Science.gov

Sample records for facilities technical tradeoffs

  1. Scientific tradeoffs in pinhole/occulter facility accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    1988-01-01

    The Pinhole/Occulter Facility (P/OF) consists of state-of-the-art instruments for the study of particle acceleration in the solar corona, and uses a large structure to obtain very high angular resolution. P/OF has been studied in the past as an attached payload for the Space Shuttle, and has been the subject of study by a NASA Science Working Group (P/OFSWG). Appendix A lists various technical studies and reports carried out under the auspices of P/OFSWG and the Program Development Office of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Under the rationalization of NASA flight opportunities following the Challenger disaster, and the beginning of the Space Station Freedom program, the sortie-mode deployment of P/OF seemed less efficient and desirable. Thus, NASA decided to reconsider P/OF for deployment on the Space Station Freedom. The technical studies for this deployment continue at the present and will evolve as our knowledge of Space Station architecture and capabilities increase. MSFC contracted with Teledyne Brown Engineering for these technical studies.

  2. High Exposure Facility Technical Description

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Gregory L.; Stithem, Arthur R.; Murphy, Mark K.; Smith, Alex K.

    2008-02-12

    The High Exposure Facility is a collimated high-level gamma irradiator that is located in the basement of the 318 building. It was custom developed by PNNL back in 1982 to meet the needs for high range radiological instrument calibrations and dosimeter irradiations. At the time no commercially available product existed that could create exposure rates up to 20,000 R/h. This document is intended to pass on the design criteria that was employed to create this unique facility, while maintaining compliance with ANSI N543-1974, "General Safety Standard for Installations Using Non-Medical X-Ray and Sealed Gamma-Ray Sources, Energies up to 10 MeV."

  3. Technical Facilities Management, Loan Pool, and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    My work at JPL for the SURF program began on June 11, 2012 with the Technical Facilities Management group (TFM). As well as TFM, I worked with Loan Pool and Metrology to help them out with various tasks. Unlike a lot of other interns, I did not have a specific project rather many different tasks to be completed over the course of the 10 weeks.The first task to be completed was to sort through old certification reports in 6 different boxes to locate reports that needed to be archived into a digital database. There were no reports within these boxes that needed to be archived but rather were to be shredded. The reports went back to the early 1980's and up to the early 2000's. I was looking for reports dated from 2002 to 2012

  4. Food irradiation facilities: Requirements and technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittendorfer, Josef

    2016-12-01

    This survey presents some aspects and requirement for food irradiation facilities. Topics like radiation source, dose ranges and dose rate are discussed, together with logistics and operational considerations

  5. Solid waste disposal facility criteria. Technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The technical manual has been developed to assist municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) owners and operators in achieving compliance with the revised MSWLF Criteria, promulgated on October 9, 1991 in Title 40, Part 258, of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The manual is not a regulatory document, and does not provide mandatory technical guidance, but does provide assistance for coming into compliance with the technical aspects of the revised landfill Criteria. The document is intended for use by landfill owners/operators and their consultants and contractors who provide advice on demonstrating compliance with the Part 258 standards.

  6. Technical design of hadron therapy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1993-08-01

    Radiation therapy with hadron beams now has a 40-year track record at many accelerator laboratories around the world, essentially all of these originally physics-research oriented. The great promise shown for treating cancer has led the medical community to seek dedicated accelerator facilities in a hospital setting, where more rapid progress can be made in clinical research. This paper will discuss accelerator and beam characteristics relevant to hadron therapy, particularly as applied to hospital-based facilities. A survey of currently-operating and planned hadron therapy facilities will be given, with particular emphasis on Loma Linda (the first dedicated proton facility in a hospital) and HIMAC (the first dedicated heavy-ion medical facility).

  7. Technical Design of Hadron Therapy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1993-08-01

    Radiation therapy with hadron beams now has a 40-year track record at many accelerator laboratories around the world, essentially all of these originally physics-research oriented. The great promise shown for treating cancer has led the medical community to seek dedicated accelerator facilities in a hospital setting, where more rapid progress can be made in clinical research. This paper will discuss accelerator and beam characteristics relevant to hadron therapy, particularly as applied to hospital-based facilities. A survey of currently-operating and planned hadron therapy facilities will be given, with particular emphasis on Lorna Linda (the first dedicated proton facility in a hospital) and HIMAC (the first dedicated heavy-ion medical facility).

  8. Ramjet engine test facility (RJTF). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan constructed a ramjet engine test facility (RJTF) at the Kakuda Research Center in 1994. It can duplicate engine test conditions in the range of flight Mach numbers from 4 to 8. The facility can supply non-vitiated air for M4 and M6 to identify the contamination effect in the vitiated air, to provide the basis for evaluating engine performance in the M8 flight condition. This paper outlines the unique features and operating characteristics of the RJTF. The quality of air stream obtained during facility calibration, and the facility-engine interaction are described. Finally the authors review tests of an H2-fueled scramjet that are currently underway.

  9. F/H effluent treatment facility. Technical data summary

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J P; Stimson, R E

    1984-12-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the design of the facility. Some of the sections are described with options to permit simplification of the process, depending on the effluent quality criteria that the facility will have to meet. Each part of the F/HETF process is reviewed with respect to decontamination and concentration efficiency, operability, additional waste generation, energy efficiency, and compatability with the rest of the process.

  10. Guidelines for the Preparation of Ocean Facilities Program Technicals Reports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    contents include criteria for Navy and Marine Corps administration buildings and related facilities .. . . , architectural requirements, mechanical and...basic manuals covering the various fields of engineering and architecture . These criteria, together with the definitive designs and guideline...architects and engineers. Many criteria and standards appearing in technical texts issued by Government agencies, professional architectural and

  11. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities May 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Laycak, D. T.

    2014-04-16

    This document contains the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Building 693 (B693) Yard Area of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at LLNL. The TSRs constitute requirements for safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analyses for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2011). The analysis presented therein concluded that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts of waste from other DOE facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities.

  12. Technical viability and development needs for waste forms and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, I.; Gould, T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this breakout session was to provide a forum to discuss technical issues relating to plutonium-bearing waste forms and their disposal facilities. Specific topics for discussion included the technical viability and development needs associated with the waste forms and/or disposal facilities. The expected end result of the session was an in-depth (so far as the limited time would allow) discussion of key issues by the session participants. The session chairs expressed allowance for, and encouragement of, alternative points of view, as well as encouragement for discussion of any relevant topics not addressed in the paper presentations. It was not the intent of this session to recommend or advocate any one technology over another.

  13. 131. Back side technical facilities passageways building no. 106 to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. Back side technical facilities passageways building no. 106 to transmitter building no. 102, transmitter building no. 102 to building no. 105 "plans, elevations & sections" - mechanical, AS-BLT AW 36-25-13, sheet 24, dated 23 February, 1981. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  14. The Injection Facility at Ketzin: Technical Installations & Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, F.; Bannach, A.; Becker, W.; Koehler, S.

    2009-04-01

    The injection facility consists of 5 main plunger pumps (0…1.000 kg/h), a heating device (305 kWel.) and two intermediate storage tanks (50 to, each). One additional smaller pump has been installed to allow for smaller injection rates (around 300 kg/h). The facility is designed to implement a CO2 stream of 300 kg/h to 3.250 kg/h (200 kg/h stepwise) at 50 °C at the heater outlet, resulting in a maximum amount of 78 to per day. An overall control and automation system is in place for steering the entire injection process and monitoring the relevant parameters (i.e. CO2 flow, temperature along the injection string, pressure data from the formation and the wellheads etc.). All emergency shut-down (ESD) functionality is software independent and has been certified by local authorities and technical control boards. Besides the presentation of of the technical facilities the talk will give an overview on the legal organisation of the injection operation and will light on so far experienced wellbore and reservoir behaviour.

  15. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, H L

    2007-09-07

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 612 (A612) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2006). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., drum crushing, size reduction, and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A612 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A612 fenceline is approximately 220 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A612 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Technical Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    KRAHN, D.E.

    2000-08-08

    The Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt of multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel. removal of free water from the MCOs using the cold vacuum drying process, and inerting and testing of the MCOs before transport to the Canister Storage Building. Controls required for public safety, significant defense in depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological and toxicological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines are included.

  17. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Laycak, D T

    2010-03-05

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2009). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas, consisting

  18. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Laycak, D T

    2008-06-16

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the 'Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities' (DSA) (LLNL 2008). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas

  19. Surface Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report-Constructor Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Flye

    2000-10-24

    The purpose of this Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report (hereinafter referred to as Technical Report) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas to ascertain whether the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fire safety objectives are met. The objectives identified in DOE Order 420.1, Change 2, Facility Safety, Section 4.2, establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment; Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding defined limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  20. Technical issues in licensing low-level radioactive waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Junkert, R.

    1993-03-01

    The California Department of Health Service spent two years in the review of an application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California. During this review period a variety of technical issues had to be evaluated and resolved. One of the first issues was the applicability and use of NRC guidance documents for the development of LLW disposal facilities. Other technical issues that required intensive evaluations included surface water hydrology, seismic investigation, field and numerical analysis of the unsaturated zone, including a water infiltration test. Source term verification became an issue because of one specific isotope that comprised more than 90% of the curies projected for disposal during the operational period. The use of trench liners and the proposed monitoring of the unsaturated zone were reviewed by a highly select panel of experts to provide guidance on the need for liners and to ensure that the monitoring system was capable of monitoring sufficient representative areas for radionuclides in the soil, soil gas, and soil moisture. Finally, concerns about the quality of the preoperational environmental monitoring program, including data, sample collection procedures, laboratory analysis, data review and interpretation and duration of monitoring caused a significant delay in completing the licensing review.

  1. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  2. Technical Review of the Laboratory Biosphere Closed Ecological System Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, W.; van Thillo, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.

    The "Laboratory Biosphere", a new closed ecological system facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) has been constructed and became operational in May 2002. Built and operated by the Global Ecotechnics consortium (Biosphere Technologies and Biosphere Foundation with Biospheric Design Inc., and the Institute of Ecotechnics), the research apparatus for intensive crop growth, biogeochemical cycle dynamics and recycling of inedible crop biomass comprises a sealed cylindrical steel chamber and attached variable volume chamber (lung) to prevent pressures caused by the expansion and contraction of the contained air. The cylindrical growing chamber is 3.7m (12 feet) long and 3.7m (12 foot) diameter, giving an internal volume of 34 m3 (1200 ft 3 ). The two crop growth beds cover 5.5 m2, with a soil depth of 0.3m (12 inches), with 12 x 1000 watt high-pressure sodium lights capable of variable lighting of 40-70 mol per m2 per day. A small soil bed reactor in the chamber can be activated to help with metabolism of chamber trace gases. The volume of the attached variable volume chamber (lung) can range between 0-11 m3 (0-400 ft 3 ). Evapotranspired and soil leachate water are collected, combined and recycled to water the planting beds. Sampling ports enable testing of water quality of leachate, condensate and irrigation water. Visual inspection windows provide views of the entire interior and growing beds. The chamber is also outfitted with an airlock to minimize air exchange when people enter and work in the chamber. Continuous sensors include atmospheric CO2 and oxygen, temperature, humidity, soil moisture, light level and water levels in reservoirs. Both "sniffer" (air ports) and "sipper" (water ports) will enable collection of water or air samples for detailed analysis. This paper reports on the development of this new soil-based bioregenerative life support closed system apparatus and its technical challenges and capabilities.

  3. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technical Guidance Document provides comprehensive guidance on procedures for quality assurance and quality control for waste containment facilities. The document includes a discussion of principles and concepts, compacted soil liners, soil drainage systems, geosynthetic dr...

  4. Repositioning the Facilities in Technical College Workshops for Efficiency: A Case Study of North Central Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umar, Ibrahim Y.; Ma'aji, Abdullahi S.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on assessing the facilities in Government Technical College workshops in the context of a developing country. A descriptive survey design was adopted. Two research questions and a hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. A 35-item questionnaire was developed based on the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE)…

  5. Technical Support Document for Title V Permitting of Printing Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules, including Title V. This document provides the technical support for compliance in the printing and publishing industry.

  6. 77 FR 58470 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD35 Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... approving treatment facilities for fruits, vegetables, and other articles to prevent the introduction...

  7. Technical Support Section Instrument Support Program for Nuclear and Nonnuclear Facilities with Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Adkisson, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the requirements, procedures, and responsibilities of the Instrumentation and Controls (I and C) Division's Technical Support Section (TSS) for instruments identified in nonreactor nuclear and nonnuclear facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs) or Limiting Conditions Documents (LCDs). As a result of DOE order 5480.22 Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), OSRs, and LCDs for nuclear facilities will be eventually replaced by TSRs. OSRs or LCDs will continue to be required for high-, moderate-, or low-level radiological nonnuclear facilities. The objective of this document is to present an instrument surveillance plan for nonreactor nuclear and nonnuclear facility-identified instruments or systems as specified in the facility's OSR, LCD, or TSR. The instrument surveillance plan is a collaborative effort between the facility manager and the I and C Division TSS staff, thereby ensuring that the surveillance requirements stated in the OSR, LCD, or TSR are fulfilled within the required time frame.

  8. Aerospace Technology: Technical Data and Information on Foreign Test Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-22

    Tunnel S-1 84 Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel Data Sheets 87 VKI Isentropic Light Piston Compression Tube CT-2 87 VKI Longshot Free Piston Tunnel ST-1 90 Air...Engine Test Facility 441 Appendix X 443 Aerospace Test Subsonic Wind Tunnel Data Sheets 444Facilities in West DLR Berlin Evacuable Free -jet...493 DLR Goettingen Rotating Cascades Wind Tunnel 497 (RGG) DLR Koln-Porz Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TMK) 501 DLR Koln-Porz Vertical Free -jet Test Chamber

  9. Professional technical support services for the Mining Equipment Test Facility. First annual technical progress report, April 14-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Garson, R C

    1981-10-01

    The Department of Energy recently began the operation of its Mining Equipment Test Facility. One component at that facility is the highly sophisticated Mine Roof Simulator (MRS) for research and development of roof support equipment. Because of its previous experience, the University of Pittsburgh was contracted to assist the Facilities Manager by providing professional technical support services, principally for the MRS. This technical progress report briefly describes the services provided during the reporting period and planned for the next period. No significant technical disclosures of interest to those not associated with the MRS are contained herein. One of the four units of the US government-owned METF is the Mine Roof Simulator. This unique $10 million test facility was designed to simulate underground mine roof loads and motions. The MRS is a hybrid, analog-digital, computer-controlled, closed-loop, electro-hydraulic, research device capable of applying either loads or displacements in the vertical and one horizontal axis. Its vertical capacity of 3,000,000 pounds can be applied over its 20 by 20 foot active test area. The horizontal load capacity is 1,600,000 pounds. It can simulate coal seam heights of up to 16 feet. Automatic data acquisition and real time display are provided. The most modern, sophisticated technology was used in its design and construction.

  10. Crowder College MARET Center Facility Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, Amy

    2013-08-20

    This project was a research facility construction project and did not include actual research. The new facility will benefit the public by providing training opportunities for students, as well as incubator and laboratory space for entrepreneurs in the areas of alternative and renewable energies. The 9,216 -square-foot Missouri Alternative and Renewable Energy Technology (MARET) Center was completed in late 2011. Classes in the MARET Center began in the spring 2012 semester. Crowder College takes pride in the MARET Center, a focal point of the campus, as the cutting edge in education, applied research and commercial development in the growing field of green technology.

  11. Geothermal research at the Puna facility. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.

    1985-12-12

    Research progress is reported. A conceptual model of the reservoir was developed comprising two production zones of different characteristics: the upper zone producing liquid while the lower zone produces vapor. Preliminary studies were carried out at the HGP-A facility on the flocculation behavior of silica under various conditions. (ACR)

  12. Geothermal research at the Puna Facility. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.

    1986-04-01

    This report consists of a summary of the experiments performed to date at the Puna Geothermal Research Facility on silica in the geothermal fluid from the HGP-A well. Also presented are some results of investigations in commercial applications of the precipitated silica. (ACR)

  13. Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 2: Summary of technical reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is a modular facility for materials research in the microgravity environment of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSFF is designed for crystal growth and solidification research in the fields of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics, and will allow for experimental determination of the role of gravitational forces in the solidification process. The facility will provide a capability for basic scientific research and will evaluate the commercial viability of low-gravity processing of selected technologically important materials. In order to accommodate the furnace modules with the resources required to operate, SSFF developed a design that meets the needs of the wide range of furnaces that are planned for the SSFF. The system design is divided into subsystems which provide the functions of interfacing to the SSF services, conditioning and control for furnace module use, providing the controlled services to the furnace modules, and interfacing to and acquiring data from the furnace modules. The subsystems, described in detail, are as follows: Power Conditioning and Distribution Subsystem; Data Management Subsystem; Software; Gas Distribution Subsystem; Thermal Control Subsystem; and Mechanical Structures Subsystem.

  14. Technical energy audit of the Rifle Correctional Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This energy audit was initiated to pinpoint the reasons for the disproportionate budget share of energy costs at the Rifle Correctional Facility, one of Colorado's newest prisons. Conservation options and retrofits are discussed in detail as are the economics of improvements and rising energy costs. Because of the site's geographic situation, techniques of solar adaptation are discussed, although emphasis is on conservation strategies. Partial wood heating is also considered. Rifle's particular security system may also work to its advantage through the use of inmate labor as a cost-saving measure both during the improvements and as a long-term strategy.

  15. SRTC criticality technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility`s Waste Handling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-10-01

    Separate review of NMP-NCS-930058, {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility`s Waste Handling Facility (U), August 17, 1993,{close_quotes} was requested of SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine waste container uranium limits in the Uranium Solidification Facility`s Waste Handling Facility. The NCSE under review concludes that the NDA room remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. The ability to make this conclusion is highly dependent on array limitation and inclusion of physical barriers between 2{times}2{times}1 arrays of boxes containing materials contaminated with uranium. After a thorough review of the NCSE and independent calculations, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  16. Report of National Vocational-Technical Facility Planning Conference (Las Vegas, Nevada, May, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Robert

    Presentations at the conference, which was attended by 137 persons, included: (1) "A Road to Quality Vocational Facilities" by S.J. Knezevich, (2) "A Systems Approach to School Construction" by John Boice, (3) "The Birth of a New Vocational-Technical Center" by Clayton Farnsworth, (4) "Architectural Features of…

  17. 115. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter building no. 101, "elevations - sheet 2" - architectural, AS-BLT AW 35-46-03, sheet 5, dated 23 June, 1961. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  18. 114. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter building no. 101 "elevations - sheet 1" - architectural, AS-BLT AW 35-46-03, sheet 5, dated 23 June, 1961. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  19. A TECHNICAL GUIDE, REPORT C--EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES WITH NEW MEDIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREEN, ALAN C.; AND OTHERS

    THE REPORT PROVIDES DETAILED TECHNICAL GUIDANCE IN MAKING DESIGN DECISIONS. IT IS DIRECTED TO PERSONNEL CONCERNED WITH THE DETAILS OF DESIGN SUCH AS ARCHITECTS, ENGINEERS, SUPPLIERS, AND MEDIA SPECIALISTS. THE DATA OFFER GUIDANCE IN THE PROGRAMING AND PLANNING OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES AND INFORMATION ON (1) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND FURNISHINGS,…

  20. 48 CFR 801.602-80 - Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Responsibilities 801.602-80 Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legal and technical review-Office of Construction and Facilities Management and National Cemetery Administration. 801.602-80...

  1. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    SciTech Connect

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  2. 120. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter & computer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter & computer building no. 102, section II "foundation & first floor plan" - structural, AS-BLT AW 35-46-04, sheet 65, dated 23 January, 1961. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  3. 122. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter & computer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter & computer building no. 102, section II "elevations & details" - structural, AS-BLT AW 35-46-04, sheet 73, dated 23 January, 1961. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  4. 118. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter & computer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter & computer building no. 102, "building sections - sheet I" - architectural, AS-BLT AW 35-46-04, sheet 13, dated 23 January, 1961. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. 121. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter & computer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter & computer building no. 102, section II "sections & elevations" - structural, AS-BLT AW 35-46-04, sheet 72, dated 23 January, 1961. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  6. 116. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter building no. 101, "equipment room details" - mechanical, AS-BLT AW 35-46-03, sheet 73.1, dated 23 January, 1961. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  7. 119. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter & computer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter & computer building no. 102, section I "tower plan, sections & details" - structural, AS-BLT AW 35-46-04, sheet 62, dated 23 January, 1961. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  8. 108. Back side technical facilities S.R. (scanning radar), scanner building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. Back side technical facilities S.R. (scanning radar), scanner building no. 104, "first floor & mezzanine plan" - architectural, AS-BLT AW 35-03-89, sheet 1 of 40, dated November, 1960. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  9. 117. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter & computer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Back side technical facilities S.R. radar transmitter & computer building no. 102, "building sections - sheet I" - architectural, AS-BLT AW 35-46-04, sheet 12, dated 23 January, 1961. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  10. The design and implementation of the Technical Facilities Controller (TFC) for the Goldstone deep space communications complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killian, D. A.; Menninger, F. J.; Gorman, T.; Glenn, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Technical Facilities Controller is a microprocessor-based energy management system that is to be implemented in the Deep Space Network facilities. This system is used in conjunction with facilities equipment at each of the complexes in the operation and maintenance of air-conditioning equipment, power generation equipment, power distribution equipment, and other primary facilities equipment. The implementation of the Technical Facilities Controller was completed at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex and is now operational. The installation completed at the Goldstone Complex is described and the utilization of the Technical Facilities Controller is evaluated. The findings will be used in the decision to implement a similar system at the overseas complexes at Canberra, Australia, and Madrid, Spain.

  11. Technical Support Section Instrument Support Program for nuclear and nonnuclear facilities with safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Adkisson, B.P.; Allison, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes requirements, procedures, and supervisory responsibilities of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) Division`s Technical Support Section (TSS) for instrument surveillance and maintenance in nonreactor nuclear facilities having identified Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs) or Limiting Conditions Document (LCDs). Implementation of requirements comply with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5480.5, 5480.22, and 5481.1B; Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Policy Procedure ESS-FS-201; and ORNL SPP X-ESH-15. OSRs and LCDs constitute an agreement or contract between DOE and the facility operating management regarding the safe operation of the facility. One basic difference between OSRs and LCDs is that violation of an OSR is considered a Category II occurrence, whereas violation of an LCD requirement is considered a Category III occurrence (see Energy Systems Standard ESS-OP-301 and ORNL SPP X-GP-13). OSRs are required for high- and moderate-hazard nuclear facilities, whereas the less-rigorous LCDs are required for low-hazard nuclear facilities and selected {open_quotes}generally accepted{close_quotes} operations. Hazard classifications are determined through a hazard screening process, which each division conducts for its facilities.

  12. Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 1: Technical analyses and tradeoffs, sections 8-12 (part 4 of 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The probe bus and orbiter subsystems are defined, and tradeoffs analyzed. Subsystems discussed include: communications, electric power, data handling, attitude determination and control, propulsion, thermal control, structure and mechanisms, NASA/ESRO orbiter interface, mission operation, and flight support.

  13. Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 1. Technical analyses and tradeoffs, sections 5-6 (part 2 of 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    System configuration concepts, and tradeoffs are presented for the Atlas/Centaur, and the Thor/Delta probes. Spacecraft system definition, and the probe system definition are discussed along with the mission reliability.

  14. Power systems development facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Second Quarter of the Second Budget Period, July 1 through September 30, 1993, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scaleup of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; Combustion Gas Turbine; and Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility.

  15. Lead Coolant Test Facility Technical and Functional Requirements, Conceptual Design, Cost and Construction Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Soli T. Khericha

    2006-09-01

    This report presents preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research need listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements of basis are identified: Develop and Demonstrate Prototype Lead/Lead-Bismuth Liquid Metal Flow Loop Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control Demonstrate Safe Operation and Provision for Future Testing. These five broad areas are divided into twenty-one (21) specific requirements ranging from coolant temperature to design lifetime. An overview of project engineering requirements, design requirements, QA and environmental requirements are also presented. The purpose of this T&FRs is to focus the lead fast reactor community domestically on the requirements for the next unique state of the art test facility. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 420oC. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M. It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

  16. Power systems development facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the last quarter of the Second Budget Period, January 1 through March 31, 1994, entitled {open_quotes}Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.{close_quotes} The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particulate control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size.

  17. Health Facility Graduation from Donor-Supported Intensive Technical Assistance and Associated Factors in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Koni, Phillip; Chishinga, Nathaniel; Nyirenda, Lameck; Kasonde, Prisca; Nsakanya, Richard; Welsh, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The FHI360-led Zambia Prevention Care and Treatment partnership II (ZPCT II) with funding from United States Agency for International Development, supports the Zambian Ministry of Health in scaling up HIV/AIDS services. To improve the quality of HIV/AIDS services, ZPCT II provides technical assistance until desired standards are met and districts are weaned-off intensive technical support, a process referred to as district graduation. This study describes the graduation process and determines performance domains associated with district graduation. Methods Data were collected from 275 health facilities in 39 districts in 5 provinces of Zambia between 2008 and 2012. Performance in technical capacity, commodity management, data management and human resources domains were assessed in the following services areas: HIV counselling and testing and prevention of mother to child transmission, antiretroviral therapy/clinical care, pharmacy and laboratory. The overall mean percentage score was calculated by obtaining the mean of mean percentage scores for the four domains. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the domain mean percentage scores in graduated versus non-graduated districts; according to rural-urban, and province strata. Results 24 districts out of 39 graduated from intensive donor supported technical assistance while 15 districts did not graduate. The overall mean percentage score for all four domains was statistically significantly higher in graduated than non-graduated districts (93.2% versus 91.2%, OR = 1.34, 95%CI:1.20–1.49); including rural settings (92.4% versus 89.4%, OR = 1.43,95%CI:1.24–1.65). The mean percentage score in human resource domain was statistically significantly higher in graduated than non-graduated districts (93.6% versus 71.6%, OR = 5.81, 95%CI: 4.29–7.86) and in both rural and urban settings. Conclusions QA/QI tools can be used to assess performance at

  18. Technical justification for a request to reclassify the former CCC/USDA facility at Canada, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-12-21

    Contamination in groundwater at Canada, Kansas, was discovered in 1997, during limited private well sampling near former grain storage facilities of the Commodity Credit Corporation, U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). Subsequent investigations by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) confirmed carbon tetrachloride and nitrate concentrations in groundwater above the respective maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of 5.0 {micro}g/L and 10.0 mg/L. The KDHE investigations identified both the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility and a private grain storage facility as likely sources for the carbon tetrachloride contamination. The CCC/USDA funded extension of a rural water district line to provide a permanent alternate water supply, and the KDHE has conducted long-term monitoring under the State Water Plan. This document presents an analysis of the available information for the Canada site, acquired in previous investigations and the long-term KDHE monitoring. This analysis forms the technical justification for a request to reclassify the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility at Canada as a site requiring no further action under the Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) between the KDHE and the USDA's Farm Service Agency. The KDHE's long-term water level monitoring results indicate a consistent groundwater flow direction to the east-southeast. Consequently, the wells with the highest overall concentrations of carbon tetrachloride are downgradient from the private grain storage facility but not downgradient from the former CCC/USDA facility. The KDHE criterion for reclassification of a site is that contamination there should not pose an unacceptable risk, on the basis of analytical results for four consecutive, equally timed, sequenced sampling episodes over a period of no less than two years. In seven KDHE sampling events over a period of six years (2001-2007), the concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in the monitoring well on the former CCC

  19. Diagnostic development and support of MHD Test Facilities. Technical progress report, October 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery (HRSR) support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL`s computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.

  20. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities. Technical progress report, January--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, W.S.; Cook, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery (HRSR) support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL`S computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.

  1. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Technical progress report: Third Quarter, CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This is the sixteenth Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC (pressurized fluidized-bed combustion) Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility (HGCU). This report covers the period of work completed during the Third Quarter of CY 1993. During this quarter, the Advanced Particle Filter (APF) was operated for a total of 1295 hours. This represents 58% availability during July, August, September, and including June 30 of the previous quarter. The operating dates and times since initial operation are summarized. The APF operating temperatures and differential pressures are provided. Details of the APF runs during this quarter are included in this report.

  2. Technical progress report for the magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility for the period April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multitask contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. In view of current year budget reductions and program reductions to closeout the MHD program, downsizing of the UTSI work force took place. No further testing occurred or was scheduled during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status.

  3. Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. In view of current year budget reductions and program reductions to closeout the MHD program, downsizing of the UTSI work force took place. No further testing has occurred or is scheduled, and the planned effort for this period was to maintain the DOE CFFF facility in a standby status and to complete test reports.

  4. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the first quarter of FY94. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD Proof-of-Concept project; mine waste technology pilot program; plasma projects; resource recovery project; sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate project; soil washing project; and spray casting project.

  5. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the third quarter of FY93. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: MHD Proof-of-Concept Project; Mine Waste Technology Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; Soil Washing Project; and Spray Casting Project.

  6. Projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the second quarter of FY94. The CDIF is a major US Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: Biomass Remediation Project; Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil Project; MHD Shutdown; Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Project; and Spray Casting Project.

  7. Technical Review of Retrieval and Closure Plans for the INEEL INTEC Tank Farm Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Burks, Barry L.; Quigley, Keith D.; Butterworth, S. W.; Falter, Diedre D.

    2001-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to document the conclusions of a technical review of retrieval and closure plans for the Idaho National Energy and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Tank Farm Facility. In addition to reviewing retrieval and closure plans for these tanks, the review process served as an information exchange mechanism so that staff in the INEEL High Level Waste (HLW) Program could become more familiar with retrieval and closure approaches that have been completed or are planned for underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Hanford sites. This review focused not only on evaluation of the technical feasibility and appropriateness of the approach selected by INEEL but also on technology gaps that could be addressed through utilization of technologies or performance data available at other DOE sites and in the private sector. The reviewers, Judith Bamberger of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Dr. Barry Burks of The Providence Group Applied Technology, have extensive experience in the development and application of tank waste retrieval technologies for nuclear waste remediation.

  8. Investigation of truck size and weight limits: technical supplement volume 7. carrier, market and regional cost and energy tradeoffs, part i. Final report oct 78-oct 81

    SciTech Connect

    Maio, D.J.

    1982-10-01

    This volume expands upon the summary results in the Secretary's Report to Congress and provides a more comprehensive treatment of the productivity and fuel tradeoffs among the categories of truck size, weight and configuration limits. Disaggregations of impacts among freight service user groups are reported to provide information to the interest groups most affected by alternative limit changes. It also presents an analysis of the sensitivity of the reported transport cost and fuel impacts of alternative limits to the possible inaccuracies in the analytical methods and data available to the study.

  9. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1: Technical standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities.

  10. Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) Fluid Toxicity Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) with the Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheredy, William A.

    2012-01-01

    A Technical Interchange meeting was held between the payload developers for the Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) and the NASA Safety Review Panel concerning operational anomaly that resulted in overheating one of the fluid heaters, shorted a 24VDC power supply and generated Perfluoroisobutylene (PFiB) from Perfluorohexane.

  11. [The material and technical base of fluorographic units of primary health care facilities and its development promises].

    PubMed

    Sterlikov, S A; Bogorodskaia, E M; Ponomareva, E G; Grigor'ev, A V

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the status of equipment and the staff potential in the fluorography and X-ray units of primary health care facilities and to define priorities and the volume of investments for their modernization. Two hundred and seventy-two health care facilities were studied through the use of questionnaires. The data were processed using standard statistical methods, such as calculation of the mean, median, and 95% confidence intervals. Prognosis was made for the idling period of equipment during stagnation of measures to improve the material and technical base of fluorography units. Priorities for modernizing the material and technical base and the staff potential were defined for the fluorography units of primary health care facilities. The volume of investments required for the modernization was estimated.

  12. Space Station Furnace Facility Core. Requirements definition and conceptual design study. Volume 2: Technical report. Appendix 6: Technical summary reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is a modular facility for materials research in the microgravity environment of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSFF is designed for crystal growth and solidification research in the fields of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics and will allow for experimental determination of the role of gravitational forces in the solidification process. The facility will provide a capability for basic scientific research and will evaluate the commercial viability of low-gravity processing of selected technologically important materials. The facility is designed to support a complement of furnace modules as outlined in the Science Capabilities Requirements Document (SCRD). The SSFF is a three rack facility that provides the functions, interfaces, and equipment necessary for the processing of the furnaces and consists of two main parts: the SSFF Core Rack and the two Experiment Racks. The facility is designed to accommodate two experimenter-provided furnace modules housed within the two experiment racks, and is designed to operate these two furnace modules simultaneously. The SCRD specifies a wide range of furnace requirements and serves as the basis for the SSFF conceptual design. SSFF will support automated processing during the man-tended operations and is also designed for crew interface during the permanently manned configuration. The facility is modular in design and facilitates changes as required, so the SSFF is adept to modifications, maintenance, reconfiguration, and technology evolution.

  13. The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on a multi-task research contract directed toward developing the technology for an MHD steam combined cycle power plant. During the period two tests were conducted in the DOE Coal Fired FLow Facility. Both of these tests were part of the western coal proof-of-concept (POC) test series. The report describes the performance of the tests and provides some preliminary performance data on particulate removal systems during the tests. The performance of ceramic tubes being tested for high temperature air heater application is described. Performance of advanced diagnostics equipment from both UTSI and MSU is summarized. The results of experiments designed to determine the effects of potassium compounds on combustion are included. Plans for analysis of metal tube specimens previously removed from the test train are discussed. Modeling and analysis of previous test data include a deposition model to predict ash deposition on tubes, mass balance results, automated data screening and chemical analyses and the data base containing these analyses. Laboratory tests on sealing ceramic tubes and corrosion analyses of previously tested tubes are reported.

  14. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Technical progress report No. 24, Third quarter, CY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This is the twenty-fourth and final Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the work completed during the Third Quarter of CY 1995. All activity this quarter was directed toward the completion of the program final report. A draft copy of the final report was forwarded to DOE during this quarter, and DOE submitted their comments on the report to AEPSC. DOE requested that Westinghouse write an appendix to the report covering the performance of the fail-safe regenerator devices during Tad operation, and Westinghouse subsequently prepared the appendix. Additional DOE comments were incorporated into the report, and it will be issued in camera-ready form by the end of October, 1995, which is the program end date. Appendix 1 presents the results of filter candle posttest examination by Westinghouse performed on selected filter candles following final shutdown of the system.

  15. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This is the thirteenth Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the period of work completed during the Fourth Quarter of CY 1992. The following are highlights of the activities that occurred during this report period: Initial operation of the Advanced Particle Filter (APF) occurred during this quarter. The following table summarizes the operating dates and times. HGCU ash lockhopper valve plugged with ash. Primary cyclone ash pluggage. Problems with the coal water paste. Unit restarted warm 13 hours later. HGCU expansion joint No. 7 leak in internal ply of bellows. Problems encountered during these initial tests included hot spots on the APP, backup cyclone and instrumentation spools, two breakdowns of the backpulse air compressor, pluggage of the APF hopper and ash removal system, failure (breakage) of 21 filter candles, leakage of the inner ply of one (1) expansion joint bellows, and numerous other smaller problems. These operating problems are discussed in detail in a subsequent section of this report. Following shutdown and equipment inspection in December, design modifications were initiated to correct the problems noted above. The system is scheduled to resume operation in March, 1993.

  16. PFBC HGCU Test Facility. Second quarterly technical progress report, CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This is the fifteenth Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the period of work completed during the Second Quarter of CY 1993.Work accomplished during the reporting period includes: the expansion joint heaters and control system were installed and tested. The system consists of 8 bellows heaters and 14 heaters on the adjacent piping. During initial testing, 11 of the 14 pipe and heaters failed due to overheating caused by control and installation problems; A pneumatically powered vibrator was installed in the APF manway nozzle to vibrate the hopper liner during back pulsing. This should eliminate any build-up on the pipes of the hopper; Two half capacity diesel driven back-up pulse air compressors were rented and installed; Installation of an emergency ash removal system was completed. The system enables ash to be removed via a line connected to the pipe between the outlet of the screw cooler and the inlet of the lockhopper system; Installation of the spoiling air line, valves, and metering orifice to the primary cyclone was completed; Numerous revisions were made to the Net 90 instrumentation and control system and the POPS data trending system to enhance system control and performance monitoring capability.

  17. Astronomic Telescope Facility: Preliminary systems definition study report. Volume 2: Technical description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobeck, Charlie (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The Astrometric Telescope Facility (AFT) is to be an earth-orbiting facility designed specifically to measure the change in relative position of stars. The primary science investigation for the facility will be the search for planets and planetary systems outside the solar system. In addition the facility will support astrophysics investigations dealing with the location or motions of stars. The science objective and facility capabilities for astrophysics investigations are discussed.

  18. Technical Safety Requirements for the B695 Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, H L

    2007-09-07

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division's B695 Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the B695 Segment of the DWTF. The TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the B695 Segment of the DWTF (LLNL 2004). The analysis presented there determined that the B695 Segment of the DWTF is a low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 3, nonreactor nuclear facility. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits as well as controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard analyses. Furthermore, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls section of the TSRs. The B695 Segment of the DWTF (B695 and the west portion of B696) is a waste treatment and storage facility located in the northeast quadrant of the LLNL main site. The approximate area and boundary of the B695 Segment of the DWTF are shown in the B695 Segment of the DWTF DSA. Activities typically conducted in the B695 Segment of the DWTF include container storage, lab-packing, repacking, overpacking, bulking, sampling, waste transfer, and waste treatment. B695 is used to store and treat radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste, and it also contains equipment used in conjunction with waste processing operations to treat various liquid and solid wastes. The portion of the building called Building 696 Solid Waste Processing Area (SWPA), also referred to as B696S in this report, is used primarily to manage solid radioactive waste. Operations specific to the SWPA include sorting and segregating low-level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, lab-packing, sampling, and crushing empty drums that previously contained LLW. A permit modification for B696S was submitted to DTSC in January 2004 to store and treat hazardous and mixed

  19. Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update

    SciTech Connect

    L. V. Street

    2007-04-01

    The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility.

  20. PFBC HGCU test facility technical progress report. First Quarter, CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This is the eighteenth Technical Progress Report submitted in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. During this quarter, the Tidd Hot Gas Clean Up System operated for 835 hours during six separate test runs. The system was starting into a seventh run at the end of the quarter. Highlights of this period are summarized below: the longest run during the quarter was approximately 333 hours; filter pressure drop was stable during all test runs this quarter using spoiling air to the primary cyclone upstream of the Advanced Particle Filter (APF); the tempering air system was commissioned this quarter which enabled the unit to operate at full load conditions while limiting the gas temperature in the APF to 1,400 F; during a portion of the one run, the tempering air was removed and the filter operated without problems up to 1,450 F; ash sampling was performed by Battelle personnel upstream and downstream of the APF and ash loading and particle size distribution data were obtained, a summary report is included; a hot area on the APF head was successfully repaired in service; a hot spot on the top of an expansion joint was successfully repaired by drilling holes from the inside of the pipe and pumping in refractory insulation; a corrosion inspection program for the HGCU system was issued giving recommendations for points to inspect; filter internal inspections following test runs 13 and 17 revealed a light coating (up to 1/4 inch thick) of residual ash on the candles and some ash bridging between the dust sheds and inner rows of candles. Data from these inspections are included with this report.

  1. Low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment at Murmansk, Russia: Technical design and review of facility upgrade and expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Diamante, J.M.; Duffey, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    The governments of Norway and the US have committed their mutual cooperation and support the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to expand and upgrade the Low-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLRW) treatment system located at the facilities of the Russian company RTP Atomflot, in Murmansk, Russia. RTP Atomflot provides support services to the Russian icebreaker fleet operated by the MSCo. The objective is to enable Russia to permanently cease disposing of this waste in Arctic waters. The proposed modifications will increase the facility`s capacity from 1,200 m{sup 3} per year to 5,000 m{sup 3} per year, will permit the facility to process high-salt wastes from the Russian Navy`s Northern fleet, and will improve the stabilization and interim storage of the processed wastes. The three countries set up a cooperative review of the evolving design information, conducted by a joint US and Norwegian technical team from April through December, 1995. To ensure that US and Norwegian funds produce a final facility which will meet the objectives, this report documents the design as described by Atomflot and the Russian business organization, ASPECT, both in design documents and orally. During the detailed review process, many questions were generated, and many design details developed which are outlined here. The design is based on the adsorption of radionuclides on selected inorganic resins, and desalination and concentration using electromembranes. The US/Norwegian technical team reviewed the available information and recommended that the construction commence; they also recommended that a monitoring program for facility performance be instituted.

  2. 44 CFR 352.24 - Provision of technical assistance and Federal facilities and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.24 Provision of technical...

  3. 44 CFR 352.24 - Provision of technical assistance and Federal facilities and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.24 Provision of technical...

  4. Power Systems Development Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: 1. Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source. 2. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams. 3. Combustion Gas Turbine. 4. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility, finalizing the selection for the Carbonizer/Transport and the circulating pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (CPFBC) particulate control devices (PCDs), drafting the air permit for the facility and continue the installation of the transport reactor development unit (TRDU). The detailed design of the PSDF continued to refine interface points to streamline the design of the facility.

  5. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility – Fiscal Year 2015

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Birdsell, Kay H.

    2016-02-29

    As a condition to the disposal authorization statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year (FY) 2015 annual review for Area G.

  6. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Venteris, Erik R; McBride, Robert C; Coleman, Andre M; Skaggs, Richard L; Wigmosta, Mark S

    2014-03-18

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources, as well as transportation and utility infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and strains of the order Sphaeropleales. A total of 64,000 sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively applied screening criteria and tracked their impact on the number of potential sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrated maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Sphaeropleales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Results were driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low-salinity freshwater (<400 mg L(-1)) constrained Sphaeropleales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species like Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  7. Siting algae cultivation facilities for biofuel production in the United States: trade-offs between growth rate, site constructability, water availability, and infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Venteris, Erik R.; McBride, Robert; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-02-21

    Locating sites for new algae cultivation facilities is a complex task. The climate must support high growth rates, and cultivation ponds require appropriate land and water resources as well as key utility and transportation infrastructure. We employ our spatiotemporal Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT) to select promising locations based on the open-pond cultivation of Arthrospira sp. and a strain of the order Desmidiales. 64,000 potential sites across the southern United States were evaluated. We progressively apply a range of screening criteria and track their impact on the number of selected sites, geographic location, and biomass productivity. Both strains demonstrate maximum productivity along the Gulf of Mexico coast, with the highest values on the Florida peninsula. In contrast, sites meeting all selection criteria for Arthrospira were located along the southern coast of Texas and for Desmidiales were located in Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Site selection was driven mainly by the lack of oil pipeline access in Florida and elevated groundwater salinity in southern Texas. The requirement for low salinity freshwater (<400 mg L-1) constrained Desmidiales locations; siting flexibility is greater for salt-tolerant species such as Arthrospira. Combined siting factors can result in significant departures from regions of maximum productivity but are within the expected range of site-specific process improvements.

