recognition memory. A standard recognition task and a sequential matching task were employed in a yoked design.…

  16. Sequence inversion and phenylalanine surrogates at the beta-turn enhance the antibiotic activity of gramicidin S.

    PubMed

    Solanas, Concepción; de la Torre, Beatriz G; Fernández-Reyes, María; Santiveri, Clara M; Jiménez, M Angeles; Rivas, Luis; Jiménez, Ana I; Andreu, David; Cativiela, Carlos

    2010-05-27

    A series of gramicidin S (GS) analogues have been synthesized where the Phe (i + 1) and Pro (i + 2) residues of the beta-turn have been swapped while the respective chiralities (D-, L-) at each position are preserved, and Phe is replaced by surrogates with aromatic side chains of diverse size, orientation, and flexibility. Although most analogues preserve the beta-sheet structure, as assessed by NMR, their antibiotic activities turn out to be highly dependent on the bulkiness and spatial arrangement of the aromatic side chain. Significant increases in microbicidal potency against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens are observed for several analogues, resulting in improved therapeutic profiles. Data indicate that seemingly minor replacements at the GS beta-turn can have significant impact on antibiotic activity, highlighting this region as a hot spot for modulating GS plasticity and activity.

  17. Imaging multicellular specimens with real-time optimized tiling light-sheet selective plane illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qinyi; Martin, Benjamin L.; Matus, David Q.; Gao, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the progress made in selective plane illumination microscopy, high-resolution 3D live imaging of multicellular specimens remains challenging. Tiling light-sheet selective plane illumination microscopy (TLS-SPIM) with real-time light-sheet optimization was developed to respond to the challenge. It improves the 3D imaging ability of SPIM in resolving complex structures and optimizes SPIM live imaging performance by using a real-time adjustable tiling light sheet and creating a flexible compromise between spatial and temporal resolution. We demonstrate the 3D live imaging ability of TLS-SPIM by imaging cellular and subcellular behaviours in live C. elegans and zebrafish embryos, and show how TLS-SPIM can facilitate cell biology research in multicellular specimens by studying left-right symmetry breaking behaviour of C. elegans embryos. PMID:27004937

  18. Facilitated receptor-recognition and enhanced bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite surface

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Tong; Ding, Sai; Zhang, Wenjing; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial surface functionalized with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a promising approach to fabricating successful orthopedic implants/scaffolds. However, the bioactivity of BMP-2 on material surfaces is still far from satisfactory and the mechanism of related protein-surface interaction remains elusive. Based on the most widely used bone-implants/scaffolds material, hydroxyapatite (HAP), we developed a matrix of magnesium-substituted HAP (Mg-HAP, 2.2 at% substitution) to address these issues. Further, we investigated the adsorption dynamics, BMPRs-recruitment, and bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. To elucidate the mechanism, molecular dynamic simulations were performed to calculate the preferred orientations, conformation changes, and cysteine-knot stabilities of adsorbed BMP-2 molecules. The results showed that rhBMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface exhibited greater bioactivity, evidenced by more facilitated BMPRs-recognition and higher ALP activity than on the HAP surface. Moreover, molecular simulations indicated that BMP-2 favoured distinct side-on orientations on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. Intriguingly, BMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface largely preserved the active protein structure evidenced by more stable cysteine-knots than on the HAP surface. These findings explicitly clarify the mechanism of BMP-2-HAP/Mg-HAP interactions and highlight the promising application of Mg-HAP/BMP-2 matrixes in bone regeneration implants/scaffolds. PMID:27075233

  19. Facilitated receptor-recognition and enhanced bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Tong; Ding, Sai; Zhang, Wenjing; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-04-01

    Biomaterial surface functionalized with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a promising approach to fabricating successful orthopedic implants/scaffolds. However, the bioactivity of BMP-2 on material surfaces is still far from satisfactory and the mechanism of related protein-surface interaction remains elusive. Based on the most widely used bone-implants/scaffolds material, hydroxyapatite (HAP), we developed a matrix of magnesium-substituted HAP (Mg-HAP, 2.2 at% substitution) to address these issues. Further, we investigated the adsorption dynamics, BMPRs-recruitment, and bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. To elucidate the mechanism, molecular dynamic simulations were performed to calculate the preferred orientations, conformation changes, and cysteine-knot stabilities of adsorbed BMP-2 molecules. The results showed that rhBMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface exhibited greater bioactivity, evidenced by more facilitated BMPRs-recognition and higher ALP activity than on the HAP surface. Moreover, molecular simulations indicated that BMP-2 favoured distinct side-on orientations on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. Intriguingly, BMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface largely preserved the active protein structure evidenced by more stable cysteine-knots than on the HAP surface. These findings explicitly clarify the mechanism of BMP-2-HAP/Mg-HAP interactions and highlight the promising application of Mg-HAP/BMP-2 matrixes in bone regeneration implants/scaffolds.

  20. Strippable grid facilitates removal of grid-surfaced conical workpiece from die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Female die facilitates the removal of a sheet metal structure from a die used for explosive forming of the metal. The female die consists of a smooth conical frustum made of fiber glass with a cured epoxy-resin surface on which a molded grid pattern made of a polyurethane resin is overlaid.

  1. Structural modifications of human beta 2 microglobulin treated with oxygen-derived radicals.

    PubMed Central

    Capeillere-Blandin, C; Delaveau, T; Descamps-Latscha, B

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of human beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) with defined oxygen-derived species generated by treatment with gamma-radiation was studied. As assessed by SDS/PAGE, the hydroxyl radicals (.OH) caused the disappearance of the protein band at 12 kDa that represents beta 2m, and cross-linked the protein into protein bands stable to both SDS and reducing conditions. However, when .OH was generated under oxygen in equimolar combination with the superoxide anion radical (O2.-), the high-molecular-mass protein products were less represented, and fragmented derivatives were not obviously detectable. Exposure to .OH alone, or to .OH + O2.- in the presence of O2, induced the formation of beta 2m protein derivatives with a more acidic net electrical charge than the parent molecule. In contrast, O2.- alone had virtually no effect on molecular mass or pI. Changes in u.v. fluorescence during .OH attack indicated changes in conformation, as confirmed by c.d. spectrometry. A high concentration of radicals caused the disappearance of the beta-pleated sheet structure and the formation of a random coil structure. Loss of tryptophan and significant production of dityrosine (2,2'-biphenol type) were noted, exhibiting a clear dose-dependence with .OH alone or with .OH + O2.-. The combination of .OH + O2.- induced a pattern of changes similar to that with .OH alone, but more extensive for c.d. and tryptophan oxidation (2 Trp/beta 2m molecule), and more limited for dityrosine formation. Lower levels of these oxidative agents caused the reproducible formation of species at 18 and 25 kDa which were recognized by antibodies against native beta 2m. These findings provide a model for the protein pattern observed in beta 2m amyloidosis described in the literature. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1649598

  2. Oxytocin improves emotion recognition for older males.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anna; Ruffman, Ted; Murray, Janice E; Glue, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Older adults (≥60 years) perform worse than young adults (18-30 years) when recognizing facial expressions of emotion. The hypothesized cause of these changes might be declines in neurotransmitters that could affect information processing within the brain. In the present study, we examined the neuropeptide oxytocin that functions to increase neurotransmission. Research suggests that oxytocin benefits the emotion recognition of less socially able individuals. Men tend to have lower levels of oxytocin and older men tend to have worse emotion recognition than older women; therefore, there is reason to think that older men will be particularly likely to benefit from oxytocin. We examined this idea using a double-blind design, testing 68 older and 68 young adults randomly allocated to receive oxytocin nasal spray (20 international units) or placebo. Forty-five minutes afterward they completed an emotion recognition task assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, neutral, and sad faces. Older males receiving oxytocin showed improved emotion recognition relative to those taking placebo. No differences were found for older females or young adults. We hypothesize that oxytocin facilitates emotion recognition by improving neurotransmission in the group with the worst emotion recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep facilitates consolidation of emotional declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peter; Stylos-Allan, Melinda; Walker, Matthew P

    2006-10-01

    Both sleep and emotion are known to modulate processes of memory consolidation, yet their interaction is poorly understood. We examined the influence of sleep on consolidation of emotionally arousing and neutral declarative memory. Subjects completed an initial study session involving arousing and neutral pictures, either in the evening or in the morning. Twelve hours later, after sleeping or staying awake, subjects performed a recognition test requiring them to discriminate between these original pictures and novel pictures by responding "remember,"know" (familiar), or "new." Selective sleep effects were observed for consolidation of emotional memory: Recognition accuracy for know judgments of arousing stimuli improved by 42% after sleep relative to wake, and recognition bias for remember judgments of these stimuli increased by 58% after sleep relative to wake (resulting in more conservative responding). These findings hold important implications for understanding of human memory processing, suggesting that the facilitation of memory for emotionally salient information may preferentially develop during sleep.

  4. Estradiol prevents ozone-induced increases in brain lipid peroxidation and impaired social recognition memory in female rats.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Guzmán, R; Arriaga, V; Kendrick, K M; Bernal, C; Vega, X; Mercado-Gómez, O F; Rivas-Arancibia, S

    2009-03-31

    There is increasing concern about the neurodegenerative and behavioral consequences of ozone pollution in industrialized urban centers throughout the world and that women may be more susceptible to brain neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study we have investigated the effects of chronic (30 or 60 days) exposure to ozone on olfactory perception and memory and on levels of lipid peroxidation, alpha and beta estrogen receptors and dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the olfactory bulb in ovariectomized female rats. The ability of 17beta-estradiol to prevent these effects was then assessed. Results showed that ozone exposure for 30 or 60 days impaired formation/retention of a selective olfactory recognition memory 120 min after exposure to a juvenile stimulus animal with the effect at 60 days being significantly greater than at 30 days. They also showed impaired speed in locating a buried chocolate reward after 60 days of ozone exposure indicating some loss of olfactory perception. These functional impairments could all be prevented by coincident estradiol treatment. In the olfactory bulb, levels of lipid peroxidation were increased at both 30- and 60-day time-points and numbers of cells with immunohistochemical staining for alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and dopamine beta-hydroxylase were reduced as were alpha and beta estrogen receptor protein levels. These effects were prevented by estradiol treatment. Oxidative stress damage caused by chronic exposure to ozone does therefore impair olfactory perception and social recognition memory and may do so by reducing noradrenergic and estrogen receptor activity in the olfactory bulb. That these effects can be prevented by estradiol treatment suggests increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders in aging women may be contributed to by reduced estrogen levels post-menopause.

  5. The look of fear and anger: facial maturity modulates recognition of fearful and angry expressions.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Donald F; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2009-02-01

    The current series of studies provide converging evidence that facial expressions of fear and anger may have co-evolved to mimic mature and babyish faces in order to enhance their communicative signal. In Studies 1 and 2, fearful and angry facial expressions were manipulated to have enhanced babyish features (larger eyes) or enhanced mature features (smaller eyes) and in the context of a speeded categorization task in Study 1 and a visual noise paradigm in Study 2, results indicated that larger eyes facilitated the recognition of fearful facial expressions, while smaller eyes facilitated the recognition of angry facial expressions. Study 3 manipulated facial roundness, a stable structure that does not vary systematically with expressions, and found that congruency between maturity and expression (narrow face-anger; round face-fear) facilitated expression recognition accuracy. Results are discussed as representing a broad co-evolutionary relationship between facial maturity and fearful and angry facial expressions. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Emotional valence of stimuli modulates false recognition: Using a modified version of the simplified conjoint recognition paradigm.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xianmin; Xiao, Hongrui; Wang, Dahua

    2016-11-01

    False recognition results from the interplay of multiple cognitive processes, including verbatim memory, gist memory, phantom recollection, and response bias. In the current study, we modified the simplified Conjoint Recognition (CR) paradigm to investigate the way in which the valence of emotional stimuli affects the cognitive process and behavioral outcome of false recognition. In Study 1, we examined the applicability of the modification to the simplified CR paradigm and model. Twenty-six undergraduate students (13 females, aged 21.00±2.30years) learned and recognized both the large and small categories of photo objects. The applicability of the paradigm and model was confirmed by a fair goodness-of-fit of the model to the observational data and by their competence in detecting the memory differences between the large- and small-category conditions. In Study 2, we recruited another sample of 29 undergraduate students (14 females, aged 22.60±2.74years) to learn and recognize the categories of photo objects that were emotionally provocative. The results showed that negative valence increased false recognition, particularly the rate of false "remember" responses, by facilitating phantom recollection; positive valence did not influence false recognition significantly though enhanced gist processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neutrophil chemotaxis in response to TGF-beta isoforms (TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3) is mediated by fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Parekh, T; Saxena, B; Reibman, J; Cronstein, B N; Gold, L I

    1994-03-01

    TGF-beta isoforms regulate numerous cellular functions including cell growth and differentiation, the cellular synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin (Fn), and the immune response. We have previously shown that TGF-beta 1 is the most potent chemoattractant described for human peripheral blood neutrophils (PMNs), suggesting that TGF-beta s may play a role in the recruitment of PMNs during the initial phase of the inflammatory response. In our current studies, we demonstrate that the maximal chemotactic response was attained near 40 fM for all mammalian TGF-beta isoforms. However, there was a statistically significant difference in migratory distance of the PMNs: TGF-beta 2 (556 microM) > TGF-beta 3 (463 microM) > TGF-beta 1 (380 microM) (beta 2: beta 3, p < or = 0.010; beta 3: beta 1, p < or = 0.04; beta 2: beta 1, p < or = 0.0012). A mAb to the cell binding domain (CBD) of Fn inhibited the chemotactic response to TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 3 by 63% and to TGF-beta 2 by 70%, whereas the response to FMLP, a classic chemoattractant, was only inhibited by 18%. In contrast, a mAb to a C-terminal epitope of Fn did not retard migration (< 1.5%). The Arg-gly-Asp-ser tetrapeptide inhibited chemotaxis by approximately the same extent as the anti-CBD (52 to 83%). Furthermore, a mAb against the VLA-5 integrin (VLA-5; Fn receptor) also inhibited TGF-beta-induced chemotaxis. These results indicate that chemotaxis of PMNs in response to TGF-beta isoforms is mediated by the interaction of the Arg-gly-Asp-ser sequence in the CBD of Fn with an integrin on the PMN cell surface, primarily the VLA-5 integrin. TGF-beta isoforms also elicited the release of cellular Fn from PMNs; we observed a 2.3-fold increase in Fn (389 to 401 ng/ml) in the supernatants of TGF-beta-stimulated PMNs compared with unstimulated cells (173.6 ng/ml). The concentration of TGF-beta required to cause maximal release of Fn from PMNs (4000 fM) is a concentration at which TGF-beta

  8. RIG-I in RNA virus recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Alison M.; Gale, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Antiviral immunity is initiated upon host recognition of viral products via non-self molecular patterns known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Such recognition initiates signaling cascades that induce intracellular innate immune defenses and an inflammatory response that facilitates development of the acquired immune response. The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) protein family are key cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptors that are implicated in the recognition of viruses across genera and virus families, including functioning as major sensors of RNA viruses, and promoting recognition of some DNA viruses. RIG-I, the charter member of the RLR family, is activated upon binding to PAMP RNA. Activated RIG-I signals by interacting with the adapter protein MAVS leading to a signaling cascade that activates the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB. These actions induce the expression of antiviral gene products and the production of type I and III interferons that lead to an antiviral state in the infected cell and surrounding tissue. RIG-I signaling is essential for the control of infection by many RNA viruses. Recently, RIG-I crosstalk with other pathogen recognition receptors and components of the inflammasome has been described. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the role of RIG-I in recognition of a variety of virus families and its role in programming the adaptive immune response through cross-talk with parallel arms of the innate immune system, including how RIG-I can be leveraged for antiviral therapy. PMID:25749629

  9. Fungal Beta-Glucosidases: A Bottleneck in Industrial Use of Lignocellulosic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Annette; Lübeck, Mette; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2013-01-01

    Profitable biomass conversion processes are highly dependent on the use of efficient enzymes for lignocellulose degradation. Among the cellulose degrading enzymes, beta-glucosidases are essential for efficient hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass as they relieve the inhibition of the cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases by reducing cellobiose accumulation. In this review, we discuss the important role beta-glucosidases play in complex biomass hydrolysis and how they create a bottleneck in industrial use of lignocellulosic materials. An efficient beta-glucosidase facilitates hydrolysis at specified process conditions, and key points to consider in this respect are hydrolysis rate, inhibitors, and stability. Product inhibition impairing yields, thermal inactivation of enzymes, and the high cost of enzyme production are the main obstacles to commercial cellulose hydrolysis. Therefore, this sets the stage in the search for better alternatives to the currently available enzyme preparations either by improving known or screening for new beta-glucosidases. PMID:24970184

  10. Thermal-to-visible face recognition using partial least squares.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuowen; Choi, Jonghyun; Chan, Alex L; Schwartz, William Robson

    2015-03-01

    Although visible face recognition has been an active area of research for several decades, cross-modal face recognition has only been explored by the biometrics community relatively recently. Thermal-to-visible face recognition is one of the most difficult cross-modal face recognition challenges, because of the difference in phenomenology between the thermal and visible imaging modalities. We address the cross-modal recognition problem using a partial least squares (PLS) regression-based approach consisting of preprocessing, feature extraction, and PLS model building. The preprocessing and feature extraction stages are designed to reduce the modality gap between the thermal and visible facial signatures, and facilitate the subsequent one-vs-all PLS-based model building. We incorporate multi-modal information into the PLS model building stage to enhance cross-modal recognition. The performance of the proposed recognition algorithm is evaluated on three challenging datasets containing visible and thermal imagery acquired under different experimental scenarios: time-lapse, physical tasks, mental tasks, and subject-to-camera range. These scenarios represent difficult challenges relevant to real-world applications. We demonstrate that the proposed method performs robustly for the examined scenarios.

  11. Helix formation in arrestin accompanies recognition of photoactivated rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Sophie E; Pulvermüller, Alexander; Hartmann, Rudolf; Granzin, Joachim; Stoldt, Matthias; Henklein, Peter; Ernst, Oliver P; Heck, Martin; Willbold, Dieter; Koenig, Bernd W

    2009-11-17

    Binding of arrestin to photoactivated phosphorylated rhodopsin terminates the amplification of visual signals in photoreceptor cells. Currently, there is no crystal structure of a rhodopsin-arrestin complex available, although structures of unbound rhodopsin and arrestin have been determined. High-affinity receptor binding is dependent on distinct arrestin sites responsible for recognition of rhodopsin activation and phosphorylation. The loop connecting beta-strands V and VI in rod arrestin has been implicated in the recognition of active rhodopsin. We report the structure of receptor-bound arrestin peptide Arr(67-77) mimicking this loop based on solution NMR data. The peptide binds photoactivated rhodopsin in the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated form with similar affinities and stabilizes the metarhodopsin II photointermediate. A largely alpha-helical conformation of the receptor-bound peptide is observed.

  12. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots.

    PubMed

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  13. Interaction with beta-arrestin determines the difference in internalization behavor between beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Shiina, T; Kawasaki, A; Nagao, T; Kurose, H

    2000-09-15

    The beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR) shows the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. As beta-arrestin is important for internalization, we examine the interaction of beta-arrestin with beta(1)AR with three different methods: intracellular trafficking of beta-arrestin, binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin to intracellular domains of beta(1)- and beta(2)ARs, and inhibition of betaAR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities by beta-arrestin. The green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 translocates to and stays at the plasma membrane by beta(2)AR stimulation. Although green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 also translocates to the plasma membrane, it returns to the cytoplasm 10-30 min after beta(1)AR stimulation. The binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2 to the third intracellular loop and the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR is lower than that of beta(2)AR. The fusion protein of beta-arrestin 1 with glutathione S-transferase inhibits the beta(1)- and beta(2)AR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities, although inhibition of the beta(1)AR-stimulated activity requires a higher concentration of the fusion protein than that of the beta(2)AR-stimulated activity. These results suggest that weak interaction of beta(1)AR with beta-arrestins explains the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. This is further supported by the finding that beta-arrestin can induce internalization of beta(1)AR when beta-arrestin 1 does not dissociate from beta(1)AR by fusing to the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR.

  14. Spatiotemporal Variability of Meltwater Refreezing in Southwest Greenland Ice Sheet Firn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennermalm, A. K.; Hock, R.; Tedesco, M.; Corti, G.; Covi, F.; Miège, C.; Kingslake, J.; Leidman, S. Z.; Munsell, S.

    2017-12-01

    A substantial fraction of the summer meltwater formed on the surface of the Greenland ice sheet is retained in firn, while the remaining portion runs to the ocean through surface and subsurface channels. Refreezing of meltwater in firn can create impenetrable ice lenses, hence being a crucial process in the redistribution of surface runoff. To quantify the impact of refreezing on runoff and current and future Greenland surface mass balance, a three year National Science Foundation funded project titled "Refreezing in the firn of the Greenland ice sheet: Spatiotemporal variability and implications for ice sheet mass balance" started this past year. Here we present an overview of the project and some initial results from the first field season in May 2017 conducted in proximity of the DYE-2 site in the percolation zone of the Southwest Greenland ice sheet at elevations between 1963 and 2355 m a.s.l.. During this fieldwork two automatic weather stations were deployed, outfitted with surface energy balance sensors and 16 m long thermistor strings, over 300 km of ground penetrating radar data were collected, and five 20-26 m deep firn cores were extracted and analyzed for density and stratigraphy. Winter snow accumulation was measured along the radar tracks. Preliminary work on the firn-core data reveals increasing frequency and thickness of ice lenses at lower ice-sheet elevations, in agreement with other recent work in the area. Data collected within this project will facilitate advances in our understanding of the spatiotemporal variability of firn refreezing and its role in the hydrology and surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  15. Mechanical and biological evaluations of beta-tricalcium phosphate/silicone rubber composite as a novel soft-tissue implant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-ming; Wang, Shao-liang; Lei, Ze-yuan; Fan, Dong-li

    2009-09-01

    Although silicone rubber (SR) implants are most commonly used and effective for soft-tissue augmentation, they still have been implicated in many adverse reactions. To overcome this problem, a novel composite beta-tricalcium phosphate/silicone rubber (beta-TCP/SR) was prepared by adding beta-TCP into a SR matrix. This study was to evaluate its application potential by investigating the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of beta-TCP/SR. Mechanical properties, including Shore A hardness and tensile strength, were evaluated with 3-mm-thick samples and a universal testing machine. Cytocompatibility tests were conducted in vitro using 0.2-mm-thick beta-TCP/SR samples by seeding fibroblasts onto different samples. Soft-tissue response to beta-TCP/SR and pull-out measurements were investigated 4 weeks and 24 weeks after implantation. The main mechanical properties were all significantly changed after mixing beta-TCP into the SR matrix, except for tearing strength. The cytocompatibility test showed enhanced adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts onto beta-TCP/SR. Fibrous tissue ingrowth after resorption of beta-TCP was observed by in vivo histologic analysis. The peri-implant capsules in the beta-TCP/SR group were thinner than in the SR group 24 weeks after implantation. In a 24-week test, the maximum force required to pull out the beta-TCP/SR sheet was about six times greater than that needed for SR. Although some mechanical properties were significantly changed, the results of the cytocompatibility test and in vivo animal study still suggest that beta-TCP/SR may be more suitable as a soft-tissue implant than SR and has the potential to be used in plastic surgery.

  16. Facilitating Recognition Memory: The Use of Distinctive Contexts in Study Materials and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlin, Carol A.; And Others

    The effects of distinctive background settings on children's recognition memory for subjects and objects of related sentences was examined. As a follow-up to a study by Levin, Ghatala, and Truman (1979), the effects of presenting distinctive background contexts in sentences and multiple-choice tests were separated from the effects of providing…

  17. Structure, function, and fate of the BlaR signal transducer involved in induction of beta-lactamase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Y; Englebert, S; Joris, B; Ghuysen, J M; Kobayashi, T; Lampen, J O

    1992-01-01

    The membrane-spanning protein BlaR is essential for the induction of beta-lactamase in Bacillus licheniformis. Its nature and location were confirmed by the use of an antiserum specific for its carboxy-terminal penicillin sensor, its function was studied by genetic dissection, and the structure of the penicillin sensor was derived from hydrophobic cluster analysis of the amino acid sequence by using, as a reference, the class A beta-lactamases with known three-dimensional structures. During the first 2 h after the addition of the beta-lactam inducer, full-size BlaR, bound to the plasma membrane, is produced, and then beta-lactamase is produced. By 2 h after induction, BlaR is present in various (membrane-bound and cytosolic) forms, and there is a gradual decrease in beta-lactamase production. The penicillin sensors of BlaR and the class D beta-lactamases show strong similarities in primary structures. They appear to have the same basic spatial disposition of secondary structures as that of the class A beta-lactamases, except that they lack several alpha helices and, therefore, have a partially uncovered five-stranded beta sheet and a more readily accessible active site. Alterations of BlaR affecting conserved secondary structures of the penicillin sensor and specific sites of the transducer annihilate beta-lactamase inducibility. Images PMID:1400165

  18. Ice Sheet and Sea Ice Observations from Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, R. I.; Maslanik, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    A suite of sensors has been assembled to map ice sheet and sea ice surface topography with fine-resolution from small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This payload is optimized to provide coincident surface elevation and imagery data, and with its low cost and ease of reproduction, it has the potential to become a widely-distributed observational resource to complement polar manned-aircraft and satellite missions. To date, it has been deployed to map ice sheet elevations near Jakobshavn Isbræ in Greenland, and to measure sea ice freeboard and roughness in Fram Strait off the coast of Svalbard. Data collected during these campaigns have facilitate a detailed assessment of the system's surface elevation measurement accuracy, and provide a glimpse of the summer 2009 Fram Strait sea ice conditions. These findings are presented, along with a brief overview of our future Arctic UAS operations.

  19. Preferential V beta gene usage and lack of junctional sequence conservation among human T cell receptors specific for a tetanus toxin- derived peptide: evidence for a dominant role of a germline-encoded V region in antigen/major histocompatibility complex recognition

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    a common V element, V beta 2.1, is that this V region plays a dominant role in the recognition of the tt830-844/DR complex. PMID:1371303

  20. Greenland Regional and Ice Sheet-wide Geometry Sensitivity to Boundary and Initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, L. C.; Narayanan, S. H. K.; Greve, R.; Heimbach, P.

    2017-12-01

    Ice sheet and glacier model outputs require inputs from uncertainly known initial and boundary conditions, and other parameters. Conservation and constitutive equations formalize the relationship between model inputs and outputs, and the sensitivity of model-derived quantities of interest (e.g., ice sheet volume above floatation) to model variables can be obtained via the adjoint model of an ice sheet. We show how one particular ice sheet model, SICOPOLIS (SImulation COde for POLythermal Ice Sheets), depends on these inputs through comprehensive adjoint-based sensitivity analyses. SICOPOLIS discretizes the shallow-ice and shallow-shelf approximations for ice flow, and is well-suited for paleo-studies of Greenland and Antarctica, among other computational domains. The adjoint model of SICOPOLIS was developed via algorithmic differentiation, facilitated by the source transformation tool OpenAD (developed at Argonne National Lab). While model sensitivity to various inputs can be computed by costly methods involving input perturbation simulations, the time-dependent adjoint model of SICOPOLIS delivers model sensitivities to initial and boundary conditions throughout time at lower cost. Here, we explore both the sensitivities of the Greenland Ice Sheet's entire and regional volumes to: initial ice thickness, precipitation, basal sliding, and geothermal flux over the Holocene epoch. Sensitivity studies such as described here are now accessible to the modeling community, based on the latest version of SICOPOLIS that has been adapted for OpenAD to generate correct and efficient adjoint code.

  1. Cooperative alpha-helix formation of beta-lactoglobulin induced by sodium n-alkyl sulfates.

    PubMed

    Chamani, J; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Rajabi, O; Gharanfoli, M; Momen-Heravi, M; Hakimelahi, G H; Neamati-Baghsiah, A; Varasteh, A R

    2006-01-01

    It is generally assumed that folding intermediates contain partially formed native-like secondary structures. However, if we consider the fact that the conformational stability of the intermediate state is simpler than that of the native state, it would be expected that the secondary structures in a folding intermediate would not necessarily be similar to those of the native state. beta-Lactoglobulin is a predominantly beta-sheet protein, although it has a markedly high intrinsic preference for alpha-helical structure. The formation of non-native alpha-helical intermediate of beta-lactoglobulin was induced by n-alkyl sulfates including sodium octyl sulfate, SOS; sodium decyl sulfate, SDeS; sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS; and sodium tetradecyl sulfate, STS at special condition. The effect of n-alkyl sulfates on the structure of native beta-lactoglobulin at pH 2 was utilized to investigate the contribution of hydrophobic interactions to the stability of non-native alpha-helical intermediate. The addition of various concentrations of n-alkyl sulfates to the native state of beta-lactoglobulin (pH 2) appears to support the stabilized form of non-native alpha-helical intermediate at pH 2. The m values of the intermediate state of beta-lactoglobulin by SOS, SDeS, SDS and STS showed substantial variation. The enhancement of m values as the stability criterion of non-native alpha-helical intermediate state corresponded with increasing chain length of the cited n-alkyl sulfates. The present results suggest that the folding reaction of beta-lactoglobulin follows a non-hierarchical mechanism and hydrophobic interactions play important roles in stabilizing the non-native alpha-helical intermediate state.

  2. Inter-molecular β-sheet structure facilitates lung-targeting siRNA delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jihan; Li, Dong; Wen, Hao; Zheng, Shuquan; Su, Cuicui; Yi, Fan; Wang, Jue; Liang, Zicai; Tang, Tao; Zhou, Demin; Zhang, Li-He; Liang, Dehai; Du, Quan

    2016-03-01

    Size-dependent passive targeting based on the characteristics of tissues is a basic mechanism of drug delivery. While the nanometer-sized particles are efficiently captured by the liver and spleen, the micron-sized particles are most likely entrapped within the lung owing to its unique capillary structure and physiological features. To exploit this property in lung-targeting siRNA delivery, we designed and studied a multi-domain peptide named K-β, which was able to form inter-molecular β-sheet structures. Results showed that K-β peptides and siRNAs formed stable complex particles of 60 nm when mixed together. A critical property of such particles was that, after being intravenously injected into mice, they further associated into loose and micron-sized aggregates, and thus effectively entrapped within the capillaries of the lung, leading to a passive accumulation and gene-silencing. The large size aggregates can dissociate or break down by the shear stress generated by blood flow, alleviating the pulmonary embolism. Besides the lung, siRNA enrichment and targeted gene silencing were also observed in the liver. This drug delivery strategy, together with the low toxicity, biodegradability, and programmability of peptide carriers, show great potentials in vivo applications.

  3. Alpha-helix to beta-sheet transition in long-chain poly-l-lysine: Formation of alpha-helical fibrils by poly-l-lysine.

    PubMed

    Cieślik-Boczula, Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    The temperature-induced α-helix to β-sheet transition in long-chain poly-l-lysine (PLL), accompanied by the gauche-to-trans isomerization of CH 2 groups in the hydrocarbon side chains of Lys amino acid residues, and formation of β-sheet as well as α-helix fibrillar aggregates of PLL have been studied using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In a low-temperature alkaline water solution or in a methanol-rich water mixture, the secondary structure of PLL is represented by α-helical conformations with unordered and gauche-rich hydrocarbon side chains. Under these conditions, PLL molecules aggregate into α-helical fibrils. PLLs dominated by extended antiparallel β-sheet structures with highly ordered trans-rich hydrocarbon side chains are formed in a high-temperature range at alkaline pD and aggregate into fibrillar, protofibrillar, and spherical forms. Presented data support the idea that fibrillar aggregation is a varied phenomenon possible in repetitive structural elements with not only a β-sheet-rich conformation, but also an α-helical-rich conformation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  4. The hepta-beta-glucoside elicitor-binding proteins from legumes represent a putative receptor family.

    PubMed

    Mithöfer, A; Fliegmann, J; Neuhaus-Url, G; Schwarz, H; Ebel, J

    2000-08-01

    The ability of legumes to recognize and respond to beta-glucan elicitors by synthesizing phytoalexins is consistent with the existence of a membrane-bound beta-glucan-binding site. Related proteins of approximately 75 kDa and the corresponding mRNAs were detected in various species of legumes which respond to beta-glucans. The cDNAs for the beta-glucan-binding proteins of bean and soybean were cloned. The deduced 75-kDa proteins are predominantly hydrophilic and constitute a unique class of glucan-binding proteins with no currently recognizable functional domains. Heterologous expression of the soybean beta-glucan-binding protein in tomato cells resulted in the generation of a high-affinity binding site for the elicitor-active hepta-beta-glucoside conjugate (Kd = 4.5 nM). Ligand competition experiments with the recombinant binding sites demonstrated similar ligand specificities when compared with soybean. In both soybean and transgenic tomato, membrane-bound, active forms of the glucan-binding proteins coexist with immunologically detectable, soluble but inactive forms of the proteins. Reconstitution of a soluble protein fraction into lipid vesicles regained beta-glucoside-binding activity but with lower affinity (Kd = 130 nM). We conclude that the beta-glucan elicitor receptors of legumes are composed of the 75 kDa glucan-binding proteins as the critical components for ligand-recognition, and of an as yet unknown membrane anchor constituting the plasma membrane-associated receptor complex.

  5. Integration of Partial Information within and across Modalities: Contributions to Spoken and Written Sentence Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Fogerty, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the extent to which partial spoken or written information facilitates sentence recognition under degraded unimodal and multimodal conditions. Method: Twenty young adults with typical hearing completed sentence recognition tasks in unimodal and multimodal conditions across 3 proportions of preservation. In the unimodal…

  6. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Morant, Marc

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  7. Syntactic/semantic techniques for feature description and character recognition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gonzalez, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Pattern Analysis Branch, Mapping, Charting and Geodesy (MC/G) Division, of the Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) has been involved over the past several years in the development of algorithms and techniques for computer recognition of free-form handprinted symbols as they appear on the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) maps and charts. NORDA has made significant contributions to the automation of MC/G through advancing the state of the art in such information extraction techniques. In particular, new concepts in character (symbol) skeletonization, rugged feature measurements, and expert system-oriented decision logic have allowed the development of a very high performancemore » Handprinted Symbol Recognition (HSR) system for identifying depth soundings from naval smooth sheets (accuracies greater than 99.5%). The study reported in this technical note is part of NORDA's continuing research and development in pattern and shape analysis as it applies to Navy and DMA ocean/environment problems. The issue addressed in this technical note deals with emerging areas of syntactic and semantic techniques in pattern recognition as they might apply to the free-form symbol problem.« less

  8. Preparation of 3 beta, 5 alpha-, 3 alpha, 5 alpha- and 3 alpha, 5 beta-tetrahydro derivatives of 19-noraldosterone by chemical synthesis and microbial bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Harnik, M; Kashman, Y; Carmely, S; Cojocaru, M

    1988-07-01

    The 3 beta, 5 alpha-, 3 alpha, 5 alpha- and 3 alpha, 5 beta-tetrahydro derivatives 19, 20 and 27 of 19-noraldosterone (1) were prepared to facilitate the search for these compounds in urine. The diketal 4, consisting of a 2:1 mixture of the 5,6- and 5(10)-ene isomers, was hydrogenated with Pd-C and partially hydrolyzed to 5 alpha, 10 alpha- and 5 alpha, 10 beta-dihydroketals 8 and 10 in a 1:2.5 ratio. Assignment of protons was done with aid of COSY 45 experiments. Compound 10 was reduced with diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAH) to 4 products: the 3 alpha- and 3 beta-ol hemiacetals 16 and 15, and the corresponding tetraols 14 and 13. Alternatively, hydrogenation of the 4-en-3-one 2 gave 10, its 5 beta, 10 beta-isomer 21 and the tetrahydro compound 22, in a 4:2:1 ratio. A better way to prepare the 5 beta, 10 beta-series involved microbial conversion of 2 with Clostridium paraputrificum, and the resulting tetrahydrolactone 23 was reduced with DIBAH to the hemiacetal 24. Acid hydrolysis of 16, 15 and 24 afforded 20, 19 and 27, respectively. According to [1H]-NMR, in solution 20 and 24 exist as mixtures of isomers, while 19 appears in one form only. Periodate oxidation converted 19 and 27 into their gamma-etiolactones 18 and 28. EI MS base peaks are different and characteristic for 19, 20 and 27.

  9. Ice stream activity scaled to ice sheet volume during Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, C R; Margold, M; Clark, C D; Tarasov, L

    2016-02-18

    The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but--at the ice-sheet scale--their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  10. Bedrock structure and the interpretation of palaeo ice stream footprints: examples from the Pleistocene British Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbendam, M.; Bradwell, T.

    2009-04-01

    "lateral plucking", facilitated by the combination of strong bedding/foliation and the joint pattern. Glacial erosion was laterally more effective than vertically; so that stepped faces subparallel to palaeo ice flow are enhanced rather that destroyed. We propose that: a) Lateral plucking is an effective mechanism to produce streamlined bedrock bedforms by fast ice flow, providing the bedrock and bedrock structure are suitable; b) some topographically controlled palaeo-ice stream beds are dominated by bedrock rather than soft-sediment; c) the recognition of palaeo-ice streams may be dependent on the type of bedrock and the orientation of bedrock structure with respect to palaeo ice flow; d) palaeo-ice stream footprints may have been underestimated in formerly glaciated areas.

  11. Structure of the transcriptional regulator LmrR and its mechanism of multidrug recognition.

    PubMed

    Madoori, Pramod Kumar; Agustiandari, Herfita; Driessen, Arnold J M; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H

    2009-01-21

    LmrR is a PadR-related transcriptional repressor that regulates the production of LmrCD, a major multidrug ABC transporter in Lactococcus lactis. Transcriptional regulation is presumed to follow a drug-sensitive induction mechanism involving the direct binding of transporter ligands to LmrR. Here, we present crystal structures of LmrR in an apo state and in two drug-bound states complexed with Hoechst 33342 and daunomycin. LmrR shows a common topology containing a typical beta-winged helix-turn-helix domain with an additional C-terminal helix involved in dimerization. Its dimeric organization is highly unusual with a flat-shaped hydrophobic pore at the dimer centre serving as a multidrug-binding site. The drugs bind in a similar manner with their aromatic rings sandwiched in between the indole groups of two dimer-related tryptophan residues. Multidrug recognition is facilitated by conformational plasticity and the absence of drug-specific hydrogen bonds. Combined analyses using site-directed mutagenesis, fluorescence-based drug binding and protein-DNA gel shift assays reveal an allosteric coupling between the multidrug- and DNA-binding sites of LmrR that most likely has a function in the induction mechanism.

  12. Selective Attention Enhances Beta-Band Cortical Oscillation to Speech under "Cocktail-Party" Listening Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yayue; Wang, Qian; Ding, Yu; Wang, Changming; Li, Haifeng; Wu, Xihong; Qu, Tianshu; Li, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Human listeners are able to selectively attend to target speech in a noisy environment with multiple-people talking. Using recordings of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), this study investigated how selective attention facilitates the cortical representation of target speech under a simulated "cocktail-party" listening condition with speech-on-speech masking. The result shows that the cortical representation of target-speech signals under the multiple-people talking condition was specifically improved by selective attention relative to the non-selective-attention listening condition, and the beta-band activity was most strongly modulated by selective attention. Moreover, measured with the Granger Causality value, selective attention to the single target speech in the mixed-speech complex enhanced the following four causal connectivities for the beta-band oscillation: the ones (1) from site FT7 to the right motor area, (2) from the left frontal area to the right motor area, (3) from the central frontal area to the right motor area, and (4) from the central frontal area to the right frontal area. However, the selective-attention-induced change in beta-band causal connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, but not other beta-band causal connectivities, was significantly correlated with the selective-attention-induced change in the cortical beta-band representation of target speech. These findings suggest that under the "cocktail-party" listening condition, the beta-band oscillation in EEGs to target speech is specifically facilitated by selective attention to the target speech that is embedded in the mixed-speech complex. The selective attention-induced unmasking of target speech may be associated with the improved beta-band functional connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, suggesting a top-down attentional modulation of the speech-motor process.

  13. Triggering of explosive reconnection in a thick current sheet via current sheet compression: Less current sheet thinning, more temperature anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, K.; Shinohara, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2016-12-01

    Two-dimensional kinetic simulations of compression of thick current sheets are performed to see how it can lead to triggering of explosive magnetic reconnection. The current sheet under study is simply in a Harris-like anti-paralell and symmetric geometry. A one-dimensional pre-study shows that the compression is more effective to make the plasma anisotropy than to thin the current sheet width. When the lobe magnetic field is amplified by a factor of 2, the plasma temperature anisotropy inside the current sheet reaches 2 but the current sheet thickness is reduced only by 1/sqrt(2). If a current sheet thickness needs to be comparable to the ion inertial scale for reconnection triggering take place, as is widely and frequently mentioned in the research community, the initial thickness cannot be more than a few ion scale for reconnection to set-in. On the other hand, the temperature anisotropy of 2 can be significant for the triggering problem. Two-dimensional simulations show explosive magnetic reconnection to take place even when the initial current sheet thickness more than an order of magnitude thicker than the ion scale, indicating the resilient triggering drive supplied by the temperature anisotropy. We also discuss how the reconnection triggering capability of the temperature anisotropy boosted tearing mode for thick current sheets compares with the instabilities in the plane orthogonal to the reconnecting field.

  14. Conformational changes of the amyloid beta-peptide (1-40) adsorbed on solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Carla E; Norde, Willem

    2005-05-23

    The conformational change of the 39-43 residues of the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) toward a beta-sheet enriched state promotes self-aggregation of the peptide molecules and constitutes the major peptide component of the amyloid plaques in Alzheimer patients. The crucial question behind the self-aggregation of Abeta is related to the different pathways the peptide may take after cleavage from the amyloid precursor proteins at cellular membranes. This work is aiming at determining the conformation of the Abeta (1-40) adsorbed on hydrophobic Teflon and hydrophilic silica particles, as model sorbent surfaces mimicking the apolar transmembrane environment and the polar, charged membrane surface, respectively. The mechanism by which the Abeta interacts with solid surfaces strongly depends on the hydrophobic/hydrophilic character of the particles. Hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions contribute differently in each case, causing a completely different conformational change of the adsorbed molecules on the two surfaces. When hydrophobic interactions between the peptide and the sorbent prevail, the adsorbed Abeta (1-40) mainly adopts an alpha-helix conformation due to H-bonding in the apolar part of the peptide that is oriented towards the surface. On the other hand, when the peptide adsorbs by electrostatic interactions beta-sheet formation is promoted due to intermolecular association between the apolar parts of the adsorbed peptide. Irrespective of the characteristics of the solid sorbent, crowding the surface results in intermolecular association between adsorbed molecules leading to a strong aggregation tendency of the Abeta (1-40). [Diagram: see text] CD spectra of Abeta (1-40) at pH 7: A) in solution ([Abeta]=0.2 mg.ml(-1)) freshly prepared (line) and after overnight incubation (symbols);B) on Teflon (Gamma=0.5 mg.m(-2)).

  15. Cleavage of beta,beta-carotene to flavor compounds by fungi.

    PubMed

    Zorn, H; Langhoff, S; Scheibner, M; Berger, R G

    2003-09-01

    More than 50 filamentous fungi and yeasts, known for de novo synthesis or biotransformation of mono-, sesqui-, tri-, or tetraterpenes, were screened for their ability to cleave beta,beta-carotene to flavor compounds. Ten strains discolored a beta,beta-carotene-containing growth agar, indicating efficient degradation of beta,beta-carotene. Dihydroactinidiolide was formed as the sole conversion product of beta,beta-carotene in submerged cultures of Ganoderma applanatum, Hypomyces odoratus, Kuehneromyces mutabilis, and Trametes suaveolens. When mycelium-free culture supernatants from five species were applied for the conversions, nearly complete degradation of beta,beta-carotene was observed after 12 h. Carotenoid-derived volatile products were detected in the media of Ischnoderma benzoinum, Marasmius scorodonius, and Trametes versicolor. beta-Ionone proved to be the main metabolite in each case, whereas beta-cyclocitral, dihydroactinidiolide, and 2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexanone were formed in minor quantities. Using a photometric bleaching test, the beta,beta-carotene cleaving enzyme activities of M. scorodonius were partially characterized.

  16. Structures of the carbohydrate recognition domain of Ca2+-independent cargo receptors Emp46p and Emp47p.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tadashi; Sato, Ken; Kanoh, Akira; Yamashita, Katsuko; Yamada, Yusuke; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Kato, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akihiko; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2006-04-14

    Emp46p and Emp47p are type I membrane proteins, which cycle between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus by vesicles coated with coat protein complexes I and II (COPI and COPII). They are considered to function as cargo receptors for exporting N-linked glycoproteins from the ER. We have determined crystal structures of the carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) of Emp46p and Emp47p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the absence and presence of metal ions. Both proteins fold as a beta-sandwich, and resemble that of the mammalian ortholog, p58/ERGIC-53. However, the nature of metal binding is distinct from that of Ca(2+)-dependent p58/ERGIC-53. Interestingly, the CRD of Emp46p does not bind Ca(2+) ion but instead binds K(+) ion at the edge of a concave beta-sheet whose position is distinct from the corresponding site of the Ca(2+) ion in p58/ERGIC-53. Binding of K(+) ion to Emp46p appears essential for transport of a subset of glycoproteins because the Y131F mutant of Emp46p, which cannot bind K(+) ion fails to rescue the transport in disruptants of EMP46 and EMP47 genes. In contrast the CRD of Emp47p binds no metal ions at all. Furthermore, the CRD of Emp46p binds to glycoproteins carrying high mannosetype glycans and the is promoted by binding not the addition of Ca(2+) or K(+) ion in These results suggest that Emp46p can be regarded as a Ca(2+)-independent intracellular lectin at the ER exit sites.

  17. Beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae infections in children.

    PubMed

    Moxon, Christopher Alan; Paulus, Stéphane

    2016-07-05

    Multi-drug resistance in Gram negative bacteria, particularly in Enterobacteriaceae, is a major clinical and public health challenge. The main mechanism of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is linked to the production of beta-lactamase hydrolysing enzymes such as extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), AmpC beta-lactamases and carbapenemases (Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE)). ESBL and CPE resistance genes are located on plasmids, which can be transmitted between Enterobacteriaceae, facilitating their spread in hospitals and communities. These plasmids usually harbour multiple additional co-resistance genes, including to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones, making these infections challenging to treat. Asymptomatic carriage in healthy children as well as community acquired infections are increasingly reported, particularly with ESBL. Therapeutic options are limited and previously little used antimicrobials such as fosfomycin and colistin have been re-introduced in clinical practice. Paediatric experience with these agents is limited hence there is a need to further examine their clinical efficacy, dosage and toxicity in children. Antimicrobial stewardship along with strict infection prevention and control practices need to be adopted widely in order to preserve currently available antimicrobials. The future development of novel agents effective against beta-lactamases producers and their applicability in children is urgently needed to address the challenge of multi-resistant Gram negative infections. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( beta - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 85 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  19. 71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLEARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. PALMDALE WATER COMPANY, EASTWOOD MULTIPLE-ARCHED DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 3; DECEMBER 20, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Beta-globin locus activation regions: conservation of organization, structure, and function.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Q L; Zhou, B; Powers, P; Enver, T; Stamatoyannopoulos, G

    1990-01-01

    The human beta-globin locus activation region (LAR) comprises four erythroid-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (I-IV) thought to be largely responsible for activating the beta-globin domain and facilitating high-level erythroid-specific globin gene expression. We identified the goat beta-globin LAR, determined 10.2 kilobases of its sequence, and demonstrated its function in transgenic mice. The human and goat LARs share 6.5 kilobases of homologous sequences that are as highly conserved as the epsilon-globin gene promoters. Furthermore, the overall spatial organization of the two LARs has been conserved. These results suggest that the functionally relevant regions of the LAR are large and that in addition to their primary structure, the spatial relationship of the conserved elements is important for LAR function. Images PMID:2236034

  1. Adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC)-independent regulation of beta-catenin/Tcf-4 mediated transcription in intestinal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Baulida, J; Batlle, E; García De Herreros, A

    1999-01-01

    Alterations in the transcriptional activity of the beta-catenin-Tcf complex have been associated with the earlier stages of colonic transformation. We show here that the activation of protein kinase C by the phorbol ester PMA in several intestinal cell lines increases the levels of beta-catenin detected in the nucleus and augments the transcriptional activity mediated by beta-catenin. The response to PMA was not related to modifications in the cytosolic levels of beta-catenin and was observed not only in cells with wild-type adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) but also in APC-deficient cells. Binding assays in vitro revealed that PMA facilitates the interaction of the beta-catenin with the nuclear structure. Our results therefore show that beta-catenin-mediated transcription can be regulated independently of the presence of APC. PMID:10567241

  2. Development of visuo-haptic transfer for object recognition in typical preschool and school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Purpura, Giulia; Cioni, Giovanni; Tinelli, Francesca

    2018-07-01

    Object recognition is a long and complex adaptive process and its full maturation requires combination of many different sensory experiences as well as cognitive abilities to manipulate previous experiences in order to develop new percepts and subsequently to learn from the environment. It is well recognized that the transfer of visual and haptic information facilitates object recognition in adults, but less is known about development of this ability. In this study, we explored the developmental course of object recognition capacity in children using unimodal visual information, unimodal haptic information, and visuo-haptic information transfer in children from 4 years to 10 years and 11 months of age. Participants were tested through a clinical protocol, involving visual exploration of black-and-white photographs of common objects, haptic exploration of real objects, and visuo-haptic transfer of these two types of information. Results show an age-dependent development of object recognition abilities for visual, haptic, and visuo-haptic modalities. A significant effect of time on development of unimodal and crossmodal recognition skills was found. Moreover, our data suggest that multisensory processes for common object recognition are active at 4 years of age. They facilitate recognition of common objects, and, although not fully mature, are significant in adaptive behavior from the first years of age. The study of typical development of visuo-haptic processes in childhood is a starting point for future studies regarding object recognition in impaired populations.

  3. A comparison of the effects of a beta-adrenergic blocker and a benzodiazepine upon the recognition of human facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Zangara, Andrea; Blair, R J R; Curran, H Valerie

    2002-08-01

    Accumulating evidence from neuropsychological and neuroimaging research suggests that facial expressions are processed by at least partially separable neurocognitive systems. Recent evidence implies that the processing of different facial expressions may also be dissociable pharmacologically by GABAergic and noradrenergic compounds, although no study has directly compared the two types of drugs. The present study therefore directly compared the effects of a benzodiazepine with those of a beta-adrenergic blocker on the ability to recognise emotional expressions. A double-blind, independent group design was used with 45 volunteers to compare the effects of diazepam (15 mg) and metoprolol (50 mg) with matched placebo. Participants were presented with morphed facial expression stimuli and asked to identify which of the six basic emotions (sadness, happiness, anger, disgust, fear and surprise) were portrayed. Control measures of mood, pulse rate and word recall were also taken. Diazepam selectively impaired participants' ability to recognise expressions of both anger and fear but not other emotional expressions. Errors were mainly mistaking fear for surprise and disgust for anger. Metoprolol did not significantly affect facial expression recognition. These findings are interpreted as providing further support for the suggestion that there are dissociable systems responsible for processing emotional expressions. The results may have implications for understanding why 'paradoxical' aggression is sometimes elicited by benzodiazepines and for extending our psychological understanding of the anxiolytic effects of these drugs.

  4. A comprehensive review of the prevalence of beta globin gene variations and the co-inheritance of related gene variants in Saudi Arabians with beta-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Alaithan, Mousa A.; AbdulAzeez, Sayed; Borgio, J. Francis

    2018-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder that is caused by variations in the beta-hemoglobin (HBB) gene. Saudi Arabia is among the countries most affected by beta-thalassemia, and this is particularly problematic in the Eastern regions. This review article is an attempt to compile all the reported mutations to facilitate further national-level studies to prepare a Saudi repository of HBB gene variations. In Saudi Arabians, IVSI-5 (G>C) and Cd 39 (C>T) are the most prevalent HBB gene variations out of 42 variations. The coinheritance of HBB gene variations with ATRX, HBA1, HBA2, HBA12, AHSP, and KLF1 gene variations were observed to be common in the Saudi population. National surveys on the molecular nature of hemoglobinopathies should be set up through collaborations between research centers from various regions to create a well-documented molecular data bank. This data bank can be used to develop a premarital screening program and lead to the best treatment and prevention strategies for beta-thalassemia. PMID:29619482

  5. Stereoselective determination of amino acids in beta-amyloid peptides and senile plaques.

    PubMed

    Thorsén, G; Bergquist, J; Westlind-Danielsson, A; Josefsson, B

    2001-06-01

    A novel method for the determination of the enantiomeric composition of peptides is presented. In this paper, the focus has been on beta-amyloid peptides from deceased Alzheimer's disease patients. The peptides are hydrolyzed using mineral acid. The free amino acids are derivatized with the chiral reagent (+)- or (-)-1-(9-anthryl)-2-propyl chloroformate and subsequently separated using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and detected using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. The high separation efficiency of the MEKC-LIF system, yielding approximately 1 million theoretical plates/m for most amino acids, facilitates the simultaneous chiral determination of nine amino acids. The samples that have been analyzed were standard 1-40 beta-amyloid peptides, in vitro precipitated beta-amyloid fibrils, and human senile plaque samples.

  6. Toll-like receptors participate in Naegleria fowleri recognition.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Castillo, Moisés; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Galván-Moroyoqui, José Manuel; Serrano-Luna, Jesús; Shibayama, Mineko

    2018-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a protozoan that invades the central nervous system and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. It has been reported that N. fowleri induces an important inflammatory response during the infection. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of Toll-like receptors in the recognition of N. fowleri trophozoites by human mucoepithelial cells, analyzing the expression and production of innate immune response mediators. After amoebic interactions with NCI-H292 cells, the expression and production levels of IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, and human beta defensin-2 were evaluated by RT-PCR, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and dot blot assays, respectively. To determine whether the canonical signaling pathways were engaged, we used different inhibitors, namely, IMG-2005 for MyD88 and BAY 11-7085 for the nuclear factor NFkB. Our results showed that the expression and production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and beta defensin-2 were induced by N. fowleri mainly through the canonical TLR4 pathway in a time-dependent manner.

  7. High current density sheet-like electron beam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow-Miller, Cora; Korevaar, Eric; Schuster, John

    Sheet electron beams are very desirable for coupling to the evanescent waves in small millimeter wave slow-wave circuits to achieve higher powers. In particular, they are critical for operation of the free-electron-laser-like Orotron. The program was a systematic effort to establish a solid technology base for such a sheet-like electron emitter system that will facilitate the detailed studies of beam propagation stability. Specifically, the effort involved the design and test of a novel electron gun using Lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) as the thermionic cathode material. Three sets of experiments were performed to measure beam propagation as a function of collector current, beam voltage, and heating power. The design demonstrated its reliability by delivering 386.5 hours of operation throughout the weeks of experimentation. In addition, the cathode survived two venting and pump down cycles without being poisoned or losing its emission characteristics. A current density of 10.7 A/sq cm. was measured while operating at 50 W of ohmic heating power. Preliminary results indicate that the nearby presence of a metal plate can stabilize the beam.

  8. Precursor-product discrimination by La protein during tRNA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bayfield, Mark A; Maraia, Richard J

    2009-04-01

    La proteins bind pre-tRNAs at their UUU-3'OH ends, facilitating their maturation. Although the mechanism by which La binds pre-tRNA 3' trailers is known, the function of the RNA binding beta-sheet surface of the RNA-recognition motif (RRM1) is unknown. How La dissociates from UUU-3'OH-containing trailers after 3' processing is also unknown. Here we show that La preferentially binds pre-tRNAs over processed tRNAs or 3' trailer products through coupled use of two sites: one on the La motif and another on the RRM1 beta-surface that binds elsewhere on tRNA. Two sites provide stable pre-tRNA binding, whereas the processed tRNA and 3' trailer are released from their single sites relatively fast. RRM1 loop-3 mutations decrease affinity for pre-tRNA and tRNA, but not for the UUU-3'OH trailer, and impair tRNA maturation in vivo. We propose that RRM1 functions in activities that are more complex than UUU-3'OH binding. Accordingly, the RRM1 mutations also impair an RNA chaperone activity of La. The results suggest how La distinguishes precursor from product RNAs, allowing it to recycle onto a new pre-tRNA.

  9. Ice sheet altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Generalized surface slopes were computed for the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets by differencing plotted contour levels and dividing them by the distance between the contours. It was observed that more than 90% of the ice sheets have surface slopes less than 1%. Seasat test mode-1 Seasat altimeter measurements over Greenland were analyzed by comparisons with collinear and intersecting normal mode Seasat altimeter passes. Over the ice sheet, the computed surface elevations from test mode-1 measurements were consistently lower by about 45 m and the AGC levels were down by approximately 6 dB. No test mode-1 data were acquired over Antarctica. It is concluded that analysis of the existing altimeter data base over the two ice sheets is crucial in designing a future improved altimeter tracking capability. It is recommended that additional waveform retracking be performed to characterize ice sheet topography as a function of geographic area and elevation.

  10. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET #21, Showing the house as restored since Survey. (Dormer windows omitted as not authentic) - Samuel des Marest House, River Road, New Milford, Bergen County, NJ

  11. Persistent suppression of subthalamic beta-band activity during rhythmic finger tapping in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Joundi, Raed A; Brittain, John-Stuart; Green, Alex L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned

    2013-03-01

    The function of synchronous oscillatory activity at beta band (15-30Hz) frequencies within the basal ganglia is unclear. Here we sought support for the hypothesis that beta activity has a global function within the basal ganglia and is not directly involved in the coding of specific biomechanical parameters of movement. We recorded local field potential activity from the subthalamic nuclei of 11 patients with Parkinson's disease during a synchronized tapping task at three different externally cued rates. Beta activity was suppressed during tapping, reaching a minimum that differed little across the different tapping rates despite an increase in velocity of finger movements. Thus beta power suppression was independent of specific motor parameters. Moreover, although beta oscillations remained suppressed during all tapping rates, periods of resynchronization between taps were markedly attenuated during high rate tapping. As such, a beta rebound above baseline between taps at the lower rates was absent at the high rate. Our results demonstrate that beta desynchronization in the region of the subthalamic nucleus is independent of motor parameters and that the beta resynchronization is differentially modulated by rate of finger tapping, These findings implicate consistent beta suppression in the facilitation of continuous movement sequences. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification and measurement of beta-lactam antibiotic residues in milk: integration of screening kits with liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Harik-Khan, R; Moats, W A

    1995-01-01

    A procedure for identifying and quantitating violative beta-lactams in milk is described. This procedure integrates beta-lactam residue detection kits with the multiresidue automated liquid chromatographic (LC) cleanup method developed in our laboratory. Spiked milk was deproteinized, extracted, and subjected to reversed-phase LC using a gradient program that concentrated the beta-lactams. Amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephapirin, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, and penicillin G were, thus, separated into 5 fractions that were subsequently tested for activity by using 4 kits. beta-lactams in the positive fractions were quantitated by analytical LC methods developed in our laboratory. The LC cleanup method separated beta-lactam antibiotics from each other and from interferences in the matrix and also concentrated the antibiotics, thus increasing the sensitivity of the kits to the beta-lactam antibiotics. The procedure facilitated the task of identifying and measuring the beta-lactam antibiotics that may be present in milk samples.

  13. PRogram In Support of Moms (PRISM): Development and Beta Testing.

    PubMed

    Byatt, Nancy; Pbert, Lori; Hosein, Safiyah; Swartz, Holly A; Weinreb, Linda; Allison, Jeroan; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Most women with perinatal depression do not receive depression treatment. The authors describe the development and beta testing of a new program, PRogram In Support of Moms (PRISM), to improve treatment of perinatal depression in obstetric practices. A multidisciplinary work group of seven perinatal and behavioral health professionals was convened to design, refine, and beta-test PRISM in an obstetric practice. Iterative feedback and problem solving facilitated development of PRISM components, which include provider training and a toolkit, screening procedures, implementation assistance, and access to immediate psychiatric consultation. Beta testing with 50 patients over two months demonstrated feasibility and suggested that PRISM may improve provider screening rates and self-efficacy to address depression. On the basis of lessons learned, PRISM will be enhanced to integrate proactive patient engagement and monitoring into obstetric practices. PRISM may help overcome patient-, provider-, and system-level barriers to managing perinatal depression in obstetric settings.