  8. Preliminary technical data summary No. 3 for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Landon, L.F.

    1980-05-01

    This document presents an update on the best information presently available for the purpose of establishing the basis for the design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility. Objective of this project is to provide a facility to fix the radionuclides present in Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level liquid waste in a high-integrity form (glass). Flowsheets and material balances reflect the alternate CAB case including the incorporation of low-level supernate in concrete. (DLC)

  9. Power systems development facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: (1) Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source. (2) Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams. (3) Combustion Gas Turbine. (4) Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  10. 44 CFR 352.24 - Provision of technical assistance and Federal facilities and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.24 Provision of technical assistance... their costs. (c) FEMA will inform the licensee in writing of the Federal support which will be...

  11. 44 CFR 352.24 - Provision of technical assistance and Federal facilities and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.24 Provision of technical assistance... their costs. (c) FEMA will inform the licensee in writing of the Federal support which will be...

  12. 44 CFR 352.24 - Provision of technical assistance and Federal facilities and resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.24 Provision of technical assistance... their costs. (c) FEMA will inform the licensee in writing of the Federal support which will be...

  13. Quality assurance project plan for the UMTRA technical assistance contractor hydrochemistry facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) hydrochemistry facility is used to perform a limited but important set of services for the UMTRA Project. Routine services include support of field-based hydrological and geochemical operations and water sampling activities. Less commonly, the hydrology and geochemistry staff undertake special studies and site characterization studies at this facility. It is also used to train hydrologists, geochemists, and groundwater sampling crews. A review of this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) shall be accomplished once each calendar year. This review will be targeted to be accomplished not sooner than 6 months and not later than 18 months after the last review.

  14. The tradeoffs of successful simulation.

    PubMed

    Meller, G; Tepper, R; Bergman, M; Anderhub, B

    1997-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the decision process we followed to develop an ultrasound simulator. The development of an advanced technology medical device always requires tradeoffs and compromises between what is desired, and what can be realistically achieved. The medical applications of computer based education are increasingly important to the process of medical education. Product developers will be required to address these concerns. Some tradeoffs result from technical, scientific, and engineering factors; while others are the result of marketing, financial, or competitive constraints. All of these factors will influence the design and production of simulation tools. A manager, scientist, or engineer who is involved in development of this kind of innovative product may be helped by considering the impact of some of these decisions earlier in the process. Forewarned is fore-armed. The most basic design issue we faced was the conflict between the requirements we envisioned for the ultrasound simulator, and the limitations of realistic simulation. Our goal was to achieve a product which would be affordable to the academic institutions who would be using it. Simulation will be defined and presented with examples from our experience.

  15. Technical assessment of workplace air sampling requirements at tank farm facilities. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, P.A.; Brown, R.L.

    1995-03-22

    Tank Farm facilities compliance with the workplace air sampling (WPAS) program has been assessed. Requirements bases for determining compliance and recommendations are included. In the current condition all buildings are in compliance with the WPAS program. This document also supersedes WHC-SD-SQA-TA-20012, revision 0.

  16. Operation, Maintenance and Management of Wastewater Treatment Facilities: A Bibliography of Technical Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, Dottie

    This is an annotated bibliography of wastewater treatment manuals. Fourteen manuals are abstracted including: (1) A Planned Maintenance Management System for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants; (2) Anaerobic Sludge Digestion, Operations Manual; (3) Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities; (4) Estimating Laboratory Needs…

  17. Design and construction of the NMSU Geothermally Heated Greenhouse Research Facility: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenmackers, R.

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and performance of the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Geothermal Greenhouse Research Facility. Two 6000-square-foot greenhouses were built on the NMSU campus and supplied with geothermal energy for heating. The geothermal water is pumped from one of three wells producing water at temperatures from 141/degree/F to 148/degree/F. Heat is delivered to the greenhouse space by means of overhead fan-coil unit heaters. The two greenhouses are double-glazed on roof and wall surfaces employing a total of four different film materials: Tedlar/Reg Sign/, Melinex/Reg Sign/, Softglass/Reg Sign/, and Agrifilm/Reg Sign/. One greenhouse is cooled using a traditional fan and pad cooling system. The second greenhouse is cooled with a high-pressure fog system and natural ventilation through roof and side vents. A 2400-square-foot metal building next to the greenhouses provides office, work, and storage space for the facility. The greenhouse facility was leased to two commerical tenants who produced a variety of crops. The performance of the greenhouses was monitored and reported both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results from the tenant's pilot-scale studies in the NMSU greenhouse facility were transferred and applied to two commercial greenhouse ranges that were built in southern New Mexico during 1986/87. 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. A Technical Analysis of Ontario Universities' Requirements for Library Facilities, 1970-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ivor William; Hansen, Bertrand L.

    The Ontario Council of University Librarians (OCUL) was requested to undertake an assessment of the library facilities that would be required by each university to serve the enrollment projected for 1975-76. After submission of the report a research staff refined the data and analysis, and placed the figures for all universities on a comparable…

  19. Technical publications of the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, 1980 through 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography lists the publications sponsored by the NASA Wallops Flight Center/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Flight Facility during the period 1980 through 1983. The compilation contains citations listed by type of publication; i.e., NASA formal report, NASA contractor report, journal article, or presentation; by contract/grant number; and by accession number. Oceanography, astrophysics, artificial satellites, fluid mechanics, and sea ice are among the topics covered.

  20. Index of National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center Technical Reports 1972-1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    derogate the operation of an enroute radar beiscon site installed at the test location. As a result of the initial data analysis, flight tests were...APTITUDE FOR AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL E. P. Buckley, Tom Beebe Final Report, January 1972, 3 7p. (RD-71-106) (AD 735 942) A motion picture test for aptitude for...air traffic control was developed and pretested with 19 air traffic control specialists. The test was developed at the National Aviation Facilities

  1. Technical and design update in the AUBE French low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Marque, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Long-term industrial management of radioactive waste in France is carried out by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA). ANDRA is in charge of design, siting, construction, and operation of disposal centers. The solution selected in France for the disposal of low- and medium-level, short-lived radioactive waste is near-surface disposal in the earth using the principle of multiple barriers, in accordance with national safety rules and regulations, and based on operating experience from the Centre de Stockage de la Manche. Since the center's start-up in 1969, 400,000 m{sup 3} of waste have been disposed of. The French national program for waste management is proceeding with the construction of a second near-surface disposal, which is expected to be operational in 1991. It is located in the department of AUBE (from which its name derives), 100 miles southeast of Paris. The paper describes the criteria for siting and design of the AUBE disposal facility, design of the AUBE facility disposal module, and comparison with North Carolina and Pennsylvania disposal facility designs.

  2. Development of a multi-resource alternate energy facility. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Keel, J.S.

    1981-04-01

    A grant was awarded for development of a bio-gas alternate energy project on a 60 acre cattle farm on the outskirts of Harrison, Arkansas. The project required construction of a bio-gas plant to demonstrate that methane gas produced from livestock manure can lead to semi-independence of rural areas from traditional energy resources, and that the effluent fertilizer produced will reduce reliance on chemical fertilizers. A supplemental grant was awarded for adding a solar hot water heater for the bio-gas plant, and a wind powered electrical generating system for the project. Thus, this is a multi-resource alternate energy facility that uses solar, wind and bio-conversion to produce energy for the farm. The facility has three sub-systems: (a) A bio-gas plant which produces methane gas which can be used for hot water heat or other human comfort needs, generation of electricity, a rich effluent alternate fertilizer, and an alternate vehicle fuel. (b) A solar hot water heater that provides supplemental heat for the methane-powered bio-gas digester circulating hot water system. (c) A wind powered electrical generating system which supplements farm and residential electrical demands. The goals of the facility are to: (a) Introduce small-scale alternate energy technology into farming operations. (b) Demonstrate that small-scale energy alternatives are practical and attainable. (c) Stimulate production of alternate energy technology in Agriculture.

  3. Nondiscrimination on the basis of disability by public accommodations and in commercial facilities; Americans With Disabilities Act accessibility guidelines for buildings and facilities--Department of Justice. Final rule: technical amendment.

    PubMed

    1993-04-05

    This document contains technical amendments to the regulations on nondiscrimination on the basis of disability by public accommodations and in commercial facilities, which implement title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and to appendix A to those regulations. This final rule makes some technical corrections to the regulations and amends the regulations to reference an Office and Management and Budget control number in compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, as amended.

  4. Materials sciences research. [research facilities, research projects, and technical reports of materials tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Research projects involving materials research conducted by various international test facilities are reported. Much of the materials research is classified in the following areas: (1) acousto-optic, acousto-electric, and ultrasonic research, (2) research for elucidating transport phenomena in well characterized oxides, (3) research in semiconductor materials and semiconductor devices, (4) the study of interfaces and interfacial phenomena, and (5) materials research relevant to natural resources. Descriptions of the individual research programs are listed alphabetically by the name of the author and show all personnel involved, resulting publications, and associated meeting speeches.

  5. Pretreatment Engineering Platform--Reducing Technical Risks for the Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility through Scaled Process Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, Chris A.; Barnes, Steven M.; Huckaby, James L.; Josephson, Gary B.; Gilbert, Robert A.

    2008-02-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will separate and vitrify (immobilize in glass) millions of gallons of radioactive and chemical wastes stored at the Hanford Site. Pretreatment of the waste by caustic and oxidative leaching processes will minimize the volume of high-level waste (HLW) to be vitrified, and cross-flow ultrafiltration will be used to remove liquids from the HLW solid slurry. An extensive and critical review of the WTP technical bases and design identified the need to demonstrate of the integrated leaching and ultrafiltration processes at greater than bench scale. To respond to this need, the WTP prime contractor, Bechtel National, Inc., and their principle subcontractor Washington Group International concluded a 1/4.5 scale facility to treat non-radioactive waste simulants was needed to demonstrate the process. This paper describes the technical bases and design of the scaled Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) and the strategy to develop waste simulants to be used in the PEP

  6. Technical report for the generic site add-on facility for plutonium polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E. D.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide environmental data and reference process information associated with incorporating plutonium polishing steps (dissolution, impurity removal, and conversion to oxide powder) into the genetic-site Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MOXFF). The incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will enable the removal of undesirable impurities, such as gallium and americium, known to be associated with the plutonium. Moreover, unanticipated impurities can be removed, including those that may be contained in (1) poorly characterized feed materials, (2) corrosion products added from processing equipment, and (3) miscellaneous materials contained in scrap recycle streams. These impurities will be removed to the extent necessary to meet plutonium product purity specifications for MOX fuels. Incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will mean that the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) will need to produce a plutonium product that can b e dissolved at the MOXFF in nitric acid at a suitable rate (sufficient to meet overall production requirements) with the minimal usage of hydrofluoric acid, and its complexing agent, aluminum nitrate. This function will require that if the PDCF product is plutonium oxide powder, that powder must be produced, stored, and shipped without exceeding a temperature of 600 C.

  7. MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Altstatt, M. C.; Attig, R. C.; Brosnan, D. A.

    1980-11-01

    Significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF) are described. On Task 1, the first phase of the downstream quench system was completed. On Task 2, all three combustor sections were completed, hydrotested, ASME code stamped, and delivered to UTSI. The nozzle was also delivered. Fabrication of support stands and cooling water manifolds for the combustor and vitiation heater were completed, heat transfer and thermal stress analysis, along with design development, were conducted on the generator and radiant furnace and secondary combustor installation progressed as planned. Under Task 3 an Elemental Analyzer and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer/Graphite Furnace were received and installed, sites were prepared for two air monitoring stations, phytoplankton analysis began, and foliage and soil sampling was conducted using all study plots. Some 288 soil samples were combined to make 72 samples which were analyzed. Also, approval was granted to dispose of MHD flyash and slag at the Franklin County landfill. Task 4 effort consisted of completing all component test plans, and establishing the capability of displaying experimental data in graphical format. Under Task 7, a preliminary testing program for critical monitoring of the local current and voltage non-uniformities in the generator electrodes was outlined, electrode metal wear characteristics were documented, boron nitride/refrasil composite interelectrode sealing was improved, and several refractories for downstream MHD applications were evaluated with promising results.

  8. Texas Experimental Tokamak: A plasma research facility. Technical progress report, November 1, 1993--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, A.J.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose is to operate and maintain TEXT Upgrade as a complete facility for applied tokamak physics in order to elucidate the mechanisms of working gas, impurity, and thermal transport in tokamaks and in particular to understand the role of turbulence. So that they can continue to study the physics that is most relevant to the fusion program, TEXT completed a significant device upgrade this year. The new capabilities of the device and new and innovative diagnostics were exploited in all main program areas including: (1) configuration studies; (2) electron cyclotron heating physics; (3) improved confinement modes; (4) edge physics/impurity studies; (5) central turbulence and transport; and (6) transient transport. Details of the progress in each of the research areas are described.

  9. Preliminary design for a Zero Gravity Test Facility (ZGTF). Volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germain, A.

    1981-01-01

    The functional requirements and best conceptual design of a test facility that simulates weightless operating conditions for a high gain antenna systems (HGAS), that will broadcast to the Tracking Data Relay Satellites were defined. The typical HGAS defined is mounted on a low Earth orbiting satellite, and consists of an antenna with a double gimbal pointing system mounted on a 13 foot long mast. Typically, the gimbals are driven by pulse modulated dc motors or stepper motors. These drivers produce torques on the mast, with jitter that excites the satellite and may cause disturbances to sensitive experiments. The dynamic properties of the antenna support structure (mast), including flexible mode characteristics were defined. The torque profile induced on the spacecraft by motion of the high gain antenna was estimated. Gain and phase margins of the servo control loop of the gimbal drive electronics was also verified.

  10. Technical assessment of the rock support condition at the Near-Surface Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pye, J.H.

    1985-03-28

    Inspections were made at the Near-Surface Test Facility to determine the current condition and overall integrity of the rock support, comprised in general of rock bolts and shotcrete. The rock support behavior was identified as being passive. Preliminary findings show that differences in the rock support are confined to thin, weak and debonded shotcrete. The estimated, areal extent of these deficiencies is 2077 sq. ft. representing 3.8% of the total area of the high-back. The principal cause of concern associated with these deficiencies is the potential for small pieces of shotcrete to fall from the high-back. Construction records show that current conditions largely coincide with deficiencies identified and dispositioned at the time of construction.

  11. Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An expansion of medical data collection facilities was necessary to implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The primary objective of the EDOMP was to ensure the capability of crew members to reenter the Earth's atmosphere, land, and egress safely following a 16-day flight. Therefore, access to crew members as soon as possible after landing was crucial for most data collection activities. Also, with the advent of EDOMP, the quantity of investigations increased such that the landing day maximum data collection time increased accordingly from two hours to four hours. The preflight and postflight testing facilities at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) required only some additional testing equipment and minor modifications to the existing laboratories in order to fulfill EDOMP requirements. Necessary modifications at the landing sites were much more extensive.

  12. Design of the Grimethorpe Experimental Facility as of March 1981: a technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The Experimental Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor, which has been built as an extension to the National Coal Board Power Station, which is adjacent to Grimethorpe Colliery, Yorkshire, England, is described in this report. The Governments of the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany, under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, have agreed to share equally between them the costs of building and operating the plant. Control of the project was vested in an Executive Committee consisting of one representative of each Government with all decisions requiring unanimity. The actual operation of the project was vested in an Operating Agent, NCB (IEA Services) Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of the National Coal Board. The Implementing Agreement envisages a seven year project to be executed in four stages: (1) Procurement of Design Study with accompanying tender documents. (2) Tendering for construction of the Plant; study of appraisal of tenders. (3) Construction and acceptance of the Plant. (4) Operation of the Plant. The project is now towards the end of Stage 3. Construction has been completed and commissioning is in progress to prepare the plant for the start of the operational phase in Autumn 1981. Because of the confidentiality of much of the design information, for the purposes of this report technical descriptions have been confined to that of a general appraisal.

  13. Facility Microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.

    2005-05-01

    Microgrids are receiving a considerable interest from the power industry, partly because their business and technical structure shows promise as a means of taking full advantage of distributed generation. This report investigates three issues associated with facility microgrids: (1) Multiple-distributed generation facility microgrids' unintentional islanding protection, (2) Facility microgrids' response to bulk grid disturbances, and (3) Facility microgrids' intentional islanding.

  14. Shawnee Test Program. TVA Shawnee Test Facility. Final technical report, December 26, 1980-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, J.B.; Garrison, F.C.; Runyan, R.A.; Wells, W.L.

    1982-10-01

    Tests were conducted on train 100 (spray tower) at the Shawnee Test Facility between December 26, 1980, and May 30, 1981. Objectives were, respectively, to demonstrate the ability to operate a limestone scrubber on flue gas from high-sulfur coal using adipic acid slurry additive and forced oxidation long term without scale buildup at >90% SO/sub 2/ removal; to obtain factorial test data on a limestone spray tower system using forced oxidation and adipic acid; to evaluate the effect of changing spray header height and direction in a spray tower on SO/sub 2/ removal; and to determine if sodium thiosulfate is effective as a slurry additive to inhibit sulfate scale buildup. Operating conditions were determined wherein acceptable SO/sub 2/ removal (90 percent minimum) could be obtained over a three month period using limestone and adipic acid with forced oxidation. Quantitative relationships between spray header height, spray direction, and SO/sub 2/ removal were obtained for a spray tower having multi-level spray headers. Sodium thiosulfate added at a rate to maintain a 250 ppM level in the scrubber slurry under specific operating conditions was found to inhibit crystallization of sulfate from solution and to remove sulfate scale buildup already in place.

  15. Technical assessment of workplace air sampling requirements at tank farm facilities. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, P.A.

    1994-09-21

    WHC-CM-1-6 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). It was written to implement DOE N 5480.6 ``US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual`` as it applies to programs at Hanford which are now overseen by WHC. As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In addition to WHC-CM-1-6, there is HSRCM-1, the ``Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual`` and several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. This document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of Tank Farms` workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.

  16. Improving measurement quality assurance for photon irradiations at Department of Energy facilities. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    For radiation-instrument calibration to be generally acceptable throughout the US, direct or indirect traceability to a primary standard is required. In most instances, one of the primary standards established at NIST is employed for this purpose. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is an example of a program employing dosimetry based on the NIST primary photon-, beta particle- and neutron-dosimetry standards. The NIST primary dosimetry standards for bremsstrahlung were first established in the 1950s. They have been updated since then on several occasions. In the 1970s, Technical Committee 85 of the International Standards Organization (ISO) started its work on establishing sets of internationally acceptable, well-characterized photon beams for the calibration of radiation-protection instruments. It is the intent of this paper to make a detailed comparison between the current NIST and the most up-to-date ISO techniques. At present, 41 bremsstrahlung techniques are specified in ISO 4037 while NIST supports a total of 32 techniques. Given the existing equivalences, it makes sense to try to extend the NIST techniques to cover more of the ISO Narrow Spectrum and High Air-Kerma Rate Series. These extensions will also allow the possibility for use of ISO beam techniques in future revisions of the DOELAP standard, which has been suggested by DOE. To this end, NIST was funded by DOE to procure material and make adaptations to the existing NIST x-ray calibration ranges to allow NIST to have the capability of producing all the ISO bremsstrahlung techniques. The following sections describe the steps that were taken to achieve this.

  17. Technical Basis for Safe Operations with Pu-239 in NMS and S Facilities (F and H Areas)

    SciTech Connect

    Bronikowski, M.G.

    1999-03-18

    Plutonium-239 is now being processed in HB-Line and H-Canyon as well as FB-Line and F-Canyon. As part of the effort to upgrade the Authorization Basis for H Area facilities relative to nuclear criticality, a literature review of Pu polymer characteristics was conducted to establish a more quantitative vs. qualitative technical basis for safe operations. The results are also applicable to processing in F Area facilities.The chemistry of Pu polymer formation, precipitation, and depolymerization is complex. Establishing limits on acid concentrations of solutions or changing the valence to Pu(III) or Pu(VI) can prevent plutonium polymer formation in tanks in the B lines and canyons. For Pu(IV) solutions of 7 g/L or less, 0.22 M HNO3 prevents polymer formation at ambient temperature. This concentration should remain the minimum acid limit for the canyons and B lines when processing Pu-239 solutions. If the minimum acid concentration is compromised, the solution may need to be sampled and tested for the presence of polymer. If polymer is not detected, processing may proceed. If polymer is detected, adding HNO3 to a final concentration above 4 M is the safest method for handling the solution. The solution could also be heated to speed up the depolymerization process. Heating with > 4 M HNO3 will depolymerize the solution for further processing.Adsorption of Pu(IV) polymer onto the steel walls of canyon and B line tanks is likely to be 11 mg/cm2, a literature value for unpolished steel. This value will be confirmed by experimental work. Tank-to-tank transfers via steam jets are not expected to produce Pu(IV) polymer unless a larger than normal dilution occurs (e.g., >3 percent) at acidities below 0.4 M.

  18. Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. The experimental program was effectively terminated and reoriented to preparation of reports on previous tests and maintaining the DOE facility. In this report, the results of tube corrosion studies for the samples removed after 500 hours of western coal testing are summarized. Plans for evaluating the tube samples after termination of the tests at 1,047 hours are discussed. The status of development of models to predict ash deposition on conductive heat transfer tubes and their validation with experimental data is presented. Modeling and experiments to induce agglomeration of particulate are also discussed. Significant accomplishments, findings and conclusions include: In summary, corrosion measurements on typical, commercial stainless steels and on low and intermediate chromium steels after 639 hours of LMF5 exposure in the SHTM test sections revealed corrosion that was generally acceptable in magnitude if corrosion kinetics are parabolic, but, except for the higher chromium alloys 253MA and 310, not if kinetics are linear. The production of bilayer scales, and the large amount of scale separation and fragmentation make long term parabolic kinetics unlikely, and result in a high likelihood for breakaway corrosion.

  19. Comparison of Perceived and Technical Healthcare Quality in Primary Health Facilities: Implications for a Sustainable National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Duku, Stephen Opoku; Janssens, Wendy; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; van Ostenberg, Paul; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Pradhan, Menno; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Quality care in health facilities is critical for a sustainable health insurance system because of its influence on clients’ decisions to participate in health insurance and utilize health services. Exploration of the different dimensions of healthcare quality and their associations will help determine more effective quality improvement interventions and health insurance sustainability strategies, especially in resource constrained countries in Africa where universal access to good quality care remains a challenge. Purpose To examine the differences in perceptions of clients and health staff on quality healthcare and determine if these perceptions are associated with technical quality proxies in health facilities. Implications of the findings for a sustainable National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana are also discussed. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in two southern regions in Ghana involving 64 primary health facilities: 1,903 households and 324 health staff. Data collection lasted from March to June, 2012. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was performed to determine differences in client and health staff perceptions of quality healthcare. Spearman’s rank correlation test was used to ascertain associations between perceived and technical quality care proxies in health facilities, and ordered logistic regression employed to predict the determinants of client and staff-perceived quality healthcare. Results Negative association was found between technical quality and client-perceived quality care (coef. = -0.0991, p<0.0001). Significant staff-client perception differences were found in all healthcare quality proxies, suggesting some level of unbalanced commitment to quality improvement and potential information asymmetry between clients and service providers. Overall, the findings suggest that increased efforts towards technical quality care alone will not necessarily translate into better client-perceived quality care and willingness to

  20. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Technical memorandum includes transformer area product numbers, which are used to summarize dimensional and electrical properties of C-cores, pot cores, lamination, powder cores, and tape-wound cores. To aid in core selection, comparison of five common core materials is presented to indicate their influence on overall transformer efficiency and weight.

  1. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Rob

    2012-05-22

    As a condition to the Disposal Authorization Statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year 2011 annual review for Area G. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 and formally approved in 2009. These analyses are expected to provide reasonable estimates of the long-term performance of Area G and, hence, the disposal facility's ability to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) performance objectives. Annual disposal receipt reviews indicate that smaller volumes of waste will require disposal in the pits and shafts at Area G relative to what was projected for the performance assessment and composite analysis. The future inventories are projected to decrease modestly for the pits but increase substantially for the shafts due to an increase in the amount of tritium that is projected to require disposal. Overall, however, changes in the projected future inventories of waste are not expected to compromise the ability of Area G to satisfy DOE performance objectives. The Area G composite analysis addresses potential impacts from all waste disposed of at the facility, as well as other sources of radioactive material that may interact with releases from Area G. The level of knowledge about the other sources included in the composite analysis has not changed sufficiently to call into question the validity of that analysis. Ongoing environmental surveillance activities are conducted at, and in the vicinity of, Area G. However, the information generated by many

  2. Test facility for advanced electric adjustable frequency drives and generators of typical industrial ratings. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    A test facility has been developed, for electric adjustable-speed motors and variable-speed generators, that is unique in US universities in terms of its range (5 to 300 hp currently with 0.1 to 1,000 hp final capability) and flexibility (standard NEMA frame and novel geometry machines can be accommodated). The basic facility was constructed with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute. The instrumentation obtained under this DOE grant has been integrated into the facility which was completed in Fall 1997. The facility has already provided useful studies for DOE, EPRI, as well as several West Coast industries and electric energy utilities.

  3. Tradeoffs in bacteriophage life histories.

    PubMed

    Keen, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on the planet, yet most classical principles of evolutionary biology and ecology were not developed with viruses in mind. Here, the concept of biological tradeoffs, a fundamental tenet of life history theory, is examined in the context of bacteriophage biology. Specifically, several important parameters of phage life histories-replication, persistence, host range, and adsorption-are evaluated for tradeoffs. Available data indicate that replication rate is strongly negatively correlated with both persistence and host range, suggesting that the well-documented tradeoff in macroorganisms between offspring production and offspring quality also applies to phages. The biological tradeoffs that appear to characterize viruses' life histories have potential importance for viral evolution, ecology, and pathogenesis.

  4. Review of the geological and structural setting near the site of the proposed Transuranic Waste Facility (TRUWF) Technical Area 52 (TA-52), Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Gardner, Jamie N.

    2007-10-01

    Because of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s proximal location to active geologic structures, assessment of seismic hazards, including the potential for seismic surface rupture, must occur before construction of any facilities housing nuclear or other hazardous materials. A transuranic waste facility (TRUWF) planned for construction at Technical Area 52 (TA-52) provides the impetus for this report. Although no single seismic hazards field investigation has focused specifically on TA-52, numerous studies at technical areas surrounding TA-52 have shown no significant, laterally continuous faults exhibiting activity in the last 10 ka within 3,000 ft of the proposed facility. A site-specific field study at the footprint of the proposed TRUWF would not yield further high-precision data on possible Holocene faulting at the site because post-Bandelier Tuff sediments are lacking and the shallowest subunit contacts of the Bandelier Tuff are gradational. Given the distal location of the proposed TRUWF to any mapped structures with demonstrable Holocene displacement, surface rupture potential appears minimal at TA-52.

  5. Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Technologies to address leachate from the on-site disposal facility at Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-08-26

    On August 6-7, 2002, a Technical Assistance Team (''Team'') from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) personnel in Ohio to assess approaches to remediating uranium-contaminated leachate from the On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF). The Team was composed of technical experts from national labs, technology centers, and industry and was assembled in response to a request from the FEMP Aquifer Restoration Project. Dave Brettschneider of Fluor Fernald, Inc., requested that a Team of experts be convened to review technologies for the removal of uranium in both brine ion exchange regeneration solution from the Advanced Wastewater Treatment facility and in the leachate from the OSDF. The Team was asked to identify one or more technologies for bench-scale testing as a cost effective alternative to remove uranium so that the brine regeneration solution from the Advanced Waste Water Treatment facility and the leachate from the OSDF can be discharged without further treatment. The Team was also requested to prepare a recommended development and demonstration plan for the alternative technologies. Finally, the Team was asked to make recommendations on the optimal technical solution for field implementation. The Site's expected outcomes for this effort are schedule acceleration, cost reduction, and better long-term stewardship implementation. To facilitate consideration of the most appropriate technologies, the Team was divided into two groups to consider the brine and the leachate separately, since they represent different sources with different constraints on solutions, e.g., short-term versus very long-term and concentrated versus dilute contaminant matrices. This report focuses on the technologies that are most appropriate for the leachate from the OSDF. Upon arriving at FEMP, project personnel asked the Team to concentrate its efforts on evaluating potential technologies and

  6. Technical/commercial feasibility study of the production of fuel-grade ethanol from corn: 100-million-gallon-per-year production facility in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-05-01

    The technical and engineering plan for an ethanol from corn fuel grade production facility is given. Included is a review of current technology, process technology recommendation, single vs. multi by-product process, process description, resource requirements, utilities, use of boiler flue gas for by-product drying, plant layout alternatives, production schedule, and procurement plan. As components of production the following are covered: corn supply, other raw materials supply, site selection, and the socio-economic environment of the area. The community infrastructure of Plaquemines Parish is described.

  7. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J. M.; Livingston, R. R.; Berg, J. M.; Veirs, D. K.

    2013-02-06

    This report documents the technical basis for determining that stabilizing highpurity PuO{sub 2} derived from oxalate precipitation at the SRS HB-Line facility at a minimum of 625 {degree}C for at least four hours in an oxidizing atmosphere is equivalent to stabilizing at a minimum of 950 {degree}C for at least two hours as regards meeting the objectives of stabilization defined by DOE-STD-3013 if the material is handled in a way to prevent excessive absorption of water.

  8. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Aaron K.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-07-15

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  9. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The major emphasis during this reporting period was finishing the conceptual design for the test facility and discussions on the potential expansion of the test facility. Results are discussed for the following subtasks of conceptual design: design bases; quasifier/combustor and hot stream design; balance of plant designs; and particulate collection.

  10. Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Progress is reported in developing technology for steam bottoming cycle of the coal-fired MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. During this period, no testing was scheduled in the DOE Coal-Fired Flow Facility. The report covers facilities modification and maintenance in preparation for a 225 hour POC test that is scheduled for early next quarter. The modifications to the dry ESP to replace the electrodes with smaller diameter wires is discussed. Continued work on the rotary vacuum filter, which is designed to separate the more soluble potassium carbonate from the potassium sulfate and fly ash, is reported. Environmental activities for the quarter are summarized.

  11. Plutonium Equivalent Inventory for Belowground Radioactive Waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Rob

    2012-04-18

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Many aspects of the management of this waste are conducted at Technical Area 54 (TA-54); Area G plays a key role in these management activities as the Laboratory's only disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Furthermore, Area G serves as a staging area for transuranic (TRU) waste that will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. A portion of this TRU waste is retrievably stored in pits, trenches, and shafts. The radioactive waste disposed of or stored at Area G poses potential short- and long-term risks to workers at the disposal facility and to members of the public. These risks are directly proportional to the radionuclide inventories in the waste. The Area G performance assessment and composite analysis (LANL, 2008a) project long-term risks to members of the public; short-term risks to workers and members of the public, such as those posed by accidents, are addressed by the Area G Documented Safety Analysis (LANL, 2011a). The Documented Safety Analysis uses an inventory expressed in terms of plutonium-equivalent curies, referred to as the PE-Ci inventory, to estimate these risks. The Technical Safety Requirements for Technical Area 54, Area G (LANL, 2011b) establishes a belowground radioactive material limit that ensures the cumulative projected inventory authorized for the Area G site is not exceeded. The total belowground radioactive waste inventory limit established for Area G is 110,000 PE-Ci. The PE-Ci inventory is updated annually; this report presents the inventory prepared for 2011. The approach used to estimate the inventory is described in Section 2. The results of the analysis are presented in Section 3.

  12. Experimental Facilities in Water Resources Education. A Contribution to the International Hydrological Programme. UNESCO Technical Papers in Hydrology No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This monograph is intended to guide teachers of water resources, technicians and university students in establishing physical facilities which can introduce learners to methods, techniques, and instruments used in water resources management and assessment. It is not intended to serve as an exhaustive list of equipment and their descriptions or as…

  13. A PLANNING GUIDE FOR VOCATIONAL-INDUSTRIAL AND VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL BUILDING FACILITIES FOR COMPREHENSIVE HIGH SCHOOLS, NUMBER 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany.

    THIS BOOKLET IS INTENDED AS A GUIDE FOR THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR PLANNING VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL FACILITIES. DISCUSSION OF TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION, PLANNING PROCEDURES, AND GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ARE INCLUDED AND INFORMATION IS GIVEN ON--(1) SIZES, SHAPES, AND NUMBER OF SHOPS, (2) BUILDING FLEXIBILITY, (3) LAYOUT OF FLOOR SPACE, (4) SERVICES IN…

  14. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project. Executive summary: Volume 1, Program summary information; Volume 2, Waste stream technical summary: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL`s waste streams and their potential treatment strategies.

  15. Technical Competencies for the Safe Interim Storage and Management of 233U at U.S. Department of Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.O.; Krichinsky, A.M.; Laughlin, S.S.; Van Essen, D.C.; Yong, L.K.

    1999-02-17

    Uranium-233 (with concomitant {sup 232}U) is a man-made fissile isotope of uranium with unique nuclear characteristics which require high-integrity alpha containment biological shielding, and remote handling. The special handling considerations and the fact that much of the {sup 233}U processing and large-scale handling was performed over a decade ago underscore the importance of identifying the people within the DOE complex who are currently working with or have worked with {sup 233}U. The availability of these key personnel is important in ensuring safe interim storage, management and ultimate disposition of {sup 233}U at DOE facilities. Significant programs are ongoing at several DOE sites with actinides. The properties of these actinide materials require many of the same types of facilities and handling expertise as does {sup 233}U.

  16. Technical documentation in support of the project-specific analysis for construction and operation of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Vinikour, W.; Allison, T.

    1996-09-01

    This document provides information that supports or supplements the data and impact analyses presented in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project-Specific Analysis (PSA). The purposes of NIF are to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory for the first time with inertial confinement fusion (ICF) technology and to conduct high- energy-density experiments ins support of national security and civilian application. NIF is an important element in the DOE`s science-based SSM Program, a key mission of which is to ensure the reliability of the nation`s enduring stockpile of nuclear weapons. NIF would also advance the knowledge of basic and applied high-energy- density science and bring the nation a large step closer to developing fusion energy for civilian use. The NIF PSA includes evaluations of the potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the facility at one of five candidate site and for two design options.

  17. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project: reactivation of the Elk Rapids Hydroelectric Facility. Final technical and construction cost report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    The Elk Rapids powerhouse dam is located on the Elk River channel in the Village of Elk Rapids, Michigan. Together with a small spillway structure located approximately 500 ft south of the dam, it constitutes the outlet to Lake Michigan for Elk Lake, Skegemog Lake, Torch Lake, Lake Bellaire, Clam Lake, and several smaller lakes. Power has been generated at the Elk Rapids site since the late nineteenth century, but the history of the present facility goes back to 1916 with the construction of the existing powerhouse dam by the Elk Rapids Iron Works Company. The facility was designed to contain four vertical-shaft generating units; however, only a single 270 hp Leffel type K unit was installed in 1916. In 1929, two additional Leffel units, rated 525 hp, were installed, and in 1930 a third 525 hp Leffel unit was added completely utilizing the capacity of the powerhouse and bringing the combined turbine capacity to 1845 hp.

  18. Technical Approach and Plan for Transitioning Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-10-06

    This document describes the approach and process in which the 100-K Area Facilities are to be deactivated and transitioned over to the Environmental Restoration Program after spent nuclear fuel has been removed from the K Basins. It describes the Transition Project's scope and objectives, work breakdown structure, activity planning, estimated cost, and schedule. This report will be utilized as a planning document for project management and control and to communicate details of project content and integration.

  19. Evolution of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory to the Astromaterial Sample Curation Facility: Technical Tensions Between Containment and Cleanliness, Between Particulate and Organic Cleanliness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Zeigler, R. A.; Calaway, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) was planned and constructed in the 1960s to support the Apollo program in the context of landing on the Moon and safely returning humans. The enduring science return from that effort is a result of careful curation of planetary materials. Technical decisions for the first facility included sample handling environment (vacuum vs inert gas), and instruments for making basic sample assessment, but the most difficult decision, and most visible, was stringent biosafety vs ultra-clean sample handling. Biosafety required handling of samples in negative pressure gloveboxes and rooms for containment and use of sterilizing protocols and animal/plant models for hazard assessment. Ultra-clean sample handling worked best in positive pressure nitrogen environment gloveboxes in positive pressure rooms, using cleanable tools of tightly controlled composition. The requirements for these two objectives were so different, that the solution was to design and build a new facility for specific purpose of preserving the scientific integrity of the samples. The resulting Lunar Curatorial Facility was designed and constructed, from 1972-1979, with advice and oversight by a very active committee comprised of lunar sample scientists. The high precision analyses required for planetary science are enabled by stringent contamination control of trace elements in the materials and protocols of construction (e.g., trace element screening for paint and flooring materials) and the equipment used in sample handling and storage. As other astromaterials, especially small particles and atoms, were added to the collections curated, the technical tension between particulate cleanliness and organic cleanliness was addressed in more detail. Techniques for minimizing particulate contamination in sample handling environments use high efficiency air filtering techniques typically requiring organic sealants which offgas. Protocols for reducing adventitious carbon on sample

  20. Combined electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops. Features of the method, technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikaev, A. K.; Ponomarev, A. V.; Bludenko, A. V.; Minin, V. N.; Elizar'eva, L. M.

    2001-04-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained from the study on combined electron-beam and coagulation method for purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of grain, potato, beet and some other plant materials. The method consists in preliminary mixing of industrial wastewater with municipal wastewater, electron-beam treatment of the mixture and subsequent coagulation. Technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility (output of 7000 m 3 day -1) with two powerful cascade electron accelerators (total maximum beam power of 400 kW) for treatment of the wastewater by the above method was carried out. It was calculated that the cost of purification of the wastes is equal to 0.25 US$ m -3 that is noticeably less than in the case of the existing method.

  1. Technical Support for Improving the Licensing Regulatory Base for Selected Facilities Associated with the Front End of the Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. G.; Schreiber, R. E.; Jamison, J. D.; Davenport, L. C.; Brite, D. W.

    1982-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by the NRC Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards (NMSS) to determine the adequacy of its health, safety and environmental regulatory base as a guide to applicants for licenses to operate UF{sub 6} conversion facilities and fuel fabrication plants. The regulatory base was defined as the body of documented requirements and guidance to licensees, including laws passed by Congress, Federal Regulations developed by the NRC to implement the laws, license conditions added to each license to deal with special requirements for that specific license, and Regulatory Guides. The study concentrated on the renewal licensing accomplished in the last few years at five typical facilities, and included analyses of licensing documents and interviews with individuals involved with different aspects of the licensing process. Those interviewed included NMSS staff, Inspection and Enforcement (IE) officials, and selected licensees. From the results of the analyses and interviews, the PNL study team concludes that the regulatory base is adequate but should be codified for greater visibility. PNL recommends that NMSS clarify distinctions among legal requirements of the licensee, acceptance criteria employed by NMSS, and guidance used by all. In particular, a prelicensing conference among NMSS, IE and each licensee would be a practical means of setting license conditions acceptable to all parties.

  2. When are person tradeoffs valid?

    PubMed Central

    Doctor, Jason N.; Miyamoto, John; Bleichrodt, Han

    2009-01-01

    The person tradeoff (PTO) is commonly used in health economic applications. However, to date it has no theoretical basis. The purpose of this paper is to provide this basis from a set of assumptions that together justify the most common applications of the PTO method. Our analysis identifies the central assumptions in PTO measurements. We test these assumptions in an experiment, but find only limited support for the validity of the PTO. PMID:19683816

  3. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Technical progress report, Run 243 with Illinois 6 coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the operating results for Run 243 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run was made in an Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) mode using Illinois 6 coal from the Burning Star mine. The primary objective was to demonstrate the effect of a dissolver on the ITSL product slate, especially on the net C/sub 1/-C/sub 5/ gas production and hydrogen consumption. Run 243 began on 3 February 1983 and continued through 28 June 1983. During this period, 349.8 tons of coal was fed in 2947 hours of operation. Thirteen special product workup material balances were defined, and the results are presented herein. 29 figures, 19 tables.

  4. DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING TRADE-OFF MODEL FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY OPERATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Distributed processing Trade-off Model for Electric Utility Operation is based upon a study performed for the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This study presented a technique that addresses the question of trade-offs between expanding a communications network or expanding the capacity of distributed computers in an electric utility Energy Management System (EMS). The technique resulted in the development of a quantitative assessment model that is presented in a Lotus 1-2-3 worksheet environment. The model gives EMS planners a macroscopic tool for evaluating distributed processing architectures and the major technical and economic tradeoffs as well as interactions within these architectures. The model inputs (which may be varied according to application and need) include geographic parameters, data flow and processing workload parameters, operator staffing parameters, and technology/economic parameters. The model's outputs are total cost in various categories, a number of intermediate cost and technical calculation results, as well as graphical presentation of Costs vs. Percent Distribution for various parameters. The model has been implemented on an IBM PC using the LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet environment and was developed in 1986. Also included with the spreadsheet model are a number of representative but hypothetical utility system examples.

  5. Technical progress report for the magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility for the period April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multitask contract to develop the necessary technology for the steam bottoming plant of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. A Proof-Of-Concept (POC) test was conducted during the quarter and the results are reported. This POC test was terminated after 88 hours of operation due to the failure of the coal pulverizer main shaft. Preparations for the test and post-test activities are summarized. Modifications made to the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are described and measurements of its performance are reported. The baghouse performance is summarized, together with actions being taken to improve bag cleaning using reverse air. Data on the wet ESP performance is included at two operating conditions, including verification that it met State of Tennessee permit conditions for opacity with all the flow through it. The results of experiments to determine the effect of potassium seed on NO{sub x} emissions and secondary combustion are reported. The status of efforts to quantify the detailed mass balance for all POC testing is summarized. The work to develop a predictive ash deposition model is discussed and results compared with deposition actually encountered during the test. Plans to measure the kinetics of potassium and sulfur on flames like the secondary combustor, are included. Advanced diagnostic work by both UTSI and MSU is reported. Efforts to develop the technology for a high temperature air heater using ceramic tubes are summarized.