  14. Selective Attention Enhances Beta-Band Cortical Oscillation to Speech under “Cocktail-Party” Listening Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yayue; Wang, Qian; Ding, Yu; Wang, Changming; Li, Haifeng; Wu, Xihong; Qu, Tianshu; Li, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Human listeners are able to selectively attend to target speech in a noisy environment with multiple-people talking. Using recordings of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), this study investigated how selective attention facilitates the cortical representation of target speech under a simulated “cocktail-party” listening condition with speech-on-speech masking. The result shows that the cortical representation of target-speech signals under the multiple-people talking condition was specifically improved by selective attention relative to the non-selective-attention listening condition, and the beta-band activity was most strongly modulated by selective attention. Moreover, measured with the Granger Causality value, selective attention to the single target speech in the mixed-speech complex enhanced the following four causal connectivities for the beta-band oscillation: the ones (1) from site FT7 to the right motor area, (2) from the left frontal area to the right motor area, (3) from the central frontal area to the right motor area, and (4) from the central frontal area to the right frontal area. However, the selective-attention-induced change in beta-band causal connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, but not other beta-band causal connectivities, was significantly correlated with the selective-attention-induced change in the cortical beta-band representation of target speech. These findings suggest that under the “cocktail-party” listening condition, the beta-band oscillation in EEGs to target speech is specifically facilitated by selective attention to the target speech that is embedded in the mixed-speech complex. The selective attention-induced unmasking of target speech may be associated with the improved beta-band functional connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, suggesting a top-down attentional modulation of the speech-motor process. PMID:28239344

  15. Anisotropy influence on the failure of Ti6Al4V sheets deformed at room and elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. L.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.

    2018-05-01

    Ti6Al4V sheets are usually difficult-to-form at room temperature as a consequence of their strong basal texture and hcp crystal lattice. The heating of the alloy below the beta transus temperature is recognized to enhance its formability, reducing the flow stress and increasing the ductility. However, the influence of the sheet anisotropy on the material failure hasn't been studied yet. To this aim, the paper presents the anisotropy influence on the failure characteristics of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy sheets making use of tensile tests carried out at room temperature and 600°C on smooth, notched and shear samples in order to have various stress states. The fracture strain is measured and the effect of the sample orientation and stress state is identified. To determine the actual stress state for each sample geometry, a numerical model is set up and calibrated using elasto-plastic data from uni-axial tensile tests on smooth samples. Finally, the fracture surfaces are observed through SEM analysis to explain the failure characteristics.

  16. Nonlinear filtering for character recognition in low quality document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Escobar, Julia; Kober, Vitaly

    2014-09-01

    Optical character recognition in scanned printed documents is a well-studied task, where the captured conditions like sheet position, illumination, contrast and resolution are controlled. Nowadays, it is more practical to use mobile devices for document capture than a scanner. So as a consequence, the quality of document images is often poor owing to presence of geometric distortions, nonhomogeneous illumination, low resolution, etc. In this work we propose to use multiple adaptive nonlinear composite filters for detection and classification of characters. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed system are presented and discussed.

  17. E-tracers: A New Technique for Wireless Sensing Under Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrow, S.; Wadham, J. L.; Salter, M.; Barnes, R.

    2009-12-01

    A significant hurdle to the understanding of ice sheet basal hydrology and its coupling with ice motion is the difficulty in making in-situ measurements along a flow path. While dye tracing techniques may be used in small glaciers to determine transit times of surface melt water through the sub-glacial system, they provide no information on in situ conditions (e.g. pressure) and are ineffective at ice-sheet scale where dilution is high. The use of tethered sensor packages is complicated by the long lengths (~100’s m) and torturous path of the moulins and conduits within ice sheets. Recent attempts to pass solid objects (rubber ducks) and other sensor packages through glacial moulins have confirmed the difficultly in deploying sensors into the sub glacial environment. Here, we report the first successful deployment and recovery of compact, electronic units to moulins up to 7 km from the margin of a large land-terminating Greenland outlet. The technique uses RF (Radio Frequency) location to create an electronic tracer (an ‘e-tracer’) enabling a data-logging sensor package to be located in the pro-glacial flood plain once it has passed through the ice sheet. A number of individual packages are used in each deployment mitigating for the risk that some may become stuck within the moulin or lodge in an inaccessible part of the floodplain. In preliminary tests on the Leverett glacier in West Greenland during August 2009 we have demonstrated that this technique can be used to locate and retrieve dummy sensor packages: 50% and 20% of the dummy sensor packages introduced to moulins at 1 and 7 km from the ice sheet terminus respectively, emerged in the sub-glacial stream. It was possible to effectively detect the e-tracer units (which broadcast on 151MHz with 10mW of power) over a horizontal range of up to 5km across the pro-glacial floodplain and locate them to a high accuracy, allowing visual recognition and manual recovery. These performance statistics give this

  18. CK2(beta)tes gene encodes a testis-specific isoform of the regulatory subunit of casein kinase 2 in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Alla I; Shevelyov, Yuri Y; Polesskaya, Oksana O; Dobritsa, Anna A; Evstafieva, Alexandra G; Boldyreff, Brigitte; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Gvozdev, Vladimir A

    2002-03-01

    An earlier described CK2(beta)tes gene of Drosophila melanogaster is shown to encode a male germline specific isoform of regulatory beta subunit of casein kinase 2. Western-analysis using anti-CK2(beta)tes Ig revealed CK2(beta)tes protein in Drosophila testes extract. Expression of a CK2(beta)tes-beta-galactosidase fusion protein driven by the CK2(beta)tes promoter was found in transgenic flies at postmitotic stages of spermatogenesis. Examination of biochemical characteristics of a recombinant CK2(beta)tes protein expressed in Escherichia coli revealed properties similar to those of CK2beta: (a) CK2(beta)tes protein stimulates CK2alpha catalytic activity toward synthetic peptide; (b) it inhibits phosphorylation of calmodulin and mediates stimulation of CK2alpha by polylysine; (c) it is able to form (CK2(beta)tes)2 dimers, as well as (CK2alpha)2(CK2(beta)tes)2 tetramers. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and coimmunoprecipitation analysis of protein extract from Drosophila testes, we demonstrated an association between CK2(beta)tes and CK2alpha. Northern-analysis has shown that another regulatory (beta') subunit found recently in D. melanogaster genome is also testis-specific. Thus, we describe the first example of two tissue-specific regulatory subunits of CK2 which might serve to provide CK2 substrate recognition during spermatogenesis.

  19. Beta-2-microglobulin gene expression is maintained in rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon kept at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kales, Stephen; Parks-Dely, Julie; Schulte, Patricia; Dixon, Brian

    2006-08-01

    Finfish in the wild are regularly subjected to low temperatures, which have been shown to cause a loss of Major Histocompatibility receptor expression in common carp kept at 6 degrees C. This is similar to what was seen in a mammalian cell line cultured at 26 degrees C. Loss of expression of this critical viral recognition protein may provide one mechanism for the increased frequency of fish diseases at low temperatures. This report demonstrates that unlike carp and mammals, beta(2)m transcript levels in both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon do not decrease after 10 days at temperatures as low as 2 degrees C. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR indicated that transcript steady-state levels of trout beta(2)m were maintained in both tissues and peripheral blood leucocytes, whether freshly isolated or in primary culture. Polyclonal antibodies raised against a recombinant form of trout beta(2)m, demonstrated cross-reactivity to both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon protein lysates. Use of these antibodies in western blot analyses indicated that cellular protein levels are also maintained at low temperatures in both species while qualitative epifluorescence analysis of freshly isolated peripheral blood leucocytes indicated persistent cell surface expression of trout beta(2)m even after 10 days at 2 degrees C. Rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon may therefore utilise an alternative mode of immune gene regulation than the common carp and mammals allowing them to maintain viral recognition machinery at low temperatures, possibly due to selection for survival in cold climates.

  20. Dynamics of beta-cell turnover: evidence for beta-cell turnover and regeneration from sources of beta-cells other than beta-cell replication in the HIP rat.

    PubMed

    Manesso, Erica; Toffolo, Gianna M; Saisho, Yoshifumi; Butler, Alexandra E; Matveyenko, Aleksey V; Cobelli, Claudio; Butler, Peter C

    2009-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, a deficit in beta-cells, increased beta-cell apoptosis, and islet amyloid derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). These characteristics are recapitulated in the human IAPP transgenic (HIP) rat. We developed a mathematical model to quantify beta-cell turnover and applied it to nondiabetic wild type (WT) vs. HIP rats from age 2 days to 10 mo to establish 1) whether beta-cell formation is derived exclusively from beta-cell replication, or whether other sources of beta-cells (OSB) are present, and 2) to what extent, if any, there is attempted beta-cell regeneration in the HIP rat and if this is through beta-cell replication or OSB. We conclude that formation and maintenance of adult beta-cells depends largely ( approximately 80%) on formation of beta-cells independent from beta-cell duplication. Moreover, this source adaptively increases in the HIP rat, implying attempted beta-cell regeneration that substantially slows loss of beta-cell mass.

  1. Ammonia gas sensors based on chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets self-assembled on Au electrodes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present a useful ammonia gas sensor based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by self-assembly technique to create conductive networks between parallel Au electrodes. Negative graphene oxide (GO) sheets with large sizes (>10 μm) can be easily electrostatically attracted onto positive Au electrodes modified with cysteamine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. The assembled GO sheets on Au electrodes can be directly reduced into rGO sheets by hydrazine or pyrrole vapor and consequently provide the sensing devices based on self-assembled rGO sheets. Preliminary results, which have been presented on the detection of ammonia (NH3) gas using this facile and scalable fabrication method for practical devices, suggest that pyrrole-vapor-reduced rGO exhibits much better (more than 2.7 times with the concentration of NH3 at 50 ppm) response to NH3 than that of rGO reduced from hydrazine vapor. Furthermore, this novel gas sensor based on rGO reduced from pyrrole shows excellent responsive repeatability to NH3. Overall, the facile electrostatic self-assembly technique in aqueous solution facilitates device fabrication, the resultant self-assembled rGO-based sensing devices, with miniature, low-cost portable characteristics and outstanding sensing performances, which can ensure potential application in gas sensing fields. PMID:24917701

  2. The picture superiority effect in a cross-modality recognition task.

    PubMed

    Stenbert, G; Radeborg, K; Hedman, L R

    1995-07-01

    Words and pictures were studied and recognition tests given in which each studied object was to be recognized in both word and picture format. The main dependent variable was the latency of the recognition decision. The purpose was to investigate the effects of study modality (word or picture), of congruence between study and test modalities, and of priming resulting from repeated testing. Experiments 1 and 2 used the same basic design, but the latter also varied retention interval. Experiment 3 added a manipulation of instructions to name studied objects, and Experiment 4 deviated from the others by presenting both picture and word referring to the same object together for study. The results showed that congruence between study and test modalities consistently facilitated recognition. Furthermore, items studied as pictures were more rapidly recognized than were items studied as words. With repeated testing, the second instance was affected by its predecessor, but the facilitating effect of picture-to-word priming exceeded that of word-to-picture priming. The finds suggest a two- stage recognition process, in which the first is based on perceptual familiarity and the second uses semantic links for a retrieval search. Common-code theories that grant privileged access to the semantic code for pictures or, alternatively, dual-code theories that assume mnemonic superiority for the image code are supported by the findings. Explanations of the picture superiority effect as resulting from dual encoding of pictures are not supported by the data.

  3. Speech Recognition in Adults With Cochlear Implants: The Effects of Working Memory, Phonological Sensitivity, and Aging.

    PubMed

    Moberly, Aaron C; Harris, Michael S; Boyce, Lauren; Nittrouer, Susan

    2017-04-14

    Models of speech recognition suggest that "top-down" linguistic and cognitive functions, such as use of phonotactic constraints and working memory, facilitate recognition under conditions of degradation, such as in noise. The question addressed in this study was what happens to these functions when a listener who has experienced years of hearing loss obtains a cochlear implant. Thirty adults with cochlear implants and 30 age-matched controls with age-normal hearing underwent testing of verbal working memory using digit span and serial recall of words. Phonological capacities were assessed using a lexical decision task and nonword repetition. Recognition of words in sentences in speech-shaped noise was measured. Implant users had only slightly poorer working memory accuracy than did controls and only on serial recall of words; however, phonological sensitivity was highly impaired. Working memory did not facilitate speech recognition in noise for either group. Phonological sensitivity predicted sentence recognition for implant users but not for listeners with normal hearing. Clinical speech recognition outcomes for adult implant users relate to the ability of these users to process phonological information. Results suggest that phonological capacities may serve as potential clinical targets through rehabilitative training. Such novel interventions may be particularly helpful for older adult implant users.

  4. Speech Recognition in Adults With Cochlear Implants: The Effects of Working Memory, Phonological Sensitivity, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Michael S.; Boyce, Lauren; Nittrouer, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Models of speech recognition suggest that “top-down” linguistic and cognitive functions, such as use of phonotactic constraints and working memory, facilitate recognition under conditions of degradation, such as in noise. The question addressed in this study was what happens to these functions when a listener who has experienced years of hearing loss obtains a cochlear implant. Method Thirty adults with cochlear implants and 30 age-matched controls with age-normal hearing underwent testing of verbal working memory using digit span and serial recall of words. Phonological capacities were assessed using a lexical decision task and nonword repetition. Recognition of words in sentences in speech-shaped noise was measured. Results Implant users had only slightly poorer working memory accuracy than did controls and only on serial recall of words; however, phonological sensitivity was highly impaired. Working memory did not facilitate speech recognition in noise for either group. Phonological sensitivity predicted sentence recognition for implant users but not for listeners with normal hearing. Conclusion Clinical speech recognition outcomes for adult implant users relate to the ability of these users to process phonological information. Results suggest that phonological capacities may serve as potential clinical targets through rehabilitative training. Such novel interventions may be particularly helpful for older adult implant users. PMID:28384805

  5. Electrostatic force spectroscopy revealing the degree of reduction of individual graphene oxide sheets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yue; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Yuan; Hai, Chunxi; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Electrostatic force spectroscopy (EFS) is a method for monitoring the electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) phase with high resolution as a function of the electrical direct current bias applied either to the probe or sample. Based on the dielectric constant difference of graphene oxide (GO) sheets (reduced using various methods), EFS can be used to characterize the degree of reduction of uniformly reduced one-atom-thick GO sheets at the nanoscale. In this paper, using thermally or chemically reduced individual GO sheets on mica substrates as examples, we characterize their degree of reduction at the nanoscale using EFS. For the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets with a given degree of reduction (sample n), the EFS curve is very close to a parabola within a restricted area. We found that the change in parabola opening direction (or sign the parabola opening value) indicates the onset of reduction on GO sheets. Moreover, the parabola opening value, the peak bias value (tip bias leads to the peak or valley EFM phases) and the EFM phase contrast at a certain tip bias less than the peak value can all indicate the degree of reduction of rGO samples, which is positively correlated with the dielectric constant. In addition, we gave the ranking of degree for reduction on thermally or chemically reduced GO sheets and evaluated the effects of the reducing conditions. The identification of the degree of reduction of GO sheets using EFS is important for reduction strategy optimization and mass application of GO, which is highly desired owing to its mechanical, thermal, optical and electronic applications. Furthermore, as a general and quantitative technique for evaluating the small differences in the dielectric properties of nanomaterials, the EFS technique will extend and facilitate its nanoscale electronic devices applications in the future.

  6. Inhibin/activin-betaC and -betaE subunits in the Ishikawa human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Kimmich, Tanja; Brüning, Ansgar; Käufl, Stephanie D; Makovitzky, Josef; Kuhn, Christina; Jeschke, Udo; Friese, Klaus; Mylonas, Ioannis

    2010-08-01

    Inhibins and activins are important regulators of the female reproductive system. Recently, two novel inhibin subunits, named betaC and betaE, have been identified and shown to be expressed in several human tissues. However, only limited data on the expression of these novel inhibin subunits in normal human endometrial tissue and endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines exist. Samples of proliferative and secretory human endometrium were obtained from five premenopausal, non-pregnant patients undergoing gynecological surgery for benign diseases. Normal endometrial tissue and Ishikawa endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Expression of the inhibin betaC and betaE subunits could be demonstrated at the protein level by means of immunohistochemical evaluation and at the transcriptional level by establishing a betaC- and betaE-specific RT-PCR analysis in normal human endometrial tissue and the parental Ishikawa cell line. Interestingly, in a highly de-differentiated subclone of the Ishikawa cell line lacking estrogen receptor expression, the expression of the inhibin-betaC subunit appeared strongly reduced. Here, we show for the first time that the novel inhibin/activin-betaC and -betaE subunits are expressed in normal human endometrium and the estrogen receptor positive human endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection methods. Interestingly, the Ishikawa minus cell line (lacking estrogen receptor expression) demonstrated no to minimal expression of the betaC subunit as observed with immunofluorescence and RT-PCR, suggesting a possible hormone- dependency of this subunit in human endometrial cancer cells. Moreover, because the Ishikawa cell line minus is thought to be a more malignant endometrial cell line than its estrogen receptor positive counterpart, inhibin-betaC subunit might be substantially involved in the pathogenesis and malignant transformation in

  7. Recognition intent and visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man-Ying; Ching, Chi-Le

    2009-03-01

    This study adopted a change detection task to investigate whether and how recognition intent affects the construction of orthographic representation in visual word recognition. Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1) and nonreaders (Experiment 1-2) detected color changes in radical components of Chinese characters. Explicit recognition demand was imposed in Experiment 2 by an additional recognition task. When the recognition was implicit, a bias favoring the radical location informative of character identity was found in Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1), but not nonreaders (Experiment 1-2). With explicit recognition demands, the effect of radical location interacted with radical function and word frequency (Experiment 2). An estimate of identification performance under implicit recognition was derived in Experiment 3. These findings reflect the joint influence of recognition intent and orthographic regularity in shaping readers' orthographic representation. The implication for the role of visual attention in word recognition was also discussed.

  8. Manufacture of a four-sheet complex component from different titanium alloys by superplastic forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allazadeh, M. R.; Zuelli, N.

    2017-10-01

    A superplastic forming (SPF) technology process was deployed to form a complex component with eight-pocket from a four-sheet sandwich panel sheetstock. Six sheetstock packs were composed of two core sheets made of Ti-6Al-4V or Ti-5Al-4Cr-4Mo-2Sn-2Zr titanium alloy and two skin sheets made of Ti-6Al-4V or Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo titanium alloy in three different combinations. The sheets were welded with two subsequent welding patterns over the core and skin sheets to meet the required component's details. The applied welding methods were intermittent and continuous resistance seam welding for bonding the core sheets to each other and the skin sheets over the core panel, respectively. The final component configuration was predicted based on the die drawings and finite element method (FEM) simulations for the sandwich panels. An SPF system set-up with two inlet gas pipe feeding facilitated the trials to deliver two pressure-time load cycles acting simultaneously which were extracted from FEM analysis for specific forming temperature and strain rate. The SPF pressure-time cycles were optimized via GOM scanning and visually inspecting some sections of the packs in order to assess the levels of core panel formation during the inflation process of the sheetstock. Two sets of GOM scan results were compared via GOM software to inspect the surface and internal features of the inflated multisheet packs. The results highlighted the capability of the tested SPF process to form complex components from a flat multisheet pack made of different titanium alloys.

  9. Speech Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants: The Effects of Working Memory, Phonological Sensitivity, and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberly, Aaron C.; Harris, Michael S.; Boyce, Lauren; Nittrouer, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Models of speech recognition suggest that "top-down" linguistic and cognitive functions, such as use of phonotactic constraints and working memory, facilitate recognition under conditions of degradation, such as in noise. The question addressed in this study was what happens to these functions when a listener who has experienced…

  10. Current sheet in plasma as a system with a controlling parameter

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fridman, Yu. A., E-mail: yulya-fridman@yandex.ru; Chukbar, K. V., E-mail: Chukbar-KV@nrcki.ru

    2015-08-15

    A simple kinetic model describing stationary solutions with bifurcated and single-peaked current density profiles of a plane electron beam or current sheet in plasma is presented. A connection is established between the two-dimensional constructions arising in terms of the model and the one-dimensional considerations by Bernstein−Greene−Kruskal facilitating the reconstruction of the distribution function of trapped particles when both the profile of the electric potential and the free particles distribution function are known.

  11. Transporter for Treated Sheet Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, M., H.

    1983-01-01

    Plastic spacers keep parts separated during transport or storage. Cart with rods and spacers holds sheets with delicate finishes for storage or transport. Sheets supported vertically by rods, or horizontally. Spacers keep sheets separated. Designed to eliminate time and expense of tapping, wrapping, and sometimes refinishing aluminum sheets with delicate anodized finished.

  12. Perforating Thin Metal Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Sheets only few mils thick bonded together, punched, then debonded. Three-step process yields perforated sheets of metal. (1): Individual sheets bonded together to form laminate. (2): laminate perforated in desired geometric pattern. (3): After baking, laminate separates into individual sheets. Developed for fabricating conductive layer on blankets that collect and remove ions; however, perforated foils have other applications - as conductive surfaces on insulating materials; stiffeners and conductors in plastic laminates; reflectors in antenna dishes; supports for thermal blankets; lightweight grille cover materials; and material for mockup of components.

  13. Visual Speech Primes Open-Set Recognition of Spoken Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchwald, Adam B.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Visual speech perception has become a topic of considerable interest to speech researchers. Previous research has demonstrated that perceivers neurally encode and use speech information from the visual modality, and this information has been found to facilitate spoken word recognition in tasks such as lexical decision (Kim, Davis, & Krins,…

  14. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, -beta2 and -beta3 in normal and diseased canine mitral valves.

    PubMed

    Aupperle, H; März, I; Thielebein, J; Schoon, H-A

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic valvular disease (CVD) in dogs remains unclear, but activation and proliferation of valvular stromal cells (VSC) and their transdifferentiation into myofibroblast-like cells has been described. These alterations may be influenced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a cytokine involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation and mesenchymal cell differentiation. The present study investigates immunohistochemically the expression of TGF-beta1, -beta2, -beta3 and smooth muscle alpha actin (alpha-SMA) in normal canine mitral valves (MVs) (n=10) and in the valves of dogs with mild (n=7), moderate (n=14) and severe (n=9) CVD. In normal mitral valves there was no expression of alpha-SMA but VSC displayed variable expression of TGF-beta1 (10% of VSC labelled), TGF-beta2 (1-5% labelled) and TGF-beta3 (50% labelled). In mild CVD the affected atrialis contain activated and proliferating alpha-SMA-positive VSC, which strongly expressed TGF-beta1 and -beta3, but only 10% of these cells expressed TGF-beta2. In unaffected areas of the leaflet there was selective increase in expression of TGF-beta1 and -beta3. In advanced CVD the activated subendothelial VSC strongly expressed alpha-SMA, TGF-beta1 and -beta3. Inactive VSC within the centre of the nodules had much less labelling for TGF-beta1 and -beta3. TGF-beta1 labelling was strong within the ECM. These data suggest that TGF-beta plays a role in the pathogenesis of CVD by inducing myofibroblast-like differentiation of VSC and ECM secretion. Changed haemodynamic forces and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may in turn regulate TGF-beta expression.

  15. Selective regulation of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the human heart by chronic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, M. C.; Pingsmann, A.; Beckeringh, J. J.; Zerkowski, H. R.; Doetsch, N.; Brodde, O. E.

    1988-01-01

    1. In 44 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the effect of chronic administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists sotalol, propranolol, pindolol, metoprolol and atenolol on beta-adrenoceptor density in right atria (containing 70% beta 1- and 30% beta 2-adrenoceptors) and in lymphocytes (having only beta 2-adrenoceptors) was studied. 2. beta-Adrenoceptor density in right atrial membranes and in intact lymphocytes was assessed by (-)-[125I]-iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) binding; the relative amount of right atrial beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors was determined by inhibition of ICYP binding by the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 and analysis of the resulting competition curves by the iterative curve fitting programme LIGAND. 3. With the exception of pindolol, all beta-adrenoceptor antagonists increased right atrial beta-adrenoceptor density compared to that observed in atria from patients not treated with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. 4. All beta-adrenoceptor antagonists increased right atrial beta 1-adrenoceptor density; on the other hand, only sotalol and propranolol also increased right atrial beta 2-adrenoceptor density, whereas metoprolol and atenolol did not affect it and pindolol decreased it. 5. Similarly, in corresponding lymphocytes, only sotalol or propranolol increased beta 2-adrenoceptor density, while metoprolol and atenolol did not affect it and pindolol decreased it. 6. It is concluded that beta-adrenoceptor antagonists subtype-selectively regulate cardiac and lymphocyte beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. The selective increase in cardiac beta 1-adrenoceptor density evoked by metoprolol and atenolol may be one of the reasons for the beneficial effects observed in patients with end-stage congestive cardiomyopathy following intermittent treatment with low doses of selective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonists. PMID:2902891

  16. An ice sheet model validation framework for the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephen F.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Bonin, Jennifer A.; Howat, Ian M.; Neumann, Thomas; Saba, Jack; Tezaur, Irina; Guerber, Jeffrey; Chambers, Don P.; Evans, Katherine J.; Kennedy, Joseph H.; Lenaerts, Jan; Lipscomb, William H.; Perego, Mauro; Salinger, Andrew G.; Tuminaro, Raymond S.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Nowicki, Sophie M. J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new ice sheet model validation framework - the Cryospheric Model Comparison Tool (CmCt) - that takes advantage of ice sheet altimetry and gravimetry observations collected over the past several decades and is applied here to modeling of the Greenland ice sheet. We use realistic simulations performed with the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) along with two idealized, non-dynamic models to demonstrate the framework and its use. Dynamic simulations with CISM are forced from 1991 to 2013, using combinations of reanalysis-based surface mass balance and observations of outlet glacier flux change. We propose and demonstrate qualitative and quantitative metrics for use in evaluating the different model simulations against the observations. We find that the altimetry observations used here are largely ambiguous in terms of their ability to distinguish one simulation from another. Based on basin-scale and whole-ice-sheet-scale metrics, we find that simulations using both idealized conceptual models and dynamic, numerical models provide an equally reasonable representation of the ice sheet surface (mean elevation differences of < 1 m). This is likely due to their short period of record, biases inherent to digital elevation models used for model initial conditions, and biases resulting from firn dynamics, which are not explicitly accounted for in the models or observations. On the other hand, we find that the gravimetry observations used here are able to unambiguously distinguish between simulations of varying complexity, and along with the CmCt, can provide a quantitative score for assessing a particular model and/or simulation. The new framework demonstrates that our proposed metrics can distinguish relatively better from relatively worse simulations and that dynamic ice sheet models, when appropriately initialized and forced with the right boundary conditions, demonstrate a predictive skill with respect to observed dynamic changes that have occurred on

  17. An ice sheet model validation framework for the Greenland ice sheet

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Price, Stephen F.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Bonin, Jennifer A.

    We propose a new ice sheet model validation framework the Cryospheric Model Comparison Tool (CMCT) that takes advantage of ice sheet altimetry and gravimetry observations collected over the past several decades and is applied here to modeling of the Greenland ice sheet. We use realistic simulations performed with the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) along with two idealized, non-dynamic models to demonstrate the framework and its use. Dynamic simulations with CISM are forced from 1991 to 2013 using combinations of reanalysis-based surface mass balance and observations of outlet glacier flux change. We propose and demonstrate qualitative and quanti- tative metricsmore » for use in evaluating the different model simulations against the observations. We find 10 that the altimetry observations used here are largely ambiguous in terms of their ability to distinguish one simulation from another. Based on basin- and whole-ice-sheet scale metrics, the model initial condition as well as output from idealized and dynamic models all provide an equally reasonable representation of the ice sheet surface (mean elevation differences of <1 m). This is likely due to their short period of record, biases inherent to digital elevation models used for model initial conditions, and biases resulting from firn dynamics, which are not explicitly accounted for in the models or observations. On the other hand, we find that the gravimetry observations used here are able to unambiguously distinguish between simulations of varying complexity, and along with the CMCT, can provide a quantitative score for assessing a particular model and/or simulation. The new framework demonstrates that our proposed metrics can distinguish relatively better from relatively worse simulations and that dynamic ice sheet models, when appropriately initialized and forced with the right boundary conditions, demonstrate predictive skill with respect to observed dynamic changes occurring on Greenland over the past few

  18. An ice sheet model validation framework for the Greenland ice sheet

    PubMed Central

    Price, Stephen F.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Bonin, Jennifer A.; Howat, Ian M.; Neumann, Thomas; Saba, Jack; Tezaur, Irina; Guerber, Jeffrey; Chambers, Don P.; Evans, Katherine J.; Kennedy, Joseph H.; Lenaerts, Jan; Lipscomb, William H.; Perego, Mauro; Salinger, Andrew G.; Tuminaro, Raymond S.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Nowicki, Sophie M. J.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new ice sheet model validation framework – the Cryospheric Model Comparison Tool (CmCt) – that takes advantage of ice sheet altimetry and gravimetry observations collected over the past several decades and is applied here to modeling of the Greenland ice sheet. We use realistic simulations performed with the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) along with two idealized, non-dynamic models to demonstrate the framework and its use. Dynamic simulations with CISM are forced from 1991 to 2013 using combinations of reanalysis-based surface mass balance and observations of outlet glacier flux change. We propose and demonstrate qualitative and quantitative metrics for use in evaluating the different model simulations against the observations. We find that the altimetry observations used here are largely ambiguous in terms of their ability to distinguish one simulation from another. Based on basin- and whole-ice-sheet scale metrics, we find that simulations using both idealized conceptual models and dynamic, numerical models provide an equally reasonable representation of the ice sheet surface (mean elevation differences of <1 m). This is likely due to their short period of record, biases inherent to digital elevation models used for model initial conditions, and biases resulting from firn dynamics, which are not explicitly accounted for in the models or observations. On the other hand, we find that the gravimetry observations used here are able to unambiguously distinguish between simulations of varying complexity, and along with the CmCt, can provide a quantitative score for assessing a particular model and/or simulation. The new framework demonstrates that our proposed metrics can distinguish relatively better from relatively worse simulations and that dynamic ice sheet models, when appropriately initialized and forced with the right boundary conditions, demonstrate predictive skill with respect to observed dynamic changes occurring on Greenland over the

  19. An ice sheet model validation framework for the Greenland ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Price, Stephen F; Hoffman, Matthew J; Bonin, Jennifer A; Howat, Ian M; Neumann, Thomas; Saba, Jack; Tezaur, Irina; Guerber, Jeffrey; Chambers, Don P; Evans, Katherine J; Kennedy, Joseph H; Lenaerts, Jan; Lipscomb, William H; Perego, Mauro; Salinger, Andrew G; Tuminaro, Raymond S; van den Broeke, Michiel R; Nowicki, Sophie M J

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new ice sheet model validation framework - the Cryospheric Model Comparison Tool (CmCt) - that takes advantage of ice sheet altimetry and gravimetry observations collected over the past several decades and is applied here to modeling of the Greenland ice sheet. We use realistic simulations performed with the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) along with two idealized, non-dynamic models to demonstrate the framework and its use. Dynamic simulations with CISM are forced from 1991 to 2013 using combinations of reanalysis-based surface mass balance and observations of outlet glacier flux change. We propose and demonstrate qualitative and quantitative metrics for use in evaluating the different model simulations against the observations. We find that the altimetry observations used here are largely ambiguous in terms of their ability to distinguish one simulation from another. Based on basin- and whole-ice-sheet scale metrics, we find that simulations using both idealized conceptual models and dynamic, numerical models provide an equally reasonable representation of the ice sheet surface (mean elevation differences of <1 m). This is likely due to their short period of record, biases inherent to digital elevation models used for model initial conditions, and biases resulting from firn dynamics, which are not explicitly accounted for in the models or observations. On the other hand, we find that the gravimetry observations used here are able to unambiguously distinguish between simulations of varying complexity, and along with the CmCt, can provide a quantitative score for assessing a particular model and/or simulation. The new framework demonstrates that our proposed metrics can distinguish relatively better from relatively worse simulations and that dynamic ice sheet models, when appropriately initialized and forced with the right boundary conditions, demonstrate predictive skill with respect to observed dynamic changes occurring on Greenland over the past

  20. An ice sheet model validation framework for the Greenland ice sheet

    DOE PAGES

    Price, Stephen F.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Bonin, Jennifer A.; ...