  6. Critical experiments at Sandia National Laboratories : technical meeting on low-power critical facilities and small reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, Gary A.; Ford, John T.; Barber, Allison Delo

    2010-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted radiation effects testing for the Department of Energy (DOE) and other contractors supporting the DOE since the 1960's. Over this period, the research reactor facilities at Sandia have had a primary mission to provide appropriate nuclear radiation environments for radiation testing and qualification of electronic components and other devices. The current generation of reactors includes the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR), a water-moderated pool-type reactor, fueled by elements constructed from UO2-BeO ceramic fuel pellets, and the Sandia Pulse Reactor III (SPR-III), a bare metal fast burst reactor utilizing a uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel. The SPR-III is currently defueled. The SPR Facility (SPRF) has hosted a series of critical experiments. A purpose-built critical experiment was first operated at the SPRF in the late 1980's. This experiment, called the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Critical Experiment (CX), was designed to explore the reactor physics of a nuclear thermal rocket motor. This experiment was fueled with highly-enriched uranium carbide fuel in annular water-moderated fuel elements. The experiment program was completed and the fuel for the experiment was moved off-site. A second critical experiment, the Burnup Credit Critical Experiment (BUCCX) was operated at Sandia in 2002. The critical assembly for this experiment was based on the assembly used in the CX modified to accommodate low-enriched pin-type fuel in water moderator. This experiment was designed as a platform in which the reactivity effects of specific fission product poisons could be measured. Experiments were carried out on rhodium, an important fission product poison. The fuel and assembly hardware for the BUCCX remains at Sandia and is available for future experimentation. The critical experiment currently in operation at the SPRF is the Seven Percent Critical Experiment (7uPCX). This experiment is designed to provide benchmark

  7. Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Glantz, C.S.; Rittman, P.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site`s 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF`s exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls.

  8. Cloud and aerosol characterization for the ARM central facility: Multiple remote sensor techniques development. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, K.

    1992-04-30

    This research project designed to investigate how atmospheric remote sensing technology can best be applied to the characterization of the cloudy atmosphere. Our research program addresses basic atmospheric remote sensing questions, but at the same time is clearly directed toward providing information crucial to the ARM (Atmospheric Remote Sensing) program and for application to the Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART). The instrumentation that is being brought into play includes a variety of art-of-the-art sensors. Available at NOAA WPL are polarization Doppler K{sub a}-band (0.86 mm) and X-band (3.2 cm) radars, a C0{sub 2}(10.6 {mu}m) Doppler lidar with sequential ` polarization measurement capabilities, a three-channel (20.6, 31.65 and 90 GHz) microwave radiometer, and variety of visible and infrared radiometers. Instrumentation at the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) includes a polarization ruby (0.643 {mu}m) lidar, a narrow-beam (0.14{degree}) mid-infrared (9.5--11.5 {mu}m) radiometer coaligned with the lidar, several other radiometers in the visible and infrared spectral regions, and an advanced two-color (1.06 and 0.532 {mu}m), four-channel Polarization Diversity Lidar (PDL) and all-sky video imaging system that have only recently been developed under the ARM IDP.

  9. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V.

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  10. Evaluation of Low-Level Waste Disposal Receipt Data for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Robert

    2012-04-17

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational or institutional waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety, and the environment. To comply with this order, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for LLW disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. Furthermore, sites are required to conduct composite analyses that account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (or will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with the facilities. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 (LANL, 2008). These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several on-site and off-site exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data and on assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal. The accuracy of the performance assessment and composite analysis depends upon the validity of the data used and assumptions made in conducting the analyses. If changes in these data and assumptions are significant, they may invalidate or call

  11. Solar power satellite system sizing tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.; Monford, L. G.

    1981-01-01

    Technical and economic tradeoffs of smaller solar power satellite systems configured with larger antennas, reduced output power, and smaller rectennas, are considered. The differential costs in electricity for seven antenna/rectenna configurations operating at 2.45 GHz and five satellite systems operating at 5.8 GHz are calculated. Two 2.45 GHz configurations dependent upon the ionospheric power density limit are chosen as examples. If the ionospheric limit could be increased to 54 mW sq/cm from the present 23 mW sq/cm level, a 1.53 km antenna satellite operating at 2.45 GHz would provide 5.05 GW of output power from a 6.8 km diameter rectenna. This system gives a 54 percent reduction in rectenna area relative to the reference solar power satellite system at a modest 17 percent increase in electricity costs. At 5.8 GHz, an 0.75 km antenna providing 2.72 GW of power from a 5.8 km diameter rectenna is selected for analysis. This configuration would have a 67 percent reduction in rectenna area at a 36 percent increase in electricity costs. Ionospheric, atmospheric, and thermal limitations are discussed. Antenna patterns for three configurations to show the relative main beam and sidelobe characteristics are included.

  12. Trade-Off Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASAs Glenn Research Center (GRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs in communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space. GRC tasked Computer Networks and Software Inc. (CNS) to examine protocols and architectures for an In-Space Internet Node. CNS has developed a methodology for network reference models to support NASAs four mission areas: Earth Science, Space Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS), Aerospace Technology. CNS previously developed a report which applied the methodology, to three space Internet-based communications scenarios for future missions. CNS conceptualized, designed, and developed space Internet-based communications protocols and architectures for each of the independent scenarios. GRC selected for further analysis the scenario that involved unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) International Space Station (ISS) and a ground terminal Internet node via a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) transfer. This report contains a tradeoff analysis on the selected scenario. The analysis examines the performance characteristics of the various protocols and architectures. The tradeoff analysis incorporates the results of a CNS developed analytical model that examined performance parameters.

  13. Class 1 Permit Modification Notification Addition of Structures within Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11, Dome 375 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, July 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.; Lechel, Robert A.

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this letter is to notify the New Mexico Environment Department-Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of a Class 1 Permit Modification to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) in November 2010. The modification adds structures to the container storage unit at Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, Pad 11. Permit Section 3.1(3) requires that changes to the location of a structure that does not manage hazardous waste shall be changed within the Permit as a Class 1 modification without prior approval in accordance with Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 (40 CFR), {section}270.42(a)(1). Structures have been added within Dome 375 located at TA-54, Area G, Pad 11 that will be used in support of waste management operations within Dome 375 and the modular panel containment structure located within Dome 375, but will not be used as waste management structures. The Class 1 Permit Modification revises Figure 36 in Attachment N, Figures; and Figure G.12-1 in Attachment G.12, Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11 Outdoor Container Storage Unit Closure Plan. Descriptions of the structures have also been added to Section A.4.2.9 in Attachment A, TA - Unit Descriptions; and Section 2.0 in Attachment G.12, Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11 Outdoor Container Storage Unit Closure Plan. Full description of the permit modification and the necessary changes are included in Enclosure 1. The modification has been prepared in accordance with 40 CFR {section}270.42(a)(l). This package includes this letter and an enclosure containing a description of the permit modification, text edits of the Permit sections, and the revised figures (collectively LA-UR-12-22808). Accordingly, a signed certification page is also enclosed. Three hard copies and one electronic copy of this submittal will be delivered to the NMED-HWB.

  14. Economic and Environmental Tradeoffs in New Automotive Painting Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Geffen, Charlette A.; Field, III, F. R.; Isaacs, J. A.

    1998-10-01

    Painting is the most expensive unit operation in automobile manufacturing and the source of over 90 percent of the air, water and solid waste emissions at the assembly plant. While innovative paint technologies such as waterborne or powder paints can potentially improve plant environmental performance, implementing these technologies often requires major capital investment. A process-based technical cost model was developed for examining the environmental and economic implications of automotive painting at the unit operation level. The tradeoffs between potential environmental benefits and their relative costs are evaluated for current and new technologies.

  15. Technical Approach for Determining Key Parameters Needed for Modeling the Performance of Cast Stone for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-03-30

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) and its contractors at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are conducting a development program to develop / refine the cementitious waste form for the wastes treated at the ETF and to provide the data needed to support the IDF PA. This technical approach document is intended to provide guidance to the cementitious waste form development program with respect to the waste form characterization and testing information needed to support the IDF PA. At the time of the preparation of this technical approach document, the IDF PA effort is just getting started and the approach to analyze the performance of the cementitious waste form has not been determined. Therefore, this document looks at a number of different approaches for evaluating the waste form performance and describes the testing needed to provide data for each approach. Though the approach addresses a cementitious secondary aqueous waste form, it is applicable to other waste forms such as Cast Stone for supplemental immobilization of Hanford LAW. The performance of Cast Stone as a physical and chemical barrier to the release of contaminants of concern (COCs) from solidification of Hanford liquid low activity waste (LAW) and secondary wastes processed through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) is of critical importance to the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) total system performance assessment (TSPA). The effectiveness of cementitious waste forms as a barrier to COC release is expected to evolve with time. PA modeling must therefore anticipate and address processes, properties, and conditions that alter the physical and chemical controls on COC transport in the cementitious waste forms over time. Most organizations responsible for disposal facility operation and their regulators support an iterative hierarchical safety/performance assessment approach with a general philosophy that modeling provides

  16. Regulating Tradeoffs to Improve Rice Production.

    PubMed

    Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that are continuously exposed to a wide range of environmental stresses. To cope with various stresses using limited resources, plants have evolved diverse mechanisms of "tradeoff" that enable the allocation of resources to address the most life-threatening stress. During our studies on induced disease resistance in rice, we have found some important phenomena relevant to tradeoffs between biotic and abiotic stress responses, and between stress response and plant growth. We characterized these tradeoff phenomena from viewpoints of signaling crosstalks associated with transcriptional regulation. Here, I describe following topics: (1) PTP1-dependent increased disease susceptibility of rice under low temperature and high salinity conditions, (2) OsNPR1-dependent tradeoff between pathogen defense and photosynthesis, (3) tradeoff between pathogen defense and abiotic stress tolerance in WRKY45-overexpressing rice plants, and (4) WRKY62-dependent tradeoff between pathogen defense and hypoxia tolerance. Lastly, I discuss my view regarding the significance of such tradeoffs in agricultural production that should be considered in crop breeding; that is, the tradeoffs, although they benefit plants in nature, can be rather disadvantageous in agricultural production.

  17. SCFA lead lab technical assistance at Oak Ridge Y-12 nationalsecurity complex: Evaluation of treatment and characterizationalternatives of mixed waste soil and debris at disposal area remedialaction DARA solids storage facility (SSF)

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-08-26

    On July 17-18, 2002, a technical assistance team from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with the Bechtel Jacobs Company Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) environmental project leader to review treatment and characterization options for the baseline for the DARA Solids Storage Facility (SSF). The technical assistance request sought suggestions from SCFA's team of technical experts with experience and expertise in soil treatment and characterization to identify and evaluate (1) alternative treatment technologies for DARA soils and debris, and (2) options for analysis of organic constituents in soil with matrix interference. Based on the recommendations, the site may also require assistance in identifying and evaluating appropriate commercial vendors.

  18. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Berg, J.; Veirs, D.

    2012-07-02

    The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO{sub 2} feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis. The stabilization conditions imposed by DOE-STD-3013 for PuO{sub 2} (i.e., 950 C for 2 hours) preclude use of the HBL PuO{sub 2} in direct fuel fabrication and reduce the value of the HBL product as MFFF feedstock. Consequently, HBL initiated a technical evaluation to define acceptable operating conditions for production of high-purity PuO{sub 2} that fulfills the DOE-STD-3013 criteria for safe storage. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that within the defined operating conditions, the HBL process will be equivalent for meeting the requirements of the DOE-STD-3013 stabilization process for plutonium-bearing materials from the DOE complex. The proposed 3013 equivalency reduces the prescribed stabilization temperature for high-purity PuO{sub 2} from oxalate precipitation processes from 950 C to 640 C and places a limit of 60% on the relative humidity (RH) at the lowest material temperature. The equivalency is limited to material produced using the HBL established flow sheet, for example, nitric acid anion exchange and Pu(IV) direct strike oxalate precipitation with stabilization at a minimum temperature of 640 C for four hours (h). The product purity must meet the MFFF acceptance criteria of 23,600 {micro}g/g Pu (i.e., 2.1 wt %) total impurities and chloride content less than 250 {micro}g/g of Pu. All other stabilization and packaging criteria identified by DOE-STD-3013-2012 or earlier revisions of the standard apply. Based on the evaluation of test data discussed in this document, the expert judgment of the authors supports packaging the HBL product under a 3013

  19. Regulating Tradeoffs to Improve Rice Production

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that are continuously exposed to a wide range of environmental stresses. To cope with various stresses using limited resources, plants have evolved diverse mechanisms of “tradeoff” that enable the allocation of resources to address the most life-threatening stress. During our studies on induced disease resistance in rice, we have found some important phenomena relevant to tradeoffs between biotic and abiotic stress responses, and between stress response and plant growth. We characterized these tradeoff phenomena from viewpoints of signaling crosstalks associated with transcriptional regulation. Here, I describe following topics: (1) PTP1-dependent increased disease susceptibility of rice under low temperature and high salinity conditions, (2) OsNPR1-dependent tradeoff between pathogen defense and photosynthesis, (3) tradeoff between pathogen defense and abiotic stress tolerance in WRKY45-overexpressing rice plants, and (4) WRKY62-dependent tradeoff between pathogen defense and hypoxia tolerance. Lastly, I discuss my view regarding the significance of such tradeoffs in agricultural production that should be considered in crop breeding; that is, the tradeoffs, although they benefit plants in nature, can be rather disadvantageous in agricultural production. PMID:28232844

  20. 9 CFR 351.10 - Facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Facilities and Operations § 351.10 Facilities. (a) Facilities for the preparation, identification, and storage of the technical animal fat to be... maintain the identity of certified technical animal fats and materials used in their preparation,...

  1. 9 CFR 351.10 - Facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Facilities and Operations § 351.10 Facilities. (a) Facilities for the preparation, identification, and storage of the technical animal fat to be... maintain the identity of certified technical animal fats and materials used in their preparation,...

  2. 9 CFR 351.10 - Facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Facilities and Operations § 351.10 Facilities. (a) Facilities for the preparation, identification, and storage of the technical animal fat to be... maintain the identity of certified technical animal fats and materials used in their preparation,...

  3. 9 CFR 351.10 - Facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Facilities and Operations § 351.10 Facilities. (a) Facilities for the preparation, identification, and storage of the technical animal fat to be... maintain the identity of certified technical animal fats and materials used in their preparation,...

  4. 9 CFR 351.10 - Facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Facilities and Operations § 351.10 Facilities. (a) Facilities for the preparation, identification, and storage of the technical animal fat to be... maintain the identity of certified technical animal fats and materials used in their preparation,...

  5. Cumulative Weighing of Time in Intertemporal Tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examine preferences for sequences of delayed monetary gains. In the experimental literature, two prominent models have been advanced as psychological descriptions of preferences for sequences. In one model, the instantaneous utilities of the outcomes in a sequence are discounted as a function of their delays, and assembled into a discounted utility of the sequence. In the other model, the accumulated utility of the outcomes in a sequence is considered along with utility or disutility from improvement in outcome utilities and utility or disutility from the spreading of outcome utilities. Drawing on three threads of evidence concerning preferences for sequences of monetary gains, we propose that the accumulated utility of the outcomes in a sequence is traded off against the duration of utility accumulation. In our first experiment, aggregate choice behavior provides qualitative support for the tradeoff model. In three subsequent experiments, one of which incentivized, disaggregate choice behavior provides quantitative support for the tradeoff model in Bayesian model contests. One thread of evidence motivating the tradeoff model is that, when, in the choice between two single dated outcomes, it is conveyed that receiving less sooner means receiving nothing later, preference for receiving more later increases, but when it is conveyed that receiving more later means receiving nothing sooner, preference is left unchanged. Our results show that this asymmetric hidden-zero effect is indeed driven by those supporting the tradeoff model. The tradeoff model also accommodates all remaining evidence on preferences for sequences of monetary gains. PMID:27560853

  6. Diametrical diseases reflect evolutionary-genetic tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Bernard J.; Go, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Tradeoffs centrally mediate the expression of human adaptations. We propose that tradeoffs also influence the prevalence and forms of human maladaptation manifest in disease. By this logic, increased risk for one set of diseases commonly engenders decreased risk for another, diametric, set of diseases. We describe evidence for such diametric sets of diseases from epidemiological, genetic and molecular studies in four clinical domains: (i) psychiatry (autism vs psychotic-affective conditions), (ii) rheumatology (osteoarthritis vs osteoporosis), (iii) oncology and neurology (cancer vs neurodegenerative disorders) and (iv) immunology (autoimmunity vs infectious disease). Diametric disorders are important to recognize because genotypes or environmental factors that increase risk for one set of disorders protect from opposite disorders, thereby providing novel and direct insights into disease causes, prevention and therapy. Ascertaining the mechanisms that underlie disease-related tradeoffs should also indicate means of circumventing or alleviating them, and thus reducing the incidence and impacts of human disease in a more general way. PMID:26354001

  7. Technical/commercial feasibility study of the production of fuel-grade ethanol from corn: 100-million-gallon-per-year production facility in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-05-01

    The management and execution plan for phase 2 construction of an ethyl alcohol production facility is given. Socioeconomic, environmental, health and safety issues are discussed. An economic analysis and a feasibility analysis are given.

  8. A simulation model for Carson Ice Co-Generation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, N.K.W.; Elmasri, M.; Brownell, G.

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes a software system to simulate the performance of the Carson Ice Co-gen Facility operated by the Carson Energy Group. This 100 MW plant consists of a cogeneration combined cycle and a simple cycle unit powered by LM6000 gas turbine generators. Features of the system include inlet heating/absorption chilling for the gas turbines, supplementary firing capability, and a broad range of steam turbine extractions and admissions. The software enables the operator to model complex operating scenarios. It predicts technical and economic performance under a wide range of conditions, taking into account various equipment constraints and operation preferences. For any set of user-specified operating inputs, the corresponding heat and mass balance diagrams as well as economic figures may be viewed virtually instantaneously. Interactive plots of plant heat rate, incremental heat rate, operating income, and other parameters reveal issues and trade-offs involved in performance and economic optimization.

  9. Fleet servicing facilities for servicing, maintaining, and testing rail and truck radioactive waste transport systems: functional requirements, technical design concepts and options cost estimates and comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, C.D.; Hudson, B.J.; Keith, D.A.; Preston, M.K. Jr.; McCreery, P.N.; Knox, W.; Easterling, E.M.; Lamprey, A.S.; Wiedemann, G.

    1980-05-01

    This is a resource document which examines feasibility design concepts and feasibility studies of a Fleet Servicing Facility (FSF). Such a facility is intended to be used for routine servicing, preventive maintenance, and for performing requalification license compliance tests and inspections, minor repairs, and decontamination of both the transportation casks and their associated rail cars or tractor-trailers. None of the United States' waste handling plants presently receiving radioactive wastes have an on-site FSF, nor is there an existing third party facility providing these services. This situation has caused the General Accounting Office to express concern regarding the quality of waste transport system maintenance once the system is placed into service. Thus, a need is indicated for FSF's, or their equivalent, at various radioactive materials receiving sites. In this report, three forms of FSF's solely for spent fuel transport systems were examined: independent, integrated, and colocated. The independent concept was already the subject of a detailed report and is extensively referenced in this document so that capital cost comparisons of the three concepts could be made. These facilities probably could service high-level, intermediate-level, low-level, or other waste transportation systems with minor modification, but this study did not include any system other than spent fuel. Both the Integrated and Colocated concepts were assumed to be associated with some radioactive materials handling facility such as an AFR repository.

  10. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-09-29

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  11. Time and Outcome Framing in Intertemporal Tradeoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholten, Marc; Read, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A robust anomaly in intertemporal choice is the delay-speedup asymmetry: Receipts are discounted more, and payments are discounted less, when delayed than when expedited over the same interval. We developed 2 versions of the tradeoff model (Scholten & Read, 2010) to address such situations, in which an outcome is expected at a given time but…

  12. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS): Launch tradeoff study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A goal of the Phase B study is to define the launch system interfaces for the reusable reentry satellite (RRS) program. The focus of the launch tradeoff study, documented in this report, is to determine which expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) are best suited for the RRS application by understanding the impact of all viable launch systems on RRS design and operation.

  13. Neural Mechanisms of Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff

    PubMed Central

    Heitz, Richard P.; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Intelligent agents balance speed of responding with accuracy of deciding. Stochastic accumulator models commonly explain this speed-accuracy tradeoff by strategic adjustment of response threshold. Several laboratories identify specific neurons in prefrontal and parietal cortex with this accumulation process, yet no neurophysiological correlates of speed-accuracy tradeoff have been described. We trained macaque monkeys to trade speed for accuracy on cue during visual search and recorded the activity of neurons in the frontal eye field. Unpredicted by any model, we discovered that speed-accuracy tradeoff is accomplished through several distinct adjustments. Visually responsive neurons modulated baseline firing rate, sensory gain, and the duration of perceptual processing. Movement neurons triggered responses with activity modulated in a direction opposite of model predictions. Thus, current stochastic accumulator models provide an incomplete description of the neural processes accomplishing speed-accuracy tradeoffs. The diversity of neural mechanisms was reconciled with the accumulator framework through an integrated accumulator model constrained by requirements of the motor system. PMID:23141072

  14. Selected configuration tradeoffs of contour optical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J.; Strohbehn, K.; Murchie, S.; Fort, D.; Reynolds, E.; Heyler, G.; Peacock, K.; Boldt, J.; Darlington, E.; Hayes, J.; Henshaw, R.; Izenberg, N.; Kardian, C.; Lees, J.; Lohr, D.; Mehoke, D.; Schaefer, E.; Sholar, T.; Spisz, T.; Willey, C.; Veverka, J.; Bell, J.; Cochran, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Comet Nucleus Tour (CONTOUR) is a low-cost NASA Discovery mission designed to conduct three close flybys of comet nuclei. Selected configuration tradeoffs conducted to balance science requirements with low mission cost are reviewed. The tradeoffs discussed focus on the optical instruments and related spacecraft considerations. Two instruments are under development. The CONTOUR Forward Imager (CFI) is designed to perform optical navigation, moderate resolution nucleus/jet imaging, and imaging of faint molecular emission bands in the coma. The CONTOUR Remote Imager and Spectrometer (CRISP) is designed to obtain high-resolution multispectral images of the nucleus, conduct spectral mapping of the nucleus surface, and provide a backup optical navigation capability. Tradeoffs discussed are: (1) the impact on the optical instruments of not using reaction wheels on the spacecraft, (2) the improved performance and simplification gained by implementing a dedicated star tracker instead of including this function in CFI, (3) the improved flexibility and robustness of switching to a low frame rate tracker for CRISP, (4) the improved performance and simplification of replacing a visible imaging spectrometer by enhanced multispectral imaging in CRISP, and (5) the impact on spacecraft resources of these and other tradeoffs.

  15. Trade-offs in Our Energy Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    The purpose of this activity is to make students aware that there is no free energy source for the present or the future and that all technologies are potential threats to the environment. The activity consists of a short reading (discussing basic trade-offs, issues, and decisions related to petroleum, coal, and nuclear energy sources) and student…

  16. NEW MATERIALS DEVELOPED TO MEET REGULATORY AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, J.; Langton, C.; Musall, J.; Griffin, W.

    2012-01-18

    For the 2010 ANS Embedded Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization and Technology, Savannah River National Laboratory's Mike Serrato reported initial information on the newly developed specialty grout materials necessary to satisfy all requirements associated with in-situ decommissioning of P-Reactor and R-Reactor at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Since that report, both projects have been successfully completed and extensive test data on both fresh properties and cured properties has been gathered and analyzed for a total of almost 191,150 m{sup 3} (250,000 yd{sup 3}) of new materials placed. The focus of this paper is to describe the (1) special grout mix for filling the P-Reactor vessel (RV) and (2) the new flowable structural fill materials used to fill the below grade portions of the facilities. With a wealth of data now in hand, this paper also captures the test results and reports on the performance of these new materials. Both reactors were constructed and entered service in the early 1950s, producing weapons grade materials for the nation's defense nuclear program. R-Reactor was shut down in 1964 and the P-Reactor in 1991. In-situ decommissioning (ISD) was selected for both facilities and performed as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensations and Liability Act actions (an early action for P-Reactor and a removal action for R-Reactor), beginning in October 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy concept for ISD is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally robust facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of producing (reactor facilities), processing (isotope separation facilities), or storing radioactive materials. Funding for accelerated decommissioning was provided under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Decommissioning of both facilities was completed in September 2011. ISD objectives for these CERCLA actions included: (1) Prevent industrial worker

  17. Characterization of solid wastes for the proposed WyCoalGas gasification facility. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The proposed facility will produce large volumes of coal ash, both from the gasifiers and the steam generating boilers, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, requiring disposal. Several other wastes will be produced in much smaller volumes. These major solid waste streams are characterized in this technical note. The waste characterizations are based on the analyses of samples from a test at the SASOL I (proprietary) Limited Coal Conversion facility in South Africa. The SASOL facility uses Lurgi gasifiers, and the test coal was from the Jacobs Ranch coal mine adjacent to the Rochelle mine. Solid waste samples from the XYZ Power Station power plant, which burns coal similar in composition to the Rochelle coal, were also collected and characterized. Wastes other than coal ashes and FGD sludge are characterized based on analyses of waste from similar processes or on existing data from Lurgi gasifiers and steam generating boilers. Section 2 of this note contains a summary of the waste characteristics with emphasis on those waste properties which will affect disposal requirements. Sample acquisition is discussed in Section 3. The final three sections present the detailed results of the waste characterizations. Section 4 describes the analyses that were performed to satisfy current regulations; Section 5 presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of the wastes, including trace element and organic analyses; Section 6 presents the physical properties of the wastes which will affect the waste handling and disposal operations.

  18. Frontiers of the food-energy-water trilemma: Sri Lanka as a microcosm of tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Debra; Hornberger, George

    2016-01-01

    Food, energy, and water are three critical resources for humanity. As climate variability, population growth, and lifestyle changes amplify the stress placed on each of the resources, the interrelationships among food, energy, and water systems become more pronounced. Political conflict, social and cultural norms, and spatial and temporal distribution of the resources add additional layers of complexity. It is in this context that the significance of understanding the impacts of water scarcity on the decisions around food and energy productions has emerged. Our work establishes tradeoff frontiers (TFs) as a method useful in illustrating the system-level tradeoffs between allocating water for food and water for energy. This paper illustrates how TFs can be used to (1) show how scarcity in water resources affects the tradeoffs between food and energy and (2) explore the political and social constraints that can move production away from what is feasible technically. We use Sri Lanka, a country where water resources are variable both in space and time and a country with relatively self-contained energy and agricultural sectors, as a microcosm of the food security, energy security, and water security trilemma. Nevertheless, our application of tradeoff frontiers is applicable widely to other systems.

  19. Perfect Rainbow Tradeoff with Checkpoints Revisited

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The rainbow tradeoff is an algorithm for inverting one-way functions that is widely used in practice to recover passwords from unsalted password hashes. An auxiliary technique referred to as checkpoints can be applied to the rainbow tradeoff to reduce the time taken for these inversions. Working out a rigorous theory that can explain and predict the effects of this technique involves delicate manipulations of the random function and is thus a challenging task. In this work, we compare three existing theoretical analyses of the checkpoint technique. We first demonstrate that the claims made by the three works are incompatible with each other. We then carry out experiments designed to highlight these incompatibilities, obtaining experimental evidences that show just one of the three analyses to be correct. Finally, we discuss the obscure theoretical errors made by the two inadequate analyses. PMID:27855190

  20. Temporal trade-offs in psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Barack, David L; Gold, Joshua I

    2016-04-01

    Psychophysical techniques typically assume straightforward relationships between manipulations of real-world events, their effects on the brain, and behavioral reports of those effects. However, these relationships can be influenced by many complex, strategic factors that contribute to task performance. Here we discuss several of these factors that share two key features. First, they involve subjects making flexible use of time to process information. Second, this flexibility can reflect the rational regulation of information-processing trade-offs that can play prominent roles in particular temporal epochs: sensitivity to stability versus change for past information, speed versus accuracy for current information, and exploitation versus exploration for future goals. Understanding how subjects manage these trade-offs can be used to help design and interpret psychophysical studies.

  1. Design trade-offs for homing missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Allen; Moore, William

    1992-05-01

    Major design considerations, trade-offs and technology issues for future hypervelocity, anti-missile interceptors are presented in an overview format. Two classes of interceptors are considered: a low altitude interceptor using an active radar seeker for defense against tactical ballistic missiles (TBMs) and a higher altitude interceptor using a passive infra-red seeker for defense against ICBMs. Considerations are presented in the areas of mission requirements, seeker selection, aerodynamic and aerothermal environments, control systems, and guidance performance.

  2. Breaking evolutionary constraint with a tradeoff ratchet

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Marjon G. J.; Dawid, Alexandre; Sunderlikova, Vanda; Tans, Sander J.

    2015-01-01

    Epistatic interactions can frustrate and shape evolutionary change. Indeed, phenotypes may fail to evolve when essential mutations are only accessible through positive selection if they are fixed simultaneously. How environmental variability affects such constraints is poorly understood. Here, we studied genetic constraints in fixed and fluctuating environments using the Escherichia coli lac operon as a model system for genotype–environment interactions. We found that, in different fixed environments, all trajectories that were reconstructed by applying point mutations within the transcription factor–operator interface became trapped at suboptima, where no additional improvements were possible. Paradoxically, repeated switching between these same environments allows unconstrained adaptation by continuous improvements. This evolutionary mode is explained by pervasive cross-environmental tradeoffs that reposition the peaks in such a way that trapped genotypes can repeatedly climb ascending slopes and hence, escape adaptive stasis. Using a Markov approach, we developed a mathematical framework to quantify the landscape-crossing rates and show that this ratchet-like adaptive mechanism is robust in a wide spectrum of fluctuating environments. Overall, this study shows that genetic constraints can be overcome by environmental change and that cross-environmental tradeoffs do not necessarily impede but also, can facilitate adaptive evolution. Because tradeoffs and environmental variability are ubiquitous in nature, we speculate this evolutionary mode to be of general relevance. PMID:26567153

  3. Technical/commercial feasibility study of the production of fuel-grade ethanol from corn: 100-million-gallon-per-year production facility in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-05-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing motor fuel alcohol from corn in a 100 million gallon per year plant to be constructed in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana is evaluated. The evaluation includes a detailed process design using proven technology, a capital cost estimate for the plant, a detailed analysis of the annual operating cost, a market study, a socioeconomic, environmental, health and safety analysis, and a complete financial analysis. Several other considerations for production of ethanol were evaluated including: cogeneration and fuel to be used in firing the boilers; single by-products vs. multiple by-products; and use of boiler flue gas for by-product drying.

  4. Technical/commercial feasibility study of the production of fuel-grade ethanol from corn: 100-million-gallon-per-year production facility in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-31

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing motor fuel alcohol from corn in a 100 million gallon per year plant to be constructed in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana is evaluated. The evaluation includes a detailed process design using proven technology, a capital cost estimate for the plant, a detailed analysis of the annual operating cost, a market study, a socioeconomic, environmental, health and safety analysis, and a complete financial analysis. Several other considerations for production of ethanol were evaluated including: cogeneration and fuel to be used in firing the boilers; single by-products vs. multiple by-products; and use of boiler flue gas for by-product drying.

  5. A cost and technical efficiency analysis of two alternative models for implementing the basic package of health services in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Blaakman, Aaron Philip; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Boitard, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003, the Afghan Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) and international partners have directed a contracting-out model through which non-governmental organisations (NGOs) deliver the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in 31 of the 34 Afghan provinces. The MoPH also managed health service delivery in three provinces under an alternative initiative entitled Strengthening Mechanisms (SM). In 2011, under the authority of the MoPH and Delegation of the European Union to Afghanistan, EPOS Health Management conducted a cost and technical efficiency study of the contracting-out and SM mechanisms in six provinces to examine economic trade-offs in the provision of the BPHS. The study provides analyses of all resource inputs and primary outputs of the BPHS in the six provinces during 2008 and 2009. The authors examined technical efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) at the BPHS facility level. Cost analysis results indicate that the weighted average cost per BPHS outpatient visit totalled $3.41 in the SM provinces and $5.39 in the NGO-led provinces in 2009. Furthermore, the data envelopment analyses (DEAs) indicate that facilities in the three NGO-led provinces scored 0.168 points higher on the DEA scale (0-1) than SM facilities. The authors conclude that an approximate 60% increase in costs yielded a 16.8% increase in technical efficiency in the delivery of the BPHS during 2009 in the six provinces.

  6. Cancer: A disease at the crossroads of trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Jacqueline, Camille; Biro, Peter A; Beckmann, Christa; Moller, Anders Pape; Renaud, François; Sorci, Gabriele; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Ujvari, Beata; Thomas, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    Central to evolutionary theory is the idea that living organisms face phenotypic and/or genetic trade-offs when allocating resources to competing life-history demands, such as growth, survival, and reproduction. These trade-offs are increasingly considered to be crucial to further our understanding of cancer. First, evidences suggest that neoplastic cells, as any living entities subject to natural selection, are governed by trade-offs such as between survival and proliferation. Second, selection might also have shaped trade-offs at the organismal level, especially regarding protective mechanisms against cancer. Cancer can also emerge as a consequence of additional trade-offs in organisms (e.g., eco-immunological trade-offs). Here, we review the wide range of trade-offs that occur at different scales and their relevance for understanding cancer dynamics. We also discuss how acknowledging these phenomena, in light of human evolutionary history, may suggest new guidelines for preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  7. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ( ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance, U.S. General Services Administration - Project 194 U.S. Custom Cargo Inspection Facility, Detroit, MI

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-05-31

    This report documents the findings of an on-site audit of the U.S. Customs Cargo Inspection Facility (CIF) in Detroit, Michigan. The federal landlord for this building is the General Services Administration (GSA). The focus of the audit was to identify various no-cost or low-cost energy-efficiency opportunities that, once implemented, would reduce electrical and gas consumption and increase the operational efficiency of the building. This audit also provided an opportunity to identify potential capital cost projects that should be considered in the future to acquire additional energy (electric and gas) and water savings to further increase the operational efficiency of the building.

  8. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

  9. Progress report and technical evaluation of the ISCR pilot test conducted at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Centralia, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-01-14

    In October, 2007, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) presented the document Interim Measure Conceptual Design (Argonne 2007a) to the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, Bureau of Environmental Remediation (KDHE/BER), for a proposed non-emergency Interim Measure (IM) at the site of the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Centralia, Kansas (Figure 1.1). The IM was recommended to mitigate existing levels of carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the vadose zone soils beneath the former facility and in the groundwater beneath and in the vicinity of the former facility, as well as to moderate or decrease the potential future concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in the groundwater. The Interim Measure Conceptual Design (Argonne 2007a) was developed in accordance with the KDHE/BER Policy No.BERRS-029, Policy and Scope of Work: Interim Measures (KDHE 1996). The hydrogeologic, geochemical, and contaminant distribution characteristics of the Centralia site, as identified by the CCC/USDA, factored into the development of the nonemergency IM proposal. These characteristics were summarized in the Interim Measure Conceptual Design (Argonne 2007a) and were discussed in detail in previous Argonne reports (Argonne 2002a, 2003, 2004, 2005a,b,c, 2006a,b, 2007b). The identified remedial goals of the proposed IM were as follows: (1) To reduce the existing concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater in three 'hot spot' areas identified at the site (at SB01, SB05, and SB12-MW02; Figure 1.2) to levels acceptable to the KDHE. (2) To reduce carbon tetrachloride concentrations in the soils near the location of former soil boring SB12 and existing monitoring well MW02 (Figure 1.2) to levels below the KDHE Tier 2 Risk-Based Screening Level (RBSL) of 200 {micro}g/kg for this contaminant. To address these goals, the potential application of an in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) treatment technology, employing the

  10. OTEC support services quarterly technical progress report No. 14, 15 August 1981-14 November 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-11-01

    The progress in the areas of system integration, system engineering, and management services is reported. The effort is divided into seven tasks: survey, analysis, and evaluation of technical program status; program technical monitoring; development and implementation of methodology for identification, evaluation, and trade-off for major subsystem configurations; technical assessments; OTEC system integration; environment and siting considerations; and transmission subsystem considerations. (LEW)

  11. Facility Focus: Science Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses design and architectural features of two new science facilities at the Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Florida, and a new graduate research tower the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Notes the important convenience associated with interior windows in these facilities, which allow researchers, faculty, and students to see…

  12. Soft-X-ray ARPES facility at the ADRESS beamline of the SLS: concepts, technical realisation and scientific applications.

    PubMed

    Strocov, V N; Wang, X; Shi, M; Kobayashi, M; Krempasky, J; Hess, C; Schmitt, T; Patthey, L

    2014-01-01

    Soft-X-ray angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) with photon energies around 1 keV combines the momentum space resolution with increasing probing depth. The concepts and technical realisation of the new soft-X-ray ARPES endstation at the ADRESS beamline of SLS are described. The experimental geometry of the endstation is characterized by grazing X-ray incidence on the sample to increase the photoyield and vertical orientation of the measurement plane. The vacuum chambers adopt a radial layout allowing most efficient sample transfer. High accuracy of the angular resolution is ensured by alignment strategies focused on precise matching of the X-ray beam and optical axis of the analyzer. The high photon flux of up to 10(13) photons s(-1) (0.01% bandwidth)(-1) delivered by the beamline combined with the optimized experimental geometry break through the dramatic loss of the valence band photoexcitation cross section at soft-X-ray energies. ARPES images with energy resolution up to a few tens of meV are typically acquired on the time scale of minutes. A few application examples illustrate the power of our advanced soft-X-ray ARPES instrumentation to explore the electronic structure of bulk crystals with resolution in three-dimensional momentum, access buried heterostructures and study elemental composition of the valence states using resonant excitation.

  13. The evolution of life history trade-offs in viruses.

    PubMed

    Goldhill, Daniel H; Turner, Paul E

    2014-10-01

    Viruses can suffer 'life-history' trade-offs that prevent simultaneous improvement in fitness traits, such as improved intrahost reproduction at the expense of reduced extrahost survival. Here we examine reproduction-survival trade-offs and other trait compromises, highlighting that experimental evolution can reveal trade-offs and their associated mechanisms. Whereas 'curse of the pharaoh' (high virulence with extreme stability) may generally apply for viruses of eukaryotes, we suggest phages are instead likely to suffer virulence/stability trade-offs. We examine how survival/reproduction trade-offs in viruses are affected by environmental stressors, proteins governing viral host range, and organization of the virus genome. Future studies incorporating comparative biology, experimental evolution, and structural biology, could thoroughly determine how viral trade-offs evolve, and whether they transiently or permanently constrain virus adaptation.

  14. Guidance Trade-off for Aerocapture Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernis, P.; Gelly, G.; Ferreira, E.; da Costa, R.; Ortega, G.

    In the very late 90's, EADS-ST began home funded studies on aerocapture problems. The objectives of these studies were at that time to prepare a possible cooperation within the NASA/Cnes MSR-Orbiter program by investigating this new orbital insertion technique studying different algorithmic solutions from a guidance point of view. According to these preliminary studies, EADS-ST was retained in 2002 by ESA to study insertion techniques such as aerocapture, aero-gravity assist or aerobraking techniques within the frame of Technological Research Program able to bring solutions to Aurora program. In the frame of the ATPE (Aeroassist Technologies for Planetary Exploration) TRP program, EADS-ST, led by Astrium-Gmbh (now part of EADS-ST), developed and implemented an efficient and simple guidance scheme able to cope with mission requirements for aerocapture on Mars, Venus or the Earth: the Feedback Trajectory Control, or FTC. The development of this guidance scheme was made according to a preliminary trade-off analysis using different guidance schemes. Among those ones was an original predictor-corrector guidance scheme, already analyzed within the frame of the MSR-O mission. But, the FTC algoritm was prefered because of its good results and high simplicity. This paper presents an upgrade of the original Apoapsis Predictor, or AP, with the improvement of its robustness woth respect to off-nomonal flight conditions and its process simplification. A new trade-off analysis is then detailed on a Mars Sample return mission.

  15. Competition-function tradeoffs in ectomycorrhizal fungi

    PubMed Central

    Peay, Kabir G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The extent to which ectomycorrhizal fungi mediate primary production, carbon storage, and nutrient remineralization in terrestrial ecosystems depends upon fungal community composition. However, the factors that govern community composition at the root system scale are not well understood. Here, we explore a potential tradeoff between ectomycorrhizal fungal competitive ability and enzymatic function. Methods. We grew Pinus muricata (Bishop Pine) seedlings in association with ectomycorrhizal fungi from three different genera in a fully factorial experimental design. We measured seedling growth responses, ectomycorrhizal abundance, and the root tip activity of five different extracellular enzymes involved in the mobilization of carbon and phosphorus. Results. We found an inverse relationship between competitiveness, quantified based on relative colonization levels, and enzymatic activity. Specifically, Thelephora terrestris, the dominant fungus, had the lowest enzyme activity levels, while Suillus pungens, the least dominant fungus, had the highest. Discussion. Our results identify a tradeoff between competition and function in ectomycorrhizal fungi, perhaps mediated by the competing energetic demands associated with competitive interactions and enzymatic production. These data suggest that mechanisms such as active partner maintenance by host trees may be important to maintaining “high-quality” ectomycorrhizal fungal partners in natural systems. PMID:27547573

  16. Oxidative Stress: A Master Regulator of Plant Trade-Offs?

    PubMed

    Morales, Melanie; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-12-01

    Trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and defence have been documented. Oxidative stress is one of the physiological mechanisms that underlie trade-offs at the cellular and organ levels. The diversity of plant life forms and the complexity of scaling up limit our knowledge of oxidative stress as a universal mediator of life-history trade-offs at the organism level. Joint efforts by plant physiologists and ecologists will undoubtedly provide novel insights into this topic in the near future.

  17. Technical writing versus technical writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  18. A Nomographic Methodology for Use in Performance Trade-Off Studies of Parabolic Dish Solar Power Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    A simple graphical method was developed to undertake technical design trade-off studies for individual parabolic dish models comprising a two-axis tracking parabolic dish with a cavity receiver and power conversion assembly at the focal point. The results of these technical studies are then used in performing the techno-economic analyses required for determining appropriate subsystem sizing. Selected graphs that characterize the performance of subsystems within the module were arranged in the form of a nomogram that would enable an investigator to carry out several design trade-off studies. Key performance parameters encompassed in the nomogram include receiver losses, intercept factor, engine rating, and engine efficiency. Design and operation parameters such as concentrator size, receiver type (open or windowed aperture), receiver aperture size, operating temperature of the receiver and engine, engine partial load characteristics, concentrator slope error, and the type of reflector surface, are also included in the graphical solution. Cost considerations are not included.

  19. Science requirements and trade-offs for the MOSAIC instrument for the European ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. J.; Puech, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Barbuy, B.; Cuby, J.-G.; Dalton, G.; Fitzsimons, E.; Hammer, F.; Jagourel, P.; Kaper, L.; Morris, S. L.; Morris, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Building on the comprehensive White Paper on the scientific case for multi-object spectroscopy on the European ELT, we present the top-level instrument requirements that are being used in the Phase A design study of the MOSAIC concept. The assembled cases span the full range of E-ELT science and generally require either `high multiplex' or 'high definition' observations to best exploit the excellent sensitivity and spatial performance of the telescope. We highlight some of the science studies that are now being used in trade-off studies to inform the capabilities of MOSAIC and its technical design.

  20. 24 CFR 583.140 - Technical assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Technical assistance. 583.140... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SUPPORTIVE HOUSING PROGRAM Assistance Provided § 583.140 Technical assistance. (a) General. HUD may set aside funds annually to provide technical assistance,...

  1. 24 CFR 583.140 - Technical assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Technical assistance. 583.140... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SUPPORTIVE HOUSING PROGRAM Assistance Provided § 583.140 Technical assistance. (a) General. HUD may set aside funds annually to provide technical assistance,...

  2. 24 CFR 583.140 - Technical assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Technical assistance. 583.140... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SUPPORTIVE HOUSING PROGRAM Assistance Provided § 583.140 Technical assistance. (a) General. HUD may set aside funds annually to provide technical assistance,...

  3. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability. PMID:25114254

  4. Laser space rendezvous and docking tradeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, S.; Levinson, S.; Raber, P.; Weindling, F.

    1974-01-01

    A spaceborne laser radar (LADAR) was configured to meet the requirements for rendezvous and docking with a cooperative object in synchronous orbit. The LADAR, configurated using existing pulsed CO2 laser technology and a 1980 system technology baseline, is well suited for the envisioned space tug missions. The performance of a family of candidate LADARS was analyzed. Tradeoff studies as a function of size, weight, and power consumption were carried out for maximum ranges of 50, 100, 200, and 300 nautical miles. The investigation supports the original contention that a rendezvous and docking LADAR can be constructed to offer a cost effective and reliable solution to the envisioned space missions. In fact, the CO2 ladar system offers distinct advantages over other candidate systems.

  5. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS): Recovery tradeoff study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The main objectives of the Recovery Tradeoff Study were as follows: (1) to determine whether a land or water recovery best suits RRS system requirements; (2) what type of terminal recovery system is best suited for the RRS; and (3) what are the recovery access timelines after system landing. Based on the trade parameters and evaluation criteria used in this study, the land-landing configuration has an advantage over the water-landing configuration. It is recommended that a land-landing configuration be developed assuming WSMR as the landing site. It is also recommended that natural orbits be used for low inclination missions and any orbit adjustments for landing site targeting be performed at the end of the mission. Near-integer orbits should be used for high inclination missions and allow orbital decay to precess the ground track over the landing site range.

  6. Computational and statistical tradeoffs via convex relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Venkat; Jordan, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    Modern massive datasets create a fundamental problem at the intersection of the computational and statistical sciences: how to provide guarantees on the quality of statistical inference given bounds on computational resources, such as time or space. Our approach to this problem is to define a notion of “algorithmic weakening,” in which a hierarchy of algorithms is ordered by both computational efficiency and statistical efficiency, allowing the growing strength of the data at scale to be traded off against the need for sophisticated processing. We illustrate this approach in the setting of denoising problems, using convex relaxation as the core inferential tool. Hierarchies of convex relaxations have been widely used in theoretical computer science to yield tractable approximation algorithms to many computationally intractable tasks. In the current paper, we show how to endow such hierarchies with a statistical characterization and thereby obtain concrete tradeoffs relating algorithmic runtime to amount of data. PMID:23479655

  7. Controlling neural network responsiveness: tradeoffs and constraints

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Hanna; Marom, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    In recent years much effort is invested in means to control neural population responses at the whole brain level, within the context of developing advanced medical applications. The tradeoffs and constraints involved, however, remain elusive due to obvious complications entailed by studying whole brain dynamics. Here, we present effective control of response features (probability and latency) of cortical networks in vitro over many hours, and offer this approach as an experimental toy for studying controllability of neural networks in the wider context. Exercising this approach we show that enforcement of stable high activity rates by means of closed loop control may enhance alteration of underlying global input–output relations and activity dependent dispersion of neuronal pair-wise correlations across the network. PMID:24808860

  8. Performance tradeoffs for a surface micromachined microengine

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; LaVigne, G.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    An electromechanical model of Sandia`s microengine is developed and applied to quantify critical performance tradeoffs. This is done by determining how forces impact the mechanical response of the engine to different electrical drive signals. To validate the theoretical results, model-based drive signals are used to operate actual engines, where controlled operation is achieved for the following cases: (1) spring forces are dominant, (2) frictional forces are dominant, (3) linear inertial forces are dominant, (4) viscous damping forces are dominant, and (5) inertial load forces are dominant. Significant improvements in engine performance are experimentally demonstrated in the following areas: positional control, start/stop endurance, constant speed endurance, friction load reduction, and rapid actuation of inertial loads.

  9. 340 Facility emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1998-11-25

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 340 Facility on the Hanford Site. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone, is demonstrated.

  10. 233-S plutonium concentration facility hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-12-19

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  11. Fast flux test facility hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-10-24

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for the Fast Flux Test Facility on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  12. Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of the status of the Centrifuge Facility being developed by ARC for flight on the International Space Station Alpha. The assessment includes technical status, schedules, budgets, project management, performance of facility relative to science requirements, and identifies risks and issues that need to be considered in future development activities.

  13. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  14. 48 CFR 15.101-1 - Tradeoff process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... significantly less important than cost or price. (c) This process permits tradeoffs among cost or price and non... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tradeoff process. 15.101-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection Processes and Techniques...

  15. 48 CFR 15.101-1 - Tradeoff process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... significantly less important than cost or price. (c) This process permits tradeoffs among cost or price and non... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tradeoff process. 15.101-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection Processes and Techniques...

  16. Conceptual Complexity and the Bias/Variance Tradeoff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Erica; Feldman, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose that the conventional dichotomy between exemplar-based and prototype-based models of concept learning is helpfully viewed as an instance of what is known in the statistical learning literature as the "bias/variance tradeoff". The bias/variance tradeoff can be thought of as a sliding scale that modulates how closely any…

  17. On the Verge: Costs and Tradeoffs Facing Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Debbie; Szabo-Kubitz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    "On the Verge: Costs and Tradeoffs Facing Community College Students" documents California community college students' struggles to cover college expenses beyond tuition, their experiences with financial aid, and the troubling tradeoffs they face when available resources do not stretch far enough. Consistent with a growing body of…

  18. Conceptualising and managing trade-offs in sustainability assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Pope, Jenny

    2013-01-15

    One of the defining characteristics of sustainability assessment as a form of impact assessment is that it provides a forum for the explicit consideration of the trade-offs that are inherent in complex decision-making processes. Few sustainability assessments have achieved this goal though, and none has considered trade-offs in a holistic fashion throughout the process. Recent contributions such as the Gibson trade-off rules have significantly progressed thinking in this area by suggesting appropriate acceptability criteria for evaluating substantive trade-offs arising from proposed development, as well as process rules for how evaluations of acceptability should occur. However, there has been negligible uptake of these rules in practice. Overall, we argue that there is inadequate consideration of trade-offs, both process and substantive, throughout the sustainability assessment process, and insufficient considerations of how process decisions and compromises influence substantive outcomes. This paper presents a framework for understanding and managing both process and substantive trade-offs within each step of a typical sustainability assessment process. The framework draws together previously published literature and offers case studies that illustrate aspects of the practical application of the framework. The framing and design of sustainability assessment are vitally important, as process compromises or trade-offs can have substantive consequences in terms of sustainability outcomes delivered, with the choice of alternatives considered being a particularly significant determinant of substantive outcomes. The demarcation of acceptable from unacceptable impacts is a key aspect of managing trade-offs. Offsets can be considered as a form of trade-off within a category of sustainability that are utilised to enhance preferred alternatives once conditions of impact acceptability have been met. In this way they may enable net gains to be delivered; another imperative

  19. Performance specifications for proton medical facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.; Staples, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Renner, T.R.; Singh, R.P.; Nyman, M.A.; Collier, J.M.; Daftari, I.K.; Petti, P.L.; Alonso, J.R.; Kubo, H.; Verhey, L.J. |; Castro, J.R. ||

    1993-03-01

    Performance specifications of technical components of a modern proton radiotherapy facility are presented. The technical items specified include: the accelerator; the beam transport system including rotating gantry; the treatment beamline systems including beam scattering, beam scanning, and dosimetric instrumentation; and an integrated treatment and accelerator control system. Also included are treatment ancillary facilities such as diagnostic tools, patient positioning and alignment devices, and treatment planning systems. The facility specified will accommodate beam scanning enabling the three-dimensional conformal therapy deliver .

  20. "Technical" Writing vs. Technical "Writing."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, J. W.

    Technical writers must have a working knowledge of technology in order to rearrange material others provide, but they do not have the expertise needed to originate materials; that is the job of the technical author. Another job function is that of technical editor--a person who can write, can perform the policy making tasks of an editor, and who…

  1. Reproduction-longevity trade-offs reflect diet, not adaptation.

    PubMed

    Attisano, A; Moore, A J; Moore, P J

    2012-05-01

    A tenet of life history evolution is that allocation of limited resources results in trade-offs, such as that between reproduction and lifespan. Reproduction and lifespan are also influenced proximately by differences in the availability of specific nutrients. What is unknown is how the evolution of the ability to use a nutritionally novel diet is reflected in this fundamental trade-off. Does the evolution of the ability to use a nutritionally novel food maintain the trade-off in reproduction and longevity, or do the proximate effects of nutrition alter the adapted trade-off? We tested this by measuring trade-offs in male milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus, fed either an adapted diet of sunflower or the ancestral diet of milkweed. Sunflower-fed males lived longer but invested less in reproduction, both in mating and fertility. Milkweed-fed males invested in both mating and fertility at the expense of survival. The evolution of an expanded diet was not constrained by the existing trade-off, but instead was accompanied by a different trade-off between reproduction and longevity. We suggest that this occurs because diets differ in promoting germ line development or longevity.

  2. Ecosystem services and agriculture: tradeoffs and synergies.

    PubMed

    Power, Alison G

    2010-09-27

    Agricultural ecosystems provide humans with food, forage, bioenergy and pharmaceuticals and are essential to human wellbeing. These systems rely on ecosystem services provided by natural ecosystems, including pollination, biological pest control, maintenance of soil structure and fertility, nutrient cycling and hydrological services. Preliminary assessments indicate that the value of these ecosystem services to agriculture is enormous and often underappreciated. Agroecosystems also produce a variety of ecosystem services, such as regulation of soil and water quality, carbon sequestration, support for biodiversity and cultural services. Depending on management practices, agriculture can also be the source of numerous disservices, including loss of wildlife habitat, nutrient runoff, sedimentation of waterways, greenhouse gas emissions, and pesticide poisoning of humans and non-target species. The tradeoffs that may occur between provisioning services and other ecosystem services and disservices should be evaluated in terms of spatial scale, temporal scale and reversibility. As more effective methods for valuing ecosystem services become available, the potential for 'win-win' scenarios increases. Under all scenarios, appropriate agricultural management practices are critical to realizing the benefits of ecosystem services and reducing disservices from agricultural activities.

  3. Ecosystem services and agriculture: tradeoffs and synergies

    PubMed Central

    Power, Alison G.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural ecosystems provide humans with food, forage, bioenergy and pharmaceuticals and are essential to human wellbeing. These systems rely on ecosystem services provided by natural ecosystems, including pollination, biological pest control, maintenance of soil structure and fertility, nutrient cycling and hydrological services. Preliminary assessments indicate that the value of these ecosystem services to agriculture is enormous and often underappreciated. Agroecosystems also produce a variety of ecosystem services, such as regulation of soil and water quality, carbon sequestration, support for biodiversity and cultural services. Depending on management practices, agriculture can also be the source of numerous disservices, including loss of wildlife habitat, nutrient runoff, sedimentation of waterways, greenhouse gas emissions, and pesticide poisoning of humans and non-target species. The tradeoffs that may occur between provisioning services and other ecosystem services and disservices should be evaluated in terms of spatial scale, temporal scale and reversibility. As more effective methods for valuing ecosystem services become available, the potential for ‘win–win’ scenarios increases. Under all scenarios, appropriate agricultural management practices are critical to realizing the benefits of ecosystem services and reducing disservices from agricultural activities. PMID:20713396

  4. Operating team training: Technical training's role

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.L.

    1989-10-01

    Technical trainers must assume an increased role in the team training of operating crews of a nuclear facility. Historically,team training has been a human resources type mission because of the focus on interpersonal skills and group skills. The technical trainers have traditionally confined themselves to job-specific technical areas. The gap between these two can be closed by the combined efforts to the two organizations, with the technical trainers taking the lead in program development. This paper describes key elements of the program developed by the training staff at the Fast Flux Test Facility, operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  5. Underwater Facility Lift System. Technical Proposal.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-12

    capacity for future I ight -duty AC loads. Enviromarine is also very familiar with the equipme’t and has had hands-on use of the Subsea Systemns TV can...er.-s, I!b( Subsea Products Strobe Lights and the Hydro Products 70 n-,n filn camera. Mountings for the cameras and lights will be adjustable to...but it is less conetitive. 3. 2.1.1.6 Heading Sensor - The two types of heading sensors specified will be provided. Enviromarine has previously

  6. Balancing Energy-Water-Agriculture Tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, V.; Hightower, M.

    2011-12-01

    In 2005 thermoelectric power production accounted for withdrawals of 201 billion gallons per day (BGD) representing 49% of total withdrawals, making it the largest user of water in the U.S. In terms of freshwater withdrawals thermoelectric power production is the second largest user at 140 BGD just slightly behind freshwater withdrawals for irrigation (USGS 2005). In contrast thermoelectric water consumption is projected at 3.7 BGD or about 3% of total U.S. consumption (NETL 2008). Thermoelectric water consumption is roughly equivalent to that of all other industrial demands and represents one of the fastest growing sectors since 1980. In fact thermoelectric consumption is projected to increase by 42 to 63% between 2005 and 2030 (NETL 2008). Agricultural water consumption has remained relatively constant at roughly 84 BGD or about 84% of total water consumption. While long-term regional electricity transmission planning has traditionally focused on cost, infrastructure utilization, and reliability, issues concerning the availability of water represent an emerging issue. Thermoelectric expansion must be considered in the context of competing demands from other water use sectors balanced with fresh and non-fresh water supplies subject to climate variability. Often such expansion targets water rights transfers from irrigated agriculture. To explore evolving tradeoffs an integrated energy-water-agriculture decision support system has been developed. The tool considers alternative expansion scenarios for the future power plant fleet and the related demand for water. The availability of fresh and non-fresh water supplies, subject to local institutional controls is then explored. This paper addresses integrated energy-water-agriculture planning in the western U.S. and Canada involving an open and participatory process comprising decision-makers, regulators, utility and water managers.

  7. Trade-off Mechanisms Shaping the Diversity of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ferenci, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Strain-to-strain variations in bacterial biofilm formation, metabolism, motility, virulence, evolvability, DNA repair and resistance (to phage, antibiotics, or environmental stresses) each contribute to bacterial diversity. Microbiologists should be aware that all of these traits are subject to constraints imposed by trade-offs, so adaptations improving one trait may be at the cost of another. A deeper appreciation of trade-offs is thus crucial for assessing the mechanistic limits on important bacterial characteristics. Studies of the negative correlations between various traits have revealed three molecular mechanisms, namely, trade-offs involving resource allocation, design constraint, and information processing. This review further discusses why these trade-off mechanisms are important in the establishment of models capable of predicting bacterial competition, coexistence, and sources of diversity.

  8. Reproduction-Immunity Trade-Offs in Insects.

    PubMed

    Schwenke, Robin A; Lazzaro, Brian P; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2016-01-01

    Immune defense and reproduction are physiologically and energetically demanding processes and have been observed to trade off in a diversity of female insects. Increased reproductive effort results in reduced immunity, and reciprocally, infection and activation of the immune system reduce reproductive output. This trade-off can manifest at the physiological level (within an individual) and at the evolutionary level (genetic distinction among individuals in a population). The resource allocation model posits that the trade-off arises because of competition for one or more limiting resources, and we hypothesize that pleiotropic signaling mechanisms regulate allocation of that resource between reproductive and immune processes. We examine the role of juvenile hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signaling in regulating both oogenesis and immune system activity, and propose a signaling network that may mechanistically regulate the trade-off. Finally, we discuss implications of the trade-off in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  9. Reproduction–Immunity Trade-Offs in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Schwenke, Robin A.; Lazzaro, Brian P.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2017-01-01

    Immune defense and reproduction are physiologically and energetically demanding processes and have been observed to trade off in a diversity of female insects. Increased reproductive effort results in reduced immunity, and reciprocally, infection and activation of the immune system reduce reproductive output. This trade-off can manifest at the physiological level (within an individual) and at the evolutionary level (genetic distinction among individuals in a population). The resource allocation model posits that the trade-off arises because of competition for one or more limiting resources, and we hypothesize that pleiotropic signaling mechanisms regulate allocation of that resource between reproductive and immune processes. We examine the role of juvenile hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-like signaling in regulating both oogenesis and immune system activity, and propose a signaling network that may mechanistically regulate the trade-off. Finally, we discuss implications of the trade-off in an ecological and evolutionary context. PMID:26667271

  10. Information-disturbance tradeoff in estimating a unitary transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Chiribella, Giulio

    2010-12-15

    We address the problem of the information-disturbance tradeoff associated to the estimation of a quantum transformation and show how the extraction of information about a black box causes a perturbation of the corresponding input-output evolution. In the case of a black box performing a unitary transformation, randomly distributed according to the invariant measure, we give a complete solution of the problem, deriving the optimal tradeoff curve and presenting an explicit construction of the optimal quantum network.

  11. Facilities evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, P.A.; Edinborough, C.R.

    1992-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development whose mission is to evaluate different new and existing technologies and determine how well they address DOE community waste remediation problems. Twenty-three Technical Task Plans (TTPs) have been identified to support this mission during FY-92; 10 of these have identified some support requirements when demonstrations take place. Section 1 of this report describes the tasks supported by BWID, determines if a technical demonstration is proposed, and if so, identifies the support requirements requested by the TTP Principal Investigators. Section 2 of this report is an evaluation identifying facility characteristics of existing Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facilities that may be considered for use in BWID technology demonstration activities.

  12. TECHNICAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRIGIOLA, NICHOLAS F.

    THE CONSENSUS OF OUR NATION'S LEADERS AFFIRMS THAT THE COUNTRY'S GREATEST TECHNICAL EDUCATION VOID IS IN THE AREA BETWEEN THE 12TH GRADE AND THE BACCALAUREATE DEGREE. THE IMPACT OF ACCELERATED PROGRESS IN TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENTS MAKES TECHNICAL EDUCATION MANDATORY IF THE MANPOWER SHORTAGE IS NOT TO BECOME A NATIONAL EMERGENCY. BECAUSE NEARLY 80…

  13. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-15

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  14. Proton beam therapy facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Technical planning activity: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In April 1985, the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Fusion Energy commissioned the Technical Planning Activity (TPA). The purpose of this activity was to develop a technical planning methodology and prepare technical plans in support of the strategic and policy framework of the Magnetic Fusion Program Plan issued by DOE in February 1985. Although this report represents the views of only the US magnetic fusion community, it is international in scope in the sense that the technical plans contained herein describe the full scope of the tasks that are prerequisites for the commercialization of fusion energy. The TPA has developed a well-structured methodology that includes detailed definitions of technical issues, definitions of program areas and elements, statements of research and development objectives, identification of key decision points and milestones, and descriptions of facility requirements.

  16. Rendezvous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gehani, N.H.; Roome, W.D.

    1988-11-01

    The concurrent programming facilities in both Concurrent C and the Ada language are based on the rendezvous concept. Although these facilities are similar, there are substantial differences. Facilities in Concurrent C were designed keeping in perspective the concurrent programming facilities in the Ada language and their limitations. Concurrent C facilities have also been modified as a result of experience with its initial implementations. In this paper, the authors compare the concurrent programming facilities in Concurrent C and Ada, and show that it is easier to write a variety of concurrent programs in Concurrent C than in Ada.

  17. Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, J.P.; Beard, T.D.; Bennett, E.M.; Cumming, Graeme S.; Cork, S.J.; Agard, J.; Dobson, A.P.; Peterson, G.D.

    2006-01-01

    Ecosystem service (ES) trade-offs arise from management choices made by humans, which can change the type, magnitude, and relative mix of services provided by ecosystems. Trade-offs occur when the provision of one ES is reduced as a consequence of increased use of another ES. In some cases, a trade-off may be an explicit choice; but in others, trade-offs arise without premeditation or even awareness that they are taking place. Trade-offs in ES can be classified along three axes: spatial scale, temporal scale, and reversibility. Spatial scale refers to whether the effects of the trade-off are felt locally or at a distant location. Temporal scale refers to whether the effects take place relatively rapidly or slowly. Reversibility expresses the likelihood that the perturbed ES may return to its original state if the perturbation ceases. Across all four Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios and selected case study examples, trade-off decisions show a preference for provisioning, regulating, or cultural services (in that order). Supporting services are more likely to be "taken for granted." Cultural ES are almost entirely unquantified in scenario modeling; therefore, the calculated model results do not fully capture losses of these services that occur in the scenarios. The quantitative scenario models primarily capture the services that are perceived by society as more important - provisioning and regulating ecosystem services - and thus do not fully capture trade-offs of cultural and supporting services. Successful management policies will be those that incorporate lessons learned from prior decisions into future management actions. Managers should complement their actions with monitoring programs that, in addition to monitoring the short-term provisions of services, also monitor the long-term evolution of slowly changing variables. Policies can then be developed to take into account ES trade-offs at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Successful strategies will

  18. MCO loading and cask loadout technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    PRAGA, A.N.

    1998-10-01

    A compilation of the technical basis for loading a multi-canister overpack (MCO) with spent nuclear fuel and then placing the MCO into a cask for shipment to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The technical basis includes a description of the process, process technology that forms the basis for loading alternatives, process control considerations, safety considerations, equipment description, and a brief facility structure description.

  19. 44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "B" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  20. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities...

  1. Health Facilities

    MedlinePlus

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, ... psychiatric care centers. When you choose a health facility, you might want to consider How close it ...

  2. Acknowledging conservation trade-offs and embracing complexity.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Paul D; Adams, William M; Brosius, J Peter; Zia, Asim; Bariola, Nino; Dammert, Juan Luis

    2011-04-01

    There is a growing recognition that conservation often entails trade-offs. A focus on trade-offs can open the way to more complete consideration of the variety of positive and negative effects associated with conservation initiatives. In analyzing and working through conservation trade-offs, however, it is important to embrace the complexities inherent in the social context of conservation. In particular, it is important to recognize that the consequences of conservation activities are experienced, perceived, and understood differently from different perspectives, and that these perspectives are embedded in social systems and preexisting power relations. We illustrate the role of trade-offs in conservation and the complexities involved in understanding them with recent debates surrounding REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation), a global conservation policy designed to create incentives to reduce tropical deforestation. Often portrayed in terms of the multiple benefits it may provide: poverty alleviation, biodiversity conservation, and climate-change mitigation; REDD may involve substantial trade-offs. The gains of REDD may be associated with a reduction in incentives for industrialized countries to decrease carbon emissions; relocation of deforestation to places unaffected by REDD; increased inequality in places where people who make their livelihood from forests have insecure land tenure; loss of biological and cultural diversity that does not directly align with REDD measurement schemes; and erosion of community-based means of protecting forests. We believe it is important to acknowledge the potential trade-offs involved in conservation initiatives such as REDD and to examine these trade-offs in an open and integrative way that includes a variety of tools, methods, and points of view.

  3. Texas State Technical College Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aumack, Bruce; Blake, Larry J.

    Texas educational legislation for 1991 required the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) to review the operations of, and the continuing need for, each of the four main campuses and five extension centers of the Texas State Technical College System (TSTCS), and to make recommendations concerning the facilities' continuation and/or…

  4. Chlordane (Technical)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW of CHLORDANE ( TECHNICAL ) ( CAS No . 12789 - 03 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) December 1997 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC TABLE OF CONTENTS Authors and Reviewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  5. Quantum trade-off coding for bosonic communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Mark M.; Hayden, Patrick; Guha, Saikat

    2012-12-01

    The trade-off capacity region of a quantum channel characterizes the optimal net rates at which a sender can communicate classical, quantum, and entangled bits to a receiver by exploiting many independent uses of the channel, along with the help of the same resources. Similarly, one can consider a trade-off capacity region when the noiseless resources are public, private, and secret-key bits. We identified [see Wilde, Hayden, and Guha, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.108.140501 108, 140501 (2012)] these trade-off rate regions for the pure-loss bosonic channel and proved that they are optimal provided that a long-standing minimum-output entropy conjecture is true. Additionally, we showed that the performance gains of a trade-off coding strategy when compared to a time-sharing strategy can be quite significant. In this paper, we provide detailed derivations of the results announced there, and we extend the application of these ideas to thermal-noise and amplifying bosonic channels. We also derive a “rule of thumb” for trade-off coding, which determines how to allocate photons in a coding strategy if a large mean photon number is available at the channel input. Our results on the amplifying bosonic channel also apply to the “Unruh channel” considered in the context of relativistic quantum information theory.

  6. Constraints, Trade-offs and the Currency of Fitness.

    PubMed

    Acerenza, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Understanding evolutionary trajectories remains a difficult task. This is because natural evolutionary processes are simultaneously affected by various types of constraints acting at the different levels of biological organization. Of particular importance are constraints where correlated changes occur in opposite directions, called trade-offs. Here we review and classify the main evolutionary constraints and trade-offs, operating at all levels of trait hierarchy. Special attention is given to life history trade-offs and the conflict between the survival and reproduction components of fitness. Cellular mechanisms underlying fitness trade-offs are described. At the metabolic level, a linear trade-off between growth and flux variability was found, employing bacterial genome-scale metabolic reconstructions. Its analysis indicates that flux variability can be considered as the currency of fitness. This currency is used for fitness transfer between fitness components during adaptations. Finally, a discussion is made regarding the constraints which limit the increase in the amount of fitness currency during evolution, suggesting that occupancy constraints are probably the main restrictions.

  7. A Trade-Off Study Revealing Nested Timescales of Constraint

    PubMed Central

    Wijnants, M. L.; Cox, R. F. A.; Hasselman, F.; Bosman, A. M. T.; Van Orden, G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates human performance in a cyclic Fitts task at three different scales of observation, either in the presence (difficult condition) or in the absence (easy condition) of a speed–accuracy trade-off. At the fastest scale, the harmonicity of the back and forth movements, which reflects the dissipation of mechanical energy, was measured within the timeframe of single trials. At an intermediate scale, speed and accuracy measures were determined over a trial. The slowest scale pertains to the temporal structure of movement variability, which evolves over multiple trials. In the difficult condition, reliable correlations across each of the measures corroborated a coupling of nested scales of performance. Participants who predominantly emphasized the speed-side of the trade-off (despite the instruction to be both fast and accurate) produced more harmonic movements and clearer 1/f scaling in the produced movement time series, but were less accurate and produced more random variability in the produced movement amplitudes (vice versa for more accurate participants). This implied that speed–accuracy trade-off was accompanied by a trade-off between temporal and spatial streams of 1/f scaling, as confirmed by entropy measures. In the easy condition, however, no trade-offs nor couplings among scales of performance were observed. Together, these results suggest that 1/f scaling is more than just a byproduct of cognition. These findings rather support the claim that interaction-dominant dynamics constitute a coordinative basis for goal-directed behavior. PMID:22654760

  8. Generalist–specialist trade-off during thermal acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, Frank; Ducret, Varlérie; Little, Alexander G.; Adriaenssens, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The shape of performance curves and their plasticity define how individuals and populations respond to environmental variability. In theory, maximum performance decreases with an increase in performance breadth. However, reversible acclimation may counteract this generalist–specialist trade-off, because performance optima track environmental conditions so that there is no benefit of generalist phenotypes. We tested this hypothesis by acclimating individual mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) to cool and warm temperatures consecutively and measuring performance curves of swimming performance after each acclimation treatment. Individuals from the same population differed significantly in performance maxima, performance breadth and the capacity for acclimation. As predicted, acclimation resulted in a shift of the temperature at which maximal performance occurred. Within acclimation treatments, there was a significant generalist–specialist trade-off in responses to acute temperature change. Surprisingly, however, there was also a trade-off across acclimation treatments, and animals with greater capacity for cold acclimation had lower performance maxima under warm conditions. Hence, cold acclimation may be viewed as a generalist strategy that extends performance breadth at the colder seasons, but comes at the cost of reduced performance at the warmer time of year. Acclimation therefore does not counteract a generalist–specialist trade-off and, at least in mosquitofish, the trade-off seems to be a system property that persists despite phenotypic plasticity. PMID:26064581

  9. Independent technical review, handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  10. Study on RLS trade-off resist upgrade for production ready EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junghyung; Kim, Jieun; Jeong, Seunguk; Lim, Mijung; Koo, Sunyoung; Lim, Chang-Moon; Kim, Young-Sik

    2016-03-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) is the most promising technology as substitute for multiple patterning based on ArF immersion lithography. If enough productivity can be accomplished, EUV will take main role in the chip manufacturing. Since the introduction of NXE3300, many significant results have been achieved in source power and availability, but lots of improvements are still required in various aspects for the implementation of EUV lithography on high volume manufacturing. Among them, it is especially important to attain high sensitivity resist without degrading other resolution performance. In this paper, performances of various resists were evaluated with real device patterns on NXE3300 scanner and technical progress of up-to-date EUV resists will be shown by comparing with the performance of their predecessors. Finally the prospect of overcoming the triangular trade-off between sensitivity, resolution, line edge roughness (LER) and achieving high volume manufacturing will be discussed.

  11. Sensing and communication trade-offs in picosatellite formation flying missions.

    PubMed

    Arnon, Shlomi; Kedar, Debbie

    2009-10-01

    One of the primary challenges in all small satellite design is the attainment of adequate sensing and communication capabilities within the stringent spatial limitations. These can be defined in terms of surface area expenditure for the different payloads. There is an inevitable trade-off between enhancing the sensing capacity at the expense of reducing communication capabilities on the one hand and, on the other hand, increasing the communication capacity to the detriment of the sensing ability. Careful balancing of the conflicting demands is necessary to achieve acceptable performance levels. In this paper we study two intersatellite optical wireless communication scenarios: (i) a direct link between two satellites and (ii) a folded path link between a master satellite and a picosatellite equipped with a modulatable retroreflector. In the latter case the picosatellite does not have a laser transmitter and the data carrier is the retroreflected beam from the master satellite. The data rate, which is bounded by the sensing payload resolution, is derived using diffraction theory and Shannon capacity considerations. We develop a mathematical model to describe the interrelations between sensing and communication facilities in a picosatellite flight formation using optical technologies and demonstrate system performance trade-offs with a numerical example.

  12. A Model of Tradeoffs for Understanding Health Information Technology Implementation.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig E

    2015-01-01

    Implementing health information technology (HIT) is a challenge that frequently results in unintended consequences post implementation. To better manage these consequences we need approaches that can proactively identify issues so we deal with them pre-implementation. It can be suggested that a reason unintended consequences occur is because of trade-offs between people's work practices and pre and post HIT implementation. If we can identify what these trade-offs are we can use them for proactive management of unintended consequences. This paper uses a case study of a perioperative information system and principles of social BPM and qualitative content analysis to develop a model of seven trade-off patterns that can be used to study HIT mediated change. It also discusses the implications of the model on the design and evaluation of HIT.

  13. Trade-offs among ecosystem services in a typical Karst watershed, SW China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yichao; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Luo, Guangjie; Xu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, most research results on ecosystem services in Karst areas are limited to a single function of an ecosystem service. Few scholars conduct a comparative study on the mutual relationships among ecosystem services, let alone reveal the trade-off and synergic relationships in typical Karst watershed. This research aims to understand and quantitatively evaluate the relationships among ecosystem services in a typical Karst watershed, broaden the depth and width of trade-off and synergic relationships in ecosystem services and explore a set of technical processes involved in these relationships. With the Shibantang Karst watershed in China as the research site, we explore the trade-off and synergic relationships of net primary productivity (NPP), water yield, and sediment yield by coupling Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA), and simulating and evaluating these three ecosystem services between 2000 and 2010. Results of this study are as follows. (1) The annual average water yield decreased from 528mm in 2000 to 513mm in 2010, decreasing by 2.84%. (2) The annual average sediment yield decreased from 26.15t/ha in 2000 to 23.81t/ha in 2010, with an average annual reduction of 0.23t/ha. (3) The annual average NPP increased from 739.38gCm(-2)a(-1) in 2000 to 746.25gCm(-2)a(-1) in 2010, increasing by 6.87gCm(-2)a(-1) . (4) Water yield and sediment yield are in a synergic relationship. The increase of water yield can accumulate the soil erosion amount. NPP is in a trade-off relationship with water yield and sediment yield. The improvement of NPP is good for decreasing water yield and soil erosion amount and increasing soil conservation amount. This study provides policy makers and planners an approach to develop an integrated model, as well as design mapping and monitoring protocols for land use change and ecosystem service assessments.

  14. Survey of aircraft icing simulation test facilities in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W.

    1981-01-01

    A survey was made of the aircraft icing simulation facilities in North America: there are 12 wind tunnels, 28 engine test facilities, 6 aircraft tankers and 14 low velocity facilities, that perform aircraft icing tests full or part time. The location and size of the facility, its speed and temperature range, icing cloud parameters, and the technical person to contact are surveyed. Results are presented in tabular form. The capabilities of each facility were estimated by its technical contact person. The adequacy of these facilities for various types of icing tests is discussed.

  15. Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1994-01-01

    The Centrifuge Facility Project at ARC was reviewed by a code U team to determine appropriateness adequacy for the ISSA. This report represents the findings of one consultant to this team and concentrates on scientific and technical risks. This report supports continuation of the project to the next phase of development.

  16. Study of advanced InSb arrays for SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Alan; Feitt, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The Santa Barbara Research Center has completed a study leading to the development of advanced Indium Antimonide detector arrays for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Focal Plane Array Detector (FPAD) Subsystem of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Band 1. The overall goal of the study was to perform design tradeoff studies, analysis and research to develop a Direct Readout Integrated Circuit to be hybridized to an advanced, high performance InSb detector array that would satisfy the technical requirements for Band 1 as specified in the IRAC Instrument Requirements Document (IRD), IRAC-202. The overall goal of the study was divided into both a near-term goal and a far-term goal. The near-term goal identifies current technology available that approaches, and in some cases meets the program technological goals as specified in IRAC-202. The far-term goal identifies technology development required to completely achieve SIRTF program goals. Analyses of potential detector materials indicates that InSb presently meets all Band 1 requirements and is considered to be the baseline approach due to technical maturity. The major issue with regard to photovoltaic detectors such as InSb and HgCdTe is to achieve a reduction in detector capacitance.

  17. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  18. An Adaptive Tradeoff Algorithm for Multi-issue SLA Negotiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Seokho; Sim, Kwang Mong

    Since participants in a Cloud may be independent bodies, mechanisms are necessary for resolving different preferences in leasing Cloud services. Whereas there are currently mechanisms that support service-level agreement negotiation, there is little or no negotiation support for concurrent price and timeslot for Cloud service reservations. For the concurrent price and timeslot negotiation, a tradeoff algorithm to generate and evaluate a proposal which consists of price and timeslot proposal is necessary. The contribution of this work is thus to design an adaptive tradeoff algorithm for multi-issue negotiation mechanism. The tradeoff algorithm referred to as "adaptive burst mode" is especially designed to increase negotiation speed and total utility and to reduce computational load by adaptively generating concurrent set of proposals. The empirical results obtained from simulations carried out using a testbed suggest that due to the concurrent price and timeslot negotiation mechanism with adaptive tradeoff algorithm: 1) both agents achieve the best performance in terms of negotiation speed and utility; 2) the number of evaluations of each proposal is comparatively lower than previous scheme (burst-N).

  19. Information trade-offs for optical quantum communication.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Mark M; Hayden, Patrick; Guha, Saikat

    2012-04-06

    Recent work has precisely characterized the achievable trade-offs between three key information processing tasks-classical communication (generation or consumption), quantum communication (generation or consumption), and shared entanglement (distribution or consumption), measured in bits, qubits, and ebits per channel use, respectively. Slices and corner points of this three-dimensional region reduce to well-known protocols for quantum channels. A trade-off coding technique can attain any point in the region and can outperform time sharing between the best-known protocols for accomplishing each information processing task by itself. Previously, the benefits of trade-off coding that had been found were too small to be of practical value (viz., for the dephasing and the universal cloning machine channels). In this Letter, we demonstrate that the associated performance gains are in fact remarkably high for several physically relevant bosonic channels that model free-space or fiber-optic links, thermal-noise channels, and amplifiers. We show that significant performance gains from trade-off coding also apply when trading photon-number resources between transmitting public and private classical information simultaneously over secret-key-assisted bosonic channels.

  20. Information Trade-Offs for Optical Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Mark M.; Hayden, Patrick; Guha, Saikat

    2012-04-01

    Recent work has precisely characterized the achievable trade-offs between three key information processing tasks—classical communication (generation or consumption), quantum communication (generation or consumption), and shared entanglement (distribution or consumption), measured in bits, qubits, and ebits per channel use, respectively. Slices and corner points of this three-dimensional region reduce to well-known protocols for quantum channels. A trade-off coding technique can attain any point in the region and can outperform time sharing between the best-known protocols for accomplishing each information processing task by itself. Previously, the benefits of trade-off coding that had been found were too small to be of practical value (viz., for the dephasing and the universal cloning machine channels). In this Letter, we demonstrate that the associated performance gains are in fact remarkably high for several physically relevant bosonic channels that model free-space or fiber-optic links, thermal-noise channels, and amplifiers. We show that significant performance gains from trade-off coding also apply when trading photon-number resources between transmitting public and private classical information simultaneously over secret-key-assisted bosonic channels.

  1. LPTA Versus Tradeoff: How Procurement Methods Can Impact Contract Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and...acceptable, tradeoff, best value, contract management , source selection, evaluation 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 87 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...SCIENCE IN CONTRACT MANAGEMENT from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 2015 Authors: Kathleen Watson Approved by: Dr

  2. Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

  3. Thermal performance trade-offs for point focusing solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, L.

    1978-01-01

    Solar thermal conversion performance is assessed in this paper for representative point focusing distributed systems. Trade-off comparisons are made in terms of concentrator quality, solar receiver operating temperature, and power conversion efficiency. Normalized system performance is presented on a unit concentrator area basis for integrated annual electric energy production.

  4. Immune function trade-offs in response to parasite threats.

    PubMed

    Kirschman, Lucas J; Quade, Adam H; Zera, Anthony J; Warne, Robin W

    2017-04-01

    Immune function is often involved in physiological trade-offs because of the energetic costs of maintaining constitutive immunity and mounting responses to infection. However, immune function is a collection of discrete immunity factors and animals should allocate towards factors that combat the parasite threat with the highest fitness cost. For example, animals on dispersal fronts of expanding population may be released from density-dependent diseases. The costs of immunity, however, and life history trade-offs in general, are often context dependent. Trade-offs are often most apparent under conditions of unusually limited resources or when animals are particularly stressed, because the stress response can shift priorities. In this study we tested how humoral and cellular immune factors vary between phenotypes of a wing dimorphic cricket and how physiological stress influences these immune factors. We measured constitutive lysozyme activity, a humoral immune factor, and encapsulation response, a cellular immune factor. We also stressed the crickets with a sham predator in a full factorial design. We found that immune strategy could be explained by the selective pressures encountered by each morph and that stress decreased encapsulation, but not lysozyme activity. These results suggest a possible trade-off between humoral and cellular immunity. Given limited resources and the expense of immune factors, parasite pressures could play a key factor in maintaining insect polyphenism via disruptive selection.

  5. Paying the Price for Academic Leadership: Department Chair Tradeoffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gmelch, Walter H.

    Nearly 80,000 scholars currently serve as department chairs, and almost one-quarter will need to be replaced each year. Such a high turnover rate is partly due to surprises and unexpected sacrifices embedded in the department chair position. In an effort to help professors prepare for and overcome unforseen tradeoffs, the University Council for…

  6. A Human Trade-off for Word Processing Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    1974-01-01

    Business educators must make students aware of the pitfalls in the current move toward office specialization in the word processing movement. The adoption of technological methodology can cause a human trade-off in which people become mere agents of machines. Business educators must begin to emphasize the needs of individuals. (SC)

  7. Aeronautical Facilities Catalogue. Volume 1: Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penaranda, F. E. (Compiler); Freda, M. S. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Domestic and foreign wind tunnel facilities are enumerated and their technical parameters are described. Data pertinent to managers and engineers are presented. Facilities judged comparable in testing capability are noted and grouped together. Several comprehensive cross-indexes and charts are included.

  8. Nuclear Facilities and Applied Technologies at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Dave; Kaiser, Krista; Martin, Lonnie; Hanson, Don; Harms, Gary; Quirk, Tom

    2014-11-28

    The Nuclear Facilities and Applied Technologies organization at Sandia National Laboratories’ Technical Area Five (TA-V) is the leader in advancing nuclear technologies through applied radiation science and unique nuclear environments. This video describes the organization’s capabilities, facilities, and culture.

  9. Using Flow-Ecology Relationships to Evaluate Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs and Complementarities in the Nation's Largest River Swamp.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Justin P; Bennett, Micah G; Hayden-Lesmeister, Anne; Fritz, Kelley A; Nickolotsky, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Large river systems are inextricably linked with social systems; consequently, management decisions must be made within a given ecological, social, and political framework that often defies objective, technical resolution. Understanding flow-ecology relationships in rivers is necessary to assess potential impacts of management decisions, but translating complex flow-ecology relationships into stakeholder-relevant information remains a struggle. The concept of ecosystem services provides a bridge between flow-ecology relationships and stakeholder-relevant data. Flow-ecology relationships were used to explore complementary and trade-off relationships among 12 ecosystem services and related variables in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Results from Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration were reduced to four management-relevant hydrologic variables using principal components analysis. Multiple regression was used to determine flow-ecology relationships and Pearson correlation coefficients, along with regression results, were used to determine complementary and trade-off relationships among ecosystem services and related variables that were induced by flow. Seven ecosystem service variables had significant flow-ecology relationships for at least one hydrologic variable (R (2) = 0.19-0.64). River transportation and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) landings exhibited a complementary relationship mediated by flow; whereas transportation and crawfish landings, crawfish landings and crappie (Pomoxis spp.) abundance, and blue crab landings and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) abundance exhibited trade-off relationships. Other trade-off and complementary relationships among ecosystem services and related variables, however, were not related to flow. These results give insight into potential conflicts among stakeholders, can reduce the dimensions of management decisions, and provide initial hypotheses for experimental flow modifications.