    2017-01-17

    We propose a new ice sheet model validation framework the Cryospheric Model Comparison Tool (CMCT) that takes advantage of ice sheet altimetry and gravimetry observations collected over the past several decades and is applied here to modeling of the Greenland ice sheet. We use realistic simulations performed with the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) along with two idealized, non-dynamic models to demonstrate the framework and its use. Dynamic simulations with CISM are forced from 1991 to 2013 using combinations of reanalysis-based surface mass balance and observations of outlet glacier flux change. We propose and demonstrate qualitative and quanti- tative metricsmore » for use in evaluating the different model simulations against the observations. We find 10 that the altimetry observations used here are largely ambiguous in terms of their ability to distinguish one simulation from another. Based on basin- and whole-ice-sheet scale metrics, the model initial condition as well as output from idealized and dynamic models all provide an equally reasonable representation of the ice sheet surface (mean elevation differences of <1 m). This is likely due to their short period of record, biases inherent to digital elevation models used for model initial conditions, and biases resulting from firn dynamics, which are not explicitly accounted for in the models or observations. On the other hand, we find that the gravimetry observations used here are able to unambiguously distinguish between simulations of varying complexity, and along with the CMCT, can provide a quantitative score for assessing a particular model and/or simulation. The new framework demonstrates that our proposed metrics can distinguish relatively better from relatively worse simulations and that dynamic ice sheet models, when appropriately initialized and forced with the right boundary conditions, demonstrate predictive skill with respect to observed dynamic changes occurring on Greenland over the past few

  1. An Ice Sheet Model Validation Framework for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Stephen F.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Bonin, Jennifer A.; Howat, Ian M.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Saba, Jack; Tezaur, Irina; Guerber, Jeffrey R.; Chambers, Don P.; Evans, Katherine J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new ice sheet model validation framework - the Cryospheric Model Comparison Tool (CmCt) - that takes advantage of ice sheet altimetry and gravimetry observations collected over the past several decades and is applied here to modeling of the Greenland ice sheet. We use realistic simulations performed with the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) along with two idealized, non-dynamic models to demonstrate the framework and its use. Dynamic simulations with CISM are forced from 1991 to 2013, using combinations of reanalysis-based surface mass balance and observations of outlet glacier flux change. We propose and demonstrate qualitative and quantitative metrics for use in evaluating the different model simulations against the observations. We find that the altimetry observations used here are largely ambiguous in terms of their ability to distinguish one simulation from another. Based on basin-scale and whole-ice-sheet-scale metrics, we find that simulations using both idealized conceptual models and dynamic, numerical models provide an equally reasonable representation of the ice sheet surface (mean elevation differences of less than 1 meter). This is likely due to their short period of record, biases inherent to digital elevation models used for model initial conditions, and biases resulting from firn dynamics, which are not explicitly accounted for in the models or observations. On the other hand, we find that the gravimetry observations used here are able to unambiguously distinguish between simulations of varying complexity, and along with the CmCt, can provide a quantitative score for assessing a particular model and/or simulation. The new framework demonstrates that our proposed metrics can distinguish relatively better from relatively worse simulations and that dynamic ice sheet models, when appropriately initialized and forced with the right boundary conditions, demonstrate a predictive skill with respect to observed dynamic changes that have occurred

  2. 17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. Context-dependent similarity effects in letter recognition.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Robidoux, Serje; Guilbert, Daniel; Norris, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    In visual word recognition tasks, digit primes that are visually similar to letter string targets (e.g., 4/A, 8/B) are known to facilitate letter identification relative to visually dissimilar digits (e.g., 6/A, 7/B); in contrast, with letter primes, visual similarity effects have been elusive. In the present study we show that the visual similarity effect with letter primes can be made to come and go, depending on whether it is necessary to discriminate between visually similar letters. The results support a Bayesian view which regards letter recognition not as a passive activation process driven by the fixed stimulus properties, but as a dynamic evidence accumulation process for a decision that is guided by the task context.

  4. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond; Kunz, Karl

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. It is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods. These sheets are characterized by a discontinuity in the tangential magnetic field on either side of the sheet but no discontinuity in tangential electric field. This continuity, or single valued behavior of the electric field, allows the sheet current to be expressed in terms of an impedance multiplying this electric field.

  5. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  6. Clinching for sheet materials

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaocong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Latest developments in the clinching of sheet materials are reviewed in this article. Important issues are discussed, such as tool design, process parameters and joinability of some new lightweight sheet materials. Hybrid and modified clinching processes are introduced to a general reader. Several unaddressed issues in the clinching of sheet materials are identified. PMID:28656065

  7. Liquid sheet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; White, K. Alan, III

    1987-01-01

    A new external flow radiator concept, the liquid sheet radiator (LSR), is introduced. The LSR sheet flow is described and an expression for the length/width (l/w), ratio is presented. A linear dependence of l/w on velocity is predicted that agrees with experimental results. Specific power for the LSR is calculated and is found to be nearly the same as the specific power of a liquid droplet radiator, (LDR). Several sheet thicknesses and widths were experimentally investigated. In no case was the flow found to be unstable.

  8. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  9. Fuzzy support vector machines for adaptive Morse code recognition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Jin, Li-Cheng; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2006-11-01

    Morse code is now being harnessed for use in rehabilitation applications of augmentative-alternative communication and assistive technology, facilitating mobility, environmental control and adapted worksite access. In this paper, Morse code is selected as a communication adaptive device for persons who suffer from muscle atrophy, cerebral palsy or other severe handicaps. A stable typing rate is strictly required for Morse code to be effective as a communication tool. Therefore, an adaptive automatic recognition method with a high recognition rate is needed. The proposed system uses both fuzzy support vector machines and the variable-degree variable-step-size least-mean-square algorithm to achieve these objectives. We apply fuzzy memberships to each point, and provide different contributions to the decision learning function for support vector machines. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the proposed method elicited a higher recognition rate than other algorithms in the literature.

  10. [Rheumatologic and radiologic symptoms of dialysis-associated beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis: long-term retrospective study of 175 chronic hemodialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Hermann, E; Mayet, W J; Wandel, E; Scherer, G; Schadmand, S; Klose, K J; Poralla, T; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H; Köhler, H

    1991-01-01

    beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis is a major complication in chronic hemodialysis patients. Destructive arthropathy, spondylarthropathy, and carpal tunnel syndrome are clinical manifestations of beta 2M amyloid depositions within the joints, intervertebral discs, and tendon sheets. We have investigated the prevalence of beta 2M amyloidosis associated radiological joint lesions in a population of 175 patients on chronic hemodialysis. In 32 of 175 patients the diagnosis of amyloidosis arthropathy and spondylarthropathy was made by radiomorphological criteria. These 32 patients were asked about rheumatic symptoms (localisation and character of pain, synovitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, influence of dialysis membrane on pain) and examined clinically. Bilateral pain of the shoulders or wrists was complained by most of the patients. 24 of the 32 patients had signs of secondary hyperparathyroidism besides beta 2M-amyloidosis. 29 patients had a carpal tunnel syndrome, 23 of whom had to be operated. beta 2M-amyloid was histochemically demonstrated in all of these 23 cases. Renal transplantation led to immediate pain relief in 3 out of 3 patients, a change of the dialysis membrane (high-flux membrane) improved chronic pain in the majority of patients.

  11. Mutational analysis of immunoglobulin E-binding epitopes of beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin showed a heterogeneous pattern of critical amino acids between individual patients and pooled sera.

    PubMed

    Cocco, R R; Järvinen, K-M; Han, N; Beyer, K; Sampson, H A

    2007-06-01

    For immunotherapeutic approaches, 'critical' amino acids (AAs) within allergenic epitopes are replaced with alternate AAs to eliminate IgE antibody binding. To determine the critical AAs for IgE binding in beta-casein and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG). Peptides of 10-14 AAs in length were synthesized on a derivatized cellulose membrane with single AA substitutions (alanine or glycine) at each position. Membranes were incubated with a pool of sera from 15 cow's milk-allergic patients and individual sera from six of the 15 patients. In cases where no decrease in binding occurred with a single AA substitution, peptides with two AA substitutions were generated and labelled. Using pooled patient sera, single AA substitutions led to complete elimination of binding to six of 11 peptides for beta-casein and to all six peptides for BLG. Substituting two AAs led to an elimination of binding to four of the remaining five beta-casein epitopes. However, in three of the 11 modified beta-casein peptides and five of the six BLG peptides, no decrease in IgE binding occurred in at least one individual patient. For these patients, critical AAs other than those defined by the patient serum pool were identified, indicating a heterogeneous pattern of IgE recognition. These results indicate that AAs critical for IgE binding are more heterogeneous than initially defined by pooled milk-allergic patient sera. For future immunotherapeutic interventions with mutated peptides, critical AAs should also be identified with individual patient sera to account for heterogeneity of IgE binding between patients.

  12. Frontal theta and beta synchronizations for monetary reward increase visual working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2013-06-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is affected by motivational influences; however, little is known about how reward-related brain activities facilitate the VWM systems. To investigate the dynamic relationship between VWM- and reward-related brain activities, we conducted time-frequency analyses using electroencephalograph (EEG) data obtained during a monetary-incentive delayed-response task that required participants to memorize the position of colored disks. In case of a correct answer, participants received a monetary reward (0, 10 or 50 Japanese yen) announced at the beginning of each trial. Behavioral results showed that VWM capacity under high-reward condition significantly increased compared with that under low- or no-reward condition. EEG results showed that frontal theta (6 Hz) amplitudes enhanced during delay periods and positively correlated with VWM capacity, indicating involvement of theta local synchronizations in VWM. Moreover, frontal beta activities (24 Hz) were identified as reward-related activities, because delay-period amplitudes correlated with increases in VWM capacity between high-reward and no-reward conditions. Interestingly, cross-frequency couplings between frontal theta and beta phases were observed only under high-reward conditions. These findings suggest that the functional dynamic linking between VWM-related theta and reward-related beta activities on the frontal regions plays an integral role in facilitating increases in VWM capacity.

  13. Using an expanded outcomes framework and continuing education evidence to improve facilitation of patient-centered medical home recognition and transformation.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Thomas J; Kelvey-Albert, Michele; Katz, Matthew; Lalime, Ken; Sacks, Ken; Meehan, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home is a model for delivering primary care in the United States. Primary care clinicians and their staffs require assistance in understanding the innovation and in applying it to practice. The purpose of this article is to describe and to critique a continuing education program that is relevant to, and will become more common in, primary care. A multifaceted educational strategy prepared 20 primary care private practices to achieve National Committee for Quality Assurance Level 3 recognition as Patient-Centered Medical Homes. Eighteen (90%) practices submitted an application to the National Committee for Quality Assurance. On the first submission attempt, 13 of 18 (72%) achieved Level 3 recognition and 5 (28%) achieved Level 1 recognition. An interactive multifaceted educational strategy can be successful in preparing primary care practices for Patient-Centered Medical Homes recognition, but the strategy may not ensure transformation. Future educational activities should consider an expanded outcomes framework and the evidence of effective continuing education to be more successful with recognition and transformation.

  14. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  15. 37 CFR 1.76 - Application data sheet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application data sheet. 1.76... Application data sheet. (a) Application data sheet. An application data sheet is a sheet or sheets, that may... bibliographic data, arranged in a format specified by the Office. An application data sheet must be titled...

  16. Communication Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Rockville, MD.

    This brief fact sheet examines key aspects of communication, communication disabilities, and intervention. The fact sheet addresses the following questions: the nature of communication; communication disabilities (definitions of hearing impairments and speech and language impairments are given); effects of communication disabilities (factors…

  17. Direct Laser Writing of Single-Material Sheets with Programmable Self-Rolling Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauhofer, Anton; KröDel, Sebastian; Bilal, Osama; Daraio, Chiara; Constantinescu, Andrei

    Direct laser writing, a sub-class of two-photon polymerization, facilitates 3D-printing of single-material microstructures with inherent residual stresses. Here we show that controlled distribution of these stresses allows for fast and cost-effective fabrication of structures with programmable self-rolling capability. We investigate 2D sheets that evolve into versatile 3D structures. Precise control over the shape morphing potential is acquired through variations in geometry and writing parameters. Effects of capillary action and gravity were shown to be relevant for very thin sheets (thickness <1.5um) and have been analytically and experimentally quantified. In contrast to that, the deformations of sheets with larger thickness (>1.5um) are dominated by residual stresses and adhesion forces. The presented structures create local tensions up to 180MPa, causing rolling curvatures of 25E3m-1. A comprehensive analytical model that captures the relevant influence factors was developed based on laminate plate theory. The predicted curvature and directionality correspond well with the experimentally obtained data. Potential applications are found in drug encapsulation and particle traps for emulsions with differing surface energies. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation.

  18. The association between imitation recognition and socio-communicative competencies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Pope, Sarah M; Russell, Jamie L; Hopkins, William D

    2015-01-01

    Imitation recognition provides a viable platform from which advanced social cognitive skills may develop. Despite evidence that non-human primates are capable of imitation recognition, how this ability is related to social cognitive skills is unknown. In this study, we compared imitation recognition performance, as indicated by the production of testing behaviors, with performance on a series of tasks that assess social and physical cognition in 49 chimpanzees. In the initial analyses, we found that males were more responsive than females to being imitated and engaged in significantly greater behavior repetitions and testing sequences. We also found that subjects who consistently recognized being imitated performed better on social but not physical cognitive tasks, as measured by the Primate Cognitive Test Battery. These findings suggest that the neural constructs underlying imitation recognition are likely associated with or among those underlying more general socio-communicative abilities in chimpanzees. Implications regarding how imitation recognition may facilitate other social cognitive processes, such as mirror self-recognition, are discussed.

  19. The association between imitation recognition and socio-communicative competencies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Sarah M.; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Imitation recognition provides a viable platform from which advanced social cognitive skills may develop. Despite evidence that non-human primates are capable of imitation recognition, how this ability is related to social cognitive skills is unknown. In this study, we compared imitation recognition performance, as indicated by the production of testing behaviors, with performance on a series of tasks that assess social and physical cognition in 49 chimpanzees. In the initial analyses, we found that males were more responsive than females to being imitated and engaged in significantly greater behavior repetitions and testing sequences. We also found that subjects who consistently recognized being imitated performed better on social but not physical cognitive tasks, as measured by the Primate Cognitive Test Battery. These findings suggest that the neural constructs underlying imitation recognition are likely associated with or among those underlying more general socio-communicative abilities in chimpanzees. Implications regarding how imitation recognition may facilitate other social cognitive processes, such as mirror self-recognition, are discussed. PMID:25767454

  20. Calcium imaging of neural circuits with extended depth-of-field light-sheet microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Quirin, Sean; Vladimirov, Nikita; Yang, Chao-Tsung; Peterka, Darcy S.; Yuste, Rafael; Ahrens, Misha B.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the volumetric imaging speed of light-sheet microscopy will improve its ability to detect fast changes in neural activity. Here, a system is introduced for brain-wide imaging of neural activity in the larval zebrafish by coupling structured illumination with cubic phase extended depth-of-field (EDoF) pupil encoding. This microscope enables faster light-sheet imaging and facilitates arbitrary plane scanning—removing constraints on acquisition speed, alignment tolerances, and physical motion near the sample. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated by performing multi-plane calcium imaging in the fish brain with a 416 × 832 × 160 µm field of view at 33 Hz. The optomotor response behavior of the zebrafish is monitored at high speeds, and time-locked correlations of neuronal activity are resolved across its brain. PMID:26974063

  1. Genomic amplification of the human DHFR/MSH3 locus remodels mismatch recognition and repair activities.

    PubMed

    Drummond, J T

    1999-01-01

    Mismatch recognition in human cells is mediated by two heterodimers, MutS alpha and MutS beta. MutS alpha appears to shoulder primary responsibility for mismatch correction during replication, based on its relative abundance and ability to recognize a broad spectrum of base-base and base-insertion mismatches. Because MutS alpha and MutS beta share a common component, MSH2, conditions that influence the expression or degradation of MSH3 or MSH6 can redistribute the profile of mismatch recognition and repair. MSH3 is linked by a shared promoter with DHFR, connecting two pathways with key roles in DNA metabolism. In a classic example of gene amplification, the DHFR (and MSH3) locus can become amplified to several hundred copies in the presence of methotrexate. Under these conditions, MutS beta forms at the expense of MutS alpha, and the mutation rate in these tumor cells rises more than 100-fold. The implications for cancer chemotherapy include a potential increase in mutability when tumors are treated with methotrexate, which could increase the frequency of subsequent mutations that influence the tumor's drug sensitivity or aggressiveness. Because processing certain types of DNA damage by the mismatch repair pathway has also been implicated in tumor sensitivity to agents such as cisplatin, changes in expression at the DHFR/MSH3 locus may have further relevance to the outcome of multi-drug treatment regimens.

  2. Movement Contributes to Infants' Recognition of the Human Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Tamara; Slaughter, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrate that biological movement facilitates young infants' recognition of the whole human form. A body discrimination task was used in which 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old infants were habituated to typical human bodies and then shown scrambled human bodies at the test. Recovery of interest to the scrambled bodies was observed in…

  3. The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

  4. Sensitivities of Greenland ice sheet volume inferred from an ice sheet adjoint model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbach, P.; Bugnion, V.

    2009-04-01

    We present a new and original approach to understanding the sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to key model parameters and environmental conditions. At the heart of this approach is the use of an adjoint ice sheet model. Since its introduction by MacAyeal (1992), the adjoint method has become widespread to fit ice stream models to the increasing number and diversity of satellite observations, and to estimate uncertain model parameters such as basal conditions. However, no attempt has been made to extend this method to comprehensive ice sheet models. As a first step toward the use of adjoints of comprehensive three-dimensional ice sheet models we have generated an adjoint of the ice sheet model SICOPOLIS of Greve (1997). The adjoint was generated by means of the automatic differentiation (AD) tool TAF. The AD tool generates exact source code representing the tangent linear and adjoint model of the nonlinear parent model provided. Model sensitivities are given by the partial derivatives of a scalar-valued model diagnostic with respect to the controls, and can be efficiently calculated via the adjoint. By way of example, we determine the sensitivity of the total Greenland ice volume to various control variables, such as spatial fields of basal flow parameters, surface and basal forcings, and initial conditions. Reliability of the adjoint was tested through finite-difference perturbation calculations for various control variables and perturbation regions. Besides confirming qualitative aspects of ice sheet sensitivities, such as expected regional variations, we detect regions where model sensitivities are seemingly unexpected or counter-intuitive, albeit ``real'' in the sense of actual model behavior. An example is inferred regions where sensitivities of ice sheet volume to basal sliding coefficient are positive, i.e. where a local increase in basal sliding parameter increases the ice sheet volume. Similarly, positive ice temperature sensitivities in certain parts

  5. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  6. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; McDonald, Carolyn E.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  7. Enhancing workability in sheet production of high silicon content electrical steel through large shear deformation

    DOE PAGES

    Kustas, Andrew B.; Johnson, David R.; Trumble, Kevin P.; ...

    2018-07-01

    Enhanced workability, as characterized by the magnitude and heterogeneity of accommodated plastic strains during sheet processing, is demonstrated in high Si content Fe-Si alloys containing 4 and 6.5 wt% Si using two single-step, simple-shear deformation techniques – peeling and large strain extrusion machining (LSEM). The model Fe-Si material system was selected for its intrinsically poor material workability, and well-known applications potential in next-generation electric machines. In a comparative study of the deformation characteristics of the shear processes with conventional rolling, two distinct manifestations of workability are observed. For rolling, the relatively diffuse and unconfined deformation zone geometry leads to crackingmore » at low strains, with sheet structures characterized by extensive deformation twinning and banding. Workpiece pre-heating is required to improve the workability in rolling. In contrast, peeling and LSEM produce continuous sheet at large plastic strains without cracking, the result of more confined deformation geometries that enhances the workability. Peeling, however, results in heterogeneous, shear-banded microstructures, pointing to a second type of workability issue – flow localization – that limits sheet processing. This shear banding is to a large extent facilitated by unrestricted flow at the sheet surface, unavoidable in peeling. With additional confinement of this free surface deformation and appropriately designed deformation zone geometry, LSEM is shown to suppress shear banding, resulting in continuous sheet with homogeneous microstructure. Thus LSEM is shown to produce the greatest enhancement in process workability for producing sheet. In conclusion, these workability findings are explained and discussed based on differences in process mechanics and deformation zone geometry.« less

  8. Enhancing workability in sheet production of high silicon content electrical steel through large shear deformation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kustas, Andrew B.; Johnson, David R.; Trumble, Kevin P.

    Enhanced workability, as characterized by the magnitude and heterogeneity of accommodated plastic strains during sheet processing, is demonstrated in high Si content Fe-Si alloys containing 4 and 6.5 wt% Si using two single-step, simple-shear deformation techniques – peeling and large strain extrusion machining (LSEM). The model Fe-Si material system was selected for its intrinsically poor material workability, and well-known applications potential in next-generation electric machines. In a comparative study of the deformation characteristics of the shear processes with conventional rolling, two distinct manifestations of workability are observed. For rolling, the relatively diffuse and unconfined deformation zone geometry leads to crackingmore » at low strains, with sheet structures characterized by extensive deformation twinning and banding. Workpiece pre-heating is required to improve the workability in rolling. In contrast, peeling and LSEM produce continuous sheet at large plastic strains without cracking, the result of more confined deformation geometries that enhances the workability. Peeling, however, results in heterogeneous, shear-banded microstructures, pointing to a second type of workability issue – flow localization – that limits sheet processing. This shear banding is to a large extent facilitated by unrestricted flow at the sheet surface, unavoidable in peeling. With additional confinement of this free surface deformation and appropriately designed deformation zone geometry, LSEM is shown to suppress shear banding, resulting in continuous sheet with homogeneous microstructure. Thus LSEM is shown to produce the greatest enhancement in process workability for producing sheet. In conclusion, these workability findings are explained and discussed based on differences in process mechanics and deformation zone geometry.« less

  9. Aircraft Sheet Metal Practices; Sheet Metal Work 2: 9855.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline will serve as a guide to the 11th grade student interested in sheet metal occupations. Requiring 135 clock hours, the basic course covers orientation and techniques in aircraft sheet metal. Emphasis will be placed on the proper use of tools and machines, safety, fabrication methods, aircraft materials, basic layout, and special…

  10. A survey of context recognition in surgery.

    PubMed

    Pernek, Igor; Ferscha, Alois

    2017-10-01

    With the introduction of operating rooms of the future context awareness has gained importance in the surgical environment. This paper organizes and reviews different approaches for recognition of context in surgery. Major electronic research databases were queried to obtain relevant publications submitted between the years 2010 and 2015. Three different types of context were identified: (i) the surgical workflow context, (ii) surgeon's cognitive and (iii) technical state context. A total of 52 relevant studies were identified and grouped based on the type of context detected and sensors used. Different approaches were summarized to provide recommendations for future research. There is still room for improvement in terms of methods used and evaluations performed. Machine learning should be used more extensively to uncover hidden relationships between different properties of the surgeon's state, particularly when performing cognitive context recognition. Furthermore, validation protocols should be improved by performing more evaluations in situ and with a higher number of unique participants. The paper also provides a structured outline of recent context recognition methods to facilitate development of new generation context-aware surgical support systems.

  11. Understanding gender bias in face recognition: effects of divided attention at encoding.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Matthew A; Brewer, Neil; Horry, Ruth

    2013-03-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a female own-gender bias in face recognition, with females better at recognizing female faces than male faces. We explored the basis for this effect by examining the effect of divided attention during encoding on females' and males' recognition of female and male faces. For female participants, divided attention impaired recognition performance for female faces to a greater extent than male faces in a face recognition paradigm (Study 1; N=113) and an eyewitness identification paradigm (Study 2; N=502). Analysis of remember-know judgments (Study 2) indicated that divided attention at encoding selectively reduced female participants' recollection of female faces at test. For male participants, divided attention selectively reduced recognition performance (and recollection) for male stimuli in Study 2, but had similar effects on recognition of male and female faces in Study 1. Overall, the results suggest that attention at encoding contributes to the female own-gender bias by facilitating the later recollection of female faces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quaternary evolution of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet from 3D seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montelli, A.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Ottesen, D.; Johansen, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Quaternary seismic stratigraphy and architecture of the mid-Norwegian continental shelf and slope are investigated using extensive grids of marine 2D and 3D seismic reflection data that cover more than 100,000 km2 of the continental margin. At least 26 distinct regional palaeo-surfaces have been interpreted within the stratigraphy of the Quaternary Naust Formation on the mid-Norwegian margin. Multiple assemblages of buried glacigenic landforms are preserved within the Naust Formation across most of the study area, facilitating detailed palaeo-glaciological reconstructions. We document a marine-terminating, calving Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) margin present periodically on the Norwegian shelf since at least the beginning of the Quaternary. Elongate, streamlined landforms interpreted as mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGLs) have been found within the upper part of the Naust sequence N ( 1.9-1.6 Ma), sugesting the development of fast-flowing ice streams since that time. Shifts in the location of depocentres and direction of features indicative of fast ice-flow suggest that several reorganisations in the FIS drainage have occurred since 1.5 Ma. Subglacial landforms reveal a complex and dynamic ice sheet, with converging palaeo-ice streams and several flow-switching events that may reflect major changes in topography and internal ice-sheet structure. Lack of subglacial meltwater channels suggests a largely distributed, low-volume meltwater system that drained the FIS through permeable subglacial till without leaving much erosional evidence. This regional palaeo-environmental examination of the FIS provides a useful framework for ice-sheet modelling and shows that fragmentary preservation of buried surfaces and variability of ice-sheet dynamics should be taken into account when reconstructing glacial history from spatially limited datasets.

  13. Expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the corpus luteum and uterus from non-pregnant and pregnant llamas.

    PubMed

    Powell, Susan A; Smith, Bradford B; Timm, Karen I; Menino, Alfred R

    2007-08-01

    Because estrogen may be involved in maternal recognition of pregnancy and embryonic migration in llamas, expression of estrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) was evaluated in corpus luteum (CL), endometrium, and uterus using relative RT-PCR. Tissues were recovered from sterile-mated (SM) and pregnant (PG) females during Days 7-11 and 7-13 (Day 0 = day of mating), respectively, and follicular phase and juvenile females. Luteal expression of ERalpha and beta was similar (P > 0.10) in SM and PG females and within Days 7-11, however, expression of ERalpha in ovarian tissue from follicular phase females was greater (P < 0.05) than Days 7 and 9 CL. Uterus expressed less ERalpha and beta compared to endometrium (P = 0.07 and P < 0.01, respectively). Expression of ERalpha was greater (P < 0.05) in Day 7 and follicular phase uteri than Days 9 and 11, Day 13 PG and juvenile uteri. Uterine ERbeta expression was greater (P = 0.09) in PG versus SM females and in mated compared to follicular phase females (P < 0.05). Endometrial expression of ERalpha and beta did not differ (P > 0.10) between SM and PG females or by day. The presence of luteal ER during this period may mean a role for estradiol in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Observed increases in uterine ER expression with no changes in endometrium suggest expression increased in myometrium and/or perimetrium. Upregulation of myometrial ERbeta in PG females may be involved in supporting uterine migration of the embryo.

  14. Oxytocin, vasopressin and estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to social recognition in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E.; Lee, Anna W.; Reyes, Anny; Devidze, Nino; Phan, Anna; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), oxytocin (OT) and receptor, and vasopressin (AVP) and receptors in proestrous female mice. Following four 5 min exposures to the same two conspecifics, one was replaced with a novel mouse in the final trial (T5). Gene expression was examined in mice showing high (85–100%) and low (40–60%) social recognition scores (i.e., preferential novel mouse investigation in T5) in eight socially-relevant brain regions. Results supported OT and AVP involvement in social recognition, and suggest that in the medial preoptic area, increased OT and AVP mRNA, together with ERα and ERβ gene activation, relate to improved social recognition. Initial social investigation correlated with ERs, PR and OTR in the dorsolateral septum, suggesting that these receptors may modulate social interest without affecting social recognition. Finally, increased lateral amygdala gene activation in the LR mice may be associated with general learning impairments, while decreased lateral amygdala activity may indicate more efficient cognitive mechanisms in the HR mice. PMID:22079582

  15. 13. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of the Indiana State Highway Commission repair plans of 1969 for the Cicott Street Bridge. Photograph of a 24' by 36' print made from microfilm in the archives of the Indiana Department of Transportation in Indianapolis. - Cicott Street Bridge, Spanning Wabash River at State Road 25, Logansport, Cass County, IN

  16. Nonlinear distortion of thin liquid sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehring, Carsten Ralf

    Thin planar, annular and conical liquid sheets or films are analyzed, in a unified manner, by means of a reduced- dimension approach providing governing equations for the nonlinear motion of planar and swirling annular thin inviscid and incompressible liquid sheets in zero gravity and with axial disturbances only. Temporal analyses of periodically disturbed infinite sheets are considered, as well as spatial analyses of semi-infinite sheets modulated at the nozzle exit. Results on planar and swirling annular or conical sheets are presented for a zero density ambient gas. Here, conical sheets are obtained in the nearfield of the nozzle exit by considering sheets or films with swirl in excess of that needed to stabilize the discharging stream in its annular configuration. For nonswirling annular sheets a spatially and/or temporally constant gas-core pressure is assumed. A model extension considering the influence of aerodynamic effects on planar sheets is proposed. For planar and annular sheets, linear analyses of the pure initial- and pure boundary-value problem provide insight into the propagation characteristics of dilational and sinuous waves, the (linear) coupling between both wave modes, the stability limits for the annular configuration, as well as the appearance of particular waves on semi-infinite modulated sheets downstream from the nozzle exit. Nonlinear steady-state solutions for the conical configuration (without modulation) are illustrated. Comparison between nonlinear and linear numerical and linear analytical solutions for temporally or spatially developing sheets provides detailed information on the nonlinear distortion characteristics including nonlinear wave propagation and mode-coupling for all the considered geometric configurations and for a variety of parameter configurations. Sensitivity studies on the influence of Weber number, modulation frequency, annular radius, forcing amplitude and sheet divergence on breakup or collapse length and times

  17. Effect of colour pop-out on the recognition of letters in crowding conditions.

    PubMed

    Põder, Endel

    2007-11-01

    The crowding effect of adjacent objects on the recognition of a target can be reduced when target and flankers differ in some feature, that is irrelevant to the recognition task. In this study, the mechanisms of this effect were explored using targets and flankers of the same and different colours. It was found that facilitation nearly equal to that of differently coloured targets and flankers can be observed with a differently coloured background blob in the location of the target. The different-colour effect does not require advance knowledge of the target and flanker colours, but the effect increases in the course of three trials with constant mapping of colours. The results are consistent with the notion of exogenous attention that facilitates the processing at the most salient locations in the visual field.