  10. Using Flow-Ecology Relationships to Evaluate Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs and Complementarities in the Nation's Largest River Swamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Justin P.; Bennett, Micah G.; Hayden-Lesmeister, Anne; Fritz, Kelley A.; Nickolotsky, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Large river systems are inextricably linked with social systems; consequently, management decisions must be made within a given ecological, social, and political framework that often defies objective, technical resolution. Understanding flow-ecology relationships in rivers is necessary to assess potential impacts of management decisions, but translating complex flow-ecology relationships into stakeholder-relevant information remains a struggle. The concept of ecosystem services provides a bridge between flow-ecology relationships and stakeholder-relevant data. Flow-ecology relationships were used to explore complementary and trade-off relationships among 12 ecosystem services and related variables in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Results from Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration were reduced to four management-relevant hydrologic variables using principal components analysis. Multiple regression was used to determine flow-ecology relationships and Pearson correlation coefficients, along with regression results, were used to determine complementary and trade-off relationships among ecosystem services and related variables that were induced by flow. Seven ecosystem service variables had significant flow-ecology relationships for at least one hydrologic variable ( R 2 = 0.19-0.64). River transportation and blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus) landings exhibited a complementary relationship mediated by flow; whereas transportation and crawfish landings, crawfish landings and crappie ( Pomoxis spp.) abundance, and blue crab landings and blue catfish ( Ictalurus furcatus) abundance exhibited trade-off relationships. Other trade-off and complementary relationships among ecosystem services and related variables, however, were not related to flow. These results give insight into potential conflicts among stakeholders, can reduce the dimensions of management decisions, and provide initial hypotheses for experimental flow modifications.

  11. Facility Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Ben E.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews recommendations on policies for leasing surplus school space made during the Council of Educational Facility Planners/International conference. A case study presentation of a Seattle district's use of lease agreements is summarized. (MJL)

  12. Effects of Emotion on Memory Specificity: Memory Trade-Offs Elicited by Negative Visually Arousing Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Garoff-Eaton, Rachel J.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    Two different types of trade-offs have been discussed with regard to memory for emotional information: A trade-off in the ability to remember the gist versus the visual detail of emotional information, and a trade-off in the ability to remember the central emotional elements of an event versus the nonemotional (peripheral) elements of that same…

  13. Optimize Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies for Government Agencies, Industrial Facilities, and Military Installations: NREL Offers Proven Tools and Resources to Reduce Energy Use and Improve Efficiency (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Lab provides expertise, facilities, and technical assistance to campuses, facilities, and government agencies to apply renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies.

  14. Design trade-offs among shunt current, pumping loss and compactness in the piping system of a multi-stack vanadium flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qiang; Hu, Jing; Cheng, Ping; Ma, Zhiqi

    2015-11-01

    Trade-off between shunt current loss and pumping loss is a major challenge in the design of the electrolyte piping network in a flow battery system. It is generally recognized that longer and thinner ducts are beneficial to reduce shunt current but detrimental to minimize pumping power. Base on the developed analog circuit model and the flow network model, we make case studies of multi-stack vanadium flow battery piping systems and demonstrate that both shunt current and electrolyte flow resistance can be simultaneously minimized by using longer and thicker ducts in the piping network. However, extremely long and/or thick ducts lead to a bulky system and may be prohibited by the stack structure. Accordingly, the intrinsic design trade-off is between system efficiency and compactness. Since multi-stack configurations bring both flexibility and complexity to the design process, we perform systematic comparisons among representative piping system designs to illustrate the complicated trade-offs among numerous parameters including stack number, intra-stack channel resistance and inter-stack pipe resistance. As the final design depends on various technical and economical requirements, this paper aims to provide guidelines rather than solutions for designers to locate the optimal trade-off points according to their specific cases.

  15. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerlin, H, M, PhD PE; Leach, J, W, PhD PE; Terry, S, D, PhD PE

    2007-02-28

    The Industrial Assessment Center program at North Carolina State University has conducted one hundred industrial assessments of small and medium sized manufacturers in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Reports were submitted to each facility that included a brief description of the plant, historical energy use, and a technical analysis of potential energy efficiency savings, waste reduction, and productivity savings. Seven hundred thirty eight conservation measures were recommended with total annual cost savings in excess of $18 million. The NCSU IAC has worked with other government and private entities to deliver energy efficiency and conservation services. We have worked closely with the NCSU Industrial Extension Service, the Manufacturer’s Extension Partnership (MEP), and the North Carolina State Energy Office to provide follow-up technical help and financial assistance in implementing conservation recommendations. In addition to these organizations, the NCSU IAC has also worked with the NC Department of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance, the NC Solar Center, Advanced Energy Corporation, Duke Power, Progress Energy, Dominion Power, and the City of Danville, Virginia. Eighteen undergraduate and twenty graduate students were exposed to a variety of manufacturing processes, trained on plant safety, and taught the use of various types of data collection equipment. The students performed technical analyses of each recommendation, computed the potential savings from engineering relations and collected data, estimated the cost from vendor information, and communicated the findings in a compact, well written report to the client. The students have also been exposed to a variety of business personnel, including corporate presidents, engineering managers, plant managers, plant engineers, facility maintenance staff, and production workers – each with a unique perspective on the challenges faced in a modern manufacturing facility. The program

  16. Why equalising trade-offs aren't always neutral.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Lindsay A; Rees, Mark; Purves, Drew W

    2008-10-01

    Equalising trade-offs, such as seed mass vs. number, have been invoked to reconcile neutral theory with observed differences between species. This is an appealing explanation for the dramatic seed size variation seen within guilds of otherwise similar plants: under size-symmetric competition, where resource capture is proportional to mass, the outcome of competition should be insensitive to whether species produce many small seeds or few large ones. However, under this assumption, stochastic variation in seed rain leads to exclusion of all but the smallest-seeded species. Thus stochasticity in seed arrivals, a process that was previously thought to generate drift, instead results in deterministic competitive exclusion. A neutral outcome is possible under one special case of a more general equalising framework, where seed mass affects survival but not competition. Further exploration of the feasibility of neutral trade-offs is needed to understand the respective roles of neutrality and niche structure in community dynamics.

  17. Energy technologies evaluated against climate targets using a cost and carbon trade-off curve.

    PubMed

    Trancik, Jessika E; Cross-Call, Daniel

    2013-06-18

    Over the next few decades, severe cuts in emissions from energy will be required to meet global climate-change mitigation goals. These emission reductions imply a major shift toward low-carbon energy technologies, and the economic cost and technical feasibility of mitigation are therefore highly dependent upon the future performance of energy technologies. However, existing models do not readily translate into quantitative targets against which we can judge the dynamic performance of technologies. Here, we present a simple, new model for evaluating energy-supply technologies and their improvement trajectories against climate-change mitigation goals. We define a target for technology performance in terms of the carbon intensity of energy, consistent with emission reduction goals, and show how the target depends upon energy demand levels. Because the cost of energy determines the level of adoption, we then compare supply technologies to one another and to this target based on their position on a cost and carbon trade-off curve and how the position changes over time. Applying the model to U.S. electricity, we show that the target for carbon intensity will approach zero by midcentury for commonly cited emission reduction goals, even under a high demand-side efficiency scenario. For Chinese electricity, the carbon intensity target is relaxed and less certain because of lesser emission reductions and greater variability in energy demand projections. Examining a century-long database on changes in the cost-carbon space, we find that the magnitude of changes in cost and carbon intensity that are required to meet future performance targets is not unprecedented, providing some evidence that these targets are within engineering reach. The cost and carbon trade-off curve can be used to evaluate the dynamic performance of existing and new technologies against climate-change mitigation goals.

  18. Efficient operation of a multi-purpose reservoir in Chile: Tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Olivares, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a method to develop efficient operational policies for a reservoir the southern Chile. The main water uses in this system are hydropower and irrigation, with conflicting seasonal demands. The conflict between these two uses is currently managed through a so-called "irrigation agreement" which defines a series of operational conditions on the reservoir by restricting volumes used for power production depending on reservoir storage level. Other than that, the reservoir operation is driven by cost-minimization over the power grid. Recent evidence shows an increasing degree of conflict in this basin, which suggests that the static approach of irrigation agreements, might no longer be appropriate. Moreover, this agreement could be revised in light of decreased water availability. This problem poses a challenge related to the spatial scope of analysis. Thus, irrigation benefits are driven by decisions made within the basin, whereas hydropower benefits depend on the operation of the entire power grid. Exploring the tradeoffs between these two water uses involves modeling both scales. The proposed methodology integrates information from both a grid-wide power operations model and a basin-wide agro-economic model into a decision model for optimal reservoir operation. The first model, a hydrothermal coordination tool, schedules power production by each plant in the grid, and allows capturing technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The agro-economic model incorporates economic features of irrigation in the basin, and allows obtaining irrigation water demand functions. Finally, the results of both models are integrated into a single model for optimal reservoir operation considering the tradeoffs between the two uses. The result of the joint operation of water resources, show a flexible coordination of uses, revealing the opportunity cost of irrigation, which it gives the possibility of negotiating transfers of water to

  19. Technical/commercial feasibility study of the production of fuel-grade ethanol from corn: 100-million-gallon-per-year production facility in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana. Volume 5: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-05-01

    Issues pertinent to a feasibility analysis of a corn to fuel-grade ethanol production facility are discussed. Included are: comparison of assumptions and results among studies, base case scenarios, production option analyses, selected sensitivity analysis reference output data, background on government incentives, industrial revenue bonds in Louisiana (conditions and procedures, draft permit application), and capital cost estimates.

  20. Photovoltaic subsystem optimization and design tradeoff study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.J.

    1982-03-01

    Tradeoffs and subsystem choices are examined in photovoltaic array subfield design, power-conditioning sizing and selection, roof- and ground-mounted structure installation, energy loss, operating voltage, power conditioning cost, and subfield size. Line- and self-commutated power conditioning options are analyzed to determine the most cost-effective technology in the megawatt power range. Methods for reducing field installation of flat panels and roof mounting of intermediate load centers are discussed, including the cost of retrofit installations.

  1. Trade-off analysis for environmental projects: An annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Feather, T.D.; Harrington, K.W.; Capan, D.T.

    1995-08-01

    This is a report with an attached annotated bibliography. This study explores the literature for analytical techniques that can support the complex decision-making process associated with Corps of Engineers environmental projects. The literature review focuses on opportunities for using trade-off methodologies and group processes in environmental plan formulation and evaluation. The work was conducted under the Evaluation Framework Work Unit within the Evaluation of Environmental Investments Research Program.

  2. Waste to energy facilities. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technical, economic, and environmental evaluations of facilities that convert waste to energy. Solid waste and municipal waste conversion facilities are highlighted. Feasibility studies, technical design, emissions studies, and markets for the resulting energy are discussed. Heat and electrical generation facilities are emphasized. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Office of Science User Facilities Summary Report, Fiscal Year 2015

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science provides the Nation’s researchers with worldclass scientific user facilities to propel the U.S. to the forefront of science and innovation. A user facility is a federally sponsored research facility available for external use to advance scientific or technical knowledge under the following conditions: open, accessible, free, collaborative, competitive, and unique.

  4. Speed and stamina trade-off in lacertid lizards.

    PubMed

    Vanhooydonck, B; Van Damme, R; Aerts, P

    2001-05-01

    Morphological and physiological considerations suggest that sprinting ability and endurance capacity put conflicting demands on the design of an animal's locomotor apparatus and therefore cannot be maximized simultaneously. To test this hypothesis, we correlated size-corrected maximal sprint speed and stamina of 12 species of lacertid lizards. Phylogenetically independent contrasts of sprint speed and stamina showed a significant negative relationship, giving support to the idea of an evolutionary trade-off between the two performance measures. To test the hypothesis that the trade-off is mediated by a conflict in morphological requirements, we correlated both performance traits with snout-vent length, size-corrected estimates of body mass and limb length, and relative hindlimb length (the residuals of the relationship between hind- and forelimb length). Fast-running species had hindlimbs that were long compared to their forelimbs. None of the other size or shape variables showed a significant relationship with speed or endurance. We conclude that the evolution of sprint capacity may be constrained by the need for endurance capacity and vice versa, but the design conflict underlying this trade-off has yet to be identified.

  5. Hormesis results in trade-offs with immunity.

    PubMed

    McClure, Colin D; Zhong, Weihao; Hunt, Vicky L; Chapman, Fiona M; Hill, Fiona V; Priest, Nicholas K

    2014-08-01

    Many have argued that we may be able to extend life and improve human health through hormesis, the beneficial effects of low-level toxins and other stressors. But, studies of hormesis in model systems have not yet established whether stress-induced benefits are cost free, artifacts of inbreeding, or come with deleterious side effects. Here, we provide evidence that hormesis results in trade-offs with immunity. We find that a single topical dose of dead spores of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium robertsii, increases the longevity of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, without significant decreases in fecundity. We find that hormetic benefits of pathogen challenge are greater in lines that lack key components of antifungal immunity (Dif and Turandot M). And, in outbred fly lines, we find that topical pathogen challenge enhances both survival and fecundity, but reduces ability to fight off live infections. The results provide evidence that hormesis is manifested by stress-induced trade-offs with immunity, not cost-free benefits or artifacts of inbreeding. Our findings illuminate mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced life-history trade-offs, and indicate that reduced immune function may be an ironic side effect of the "elixirs of life."

  6. HORMESIS RESULTS IN TRADE-OFFS WITH IMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Colin D; Zhong, Weihao; Hunt, Vicky L; Chapman, Fiona M; Hill, Fiona V; Priest, Nicholas K

    2014-01-01

    Many have argued that we may be able to extend life and improve human health through hormesis, the beneficial effects of low-level toxins and other stressors. But, studies of hormesis in model systems have not yet established whether stress-induced benefits are cost free, artifacts of inbreeding, or come with deleterious side effects. Here, we provide evidence that hormesis results in trade-offs with immunity. We find that a single topical dose of dead spores of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium robertsii, increases the longevity of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, without significant decreases in fecundity. We find that hormetic benefits of pathogen challenge are greater in lines that lack key components of antifungal immunity (Dif and Turandot M). And, in outbred fly lines, we find that topical pathogen challenge enhances both survival and fecundity, but reduces ability to fight off live infections. The results provide evidence that hormesis is manifested by stress-induced trade-offs with immunity, not cost-free benefits or artifacts of inbreeding. Our findings illuminate mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced life-history trade-offs, and indicate that reduced immune function may be an ironic side effect of the “elixirs of life.” PMID:24862588

  7. Quantifying process tradeoffs in the operation of chromatographic sequences.

    PubMed

    Ngiam, Sheau-Huey; Bracewell, Daniel G; Zhou, Yuhong; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J

    2003-01-01

    A method for the rapid representation of key process tradeoffs that need to be made during the analysis of chromatographic sequences has been proposed. It involves the construction of fractionation and maximum purification factor versus yield diagrams, which can be completed easily on the basis of chromatographic data. The output of the framework developed reflects the degree of tradeoff between levels of yield and purity and provides a fast and precise prediction of the sample fraction collection strategy needed to meet a desired process specification. The usefulness of this approach for the purposes of product purification and contaminant removal in a single chromatographic step has been successfully demonstrated in an earlier paper and it is now extended by application to a chromatographic sequence: the separation of a hypothetical three-component protein system by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The HIC operation has a strong impact upon the subsequent SEC step. The studies show how the analysis of performance in such a chromatographic sequence can be carried out easily and in a straightforward fashion using the fractionation diagram approach. The methodology proposed serves as a useful tool for identifying the process tradeoffs that must be made during operation of a sequence of chromatographic steps and indicates the impact on further processing of the cut-point decisions that are made.

  8. Trade-offs in the design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Wiley, R Haven

    2009-11-01

    This comment supplements and clarifies issues raised by J. C. Schank and T. J. Koehnle (2009) in their critique of experimental design. First, the pervasiveness of trade-offs in the design of experiments is emphasized (Wiley, 2003). Particularly germane to Schank and Koehnle's discussion are the inevitable trade-offs in any decisions to include blocking or to standardize conditions in experiments. Second, the interpretation of multiple tests of a hypothesis is clarified. Only when interest focuses on any, rather than each, of N possible responses is it appropriate to adjust criteria for statistical significance of the results. Finally, a misunderstanding is corrected about a disadvantage of large experiments (Wiley, 2003). Experiments with large samples raise the possibility of small, but statistically significant, biases even after randomization of treatments. Because these small biases are difficult for experimenters and readers to notice, large experiments demonstrating small effects require special scrutiny. Such experiments are justified only when they involve minimal human intervention and maximal standardization. Justifications for the inevitable trade-offs in experimental design require careful attention when reporting any experiment.

  9. The energy trade-off between growth and longevity.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chen

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the trade-offs between organisms' life history traits has been a major goal of physiology, ecology and evolution. In the last few decades, two types of intra-specific studies have highlighted the trade-off between growth and longevity. First, diet restriction (DR), as an environmental intervention, has been shown to suppress growth and extend the lifespan of a broad range of animals. Second, genetic studies have also shown that mice, whose growth hormone function is genetically modified (GM), grow slower and live longer than their wild-type siblings. Despite a wealth of empirical data, still largely missing is a theoretical framework that specifies and makes quantitative predictions on this trade-off. Here, I present a mechanistic model based on the principles of energy conservation. The model quantifies explicitly how DR and GM alter the animal's energy budget, and channel metabolic energy to somatic maintenance by suppressing growth, thereby extending lifespan. Data from a diverse set of empirical studies on small rodents supports the predictions of the model. More importantly, the model reveals that although DR and GM are two different methods to extend lifespan, i.e., environmental vs. genetic, the underlying mechanisms of them are the same from the energetic viewpoint.

  10. VLT laser guide star facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccini, Domenico; Allaert, Eric; Araujo, Constanza; Brunetto, Enzo; Buzzoni, Bernard; Comin, Mauro; Cullum, Martin J.; Davies, Richard I.; Dichirico, Canio; Dierickx, Philippe; Dimmler, Martin; Duchateau, Michel; Egedal, Carsten; Hackenberg, Wolfgang K. P.; Hippler, Stefan; Kellner, Stefan; van Kesteren, Arno; Koch, Franz; Neumann, Udo; Ott, Thomas; Quattri, Marco; Quentin, Jutta; Rabien, Sebastian; Tamai, Roberto; Tapia, Mario; Tarenghi, Massimo

    2003-02-01

    We report on the ongoing VLT Laser Guide Star Facility project, which will allow the ESO UT4 telescope to produce an artificial reference star for the Adaptive Optics systems NAOS-CONICA and SINFONI. A custom developed dye laser producing >10W CW at 589nm is installed on-board of the UT4 telescope, then relayed by means of a single mode optical fiber behind the secondary mirror, where a 500mm diameter lightweight, f/1 launch telescope is projecting the laser beam at 90 km altitude. We described the design tradeoffs and provide some details of the chosen subsystems. This paper is an update including subsystems results, to be read together with our previous paper on LGSF design description.

  11. LLNL 1981: technical horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    Research programs at LLNL for 1981 are described in broad terms. In his annual State of the Laboratory address, Director Roger Batzel projected a $481 million operating budget for fiscal year 1982, up nearly 13% from last year. In projects for the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, the Laboratory applies its technical facilities and capabilities to nuclear weapons design and development and other areas of defense research that include inertial confinement fusion, nonnuclear ordnances, and particle-beam technology. LLNL is also applying its unique experience and capabilities to a variety of projects that will help the nation meet its energy needs in an environmentally acceptable manner. A sampling of recent achievements by LLNL support organizations indicates their diversity. (GHT)

  12. Technical Management in an Age of Openness: The Political, Public, and Environmental Forest Ranger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sarah E.; Hodges, Heather E.; Anderson, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Modern bureaucracy faces trade-offs between public and congressional input and agency expertise. The U.S. Forest Service offers an opportunity to quantitatively analyze whether an agency that is required to be more open to the public and congressional input will be forced to ignore its technical expertise in managing resources. This study uses…

  13. Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents responses from Matt McGovern, "School Planning and Management's" Maintenance and Operations columnist, on the issue of school facility maintenance. McGovern does not believe schools will ever likely meet acceptable levels of maintenance, nor use infrared thermography for assessing roofs, outsource all maintenance work, nor find…

  14. Independent technical review of the Pinellas Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This report documents an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of facilities, organizations, plans, activities and various other elements required to successfully transition the Pinellas Plant from Defense Program (DP) funded operation to either community developed reuse or safe deactivation leading to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The review was conducted at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) and is a consensus of the nine member ITR Team.

  15. Integrated facilities modeling using QUEST and IGRIP

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.R.; Haan, E.R.

    1995-08-01

    A QUEST model and associated detailed IGRIP models were developed and used to simulate several workcells in a proposed Plutonium Storage Facility (PSF). The models are being used by team members assigned to the program to improve communication and to assist in evaluating concepts and in performing trade-off studies which will result in recommendations and a final design. The model was designed so that it could be changed easily. The added flexibility techniques used to make changes easily are described in this paper in addition to techniques for integrating the QUEST and IGRIP products. Many of these techniques are generic in nature and can be applied to any modeling endeavor.

  16. Measurement of the magnetically-induced QED birefringence of the vacuum and an improved search for laboratory axions: Technical report. Project definition study of the use of assets and facilities of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.A.; Fairbank, W.M. Jr.; Toki, W.H.; Hall, J.L. |; Kraushaar, P.F. Jr.; Jaffery, T.S.

    1994-10-31

    The Colorado State Collaboration has studied the feasibility of a high sensitivity QED birefringence/axion search measurement. The objective of this work is to measure, for the first time, the birefringence induced in the vacuum on a light beam travelling in a powerful magnetic field. The same experimental setup also allows a highly sensitive search for axion or axion-like particles. The experiment would combined custom-designed optical heterodyne interferometry with a string of six SSC prototype superconducting dipole magnets at the N-15 site of the SSC Laboratory. With these powerful laser tools, sensitivity advances of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 9} over previous optical experiments will be possible. The proposed experiment will be able to measure the QED light-by-light scattering effect with a 0.5% accuracy. The increased sensitivity for the axion-two photon interaction will result in a bound on this process rivaling the results based on astrophysical arguments. In the technical report the authors address the scientific significance of these experiments and examine the limiting technical parameters which control their feasibility. The proposed optical/electronic scheme is presented in the context of a background of the known and projected systematic problems which will confront any serious attempt to make such measurements.

  17. Ant Colonies Do Not Trade-Off Reproduction against Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Boris H; Schrempf, Alexandra; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The question on how individuals allocate resources into maintenance and reproduction is one of the central questions in life history theory. Yet, resource allocation into maintenance on the organismic level can only be measured indirectly. This is different in a social insect colony, a "superorganism" where workers represent the soma and the queen the germ line of the colony. Here, we investigate whether trade-offs exist between maintenance and reproduction on two levels of biological organization, queens and colonies, by following single-queen colonies of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior throughout the entire lifespan of the queen. Our results show that maintenance and reproduction are positively correlated on the colony level, and we confirm results of an earlier study that found no trade-off on the individual (queen) level. We attribute this unexpected outcome to the existence of a positive feedback loop where investment into maintenance (workers) increases the rate of resource acquisition under laboratory conditions. Even though food was provided ad libitum, variation in productivity among the colonies suggests that resources can only be utilized and invested into additional maintenance and reproduction by the colony if enough workers are available. The resulting relationship between per-capita and colony productivity in our study fits well with other studies conducted in the field, where decreasing per-capita productivity and the leveling off of colony productivity have been linked to density dependent effects due to competition among colonies. This suggests that the absence of trade-offs in our laboratory study might also be prevalent under natural conditions, leading to a positive association of maintenance, (= growth) and reproduction. In this respect, insect colonies resemble indeterminate growing organisms.

  18. EPICS and WANs: Tradeoffs between Isolation, Security, Robustness, and Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hill; K. Furukawa; S. Hunt; A. Johnson; R. Lange; J. Sage; E. Williams

    2003-10-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)[1] was originally designed for use in local area networks (LANs). Today, the system is routinely deployed into complex wide area networks (WANs) using specialized configuration options and proxy gateways. There are advantages to the current approach including robustness and control over isolation and security. However, some important features are missing including WAN transparent configuration, resource location monitoring, detection of name space collisions during installation, and wildcard queries into the resource attribute space. The paper discusses these issues in detail exploring the relative tradeoffs between different solutions and including our plans for future enhancements.

  19. Metabolic Trade-Offs Promote Diversity in a Model Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posfai, Anna; Taillefumier, Thibaud; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2017-01-01

    In nature, a large number of species can coexist on a small number of shared resources; however, resource-competition models predict that the number of species in steady coexistence cannot exceed the number of resources. Motivated by recent studies of phytoplankton, we introduce trade-offs into a resource-competition model and find that an unlimited number of species can coexist. Our model spontaneously reproduces several notable features of natural ecosystems, including keystone species and population dynamics and abundances characteristic of neutral theory, despite an underlying non-neutral competition for resources.

  20. Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements [VOL 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    CASH, R.J.

    2000-12-28

    The Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) define the acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, basis thereof, and controls to ensure safe operation during authorized activities, for facilities within the scope of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  1. 15 CFR 2301.16 - Technical evaluation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TELECOMMUNICATIONS FACILITIES PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection Process § 2301.16 Technical evaluation process. (a) In... program staff will prepare summary evaluations. These will incorporate the outside reviewers' recommendations, engineering assessments, and program staff evaluations....

  2. 10 CFR 52.47 - Contents of applications; technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... are to be engineered into the facility and those barriers that must be breached as a result of an... necessary to demonstrate compliance with any technically relevant portions of the Three Mile...

  3. 10 CFR 52.47 - Contents of applications; technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... are to be engineered into the facility and those barriers that must be breached as a result of an... necessary to demonstrate compliance with any technically relevant portions of the Three Mile...

  4. 10 CFR 52.47 - Contents of applications; technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... are to be engineered into the facility and those barriers that must be breached as a result of an... necessary to demonstrate compliance with any technically relevant portions of the Three Mile...

  5. 10 CFR 52.47 - Contents of applications; technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... are to be engineered into the facility and those barriers that must be breached as a result of an... necessary to demonstrate compliance with any technically relevant portions of the Three Mile...

  6. 10 CFR 52.47 - Contents of applications; technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... are to be engineered into the facility and those barriers that must be breached as a result of an... necessary to demonstrate compliance with any technically relevant portions of the Three Mile...

  7. Strengthening Critical Infrastructure: Combined Heat and Power at Wastewater Treatment Facilities (Webinar) – November 15, 2011

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar provides information about CHP at wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs), including advantages and challenges, financial incentives and funding programs, and technical and economic potential.

  8. Alternative Cask Maintenance Facility concepts, an update and reassessment

    SciTech Connect

    Attaway, C.R.; Medley, L.B.; Williamson, A.; Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.

    1992-02-01

    The results of three trade-off studies of alternative concepts for performing cask maintenance for Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System casks are presented. An earlier study resulted in a recommendation that a submerged pool concept for cask internal component removal be used in the design of a Cask Maintenance Facility. The first trade-off study resulted in confirming the previous recommendation that a submerged pool concept be used rather than an isolation cell; the basis for this continued recommendation is discussed. The second study provides an evaluation of the previously proposed facility for the capability of handling an increased quantity of OCRWM casks. This third study provides a preliminary concept for adding the capability to repaint the exterior cylindrical portions of casks.

  9. Alternative Cask Maintenance Facility concepts, an update and reassessment

    SciTech Connect

    Attaway, C.R.; Medley, L.B.; Williamson, A.; Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The results of three trade-off studies of alternative concepts for performing cask maintenance for Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System casks are presented. An earlier study resulted in a recommendation that a submerged pool concept for cask internal component removal be used in the design of a Cask Maintenance Facility. The first trade-off study resulted in confirming the previous recommendation that a submerged pool concept be used rather than an isolation cell; the basis for this continued recommendation is discussed. The second study provides an evaluation of the previously proposed facility for the capability of handling an increased quantity of OCRWM casks. This third study provides a preliminary concept for adding the capability to repaint the exterior cylindrical portions of casks.

  10. Ecosystem service bundles for analyzing tradeoffs in diverse landscapes.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp-Hearne, C; Peterson, G D; Bennett, E M

    2010-03-16

    A key challenge of ecosystem management is determining how to manage multiple ecosystem services across landscapes. Enhancing important provisioning ecosystem services, such as food and timber, often leads to tradeoffs between regulating and cultural ecosystem services, such as nutrient cycling, flood protection, and tourism. We developed a framework for analyzing the provision of multiple ecosystem services across landscapes and present an empirical demonstration of ecosystem service bundles, sets of services that appear together repeatedly. Ecosystem service bundles were identified by analyzing the spatial patterns of 12 ecosystem services in a mixed-use landscape consisting of 137 municipalities in Quebec, Canada. We identified six types of ecosystem service bundles and were able to link these bundles to areas on the landscape characterized by distinct social-ecological dynamics. Our results show landscape-scale tradeoffs between provisioning and almost all regulating and cultural ecosystem services, and they show that a greater diversity of ecosystem services is positively correlated with the provision of regulating ecosystem services. Ecosystem service-bundle analysis can identify areas on a landscape where ecosystem management has produced exceptionally desirable or undesirable sets of ecosystem services.

  11. IXO/XMS Detector Trade-Off Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline Anne; deKorte, P.; Smith, S.; Hoevers, H.; vdKuur, J.; Ezoe, Y.; Ullom, J.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the outcome of the detector trade-off for the XMS instrument on IXO. This trade-off is part of the Cryogenic instrument Phase-A study as proposed to ESA in the Declaration of Interest SRONXMS-PL-2009-003 dated June 6, 2009. The detector consists of two components: a core array for the highest spectral resolution and an outer array to increase the field of view substantially with modest increase in the number of read-out channels. Degraded resolution of the outer array in comparison with the core array is accepted in order to make this scheme possible. The two detector components may be a single unit or separate units. These arrays comprise pixels and the components that allow them to be arrayed. Each pixel comprises a thermometer, an absorber, and the thermal links between them and to the rest of the array. These links may be interfaces or distinct components. The array infrastructure comprises the mechanical structure of the array, the arrangement of the leads, and features added to improve the integrated thermal properties of the array in the focal-plane assembly.

  12. Space Station man-machine automation trade-off analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Bard, J.; Feinberg, A.

    1985-01-01

    The man machine automation tradeoff methodology presented is of four research tasks comprising the autonomous spacecraft system technology (ASST) project. ASST was established to identify and study system level design problems for autonomous spacecraft. Using the Space Station as an example spacecraft system requiring a certain level of autonomous control, a system level, man machine automation tradeoff methodology is presented that: (1) optimizes man machine mixes for different ground and on orbit crew functions subject to cost, safety, weight, power, and reliability constraints, and (2) plots the best incorporation plan for new, emerging technologies by weighing cost, relative availability, reliability, safety, importance to out year missions, and ease of retrofit. A fairly straightforward approach is taken by the methodology to valuing human productivity, it is still sensitive to the important subtleties associated with designing a well integrated, man machine system. These subtleties include considerations such as crew preference to retain certain spacecraft control functions; or valuing human integration/decision capabilities over equivalent hardware/software where appropriate.

  13. Songbirds tradeoff auditory frequency resolution and temporal resolution.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kenneth S; Gall, Megan D; Bidelman, Gavin M; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2011-04-01

    Physical tradeoffs may in some cases constrain the evolution of sensory systems. The peripheral auditory system, for example, performs a spectral decomposition of sound that should result in a tradeoff between frequency resolution and temporal resolution. We assessed temporal resolution in three songbird species using auditory brainstem responses to paired click stimuli. Temporal resolution was greater in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) than Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis) and white-breasted nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis), as predicted based on previous observations of broader auditory filters (lower frequency resolution) in house sparrows. Furthermore, within chickadees, individuals with broader auditory filters had greater temporal resolution. In contrast to predictions however, temporal resolution was similar between chickadees and nuthatches despite broader auditory filters in chickadees. These results and the results of a model simulation exploring the effect of broadened auditory filter bandwidth on temporal resolution in the auditory periphery strongly suggest that frequency resolution constrains temporal resolution in songbirds. Furthermore, our results suggest that songbirds have greater temporal resolution than some mammals, in agreement with recent behavioral studies. Species differences in temporal resolution may reflect adaptations for efficient processing of species-specific vocalizations, while individual differences within species may reflect experience-based developmental plasticity or hormonal effects.

  14. Tradeoff methods in multiobjective insensitive design of airplane control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.; Giesy, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    The latest results of an ongoing study of computer-aided design of airplane control systems are given. Constrained minimization algorithms are used, with the design objectives in the constraint vector. The concept of Pareto optimiality is briefly reviewed. It is shown how an experienced designer can use it to find designs which are well-balanced in all objectives. Then the problem of finding designs which are insensitive to uncertainty in system parameters are discussed, introducing a probabilistic vector definition of sensitivity which is consistent with the deterministic Pareto optimal problem. Insensitivity is important in any practical design, but it is particularly important in the design of feedback control systems, since it is considered to be the most important distinctive property of feedback control. Methods of tradeoff between deterministic and stochastic-insensitive (SI) design are described, and tradeoff design results are presented for the example of the a Shuttle lateral stability augmentation system. This example is used because careful studies have been made of the uncertainty in Shuttle aerodynamics. Finally, since accurate statistics of uncertain parameters are usually not available, the effects of crude statistical models on SI designs are examined.

  15. Environmental Tradeoffs of Stover Removal and Erosion in Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Alicia English; Wallace E. Tyner; Juan Sesmero; Phillip Owens; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    When considering the market for biomass from corn stover resources erosion and soil quality issues are important to consider. Removal of stover can be beneficial in some areas, especially when coordinated with other conservation practices, such as vegetative barrier strips and cover crops. However, benefits are highly dependent on several factors, namely if farmers see costs and benefits associated with erosion and the tradeoffs with the removal of biomass. Although typically considered an internal cost, the implication is important to policy and contracting for biomass. This paper uses results from an integrated RUSLE2/WEPS model to incorporate six different regime choices, covering management, harvest and conservation, into a simple profit maximization model to show these tradeoffs explicitly. The results of this work show how different costs for erosion, biomass and conservation managements will affect behavior. If erosion prices are low and no conservation requirement exists, biomass removal will significantly increase erosion, but only in some areas. Alternatively, when erosion prices are high, farmers will parallel socially optimal levels of erosion and conservation management practices can be incentivized through access to a market for stover.

  16. Gas-Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF). Volume 1: Stage 1 facility definition studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    1993-01-01

    The Gas-Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF) is a facility-type payload to be included in the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The GGSF is a multidisciplinary facility that will accommodate several classes of experiments, including exobiology, planetary science, atmospheric science, and astrophysics. The physical mechanisms envisioned to be investigated include crystal growth, aggregation, nucleation, coagulation, condensation, collisions, fractal growth, cycles of freezing and evaporation, scavenging, longevity of bacteria, and more. TRW performed a Phase A study that included analyses of the science and technical (S&T) requirements, the development of facility functional requirements, and a conceptual design of the facility. The work that was performed under Stage 1 of the Phase A study and the results to date are summarized. In this stage, facility definition studies were conducted in sufficient detail to establish the technical feasibility of the candidate strawman experiments. The studies identified technical difficulties, identified required facility subsystems, surveyed existing technology studies and established preliminary facility weight, volume, power consumption, data systems, interface definition, and crew time requirements. The results of this study served as the basis for Stage 2 of the Phase A study in which a conceptual design and a reference design were performed. The results also served as a basis for a related study for a Gas-Grain Simulation Experiment Module (GGSEM), which is an apparatus intended to perform a subset of the GGSF experiments on board a low-Earth-orbiting platform.

  17. Gas-Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF). Volume 1: Stage 1 facility definition studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, Nahum

    1993-03-01

    The Gas-Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF) is a facility-type payload to be included in the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The GGSF is a multidisciplinary facility that will accommodate several classes of experiments, including exobiology, planetary science, atmospheric science, and astrophysics. The physical mechanisms envisioned to be investigated include crystal growth, aggregation, nucleation, coagulation, condensation, collisions, fractal growth, cycles of freezing and evaporation, scavenging, longevity of bacteria, and more. TRW performed a Phase A study that included analyses of the science and technical (S&T) requirements, the development of facility functional requirements, and a conceptual design of the facility. The work that was performed under Stage 1 of the Phase A study and the results to date are summarized. In this stage, facility definition studies were conducted in sufficient detail to establish the technical feasibility of the candidate strawman experiments. The studies identified technical difficulties, identified required facility subsystems, surveyed existing technology studies and established preliminary facility weight, volume, power consumption, data systems, interface definition, and crew time requirements. The results of this study served as the basis for Stage 2 of the Phase A study in which a conceptual design and a reference design were performed. The results also served as a basis for a related study for a Gas-Grain Simulation Experiment Module (GGSEM), which is an apparatus intended to perform a subset of the GGSF experiments on board a low-Earth-orbiting platform.

  18. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 3: Design cost trade-off studies and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the design and cost tradeoff aspects of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) development is presented. The design/cost factors that affect a series of mission/system level concepts are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) spacecraft subsystem cost tradeoffs, (2) ground system cost tradeoffs, and (3) program cost summary. Tables of data are provided to summarize the results of the analyses. Illustrations of the various spacecraft configurations are included.

  19. Evaluating taboo trade-offs in ecosystems services and human well-being

    PubMed Central

    Coulthard, Sarah; Cheung, William W. L.; Brown, Katrina; Abunge, Caroline; Galafassi, Diego; Peterson, Garry D.; McClanahan, Tim R.; Omukoto, Johnstone O.; Munyi, Lydiah

    2015-01-01

    Managing ecosystems for multiple ecosystem services and balancing the well-being of diverse stakeholders involves different kinds of trade-offs. Often trade-offs involve noneconomic and difficult-to-evaluate values, such as cultural identity, employment, the well-being of poor people, or particular species or ecosystem structures. Although trade-offs need to be considered for successful environmental management, they are often overlooked in favor of win-wins. Management and policy decisions demand approaches that can explicitly acknowledge and evaluate diverse trade-offs. We identified a diversity of apparent trade-offs in a small-scale tropical fishery when ecological simulations were integrated with participatory assessments of social–ecological system structure and stakeholders’ well-being. Despite an apparent win-win between conservation and profitability at the aggregate scale, food production, employment, and well-being of marginalized stakeholders were differentially influenced by management decisions leading to trade-offs. Some of these trade-offs were suggested to be “taboo” trade-offs between morally incommensurable values, such as between profits and the well-being of marginalized women. These were not previously recognized as management issues. Stakeholders explored and deliberated over trade-offs supported by an interactive “toy model” representing key system trade-offs, alongside qualitative narrative scenarios of the future. The concept of taboo trade-offs suggests that psychological bias and social sensitivity may exclude key issues from decision making, which can result in policies that are difficult to implement. Our participatory modeling and scenarios approach has the potential to increase awareness of such trade-offs, promote discussion of what is acceptable, and potentially identify and reduce obstacles to management compliance. PMID:26038547

  20. Evaluating taboo trade-offs in ecosystems services and human well-being.

    PubMed

    Daw, Tim M; Coulthard, Sarah; Cheung, William W L; Brown, Katrina; Abunge, Caroline; Galafassi, Diego; Peterson, Garry D; McClanahan, Tim R; Omukoto, Johnstone O; Munyi, Lydiah

    2015-06-02

    Managing ecosystems for multiple ecosystem services and balancing the well-being of diverse stakeholders involves different kinds of trade-offs. Often trade-offs involve noneconomic and difficult-to-evaluate values, such as cultural identity, employment, the well-being of poor people, or particular species or ecosystem structures. Although trade-offs need to be considered for successful environmental management, they are often overlooked in favor of win-wins. Management and policy decisions demand approaches that can explicitly acknowledge and evaluate diverse trade-offs. We identified a diversity of apparent trade-offs in a small-scale tropical fishery when ecological simulations were integrated with participatory assessments of social-ecological system structure and stakeholders' well-being. Despite an apparent win-win between conservation and profitability at the aggregate scale, food production, employment, and well-being of marginalized stakeholders were differentially influenced by management decisions leading to trade-offs. Some of these trade-offs were suggested to be "taboo" trade-offs between morally incommensurable values, such as between profits and the well-being of marginalized women. These were not previously recognized as management issues. Stakeholders explored and deliberated over trade-offs supported by an interactive "toy model" representing key system trade-offs, alongside qualitative narrative scenarios of the future. The concept of taboo trade-offs suggests that psychological bias and social sensitivity may exclude key issues from decision making, which can result in policies that are difficult to implement. Our participatory modeling and scenarios approach has the potential to increase awareness of such trade-offs, promote discussion of what is acceptable, and potentially identify and reduce obstacles to management compliance.

  1. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  2. Technical leadership development: Speeding up the process

    SciTech Connect

    Bilger, W.T.; Shropshire, J.C. ); Coleman, S.L. ); Collins, R. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the Applied Engineering Fundamentals Course, a 14-week course designed for newly hired U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) engineers and scientists who will assume oversight responsibilities at technically complex facilities. This course includes formal education and training, an applications course in the field, and rotational assignments.

  3. Technical and Vocational Education in Kuwait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ali, Salahaldeen

    1993-01-01

    The Kuwaiti system of vocational-technical education has not lived up to expectations because of low student aptitude, lack of managerial and academic facilities, and weak industrial linkages. The Gulf War exacerbated skilled labor shortages, leaving the country dependent on expatriates. (SK)

  4. Guidelines for Establishing and Evaluating High School Technical Electromechanics Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Educators and industrial representatives developed these guidelines for school officials, instructors in technical education, and program and facility planners to use in planning a high school program in technical electromechanics. Designed to train students for entry into industry in applied electromechanics, the program includes electricity,…

  5. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilitie...

  6. Construction, testing and development of large wind energy facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windheim, R. (Editor); Cuntze, R. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Building large rotor blades and control of oscillations in large facilities are discussed. It is concluded that the technical problems in the design of large rotor blades and control of oscillations can be solved.

  7. Cryogenic Magnetic Bearing Test Facility (CMBTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Cryogenic Magnetic Bearing Test Facility (CMBTF) was designed and built to evaluate compact, lightweight magnetic bearings for use in the SSME's (space shuttle main engine) liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen turbopumps. State of the art and tradeoff studies were conducted which indicated that a hybrid permanent magnet bias homopolar magnetic bearing design would be smaller, lighter, and much more efficient than conventional industrial bearings. A test bearing of this type was designed for the test rig for use at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature (-320 F). The bearing was fabricated from state-of-the-art materials and incorporated into the CMBTF. Testing at room temperature was accomplished at Avcon's facility. These preliminary tests indicated that this magnetic bearing is a feasible alternative to older bearing technologies. Analyses showed that the hybrid magnetic bearing is one-third the weight, considerably smaller, and uses less power than previous generations of magnetic bearings.