  18. Beyond Slurry-Cast Supercapacitor Electrodes: PAN/MWNT Heteromat-Mediated Ultrahigh Capacitance Electrode Sheets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Jeong A; Kim, Ju-Myung; Lee, Sun-Young; Yeon, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Sang-Young

    2017-01-31

    Supercapacitors (SCs) have garnered considerable attention as an appealing power source for forthcoming smart energy era. An ultimate challenge facing the SCs is the acquisition of higher energy density without impairing their other electrochemical properties. Herein, we demonstrate a new class of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/multi-walled carbon tube (MWNT) heteromat-mediated ultrahigh capacitance electrode sheets as an unusual electrode architecture strategy to address the aforementioned issue. Vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) is chosen as a model electrode material to explore the feasibility of the suggested concept. The heteromat V 2 O 5 electrode sheets are produced through one-pot fabrication based on concurrent electrospraying (for V 2 O 5 precursor/MWNT) and electrospinning (for PAN nanofiber) followed by calcination, leading to compact packing of V 2 O 5 materials in intimate contact with MWNTs and PAN nanofibers. As a consequence, the heteromat V 2 O 5 electrode sheets offer three-dimensionally bicontinuous electron (arising from MWNT networks)/ion (from spatially reticulated interstitial voids to be filled with liquid electrolytes) conduction pathways, thereby facilitating redox reaction kinetics of V 2 O 5 materials. In addition, elimination of heavy metallic foil current collectors, in combination with the dense packing of V 2 O 5 materials, significantly increases (electrode sheet-based) specific capacitances far beyond those accessible with conventional slurry-cast electrodes.

  19. Beyond Slurry-Cast Supercapacitor Electrodes: PAN/MWNT Heteromat-Mediated Ultrahigh Capacitance Electrode Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Jeong A.; Kim, Ju-Myung; Lee, Sun-Young; Yeon, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Sang-Young

    2017-01-01

    Supercapacitors (SCs) have garnered considerable attention as an appealing power source for forthcoming smart energy era. An ultimate challenge facing the SCs is the acquisition of higher energy density without impairing their other electrochemical properties. Herein, we demonstrate a new class of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/multi-walled carbon tube (MWNT) heteromat-mediated ultrahigh capacitance electrode sheets as an unusual electrode architecture strategy to address the aforementioned issue. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is chosen as a model electrode material to explore the feasibility of the suggested concept. The heteromat V2O5 electrode sheets are produced through one-pot fabrication based on concurrent electrospraying (for V2O5 precursor/MWNT) and electrospinning (for PAN nanofiber) followed by calcination, leading to compact packing of V2O5 materials in intimate contact with MWNTs and PAN nanofibers. As a consequence, the heteromat V2O5 electrode sheets offer three-dimensionally bicontinuous electron (arising from MWNT networks)/ion (from spatially reticulated interstitial voids to be filled with liquid electrolytes) conduction pathways, thereby facilitating redox reaction kinetics of V2O5 materials. In addition, elimination of heavy metallic foil current collectors, in combination with the dense packing of V2O5 materials, significantly increases (electrode sheet-based) specific capacitances far beyond those accessible with conventional slurry-cast electrodes.

  20. Beyond Slurry-Cast Supercapacitor Electrodes: PAN/MWNT Heteromat-Mediated Ultrahigh Capacitance Electrode Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Jeong A; Kim, Ju-Myung; Lee, Sun-Young; Yeon, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Sang-Young

    2017-01-01

    Supercapacitors (SCs) have garnered considerable attention as an appealing power source for forthcoming smart energy era. An ultimate challenge facing the SCs is the acquisition of higher energy density without impairing their other electrochemical properties. Herein, we demonstrate a new class of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/multi-walled carbon tube (MWNT) heteromat-mediated ultrahigh capacitance electrode sheets as an unusual electrode architecture strategy to address the aforementioned issue. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is chosen as a model electrode material to explore the feasibility of the suggested concept. The heteromat V2O5 electrode sheets are produced through one-pot fabrication based on concurrent electrospraying (for V2O5 precursor/MWNT) and electrospinning (for PAN nanofiber) followed by calcination, leading to compact packing of V2O5 materials in intimate contact with MWNTs and PAN nanofibers. As a consequence, the heteromat V2O5 electrode sheets offer three-dimensionally bicontinuous electron (arising from MWNT networks)/ion (from spatially reticulated interstitial voids to be filled with liquid electrolytes) conduction pathways, thereby facilitating redox reaction kinetics of V2O5 materials. In addition, elimination of heavy metallic foil current collectors, in combination with the dense packing of V2O5 materials, significantly increases (electrode sheet-based) specific capacitances far beyond those accessible with conventional slurry-cast electrodes. PMID:28139765

  1. 5Beta,6beta-epoxy-17-oxoandrostan-3beta-yl acetate and 5beta,6beta-epoxy-20-oxopregnan-3beta-yl acetate.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rui M A; Salvador, Jorge A R; Paixão, José A

    2008-05-01

    In the title compounds, C(21)H(30)O(4), (I), and C(23)H(34)O(4), (II), respectively, which are valuable intermediates in the synthesis of important steroid derivatives, rings A and B are cis-(5beta,10beta)-fused. The two molecules have similar conformations of rings A, B and C. The presence of the 5beta,6beta-epoxide group induces a significant twist of the steroid nucleus and a strong flattening of the B ring. The different C17 substituents result in different conformations for ring D. Cohesion of the molecular packing is achieved in both compounds only by weak intermolecular interactions. The geometries of the molecules in the crystalline environment are compared with those of the free molecules as given by ab initio Roothan Hartree-Fock calculations. We show in this work that quantum mechanical ab initio methods reproduce well the details of the conformation of these molecules, including a large twist of the steroid nucleus. The calculated twist values are comparable, but are larger than the observed values, indicating a possible small effect of the crystal packing on the twist angles.

  2. Coupling between Mercury and its nightside magnetosphere: Cross-tail current sheet asymmetry and substorm current wedge formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poh, Gangkai; Slavin, James A.; Jia, Xianzhe; Raines, Jim M.; Imber, Suzanne M.; Sun, Wei-Jie; Gershman, Daniel J.; DiBraccio, Gina A.; Genestreti, Kevin J.; Smith, Andy W.

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) magnetic field and plasma measurements taken during 319 crossings of Mercury's cross-tail current sheet. We found that the measured BZ in the current sheet is higher on the dawnside than the duskside by a factor of ≈3 and the asymmetry decreases with downtail distance. This result is consistent with expectations based upon MHD stress balance. The magnetic fields threading the more stretched current sheet in the duskside have a higher plasma beta than those on the dawnside, where they are less stretched. This asymmetric behavior is confirmed by mean current sheet thickness being greatest on the dawnside. We propose that heavy planetary ion (e.g., Na+) enhancements in the duskside current sheet provides the most likely explanation for the dawn-dusk current sheet asymmetries. We also report the direct measurement of Mercury's substorm current wedge (SCW) formation and estimate the total current due to pileup of magnetic flux to be ≈11 kA. The conductance at the foot of the field lines required to close the SCW current is found to be ≈1.2 S, which is similar to earlier results derived from modeling of Mercury's Region 1 field-aligned currents. Hence, Mercury's regolith is sufficiently conductive for the current to flow radially then across the surface of Mercury's highly conductive iron core. Mercury appears to be closely coupled to its nightside magnetosphere by mass loading of upward flowing heavy planetary ions and electrodynamically by field-aligned currents that transfer momentum and energy to the nightside auroral oval crust and interior. Heavy planetary ion enhancements in Mercury's duskside current sheet provide explanation for cross-tail asymmetries found in this study. The total current due to the pileup of magnetic flux and conductance required to close the SCW current is found to be ≈11 kA and 1.2 S. Mercury is coupled to magnetotail by mass loading of heavy ions

  3. Structural polymorphism at LCR and its role in beta-globin gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Kukreti, Shrikant; Kaur, Harpreet; Kaushik, Mahima; Bansal, Aparna; Saxena, Sarika; Kaushik, Shikha; Kukreti, Ritushree

    2010-09-01

    Information on the secondary structures and conformational manifestations of eukaryotic DNA and their biological significance with reference to gene regulation and expression is limited. The human beta-globin gene Locus Control Region (LCR), a dominant regulator of globin gene expression, is a contiguous piece of DNA with five tissue-specific DNase I-hypersensitive sites (HSs). Since these HSs have a high density of transcription factor binding sites, structural interdependencies between HSs and different promoters may directly or indirectly regulate LCR functions. Mutations and SNPs may stabilize or destabilize the local secondary structures, affecting the gene expression by changes in the protein-DNA recognition patterns. Various palindromic or quasi-palindromic segments within LCR, could cause structural polymorphism and geometrical switching of DNA. This emphasizes the importance of understanding of the sequence-dependent variations of the DNA structure. Such structural motifs might act as regulatory elements. The local conformational variability of a DNA segment or action of a DNA specific protein is key to create and maintain active chromatin domains and affect transcription of various tissue specific beta-globin genes. We, summarize here the current status of beta-globin LCR structure and function. Further structural studies at molecular level and functional genomics might solve the regulatory puzzles that control the beta-globin gene locus. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Collaboration can improve individual recognition memory: evidence from immediate and delayed tests.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Suparna; Pereira-Pasarin, Luciane P

    2007-02-01

    In two experiments, we tested the effects of collaboration on individual recognition memory. In Experiment 1, participants studied pictures and words either for meaning or for surface properties and made recognition memory judgments individually either following group discussion among 3 members (collaborative condition) or in the absence of discussion (noncollaborative condition). Levels of processing and picture superiority effects were replicated, and collaboration significantly increased individual recognition memory. Experiment 2 replicated this positive effect and showed that even though memory sensitivity declined at longer delays (48 h and 1 week), collaboration continued to exert a positive influence. These findings show that (1) consensus is not necessary for producing benefits of collaboration on individual recognition, (2) collaborative facilitation on individual memory is robust, and (3) collaboration enhances individual memory further if conditions predispose individual accuracy in the absence of collaboration.

  5. Preliminary in vivo efficacy studies of a recombinant rhesus anti-alpha(4)beta(7) monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L E; Onlamoon, N; Wang, X; Wang, R; Li, J; Reimann, K A; Villinger, F; Pattanapanyasat, K; Mori, K; Ansari, A A

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings established that primary targets of HIV/SIV are lymphoid cells within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Focus has therefore shifted to T-cells expressing alpha(4)beta(7) integrin which facilitates trafficking to the GI tract via binding to MAdCAM-1. Approaches to better understand the role of alpha(4)beta(7)+ T-cells in HIV/SIV pathogenesis include their depletion or blockade of their synthesis, binding and/or homing capabilities in vivo. Such studies can ideally be conducted in rhesus macaques (RM), the non-human primate model of AIDS. Characterization of alpha(4)beta(7) expression on cell lineages in RM blood and GI tissues reveal low densities of expression by NK cells, B-cells, naïve and TEM (effector memory) T-cells. High densities were observed on TCM (central memory) T-cells. Intravenous administration of a single 50mg/kg dose of recombinant rhesus alpha(4)beta(7) antibody resulted in significant initial decline of alpha(4)beta(7)+ lymphocytes and sustained coating of the alpha(4)beta(7) receptor in both the periphery and GI tissues.

  6. Rapid communication: Global-local processing affects recognition of distractor emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Narayanan; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have shown links between happy faces and global, distributed attention as well as sad faces to local, focused attention. Emotions have been shown to affect global-local processing. Given that studies on emotion-cognition interactions have not explored the effect of perceptual processing at different spatial scales on processing stimuli with emotional content, the present study investigated the link between perceptual focus and emotional processing. The study investigated the effects of global-local processing on the recognition of distractor faces with emotional expressions. Participants performed a digit discrimination task with digits at either the global level or the local level presented against a distractor face (happy or sad) as background. The results showed that global processing associated with broad scope of attention facilitates recognition of happy faces, and local processing associated with narrow scope of attention facilitates recognition of sad faces. The novel results of the study provide conclusive evidence for emotion-cognition interactions by demonstrating the effect of perceptual processing on emotional faces. The results along with earlier complementary results on the effect of emotion on global-local processing support a reciprocal relationship between emotional processing and global-local processing. Distractor processing with emotional information also has implications for theories of selective attention.

  7. 9. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of sheet 1 (index and title sheet) of the State Highway Department of Indiana repair plans of 1957 for the Cicott Street Bridge. Photograph of a 24' by 36' print made from microfilm in the archives of the Indiana Department of Transportation in Indianapolis. - Cicott Street Bridge, Spanning Wabash River at State Road 25, Logansport, Cass County, IN

  8. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  9. Estradiol-Induced Object Recognition Memory Consolidation Is Dependent on Activation of mTOR Signaling in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Fan, Lu; Orr, Patrick T.; Zhao, Zaorui; Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is an important regulator of protein synthesis and is essential for various forms of hippocampal memory. Here, we asked whether the enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation produced by dorsal hippocampal infusion of 17[Beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) is dependent on mTOR…

  10. Six characteristics of effective structured reporting and the inevitable integration with speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Liu, David; Zucherman, Mark; Tulloss, William B

    2006-03-01

    The reporting of radiological images is undergoing dramatic changes due to the introduction of two new technologies: structured reporting and speech recognition. Each technology has its own unique advantages. The highly organized content of structured reporting facilitates data mining and billing, whereas speech recognition offers a natural succession from the traditional dictation-transcription process. This article clarifies the distinction between the process and outcome of structured reporting, describes fundamental requirements for any effective structured reporting system, and describes the potential development of a novel, easy-to-use, customizable structured reporting system that incorporates speech recognition. This system should have all the advantages derived from structured reporting, accommodate a wide variety of user needs, and incorporate speech recognition as a natural component and extension of the overall reporting process.

  11. Novel dense CO2 technique for beta-galactosidase immobilization in polystyrene microchannels.

    PubMed

    Leclair Ellis, Jeffrey; Tomasko, David L; Dehghani, Fariba

    2008-03-01

    In this study we design new fabrication techniques and demonstrate the potential of using dense CO2 for facilitating crucial steps in the fabrication of polymeric lab-on-a-chip microdevices by embedding biomolecules at temperatures well below the polymer's glass transition temperature (T(g)). These new techniques are environmentally friendly and done without the use of a clean room. Carbon dioxide at 40 degrees C and between 4.48 and 6.89 MPa was used to immobilize the biologically active molecule, beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), on the surface of polystyrene microchannels. To our knowledge, this is the first time dense CO2 has been used to directly immobilize an enzyme in a microchannel. beta-gal activity was maintained and shown via a fluorescent reaction product, after enzyme immobilization and microchannel capping by the designed fabrication steps at 40 degrees C and pressures up to 6.89 MPa.

  12. Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene beta-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Devitt, Luke C; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Holton, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to beta-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene beta-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene beta-cyclases (lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. A mutation in the lcy-beta2 gene, which inactivates enzyme activity, controls lycopene production in fruit and is responsible for the difference in carotenoid production between red and yellow-fleshed papaya fruit. The expression level of both lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2 genes is similar and low in leaves, but lcy-beta2 expression increases markedly in ripe fruit. Isolation of the lcy-beta2 gene from papaya, that is preferentially expressed in fruit and is correlated with fruit colour, will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for fruit colour in papaya and should create possibilities for metabolic engineering of carotenoid production in papaya fruit to alter both colour and nutritional properties.

  13. Simulation studies of substrate recognition by the exocellulase CelF from Clostridium cellulolyticum

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen, Mo; Himmel, Michael E.; Wilson, David B.

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study substrate recognition by the family 48 exocellulase CelF from Clostridium cellulolyticum. It was hypothesized that residues around the entrance of the active site tunnel of this enzyme might serve to recognize and bind the substrate through an affinity for the cellulose monomer repeat unit, ..beta..-d-glucopyranose. Simulations were conducted of the catalytic domain of this enzyme surrounded by a concentrated solution of ..beta..-d-glucopyranose, and the full three-dimensional probability distribution for finding sugar molecules adjacent to the enzyme was calculated from the trajectory. A significant probability of finding the sugar stacked against the planarmore » faces of Trp 310 and Trp 312 at the entrance of the active site tunnel was observed.« less

  14. Regulation of GM-CSF-induced dendritic cell development by TGF-beta1 and co-developing macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Y

    1998-01-01

    Using a culture system of bone marrow progenitor cells with GM-CSF and TGF-beta1, a study was performed to analyze the effect of TGF-beta1 on the development of dendritic cells (DC) and to elucidate the regulatory role of macrophages co-developing with dendritic cells. The results demonstrate that DC generated in the presence of TGF-beta1 were immature with respect to the expression of CD86, nonspecific esterase activity and cell shape. Such inhibitory effects of TGF-beta1 were dependent on FcR+ macrophages, which were depleted by panning. TGF-beta1 did not appear to inhibit the commitment of progenitor cells to the DC lineage. In addition, TGF-beta1 also acted directly on the intermediate stage of DC to prevent their over-maturation, which results in a preferential decrease in MHC class II, but not in CD86, in the presence of TNF-alpha. FcR+ suppressive macrophages were also shown to facilitate DC maturation when stimulated via FcR-mediated signals even in the presence of TGF-beta1. These results indicate that TGF-beta1 indirectly and directly regulate the development of DC and that co-developing macrophages have a regulatory role in DC maturation.

  15. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  16. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1988-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  17. Facilitators and Barriers of Implementing a Measurement Feedback System in Public Youth Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Kotte, Amelia; Hill, Kaitlin A; Mah, Albert C; Korathu-Larson, Priya A; Au, Janelle R; Izmirian, Sonia; Keir, Scott S; Nakamura, Brad J; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K

    2016-11-01

    This study examines implementation facilitators and barriers of a statewide roll-out of a measurement feedback system (MFS) in a youth public mental health system. 76 % of all state care coordinators (N = 47) completed interviews, which were coded via content analysis until saturation. Facilitators (e.g., recognition of the MFS's clinical utility) and barriers (e.g., MFS's reliability and validity) emerged paralleling the Exploration, Adoption/Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment framework outlined by Aarons et al. (Adm Policy Mental Health Mental Health Serv Res, 38:4-23, 2011). Sustainment efforts may leverage innovation fit, individual adopter, and system related facilitators.

  18. Orientation congruency effects for familiar objects: coordinate transformations in object recognition.

    PubMed

    Graf, M; Kaping, D; Bülthoff, H H

    2005-03-01

    How do observers recognize objects after spatial transformations? Recent neurocomputational models have proposed that object recognition is based on coordinate transformations that align memory and stimulus representations. If the recognition of a misoriented object is achieved by adjusting a coordinate system (or reference frame), then recognition should be facilitated when the object is preceded by a different object in the same orientation. In the two experiments reported here, two objects were presented in brief masked displays that were in close temporal contiguity; the objects were in either congruent or incongruent picture-plane orientations. Results showed that naming accuracy was higher for congruent than for incongruent orientations. The congruency effect was independent of superordinate category membership (Experiment 1) and was found for objects with different main axes of elongation (Experiment 2). The results indicate congruency effects for common familiar objects even when they have dissimilar shapes. These findings are compatible with models in which object recognition is achieved by an adjustment of a perceptual coordinate system.

  19. beta-Endorphin-induced analgesia is inhibited by synthetic analogs of beta-endorphin.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, P; Hammonds, R G; Li, C H

    1984-05-01

    Competitive antagonism of human beta-endorphin (beta h-EP)-induced analgesia by synthetic beta h-EP analogs with high in vitro opiate receptor binding to in vivo analgesic potency ratio has been demonstrated. A parallel shift of the dose-response curve for analgesia to the right was observed when either beta h-EP or [ Trp27 ] -beta h-EP was coinjected with various doses of [Gln8, Gly31 ]-beta h-EP-Gly-Gly-NH2, [Arg9,19,24,28,29]-beta h-EP, or [ Cys11 ,26, Phe27 , Gly31 ]-beta h-EP. It was estimated that the most potent antagonist, [Gln8, Gly31 ]-beta h-EP-Gly-NH2, is at least 200 times more potent than naloxone.

  20. beta-Endorphin-induced analgesia is inhibited by synthetic analogs of beta-endorphin.

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, P; Hammonds, R G; Li, C H

    1984-01-01

    Competitive antagonism of human beta-endorphin (beta h-EP)-induced analgesia by synthetic beta h-EP analogs with high in vitro opiate receptor binding to in vivo analgesic potency ratio has been demonstrated. A parallel shift of the dose-response curve for analgesia to the right was observed when either beta h-EP or [ Trp27 ] -beta h-EP was coinjected with various doses of [Gln8, Gly31 ]-beta h-EP-Gly-Gly-NH2, [Arg9,19,24,28,29]-beta h-EP, or [ Cys11 ,26, Phe27 , Gly31 ]-beta h-EP. It was estimated that the most potent antagonist, [Gln8, Gly31 ]-beta h-EP-Gly-NH2, is at least 200 times more potent than naloxone. PMID:6328494

  1. Investigation of the magnetic properties of Si-gradient steel sheet by comparison with 6.5%Si steel sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratani, T.; Zaizen, Y.; Oda, Y.; Yoshizaki, S.; Senda, K.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the magnetic properties of Si-gradient steel sheet produced by CVD (chemical vapor deposition) siliconizing process, comparing with 6.5% Si steel sheet. The Si-gradient steel sheet having silicon concentration gradient in the thickness direction, has larger hysteresis loss and smaller eddy current loss than the 6.5% Si steel sheet. In such a loss configuration, the iron loss of the Si-gradient steel sheet becomes lower than that of the 6.5% Si steel sheet at high frequencies. The experiment suggests that tensile stress is formed at the surface layer and compressive stress is formed at the inner layer in the Si gradient steel sheet. The magnetic anisotropy is induced by the internal stress and it is considered to affect the magnetization behavior of the Si-gradient steel sheet. The small eddy current loss of Si-gradient steel sheet can be explained as an effect of magnetic flux concentration on the surface layer.

  2. A Transient Initialization Routine of the Community Ice Sheet Model for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, Larissa; van den Broeke, Michiel; Noël, Brice; van de Wal, Roderik

    2017-04-01

    The Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) is to be applied in future simulations of the Greenland Ice Sheet under a range of climate change scenarios, determining the sensitivity of the ice sheet to individual climatic forcings. In order to achieve reliable results regarding ice sheet stability and assess the probability of future occurrence of tipping points, a realistic initial ice sheet geometry is essential. The current work describes and evaluates the development of a transient initialization routine, using NGRIP 18O isotope data to create a temperature anomaly field. Based on the latter, surface mass balance components runoff and precipitation are perturbed for the past 125k years. The precipitation and runoff fields originate from a downscaled 1 km resolution version of the regional climate model RACMO2.3 for the period 1961-1990. The result of the initialization routine is a present-day ice sheet with a transient memory of the last glacial-interglacial cycle, which will serve as the future runs' initial condition.

  3. Wave-induced drift of large floating sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, K. H.; Weber, J. E.

    In this article we study the wave-induced drift of large, flexible shallow floating objects, referred to as sheets. When surface waves propagate through a sheet, they provide a mean stress on the sheet, resulting in a mean drift. In response, the sheet generates an Ekman current. The drift velocity of the sheet is determined by (i) the wave-induced stress, (ii) the viscous stress due to the Ekman current, and (iii) the Coriolis force. The sheet velocity and the current beneath the sheet are determined for constant and depth-varying eddy viscosities.

  4. Frontal theta and beta synchronizations for monetary reward increase visual working memory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is affected by motivational influences; however, little is known about how reward-related brain activities facilitate the VWM systems. To investigate the dynamic relationship between VWM- and reward-related brain activities, we conducted time–frequency analyses using electroencephalograph (EEG) data obtained during a monetary-incentive delayed-response task that required participants to memorize the position of colored disks. In case of a correct answer, participants received a monetary reward (0, 10 or 50 Japanese yen) announced at the beginning of each trial. Behavioral results showed that VWM capacity under high-reward condition significantly increased compared with that under low- or no-reward condition. EEG results showed that frontal theta (6 Hz) amplitudes enhanced during delay periods and positively correlated with VWM capacity, indicating involvement of theta local synchronizations in VWM. Moreover, frontal beta activities (24 Hz) were identified as reward-related activities, because delay-period amplitudes correlated with increases in VWM capacity between high-reward and no-reward conditions. Interestingly, cross-frequency couplings between frontal theta and beta phases were observed only under high-reward conditions. These findings suggest that the functional dynamic linking between VWM-related theta and reward-related beta activities on the frontal regions plays an integral role in facilitating increases in VWM capacity. PMID:22349800

  5. Evidence of unfrozen liquids and seismic anisotropy at the base of the polar ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittlinger, Gérard; Farra, Véronique

    2015-03-01

    We analyze seismic data from broadband stations located on the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to determine polar ice seismic velocities. P-to-S converted waves at the ice/rock interface and inside the ice sheets and their multiples (the P-receiver functions) are used to estimate in-situ P-wave velocity (Vp) and P-to-S velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) of polar ice. We find that the polar ice sheets have a two-layer structure; an upper layer of variable thickness (about 2/3 of the total thickness) with seismic velocities close to the standard ice values, and a lower layer of approximately constant thickness with standard Vp but ∼25% smaller Vs. The lower layer ceiling corresponds approximately to the -30 °C isotherm. Synthetic modeling of P-receiver functions shows that strong seismic anisotropy and low vertical S velocity are needed in the lower layer. The seismic anisotropy results from the preferred orientation of ice crystal c-axes toward the vertical. The low vertical S velocity may be due to the presence of unfrozen liquids resulting from premelting at grain joints and/or melting of chemical solutions buried in the ice. The strongly preferred ice crystal orientation fabric and the unfrozen fluids may facilitate polar ice sheet basal flow.

  6. Robust Pedestrian Tracking and Recognition from FLIR Video: A Unified Approach via Sparse Coding

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Guo, Rui; Chen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Sparse coding is an emerging method that has been successfully applied to both robust object tracking and recognition in the vision literature. In this paper, we propose to explore a sparse coding-based approach toward joint object tracking-and-recognition and explore its potential in the analysis of forward-looking infrared (FLIR) video to support nighttime machine vision systems. A key technical contribution of this work is to unify existing sparse coding-based approaches toward tracking and recognition under the same framework, so that they can benefit from each other in a closed-loop. On the one hand, tracking the same object through temporal frames allows us to achieve improved recognition performance through dynamical updating of template/dictionary and combining multiple recognition results; on the other hand, the recognition of individual objects facilitates the tracking of multiple objects (i.e., walking pedestrians), especially in the presence of occlusion within a crowded environment. We report experimental results on both the CASIAPedestrian Database and our own collected FLIR video database to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed joint tracking-and-recognition approach. PMID:24961216

  7. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts. (a.... (b) Purpose of balance sheet accounts. The balance sheet accounts are intended to disclose the...

  8. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts. (a.... (b) Purpose of balance sheet accounts. The balance sheet accounts are intended to disclose the...

  9. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 33 skill sheets for agricultural mechanics was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Some sheets teach operational procedures while others are for simple projects. Each skill sheet covers a single topic and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step construction or operational…

  10. AE activity during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Gong, X. Z.; Ren, Q. L.; Ding, S. Y.; Qian, J. P.; Pan, C. K.; Li, G. Q.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Garofalo, A. M.; McClenaghan, J.

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced AE activity has been observed during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta DIII-D discharges with internal transport barriers (ITBs). These drops in beta are believed to be caused by n=1 external kink modes. In some discharges, beta recovers within 200 ms but, in others, beta stays suppressed. A typical discharge has βP 3, qmin 3, and q95 12. The drop in beta affects both fast ions and thermal particles, and a drop is also observed in the density and rotation. The enhanced AE activity follows the instability that causes the beta drop, is largest at the lowest beta, and subsides as beta recovers. MHD stability analysis is planned. A database study of the plasma conditions associated with the collapse will be also presented. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC05-06OR23100, and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China 11575249, and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China No. 2015GB110005.

  11. Sheet production apparatus for removing a crystalline sheet from the surface of a melt using gas jets located above and below the crystalline sheet

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kellerman, Peter L.; Thronson, Gregory D.

    In one embodiment, a sheet production apparatus comprises a vessel configured to hold a melt of a material. A cooling plate is disposed proximate the melt and is configured to form a sheet of the material on the melt. A first gas jet is configured to direct a gas toward an edge of the vessel. A sheet of a material is translated horizontally on a surface of the melt and the sheet is removed from the melt. The first gas jet may be directed at the meniscus and may stabilize this meniscus or increase local pressure within the meniscus.

  12. Recognition of Arabic Sign Language Alphabet Using Polynomial Classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaleh, Khaled; Al-Rousan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Building an accurate automatic sign language recognition system is of great importance in facilitating efficient communication with deaf people. In this paper, we propose the use of polynomial classifiers as a classification engine for the recognition of Arabic sign language (ArSL) alphabet. Polynomial classifiers have several advantages over other classifiers in that they do not require iterative training, and that they are highly computationally scalable with the number of classes. Based on polynomial classifiers, we have built an ArSL system and measured its performance using real ArSL data collected from deaf people. We show that the proposed system provides superior recognition results when compared with previously published results using ANFIS-based classification on the same dataset and feature extraction methodology. The comparison is shown in terms of the number of misclassified test patterns. The reduction in the rate of misclassified patterns was very significant. In particular, we have achieved a 36% reduction of misclassifications on the training data and 57% on the test data.

  13. Emotion recognition from multichannel EEG signals using K-nearest neighbor classification.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Xu, Hongpei; Liu, Xingwang; Lu, Shengfu

    2018-04-27

    Many studies have been done on the emotion recognition based on multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. This paper explores the influence of the emotion recognition accuracy of EEG signals in different frequency bands and different number of channels. We classified the emotional states in the valence and arousal dimensions using different combinations of EEG channels. Firstly, DEAP default preprocessed data were normalized. Next, EEG signals were divided into four frequency bands using discrete wavelet transform, and entropy and energy were calculated as features of K-nearest neighbor Classifier. The classification accuracies of the 10, 14, 18 and 32 EEG channels based on the Gamma frequency band were 89.54%, 92.28%, 93.72% and 95.70% in the valence dimension and 89.81%, 92.24%, 93.69% and 95.69% in the arousal dimension. As the number of channels increases, the classification accuracy of emotional states also increases, the classification accuracy of the gamma frequency band is greater than that of the beta frequency band followed by the alpha and theta frequency bands. This paper provided better frequency bands and channels reference for emotion recognition based on EEG.

  14. Collaboration in associative recognition memory: using recalled information to defend "new" judgments.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven E; Abbe, Allison; Larson, Rakel P

    2006-11-01

    S. E. Clark, A. Hori, A. Putnam, and T. J. Martin (2000) showed that collaboration on a recognition memory task produced facilitation in recognition of targets but had inconsistent and sometimes negative effects regarding distractors. They accounted for these results within the framework of a dual-process, recall-plus-familiarity model but showed only weak evidence to support it. The present results of 3 experiments present stronger evidence for Clark et al.'s dual-process view and also show why such evidence is difficult to obtain. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of GSK-3beta ameliorates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong-Xiang; Lu, Ling; Wu, Zheng-Shan; Pu, Li-Yong; Sun, Bei-Cheng; Wang, Xue-Hao

    2012-06-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta/beta-catenin signaling regulates ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced apoptosis and proliferation, and inhibition of GSK-3beta has beneficial effects on I/R injury in the heart and the central nervous system. However, the role of this signaling in hepatic I/R injury remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling in hepatic I/R injury. Male C57BL/6 mice (weighing 22-25 g) were pretreated with either SB216763, an inhibitor of GSK-3beta, or vehicle. These mice were subjected to partial hepatic I/R. Blood was collected for test of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and liver specimen for assays of phosphorylation at the Ser9 residue of GSK-3beta, GSK-3beta activity, axin 2 and the anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and survivin, as well as the proliferative factors cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and apoptotic index (TUNEL). Real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used. SB216763 increased phospho-GSK-3beta levels and suppressed GSK-3beta activity (1880+/-229 vs 3280+/-272 cpm, P<0.01). ALT peaked at 6 hours after reperfusion. Compared with control, SB216763 decreased ALT after 6 hours of reperfusion (4451+/-424 vs 7868+/-845 IU/L, P<0.01), and alleviated hepatocyte necrosis and vacuolization. GSK-3beta inhibition led to the accumulation of beta-catenin in the cytosol (0.40+/-0.05 vs 1.31+/-0.11, P<0.05) and nucleus (0.62+/-0.14 vs 1.73+/-0.12, P<0.05), beta-catenin further upregulated the expression of axin 2. Upregulation of GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling increased Bcl-2, survivin and cyclin D1. Serological and histological analyses showed that SB216763 alleviated hepatic I/R-induced injury by reducing apoptosis (1.4+/-0.2% vs 3.6+/-0.4%, P<0.05) and enhanced liver proliferation (56+/-8% vs 19+/-4%, P<0.05). Inhibition of GSK-3beta ameliorates hepatic I/R injury through the GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling pathway.

  16. Biosynthesis of ketomycin. (II) biomimetic model for beta-lactamase catalysis: host-guest interactions in cyclodextrin-penicillin inclusion complex

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mak, H.W.

    The antibiotic ketomycin is formed from shikimic acid via chorismic acid and prephenic acid. Phenylalanine and 2',5'-dihydrophenylalanine derived from shikimic acid are not intermediates in the biosynthesis. Degradation of ketomycin derived from (1,6-/sup 14/C)shikimic acid showed that prephenic acid is converted into ketomycin with stereospecific discrimination between the two enantiotopic edges of the ring, the pro-S-R edge giving rise to the C-2', C-3' side of the cyclohexane ring of ketomycin. The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to the action of ..beta..-lactam antibiotics is mainly ascribed to their ability to produce ..beta..-lactamase to cleave the ..beta..-lactam ring. It is essential to understandmore » the molecular nature of ..beta..-lactamase-penicillin recognition for designing and formulating more effective ..beta..-lactam antibiotics. A biomimetic study of ..beta..-lactamase is therefore initiated. To meet the requirements of hydrophobic and serine protease characteristics of ..beta..-lactamase, ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin is chosen as a biomimetic model for ..beta..-lactamase. The structural specificity and the chemical dynamics of ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-phenoxymethyl penicillin inclusion complex in solid state and in solution have been determined by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The spectral results strongly indicate that the phenyl portion of the phenoxymethyl penicillin forms a stable inclusion complex with the hydrophobic cavity of ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin in solution as well as in the solid state. Kinetic studies followed by /sup 1/HNMR and HPLC analyses under alkaline condition have shown that the ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin mimics the catalytic function of serine of ..beta..-lactamase in the stereospecific hydrolysis of the ..beta..-lactam ring of phenoxymethyl penicillin.« less

  17. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization...

  18. Mechanistic insights into phosphoprotein-binding FHA domains.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiangyang; Van Doren, Steven R

    2008-08-01

    [Structure: see text]. FHA domains are protein modules that switch signals in diverse biological pathways by monitoring the phosphorylation of threonine residues of target proteins. As part of the effort to gain insight into cellular avoidance of cancer, FHA domains involved in the cellular response to DNA damage have been especially well-characterized. The complete protein where the FHA domain resides and the interaction partners determine the nature of the signaling. Thus, a key biochemical question is how do FHA domains pick out their partners from among thousands of alternatives in the cell? This Account discusses the structure, affinity, and specificity of FHA domains and the formation of their functional structure. Although FHA domains share sequence identity at only five loop residues, they all fold into a beta-sandwich of two beta-sheets. The conserved arginine and serine of the recognition loops recognize the phosphorylation of the threonine targeted. Side chains emanating from loops that join beta-strand 4 with 5, 6 with 7, or 10 with 11 make specific contacts with amino acids of the ligand that tailor sequence preferences. Many FHA domains choose a partner in extended conformation, somewhat according to the residue three after the phosphothreonine in sequence (pT + 3 position). One group of FHA domains chooses a short carboxylate-containing side chain at pT + 3. Another group chooses a long, branched aliphatic side chain. A third group prefers other hydrophobic or uncharged polar side chains at pT + 3. However, another FHA domain instead chooses on the basis of pT - 2, pT - 3, and pT + 1 positions. An FHA domain from a marker of human cancer instead chooses a much longer protein fragment that adds a beta-strand to its beta-sheet and that presents hydrophobic residues from a novel helix to the usual recognition surface. This novel recognition site and more remote sites for the binding of other types of protein partners were predicted for the entire family

  19. Global precedence effects account for individual differences in both face and object recognition performance.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Christian; Starrfelt, Randi

    2018-03-20

    There has been an increase in studies adopting an individual difference approach to examine visual cognition and in particular in studies trying to relate face recognition performance with measures of holistic processing (the face composite effect and the part-whole effect). In the present study we examine whether global precedence effects, measured by means of non-face stimuli in Navon's paradigm, can also account for individual differences in face recognition and, if so, whether the effect is of similar magnitude for faces and objects. We find evidence that global precedence effects facilitate both face and object recognition, and to a similar extent. Our results suggest that both face and object recognition are characterized by a coarse-to-fine temporal dynamic, where global shape information is derived prior to local shape information, and that the efficiency of face and object recognition is related to the magnitude of the global precedence effect.

  20. The Physics of Ice Sheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassis, J. N.

    2008-01-01

    The great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland are vast deposits of frozen freshwater that contain enough to raise sea level by approximately 70 m if they were to completely melt. Because of the potentially catastrophic impact that ice sheets can have, it is important that we understand how ice sheets have responded to past climate changes and…

  1. Stability of Thin Liquid Sheet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConley, Marc W.; Chubb, Donald L.; McMaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1997-01-01

    A two-dimensional, linear stability analysis of a thin nonplanar liquid sheet flow in vacuum is carried out. A sheet flow created by a narrow slit of W and tau attains a nonplanar cross section as a consequence of cylinders forming on the sheet edge under the influence of surface tension forces. The region where these edge cylinders join the sheet is one of high curvature, and this is found to be the location where instability is most likely to occur. The sheet flow is found to be unstable, but with low growth rates for symmetric wave disturbances and high growth rates for antisymmetric disturbances. By combining the symmetric and antisymmetric disturbance modes, a wide range of stability characteristics is obtained. The product of unstable growth rate and flow time is proportional to the width-to-thickness ratio of the sift generating the sheet Three-dimensional effects can alter these results, particularly when the sheet length-to-width ratio is not much greater than unity.

  2. Oxytocin, vasopressin and estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to social recognition in female mice.

    PubMed

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Lee, Anna W; Reyes, Anny; Devidze, Nino; Phan, Anna; Pfaff, Donald W; Choleris, Elena

    2012-02-28

    Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), oxytocin (OT) and receptor, and vasopressin (AVP) and receptors in proestrous female mice. Following four 5 min exposures to the same two conspecifics, one was replaced with a novel mouse in the final trial (T5). Gene expression was examined in mice showing high (85-100%) and low (40-60%) social recognition scores (i.e., preferential novel mouse investigation in T5) in eight socially-relevant brain regions. Results supported OT and AVP involvement in social recognition, and suggest that in the medial preoptic area, increased OT and AVP mRNA, together with ERα and ERβ gene activation, relate to improved social recognition. Initial social investigation correlated with ERs, PR and OTR in the dorsolateral septum, suggesting that these receptors may modulate social interest without affecting social recognition. Finally, increased lateral amygdala gene activation in the LR mice may be associated with general learning impairments, while decreased lateral amygdala activity may indicate more efficient cognitive mechanisms in the HR mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma Sheet Circulation Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Delcourt, D. C.; Slinker, S. P.; Fedder, J. A.; Damiano, P.; Lotko, W.

    2008-01-01

    Global simulations of Earth's magnetosphere in the solar wind compute the pathways of plasma circulation through the plasma sheet. We address the pathways that supply and drain the plasma sheet, by coupling single fluid simulations with Global Ion Kinetic simulations of the outer magnetosphere and the Comprehensive Ring Current Model of the inner magnetosphere, including plasmaspheric plasmas. We find that the plasma sheet is supplied with solar wind plasmas via the magnetospheric flanks, and that this supply is most effective for northward IMF. For southward IMF, the innermost plasma sheet and ring current region are directly supplied from the flanks, with an asymmetry of single particle entry favoring the dawn flank. The central plasma sheet (near midnight) is supplied, as expected, from the lobes and polar cusps, but the near-Earth supply consists mainly of slowly moving ionospheric outflows for typical conditions. Work with the recently developed multi-fluid LFM simulation shows transport via plasma "fingers" extending Earthward from the flanks, suggestive of an interchange instability. We investigate this with solar wind ion trajectories, seeking to understand the fingering mechanisms and effects on transport rates.

  4. Scaling results for the liquid sheet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.

    1989-01-01

    Surface tension forces at the edges of a thin liquid (approx 100 micrometers) sheet flow result in a triangularly shaped sheet. Such a geometry is ideal for an external flow radiator. The experimental investigation of such sheet flows was extended to large sheets (width = 23.5 cm, length = 3.5 m). Experimental L/W results are greater than the calculated results. However, more experimental results are necessary for a complete comparison. The calculated emissivity of a sheet of Dow-Corning 705 silicone oil, which is low temperature (300-400 K) candidate for a liquid sheet radiator (LSR), is greater than 0.8 for sheet thicknesses greater than 100 micrometers.

  5. AmrZ Beta-Sheet Residues Are Essential for DNA Binding and Transcriptional Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Genes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Waligora, Elizabeth A.; Ramsey, Deborah M.; Pryor, Edward E.; Lu, Haiping; Hollis, Thomas; Sloan, Gina P.; Deora, Rajendar; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    AmrZ is a putative ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) transcriptional regulator. RHH proteins utilize residues within the β-sheet for DNA binding, while the α-helices promote oligomerization. AmrZ is of interest due to its dual roles as a transcriptional activator and as a repressor, regulating genes encoding virulence factors associated with both chronic and acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. In this study, cross-linking revealed that AmrZ forms oligomers in solution but that the amino terminus, containing an unordered region and a β-sheet, were not required for oligomerization. The first 12 unordered residues (extended amino terminus) contributed minimally to DNA binding. Mutagenesis of the AmrZ β-sheet demonstrated that residues 18, 20, and 22 were essential for DNA binding at both activation and repressor sites, suggesting that AmrZ utilizes a similar mechanism for binding to these sites. Mice infected with amrZ mutants exhibited reduced bacterial burden, morbidity, and mortality. Direct in vivo competition assays showed a 5-fold competitive advantage for the wild type over an isogenic amrZ mutant. Finally, the reduced infection phenotype of the amrZ-null strain was similar to that of a strain expressing a DNA-binding-deficient AmrZ variant, indicating that DNA binding and transcriptional regulation by AmrZ is responsible for the in vivo virulence defect. These recent infection data, along with previously identified AmrZ-regulated virulence factors, suggest the necessity of AmrZ transcriptional regulation for optimal virulence during acute infection. PMID:20709902

  6. Flexible Structural-Health-Monitoring Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qing, Xinlin; Kuo, Fuo

    2008-01-01

    A generic design for a type of flexible structural-health-monitoring sheet with multiple sensor/actuator types and a method of manufacturing such sheets has been developed. A sheet of this type contains an array of sensing and/or actuation elements, associated wires, and any other associated circuit elements incorporated into various flexible layers on a thin, flexible substrate. The sheet can be affixed to a structure so that the array of sensing and/or actuation elements can be used to analyze the structure in accordance with structural-health-monitoring techniques. Alternatively, the sheet can be designed to be incorporated into the body of the structure, especially if the structure is made of a composite material. Customarily, structural-health monitoring is accomplished by use of sensors and actuators arrayed at various locations on a structure. In contrast, a sheet of the present type can contain an entire sensor/actuator array, making it unnecessary to install each sensor and actuator individually on or in a structure. Sensors of different types such as piezoelectric and fiber-optic can be embedded in the sheet to form a hybrid sensor network. Similarly, the traces for electric communication can be deposited on one or two layers as required, and an entirely separate layer can be employed to shield the sensor elements and traces.

  7. Facilitating complex shape drawing in Williams syndrome and typical development.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Kerry D; Farran, Emily K

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) produce drawings that are disorganised, likely due to an inability to replicate numerous spatial relations between parts. This study attempted to circumvent these drawing deficits in WS when copying complex combinations of one, two and three shapes. Drawing decisions were reduced by introducing a number of facilitators, for example, by using distinct colours and including facilitatory cues on the response sheet. Overall, facilitation improved drawing in the WS group to a comparable level of accuracy as typically developing participants (matched for non-verbal ability). Drawing accuracy was greatest in both groups when planning demands (e.g. starting location, line lengths and changes in direction) were reduced by use of coloured figures and providing easily distinguished and clearly grouped facilitatory cues to form each shape. This study provides the first encouraging evidence to suggest that drawing of complex shapes in WS can be facilitated; individuals with WS might be receptive to remediation programmes for drawing and handwriting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estrogenic involvement in social learning, social recognition and pathogen avoidance.

    PubMed

    Choleris, Elena; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Phan, Anna; Valsecchi, Paola; Kavaliers, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Sociality comes with specific cognitive skills that allow the proper processing of information about others (social recognition), as well as of information originating from others (social learning). Because sociality and social interactions can also facilitate the spread of infection among individuals the ability to recognize and avoid pathogen threat is also essential. We review here various studies primarily from the rodent literature supporting estrogenic involvement in the regulation of social recognition, social learning (socially acquired food preferences and mate choice copying) and the recognition and avoidance of infected and potentially infected individuals. We consider both genomic and rapid estrogenic effects involving estrogen receptors α and β, and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1, along with their interactions with neuropeptide systems in the processing of social stimuli and the regulation and expression of these various socially relevant behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A panel method study of vortex sheets with special emphasis on sheets of axisymmetric geometry. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugioka, I.; Widnall, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    The self induced evolution of a vortex sheet was simulated by modeling the sheet using an integration of discrete elements of vorticity. Replacing small sections of a vortex sheet by flat panels of constant vorticity is found to reproduce more accurately the initial conditions for the Lagrangian simulation technique than replacement by point vortices. The flat panel method for the vortex sheet was then extended to model axisymmetric vortex sheets. The local and far field velocities induced by the axisymmetric panels were obtained using matched asymptotic analysis, and some of the uncertainties involved in other models of the axisymmetric vortex sheet have been eliminated. One important result of this analysis is the determination of the proper choice of core size for a circular vortex filament which may replace a section of an axisymmetric vortex sheet. Roll-up of both two dimensional and axisymmetric vortex sheets was computed using the panel methods developed in the report.

  10. Dynamics of Radially Expanding Liquid Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Nayanika; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2018-04-01

    The process of atomization often involves ejecting thin liquid sheets at high speeds from a nozzle that causes the sheet to flap violently and break up into fine droplets. The flapping of the liquid sheet has long been attributed to the sheet's interaction with the surrounding gas phase. Here, we present experimental evidence to the contrary and show that the flapping is caused by the thinning of the liquid sheet as it spreads out from the nozzle exit. The measured growth rates of the waves agree remarkably well with the predictions of a recent theory that accounts for the sheet's thinning but ignores aerodynamic interactions. We anticipate these results to not only lead to more accurate predictions of the final drop-size distribution but also enable more efficient designs of atomizers.

  11. Development of a tunable femtosecond stimulated raman apparatus and its application to beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sangdeok; Mathies, Richard A

    2008-04-17

    We have developed a tunable femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) apparatus and used it to perform time-resolved resonance Raman experiments with <100 fs temporal and <35 cm(-1) spectral resolution. The key technical change that facilitates this advance is the use of a tunable narrow-bandwidth optical parametric amplifier (NB-OPA) presented recently by Shim et al. (Shim, S.; Mathies, R. A. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2006, 89, 121124). The practicality of tunable FSRS is demonstrated by examining the photophysical dynamics of beta-carotene. Using 560 nm Raman excitation, the resonant S1 state modes are enhanced by a factor of approximately 200 compared with 800 nm FSRS experiments. The improved signal-to-noise ratios facilitate the measurement of definitive time constants for beta-carotene dynamics including the 180 fs appearance of the S1 vibrational features due to direct internal conversion from S2 and their characteristic 9 ps decay to S0. By tuning the FSRS system to 590 nm Raman excitation, we are able to selectively enhance vibrational features of the hot ground state S hot 0 and monitor its approximately 5 ps cooling dynamics. This tunable FSRS system is valuable because it facilitates the direct observation of structural changes of selected resonantly enhanced states and intermediates during photochemical and photobiological reactions.

  12. Ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO sheets: The effect of sheet size on photoresponse properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasempour Ardakani, Abbas; Pazoki, Meysam; Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Bahrampour, Ali Reza; Taghavinia, Nima

    2012-05-01

    In this work, ultraviolet photodetectors based on electrodeposited ZnO sheet thin films were fabricated on a glass substrate. Before electrodeposition, a thin buffer layer of ZnO was deposited on the glass by pulsed laser deposition method. This layer not only acted as a nucleation site for ZnO sheet growth, but also made it possible to use cheap glass substrate instead of conventional fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. Our results showed that photoresponse properties of the photodetectors strongly depend on the sheet sizes. The smaller sheets exhibited enhanced photosensitivity, shortened fall times and decreased gain compared to larger ones. We showed that photodetectors based on ZnO sheets have a faster response than ones based on polycrystalline films. It was also shown that even less response time could be obtained by using comb-like electrodes instead of two-electrode.

  13. Adsorption, immobilization, and activity of beta-glucosidase on different soil colloids.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinlong; Pan, Genxing; Li, Lianqing; Quan, Guixiang; Ding, Cheng; Luo, Ailan

    2010-08-15

    For a better understanding of enzyme stabilization and the subsequent catalytic process in a soil environment, the adsorption, immobilization, and activity of beta-glucosidase on various soil colloids from a paddy soil were studied. The calculated parameters maximum adsorption capacity (q(0)) for fine soil colloids ranged from 169.6 to 203.7 microg mg(-1), which was higher than coarse soil colloids in the range of 81.0-94.6 microg mg(-1), but the lower adsorption affinity (K(L)) was found on fine soil colloids. The percentages of beta-glucosidase desorbed from external surfaces of the coarse soil colloids (27.6-28.5%) were higher than those from the fine soil colloids (17.5-20.2%). Beta-glucosidase immobilized on the coarse inorganic and organic soil colloids retained 72.4% and 69.8% of activity, respectively, which indicated the facilitated effect of soil organic matter in the inhibition of enzyme activity. The residual activity for the fine soil clay is 79-81%. After 30 days of storage at 40 degrees C the free beta-glucosidase retained 66.2% of its initial activity, whereas the soil colloidal particle-immobilized enzyme retained 77.1-82.4% of its activity. The half-lives of free beta-glucosidase appeared to be 95.9 and 50.4 days at 25 and 40 degrees C. Immobilization of beta-glucosidase on various soil colloids enhanced the thermal stability at all temperatures, and the thermal stability was greatly affected by the affinity between the beta-glucosidase molecules and the surface of soil colloidal particles. Due to the protective effect of supports, soil colloidal particle-immobilized enzymes were less sensitive to pH and temperature changes than free enzymes. Data obtained in this study are helpful for further research on the enzymatic mechanisms in carbon cycling and soil carbon storage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.

  15. Stress-induced facilitation of host response to bacterial challenge in F344 rats is dependent on extracellular heat shock protein 72 and independent of alpha beta T cells.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Jay; Sharkey, Craig; Johnson, John D; Asea, Alexzander; Maslanik, Thomas; Bernstein-Hanley, Isaac; Fleshner, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Activation of the in vivo stress response can facilitate antibacterial host defenses. One possible mechanism for this effect is stress-induced release of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) into the extracellular environment. Hsp72 is a ubiquitous cellular protein that is up-regulated in response to cellular stress, and modulates various aspects of immune function including macrophage inflammatory/bactericidal responses and T-cell function when found in the extracellular environment. The current study tested the hypothesis that in vivo extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) at the site of inflammation contributes to stress-induced restricted development of bacteria, and facilitated recovery from bacteria-induced inflammation, and that this effect is independent of alpha beta (αβ) T cells. Male F344 rats were exposed to either inescapable electrical tail-shocks or no stress, and subcutaneously injected with Escherichia coli (ATCC 15746). The role of eHsp72 was investigated by Hsp72-immunoneutralization at the inflammatory site. The potential contribution of T cells was examined by testing male athymic (rnu/rnu) nude rats lacking mature αβ T cells and heterozygous thymic intact control (rnu/+) rats. The results were that stressor exposure increased plasma concentrations of eHsp72 and facilitated recovery from bacterial inflammation. Immunoneutralization of eHsp72 at the inflammatory site attenuated this effect. Stressor exposure impacted bacterial inflammation and eHsp72 equally in both athymic and intact control rats. These results support the hypothesis that eHsp72 at the site of inflammation, and not αβ T cells, contributes to the effect of stressor exposure on subcutaneous bacterial inflammation.

  16. Chemical factors determine olfactory system beta oscillations in waking rats.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Catherine A; Kay, Leslie M

    2007-07-01

    Recent studies have pointed to olfactory system beta oscillations of the local field potential (15-30 Hz) and their roles both in learning and as specific responses to predator odors. To describe odorant physical properties, resultant behavioral responses and changes in the central olfactory system that may induce these oscillations without associative learning, we tested rats with 26 monomolecular odorants spanning 6 log units of theoretical vapor pressure (estimate of relative vapor phase concentration) and 10 different odor mixtures. We found odorant vapor phase concentration to be inversely correlated with investigation time on the first presentation, after which investigation times were brief and not different across odorants. Analysis of local field potentials from the olfactory bulb and anterior piriform cortex shows that beta oscillations in waking rats occur specifically in response to the class of volatile organic compounds with vapor pressures of 1-120 mmHg. Beta oscillations develop over the first three to four presentations and are weakly present for some odorants in anesthetized rats. Gamma oscillations show a smaller effect that is not restricted to the same range of odorants. Olfactory bulb theta oscillations were also examined as a measure of effective afferent input strength, and the power of these oscillations did not vary systematically with vapor pressure, suggesting that it is not olfactory bulb drive strength that determines the presence of beta oscillations. Theta band coherence analysis shows that coupling strength between the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex increases linearly with vapor phase concentration, which may facilitate beta oscillations above a threshold.

  17. Polymerization on the rocks: beta-amino acids and arginine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, R.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the accumulation of long oligomers of beta-amino acids on the surface of minerals using the 'polymerization on the rocks' protocol. We find that long oligopeptides of beta-glutamic acid which cannot be formed in homogeneous aqueous solution are accumulated efficiently on the surface of hydroxylapatite using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as condensing agent. The EDAC-induced oligomerization of aspartic acid on hydroxylapatite proceeds even more efficiently. Hydroxylapatite can also facilitate the ligation of the tripeptide (glu)3. The 'polymerization on the rocks' scenario is not restricted to negatively-charged amino acids. Oligoarginines are accumulated on the surface of illite using carbonyldiimidizole (CDI) as condensing agent. We find that FeS2 catalyzes the CDI-induced oligomerization of arginine, although it does not adsorb oligoarginines. These results are relevant to the formation of polypeptides on the primitive earth.

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the human mismatch repair protein MutS[beta

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tseng, Quincy; Orans, Jillian; Hast, Michael A.

    2012-03-16

    MutS{beta} is a eukaryotic mismatch repair protein that preferentially targets extrahelical unpaired nucleotides and shares partial functional redundancy with MutS{alpha} (MSH2-MSH6). Although mismatch recognition by MutS{alpha} has been shown to involve a conserved Phe-X-Glu motif, little is known about the lesion-binding mechanism of MutS{beta}. Combined MSH3/MSH6 deficiency triggers a strong predisposition to cancer in mice and defects in msh2 and msh6 account for roughly half of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer mutations. These three MutS homologs are also believed to play a role in trinucleotide repeat instability, which is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders. The baculovirus overexpression and purification ofmore » recombinant human MutS{beta} and three truncation mutants are presented here. Binding assays with heteroduplex DNA were carried out for biochemical characterization. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the protein bound to a heteroduplex DNA substrate are also reported.« less

  19. Functional Implications of the Subcellular Localization of Ethylene-Induced Chitinase and [beta]-1,3-Glucanase in Bean Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Mauch, F.; Staehelin, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Plants respond to an attack by potentially pathogenic organisms and to the plant stress hormone ethylene with an increased synthesis of hydrolases such as chitinase and [beta]-1,3-glucanase. We have studied the subcellular localization of these two enzymes in ethylene-treated bean leaves by immunogold cytochemistry and by biochemical fractionation techniques. Our micrographs indicate that chitinase and [beta]-1,3-glucanase accumulate in the vacuole of ethylene-treated leaf cells. Within the vacuole label was found predominantly over ethylene-induced electron dense protein aggregates. A second, minor site of accumulation of [beta]-1,3-glucanase was the cell wall, where label was present nearly exclusively over the middle lamella surrounding intercellular air spaces. Both kinds of antibodies labeled Golgi cisternae of ethylene-treated tissue, suggesting that the newly synthesized chitinase and [beta]-1,3-glucanase are processed in the Golgi apparatus. Biochemical fractionation studies confirmed the accumulation in high concentrations of both chitinase and [beta]-1,3-glucanase in isolated vacuoles, and demonstrated that only [beta]-1,3-glucanase, but not chitinase, was present in intercellular washing fluids collected from ethylene-treated leaves. Based on these results and earlier studies, we propose a model in which the vacuole-localized chitinase and [beta]-1,3-glucanase are used as a last line of defense to be released when the attacked host cells lyse. The cell wall-localized [beta]-1,3-glucanase, on the other hand, would be involved in recognition processes, releasing defense activating signaling molecules from the walls of invading pathogens. PMID:12359894

  20. On the Use of the Beta Distribution in Probabilistic Resource Assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    The triangular distribution is a popular choice when it comes to modeling bounded continuous random variables. Its wide acceptance derives mostly from its simple analytic properties and the ease with which modelers can specify its three parameters through the extremes and the mode. On the negative side, hardly any real process follows a triangular distribution, which from the outset puts at a disadvantage any model employing triangular distributions. At a time when numerical techniques such as the Monte Carlo method are displacing analytic approaches in stochastic resource assessments, easy specification remains the most attractive characteristic of the triangular distribution. The beta distribution is another continuous distribution defined within a finite interval offering wider flexibility in style of variation, thus allowing consideration of models in which the random variables closely follow the observed or expected styles of variation. Despite its more complex definition, generation of values following a beta distribution is as straightforward as generating values following a triangular distribution, leaving the selection of parameters as the main impediment to practically considering beta distributions. This contribution intends to promote the acceptance of the beta distribution by explaining its properties and offering several suggestions to facilitate the specification of its two shape parameters. In general, given the same distributional parameters, use of the beta distributions in stochastic modeling may yield significantly different results, yet better estimates, than the triangular distribution. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology (outside the USA).

  1. On the Use of the Beta Distribution in Probabilistic Resource Assessments

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Olea, Ricardo A., E-mail: olea@usgs.gov

    2011-12-15

    The triangular distribution is a popular choice when it comes to modeling bounded continuous random variables. Its wide acceptance derives mostly from its simple analytic properties and the ease with which modelers can specify its three parameters through the extremes and the mode. On the negative side, hardly any real process follows a triangular distribution, which from the outset puts at a disadvantage any model employing triangular distributions. At a time when numerical techniques such as the Monte Carlo method are displacing analytic approaches in stochastic resource assessments, easy specification remains the most attractive characteristic of the triangular distribution. Themore » beta distribution is another continuous distribution defined within a finite interval offering wider flexibility in style of variation, thus allowing consideration of models in which the random variables closely follow the observed or expected styles of variation. Despite its more complex definition, generation of values following a beta distribution is as straightforward as generating values following a triangular distribution, leaving the selection of parameters as the main impediment to practically considering beta distributions. This contribution intends to promote the acceptance of the beta distribution by explaining its properties and offering several suggestions to facilitate the specification of its two shape parameters. In general, given the same distributional parameters, use of the beta distributions in stochastic modeling may yield significantly different results, yet better estimates, than the triangular distribution.« less

  2. Van der Waals epitaxy and photoresponse of hexagonal tellurium nanoplates on flexible mica sheets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qisheng; Safdar, Muhammad; Xu, Kai; Mirza, Misbah; Wang, Zhenxing; He, Jun

    2014-07-22

    Van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE) is of great interest due to its extensive applications in the synthesis of ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) layered materials. However, vdWE of nonlayered functional materials is still not very well documented. Here, although tellurium has a strong tendency to grow into one-dimensional nanoarchitecture due to its chain-like structure, we successfully realize 2D hexagonal tellurium nanoplates on flexible mica sheets via vdWE. Chemically inert mica surface is found to be crucial for the lateral growth of hexagonal tellurium nanoplates since it (1) facilitates the migration of tellurium adatoms along mica surface and (2) allows a large lattice mismatch. Furthermore, 2D tellurium hexagonal nanoplates-based photodetectors are in situ fabricated on flexible mica sheets. Efficient photoresponse is obtained even after bending the device for 100 times, indicating 2D tellurium hexagonal nanoplates-based photodetectors on mica sheets have a great application potential in flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices. We believe the fundamental understanding of vdWE effect on the growth of 2D tellurium hexagonal nanoplate can pave the way toward leveraging vdWE as a useful channel to realize the 2D geometry of other nonlayered materials.