  8. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eggeman, Tim; O'Neill, Brian

    2016-08-17

    ZeaChem Inc. and US DOE successfully demonstrated the ZeaChem process for producing sugars and ethanol from high-impact biomass feedstocks. The project was executed over a 5-year period under a $31.25 million cooperative agreement (80:20 Federal:ZeaChem cost share). The project was managed by dividing it into three budget periods. Activities during Budget Period 1 were limited to planning, permitting, and other pre-construction planning. Budget Period 2 activities included engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning, start-up and initial operations through the Independent Engineer Test Runs. The scope of construction was limited to the Chem Frac and Hydrogenolysis units, as the Core Facility was already in place. Construction was complete in December 2012, and the first cellulosic ethanol was produced in February 2013. Additional operational test runs were conducted during Budget Period 3 (completed June 2015) using hybrid poplar, corn stover, and wheat straw feedstocks, resulting in the production of cellulosic ethanol and various other biorefinery intermediates. The research adds to the understanding of the Chem Frac and Hydrogenolysis technologies in that the technical performance of each unit was measured, and the resulting data and operational experience can be used as the basis for engineering designs, thus mitigating risks for deployment in future commercial facilities. The Chem Frac unit was initially designed to be operated as two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, with first stage conditions selected to remove the hemicellulose fraction of the feedstock, and the second stage conditions selected to remove the cellulose fraction. While the Chem Frac unit met or exceeded the design capacity of 10 ton(dry)/day, the technical effectiveness of the Chem Frac unit was below expectations in its initial two-stage dilute acid configuration. The sugars yields were low, the sugars were dilute, and the sugars had poor fermentability caused by excessive inhibitors

  9. Technical aspects of fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Groenier, W.S.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a brief description of fuel reprocessing and some present developments which show the reliability of nuclear energy as a long-term supply. The following topics are discussed: technical reasons for reprocessing; economic reasons for reprocessing; past experience; justification for advanced reprocessing R and D; technical aspects of current reprocessing development. The present developments are mainly directed at the reprocessing of breeder reactor fuels but there are also many applications to light-water reactor fuel reprocessing. These new developments involve totally remote operation, and maintenance. To demonstrate this advanced reprocessing concept, pilot-scale demonstration facilities are planned with commercial application occurring sometime after the year 2000. (ATT)

  10. Sentinel-1 EPS Architecture And Power Conversion Trade-Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, Toni Fabio; Costanitini, Stefano; Daparati, Giorgio

    2011-10-01

    The paper will present the selected EPS (Electrical Power System) Architecture for the Sentinel-1 mission. After a brief survey of Sentinel-1 mission, the EPS design will be illustrated, with particular focus on the architecture adopted for SAW (Solar Array Wing) power conversion and relevant trade-off. In the early phase of the project, various trade-offs have been carried out in order to define the suitable Sentinel- 1 EPS architecture. Mainly the following subjects have been exploited: -BTA (Battery) technology and topology identification; -SAW rotation strategy and relevant mechanism selection; -primary power bus voltage selection; - distribution and protection philosophy; -SAW power conditioning strategy. All those, and many minor ones, have been evaluated singly to assess the best solution for the individual problem and all together to evaluate the consequences of the interactions at subsystem level to be finally reflected in system budget and architecture sizing. As the choice of the most appropriate conditioning architecture is directly influenced by chosen EPS architecture and has direct impact on S/C (Spacecraft) capability to sustain required operational profile, specially considering the long mission lifetime plus mission extension, dedicated analysis and simulations have been carried out. This paper focuses on SAW conditioning trade-off analysis results along with a brief description of the in- house developed simulator used during this study. Basing on project inputs such as mission operational scenarios, system requirement and HW constraints, a direct comparison of the performances achievable with the different accounted conditioning systems, S3R, MPPT buck and MPPT boost, is given. Finally, the outcomes of simulations run lead to a substantial equivalence of the three architecture topologies if no specific BTA configuration is accounted (ideal configuration). When considering different BTA topologies (s-p or p-s) and related possible failures, a

  11. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-09-23

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

  12. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: overcoming technical barriers for clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Tu, Haohua; Boppart, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Clinical translation of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy is of great interest because of the advantages of noninvasive label-free imaging, high sensitivity, and chemical specificity. For this to happen, we have identified and review the technical barriers that must be overcome. Prior investigations have developed advanced techniques (features), each of which can be used to effectively overcome one particular technical barrier. However, the implementation of one or a small number of these advanced features in previous attempts for clinical translation has often introduced more tradeoffs than benefits. In this review, we outline a strategy that would integrate multiple advanced features to overcome all the technical barriers simultaneously, effectively reduce tradeoffs, and synergistically optimize CARS microscopy for clinical translation. The operation of the envisioned system incorporates coherent Raman micro-spectroscopy for identifying vibrational biomolecular markers of disease and single-frequency (or hyperspectral) Raman imaging of these specific biomarkers for real-time in vivo diagnostics and monitoring.

  13. Writer`s guide for technical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    A primary objective of operations conducted in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex is safety. Procedures are a critical element of maintaining a safety envelope to ensure safe facility operation. This DOE Writer`s Guide for Technical Procedures addresses the content, format, and style of technical procedures that prescribe production, operation of equipment and facilities, and maintenance activities. The DOE Writer`s Guide for Management Control Procedures and DOE Writer`s Guide for Emergency and Alarm Response Procedures are being developed to assist writers in developing nontechnical procedures. DOE is providing this guide to assist writers across the DOE complex in producing accurate, complete, and usable procedures that promote safe and efficient operations that comply with DOE orders, including DOE Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations for DOE Facilities, and 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors.

  14. Design Alternatives for a Free Electron Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, K; Bosch, R A; Eisert, D; Fisher, M V; Green, M A; Keil, R G; Kleman, K J; Kulpin, J G; Rogers, G C; Wehlitz, R; Chiang, T; Miller, T J; Lawler, J E; Yavuz, D; Legg, R A; York, R C

    2012-07-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison is continuing design efforts for a vacuum ultraviolet/X-ray Free Electron Laser facility. The design incorporates seeding the FEL to provide fully coherent photon output at energies up to {approx}1 keV. The focus of the present work is to minimize the cost of the facility while preserving its performance. To achieve this we are exploring variations in the electron beam driver for the FEL, in undulator design, and in the seeding mechanism. Design optimizations and trade-offs between the various technologies and how they affect the FEL scientific program will be presented.

  15. Citizen Hydrology - Tradeoffs between Traditional Continuous Approaches and Temporally Discrete Hydrologic Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davids, Jeffrey; Rutten, Martine; van de Giesen, Nick; Mehl, Steffen; Norris, James

    2016-04-01

    Traditional approaches to hydrologic data collection rely on permanent installations of sophisticated and relatively accurate but expensive monitoring equipment at limited numbers of sites. Consequently, the spatial coverage of the data is limited and the cost is high. Moreover, achieving adequate maintenance of the sophisticated equipment often exceeds local technical and resource capacity, and experience has shown that permanently deployed monitoring equipment is susceptible to vandalism, theft, and other hazards. Rather than using expensive, vulnerable installations at a few points, SmartPhones4Water (S4W), a form of citizen science, leverages widely available mobile technology to gather hydrologic data at many sites in a manner that is highly repeatable and scalable. The tradeoff for increased spatial resolution, however, is reduced observation frequency. As a first step towards evaluating the tradeoffs between the traditional continuous monitoring approach and emerging citizen science methods, 50 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow gages were randomly selected from the population of roughly 350 USGS gages operated in California. Gaging station metadata and historical 15 minute flow data for the period from 01/10/2007 through 31/12/2014 were compiled for each of the selected gages. Historical 15 minute flow data were then used to develop daily, monthly, and yearly determinations of average, minimum, maximum streamflow, cumulative runoff, and streamflow distribution. These statistics were then compared to similar statistics developed from randomly selected daily and weekly spot measurements of streamflow. Cumulative runoff calculated from daily and weekly observations were within 10 percent of actual runoff calculated from 15 minute data for 75 percent and 46 percent of sites respectively. As anticipated, larger watersheds with less dynamic temporal variability compared more favorably for all statistics evaluated than smaller watersheds. Based on the

  16. Design of a video teleconference facility for a synchronous satellite communications link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    The system requirements, design tradeoffs, and final design of a video teleconference facility are discussed, including proper lighting, graphics transmission, and picture aesthetics. Methods currently accepted in the television broadcast industry are used in the design. The unique problems associated with using an audio channel with a synchronous satellite communications link are discussed, and a final audio system design is presented.

  17. Facilities removal working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  18. RCRA Facility investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 6, Technical memorandums 06-13, 06-14, and 06-15

    SciTech Connect

    Kannard, J. R.; Wilson, R. C.; Zondlo, T. F.

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the borehole geophysical logging performed at selected monitoring wells at waste area grouping (WAG) 6 of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the WAG 6 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation (RFI). It identifies the locations and describes the methods, equipment used in the effort, and the results of the activity. The actual logs for each well logged are presented in Attachment 1 through 4 of the TM. Attachment 5 provide logging contractor service literature and Attachment 6 is the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Procedure for Control of a Nuclear Source Utilized in Geophysical logging. The primary objectives of the borehole geophysical logging program were to (1) identify water-bearing fractured bedrock zones to determine the placement of the screen and sealed intervals for subsequent installation, and (2) further characterize local bedrock geology and hydrogeology and gain insight about the deeper component of the shallow bedrock aquifer flow system. A secondary objective was to provide stratigraphic and structural correlations with existing logs for Hydraulic Head Monitoring Station (HHMS) wells, which display evidence of faulting.

  19. RCRA Facility investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 5, Technical Memorandums 06-09A, 06-10A, and 06-12A

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a detailed summary of the activities carried out to sample groundwater at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. The analytical results for samples collected during Phase 1, Activity 2 of the WAG 6 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation (RFI) are also presented. In addition, analytical results for Phase 1, activity sampling events for which data were not previously reported are included in this TM. A summary of the groundwater sampling activities of WAG 6, to date, are given in the Introduction. The Methodology section describes the sampling procedures and analytical parameters. Six attachments are included. Attachments 1 and 2 provide analytical results for selected RFI groundwater samples and ORNL sampling event. Attachment 3 provides a summary of the contaminants detected in each well sampled for all sampling events conducted at WAG 6. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI)/IT Corporation Contract Laboratory (IT) RFI analytical methods and detection limits are given in Attachment 4. Attachment 5 provides the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD) analytical methods and detection limits and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) quarterly compliance monitoring (1988--1989). Attachment 6 provides ORNL/ACD groundwater analytical methods and detection limits (for the 1990 RCRA semi-annual compliance monitoring).

  20. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, space-segment/receiver tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nasser

    1993-01-01

    The balance between receiver complexity and the required satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) for Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) service is addressed. In general the required receiver complexity and cost can be reduced at the expense of higher space-segment cost by allowing a higher satellite EIRP. The tradeoff outcome is sensitive to the total number of anticipated receivers in a given service area, the number of audio programs, and the required audio quality. An understanding of optimum choice of satellite EIRP for DBS-R under various service requirements is a critical issue at this time when International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) is soliciting input in preparation for the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) planning conference for the service.

  1. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, space-segment/receiver tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golshan, Nasser

    The balance between receiver complexity and the required satellite equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) for Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) service is addressed. In general the required receiver complexity and cost can be reduced at the expense of higher space-segment cost by allowing a higher satellite EIRP. The tradeoff outcome is sensitive to the total number of anticipated receivers in a given service area, the number of audio programs, and the required audio quality. An understanding of optimum choice of satellite EIRP for DBS-R under various service requirements is a critical issue at this time when International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) is soliciting input in preparation for the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) planning conference for the service.

  2. Tradeoff studies in multiobjective insensitive design of airplane control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.; Giesy, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A computer aided design method for multiobjective parameter-insensitive design of airplane control systems is described. Methods are presented for trading off nominal values of design objectives against sensitivities of the design objectives to parameter uncertainties, together with guidelines for designer utilization of the methods. The methods are illustrated by application to the design of a lateral stability augmentation system for two supersonic flight conditions of the Shuttle Orbiter. Objective functions are conventional handling quality measures and peak magnitudes of control deflections and rates. The uncertain parameters are assumed Gaussian, and numerical approximations of the stochastic behavior of the objectives are described. Results of applying the tradeoff methods to this example show that stochastic-insensitive designs are distinctly different from deterministic multiobjective designs. The main penalty for achieving significant decrease in sensitivity is decreased speed of response for the nominal system.

  3. Trade-off study of data storage technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadyszewski, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    The need to store and retrieve large quantities of data at modest cost has generated the need for an economical, compact, archival mass storage system. Very significant improvements in the state-of-the-art of mass storage systems have been accomplished through the development of a number of magnetic, electro-optical, and other related devices. This study was conducted in order to do a trade-off between these data storage devices and the related technologies in order to determine an optimum approach for an archival mass data storage system based upon a comparison of the projected capabilities and characteristics of these devices to yield operational systems in the early 1980's.

  4. Dynamic resource allocation in disaster response: tradeoffs in wildfire suppression.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Nada; Alderson, David L; Carlson, Jean M

    2012-01-01

    Challenges associated with the allocation of limited resources to mitigate the impact of natural disasters inspire fundamentally new theoretical questions for dynamic decision making in coupled human and natural systems. Wildfires are one of several types of disaster phenomena, including oil spills and disease epidemics, where (1) the disaster evolves on the same timescale as the response effort, and (2) delays in response can lead to increased disaster severity and thus greater demand for resources. We introduce a minimal stochastic process to represent wildfire progression that nonetheless accurately captures the heavy tailed statistical distribution of fire sizes observed in nature. We then couple this model for fire spread to a series of response models that isolate fundamental tradeoffs both in the strength and timing of response and also in division of limited resources across multiple competing suppression efforts. Using this framework, we compute optimal strategies for decision making scenarios that arise in fire response policy.

  5. Tradeoff analysis of technology needs for public service helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.; Bryant, W. R., Jr.; Simpson, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design requirements for a family or type of Public Service Helicopter (PSH) is examined which will satisfy the needs of municipal and state governments in the following mission areas: Emergency Medical Service--Airborne Rescue Squad; Law Enforcement; Search and Rescue; and Environmental Control (Fire Fighting, Pollution, Resource Management). The report compares both design and performance requirements as specified by the PSH user's group against current technological capabilities, RTOPS and US Army LHX design requirements. The study explores various design trade-offs and options available to the aircraft designer/manufacturer in order to meet the several criteria specified by the PSH user's group. In addition, the report includes a brief assessment of the feasibility of employing certain advanced rotorcraft designs to meet the stringent combination of operational capabilities desired by the Public Service Helicopter Users.

  6. SP-100 program users handbook basic configurational tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

    1986-03-15

    This document addresses basic configurational tradeoffs associated with the SP-100 class of nuclear space power systems. In the SP-100 project, the three reference designs, fallback, baseline, and advanced, employ thermoelectric power conversion with different thermoelectric materials. This issue of the document presents results generated for the thermoelectric design as of the end of 1985. Emphasis is placed on showing general trends and the range of possibilities that could result from selection of a particular design. This document, which reflects efforts on 100-kWe reference designs as of the end of 1985, will be extended and updated to reflect progress in the design studies of the follow-on ground engineering phase for which a 300-kWe size has been selected. THere is a considerable flexibility to the SP-100 power system so that it will generally be most advantageous to tailor it to meet user requirements.

  7. Direct broadcast satellite-audio, portable and mobile reception tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golshan, Nasser

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a systems tradeoffs study on direct broadcast satellite-radio (DBS-R). Based on emerging advanced subband and transform audio coding systems, four ranges of bit rates: 16-32 kbps, 48-64 kbps, 96-128 kbps and 196-256 kbps are identified for DBS-R. The corresponding grades of audio quality will be subjectively comparable to AM broadcasting, monophonic FM, stereophonic FM, and CD quality audio, respectively. The satellite EIRP's needed for mobile DBS-R reception in suburban areas are sufficient for portable reception in most single family houses when allowance is made for the higher G/T of portable table-top receivers. As an example, the variation of the space segment cost as a function of frequency, audio quality, coverage capacity, and beam size is explored for a typical DBS-R system.

  8. The speed-accuracy tradeoff: history, physiology, methodology, and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Heitz, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    There are few behavioral effects as ubiquitous as the speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT). From insects to rodents to primates, the tendency for decision speed to covary with decision accuracy seems an inescapable property of choice behavior. Recently, the SAT has received renewed interest, as neuroscience approaches begin to uncover its neural underpinnings and computational models are compelled to incorporate it as a necessary benchmark. The present work provides a comprehensive overview of SAT. First, I trace its history as a tractable behavioral phenomenon and the role it has played in shaping mathematical descriptions of the decision process. Second, I present a “users guide” of SAT methodology, including a critical review of common experimental manipulations and analysis techniques and a treatment of the typical behavioral patterns that emerge when SAT is manipulated directly. Finally, I review applications of this methodology in several domains. PMID:24966810

  9. Measuring preferences for schizophrenia outcomes with the time tradeoff method.

    PubMed

    Shumway, Martha; Chouljian, Tandy L; Battle, Cynthia L

    2005-01-01

    Measuring preferences for schizophrenia outcomes facilitates meaningful integration of multiple outcome measures and multiple perspectives on treatment outcomes. The Time Tradeoff (TTO) technique, specifically developed for measuring health state preferences, is used widely in health research, but some evidence suggests that the TTO may work less well with schizophrenia than with other health conditions. This study tested the hypotheses that tailoring the time frame of the standard TTO to the course of schizophrenia and simplifying its presentation format would improve its feasibility and efficiency. Forty clinicians provided TTO ratings using 1 of 4 combinations of time frame and presentation format. Numeric ratings and quantitative and qualitative measures of feasibility showed that while participants preferred the simpler format, none of the alterations improved feasibility. Participants' ratings were prone to logical inconsistencies and participants found all 4 versions of the TTO confusing and poorly suited to the context of schizophrenia treatment.

  10. Fundamental rate-loss tradeoff for optical quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeoka, Masahiro; Guha, Saikat; Wilde, Mark M.

    2014-10-01

    Since 1984, various optical quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols have been proposed and examined. In all of them, the rate of secret key generation decays exponentially with distance. A natural and fundamental question is then whether there are yet-to-be discovered optical QKD protocols (without quantum repeaters) that could circumvent this rate-distance tradeoff. This paper provides a major step towards answering this question. Here we show that the secret key agreement capacity of a lossy and noisy optical channel assisted by unlimited two-way public classical communication is limited by an upper bound that is solely a function of the channel loss, regardless of how much optical power the protocol may use. Our result has major implications for understanding the secret key agreement capacity of optical channels—a long-standing open problem in optical quantum information theory—and strongly suggests a real need for quantum repeaters to perform QKD at high rates over long distances.

  11. Cost-benefit tradeoffs in engineered lac operons.

    PubMed

    Eames, Matt; Kortemme, Tanja

    2012-05-18

    Cells must balance the cost and benefit of protein expression to optimize organismal fitness. The lac operon of the bacterium Escherichia coli has been a model for quantifying the physiological impact of costly protein production and for elucidating the resulting regulatory mechanisms. We report quantitative fitness measurements in 27 redesigned operons that suggested that protein production is not the primary origin of fitness costs. Instead, we discovered that the lac permease activity, which relates linearly to cost, is the major physiological burden to the cell. These findings explain control points in the lac operon that minimize the cost of lac permease activity, not protein expression. Characterizing similar relationships in other systems will be important to map the impact of cost/benefit tradeoffs on cell physiology and regulation.

  12. Discovering Tradeoffs, Vulnerabilities, and Dependencies within Water Resources Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing recognition and interest in using emerging computational tools for discovering the tradeoffs that emerge across complex combinations infrastructure options, adaptive operations, and sign posts. As a field concerned with "deep uncertainties", it is logically consistent to include a more direct acknowledgement that our choices for dealing with computationally demanding simulations, advanced search algorithms, and sensitivity analysis tools are themselves subject to failures that could adversely bias our understanding of how systems' vulnerabilities change with proposed actions. Balancing simplicity versus complexity in our computational frameworks is nontrivial given that we are often exploring high impact irreversible decisions. It is not always clear that accepted models even encompass important failure modes. Moreover as they become more complex and computationally demanding the benefits and consequences of simplifications are often untested. This presentation discusses our efforts to address these challenges through our "many-objective robust decision making" (MORDM) framework for the design and management water resources systems. The MORDM framework has four core components: (1) elicited problem conception and formulation, (2) parallel many-objective search, (3) interactive visual analytics, and (4) negotiated selection of robust alternatives. Problem conception and formulation is the process of abstracting a practical design problem into a mathematical representation. We build on the emerging work in visual analytics to exploit interactive visualization of both the design space and the objective space in multiple heterogeneous linked views that permit exploration and discovery. Many-objective search produces tradeoff solutions from potentially competing problem formulations that can each consider up to ten conflicting objectives based on current computational search capabilities. Negotiated design selection uses interactive visualization

  13. Integrating ecosystem-service tradeoffs into land-use decisions.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joshua H; Caldarone, Giorgio; Duarte, Thomas Kaeo; Ennaanay, Driss; Hannahs, Neil; Mendoza, Guillermo; Polasky, Stephen; Wolny, Stacie; Daily, Gretchen C

    2012-05-08

    Recent high-profile efforts have called for integrating ecosystem-service values into important societal decisions, but there are few demonstrations of this approach in practice. We quantified ecosystem-service values to help the largest private landowner in Hawaii, Kamehameha Schools, design a land-use development plan that balances multiple private and public values on its North Shore land holdings (Island of O'ahu) of ∼10,600 ha. We used the InVEST software tool to evaluate the environmental and financial implications of seven planning scenarios encompassing contrasting land-use combinations including biofuel feedstocks, food crops, forestry, livestock, and residential development. All scenarios had positive financial return relative to the status quo of negative return. However, tradeoffs existed between carbon storage and water quality as well as between environmental improvement and financial return. Based on this analysis and community input, Kamehameha Schools is implementing a plan to support diversified agriculture and forestry. This plan generates a positive financial return ($10.9 million) and improved carbon storage (0.5% increase relative to status quo) with negative relative effects on water quality (15.4% increase in potential nitrogen export relative to status quo). The effects on water quality could be mitigated partially (reduced to a 4.9% increase in potential nitrogen export) by establishing vegetation buffers on agricultural fields. This plan contributes to policy goals for climate change mitigation, food security, and diversifying rural economic opportunities. More broadly, our approach illustrates how information can help guide local land-use decisions that involve tradeoffs between private and public interests.

  14. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native

  15. Trade-offs in an ant-plant-fungus mutualism.

    PubMed

    Orivel, Jérôme; Malé, Pierre-Jean; Lauth, Jérémie; Roux, Olivier; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2017-03-15

    Species engaged in multiple, simultaneous mutualisms are subject to trade-offs in their mutualistic investment if the traits involved in each interaction are overlapping, which can lead to conflicts and affect the longevity of these associations. We investigate this issue via a tripartite mutualism involving an ant plant, two competing ant species and a fungus the ants cultivate to build galleries under the stems of their host plant to capture insect prey. The use of the galleries represents an innovative prey capture strategy compared with the more typical strategy of foraging on leaves. However, because of a limited worker force in their colonies, the prey capture behaviour of the ants results in a trade-off between plant protection (i.e. the ants patrol the foliage and attack intruders including herbivores) and ambushing prey in the galleries, which has a cascading effect on the fitness of all of the partners. The quantification of partners' traits and effects showed that the two ant species differed in their mutualistic investment. Less investment in the galleries (i.e. in fungal cultivation) translated into more benefits for the plant in terms of less herbivory and higher growth rates and vice versa. However, the greater vegetative growth of the plants did not produce a positive fitness effect for the better mutualistic ant species in terms of colony size and production of sexuals nor was the mutualist compensated by the wider dispersal of its queens. As a consequence, although the better ant mutualist is the one that provides more benefits to its host plant, its lower host-plant exploitation does not give this ant species a competitive advantage. The local coexistence of the ant species is thus fleeting and should eventually lead to the exclusion of the less competitive species.

  16. Range and Endurance Tradeoffs on Personal Rotorcraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotorcraft design has always been a challenging tradeoff among overall size, capabilities, complexity, and other factors based on available technology and customer requirements. Advancements in propulsion, energy systems and other technologies have enabled new vehicles and missions; complementary advances in analysis methods and tools enable exploration of these enhanced vehicles and the evolving mission design space. A system study was performed to better understand the interdependency between vehicle design and propulsion system capabilities versus hover loiter requirements and range capability. Three representative vertical lift vehicles were developed to explore the tradeoff in capability between hover efficiency versus range and endurance capability. The vehicles were a single-main rotor helicopter, a tilt rotor, and a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew) and maximum range within one hour of flight (100-200 miles, depending on vehicle). Two types of propulsion and energy storage systems were used in this study. First was traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (such as Otto, diesel or gas turbine cycles). Second was an all-electric system using electric motors, power management and distribution, assuming batteries for energy storage, with the possibility of hydrocarbon-fueled range extenders. The high power requirements for hover significantly reduced mission radius capability. Loiter was less power intensive, resulting in about 12 the equivalent mission radius penalty. With so many design variables, the VTOL aircraft has the potential to perform well for a variety of missions. This vehicle is a good candidate for additional study; component model development is also required to adequately assess performance over the design space of interest.

  17. Integrating ecosystem-service tradeoffs into land-use decisions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Joshua H.; Caldarone, Giorgio; Duarte, Thomas Kaeo; Ennaanay, Driss; Hannahs, Neil; Mendoza, Guillermo; Polasky, Stephen; Wolny, Stacie; Daily, Gretchen C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent high-profile efforts have called for integrating ecosystem-service values into important societal decisions, but there are few demonstrations of this approach in practice. We quantified ecosystem-service values to help the largest private landowner in Hawaii, Kamehameha Schools, design a land-use development plan that balances multiple private and public values on its North Shore land holdings (Island of O’ahu) of ∼10,600 ha. We used the InVEST software tool to evaluate the environmental and financial implications of seven planning scenarios encompassing contrasting land-use combinations including biofuel feedstocks, food crops, forestry, livestock, and residential development. All scenarios had positive financial return relative to the status quo of negative return. However, tradeoffs existed between carbon storage and water quality as well as between environmental improvement and financial return. Based on this analysis and community input, Kamehameha Schools is implementing a plan to support diversified agriculture and forestry. This plan generates a positive financial return ($10.9 million) and improved carbon storage (0.5% increase relative to status quo) with negative relative effects on water quality (15.4% increase in potential nitrogen export relative to status quo). The effects on water quality could be mitigated partially (reduced to a 4.9% increase in potential nitrogen export) by establishing vegetation buffers on agricultural fields. This plan contributes to policy goals for climate change mitigation, food security, and diversifying rural economic opportunities. More broadly, our approach illustrates how information can help guide local land-use decisions that involve tradeoffs between private and public interests. PMID:22529388

  18. Range and Endurance Tradeoffs on Personal Rotorcraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotorcraft design has always been a challenging tradeoff among overall size, capabilities, complexity, and other factors based on available technology and customer requirements. Advancements in propulsion, energy systems and other technologies have enabled new vehicles and missions; complementary advances in analysis methods and tools enable exploration of these enhanced vehicles and the evolving mission design space. A system study was performed to better understand the interdependency between vehicle design and propulsion system capabilities versus hover / loiter requirements and range capability. Three representative vertical lift vehicles were developed to explore the tradeoff in capability between hover efficiency versus range and endurance capability. The vehicles were a single-main rotor helicopter, a tilt rotor, and a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew) and maximum range within one hour of flight (100-200 miles, depending on vehicle). Two types of propulsion and energy storage systems were used in this study. First was traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (such as Otto, diesel or gas turbine cycles). Second was an all-electric system using electric motors, power management and distribution, assuming batteries for energy storage, with the possibility of hydrocarbon-fueled range extenders. The high power requirements for hover significantly reduced mission radius capability. Loiter was less power intensive, resulting in about 1/2 the equivalent mission radius penalty. With so many design variables, the VTOL aircraft has the potential to perform well for a variety of missions. This vehicle is a good candidate for additional study; component model development is also required to adequately assess performance over the design space of interest.

  19. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  20. Performance trade-offs in in situ chemostat NMR.

    PubMed

    Castro, C D; Koretsky, A P; Domach, M M

    1999-01-01

    Investigating cell cultures with NMR requires high cell densities to provide adequate signal-to-noise, or scans must be summed over long time periods and short-term events are lost. The mixing within a chemostat can be used to shorten the time required to acquire informative in situ NMR spectra from cell cultures. However, performance trade-offs can occur between net signal, spectral resolution, and oxygenation due to sampling volume, conductivity, gas bubble, and fluid flow effects. These trade-offs and the effect of different mixing regimes were theoretically analyzed to quantify how device design decisions impact performance. The results were found to concur with data from cell-free NMR experiments performed in 18 mS/cm conductivity medium. The results also guided the redesign of an NMR bioreactor in terms of relative radio frequency (rf) coil and sample dimensions and other factors. The design, which entails using chemostat mixing to shunt sample through a rf coil in ca. 0.4 s, provides adequate oxygenation for the 4-16% (v/v) cell suspensions examined. Gains realized include lower conductive losses, better magnetic field homogeneity, and the exclusion of gas bubbles from the sampling zone. These gains enable the acquistion of spectra from dilute (3-4% v/v) Saccharomyces cerevisiae chemostat cultures in 6.9 min with high resolution in both the orthophosphate and the beta-NTP regions. Samples with 16% (v/v) cells also yield useful spectra within 0.5-1.0 min.

  1. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Karen L.; Veile, Amanda; Otárola-Castillo, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children’s growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children’s monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1) as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2) competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3) however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children’s growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children’s growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children’s growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance. PMID:26938742

  2. Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) is planning, to design, construct and operate a Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). This facility will be located on a site easement near the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar company (KC&S) Paia Sugar Factory on Maui, Hawaii. The proposed BGF Project is a scale-up facility, intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of emerging biomass gasification technology for commercialization. This Executive Summary summarizes the uses of this Environmental Assessment, the purpose and need for the project, project,description, and project alternatives.

  3. Downgrading Nuclear Facilities to Radiological Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jarry, Jeffrey F.; Farr, Jesse Oscar; Duran, Leroy

    2015-08-01

    Based on inventory reductions and the use of alternate storage facilities, the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) downgraded 4 SNL Hazard Category 3 (HC-3) nuclear facilities to less-than-HC-3 radiological facilities. SNL’s Waste Management and Pollution Prevention Department (WMPPD) managed the HC-3 nuclear facilities and implemented the downgrade. This paper will examine the downgrade process,

  4. Optimization based trade-off analysis of biodiesel crop production for managing a German agricultural catchment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agricultural production, the existence of multiple trade-offs among several conflicting objectives, such as food production, water quantity, water quality, biodiversity and ecosystem services, is well known. However, quantification of the trade-offs among objectives in bioenergy crop production i...

  5. Spatial Resolution, Grayscale, and Error Diffusion Trade-offs: Impact on Display System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, Jennifer L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    We examine technology trade-offs related to grayscale resolution, spatial resolution, and error diffusion for tessellated display systems. We present new empirical results from our psychophysical study of these trade-offs and compare them to the predictions of a model of human vision.

  6. 76 FR 70408 - Information Collection; Understanding Value Trade-Offs Regarding Fire Hazard Reduction Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Understanding Value Trade-Offs Regarding Fire Hazard Reduction... approved information collection, Understanding Value Trade-offs Regarding Fire Hazard Reduction Programs in...-offs Regarding Fire Hazard Reduction Programs in the Wildland-Urban Interface. OMB Number:...

  7. The effect of cognitive reappraisal on the emotional memory trade-off.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Allie; Payne, Jessica D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2011-11-01

    Emotional information is often remembered better than neutral information, but this enhancement can come at the cost of memory for non-emotional stimuli presented alongside emotionally salient items. Two encoding-related factors have been proposed to influence the magnitude of this trade-off: The intensity of the affective response to the scenes (which increases the trade-off) and the cognitive control exerted to process the scenes (which decreases the trade-off). The present study examined the relative importance of these two factors by assessing the effect of cognitive reappraisal on the magnitude of the trade-off effect. Cognitive reappraisal refers to the implementation of cognitive strategies to assist a person in changing the intensity of their response to an experience. Thus, reappraisal provides a way to assess both of the factors that are important for the elicitation of the trade-off. The results revealed that when participants were asked to view the scenes, without cognitive reappraisal, a robust memory trade-off occurred. But, when participants were asked to either heighten or decrease their emotional reactions via reappraisal, there was a reduction in the magnitude of the trade-off. These results suggest that the cognitive process of reappraising the scenes is sufficient to reduce the trade-off effect, even when such processing leads to an intensified affective response.

  8. Facilities Bonds Prove Hot Item under Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    Construction bonding authority--a technical, and often obscure, source of capital funding for school districts--has emerged as a hot ticket for those looking to finance school facilities work under the federal government's economic-stimulus program. School districts left out of the loop for direct funding are lining up for some of at least $24…

  9. 9 CFR 149.6 - Slaughter facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... slaughter facilities that are under continuous inspection by the Food Safety and Inspection Service or under State inspection that the Food Safety and Inspection Service has recognized as equivalent to Federal... Technology Programs, Technical Services Branch, 1400 Independence Ave., SW., Mail Stop 0272, Washington,...

  10. Planning and Designing Today's Career Tech Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, James

    2010-01-01

    During the past 20 years, career and technical education (CTE) has gone through significant changes. CTE has evolved in response to the changes technology has had on the job market. Preparing students for high-tech, high-skill job opportunities is the new focus. The facilities that house these programs, however, have not kept pace with these…

  11. Proton-proton colliding beam facility ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the status of the ISABELLE construction project, which has the objective of building a 400 + 400 GeV proton colliding beam facility. The major technical features of the superconducting accelerators with their projected performance are described. Progress made so far, difficulties encountered, and the program until completion in 1986 is briefly reviewed.

  12. Identification of User Facility Related Publications

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; Stahl, Christopher G; Wells, Jack C; Potok, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Scientific user facilities provide physical resources and technical support that enable scientists to conduct experiments or simulations pertinent to their respective research. One metric for evaluating the scientific value or impact of a facility is the number of publications by users as a direct result of using that facility. Unfortunately, for a variety of reasons, capturing accurate values for this metric proves time consuming and error-prone. This work describes a new approach that leverages automated browser technology combined with text analytics to reduce the time and error involved in identifying publications related to user facilities. With this approach, scientific user facilities gain more accurate measures of their impact as well as insight into policy revisions for user access.

  13. Constraints on muscular performance: trade-offs between power output and fatigue resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robbie S; James, Rob S

    2004-01-01

    An important functional and evolutionary constraint on the physical performance of vertebrates is believed to be the trade-off between speed and endurance capacity. However, despite the pervasiveness of physiological arguments, most studies have found no evidence of the trade-off when tested at the whole-animal level. We investigated the existence of this trade-off at the whole-muscle level, the presumed site of this physiological conflict, by examining inter-individual variation in both maximum power output and fatigue resistance for mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle using the work-loop technique. We found negative correlations between several measures of in vitro maximum power output and force production with fatigue resistance for individual mouse EDL muscles, indicating functional trade-offs between these performance parameters. We suggest that this trade-off detected at the whole-muscle level has imposed an important constraint on the evolution of vertebrate physical performance. PMID:15252990

  14. Achieving the Trade-Off between Selectivity and Activity in Semihydrogenation of Alkynes by Fabrication of (Asymmetrical Pd@Ag Core)@(CeO2 Shell) Nanocatalysts via Autoredox Reaction.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuyan; Li, Kai; Pan, Jing; Wang, Fan; Li, Junqi; Feng, Jing; Yao, Shuang; Ge, Xin; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Hongjie

    2017-02-01

    (Asymmetrical Pd@Ag core)@(CeO2 shell) nanostructures are successfully fabricated via a clean and facile modified autoredox reaction by the preaddition of Pd seeds in the growth solution. In a subsequent catalytic test, it is found that the as-obtained bimetallic core@shell nanoparticles exhibit excellent catalytic performance in semihydrogenation of alkynes. The trade-off between selectivity and activity is well realized.

  15. Tribal Child Care Facilities: A Guide to Construction and Renovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Care Information Center, Vienna, VA.

    This document provides technical assistance in addressing major areas of the child care facility construction and renovation process, including conducting a child care community needs assessment, identifying a site, financing costs, developing a business plan, conducting an environmental assessment, building and designing a facility, and hiring…

  16. 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW OF "A" FACE (LEFT) WITH CLEANING SYSTEM INSTALLED (NOW REMOVED) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT) WITH CONSTRUCTION CRANE IN USE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  17. 46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH ALL METAL SIDING INSTALLED AND WITH EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM NEARING OCMPLETION ON "B" FACE (RIGHT). VIEW ALSO SHOWS TRAVELING "CLEANING" SYSTEM ON "B" FACE - NOW REMOVED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  18. 42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE AT 46T DAY OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION. "BUILDING TOPPED OFF, 7 JULY, 1974. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  19. 43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "C" FACE (RIGHT) AND "B" FACE BEING PREPARED FOR INSTALLATION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  20. 45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT). NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  1. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-11-28

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for WESF. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification.

  2. Breadboard Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    In the sixties, Chrysler was NASA's prime contractor for the Saturn I and IB test launch vehicles. The company installed and operated at Huntsville what was known as the Saturn I/IB Development Breadboard Facility. "Breadboard," means an array of electrical and electronic equipment for performing a variety of development and test functions. This work gave Chrysler a broad capability in computerized testing to assure quality control in development of solid-state electronic systems. Today that division is manufacturing many products not destined for NASA, most of them being associated with the company's automotive line. A major project is production and quality-control testing of the "lean-burn" engine, one that has a built-in Computer to control emission timing, and allow the engine to run on a leaner mixture of fuel and air. Other environment-related products include vehicle emission analyzers. The newest of the line is an accurate, portable solid state instrument for testing auto exhaust gases. The exhaust analyzers, now being produced for company dealers and for service

  3. Report of the Task Group on operation Department of Energy tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the operation of DOE Tritium facilities: Environment, Safety, and Health Aspects of Tritium; Management of Operations and Maintenance Functions; Safe Shutdown of Tritium Facilities; Management of the Facility Safety Envelope; Maintenance of Qualified Tritium Handling Personnel; DOE Tritium Management Strategy; Radiological Control Philosophy; Implementation of DOE Requirements; Management of Tritium Residues; Inconsistent Application of Requirements for Measurement of Tritium Effluents; Interdependence of Tritium Facilities; Technical Communication among Facilities; Incorporation of Confinement Technologies into New Facilities; Operation/Management Requirements for New Tritium Facilities; and Safety Management Issues at Department of Energy Tritium Facilities.

  4. Computational tradeoffs in multiplex PCR assay design for SNP genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, John; Ding, Chunming; Cantor, Charles; Kasif, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Background Multiplex PCR is a key technology for detecting infectious microorganisms, whole-genome sequencing, forensic analysis, and for enabling flexible yet low-cost genotyping. However, the design of a multiplex PCR assays requires the consideration of multiple competing objectives and physical constraints, and extensive computational analysis must be performed in order to identify the possible formation of primer-dimers that can negatively impact product yield. Results This paper examines the computational design limits of multiplex PCR in the context of SNP genotyping and examines tradeoffs associated with several key design factors including multiplexing level (the number of primer pairs per tube), coverage (the % of SNP whose associated primers are actually assigned to one of several available tube), and tube-size uniformity. We also examine how design performance depends on the total number of available SNPs from which to choose, and primer stringency criterial. We show that finding high-multiplexing/high-coverage designs is subject to a computational phase transition, becoming dramatically more difficult when the probability of primer pair interaction exceeds a critical threshold. The precise location of this critical transition point depends on the number of available SNPs and the level of multiplexing required. We also demonstrate how coverage performance is impacted by the number of available snps, primer selection criteria, and target multiplexing levels. Conclusion The presence of a phase transition suggests limits to scaling Multiplex PCR performance for high-throughput genomics applications. Achieving broad SNP coverage rapidly transitions from being very easy to very hard as the target multiplexing level (# of primer pairs per tube) increases. The onset of a phase transition can be "delayed" by having a larger pool of SNPs, or loosening primer selection constraints so as to increase the number of candidate primer pairs per SNP, though the latter

  5. 60% Review technical specifications, Deaf Smith Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    The enclosed documentation for the 60% Review Technical Specifications, Deaf Smith Site includes: Solicitation Documents which represent the eventual Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEARs) that will comprise a segment of the contractual documents for bidders attention; Contract Clauses that will become integral parts for the Fixed Price Construction Contracts applicable to the Exploratory Shaft Facility; Special Contract Requirements that will become contract provisions requiring specific contractor attention; Technical Specifications which have been completed for 60% submission, and the current list of 241 Contract Drawings that have been separately forwarded for review and comment.

  6. Facility Focus: Sports and Recreation Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines projects that demonstrate three different commitments administrators make to their athletic facilities: convenience; excellence; and comfort. Projects discussed involve a fitness center, a football stadium, and a multi-sport indoor practice facility. (GR)

  7. Growth-defense tradeoffs in plants: a balancing act to optimize fitness.

    PubMed

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-08-01

    Growth-defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth-defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth-defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth-defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands.

  8. The role of competition - colonization tradeoffs and spatial heterogeneity in promoting trematode coexistence.

    PubMed

    Mordecai, Erin A; Jaramillo, Alejandra G; Ashford, Jacob E; Hechinger, Ryan F; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2016-06-01

    Competition - colonization tradeoffs occur in many systems, and theory predicts that they can strongly promote species coexistence. However, there is little empirical evidence that observed competition- colonization tradeoffs are strong enough to maintain diversity in natural systems. This is due in part to a mismatch between theoretical assumptions and biological reality in some systems. We tested whether a competition - colonization tradeoff explains how a diverse trematode guild coexists in California horn snail populations, a system that meets the requisite criteria for the tradeoff to promote coexistence. A field experiment showed that subordinate trematode species tended to have higher colonization rates than dominant species. This tradeoff promoted coexistence in parameterized models but did not fully explain trematode diversity and abundance, suggesting a role of additional diversity maintenance mechanisms. Spatial heterogeneity is an alternative way to promote coexistence if it isolates competing species. We used scale transition theory to expand the competition - colonization tradeoff model to include spatial variation. The parameterized model showed that spatial variation in trematode prevalence did not isolate most species sufficiently to explain the overall high diversity, but could benefit some rare species. Together, the results suggest that several mechanisms combine to maintain diversity, even when a competition - colonization tradeoff occurs.