  3. Computer-Aided Light Sheet Flow Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data sets, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images, along with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. A description is provided of the photogrammetric reconstruction technique, and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment. Results of the computer aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images and CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  4. Ice sheet margins and ice shelves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the size of ice sheet margins in polar regions is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a rapid response to warming on the order of tens to hundreds of years. It is found that the early response of the polar regions to climate warming would be an increase in the area of summer melt on the ice sheets and ice shelves. For sufficiently large warming (5-10C) the delayed effects would include the breakup of the ice shelves by an increase in ice drainage rates, particularly from the ice sheets. On the basis of published data for periodic changes in the thickness and melting rates of the marine ice sheets and fjord glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, it is shown that the rate of retreat (or advance) of an ice sheet is primarily determined by: bedrock topography; the basal conditions of the grounded ice sheet; and the ice shelf condition downstream of the grounding line. A program of satellite and ground measurements to monitor the state of ice sheet equilibrium is recommended.

  5. Computer-aided light sheet flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data sets, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images, along with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. A description is provided of the photogrammetric reconstruction technique, and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment. Results of the computer aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images and CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  6. Structural Characterization of the Boca/Mesd Maturation Factors for LDL-Receptor-Type beta Propeller Domains

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    M Collins; W Hendrickson

    2011-12-31

    Folding and trafficking of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family members, which play essential roles in development and homeostasis, are mediated by specific chaperones. The Boca/Mesd chaperone family specifically promotes folding and trafficking of the YWTD {beta} propeller-EGF domain pair found in the ectodomain of all LDLR members. Limited proteolysis, NMR spectroscopy, analytical ultracentrifugation, and X-ray crystallography were used to define a conserved core composed of a structured domain that is preceded by a disordered N-terminal region. High-resolution structures of the ordered domain were determined for homologous proteins from three metazoans. Seven independent protomers reveal a novel ferrodoxin-like superfamily fold withmore » two distinct {beta} sheet topologies. A conserved hydrophobic surface forms a dimer interface in each crystal, but these differ substantially at the atomic level, indicative of nonspecific hydrophobic interactions that may play a role in the chaperone activity of the Boca/Mesd family.« less

  7. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a peculiar choline-binding beta-galactosidase from Streptococcus mitis.

    PubMed

    Campuzano, Susana; Serra, Beatriz; Llull, Daniel; García, José L; García, Pedro

    2009-09-01

    A Streptococcus mitis genomic DNA fragment carrying the SMT1224 gene encoding a putative beta-galactosidase was identified, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. This gene encodes a protein 2,411 amino acids long with a predicted molecular mass of 268 kDa. The deduced protein contains an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal choline-binding domain consisting of five consensus repeats, which facilitates the anchoring of the secreted enzyme to the cell wall. The choline-binding capacity of the protein facilitates its purification using DEAE-cellulose affinity chromatography, although its complete purification was achieved by constructing a His-tagged fusion protein. The recombinant protein was characterized as a monomeric beta-galactosidase showing a specific activity of around 2,500 U/mg of protein, with optimum temperature and pH ranges of 30 to 40 degrees C and 6.0 to 6.5, respectively. Enzyme activity is not inhibited by glucose, even at 200 mM, and remains highly stable in solution or immobilized at room temperature in the absence of protein stabilizers. In S. mitis, the enzyme was located attached to the cell surface, but a significant activity was also detected in the culture medium. This novel enzyme represents the first beta-galactosidase having a modular structure with a choline-binding domain, a peculiar property that can also be useful for some biotechnological applications.

  8. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  9. Male mate recognition via cuticular hydrocarbons facilitates sexual isolation between sympatric leaf beetle sister species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Xue, Huai-Jun; Song, Ke-Qing; Liu, Jie; Li, Wen-Zhu; Nie, Rui-E; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-11-01

    Chemical signals in insects have been documented to play an important role in mate recognition, and divergence in chemical signals can often cause sexual isolation between closely related species or populations within species. We investigated the role of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), short distance chemical signals, in male mate recognition between the two sympatric elm leaf beetles, Pyrrhalta maculicollis and Pyrrhaltaaenescens. Mating experiments demonstrated that strong sexual isolation between the two species was driven by CHCs divergence. Males preferred to mate with conspecific females with intact conspecific CHCs or conspecific CHCs reapplied after removal. Males also preferred heterospecific females that were treated with conspecific CHCs. Chemical analysis showed that the CHC profiles differ significantly between species. In P. maculicollis dimethyl-branched alkanes between C29 and C35 account for the majority of the saturated alkanes while the CHC profile of P. aenescens mostly consisted of monomethyl-branched alkanes between C22 and C29. Additionally, some compounds, such as 12,18-diMeC32, 12,18-diMeC34, are unique to P. maculicollis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Object Recognition in Mental Representations: Directions for Exploring Diagnostic Features through Visual Mental Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Roldan, Stephanie M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental goals of object recognition research is to understand how a cognitive representation produced from the output of filtered and transformed sensory information facilitates efficient viewer behavior. Given that mental imagery strongly resembles perceptual processes in both cortical regions and subjective visual qualities, it is reasonable to question whether mental imagery facilitates cognition in a manner similar to that of perceptual viewing: via the detection and recognition of distinguishing features. Categorizing the feature content of mental imagery holds potential as a reverse pathway by which to identify the components of a visual stimulus which are most critical for the creation and retrieval of a visual representation. This review will examine the likelihood that the information represented in visual mental imagery reflects distinctive object features thought to facilitate efficient object categorization and recognition during perceptual viewing. If it is the case that these representational features resemble their sensory counterparts in both spatial and semantic qualities, they may well be accessible through mental imagery as evaluated through current investigative techniques. In this review, methods applied to mental imagery research and their findings are reviewed and evaluated for their efficiency in accessing internal representations, and implications for identifying diagnostic features are discussed. An argument is made for the benefits of combining mental imagery assessment methods with diagnostic feature research to advance the understanding of visual perceptive processes, with suggestions for avenues of future investigation. PMID:28588538

  11. Object Recognition in Mental Representations: Directions for Exploring Diagnostic Features through Visual Mental Imagery.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Stephanie M

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental goals of object recognition research is to understand how a cognitive representation produced from the output of filtered and transformed sensory information facilitates efficient viewer behavior. Given that mental imagery strongly resembles perceptual processes in both cortical regions and subjective visual qualities, it is reasonable to question whether mental imagery facilitates cognition in a manner similar to that of perceptual viewing: via the detection and recognition of distinguishing features. Categorizing the feature content of mental imagery holds potential as a reverse pathway by which to identify the components of a visual stimulus which are most critical for the creation and retrieval of a visual representation. This review will examine the likelihood that the information represented in visual mental imagery reflects distinctive object features thought to facilitate efficient object categorization and recognition during perceptual viewing. If it is the case that these representational features resemble their sensory counterparts in both spatial and semantic qualities, they may well be accessible through mental imagery as evaluated through current investigative techniques. In this review, methods applied to mental imagery research and their findings are reviewed and evaluated for their efficiency in accessing internal representations, and implications for identifying diagnostic features are discussed. An argument is made for the benefits of combining mental imagery assessment methods with diagnostic feature research to advance the understanding of visual perceptive processes, with suggestions for avenues of future investigation.

  12. Local sequence information in cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I: specific residue roles in beta-turns.

    PubMed

    Rotondi, Kenneth S; Gierasch, Lila M

    2003-01-01

    We have recently shown that two of the beta-turns (III and IV) in the ten-stranded, beta-clam protein, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I (CRABP I), are favored in short peptide fragments, arguing that they are encoded by local interactions (K. S. Rotondi and L. M. Gierasch, Biochemistry, 2003, Vol. 42, pp. 7976-7985). In this paper we examine these turns in greater detail to dissect the specific local interactions responsible for their observed native conformational biases. Conformations of peptides corresponding to the turn III and IV fragments were examined under conditions designed to selectively disrupt stabilizing interactions, using pH variation, chaotrope addition, or mutagenesis to probe specific side-chain influences. We find that steric constraints imposed by excluded volume effects between near neighbor residues (i,i+2), favorable polar (i,i+2) interactions, and steric permissiveness of glycines are the principal factors accounting for the observed native bias in these turns. Longer-range stabilizing interactions across the beta-turns do not appear to play a significant role in turn stability in these short peptides, in contrast to their importance in hairpins. Additionally, our data add to a growing number of examples of the 3:5 type I turn with a beta-bulge as a class of turns with high propensity to form locally defined structure. Current work is directed at the interplay between the local sequence information in the turns and more long-range influences in the mechanism of folding of this predominantly beta-sheet protein. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Management of difficult-to-treat asthma using a flow sheet for systematic evaluation and therapeutic intervention].

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Hisashi; Ogasawara, Tomohiko; Sato, Ai; Honda, Mamiko; Sakurai, Keiko; Uemura, Takehiro; Kasai, Daishi; Kato, Hisaaki; Tomita, Yuka; Park, Jangchul; Mizuno, Akiko; Suzuki, Masayuki

    2008-11-01

    Although most patients of asthma can be controlled by inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), some patients remain uncontrolled even after the introduction of ICS treatment. In management of such difficult-to-treat asthma, systematic review including additional differential diagnosis and avoidance of exacerbating factors is very important. Here we postulate a flow sheet presenting an algorithm which intends to achieve better asthma control following ATS refractory asthma guidance. For patients with poor controlled asthma even after using ICS more than moderate dose, we used the sheet in our daily outpatient management and investigated whether we could improve the control in such patients. The sheet was constructed by an algorithm which included (1) reevaluation of inhalation technique of ICS; (2) additional differential diagnosis of COPD and other similar diseases; and (3) reevaluation of presence of exacerbating factors. In our outpatient department, seven clinicians managed 22 difficult-to-treat asthma patients using this sheet. Additional factors which might worsen asthma control could be detected in 21 patients (95.5%). Firstly, smoking was disclosed in 8 patients (36.4%). Secondly, keeping pets was identified in 7 patients (31.8%). 5 patients (22.7%) were diagnosed as COPD rather than asthma and 4 patients (18.2%) were diagnosed as having rhinosinusitis. Some improvement of asthma control was achieved in 9 patients (40.9%). Reevaluation of refractory asthma patients using our newly developed flow sheet is essential and it may facilitate understanding of management of difficult-to-treat asthma.

  14. The ties that bind what is known to the recognition of what is new.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D L; Zhang, N; McKinney, V M

    2001-09-01

    Recognition success varies with how information is encoded (e.g., level of processing) and with what is already known as a result of past learning (e.g., word frequency). This article presents the results of experiments showing that preexisting connections involving the associates of studied words facilitate their recognition regardless of whether the words are intentionally encoded or are incidentally encoded under semantic or nonsemantic conditions. Words are more likely to be recognized when they have either more resonant connections coming back to them from their associates or more connections among their associates. Such results occur even though attention is never drawn to these associates. Regression analyses showed that these connections affect recognition independently of frequency, so the present results add to the literature showing that prior lexical knowledge contributes to episodic recognition. In addition, equations that use free-association data to derive composite strength indices of resonance and connectivity were evaluated. Implications for theories of recognition are discussed.

  15. A molecular mechanism of chaperone-client recognition

    PubMed Central

    He, Lichun; Sharpe, Timothy; Mazur, Adam; Hiller, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are essential in aiding client proteins to fold into their native structure and in maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. However, mechanistic aspects of chaperone function are still not well understood at the atomic level. We use nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to elucidate the mechanism underlying client recognition by the adenosine triphosphate-independent chaperone Spy at the atomic level and derive a structural model for the chaperone-client complex. Spy interacts with its partially folded client Im7 by selective recognition of flexible, locally frustrated regions in a dynamic fashion. The interaction with Spy destabilizes a partially folded client but spatially compacts an unfolded client conformational ensemble. By increasing client backbone dynamics, the chaperone facilitates the search for the native structure. A comparison of the interaction of Im7 with two other chaperones suggests that the underlying principle of recognizing frustrated segments is of a fundamental nature. PMID:28138538

  16. Diminutives facilitate word segmentation in natural speech: cross-linguistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J; Gillis, Steven; Samson, Graham

    2007-06-01

    Final-syllable invariance is characteristic of diminutives (e.g., doggie), which are a pervasive feature of the child-directed speech registers of many languages. Invariance in word endings has been shown to facilitate word segmentation (Kempe, Brooks, & Gillis, 2005) in an incidental-learning paradigm in which synthesized Dutch pseudonouns were used. To broaden the cross-linguistic evidence for this invariance effect and to increase its ecological validity, adult English speakers (n=276) were exposed to naturally spoken Dutch or Russian pseudonouns presented in sentence contexts. A forced choice test was given to assess target recognition, with foils comprising unfamiliar syllable combinations in Experiments 1 and 2 and syllable combinations straddling word boundaries in Experiment 3. A control group (n=210) received the recognition test with no prior exposure to targets. Recognition performance improved with increasing final-syllable rhyme invariance, with larger increases for the experimental group. This confirms that word ending invariance is a valid segmentation cue in artificial, as well as naturalistic, speech and that diminutives may aid segmentation in a number of languages.

  17. Molecular architecture of human prion protein amyloid: a parallel, in-register beta-structure.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Nathan J; Sönnichsen, Frank D; McHaourab, Hassane; Surewicz, Witold K

    2007-11-27

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) represent a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with conformational conversion of the normally monomeric and alpha-helical prion protein, PrP(C), to the beta-sheet-rich PrP(Sc). This latter conformer is believed to constitute the main component of the infectious TSE agent. In contrast to high-resolution data for the PrP(C) monomer, structures of the pathogenic PrP(Sc) or synthetic PrP(Sc)-like aggregates remain elusive. Here we have used site-directed spin labeling and EPR spectroscopy to probe the molecular architecture of the recombinant PrP amyloid, a misfolded form recently reported to induce transmissible disease in mice overexpressing an N-terminally truncated form of PrP(C). Our data show that, in contrast to earlier, largely theoretical models, the con formational conversion of PrP(C) involves major refolding of the C-terminal alpha-helical region. The core of the amyloid maps to C-terminal residues from approximately 160-220, and these residues form single-molecule layers that stack on top of one another with parallel, in-register alignment of beta-strands. This structural insight has important implications for understanding the molecular basis of prion propagation, as well as hereditary prion diseases, most of which are associated with point mutations in the region found to undergo a refolding to beta-structure.

  18. Can I look at my list? An evaluation of a 'prompt sheet' within an oncology outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Glynne-Jones, R; Ostler, P; Lumley-Graybow, S; Chait, I; Hughes, R; Grainger, J; Leverton, T J

    2006-06-01

    We introduced a patient 'prompt sheet' into our clinic between January 2004 and January 2005. The aim was to determine whether it would facilitate communication and help patients in obtaining their desired level of information about their illness, and assist with decision making. We conducted an audit survey to investigate the way follow-up takes place in our oncology clinic, to determine what works and what does not work in the clinic, and to examine how patients access the most useful information and to assess the utility of, and patient satisfaction with, a locally developed pilot prompt sheet. A single questionnaire was designed to elicit information on patients' information needs, overall satisfaction with the oncology clinic, and uptake and perceived usefulness of the prompt sheet. We carried out an audit survey in the form of a Likert-scale questionnaire (33 questions), followed immediately afterwards by a semi-structured interview. A specialist nurse asked a range of open questions about what was good and bad about the clinic and the prompt sheets. Despite efforts to ensure that all patients received the prompt-sheet leaflets, only 254 out of 300 (85%) received them. Of these, 195 (65%) felt that they were 'very helpful', and 30 (10%) found them 'fairly helpful'. However, 15 (5%) had no strong feelings and only three found them either fairly or completely unhelpful. One-third of the patients were able to ask more questions about their disease as a result of the prompt sheet, although they felt the doctor was busy and did not want to take up too much of their time. Men with prostate cancer found the prompt sheet particularly helpful to ask questions. This satisfaction audit suggests that our pilot prompt sheet is helpful to patients attending oncology outpatient appointments, particularly for men with prostate cancer. We aim to adapt the present prompt sheet on the basis of the replies obtained, and re-audit in the future.

  19. Dual circuit embossed sheet heat transfer panel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, G.D.

    1984-02-21

    A heat transfer panel provides redundant cooling for fusion reactors or the like environment requiring low-mass construction. Redundant cooling is provided by two independent cooling circuits, each circuit consisting of a series of channels joined to inlet and outlet headers. The panel comprises a welded joinder of two full-size and two much smaller partial-size sheets. The first full-size sheet is embossed to form first portions of channels for the first and second circuits, as well as a header for the first circuit. The second full-sized sheet is then laid over and welded to the first full-size sheet. The first and second partial-size sheets are then overlaid on separate portions of the second full-sized sheet, and are welded thereto. The first and second partial-sized sheets are embossed to form inlet and outlet headers, which communicate with channels of the second circuit through apertures formed in the second full-sized sheet. 6 figs.

  20. Dual-circuit embossed-sheet heat-transfer panel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, G.D.

    1982-08-23

    A heat transfer panel provides redundant cooling for fusion reactors or the like environment requiring low-mass construction. Redundant cooling is provided by two independent cooling circuits, each circuit consisting of a series of channels joined to inlet and outlet headers. The panel comprises a welded joinder of two full-size and two much smaller partial-size sheets. The first full-size sheet is embossed for form first portions of channels for the first and second circuits, as well as a header for the first circuit. The second full-sized sheet is then laid over and welded to the first full-size sheet. The first and second partial-size sheets are then overlaid on separate portions of the second full-sized sheet, and are welded thereto. The first and second partial-sized sheets are embossed to form inlet and outlet headers, which communicate with channels of the second circuit through apertures formed in the second full-sized sheet.

  1. Dual circuit embossed sheet heat transfer panel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Grover D.

    1984-01-01

    A heat transfer panel provides redundant cooling for fusion reactors or the like environment requiring low-mass construction. Redundant cooling is provided by two independent cooling circuits, each circuit consisting of a series of channels joined to inlet and outlet headers. The panel comprises a welded joinder of two full-size and two much smaller partial-size sheets. The first full-size sheet is embossed to form first portions of channels for the first and second circuits, as well as a header for the first circuit. The second full-sized sheet is then laid over and welded to the first full-size sheet. The first and second partial-size sheets are then overlaid on separate portions of the second full-sized sheet, and are welded thereto. The first and second partial-sized sheets are embossed to form inlet and outlet headers, which communicate with channels of the second circuit through apertures formed in the second full-sized sheet.

  2. Synthetic peptides corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH)-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induce uptake of 45Ca++ by liposomes: evidence for calcium-conducting transmembrane channel formation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Grasso, P.; Santa-Coloma, T.A.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1991-06-01

    We have previously described FSH receptor-mediated influx of 45Ca++ in cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats and receptor-enriched proteoliposomes via activation of voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. We have further shown that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein or activation of adenylate cyclase. In the present study, we have identified regions of human FSH-beta-subunit which appear to be involved in mediating calcium influx. We screened 11 overlapping peptide amides representing the entire primary structure of hFSH-beta-subunit for their effects on 45Ca++ flux in FSH receptor-enriched proteoliposomes. hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) inducedmore » uptake of 45Ca++ in a concentration-related manner. This effect of hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) was also observed in liposomes lacking incorporated FSH receptor. Reducing membrane fluidity by incubating liposomes (containing no receptor) with hFSH-beta-(1-15) or hFSH-beta-(51-65) at temperatures lower than the transition temperatures of their constituent phospholipids resulted in no significant (P greater than 0.05) difference in 45Ca++ uptake. The effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187, however, was abolished. Ruthenium red, a voltage-independent calcium channel antagonist, was able to completely block uptake of 45Ca++ induced by hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) whereas nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker specific for L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, was without effect. These results suggest that in addition to its effect on voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, interaction of FSH with its receptor may induce formation of transmembrane aqueous channels which also facilitate influx of extracellular calcium.« less

  3. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  4. Crozier's paradox revisited: maintenance of genetic recognition systems by disassortative mating.

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke; van Zweden, Jelle S; Linksvayer, Timothy A; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2013-09-27

    Organisms are predicted to behave more favourably towards relatives, and kin-biased cooperation has been found in all domains of life from bacteria to vertebrates. Cooperation based on genetic recognition cues is paradoxical because it disproportionately benefits individuals with common phenotypes, which should erode the required cue polymorphism. Theoretical models suggest that many recognition loci likely have some secondary function that is subject to diversifying selection, keeping them variable. Here, we use individual-based simulations to investigate the hypothesis that the dual use of recognition cues to facilitate social behaviour and disassortative mating (e.g. for inbreeding avoidance) can maintain cue diversity over evolutionary time. Our model shows that when organisms mate disassortatively with respect to their recognition cues, cooperation and recognition locus diversity can persist at high values, especially when outcrossed matings produce more surviving offspring. Mating system affects cue diversity via at least four distinct mechanisms, and its effects interact with other parameters such as population structure. Also, the attrition of cue diversity is less rapid when cooperation does not require an exact cue match. Using a literature review, we show that there is abundant empirical evidence that heritable recognition cues are simultaneously used in social and sexual behaviour. Our models show that mate choice is one possible resolution of the paradox of genetic kin recognition, and the literature review suggests that genetic recognition cues simultaneously inform assortative cooperation and disassortative mating in a large range of taxa. However, direct evidence is scant and there is substantial scope for future work.

  5. Binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to beta-lactam antibiotics by frontal affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Yuhua; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jianting; Bian, Liujiao

    2017-04-15

    TEM-1 beta-lactamases can accurately catalyze the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics, which make beta-lactam antibiotics lose its activity, and the prerequisite for the hydrolysis procedure in the binding interaction of TEM-1 beta-lactamases with beta-lactam antibiotics is the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to three beta-lactam antibiotics including penicillin G, cefalexin as well as cefoxitin was explored here by frontal affinity chromatography in combination with fluorescence spectra, adsorption and thermodynamic data in the temperature range of 278-288K under simulated physiological conditions. The results showed that all the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to the three antibiotics were spontaneously exothermic processes with the binding constants of 8.718×10 3 , 6.624×10 3 and 2.244×10 3 (mol/L), respectively at 288K. All the TEM-1 beta-lactamases were immobilized on the surface of the stationary phase in the mode of monolayer and there existed only one type of binding sites on them. Each TEM-1 beta-lactamase bound with only one beta-lactam antibiotic and hydrogen bond interaction and Van der Waals force were the main forces between them. This work provided an insight into the binding interactions between TEM-1 beta-lactamases and beta-lactam antibiotics, which may be beneficial for the designing and developing of new substrates resistant to TEM-1 beta-lactamases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring Sand Sheets and Dunes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-12

    NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) captured this crater featuring sand dunes and sand sheets on its floor. What are sand sheets? Snow fall on Earth is a good example of sand sheets: when it snows, the ground gets blanketed with up to a few meters of snow. The snow mantles the ground and "mimics" the underlying topography. Sand sheets likewise mantle the ground as a relatively thin deposit. This kind of environment has been monitored by HiRISE since 2007 to look for movement in the ripples covering the dunes and sheets. This is how scientists who study wind-blown sand can track the amount of sand moving through the area and possibly where the sand came from. Using the present environment is crucial to understanding the past: sand dunes, sheets, and ripples sometimes become preserved as sandstone and contain clues as to how they were deposited The map is projected here at a scale of 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel. [The original image scale is 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel (with 1 x 1 binning); objects on the order of 75 centimeters (29.5 inches) across are resolved.] North is up. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21757

  7. Dynamic detection of window starting positions and its implementation within an activity recognition framework.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qin; Patterson, Timothy; Cleland, Ian; Nugent, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Activity recognition is an intrinsic component of many pervasive computing and ambient intelligent solutions. This has been facilitated by an explosion of technological developments in the area of wireless sensor network, wearable and mobile computing. Yet, delivering robust activity recognition, which could be deployed at scale in a real world environment, still remains an active research challenge. Much of the existing literature to date has focused on applying machine learning techniques to pre-segmented data collected in controlled laboratory environments. Whilst this approach can provide valuable ground truth information from which to build recognition models, these techniques often do not function well when implemented in near real time applications. This paper presents the application of a multivariate online change detection algorithm to dynamically detect the starting position of windows for the purposes of activity recognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. BetaTPred: prediction of beta-TURNS in a protein using statistical algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Raghava, G P S

    2002-03-01

    beta-turns play an important role from a structural and functional point of view. beta-turns are the most common type of non-repetitive structures in proteins and comprise on average, 25% of the residues. In the past numerous methods have been developed to predict beta-turns in a protein. Most of these prediction methods are based on statistical approaches. In order to utilize the full potential of these methods, there is a need to develop a web server. This paper describes a web server called BetaTPred, developed for predicting beta-TURNS in a protein from its amino acid sequence. BetaTPred allows the user to predict turns in a protein using existing statistical algorithms. It also allows to predict different types of beta-TURNS e.g. type I, I', II, II', VI, VIII and non-specific. This server assists the users in predicting the consensus beta-TURNS in a protein. The server is accessible from http://imtech.res.in/raghava/betatpred/

  9. A novel role for integrin-linked kinase in epithelial sheet morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Alisa; D'Souza, Sudhir J A; Dagnino, Lina

    2005-09-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a multidomain protein involved in cell motility and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. ILK is found in integrin-containing focal adhesions in undifferentiated primary epidermal keratinocytes. Induction of keratinocyte differentiation by treatment with Ca(2+) triggers formation of cell-cell junctions, loss of focal adhesions, and ILK distribution to cell borders. We now show that Ca(2+) treatment of keratinocytes induces rapid (beta-catenin. This is followed by slower (>6 h) localization of tight junction (TJ) proteins. The kinetics of ILK movement toward the cell periphery mimics that of AJ components, suggesting that ILK plays a role in the early formation of cell-cell contacts. Whereas the N terminus in ILK mediates localization to cell borders, expression of an ILK deletion mutant incapable of localizing to the cell membrane (ILK 191-452) interferes with translocation of E-cadherin/beta-catenin to cell borders, precluding Ca(2+)-induced AJ formation. Cells expressing ILK 191-452 also fail to form TJ and sealed cell-cell borders and do not form epithelial sheets. Thus, we have uncovered a novel role for ILK in epithelial cell-cell adhesion, independent of its well-established role in integrin-mediated adhesion and migration.

  10. Twin-Mirrored-Galvanometer Laser-Light-Sheet Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    Multiple, rotating laser-light sheets generated to illuminate flows in wind tunnels. Designed and developed to provide flexibility and adaptability to wide range of applications. Design includes capability to control size and location of laser-light sheet in real time, to generate horizontal or vertical sheets, to sweep sheet repeatedly through volume, to generate multiple sheets with controllable separation, and to rotate single or multiple laser-light sheets. Includes electronic equipment and laser mounted on adjustable-height platform. Twin-mirrored galvanometer unit supported by tripod to reduce vibration. Other possible applications include use in construction industry to align beams of building. Artistic or display applications also possible.

  11. Disruption of the IS6-AID linker affects voltage-gated calcium channel inactivation and facilitation.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, Felix; Minor, Daniel L

    2009-03-01

    Two processes dominate voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca(V)) inactivation: voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI) and calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI). The Ca(V)beta/Ca(V)alpha(1)-I-II loop and Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/Ca(V)alpha(1)-C-terminal tail complexes have been shown to modulate each, respectively. Nevertheless, how each complex couples to the pore and whether each affects inactivation independently have remained unresolved. Here, we demonstrate that the IS6-alpha-interaction domain (AID) linker provides a rigid connection between the pore and Ca(V)beta/I-II loop complex by showing that IS6-AID linker polyglycine mutations accelerate Ca(V)1.2 (L-type) and Ca(V)2.1 (P/Q-type) VDI. Remarkably, mutations that either break the rigid IS6-AID linker connection or disrupt Ca(V)beta/I-II association sharply decelerate CDI and reduce a second Ca(2+)/CaM/Ca(V)alpha(1)-C-terminal-mediated process known as calcium-dependent facilitation. Collectively, the data strongly suggest that components traditionally associated solely with VDI, Ca(V)beta and the IS6-AID linker, are essential for calcium-dependent modulation, and that both Ca(V)beta-dependent and CaM-dependent components couple to the pore by a common mechanism requiring Ca(V)beta and an intact IS6-AID linker.

  12. Control of yeast mating signal transduction by a mammalian. beta. sub 2 -adrenergic receptor and G sub s. alpha. subunit

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    King, K.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1990-10-05

    To facilitate functional and mechanistic studies of receptor-G protein interactions by expression of the human {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor (h{beta}-AR) has been expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This was achieved by placing a modified h{beta}-AR gene under control of the galactose-inducible GAL1 promoter. After induction by galactose, functional h{beta}-AR was expressed at a concentration several hundred times as great as that found in any human tissue. As determined from competitive ligand binding experiments, h{beta}-AR expressed in yeast displayed characteristic affinities, specificity, and stereoselectivity. Partial activation of the yeast pheromone response pathway by {beta}-adrenergic receptor agonists was achieved in cells coexpressing h{beta}-AR andmore » a mammalian G protein (G{sub s}) {alpha} subunit - demonstrating that these components can couple to each other and to downstream effectors when expressed in yeast. This in vivo reconstitution system provides a new approach for examining ligand binding and G protein coupling to cell surface receptors.« less

  13. Gene encoding the human. beta. -hexosaminidase. beta. chain: Extensive homology of intron placement in the. alpha. - and. beta. -chain genes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Proia, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    Lysosomal {beta}-hexosaminidase is composed of two structurally similar chains, {alpha} and {beta}, that are the products of different genes. Mutations in either gene causing {beta}-hexosaminidase deficiency result in the lysosomal storage disease GM2-gangliosidosis. To enable the investigation of the molecular lesions in this disorder and to study the evolutionary relationship between the {alpha} and {beta} chains, the {beta}-chain gene was isolated, and its organization was characterized. The {beta}-chain coding region is divided into 14 exons distributed over {approx}40 kilobases of DNA. Comparison with the {alpha}-chain gene revealed that 12 of the 13 introns interrupt the coding regions at homologous positions.more » This extensive sharing of intron placement demonstrates that the {alpha} and {beta} chains evolved by way of the duplication of a common ancestor.« less

  14. Keratinocyte cytoskeletal roles in cell sheet engineering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing need to understand cell-cell interactions for cell and tissue engineering purposes, such as optimizing cell sheet constructs, as well as for examining adhesion defect diseases. For cell-sheet engineering, one major obstacle to sheet function is that cell sheets in suspension are fragile and, over time, will contract. While the role of the cytoskeleton in maintaining the structure and adhesion of cells cultured on a rigid substrate is well-characterized, a systematic examination of the role played by different components of the cytoskeleton in regulating cell sheet contraction and cohesion in the absence of a substrate has been lacking. Results In this study, keratinocytes were cultured until confluent and cell sheets were generated using dispase to remove the influence of the substrate. The effects of disrupting actin, microtubules or intermediate filaments on cell-cell interactions were assessed by measuring cell sheet cohesion and contraction. Keratin intermediate filament disruption caused comparable effects on cell sheet cohesion and contraction, when compared to actin or microtubule disruption. Interfering with actomyosin contraction demonstrated that interfering with cell contraction can also diminish cell cohesion. Conclusions All components of the cytoskeleton are involved in maintaining cell sheet cohesion and contraction, although not to the same extent. These findings demonstrate that substrate-free cell sheet biomechanical properties are dependent on the integrity of the cytoskeleton network. PMID:23442760

  15. Ice_Sheets_CCI: Essential Climate Variables for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, R.; Sørensen, L. S.; Khan, A.; Aas, C.; Evansberget, D.; Adalsteinsdottir, G.; Mottram, R.; Andersen, S. B.; Ahlstrøm, A.; Dall, J.; Kusk, A.; Merryman, J.; Hvidberg, C.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Nagler, T.; Rott, H.; Scharrer, M.; Shepard, A.; Ticconi, F.; Engdahl, M.