  9. Growth–Defense Tradeoffs in Plants: A Balancing Act to Optimize Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L.; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Growth–defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth–defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth–defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth–defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands. PMID:24777989

  10. The role of competition – colonization tradeoffs and spatial heterogeneity in promoting trematode coexistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mordecai, Erin A.; Jaramillo, Alejandra G.; Ashford, Jacob E.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Competition – colonization tradeoffs occur in many systems, and theory predicts that they can strongly promote species coexistence. However, there is little empirical evidence that observed competition – colonization tradeoffs are strong enough to maintain diversity in natural systems. This is due in part to a mismatch between theoretical assumptions and biological reality in some systems. We tested whether a competition – colonization tradeoff explains how a diverse trematode guild coexists in California horn snail populations, a system that meets the requisite criteria for the tradeoff to promote coexistence. A field experiment showed that subordinate trematode species tended to have higher colonization rates than dominant species. This tradeoff promoted coexistence in parameterized models but did not fully explain trematode diversity and abundance, suggesting a role of additional diversity maintenance mechanisms. Spatial heterogeneity is an alternative way to promote coexistence if it isolates competing species. We used scale transition theory to expand the competition – colonization tradeoff model to include spatial variation. The parameterized model showed that spatial variation in trematode prevalence did not isolate most species sufficiently to explain the overall high diversity, but could benefit some rare species. Together, the results suggest that several mechanisms combine to maintain diversity, even when a competition – colonization tradeoff occurs.

  11. Air quality and climate--synergies and trade-offs.

    PubMed

    von Schneidemesser, Erika; Monks, Paul S

    2013-07-01

    Air quality and climate are often treated as separate science and policy areas. Air quality encompasses the here-and-now of pollutant emissions, atmospheric transformations and their direct effect on human and ecosystem health. Climate change deals with the drivers leading to a warmer world and the consequences of that. These two science and policy issues are inexorably linked via common pollutants, such as ozone (methane) and black carbon. This short review looks at the new scientific evidence around so-called "short-lived climate forcers" and the growing realisation that a way to meet short-term climate change targets may be through the control of "air quality" pollutants. None of the options discussed here can replace reduction of long-lived greenhouse gases, such as CO2, which is required for any long-term climate change mitigation strategy. An overview is given of the underlying science, remaining uncertainties, and some of the synergies and trade-offs for addressing air quality and climate in the science and policy context.

  12. Tradeoffs between fisheries harvest and the resilience of coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Luckhurst, Brian E.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Many countries are legally obliged to embrace ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. Reductions in bycatch and physical habitat damage are now commonplace, but mitigating more sophisticated impacts associated with the ecological functions of target fisheries species are in their infancy. Here we model the impacts of a parrotfish fishery on the future state and resilience of Caribbean coral reefs, enabling us to view the tradeoff between harvest and ecosystem health. We find that the implementation of a simple and enforceable size restriction of >30 cm provides a win:win outcome in the short term, delivering both ecological and fisheries benefits and leading to increased yield and greater coral recovery rate for a given harvest rate. However, maintaining resilient coral reefs even until 2030 requires the addition of harvest limitations (<10% of virgin fishable biomass) to cope with a changing climate and induced coral disturbances, even in reefs that are relatively healthy today. Managing parrotfish is not a panacea for protecting coral reefs but can play a role in sustaining the health of reefs and high-quality habitat for reef fisheries. PMID:27044106

  13. Cadmium Protection Strategies—A Hidden Trade-Off?

    PubMed Central

    Sandbichler, Adolf Michael; Höckner, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential transition metal which is introduced into the biosphere by various anthropogenic activities. Environmental pollution with Cd poses a major health risk and Cd toxicity has been extensively researched over the past decades. This review aims at changing the perspective by discussing protection mechanisms available to counteract a Cd insult. Antioxidants, induction of antioxidant enzymes, and complexation of Cd to glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) are the most potent protective measures to cope with Cd-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, protection mechanisms include prevention of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mitophagy and metabolic stress, as well as expression of chaperones. Pre-exposure to Cd itself, or co-exposure to other metals or trace elements can improve viability under Cd exposure and cells have means to reduce Cd uptake and improve Cd removal. Finally, environmental factors have negative or positive effects on Cd toxicity. Most protection mechanisms aim at preventing cellular damage. However, this might not be possible without trade-offs like an increased risk of carcinogenesis. PMID:26805823

  14. Performance trade-offs in the flight initiation of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Card, Gwyneth; Dickinson, Michael

    2008-02-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster performs at least two distinct types of flight initiation. One kind is a stereotyped escape response to a visual stimulus that is mediated by the hard-wired giant fiber neural pathway, and the other is a more variable ;voluntary' response that can be performed without giant fiber activation. Because the simpler escape take-offs are apparently successful, it is unclear why the fly has multiple pathways to coordinate flight initiation. In this study we use high-speed videography to observe flight initiation in unrestrained wild-type flies and assess the flight performance of each of the two types of take-off. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of take-off sequences indicates that wing use during the jumping phase of flight initiation is essential for stabilizing flight. During voluntary take-offs, early wing elevation leads to a slower and more stable take-off. In contrast, during visually elicited escapes, the wings are pulled down close to the body during take-off, resulting in tumbling flights in which the fly translates faster but also rotates rapidly about all three of its body axes. Additionally, we find evidence that the power delivered by the legs is substantially greater during visually elicited escapes than during voluntary take-offs. Thus, we find that the two types of Drosophila flight initiation result in different flight performances once the fly is airborne, and that these performances are distinguished by a trade-off between speed and stability.

  15. Parent-offspring conflict over mating: testing the tradeoffs hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2011-10-04

    The difference in genetic relatedness between parents and offspring results into traits such as beauty being more beneficial in a spouse than in an in-law. As a consequence, mate and in-law preferences do not overlap, and each party tends to prefer more the traits that give it more benefits. This paper tests the hypothesis that this divergence in preferences interacts with the tradeoffs nature of mating to give rise to parent-offspring conflict over mating. In particular, using a design where mate choice is constrained by a budget, three hypotheses are tested: First, asymmetries between in-law and mate preferences result in asymmetrical compromises in the choice of an in-law and a spouse. Second, the hypothesis is tested that when choice is constrained, disagreement spreads to traits where there is no divergence between in-law and mate preferences. Finally, it is hypothesized that there is a negative relationship between mate value and parent-offspring conflict over mating. Evidence from two independent studies in two different countries provides support for all three hypotheses.

  16. Trade-offs in antibody repertoires to complex antigens

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Lauren M.; Baskerville, Edward B.; Cobey, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens vary in their antigenic complexity. While some pathogens such as measles present a few relatively invariant targets to the immune system, others such as malaria display considerable antigenic diversity. How the immune response copes in the presence of multiple antigens, and whether a trade-off exists between the breadth and efficacy of antibody (Ab)-mediated immune responses, are unsolved problems. We present a theoretical model of affinity maturation of B-cell receptors (BCRs) during a primary infection and examine how variation in the number of accessible antigenic sites alters the Ab repertoire. Naive B cells with randomly generated receptor sequences initiate the germinal centre (GC) reaction. The binding affinity of a BCR to an antigen is quantified via a genotype–phenotype map, based on a random energy landscape, that combines local and distant interactions between residues. In the presence of numerous antigens or epitopes, B-cell clones with different specificities compete for stimulation during rounds of mutation within GCs. We find that the availability of many epitopes reduces the affinity and relative breadth of the Ab repertoire. Despite the stochasticity of somatic hypermutation, patterns of immunodominance are strongly shaped by chance selection of naive B cells with specificities for particular epitopes. Our model provides a mechanistic basis for the diversity of Ab repertoires and the evolutionary advantage of antigenically complex pathogens. PMID:26194759

  17. Trade-offs in antibody repertoires to complex antigens.

    PubMed

    Childs, Lauren M; Baskerville, Edward B; Cobey, Sarah

    2015-09-05

    Pathogens vary in their antigenic complexity. While some pathogens such as measles present a few relatively invariant targets to the immune system, others such as malaria display considerable antigenic diversity. How the immune response copes in the presence of multiple antigens, and whether a trade-off exists between the breadth and efficacy of antibody (Ab)-mediated immune responses, are unsolved problems. We present a theoretical model of affinity maturation of B-cell receptors (BCRs) during a primary infection and examine how variation in the number of accessible antigenic sites alters the Ab repertoire. Naive B cells with randomly generated receptor sequences initiate the germinal centre (GC) reaction. The binding affinity of a BCR to an antigen is quantified via a genotype-phenotype map, based on a random energy landscape, that combines local and distant interactions between residues. In the presence of numerous antigens or epitopes, B-cell clones with different specificities compete for stimulation during rounds of mutation within GCs. We find that the availability of many epitopes reduces the affinity and relative breadth of the Ab repertoire. Despite the stochasticity of somatic hypermutation, patterns of immunodominance are strongly shaped by chance selection of naive B cells with specificities for particular epitopes. Our model provides a mechanistic basis for the diversity of Ab repertoires and the evolutionary advantage of antigenically complex pathogens.

  18. Technology tradeoffs related to advanced mission waste processing.

    PubMed

    Slavin, T J; Oleson, M W

    1991-10-01

    Manned missions to the Moon and Mars will produce waste, both in liquid and solid form, from the day-to-day life-support functions of the mission--even considering a "closed" physico-chemical life support approach. An "open" life support system configuration, even one reliant on in situ resources, would result in even more waste being produced. The solution for short term missions appears to be either to store these wastes on-site or to convert them to useful products needed by other systems such as methane, water and gases which could be used for propulsion. The solution for longer term missions appears to be to incorporate their use within the life support system itself by making them a part of a closed ecological life-support system where nearly all materials are recycled. This paper discusses briefly the extent and impact of the life-support system waste production problem for a lunar base for different life support system configurations, including the impact of using in situ resources to meet life support requirements. It then discusses in more detail trade-offs among six of the currently funded physico-chemical waste processing technologies being considered for use in space.

  19. Product life trade-offs: what if products fail early?

    PubMed

    Skelton, Alexandra C H; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-02-05

    Increasing product life allows the embodied emissions in products to be spread across a longer period but can mean that opportunities to improve use-phase efficiency are foregone. In this paper, a model that evaluates this trade-off is presented and used to estimate the optimal product life for a range of metal-intensive products. Two strategies that have potential to save emissions are explored: (1) adding extra embodied emissions to make products more sturdy, increasing product life, and (2) increasing frequency of use, causing early product failure to take advantage of improvements in use-phase efficiency. These strategies are evaluated for two specific case studies (long-life washing machines and more frequent use of vehicles through car clubs) and for a range of embodied and use-phase intensive products under different use-phase improvement rate assumptions. Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that products often fail neither at their design life nor at their optimal life. Policy recommendations are then made regarding the targeting of these strategies according to product characteristics and the timing of typical product failure relative to optimal product life.

  20. The energy-speed-accuracy tradeoff in sensory adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ganhui; Sartori, Pablo; Neumann, Silke; Sourjik, Victor; Tu, Yuhai

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation is the essential process by which an organism becomes better suited to its environment. The benefits of adaptation are well documented, but the cost it incurs remains poorly understood. Here, by analysing a stochastic model of a minimum feedback network underlying many sensory adaptation systems, we show that adaptive processes are necessarily dissipative, and continuous energy consumption is required to stabilize the adapted state. Our study reveals a general relation among energy dissipation rate, adaptation speed and the maximum adaptation accuracy. This energy-speed-accuracy relation is tested in the Escherichia coli chemosensory system, which exhibits near-perfect chemoreceptor adaptation. We identify key requirements for the underlying biochemical network to achieve accurate adaptation with a given energy budget. Moreover, direct measurements confirm the prediction that adaptation slows down as cells gradually de-energize in a nutrient-poor medium without compromising adaptation accuracy. Our work provides a general framework to study cost-performance tradeoffs for cellular regulatory functions and information processing. PMID:22737175

  1. Time trade-off: one methodology, different methods.

    PubMed

    Attema, Arthur E; Edelaar-Peeters, Yvette; Versteegh, Matthijs M; Stolk, Elly A

    2013-07-01

    There is no scientific consensus on the optimal specification of the time trade-off (TTO) task. As a consequence, studies using TTO to value health states may share the core element of trading length of life for quality of life, but can differ considerably on many other elements. While this pluriformity in specifications advances the understanding of TTO from a methodological point of view, it also results in incomparable health state values. Health state values are applied in health technology assessments, and in that context comparability of information is desired. In this article, we discuss several alternative specifications of TTO presented in the literature. The defining elements of these specifications are identified as being either methodological, procedural or analytical in nature. Where possible, it is indicated how these elements affect health state values (i.e., upward or downward). Finally, a checklist for TTO studies is presented, which incorporates a list of choices to be made by researchers who wish to perform a TTO task. Such a checklist enables other researchers to align methodologies in order to enhance the comparability of health state values.

  2. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer; Sohn, Michael D.

    2008-09-12

    The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?

  3. Reliability, Risk and Cost Trade-Offs for Composite Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiao, Michael C.; Singhal, Surendra N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    Risk and cost trade-offs have been simulated using a probabilistic method. The probabilistic method accounts for all naturally-occurring uncertainties including those in constituent material properties, fabrication variables, structure geometry and loading conditions. The probability density function of first buckling load for a set of uncertain variables is computed. The probabilistic sensitivity factors of uncertain variables to the first buckling load is calculated. The reliability-based cost for a composite fuselage panel is defined and minimized with respect to requisite design parameters. The optimization is achieved by solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations whose coefficients are functions of probabilistic sensitivity factors. With optimum design parameters such as the mean and coefficient of variation (representing range of scatter) of uncertain variables, the most efficient and economical manufacturing procedure can be selected. In this paper, optimum values of the requisite design parameters for a predetermined cost due to failure occurrence are computationally determined. The results for the fuselage panel analysis show that the higher the cost due to failure occurrence, the smaller the optimum coefficient of variation of fiber modulus (design parameter) in longitudinal direction.

  4. Tradeoffs between fisheries harvest and the resilience of coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Bozec, Yves-Marie; O'Farrell, Shay; Bruggemann, J Henrich; Luckhurst, Brian E; Mumby, Peter J

    2016-04-19

    Many countries are legally obliged to embrace ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. Reductions in bycatch and physical habitat damage are now commonplace, but mitigating more sophisticated impacts associated with the ecological functions of target fisheries species are in their infancy. Here we model the impacts of a parrotfish fishery on the future state and resilience of Caribbean coral reefs, enabling us to view the tradeoff between harvest and ecosystem health. We find that the implementation of a simple and enforceable size restriction of >30 cm provides a win:win outcome in the short term, delivering both ecological and fisheries benefits and leading to increased yield and greater coral recovery rate for a given harvest rate. However, maintaining resilient coral reefs even until 2030 requires the addition of harvest limitations (<10% of virgin fishable biomass) to cope with a changing climate and induced coral disturbances, even in reefs that are relatively healthy today. Managing parrotfish is not a panacea for protecting coral reefs but can play a role in sustaining the health of reefs and high-quality habitat for reef fisheries.

  5. Evolutionary Tradeoffs between Economy and Effectiveness in Biological Homeostasis Systems

    PubMed Central

    Szekely, Pablo; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Biological regulatory systems face a fundamental tradeoff: they must be effective but at the same time also economical. For example, regulatory systems that are designed to repair damage must be effective in reducing damage, but economical in not making too many repair proteins because making excessive proteins carries a fitness cost to the cell, called protein burden. In order to see how biological systems compromise between the two tasks of effectiveness and economy, we applied an approach from economics and engineering called Pareto optimality. This approach allows calculating the best-compromise systems that optimally combine the two tasks. We used a simple and general model for regulation, known as integral feedback, and showed that best-compromise systems have particular combinations of biochemical parameters that control the response rate and basal level. We find that the optimal systems fall on a curve in parameter space. Due to this feature, even if one is able to measure only a small fraction of the system's parameters, one can infer the rest. We applied this approach to estimate parameters in three biological systems: response to heat shock and response to DNA damage in bacteria, and calcium homeostasis in mammals. PMID:23950698

  6. Urban Forest Ecosystem Service Optimization, Tradeoffs, and Disparities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnaruk, E.; Kroll, C. N.; Endreny, T. A.; Hirabayashi, S.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Urban land area and the proportion of humanity living in cities is growing, leading to increased urban air pollution, temperature, and stormwater runoff. These changes can exacerbate respiratory and heat-related illnesses and affect ecosystem functioning. Urban trees can help mitigate these threats by removing air pollutants, mitigating urban heat island effects, and infiltrating and filtering stormwater. The urban environment is highly heterogeneous, and there is no tool to determine optimal locations to plant or protect trees. Using spatially explicit land cover, weather, and demographic data within biophysical ecosystem service models, this research expands upon the iTree urban forest tools to produce a new decision support tool (iTree-DST) that will explore the development and impacts of optimal tree planting. It will also heighten awareness of environmental justice by incorporating the Atkinson Index to quantify disparities in health risks and ecosystem services across vulnerable and susceptible populations. The study area is Baltimore City, a location whose urban forest and environmental justice concerns have been studied extensively. The iTree-DST is run at the US Census block group level and utilizes a local gradient approach to calculate the change in ecosystem services with changing tree cover across the study area. Empirical fits provide ecosystem service gradients for possible tree cover scenarios, greatly increasing the speed and efficiency of the optimization procedure. Initial results include an evaluation of the performance of the gradient method, optimal planting schemes for individual ecosystem services, and an analysis of tradeoffs and synergies between competing objectives.

  7. Trade-Offs in Delayed Information Transmission in Biochemical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, F.; Marsili, M.; Walczak, A. M.

    2016-03-01

    In order to transmit biochemical signals, biological regulatory systems dissipate energy with concomitant entropy production. Additionally, signaling often takes place in challenging environmental conditions. In a simple model regulatory circuit given by an input and a delayed output, we explore the trade-offs between information transmission and the system's energetic efficiency. We determine the maximally informative network, given a fixed amount of entropy production and a delayed response, exploring both the case with and without feedback. We find that feedback allows the circuit to overcome energy constraints and transmit close to the maximum available information even in the dissipationless limit. Negative feedback loops, characteristic of shock responses, are optimal at high dissipation. Close to equilibrium positive feedback loops, known for their stability, become more informative. Asking how the signaling network should be constructed to best function in the worst possible environment, rather than an optimally tuned one or in steady state, we discover that at large dissipation the same universal motif is optimal in all of these conditions.

  8. No tradeoff between versatility and robustness in gene circuit motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Joshua L.

    2016-05-01

    Circuit motifs are small directed subgraphs that appear in real-world networks significantly more often than in randomized networks. In the Boolean model of gene circuits, most motifs are realized by multiple circuit genotypes. Each of a motif's constituent circuit genotypes may have one or more functions, which are embodied in the expression patterns the circuit forms in response to specific initial conditions. Recent enumeration of a space of nearly 17 million three-gene circuit genotypes revealed that all circuit motifs have more than one function, with the number of functions per motif ranging from 12 to nearly 30,000. This indicates that some motifs are more functionally versatile than others. However, the individual circuit genotypes that constitute each motif are less robust to mutation if they have many functions, hinting that functionally versatile motifs may be less robust to mutation than motifs with few functions. Here, I explore the relationship between versatility and robustness in circuit motifs, demonstrating that functionally versatile motifs are robust to mutation despite the inherent tradeoff between versatility and robustness at the level of an individual circuit genotype.

  9. Dendritic trafficking faces physiologically critical speed-precision tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alex H; O'Donnell, Cian; Sejnowski, Terrence J; O'Leary, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Nervous system function requires intracellular transport of channels, receptors, mRNAs, and other cargo throughout complex neuronal morphologies. Local signals such as synaptic input can regulate cargo trafficking, motivating the leading conceptual model of neuron-wide transport, sometimes called the ‘sushi-belt model’ (Doyle and Kiebler, 2011). Current theories and experiments are based on this model, yet its predictions are not rigorously understood. We formalized the sushi belt model mathematically, and show that it can achieve arbitrarily complex spatial distributions of cargo in reconstructed morphologies. However, the model also predicts an unavoidable, morphology dependent tradeoff between speed, precision and metabolic efficiency of cargo transport. With experimental estimates of trafficking kinetics, the model predicts delays of many hours or days for modestly accurate and efficient cargo delivery throughout a dendritic tree. These findings challenge current understanding of the efficacy of nucleus-to-synapse trafficking and may explain the prevalence of local biosynthesis in neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20556.001 PMID:28034367

  10. Understanding the folding-function tradeoff in proteins.

    PubMed

    Gosavi, Shachi

    2013-01-01

    When an amino-acid sequence cannot be optimized for both folding and function, folding can get compromised in favor of function. To understand this tradeoff better, we devise a novel method for extracting the "function-less" folding-motif of a protein fold from a set of structurally similar but functionally diverse proteins. We then obtain the β-trefoil folding-motif, and study its folding using structure-based models and molecular dynamics simulations. CompariA protein sequence serves two purpson with the folding of wild-type β-trefoil proteins shows that function affects folding in two ways: In the slower folding interleukin-1β, binding sites make the fold more complex, increase contact order and slow folding. In the faster folding hisactophilin, residues which could have been part of the folding-motif are used for function. This reduces the density of native contacts in functional regions and increases folding rate. The folding-motif helps identify subtle structural deviations which perturb folding. These may then be used for functional annotation. Further, the folding-motif could potentially be used as a first step in the sequence design of function-less scaffold proteins. Desired function can then be engineered into these scaffolds.

  11. Tradeoff Analysis for Combat Service Support Wireless Communications Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Burnette, John R.; Thibodeau, Christopher C.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2002-02-28

    As the Army moves toward more mobile and agile forces and continued sustainment of numerous high-cost legacy logistics management systems, the requirement for wireless connectivity and a wireless network to supporting organizations has become ever more critical. There are currently several Army communications initiatives underway to resolve this wireless connectivity issue. However, to fully appreciate and understand the value of these initiatives, a Tradeoff Analysis is needed. The present study seeks to identify and assess solutions. The analysis identified issues that impede Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) communication system integration and outlined core requirements for sharing of logistics data between the field and Army battle command systems. Then, the analysis examined wireless communication alternatives as possible solutions for IBCT logistics communications problems. The current baseline system was compared with possible alternatives involving tactical radio systems, wireless/near term digital radio, cellular satellite, and third-generation (3G) wireless technologies. Cellular satellite and 3G wireless technologies offer clear advantages and should be considered for later IBCTs.

  12. Telomere Length and the Cancer–Atherosclerosis Trade-Off

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Rivka C.; Horvath, Kent; Kark, Jeremy D.; Susser, Ezra; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Aviv, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans, the longest-living terrestrial mammals, display short telomeres and repressed telomerase activity in somatic tissues compared with most short-living small mammals. The dual trait of short telomeres and repressed telomerase might render humans relatively resistant to cancer compared with short-living small mammals. However, the trade-off for cancer resistance is ostensibly increased age-related degenerative diseases, principally in the form of atherosclerosis. In this communication, we discuss (a) the genetics of human telomere length, a highly heritable complex trait that is influenced by genetic ancestry, sex, and paternal age at conception, (b) how cancer might have played a role in the evolution of telomere biology across mammals, (c) evidence that in modern humans telomere length is a determinant (rather than only a biomarker) of cancer and atherosclerosis, and (d) the potential influence of relatively recent evolutionary forces in fashioning the variation in telomere length across and within populations, and their likely lasting impact on major diseases in humans. Finally, we propose venues for future research on human telomere genetics in the context of its potential role in shaping the modern human lifespan. PMID:27386863

  13. System Issues and Tradeoffs Associated with Syngas Production and Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Casleton, Kent H; Breault, Ronald W; Richards, George A

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the basic technology of coal gasification for the production of syngas and the utilization of that syngas in power generation. The common gasifier types, fixed=moving bed, fluidized bed, entrained flow, and transport, are described, and accompanying typical product syngas compositions are shown for different coal ranks. Substantial variation in product gas composition is observed with changes in gasifier and coal feed type. Fuel contaminants such as sulfur, nitrogen, ash, as well as heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic, and selenium, can be removed to protect the environment and downstream processes. A variety of methods for syngas utilization for power production are discussed, including both present (gas turbine and internal combustion engines) and future technologies, including oxy-fuel, chemical looping, fuel cells, and hybrids. Goals to improve system efficiencies, further reduce NOx emissions, and provide options for CO2 sequestration require advancements in many aspects of IGCC plants, including the combustion system. Areas for improvements in combustion technology that could minimize these tradeoffs between cost, complexity, and performance are discussed.

  14. System issues and tradeoffs associated with syngas production and combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.; Breault, R.W.

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the basic technology of coal gasification for the production of syngas and the utilization of that syngas in power generation. The common gasifier types, fixed/moving bed, fluidized bed, entrained flow, and transport, are described, and accompanying typical product syngas compositions are shown for different coal ranks. Substantial variation in product gas composition is observed with changes in gasifier and coal feed type. Fuel contaminants such as sulfur, nitrogen, ash, as well as heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic, and selenium, can be removed to protect the environment and downstream processes. A variety of methods for syngas utilization for power production are discussed, including both present (gas turbine and internal combustion engines) and future technologies, including oxy-fuel, chemical looping, fuel cells, and hybrids. Goals to improve system efficiencies, further reduce NOx emissions, and provide options for CO2 sequestration require advancements in many aspects of IGCC plants, including the combustion system. Areas for improvements in combustion technology that could minimize these tradeoffs between cost, complexity, and performance are discussed.

  15. Emotion-induced trade-offs in spatiotemporal vision.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Bruno R; Zeelenberg, René

    2011-05-01

    It is generally assumed that emotion facilitates human vision in order to promote adaptive responses to a potential threat in the environment. Surprisingly, we recently found that emotion in some cases impairs the perception of elementary visual features (Bocanegra & Zeelenberg, 2009b). Here, we demonstrate that emotion improves fast temporal vision at the expense of fine-grained spatial vision. We tested participants' threshold resolution with Landolt circles containing a small spatial or brief temporal discontinuity. The prior presentation of a fearful face cue, compared with a neutral face cue, impaired spatial resolution but improved temporal resolution. In addition, we show that these benefits and deficits were triggered selectively by the global configural properties of the faces, which were transmitted only through low spatial frequencies. Critically, the common locus of these opposite effects suggests a trade-off between magno- and parvocellular-type visual channels, which contradicts the common assumption that emotion invariably improves vision. We show that, rather than being a general "boost" for all visual features, affective neural circuits sacrifice the slower processing of small details for a coarser but faster visual signal.

  16. BASINS Technical Notes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed several technical notes that provide in depth information on a specific function in BASINS. Technical notes can be used to answer questions users may have, or to provide additional information on the application of features in BASINS.

  17. 2013 Technical Roundtable

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On December 9, 2013, EPA reconvened the study’s Technical Roundtable. Subject-matter experts discussed the outcomes of the 2013 Technical Workshops, stakeholder engagement, and plans for draft assessment report.

  18. Technical report writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidoli, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.

  19. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  20. DOE Handbook: Guide to good practices for training of technical staff and managers

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Training programs at DOE facilities should prepare personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. This guide contains information that can be used to develop or validate training programs for technical staff and managers at DOE nuclear facilities. Training programs based on the content of this guide should provide assurance that these personnel perform their jobs safely and competently.

  1. Insights from life history theory for an explicit treatment of trade-offs in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Anne

    2015-06-01

    As economic and social contexts become more embedded within biodiversity conservation, it becomes obvious that resources are a limiting factor in conservation. This recognition is leading conservation scientists and practitioners to increasingly frame conservation decisions as trade-offs between conflicting societal objectives. However, this framing is all too often done in an intuitive way, rather than by addressing trade-offs explicitly. In contrast, the concept of trade-off is a keystone in evolutionary biology, where it has been investigated extensively. I argue that insights from evolutionary theory can provide methodological and theoretical support to evaluating and quantifying trade-offs in biodiversity conservation. I reviewed the diverse ways in which trade-offs have emerged within the context of conservation and how advances from evolutionary theory can help avoid the main pitfalls of an implicit approach. When studying both evolutionary trade-offs (e.g., reproduction vs. survival) and conservation trade-offs (e.g., biodiversity conservation vs. agriculture), it is crucial to correctly identify the limiting resource, hold constant the amount of this resource when comparing different scenarios, and choose appropriate metrics to quantify the extent to which the objectives have been achieved. Insights from studies in evolutionary theory also reveal how an inadequate selection of conservation solutions may result from considering suboptimal rather than optional solutions when examining whether a trade-off exits between 2 objectives. Furthermore, the shape of a trade-off curve (i.e., whether the relationship between 2 objectives follows a concave, convex, or linear form) is known to affect crucially the definition of optimal solutions in evolutionary biology and very likely affects decisions in biodiversity conservation planning too. This interface between evolutionary biology and biodiversity conservation can therefore provide methodological guidance to

  2. Competing values, tensions and trade-offs in management of nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Reiman, Teemu; Rollenhagen, Carl

    2012-01-01

    The specific goal of the study is to look how tensions, competing values and trade-offs manifest in the management of nuclear power plants. Second goal is to inspect how existing frameworks, such as Competing Values Framework, can be used to model the tensions. Empirical data consists of thirty interviews that were conducted as part of a NKS study on safety culture in the Nordic nuclear branch. Eight trade-offs are identified based on a grounded theory based analysis of the interview data. The competing values and potential tensions involved in the trade-offs are discussed.

  3. Perceptual design tradeoff considerations for viewing I2 and FLIR with current helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2008-04-01

    Providing both I2 (image intensified) and FLIR (forward looking infrared) images on a helmet-mounted display (HMD) requires perceptual design tradeoffs. Primary considerations center on the number, type, and placement of sensors. Perceptual drivers for these tradeoffs are derived from monocular versus biocular/binocular displays and offset of the sensors from the design eye. These conditions can create binocular rivalry, perceptual perspective distortion or hyperstereopsis, a binocular perceptual distortion that occurs when the sensors are positioned further apart than the interpupillary distance (IPD). Each of these perceptual tradeoff considerations is discussed.

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  5. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  6. PFBC HGCU Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This is the thirteenth Technical Progress Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the cooperative agreement between the DOE and Ohio Power Company for the Tidd PFBC Hot Gas Clean Up Test Facility. This report covers the period of work completed during the Fourth Quarter of CY 1992. The following are highlights of the activities that occurred during this report period: Initial operation of the Advanced Particle Filter (APF) occurred during this quarter. The following table summarizes the operating dates and times. HGCU ash lockhopper valve plugged with ash. Primary cyclone ash pluggage. Problems with the coal water paste. Unit restarted warm 13 hours later. HGCU expansion joint No. 7 leak in internal ply of bellows. Problems encountered during these initial tests included hot spots on the APP, backup cyclone and instrumentation spools, two breakdowns of the backpulse air compressor, pluggage of the APF hopper and ash removal system, failure (breakage) of 21 filter candles, leakage of the inner ply of one (1) expansion joint bellows, and numerous other smaller problems. These operating problems are discussed in detail in a subsequent section of this report. Following shutdown and equipment inspection in December, design modifications were initiated to correct the problems noted above. The system is scheduled to resume operation in March, 1993.

  7. Guide to research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This Guide provides information on facilities at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other government laboratories that focus on research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. These laboratories have opened these facilities to outside users within the scientific community to encourage cooperation between the laboratories and the private sector. The Guide features two types of facilities: designated user facilities and other research facilities. Designated user facilities are one-of-a-kind DOE facilities that are staffed by personnel with unparalleled expertise and that contain sophisticated equipment. Other research facilities are facilities at DOE and other government laboratories that provide sophisticated equipment, testing areas, or processes that may not be available at private facilities. Each facility listing includes the name and phone number of someone you can call for more information.

  8. A matter of tradeoffs: reintroduction as a multiple objective decision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Folk, Martin J.; Runge, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Decision making in guidance of reintroduction efforts is made challenging by the substantial scientific uncertainty typically involved. However, a less recognized challenge is that the management objectives are often numerous and complex. Decision makers managing reintroduction efforts are often concerned with more than just how to maximize the probability of reintroduction success from a population perspective. Decision makers are also weighing other concerns such as budget limitations, public support and/or opposition, impacts on the ecosystem, and the need to consider not just a single reintroduction effort, but conservation of the entire species. Multiple objective decision analysis is a powerful tool for formal analysis of such complex decisions. We demonstrate the use of multiple objective decision analysis in the case of the Florida non-migratory whooping crane reintroduction effort. In this case, the State of Florida was considering whether to resume releases of captive-reared crane chicks into the non-migratory whooping crane population in that state. Management objectives under consideration included maximizing the probability of successful population establishment, minimizing costs, maximizing public relations benefits, maximizing the number of birds available for alternative reintroduction efforts, and maximizing learning about the demographic patterns of reintroduced whooping cranes. The State of Florida engaged in a collaborative process with their management partners, first, to evaluate and characterize important uncertainties about system behavior, and next, to formally evaluate the tradeoffs between objectives using the Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART). The recommendation resulting from this process, to continue releases of cranes at a moderate intensity, was adopted by the State of Florida in late 2008. Although continued releases did not receive support from the International Whooping Crane Recovery Team, this approach does provide

  9. Tradeoffs in ecosystem services of prairies managed for bioenergy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarchow, Meghann Elizabeth

    The use of perennial plant materials as a renewable source of energy may constitute an important opportunity to improve the environmental sustainability of managed land. Currently, the production of energy from agricultural products is primarily in the form of ethanol from corn grain, which used more than 45% of the domestic U.S. corn crop in 2011. Concomitantly, using corn grain to produce ethanol has promoted landscape simplification and homogenization through conversion of Conservation Reserve Program grasslands to annual row crops, and has been implicated in increasing environmental damage, such as increased nitrate leaching into water bodies and increased rates of soil erosion. In contrast, perennial prairie vegetation has the potential to be used as a bioenergy feedstock that produces a substantial amount of biomass as well as numerous ecosystem services. Reincorporating prairies to diversify the landscape of the Midwestern U.S. at strategic locations could provide more habitat for animals, including beneficial insects, and decrease nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment movement into water bodies. In this dissertation, I present data from two field experiments that examine (1) how managing prairies for bioenergy production affects prairie ecology and agronomic performance and (2) how these prairie systems differ from corn systems managed for bioenergy production. Results of this work show that there are tradeoffs among prairie systems and between corn and prairie systems with respect to the amount of harvested biomass, root production, nutrient export, feedstock characteristics, growing season utilization, and species and functional group diversity. These results emphasize the need for a multifaceted approach to fully evaluate bioenergy feedstock production systems.

  10. Trade-offs in designing a mobile infrared scene projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Richard; Lastra, Henry M.; Vuong, Francisca R.; Brooks, Geoffrey W.

    2000-07-01

    Current test and evaluation methods are not adequate for fully assessing the operational performance of imaging infrared sensors while they are installed on the weapon system platform. The use of infrared (IR) scene projection in test and evaluation will augment and redefine test methodologies currently being used to test and evaluate forward looking infrared (FLIR) and imaging IR sensors. The Mobile Infrared Scene Projector (MIRSP) projects accurate, dynamic, and realistic IR imagery into the entrance aperture of the sensor, such that the sensor would perceive and respond to the imagery as it would to the real-world scenario. The MIRSP domain of application includes development, analysis, integration, exploitation, training, and test and evaluation of ground and aviation based imaging IR sensors/subsystems/systems. This applies to FLIR systems, imaging IR missile seekers/guidance sections, as well as non-imaging thermal sensors. The MIRSP Phase I, 'pathfinder' has evolved from other scene projector systems, such as the Flight Motion Simulator Infrared Scene Projector (FIRSP) and the Dynamic Infrared Scene Projector (DIRSP). Both of these projector systems were designed for laboratory test and evaluation use rather than field test and evaluation use. This paper will detail the MIRSP design to include trade-off analysis performed at the system/subsystem levels. The MIRSP Phase II will provide the capability to test and evaluate various electro-optical sensors on weapon platform. The MIRSP Phase I and II will be advancing current IR scene projector technologies by exploring other technologies such as mobility/transportability, packaging, sensors, and scene generation.

  11. Tradeoffs among watershed model calibration targets for parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Katie; Purucker, S. Thomas; Kraemer, Stephen R.; Babendreier, Justin E.

    2012-10-01

    Hydrologic models are commonly calibrated by optimizing a single objective function target to compare simulated and observed flows, although individual targets are influenced by specific flow modes. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) emphasizes flood peaks in evaluating simulation fit, while modified Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (MNS) emphasizes lower flows, and the ratio of the simulated to observed standard deviations (RSD) prioritizes flow variability. We investigated tradeoffs of calibrating streamflow on three standard objective functions (NSE, MNS, and RSD), as well as a multiobjective function aggregating these three targets to simultaneously address a range of flow conditions, for calibration of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) daily streamflow simulations in two watersheds. A suite of objective functions was explored to select a minimally redundant set of metrics addressing a range of flow characteristics. After each pass of 2001 simulations, an iterative informal likelihood procedure was used to subset parameter ranges. The ranges from each best-fit simulation set were used for model validation. Values for optimized parameters vary among calibrations using different objective functions, which underscores the importance of linking modeling objectives to calibration target selection. The simulation set approach yielded validated models of similar quality as seen with a single best-fit parameter set, with the added benefit of uncertainty estimations. Our approach represents a novel compromise between equifinality-based approaches and Pareto optimization. Combining the simulation set approach with the multiobjective function was demonstrated to be a practicable and flexible approach for model calibration, which can be readily modified to suit modeling goals, and is not model or location specific.

  12. CIDER: Enabling Robustness-Power Tradeoffs on a Computational Eyeglass

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, Addison; Tun, Yamin; Hu, Pan; Smith-Freedman, Duncan; Ganesan, Deepak; Marlin, Benjamin; Salthouse, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The human eye offers a fascinating window into an individual’s health, cognitive attention, and decision making, but we lack the ability to continually measure these parameters in the natural environment. The challenges lie in: a) handling the complexity of continuous high-rate sensing from a camera and processing the image stream to estimate eye parameters, and b) dealing with the wide variability in illumination conditions in the natural environment. This paper explores the power–robustness tradeoffs inherent in the design of a wearable eye tracker, and proposes a novel staged architecture that enables graceful adaptation across the spectrum of real-world illumination. We propose CIDER, a system that operates in a highly optimized low-power mode under indoor settings by using a fast Search-Refine controller to track the eye, but detects when the environment switches to more challenging outdoor sunlight and switches models to operate robustly under this condition. Our design is holistic and tackles a) power consumption in digitizing pixels, estimating pupillary parameters, and illuminating the eye via near-infrared, b) error in estimating pupil center and pupil dilation, and c) model training procedures that involve zero effort from a user. We demonstrate that CIDER can estimate pupil center with error less than two pixels (0.6°), and pupil diameter with error of one pixel (0.22mm). Our end-to-end results show that we can operate at power levels of roughly 7mW at a 4Hz eye tracking rate, or roughly 32mW at rates upwards of 250Hz. PMID:27042165

  13. Polygenic evolution of a sugar specialization tradeoff in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Roop, Jeremy I.; Chang, Kyu Chul; Brem, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of novel traits can involve many mutations scattered throughout the genome1,2. Detecting and validating such a suite of alleles, particularly if they arose long ago, remains a key challenge in evolutionary genetics1-3. Here we dissect an evolutionary tradeoff of unprecedented genetic complexity between long-diverged species. When cultured in 1% glucose medium supplemented with galactose, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but not S. bayanus or other Saccharomyces species, delayed commitment to galactose metabolism until glucose was exhausted. Promoters of seven galactose (GAL) metabolic genes from S. cerevisiae, when introduced together into S. bayanus, largely recapitulated the delay phenotype in 1% glucose-galactose medium, and most had partial effects when tested in isolation. Variation in GAL coding regions also contributed to the delay when tested individually in 1% glucose-galactose medium. When combined, S. cerevisiae GAL coding regions gave rise to profound growth defects in the S. bayanus background. In medium containing 2.5% glucose supplemented with galactose, wild-type S. cerevisiae repressed GAL gene expression and had a robust growth advantage relative to S. bayanus; transgenesis of S. cerevisiae GAL promoter alleles or GAL coding regions was sufficient for partial reconstruction of these phenotypes. S. cerevisiae GAL genes thus encode a regulatory program of slow induction and avid repression, and a fitness detriment during the glucose-galactose transition but a benefit when glucose is in excess. Together, these results make clear that genetic mapping of complex phenotypes is within reach, even in deeply diverged species. PMID:26863195

  14. Parasitism and Physiological Trade-Offs in Stressed Capybaras

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, Ayelen T.; Costa, Sebastián A.; Marini, M. Rocío; Racca, Andrea; Baldi, Cecilia J.; Robles, M. Rosario; Moreno, Pablo G.; Beldomenico, Pablo M.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites play a key role in regulating wildlife population dynamics, but their impact on the host appears to be context-dependent. Evidence indicates that a synergistic interaction between stress, host condition and parasites is implicated in this phenomenon, but more studies are needed to better understand this context-dependency. With the goal to assess the net effect of two types of chronic stress on various host-parasite interactions, we conducted an experiment in capybaras to evaluate the impact of food restriction and physical restraint on the infection intensity of specific gastrointestinal nematodes and coccidia, and how these stressors affected the growth, body condition, and some immuno-physiological parameters. Our hypothesis was that both forms of stress would result in an alteration in the host-parasite interactions, with deteriorated condition and reduced immunological investment leading to high parasite burdens and vice versa. Stressed capybaras had significantly higher coccidia infection intensities; but among individuals that were smaller, those stressed consistently showed lower helminth burdens than controls. Both stress treatments had a marked negative impact on growth and body condition, but concomitantly they had a significant positive effect on some components of the immune system. Our results suggest, on the one hand, that during prolonged periods of stress capybaras preventatively invest in some components of their immunity, such as innate humoural defenses and cells that combat helminths, which could be considered a stress-dependent prophylaxis. On the other hand, stress was found to cause greater infection intensities of protozoans but lower burdens of nematodes, indicating that the relationship between stress, physiological trade-offs and infection depends on the type of parasite in question. Moreover, both findings might be related in a causal way, as one of the immunological parameters enhanced in stressed capybaras is associated with

  15. Historical trade-offs of livestock’s environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel Davis, Kyle; Yu, Kailiang; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr; Carr, Joel A.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Human demand for animal products has risen markedly over the past 50 years with important environmental impacts. Dairy and cattle production have disproportionately contributed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and land use, while crop demands of more intensive systems have increased fertilizer use and competition for available crop calories. At the same time, chicken and pig production has grown more rapidly than for ruminants, indicating a change in the environmental burden per animal calorie (EBC) with time. How EBCs have changed and to what extent resource use efficiency (RUE), the composition of animal production and the trade of feed have played a role in these changes have not been examined to date. We employ a calorie-based perspective, distinguishing animal calorie production between calories produced from feedcrop sources—directly competing with humans for available calories—and those from non-feed sources—plant biomass unavailable for direct human consumption. Combining this information with data on agricultural resource use, we calculate EBCs in terms of land, GHG emissions and nitrogen. We find that EBCs have changed substantially for land (-62%), GHGs (-46%) and nitrogen (+188%). Changes in RUE (e.g., selective breeding, increased grain-feeding) have been the primary contributor to these EBC trends, but shifts in the composition of livestock production were responsible for 12%-41% of the total EBC changes. In addition, the virtual trade of land for feed has more than tripled in the past 25 years with 77% of countries currently relying on virtual land imports to support domestic livestock production. Our findings indicate that important tradeoffs have occurred as a result of livestock intensification, with more efficient land use and emission rates exchanged for greater nitrogen use and increased competition between feed and food. This study provides an integrated evaluation of livestock’s impact on food security and the environment.