    2012-04-01

    As part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (www.esa-cci.org) a long-term project "ice_sheets_cci" started January 1, 2012, in addition to the existing 11 projects already generating Essential Climate Variables (ECV) for the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). The "ice_sheets_cci" goal is to generate a consistent, long-term and timely set of key climate parameters for the Greenland ice sheet, to maximize the impact of European satellite data on climate research, from missions such as ERS, Envisat and the future Sentinel satellites. The climate parameters to be provided, at first in a research context, and in the longer perspective by a routine production system, would be grids of Greenland ice sheet elevation changes from radar altimetry, ice velocity from repeat-pass SAR data, as well as time series of marine-terminating glacier calving front locations and grounding lines for floating-front glaciers. The ice_sheets_cci project will involve a broad interaction of the relevant cryosphere and climate communities, first through user consultations and specifications, and later in 2012 optional participation in "best" algorithm selection activities, where prototype climate parameter variables for selected regions and time frames will be produced and validated using an objective set of criteria ("Round-Robin intercomparison"). This comparative algorithm selection activity will be completely open, and we invite all interested scientific groups with relevant experience to participate. The results of the "Round Robin" exercise will form the algorithmic basis for the future ECV production system. First prototype results will be generated and validated by early 2014. The poster will show the planned outline of the project and some early prototype results.

  16. Infused polymers for cell sheet release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juthani, Nidhi; Howell, Caitlin; Ledoux, Haylea; Sotiri, Irini; Kelso, Susan; Kovalenko, Yevgen; Tajik, Amanda; Vu, Thy L.; Lin, Jennifer J.; Sutton, Amy; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    Tissue engineering using whole, intact cell sheets has shown promise in many cell-based therapies. However, current systems for the growth and release of these sheets can be expensive to purchase or difficult to fabricate, hindering their widespread use. Here, we describe a new approach to cell sheet release surfaces based on silicone oil-infused polydimethylsiloxane. By coating the surfaces with a layer of fibronectin (FN), we were able to grow mesenchymal stem cells to densities comparable to those of tissue culture polystyrene controls (TCPS). Simple introduction of oil underneath an edge of the sheet caused it to separate from the substrate. Characterization of sheets post-transfer showed that they retain their FN layer and morphology, remain highly viable, and are able to grow and proliferate normally after transfer. We expect that this method of cell sheet growth and detachment may be useful for low-cost, flexible, and customizable production of cellular layers for tissue engineering.

  17. Infused polymers for cell sheet release

    PubMed Central

    Juthani, Nidhi; Howell, Caitlin; Ledoux, Haylea; Sotiri, Irini; Kelso, Susan; Kovalenko, Yevgen; Tajik, Amanda; Vu, Thy L.; Lin, Jennifer J.; Sutton, Amy; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering using whole, intact cell sheets has shown promise in many cell-based therapies. However, current systems for the growth and release of these sheets can be expensive to purchase or difficult to fabricate, hindering their widespread use. Here, we describe a new approach to cell sheet release surfaces based on silicone oil-infused polydimethylsiloxane. By coating the surfaces with a layer of fibronectin (FN), we were able to grow mesenchymal stem cells to densities comparable to those of tissue culture polystyrene controls (TCPS). Simple introduction of oil underneath an edge of the sheet caused it to separate from the substrate. Characterization of sheets post-transfer showed that they retain their FN layer and morphology, remain highly viable, and are able to grow and proliferate normally after transfer. We expect that this method of cell sheet growth and detachment may be useful for low-cost, flexible, and customizable production of cellular layers for tissue engineering. PMID:27189419

  18. Infused polymers for cell sheet release.

    PubMed

    Juthani, Nidhi; Howell, Caitlin; Ledoux, Haylea; Sotiri, Irini; Kelso, Susan; Kovalenko, Yevgen; Tajik, Amanda; Vu, Thy L; Lin, Jennifer J; Sutton, Amy; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-05-18

    Tissue engineering using whole, intact cell sheets has shown promise in many cell-based therapies. However, current systems for the growth and release of these sheets can be expensive to purchase or difficult to fabricate, hindering their widespread use. Here, we describe a new approach to cell sheet release surfaces based on silicone oil-infused polydimethylsiloxane. By coating the surfaces with a layer of fibronectin (FN), we were able to grow mesenchymal stem cells to densities comparable to those of tissue culture polystyrene controls (TCPS). Simple introduction of oil underneath an edge of the sheet caused it to separate from the substrate. Characterization of sheets post-transfer showed that they retain their FN layer and morphology, remain highly viable, and are able to grow and proliferate normally after transfer. We expect that this method of cell sheet growth and detachment may be useful for low-cost, flexible, and customizable production of cellular layers for tissue engineering.

  19. Exploring a recognition-induced recognition decrement

    PubMed Central

    Dopkins, Stephen; Ngo, Catherine Trinh; Sargent, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments explored a recognition decrement that is associated with the recognition of a word from a short list. The stimulus material for demonstrating the phenomenon was a list of words of different syntactic types. A word from the list was recognized less well following a decision that a word of the same type had occurred in the list than following a decision that such a word had not occurred in the list. A recognition decrement did not occur for a word of a given type following a positive recognition decision to a word of a different type. A recognition decrement did not occur when the list consisted exclusively of nouns. It was concluded that the phenomenon may reflect a criterion shift but probably does not reflect a list strength effect, suppression, or familiarity attribution consequent to a perceived discrepancy between actual and expected fluency. PMID:17063915

  20. Coupled ice sheet-ocean modelling to investigate ocean driven melting of marine ice sheets in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, Lenneke; Gladstone, Rupert; Galton-Fenzi, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Ocean induced melting below the ice shelves of marine ice sheets is a major source of uncertainty for predictions of ice mass loss and Antarctica's resultant contribution to future sea level rise. The floating ice shelves provide a buttressing force against the flow of ice across the grounding line into the ocean. Thinning of these ice shelves due to an increase in melting reduces this force and can lead to an increase in the discharge of grounded ice. Fully coupled modelling of ice sheet-ocean interactions is key to improving understanding the influence of the Southern ocean on the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet, and to predicting its future behaviour under changing climate conditions. Coupling of ocean and ice sheet models is needed to provide more realistic melt rates at the base of ice shelves and hence make better predictions of the behaviour of the grounding line and the shape of the ice-shelf cavity as the ice sheet evolves. The Framework for Ice Sheet - Ocean Coupling (FISOC) has been developed to provide a flexible platform for performing coupled ice sheet - ocean modelling experiments. We present preliminary results using FISOC to couple the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) with Elmer/Ice in idealised experiments Marine Ice Sheet-Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (MISOMIP). These experiments use an idealised geometry motivated by that of Pine Island glacier and the adjacent Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica, a region which has shown shown signs of thinning ice and grounding line retreat.

  1. Interaction of β-Sheet Folds with a Gold Surface

    PubMed Central

    Hoefling, Martin; Monti, Susanna; Corni, Stefano; Gottschalk, Kay Eberhard

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of proteins on inorganic surfaces is of fundamental biological importance. Further, biomedical and nanotechnological applications increasingly use interfaces between inorganic material and polypeptides. Yet, the underlying adsorption mechanism of polypeptides on surfaces is not well understood and experimentally difficult to analyze. Therefore, we investigate here the interactions of polypeptides with a gold(111) surface using computational molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a polarizable gold model in explicit water. Our focus in this paper is the investigation of the interaction of polypeptides with β-sheet folds. First, we concentrate on a β-sheet forming model peptide. Second, we investigate the interactions of two domains with high β-sheet content of the biologically important extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN). We find that adsorption occurs in a stepwise mechanism both for the model peptide and the protein. The positively charged amino acid Arg facilitates the initial contact formation between protein and gold surface. Our results suggest that an effective gold-binding surface patch is overall uncharged, but contains Arg for contact initiation. The polypeptides do not unfold on the gold surface within the simulation time. However, for the two FN domains, the relative domain-domain orientation changes. The observation of a very fast and strong adsorption indicates that in a biological matrix, no bare gold surfaces will be present. Hence, the bioactivity of gold surfaces (like bare gold nanoparticles) will critically depend on the history of particle administration and the proteins present during initial contact between gold and biological material. Further, gold particles may act as seeds for protein aggregation. Structural re-organization and protein aggregation are potentially of immunological importance. PMID:21687744

  2. Interaction of β-sheet folds with a gold surface.

    PubMed

    Hoefling, Martin; Monti, Susanna; Corni, Stefano; Gottschalk, Kay Eberhard

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of proteins on inorganic surfaces is of fundamental biological importance. Further, biomedical and nanotechnological applications increasingly use interfaces between inorganic material and polypeptides. Yet, the underlying adsorption mechanism of polypeptides on surfaces is not well understood and experimentally difficult to analyze. Therefore, we investigate here the interactions of polypeptides with a gold(111) surface using computational molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a polarizable gold model in explicit water. Our focus in this paper is the investigation of the interaction of polypeptides with β-sheet folds. First, we concentrate on a β-sheet forming model peptide. Second, we investigate the interactions of two domains with high β-sheet content of the biologically important extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN). We find that adsorption occurs in a stepwise mechanism both for the model peptide and the protein. The positively charged amino acid Arg facilitates the initial contact formation between protein and gold surface. Our results suggest that an effective gold-binding surface patch is overall uncharged, but contains Arg for contact initiation. The polypeptides do not unfold on the gold surface within the simulation time. However, for the two FN domains, the relative domain-domain orientation changes. The observation of a very fast and strong adsorption indicates that in a biological matrix, no bare gold surfaces will be present. Hence, the bioactivity of gold surfaces (like bare gold nanoparticles) will critically depend on the history of particle administration and the proteins present during initial contact between gold and biological material. Further, gold particles may act as seeds for protein aggregation. Structural re-organization and protein aggregation are potentially of immunological importance.

  3. Priming Contour-Deleted Images: Evidence for Immediate Representations in Visual Object Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Irving; Cooper, Eric E.

    1991-01-01

    Speed and accuracy of identification of pictures of objects are facilitated by prior viewing. Contributions of image features, convex or concave components, and object models in a repetition priming task were explored in 2 studies involving 96 college students. Results provide evidence of intermediate representations in visual object recognition.…

  4. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker

    1997-01-01

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration.

  5. Inhibition of the archaeal beta-class (Cab) and gamma-class (Cam) carbonic anhydrases.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Sabrina A; Ferry, James G; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2007-01-01

    Five independently evolved classes (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-, zeta-) of carbonic anhydrases facilitate the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate of which the alpha-class is the most extensively studied. Detailed inhibition studies of the alpha-class with the two main classes of inhibitors, sulfonamides and metal-complexing anions, revealed many inhibitors that are used as therapeutic agents to prevent and treat many diseases. Recent inhibitor studies of the archaeal beta-class (Cab) and the gamma-class (Cam) carbonic anhydrases show differences in inhibition response to sulfonamides and metal-complexing anions, when compared to the alpha-class carbonic anhydrases. In addition, inhibition between Cab and Cam differ. These inhibition patterns are consistent with the idea that although, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-class carbonic anhydrases participate in the same two-step isomechanism, diverse active site architecture among these classes predicts variations on the catalytic mechanism. These inhibitor studies of the archaeal beta- and gamma-class carbonic anhydrases give insight to new applications of current day carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, as well as direct research to develop new compounds that may be specific inhibitors of prokaryotic carbonic anhydrases.

  6. How cholesterol constrains glycolipid conformation for optimal recognition of Alzheimer's beta amyloid peptide (Abeta1-40).

    PubMed

    Yahi, Nouara; Aulas, Anaïs; Fantini, Jacques

    2010-02-05

    Membrane lipids play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, which is associated with conformational changes, oligomerization and/or aggregation of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides. Yet conflicting data have been reported on the respective effect of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids (GSLs) on the supramolecular assembly of Abeta peptides. The aim of the present study was to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which cholesterol modulates the interaction between Abeta(1-40) and chemically defined GSLs (GalCer, LacCer, GM1, GM3). Using the Langmuir monolayer technique, we show that Abeta(1-40) selectively binds to GSLs containing a 2-OH group in the acyl chain of the ceramide backbone (HFA-GSLs). In contrast, Abeta(1-40) did not interact with GSLs containing a nonhydroxylated fatty acid (NFA-GSLs). Cholesterol inhibited the interaction of Abeta(1-40) with HFA-GSLs, through dilution of the GSL in the monolayer, but rendered the initially inactive NFA-GSLs competent for Abeta(1-40) binding. Both crystallographic data and molecular dynamics simulations suggested that the active conformation of HFA-GSL involves a H-bond network that restricts the orientation of the sugar group of GSLs in a parallel orientation with respect to the membrane. This particular conformation is stabilized by the 2-OH group of the GSL. Correspondingly, the interaction of Abeta(1-40) with HFA-GSLs is strongly inhibited by NaF, an efficient competitor of H-bond formation. For NFA-GSLs, this is the OH group of cholesterol that constrains the glycolipid to adopt the active L-shape conformation compatible with sugar-aromatic CH-pi stacking interactions involving residue Y10 of Abeta(1-40). We conclude that cholesterol can either inhibit or facilitate membrane-Abeta interactions through fine tuning of glycosphingolipid conformation. These data shed some light on the complex molecular interplay between cell surface GSLs, cholesterol and Abeta peptides, and on the influence

  7. Effect of Temperature and Sheet Temper on Isothermal Solidification Kinetics in Clad Aluminum Brazing Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Michael J.; Whitney, Mark A.; Wells, Mary A.; Winkler, Sooky

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal solidification (IS) is a phenomenon observed in clad aluminum brazing sheets, wherein the amount of liquid clad metal is reduced by penetration of the liquid clad into the core. The objective of the current investigation is to quantify the rate of IS through the use of a previously derived parameter, the Interface Rate Constant (IRC). The effect of peak temperature and initial sheet temper on IS kinetics were investigated. The results demonstrated that IS is due to the diffusion of silicon (Si) from the liquid clad layer into the solid core. Reduced amounts of liquid clad at long liquid duration times, a roughened sheet surface, and differences in resolidified clad layer morphology between sheet tempers were observed. Increased IS kinetics were predicted at higher temperatures by an IRC model as well as by experimentally determined IRC values; however, the magnitudes of these values are not in good agreement due to deficiencies in the model when applied to alloys. IS kinetics were found to be higher for sheets in the fully annealed condition when compared with work-hardened sheets, due to the influence of core grain boundaries providing high diffusivity pathways for Si diffusion, resulting in more rapid liquid clad penetration.

  8. New mathematic model for predicting chiral separation using molecular docking: mechanism of chiral recognition of triadimenol analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qingyan; Hou, Ying; Hong, Zhanying; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Hai; Chai, Yifeng

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study the enantioseparation mechanism of triadimenol compounds by carboxymethylated (CM)-beta-CD mediated CE. All the enantiomers were separated under the same experimental conditions to study the chiral recognition mechanism using a 30 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer at pH 2.2 adjusted by phosphoric acid. The inclusion courses between CM-beta-CD and enantiomers were investigated by the means of molecular docking technique. It was found that there were at least three points (one hydrophobic bond and two hydrogen bonds) involved in the interaction of each enantiomer with the chiral selectors. A new mathematic model has been built up based on the results of molecular mechanics calculations, which could analyze the relationship between the resolution of enantioseparation and the interaction energy in the docking area. Comparing the results of the separation by CE, the established mathematic model demonstrated good capability to predict chiral separation of triadimenol enantiomers using CM-beta-CD mediated CE.

  9. Efficient meltwater drainage through supraglacial streams and rivers on the southwest Greenland ice sheet.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laurence C; Chu, Vena W; Yang, Kang; Gleason, Colin J; Pitcher, Lincoln H; Rennermalm, Asa K; Legleiter, Carl J; Behar, Alberto E; Overstreet, Brandon T; Moustafa, Samiah E; Tedesco, Marco; Forster, Richard R; LeWinter, Adam L; Finnegan, David C; Sheng, Yongwei; Balog, James

    2015-01-27

    Thermally incised meltwater channels that flow each summer across melt-prone surfaces of the Greenland ice sheet have received little direct study. We use high-resolution WorldView-1/2 satellite mapping and in situ measurements to characterize supraglacial water storage, drainage pattern, and discharge across 6,812 km(2) of southwest Greenland in July 2012, after a record melt event. Efficient surface drainage was routed through 523 high-order stream/river channel networks, all of which terminated in moulins before reaching the ice edge. Low surface water storage (3.6 ± 0.9 cm), negligible impoundment by supraglacial lakes or topographic depressions, and high discharge to moulins (2.54-2.81 cm⋅d(-1)) indicate that the surface drainage system conveyed its own storage volume every <2 d to the bed. Moulin discharges mapped inside ∼52% of the source ice watershed for Isortoq, a major proglacial river, totaled ∼41-98% of observed proglacial discharge, highlighting the importance of supraglacial river drainage to true outflow from the ice edge. However, Isortoq discharges tended lower than runoff simulations from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) regional climate model (0.056-0.112 km(3)⋅d(-1) vs. ∼0.103 km(3)⋅d(-1)), and when integrated over the melt season, totaled just 37-75% of MAR, suggesting nontrivial subglacial water storage even in this melt-prone region of the ice sheet. We conclude that (i) the interior surface of the ice sheet can be efficiently drained under optimal conditions, (ii) that digital elevation models alone cannot fully describe supraglacial drainage and its connection to subglacial systems, and (iii) that predicting outflow from climate models alone, without recognition of subglacial processes, may overestimate true meltwater export from the ice sheet to the ocean.

  10. Efficient meltwater drainage through supraglacial streams and rivers on the southwest Greenland ice sheet

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laurence C.; Chu, Vena W.; Yang, Kang; Gleason, Colin J.; Pitcher, Lincoln H.; Rennermalm, Asa K.; Legleiter, Carl J.; Behar, Alberto E.; Overstreet, Brandon T.; Moustafa, Samiah E.; Tedesco, Marco; Forster, Richard R.; LeWinter, Adam L.; Finnegan, David C.; Sheng, Yongwei; Balog, James

    2015-01-01

    Thermally incised meltwater channels that flow each summer across melt-prone surfaces of the Greenland ice sheet have received little direct study. We use high-resolution WorldView-1/2 satellite mapping and in situ measurements to characterize supraglacial water storage, drainage pattern, and discharge across 6,812 km2 of southwest Greenland in July 2012, after a record melt event. Efficient surface drainage was routed through 523 high-order stream/river channel networks, all of which terminated in moulins before reaching the ice edge. Low surface water storage (3.6 ± 0.9 cm), negligible impoundment by supraglacial lakes or topographic depressions, and high discharge to moulins (2.54–2.81 cm⋅d−1) indicate that the surface drainage system conveyed its own storage volume every <2 d to the bed. Moulin discharges mapped inside ∼52% of the source ice watershed for Isortoq, a major proglacial river, totaled ∼41–98% of observed proglacial discharge, highlighting the importance of supraglacial river drainage to true outflow from the ice edge. However, Isortoq discharges tended lower than runoff simulations from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) regional climate model (0.056–0.112 km3⋅d−1 vs. ∼0.103 km3⋅d−1), and when integrated over the melt season, totaled just 37–75% of MAR, suggesting nontrivial subglacial water storage even in this melt-prone region of the ice sheet. We conclude that (i) the interior surface of the ice sheet can be efficiently drained under optimal conditions, (ii) that digital elevation models alone cannot fully describe supraglacial drainage and its connection to subglacial systems, and (iii) that predicting outflow from climate models alone, without recognition of subglacial processes, may overestimate true meltwater export from the ice sheet to the ocean. PMID:25583477

  11. Plasma beta-endorphin, beta-lipotropin and corticotropin in polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Laatikainen, T; Salminen, K; Virtanen, T; Apter, D

    1987-04-01

    In 9 women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and in 11 control subjects at the follicular phase of the normal cycle, blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals during a 2 h period of bed rest for the assay of beta-endorphin, beta-lipotropin, corticotropin, cortisol and prolactin. During the study period, the plasma levels of these hormones decreased more significantly in the PCOD than in the control group, suggesting that the PCOD patients had a more significant stress response to the puncture of the vein than the control subjects. The second hour of the study period was considered to represent resting levels of hormones. The mean resting levels (+/- S.E.) of the hormones between the PCOD and control groups, respectively, were as follows: beta-E, 2.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.1 pmol/l, p less than 0.05; beta-LPH, 3.4 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/l, N.S.; corticotropin, 2.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/l, p less than 0.05; cortisol, 176 +/- 24 vs. 128 +/- 16, N.S.; and prolactin; 3.9 +/- 0.6 vs. 5.6 +/- 1.2 ng/ml, N.S. These results confirm the previous findings on increased circulating levels of beta-E in PCOD. A concomitant increase of the plasma level of corticotropin suggests that the basal secretion of both beta-E and corticotropin from the anterior pituitary gland is increased in women with PCOD.

  12. Use of a purified and functional recombinant calcium-channel beta4 subunit in surface-plasmon resonance studies.

    PubMed Central

    Geib, Sandrine; Sandoz, Guillaume; Mabrouk, Kamel; Matavel, Alessandra; Marchot, Pascale; Hoshi, Toshinori; Villaz, Michel; Ronjat, Michel; Miquelis, Raymond; Lévêque, Christian; de Waard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Native high-voltage-gated calcium channels are multi-subunit complexes comprising a pore-forming subunit Ca(v) and at least two auxiliary subunits alpha(2)delta and beta. The beta subunit facilitates cell-surface expression of the channel and contributes significantly to its biophysical properties. In spite of its importance, detailed structural and functional studies are hampered by the limited availability of native beta subunit. Here, we report the purification of a recombinant calcium-channel beta(4) subunit from bacterial extracts by using a polyhistidine tag. The purified protein is fully functional since it binds on the alpha1 interaction domain, its main Ca(v)-binding site, and regulates the activity of P/Q calcium channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes in a similar way to the beta(4) subunit produced by cRNA injection. We took advantage of the functionality of the purified material to (i) develop an efficient surface-plasmon resonance assay of the interaction between two calcium channel subunits and (ii) measure, for the first time, the affinity of the recombinant His-beta(4) subunit for the full-length Ca(v)2.1 channel. The availability of this purified material and the development of a surface-plasmon resonance assay opens two immediate research perspectives: (i) drug screening programmes applied to the Ca(v)/beta interaction and (ii) crystallographic studies of the calcium-channel beta(4) subunit. PMID:11988102

  13. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  14. Materials safety data sheets the basis for control of toxic chemicals. Volume II

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bolton, N. E.; Ketchen, E. E.; Porter, W. E.

    For large industrial and research operations, maintaining reasonable control of all toxic materials used in their operations can be a formidable task. A system utilizing cards has been developed that serves a dual purpose, informing the user regarding hazards of a particular material and also facilitating appropriate workplace surveillance during its use. Selected data, including threshold limit values, routes of absorption, symptoms of exposure, chronic effects, and emergency first-aid procedures, are printed on the card. A portion of the card contains the label that the user detaches and affixes to the container. This label classifies the material according to flammability,more » toxicity, reactivity, and special properties on a 0 through 4 hazard rating system. This report describes the development and use of such cards, contains the associated Toxic Material Data Sheets that provide full backup data for the labels, and furnishes a glossary of biomedical terms used in the Data Sheets.« less

  15. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOEpatents

    Boaz, P.T.

    1997-08-12

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration. 5 figs.

  16. Appearance-based representative samples refining method for palmprint recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jiajun; Chen, Yan

    2012-07-01

    The sparse representation can deal with the lack of sample problem due to utilizing of all the training samples. However, the discrimination ability will degrade when more training samples are used for representation. We propose a novel appearance-based palmprint recognition method. We aim to find a compromise between the discrimination ability and the lack of sample problem so as to obtain a proper representation scheme. Under the assumption that the test sample can be well represented by a linear combination of a certain number of training samples, we first select the representative training samples according to the contributions of the samples. Then we further refine the training samples by an iteration procedure, excluding the training sample with the least contribution to the test sample for each time. Experiments on PolyU multispectral palmprint database and two-dimensional and three-dimensional palmprint database show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional appearance-based palmprint recognition methods. Moreover, we also explore and find out the principle of the usage for the key parameters in the proposed algorithm, which facilitates to obtain high-recognition accuracy.

  17. Guidelines proposal for clinical recognition of mouth breathing children.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Maria Christina Thomé; Casagrande, Camila Ferreira; Teixeira, Lícia Pacheco; Finck, Nathalia Silveira; de Araújo, Maria Teresa Martins

    2015-01-01

    Mouth breathing (MB) is an etiological factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during childhood. The habit of breathing through the mouth may be perpetuated even after airway clearance. Both habit and obstruction may cause facial muscle imbalance and craniofacial changes. The aim of this paper is to propose and test guidelines for clinical recognition of MB and some predisposing factors for SDB in children. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 orthodontists regarding their procedures for clinical evaluation of MB and their knowledge about SDB during childhood. Thereafter, based on their answers, guidelines were developed and tested in 687 children aged between 6 and 12 years old and attending elementary schools. There was no standardization for clinical recognition of MB among orthodontists. The most common procedures performed were inefficient to recognize differences between MB by habit or obstruction. The guidelines proposed herein facilitate clinical recognition of MB, help clinicians to differentiate between habit and obstruction, suggest the most appropriate treatment for each case, and avoid maintenance of mouth breathing patterns during adulthood.

  18. Improving entrepreneurial opportunity recognition through web content analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Muhamad Shahbani Abu; Azmi, Azwiyati

    2017-10-01

    The ability to recognize and develop an opportunity into a venture defines an entrepreneur. Research in opportunity recognition has been robust and focuses more on explaining the processes involved in opportunity recognition. Factors such as prior knowledge, cognitive and creative capabilities are shown to affect opportunity recognition in entrepreneurs. Prior knowledge in areas such as customer problems, ways to serve the market, and technology has been shows in various studies to be a factor that facilitates entrepreneurs to identify and recognize opportunities. Findings from research also shows that experienced entrepreneurs search and scan for information to discover opportunities. Searching and scanning for information has also been shown to help novice entrepreneurs who lack prior knowledge to narrow this gap and enable them to better identify and recognize opportunities. There is less focus in research on finding empirically proven techniques and methods to develop and enhance opportunity recognition in student entrepreneurs. This is important as the country pushes for more graduate entrepreneurs that can drive the economy. This paper aims to discuss Opportunity Recognition Support System (ORSS), an information support system to help especially student entrepreneurs in identifying and recognizing business opportunities. The ORSS aims to provide the necessary knowledge to student entrepreneurs to be able to better identify and recognize opportunities. Applying design research, theories in opportunity recognition are applied to identify the requirements for the support system and the requirements in turn dictate the design of the support system. The paper proposes the use of web content mining and analytics as two core components and techniques for the support system. Web content mining can mine the vast knowledge repositories available on the internet and analytics can provide entrepreneurs with further insights into the information needed to recognize

  19. Predicting pulsar scintillation from refractive plasma sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Dana; Pen, Ue-Li

    2018-07-01

    The dynamic and secondary spectra of many pulsars show evidence for long-lived, aligned images of the pulsar that are stationary on a thin scattering sheet. One explanation for this phenomenon considers the effects of wave crests along sheets in the ionized interstellar medium, such as those due to Alfvén waves propagating along current sheets. If these sheets are closely aligned to our line of sight to the pulsar, high bending angles arise at the wave crests and a selection effect causes alignment of images produced at different crests, similar to grazing reflection off of a lake. Using geometric optics, we develop a simple parametrized model of these corrugated sheets that can be constrained with a single observation and that makes observable predictions for variations in the scintillation of the pulsar over time and frequency. This model reveals qualitative differences between lensing from overdense and underdense corrugated sheets: only if the sheet is overdense compared to the surrounding interstellar medium can the lensed images be brighter than the line-of-sight image to the pulsar, and the faint lensed images are closer to the pulsar at higher frequencies if the sheet is underdense, but at lower frequencies if the sheet is overdense.

  20. Predicting Pulsar Scintillation from Refractive Plasma Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Dana; Pen, Ue-Li

    2018-05-01

    The dynamic and secondary spectra of many pulsars show evidence for long-lived, aligned images of the pulsar that are stationary on a thin scattering sheet. One explanation for this phenomenon considers the effects of wave crests along sheets in the ionized interstellar medium, such as those due to Alfvén waves propagating along current sheets. If these sheets are closely aligned to our line-of-sight to the pulsar, high bending angles arise at the wave crests and a selection effect causes alignment of images produced at different crests, similar to grazing reflection off of a lake. Using geometric optics, we develop a simple parameterized model of these corrugated sheets that can be constrained with a single observation and that makes observable predictions for variations in the scintillation of the pulsar over time and frequency. This model reveals qualitative differences between lensing from overdense and underdense corrugated sheets: Only if the sheet is overdense compared to the surrounding interstellar medium can the lensed images be brighter than the line-of-sight image to the pulsar, and the faint lensed images are closer to the pulsar at higher frequencies if the sheet is underdense, but at lower frequencies if the sheet is overdense.