  16. Ionic resistance and permselectivity tradeoffs in anion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Geise, Geoffrey M; Hickner, Michael A; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-10-23

    Salinity gradient energy technologies, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) and capacitive mixing based on Donnan potential (Capmix CDP), could help address the global need for noncarbon-based energy. Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are a key component in these systems, and improved AEMs are needed in order to optimize and extend salinity gradient energy technologies. We measured ionic resistance and permselectivity properties of quaternary ammonium-functionalized AEMs based on poly(sulfone) and poly(phenylene oxide) polymer backbones and developed structure-property relationships between the transport properties and the water content and fixed charge concentration of the membranes. Ion transport and ion exclusion properties depend on the volume fraction of water in the polymer membrane, and the chemical nature of the polymer itself can influence fine-tuning of the transport properties to obtain membranes with other useful properties, such as chemical and dimensional stability. The ionic resistance of the AEMs considered in this study decreased by more than 3 orders of magnitude (i.e., from 3900 to 1.6 Ω m) and the permselectivity decreased by 6% (i.e., from 0.91 to 0.85) as the volume fraction of water in the polymer was varied by a factor of 3.8 (i.e., from 0.1 to 0.38). Water content was used to rationalize a tradeoff relationship between the permselectivity and ionic resistance of these AEMs whereby polymers with higher water content tend to have lower ionic resistance and lower permselectivity. The correlation of ion transport properties with water volume fraction and fixed charge concentration is discussed with emphasis on the importance of considering water volume fraction when interpreting ion transport data.

  17. Wildlife tradeoffs based on landscape models of habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loehle, C.; Mitchell, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the spatial structure of landscapes affects the habitat choices and abundance of wildlife. In contrast to wildlife management based on preservation of critical habitat features such as nest sites on a beach or mast trees, it has not been obvious how to incorporate spatial structure into management plans. We present techniques to accomplish this goal. We used multiscale logistic regression models developed previously for neotropical migrant bird species habitat use in South Carolina (USA) as a basis for these techniques. Based on these models we used a spatial optimization technique to generate optimal maps (probability of occurrence, P = 1.0) for each of seven species. To emulate management of a forest for maximum species diversity, we defined the objective function of the algorithm as the sum of probabilities over the seven species, resulting in a complex map that allowed all seven species to coexist. The map that allowed for coexistence is not obvious, must be computed algorithmically, and would be difficult to realize using rules of thumb for habitat management. To assess how management of a forest for a single species of interest might affect other species, we analyzed tradeoffs by gradually increasing the weighting on a single species in the objective function over a series of simulations. We found that as habitat was increasingly modified to favor that species, the probability of presence for two of the other species was driven to zero. This shows that whereas it is not possible to simultaneously maximize the likelihood of presence for multiple species with divergent habitat preferences, compromise solutions are possible at less than maximal likelihood in many cases. Our approach suggests that efficiency of habitat management for species diversity can by maximized for even small landscapes by incorporating spatial context. The methods we present are suitable for wildlife management, endangered species conservation, and

  18. Design/cost tradeoff studies. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results of design/cost tradeoff studies conducted during the Earth Observatory Satellite system definition studies are presented. The studies are concerned with the definition of a basic modular spacecraft capable of supporting a variety of operational and/or research and development missions, with the deployment either by conventional launch vehicles or by means of the space shuttle. The three levels investigated during the study are: (1) subsystem tradeoffs, (2) spacecraft tradeoffs, and (3) system tradeoffs. The range of requirements which the modular concept must span is discussed. The mechanical, thermal, power, data and electromagnetic compatibility aspects of modularity are analyzed. Other data are provided for the observatory design concept, the payloads, integration and test, the ground support equipment, and ground data management systems.

  19. Parent-offspring conflict and the genetic trade-offs shaping parental investment.

    PubMed

    Kölliker, Mathias; Boos, Stefan; Wong, Janine W Y; Röllin, Lilian; Stucki, Dimitri; Raveh, Shirley; Wu, Min; Meunier, Joël

    2015-04-16

    The genetic conflict between parents and their offspring is a cornerstone of kin selection theory and the gene-centred view of evolution, but whether it actually occurs in natural systems remains an open question. Conflict operates only if parenting is driven by genetic trade-offs between offspring performance and the parent's ability to raise additional offspring, and its expression critically depends on the shape of these trade-offs. Here we investigate the occurrence and nature of genetic conflict in an insect with maternal care, the earwig Forficula auricularia. Specifically, we test for a direct response to experimental selection on female future reproduction and correlated responses in current offspring survival, developmental rate and growth. The results demonstrate genetic trade-offs that differ in shape before and after hatching. Our study not only provides direct evidence for parent-offspring conflict but also highlights that conflict is not inevitable and critically depends on the genetic trade-offs shaping parental investment.

  20. The adaptive trade-off between detection and discrimination in cortical representations and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ollerenshaw, Douglas R; Zheng, He J V; Millard, Daniel C; Wang, Qi; Stanley, Garrett B

    2014-03-05

    It has long been posited that detectability of sensory inputs can be sacrificed in favor of improved discriminability and that sensory adaptation may mediate this trade-off. The extent to which this trade-off exists behaviorally and the complete picture of the underlying neural representations that likely subserve the phenomenon remain unclear. In the rodent vibrissa system, an ideal observer analysis of cortical activity measured using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in anesthetized animals was combined with behavioral detection and discrimination tasks, thalamic recordings from awake animals, and computational modeling to show that spatial discrimination performance was improved following adaptation, but at the expense of the ability to detect weak stimuli. Together, these results provide direct behavioral evidence for the trade-off between detectability and discriminability, that this trade-off can be modulated through bottom-up sensory adaptation, and that these effects correspond to important changes in thalamocortical coding properties.

  1. The trade-off between food and temperature in the habitat choice of bluegill sunfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    A model is presented to describe the trade-off between food and temperature in bluegills Lepomis macrochirus, where temperature was the primary factor used in determining the patch in which to reside.

  2. Competition and predation in simple food webs: intermediately strong trade-offs maximize coexistence.

    PubMed Central

    HilleRisLambers, Reinier; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    Competition and predation are fundamental interactions structuring food webs. However, rather than always following these neat theoretical categories, mixed interactions are ubiquitous in nature. Of particular importance are omnivorous species, such as intra-guild predators that can both compete with and predate on their prey. Here, we examine trade-offs between competitive and predatory capacities by analysing the entire continuum of food web configurations existing between purely predator-prey and purely competitive interactions of two consumers subsisting on a single resource. Our results show that the range of conditions allowing for coexistence of the consumers is maximized at intermediately strong trade-offs. Even though coexistence under weak trade-offs and under very strong trade-offs is also possible, it occurs under much more restrictive conditions. We explain these findings by an intricate interplay between energy acquisition and interaction strength. PMID:14728782

  3. Source-structure trade-offs in ambient noise correlations: Theory and numerical examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, A.; Sager, K.; Ermert, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    We analyse the physics and geometry of trade-offs between Earth structure and noise sources in inter-station noise correlations. Our approach is based on the computation of off-diagonal Hessian elements that describe the extent to which variations in noise sources can compensate for variations in Earth structure without changing the misfit beyond the measurement uncertainty. Despite the fact that all ambient noise inverse problems are special in terms of their receiver configuration and data, some general statements concerning source-structure trade-offs can be made: (i) While source-structure trade-offs may be reduced to some extent by clever measurement design, there are inherent trade-offs that can generally not be avoided. These inherent trade-offs may lead to a mispositioning of structural heterogeneities when the noise source distribution is unknown. (ii) When attenuation is weak, source-structure trade-offs in ambient noise correlations are a global phenomenon, meaning that there is no noise source perturbation that does not trade-off with some Earth structure, and vice versa. (iii) The most significant source-structure trade-offs occur within two elliptically shaped regions connecting a potential noise source perturbation to each one of the receivers. (iv) Far from these elliptical regions, only small-scale structure can trade off against changes in the noise source. (v) While source-structure trade-offs mostly decay with increasing attenuation, they are nearly unaffected by attenuation when the noise source perturbation is located near the receiver-receiver line. We complement these theoretical considerations by numerical experiments where we model ambient noise correlations for arbitrary source geometries. The experiments illustrate how and to which extent unknown noise sources may map into spurious Earth structure. This work is intended to contribute to the development of joint source-structure inversions of ambient noise correlations, and in particular

  4. Risk/Requirements Trade-off Guidelines for Low Cost Satellite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Man, Kin F.

    1996-01-01

    The accelerating trend toward faster, better, cheaper missions places increasing emphasis on the trade-offs between requirements and risk to reduce cost and development times, while still improving quality and reliability. The Risk/Requirement Trade-off Guidelines discussed in this paper are part of an integrated approach to address the main issues by focusing on the sum of prevention, analysis, control, or test (PACT) processes.

  5. Light Helicopter Family Trade-Off Analysis. Volume 8. Appendices S and T

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-02

    UNITED STATES AIMY MATERIEL COMMAND LIGHT I COPTER FAMlL Y TllADE-QFF ANALYSIS APPENDICES S AND T VOLUME VIII ACN : 69396 Copy IQJ. of 130...REPORT NUMBER ACN 69396 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 4. TITLE (and Subtltl») LIGHT HELICOPTER FAMILY TRADE-OFF ANALYSIS, APPENDICES S AND T, VOLUME VIII...UNITED STATES ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND LIGHT HELICOPTER FAMILY TRADE-OFF ANALYSIS APPENDICES S AND T . VOLUME VIII ACN : 69396 1 Accession For

  6. Banquet Talk: Area-Time-Power Tradeoffs in Computer Design: The Road Ahead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    M. J. Flynn 1 HPEC ‘04 Banquet Talk: Area- Time -Power tradeoffs in computer design: the road ahead Michael J. Flynn Report Documentation...the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the...TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Banquet Talk: Area- Time -Power tradeoffs in computer design: the road ahead 5a. CONTRACT

  7. Trade-offs between the accuracy and integrity of autobiographical narrative in memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Lane et al. propose an integrative model for the reconsolidation of traces in their timely and impressive article. This commentary draws attention to trade-offs between accuracy and self-narrative integrity in the model. The trade-offs concern the sense of agency in memory and its role in both implicit and explicit memory reconsolidation, rather than balances concerning degrees of emotional arousal.

  8. Using vulnerability assessments to design facility safeguards and security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, M.; Jaeger, C.

    1994-08-01

    The Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is meant to prepare the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex to meet the needs of the next century through construction of now facilities or upgrades-in-place at existing facilities. This paper describes how a vulnerability (VA) was used to identify potential S&S features for the conceptual design for a plutonium storage facility as part of the WCR Program. We distinguish those features of the design that need to be investigated at the conceptual stage from those that can be evaluated later. We also examined what protection features may allow reduced S&S operating costs, with the main focus on protective force costs. While some of these concepts hold the promise for significantly reducing life-cycle protective force costs, their use depends on resolving long-standing tradeoffs between S&S and safety, which are discussed in the study.

  9. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Brenda K.

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System is designed to provide spacecraft designers and space environment researchers single point access to all available resources from LDEF. These include data, micrographs, photographs, technical reports, papers, hardware and test specimens, as well as technical expertise. Further, the LDEF Archive System is planned such that it could be the foundation for a NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Archive System, with the addition of other spaceflight, laboratory and theoretical space environments and effects data and associated materials. This paper describes the current status and plans of the LDEF Archive System.

  10. Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses.

    PubMed

    White, Crow; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kappel, Carrie V

    2012-03-20

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an emerging responsibility of resource managers around the United States and elsewhere. A key proposed advantage of MSP is that it makes tradeoffs in resource use and sector (stakeholder group) values explicit, but doing so requires tools to assess tradeoffs. We extended tradeoff analyses from economics to simultaneously assess multiple ecosystem services and the values they provide to sectors using a robust, quantitative, and transparent framework. We used the framework to assess potential conflicts among offshore wind energy, commercial fishing, and whale-watching sectors in Massachusetts and identify and quantify the value from choosing optimal wind farm designs that minimize conflicts among these sectors. Most notably, we show that using MSP over conventional planning could prevent >$1 million dollars in losses to the incumbent fishery and whale-watching sectors and could generate >$10 billion in extra value to the energy sector. The value of MSP increased with the greater the number of sectors considered and the larger the area under management. Importantly, the framework can be applied even when sectors are not measured in dollars (e.g., conservation). Making tradeoffs explicit improves transparency in decision-making, helps avoid unnecessary conflicts attributable to perceived but weak tradeoffs, and focuses debate on finding the most efficient solutions to mitigate real tradeoffs and maximize sector values. Our analysis demonstrates the utility, feasibility, and value of MSP and provides timely support for the management transitions needed for society to address the challenges of an increasingly crowded ocean environment.

  11. Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses

    PubMed Central

    White, Crow; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Kappel, Carrie V.

    2012-01-01

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) is an emerging responsibility of resource managers around the United States and elsewhere. A key proposed advantage of MSP is that it makes tradeoffs in resource use and sector (stakeholder group) values explicit, but doing so requires tools to assess tradeoffs. We extended tradeoff analyses from economics to simultaneously assess multiple ecosystem services and the values they provide to sectors using a robust, quantitative, and transparent framework. We used the framework to assess potential conflicts among offshore wind energy, commercial fishing, and whale-watching sectors in Massachusetts and identify and quantify the value from choosing optimal wind farm designs that minimize conflicts among these sectors. Most notably, we show that using MSP over conventional planning could prevent >$1 million dollars in losses to the incumbent fishery and whale-watching sectors and could generate >$10 billion in extra value to the energy sector. The value of MSP increased with the greater the number of sectors considered and the larger the area under management. Importantly, the framework can be applied even when sectors are not measured in dollars (e.g., conservation). Making tradeoffs explicit improves transparency in decision-making, helps avoid unnecessary conflicts attributable to perceived but weak tradeoffs, and focuses debate on finding the most efficient solutions to mitigate real tradeoffs and maximize sector values. Our analysis demonstrates the utility, feasibility, and value of MSP and provides timely support for the management transitions needed for society to address the challenges of an increasingly crowded ocean environment. PMID:22392996

  12. Reproductive tradeoffs and yolk steroids in female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    PubMed

    Rhen, T; Crews, D; Fivizzani, A; Elf, P

    2006-11-01

    Life history theory predicts tradeoffs among reproductive traits, but the physiological mechanisms underlying such tradeoffs remain unclear. Here we examine reproductive tradeoffs and their association with yolk steroids in an oviparous lizard. Female leopard geckos lay two eggs in a clutch, produce multiple clutches in a breeding season, and reproduce for several years. We detected a significant tradeoff between egg size and the number of clutches laid by females during their first two breeding seasons. Total reproductive effort was strongly condition-dependent in the first season, but much less so in the second season. Although these and other tradeoffs were unmistakable, they were not associated with levels of androstenedione, oestradiol, or testosterone in egg yolk. Female condition and egg size, however, were inversely related to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in egg yolk. Finally, steroid levels in egg yolk were not directly related to steroid levels in the maternal circulation when follicles were developing, indicating that steroid transfer to eggs is regulated. These findings suggest that maternal allocation of DHT could mitigate tradeoffs that lead to poor offspring quality (i.e. poor female condition) and small offspring size (i.e. small egg size).

  13. Evolution, the loss of diversity and the role of trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Best, Alex; Bowers, Roger; White, Andy

    2015-06-01

    We investigate how the loss of previously evolved diversity in host resistance to disease is dependent on the complexity of the underlying evolutionary trade-off. Working within the adaptive dynamics framework, using graphical tools (pairwise invasion plots, PIPs; trait evolution plots, TEPs) and algebraic analysis we consider polynomial trade-offs of increasing degree. Our focus is on the evolutionary trajectory of the dimorphic population after it has been attracted to an evolutionary branching point. We show that for sufficiently complex trade-offs (here, polynomials of degree three or higher) the resulting invasion boundaries can form closed 'oval' areas of invadability and strategy coexistence. If no attracting singular strategies exist within this region, then the population is destined to evolve outside of the region of coexistence, resulting in the loss of one strain. In particular, the loss of diversity in this model always occurs in such a way that the remaining strain is not attracted back to the branching point but to an extreme of the trade-off, meaning the diversity is lost forever. We also show similar results for a non-polynomial but complex trade-off, and for a different eco-evolutionary model. Our work further highlights the importance of trade-offs to evolutionary behaviour.

  14. Phenotypic constraints and community structure: linking trade-offs within and among species.

    PubMed

    Angert, Amy L; Kimball, Sarah; Peterson, Megan; Huxman, Travis E; Venable, David L

    2014-11-01

    Trade-offs are central to many topics in biology, from the evolution of life histories to ecological mechanisms of species coexistence. Trade-offs observed among species may reflect pervasive constraints on phenotypes that are achievable given biophysical and resource limitations. If so, then among-species trade-offs should be consistent with trade-offs within species. Alternatively, trait variation among co-occurring species may reflect historical contingencies during community assembly rather than within-species constraints. Here, we test whether a key trade-off between relative growth rate (RGR) and water-use efficiency (WUE) among Sonoran Desert winter annual plants is apparent within four species representing different strategies in the system. We grew progeny of maternal families from multiple populations in a greenhouse common garden. One species, Pectocarya recurvata, displayed the expected RGR-WUE trade-off among families within populations. For other species, although RGR and WUE often varied clinally among populations, among-family variation within populations was lacking, implicating a role for past selection on these traits. Our results suggest that a combination of limited genetic variation in single traits and negative trait correlations could pose constraints on the evolution of a high-RGR and high-WUE phenotype within species, providing a microevolutionary explanation for phenotypes that influence community-level patterns of abundance and coexistence.

  15. Life history trade-offs and evidence for hierarchical resource allocation in two monocarpic perennials.

    PubMed

    Cao, G-X; Worley, A C

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of floral display is thought to be constrained by trade-offs between the size and number of flowers; however, empirical evidence for the trade-off is inconsistent. We examined evidence for trade-offs and hierarchical allocation of resources within and between two populations each of the monocarpic perennials, Cardiocrinum cordatum and C. giganteum. Within all populations, flower size-number trade-offs were evident after accounting for variation in plant size. In addition, variation in flower size explained much variation in flower-level allocation to attraction, and female and male function, a pattern consistent with hierarchical allocation. However, between population differences in flower size (C. cordatum) and number (C. giganteum) were not consistent with size-number trade-offs or hierarchical allocation. The population-level difference in C. cordatum likely reflects the combined influence of a time lag between initiation and maturation of flowers, and higher light levels in one population. Thus, our study highlights one mechanism that may account for the apparent independence of flower size and number in many studies. A prediction of sex allocation theory was also supported. In C. giganteum: plants from one population invested more mass in pistils and less in stamens than did plants from the other population. Detection of floral trade-offs in Cardiocrinum may be facilitated by monocarpic reproduction, production of a single inflorescence and ease of measuring plant size.

  16. Future Fixed Target Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Melnitchouk, Wolodymyr

    2009-01-01

    We review plans for future fixed target lepton- and hadron-scattering facilities, including the 12 GeV upgraded CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab, neutrino beam facilities at Fermilab, and the antiproton PANDA facility at FAIR. We also briefly review recent theoretical developments which will aid in the interpretation of the data expected from these facilities.

  17. Sports Facility Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Marcia L., Ed.; Stotlar, David K., Ed.

    The numbers of both sports facility management college courses and sport and exercise facilities are increasing, along with the need for an understanding of the trends and management concepts of these facilities. This book focuses exclusively on managing facilities where sporting events occur and includes examples in physical education, athletics,…

  18. Reliable Facility Location Problem with Facility Protection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Luohao; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Zaili; Shi, Jianmai; Zhang, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a reliable facility location problem with facility protection that aims to hedge against random facility disruptions by both strategically protecting some facilities and using backup facilities for the demands. An Integer Programming model is proposed for this problem, in which the failure probabilities of facilities are site-specific. A solution approach combining Lagrangian Relaxation and local search is proposed and is demonstrated to be both effective and efficient based on computational experiments on random numerical examples with 49, 88, 150 and 263 nodes in the network. A real case study for a 100-city network in Hunan province, China, is presented, based on which the properties of the model are discussed and some managerial insights are analyzed.

  19. Reliable Facility Location Problem with Facility Protection

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Luohao; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Zaili; Shi, Jianmai; Zhang, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a reliable facility location problem with facility protection that aims to hedge against random facility disruptions by both strategically protecting some facilities and using backup facilities for the demands. An Integer Programming model is proposed for this problem, in which the failure probabilities of facilities are site-specific. A solution approach combining Lagrangian Relaxation and local search is proposed and is demonstrated to be both effective and efficient based on computational experiments on random numerical examples with 49, 88, 150 and 263 nodes in the network. A real case study for a 100-city network in Hunan province, China, is presented, based on which the properties of the model are discussed and some managerial insights are analyzed. PMID:27583542

  20. The National Ignition Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Boyes, J.D.; Kumpan, S.A.; Sorem, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in January 1993 as part of a Key Decision Zero (KD0), justification of Mission Need. Motivated by the progress to date by the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in meeting the Nova Technical Contract goals established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1989, the Secretary requested a design using a solid-state laser driver operating at the third harmonic (0.35 {mu}m) of neodymium (Nd) glass. The participating ICF laboratories signed a Memorandum of Agreement in August 1993, and established a Project organization, including a technical team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Since then, the authors completed the NIF conceptual design, based on standard construction at a generic DOE Defense Program`s site, and issued a 7,000-page, 27-volume CDR in May 1994. Over the course of the conceptual design study, several other key documents were generated, including a Facilities Requirements Document, a Conceptual Design Scope and Plan, a Target Physics Design Document, a Laser Design Cost Basis Document, a Functional Requirements Document, an Experimental Plan for Indirect Drive Ignition, and a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) Document. DOE used the PHA to categorize the NIF as a low-hazard, non-nuclear facility. This article presents an overview of the NIF project.

  1. Final Environmental Planning Technical Report. Public Services and Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Fleming Associates Consulting Psychologists Family -marriage- divorce counseling, biofeedback, consulting neurological evaluations. Goodwill Industries...Support group for newly divorced , widowed, separated , or never married persons. Operation Happy Christmas C/o DPASS (see above) Coordinates communitywide...Libraries 3-176 3.8 Unavoidable Adverse Impacts 3-177 3.9 Irreversible and Irretrievable Resource Commitments 3-177 3.10 The Relationship Between

  2. Texas Experimental Tokamak, a plasma research facility: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, A.J.

    1995-08-01

    In the year just past, the authors made major progress in understanding turbulence and transport in both core and edge. Development of the capability for turbulence measurements throughout the poloidal cross section and intelligent consideration of the observed asymmetries, played a critical role in this work. In their confinement studies, a limited plasma with strong, H-mode-like characteristics serendipitously appeared and received extensive study though a diverted H-mode remains elusive. In the plasma edge, they appear to be close to isolating a turbulence drive mechanism. These are major advances of benefit to the community at large, and they followed from incremental improvements in diagnostics, in the interpretation of the diagnostics, and in TEXT itself. Their general philosophy is that the understanding of plasma physics must be part of any intelligent fusion program, and that basic experimental research is the most important part of any such program. The work here demonstrates a continuing dedication to the problems of plasma transport which continue to plague the community and are an impediment to the design of future devices. They expect to show here that they approach this problem consistently, systematically, and effectively.

  3. Preparing Technical Requirements for Third Party Contracting of Army Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Metal and Air Conditioning Contractor’s National Association, Inc. ( SMACNA ) HVAC Duct Construction Standards-Metal and Flexible Underwriters...Commercial cooking Equipment Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractor’s National Association, Inc. ( SMACNA ) HVAC Duct Construction Standards-Metal...Conditioning Contractor’s National Association, Inc. ( SMACNA ) - HVAC Duct Construction Standards, Metal and Flexible Round Industrial Duct Construction

  4. Total Energy, A Technical Report From Educational Facilities Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    A study of total energy (central heating, cooling, lighting, and power systems) was made by an independent agency in order to objectively determine the implications and advisability for use in American schools and colleges. The resulting report includes case studies, feasability guidelines, plant and equipment design guidelines, and a discussion…

  5. TOTAL ENERGY, A TECHNICAL REPORT FROM EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES LABORATORIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    A STUDY OF TOTAL ENERGY (CENTRAL HEATING, COOLING, LIGHTING, AND POWER SYSTEMS) WAS MADE BY AN INDEPENDENT AGENCY IN ORDER TO OBJECTIVELY DETERMINE THE IMPLICATIONS AND ADVISABILITY FOR USE IN AMERICAN SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES. THE RESULTING REPORT INCLUDES CASE STUDIES, FEASIBILITY GUIDELINES, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN GUIDELINES, AND A DISCUSSION…

  6. Technical note: A facility for respiration measurements in cattle.

    PubMed

    Machado, F S; Tomich, T R; Ferreira, A L; Cavalcanti, L F L; Campos, M M; Paiva, C A V; Ribas, M N; Pereira, L G R

    2016-06-01

    A respiration system consisting of 4 climate-controlled chambers and 1 set of flowmeters and analyzers was constructed and validated. Each chamber had volume of 21.10m(3) (3.68×2.56×2.24m) and was made from steel with double-glazed windows on either side enabling visual contact between animals. The chambers are independently climate-controlled and can maintain temperature and relative humidity in a range from 5 to 45°C and 30 to 80%, respectively. A flow generator and mass flowmeter continuously pull air from each chamber and a slight negative pressure inside the chamber is ensured. Air from all chambers and ambient air share a common gas analysis and data acquisition system for monitoring O2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations over the measurement period, with the cycle time set to 20min. Analyzers are regularly calibrated and the chambers have mean recoveries of 99.0 and 98.0% for CO2 and CH4, respectively. The chambers are equipped with infrared cameras and electronic feed and water bins for intake measurements, as well as sensors for monitoring animal position and heart rate. Data acquisition and analysis software is used to calculate the rate of consumption of O2 and production of CO2 and CH4. The dynamic respiration measurements are integrated with feed intake data and other sensors. The daily gas exchanges are estimated by integration to determine methane emission and heat production. We conducted a trial with 12 lactating 3/4 Holstein × 1/4 Gyr crossbred dairy cows (6 multiparous and 6 primiparous) under 2 feeding regimens (ad libitum or restricted) to validate the system. Two 22-h respiration measurements were obtained from each cow. Restricted-fed cows showed lower values for milk yield, methane emission, and heat production compared with ad libitum-fed animals. We found no difference between groups for CH4 produced per kilogram of dry matter intake. Repeatability for CH4 emission and heat production was high (0.97 and 0.92, respectively). The respiration system described herein is a useful tool for measuring the dynamic and accumulated data of heat production, methane emission, and feed intake.

  7. Engineering test facility conceptual design. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Because of the close relationship between the ETF design work conducted under this contract, and the design work of Potential Early Commercial MHD Power Plants (PSPEC) conducted under a separate and parallel DOE/NASA study contract, (DEN 3-51), the ETF design work reported on here was coordinated as far as possible with the design information developed in the above-mentioned separate PSPEC study. The reference power system configuration originally specified for the ETF considered the use of a high-temperature-air preheater, separately fired initially with oil and subsequently with a LBtu gas produced in a coal gasifier integrated with the power plant. The potential attractiveness of using oxygen enrichment in combustion of the coal for early commercial MHD power plant applications was indicated in our original ETF Conceptual Design Document. This eliminates the need for a high-temperature-air preheater and its associated gasifier. The results from our initial parametric design analysis in the separate study of Early Commercial MHD Power Plants reinforced the potential attractiveness of the use of oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Therefore, preliminary analysis of the use of oxygen enrichment for the ETF was included as part of the ETF contract amendment work reported on here.

  8. Analysis and Selective Upgrade Criteria for DCS Technical Control Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-10

    minimum of 15% spare jack fields over and above existing and programmed requirements (with a minimum of one transmit and one receive jack module...Equal Level Patch shall pro- vide the following: a. All long haul circuits appearing as 4-wire OTLP 600 ohm circuits. b. Individual transmit and receive... transmit and receive jack panels (rather than combined TX and RX). S~monitor jacks (preferred); or normal thru tip-ring jacks • with bridge monitor jack

  9. Technical Guidance for Title V Permitting of Printing Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  10. Scientific and Technical Development of the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is part of the Origins program and is the key mission to discover the origins of galaxies in the Universe. It is essential that scientific requirements be translated into technical specifications at the beginning of the program and that there is technical participation by astronomers in the design and modeling of the observatory. During the active time period of this grant, the PI participated in the NGST program at GSFC by participating in the development of the Design Reference Mission, the development of the full end-to-end model of the observatory, the design trade-off based on the modeling, the Science Instrument Module definition and modeling, the study of proto-mission and test-bed development, and by participating in meetings including quarterly reviews and support of the NGST SWG. This work was documented in a series of NGST Monographs that are available on the NGST web site.

  11. Energy-Information Trade-Offs between Movement and Sensing

    PubMed Central

    MacIver, Malcolm A.; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Shirgaonkar, Anup A.

    2010-01-01

    While there is accumulating evidence for the importance of the metabolic cost of information in sensory systems, how these costs are traded-off with movement when sensing is closely linked to movement is poorly understood. For example, if an animal needs to search a given amount of space beyond the range of its vision system, is it better to evolve a higher acuity visual system, or evolve a body movement system that can more rapidly move the body over that space? How is this trade-off dependent upon the three-dimensional shape of the field of sensory sensitivity (hereafter, sensorium)? How is it dependent upon sensorium mobility, either through rotation of the sensorium via muscles at the base of the sense organ (e.g., eye or pinna muscles) or neck rotation, or by whole body movement through space? Here we show that in an aquatic model system, the electric fish, a choice to swim in a more inefficient manner during prey search results in a higher prey encounter rate due to better sensory performance. The increase in prey encounter rate more than counterbalances the additional energy expended in swimming inefficiently. The reduction of swimming efficiency for improved sensing arises because positioning the sensory receptor surface to scan more space per unit time results in an increase in the area of the body pushing through the fluid, increasing wasteful body drag forces. We show that the improvement in sensory performance that occurs with the costly repositioning of the body depends upon having an elongated sensorium shape. Finally, we show that if the fish was able to reorient their sensorium independent of body movement, as fish with movable eyes can, there would be significant energy savings. This provides insight into the ubiquity of sensory organ mobility in animal design. This study exposes important links between the morphology of the sensorium, sensorium mobility, and behavioral strategy for maximally extracting energy from the environment. An

  12. Navigating Financial and Supply Reliability Tradeoffs in Regional Drought Portfolios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeff, H. B.; Herman, J. D.; Characklis, G. W.; Reed, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    indicate the inclusion of inter-utility water transfers allows the water utilities to improve on regional operational objectives (i.e. higher reliability and lower restriction frequencies) at a lower expected cost, while financial mitigation tools introduce a tradeoff between expected costs and cost variability. Financial mitigation schemes, including both third-party financial insurance contracts and contingency funds (i.e. self-insurance), were able to reduce cost variability at a lower expected cost than mitigation schemes which use self-insurance alone. The dynamics of the Research Triangle scenario (e.g. rapid population growth, constrained supply, and sensitivity to cost/revenue swings) suggest that this work may have the potential to more generally inform utilities on the effects of coordinated regional water supply planning and the resulting financial implications of more flexible, portfolio-type management techniques.

  13. A Parameter Optimization for a National SASE FEL Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Yavas, O.; Yigit, S.

    2007-04-23

    The parameter optimization for a national SASE FEL facility was studied. Turkish State Planing Organization (DPT) gave financial support as an inter-universities project to begin technical design studies and test facility of National Accelerator Complex starting from 2006. In addition to a particle factory, the complex will contain a linac based free electron laser, positron ring based synchrotron radiation facilities and a proton accelerator. In this paper, we have given some results of main parameters of SASE FEL facility based on 130 MeV linac, application potential in basic and applied research.

  14. Users Guide for the National Transonic Facility Research Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Jean M.; Adcock, Jerry B.

    1996-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility is a complex cryogenic wind tunnel facility. This report briefly describes the facility, the data systems, and the instrumentation used to acquire research data. The computational methods and equations are discussed in detail and many references are listed for those who need additional technical information. This report is intended to be a user's guide, not a programmer's guide; therefore, the data reduction code itself is not documented. The purpose of this report is to assist personnel involved in conducting a test in the National Transonic Facility.

  15. The Neutral Beam Test Facility and Radiation Effects Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie-Wilson, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has constructed a Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF) and a Radiation Effects Facility (REF). These two facilities use the surplus capacity of the 200-MeV Linac injector for the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The REF can be used to simulate radiation damage effects in space from both natural and man made radiation sources. The H{sup {minus}} beam energy, current and dimensions can be varied over a wide range leading to a broad field of application. The NBTF has been designed to carry out high precision experiments and contains an absolute reference target system for the on-line calibration of measurements carried out in the experimental hall. The H{sup {minus}} beam energy, current and dimensions can also be varied over a wide range but with tradeoffs depending on the required accuracy. Both facilities are fully operational and will be described together with details of the associated experimental programs.

  16. Analysis of Source Selection Methods and Performance Outcomes: Lowest Price Technically Acceptable vs. Tradeoff in Air Force Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ANALYSIS OF SOURCE SELECTION METHODS AND PERFORMANCE...2. REPORT DATE December 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF SOURCE SELECTION METHODS AND...distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) As part of procurement planning, government acquisition teams must select

  17. All Source Analysis System (ASAS). Block 1. Abbreviated HARDMAN Analysis (Tradeoff Analysis). Volume 1. Technical Report. Volume 3. Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    1-2 1.3.1 TSE Hardware ........................................ 1-2 1.3.2 ASAS TCAE Hardware ................................. 1-3...Software ........................... 1-5 3 1.4.2 ASAS TCAE System Software ......................... 1-5 1.5 CONFIGURATIONS...Operators .................................. 1-8 1.6.3 CCS Operators ..................................... 1-8 1.6.4 TCAE W/S Operators

  18. Work control in separations facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    The topic addressed in this technical review is the development and implementation of a work control program in one of the chemical separations facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. This program will be used as a pilot for the Nuclear Materials Processing Division at the site. The SRS Work Control Pilot program is based on the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) good practices and guidelines for the conduct of maintenance and complies with SRS quality assurance and DOE orders on maintenance management. The program follows a ten-step process for control of maintenance and maintenance-related activities in a chemical separations facility. The program took the existing maintenance planning and scheduling system and upgraded it to comply with all INPO work control and related guidelines for histories, post-maintenance testing and scheduling. The development process of adapting a nuclear-related- based plan to a batch/continuous chemical separations plant was a challenge. There were many opportunities to develop improvements in performance while being creative and realistic in applying reactor maintenance technology to chemical plant maintenance. This pilot program for work control in a nonreactor nuclear facility will provide valuable information for applying a controlled maintenance process to a multiphase chemical operating plant environment.

  19. Work control in separations facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, L.D.

    1990-12-31

    The topic addressed in this technical review is the development and implementation of a work control program in one of the chemical separations facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. This program will be used as a pilot for the Nuclear Materials Processing Division at the site. The SRS Work Control Pilot program is based on the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) good practices and guidelines for the conduct of maintenance and complies with SRS quality assurance and DOE orders on maintenance management. The program follows a ten-step process for control of maintenance and maintenance-related activities in a chemical separations facility. The program took the existing maintenance planning and scheduling system and upgraded it to comply with all INPO work control and related guidelines for histories, post-maintenance testing and scheduling. The development process of adapting a nuclear-related- based plan to a batch/continuous chemical separations plant was a challenge. There were many opportunities to develop improvements in performance while being creative and realistic in applying reactor maintenance technology to chemical plant maintenance. This pilot program for work control in a nonreactor nuclear facility will provide valuable information for applying a controlled maintenance process to a multiphase chemical operating plant environment.

  20. A task and technical support sensitive Security Operations Center

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R.A.; Sena, P.A.; Salazar, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Modern security control and display systems for protected facilities have improved the effectiveness of Security Operations Center (SOC) personnel. The most effective of these utilize sophisticated computerized systems to primarily provide quick and accurate control and display of alarm associated and routine access funcitions. Protected facilities with limited fiscal resources require some type of security control and display system but often cannot justify the cost of equipment and technical support associated with sophisticated systems. This paper describes a disign approach, consisting of four independent building blocks, that provides functionality and complexity commensurate with facility-specific requirements and technical support capabilities. The versatility of the design is demonstrated by showing how the less complex blocks satsify the needs of fiscally limited facilities or the blocks can be intergrated to satisfy the needs of the largest security installations. also, the independent blocks can be intergrated into existing installations to provide needed additional functionality with minimal impact on operations and exisiting equipment. 7 figs.

  1. Value tradeoffs for the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, R.L.; Winterfeldt, D. von

    1997-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program at the Hanford Site of the Department of Energy has adopted a logical approach to making decisions that uses decision analysis to structure and analyze decision alternatives and public values to evaluate them. This report is the third in a series to support this effort. The first identified a set of objectives (called {open_quotes}ends objectives{close_quotes}) that characterize the ultimate goals and desires of Hanford decision makers and stakeholders. The second report developed operational measures for these ends objectives (called {open_quotes}ends measures{close_quotes}) and it also developed a set of performance objectives and associated performance measures that are more directly related to how well decision alternatives in the TWRS program perform to achieve the ends objectives. The present report describes the development of quantitative value tradeoffs for both the ends measures and the performance measures. First, five national value experts were interviewed to obtain value tradeoffs for units of the ends measures identified in Keeney and von Winterfeldt (1996). The results of this assessment are shown in Table S1. Second, the implied value tradeoffs for the units of the performance measures were calculated from the value tradeoffs for units of the ends measures provided by the national experts. When calculating the value tradeoffs for the units of the performance measures, very simple quantitative relationships between ends and performance measures were assumed. The results of this calculation are shown in Table S2. The results of this report shown in Tables S1 and S2 should be considered preliminary and largely illustrative of the principles for developing value tradeoffs. The report lists several important caveats and recommendations for how future work can improve on the assessment of value tradeoffs.

  2. Community reaction to aircraft noise: time-of-day penalty and tradeoff between levels of overflights.

    PubMed

    Miedema, H M; Vos, H; de Jong, R G

    2000-06-01

    A decrease in the level of sound events can compensate for an increase in the level of other events, but noise metrics assume different tradeoffs. Noise metrics also differ in the penalty applied to noise in the evening and to noise in the night, and in the definition of these periods. These two aspects of noise metrics, i.e., the tradeoff and the penalty for the nighttime (23-7h), are investigated. A general model of the relation between SELs of sound events (aircraft overflights) and noise annoyance is presented which allows for a wide range of tradeoffs and time-of-day penalties. The (tradeoff and time-of-day penalty) parameters of the model are fitted to the data from an aircraft noise study conducted around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, which is especially suited for investigating the tradeoff and time-of-day penalties. It was found that in this study the tradeoff between the levels of events in metrics based on L(Aeq)'s, such as L(Aeq)(24 h), DNL, and DENL, is approximately correct for the prediction of noise annoyance. Furthermore, it was found that the strongest correlation with annoyance is obtained with a nighttime penalty of circa 10 dB. No suitable data were available for further tests of the tradeoff. The result with respect to the nighttime penalty was weakly further supported by the outcome of analyses of the original data from four other aircraft noise surveys (one survey conducted around British airports, and three coordinated surveys carried out around Paris Orly, Amsterdam Schiphol, and Glasgow Abbotsinch).

  3. Dopaminergic Control of the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-Off via the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Mark D.; Khamassi, Mehdi; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We continuously face the dilemma of choosing between actions that gather new information or actions that exploit existing knowledge. This “exploration-exploitation” trade-off depends on the environment: stability favors exploiting knowledge to maximize gains; volatility favors exploring new options and discovering new outcomes. Here we set out to reconcile recent evidence for dopamine’s involvement in the exploration-exploitation trade-off with the existing evidence for basal ganglia control of action selection, by testing the hypothesis that tonic dopamine in the striatum, the basal ganglia’s input nucleus, sets the current exploration-exploitation trade-off. We first advance the idea of interpreting the basal ganglia output as a probability distribution function for action selection. Using computational models of the full basal ganglia circuit, we showed that, under this interpretation, the actions of dopamine within the striatum change the basal ganglia’s output to favor the level of exploration or exploitation encoded in the probability distribution. We also found that our models predict striatal dopamine controls the exploration-exploitation trade-off if we instead read-out the probability distribution from the target nuclei of the basal ganglia, where their inhibitory input shapes the cortical input to these nuclei. Finally, by integrating the basal ganglia within a reinforcement learning model, we showed how dopamine’s effect on the exploration-exploitation trade-off could be measurable in a forced two-choice task. These simulations also showed how tonic dopamine can appear to affect learning while only directly altering the trade-off. Thus, our models support the hypothesis that changes in tonic dopamine within the striatum can alter the exploration-exploitation trade-off by modulating the output of the basal ganglia. PMID:22347155

  4. Space Station accommodation engineering for Life Sciences Research Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchey, J.; Gustan, E.; Rudiger, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Exploratory studies conducted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and several contractors in connection with defining the design requirements, parameters, and tradeoffs of the Life Sciences Research Facilities for nonhuman test subjects aboard the Space Station are reviewed. The major system discriminators which determine the size of the accommodation system are identified, along with a number of mission options. Moreover, characteristics of several vivarium concepts are summarized, focusing on the cost, size, variable-g capability, and the number of specimens accommodated. Finally, the objectives of the phase B studies of the Space Station Laboratory, which are planned for FY85, are described.

  5. Plastic ablator ignition capsule design for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D S; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Salmonson, J D; Callahan, D A; Town, R J

    2009-10-06

    This paper describes current efforts to develop a plastic ablator capsule design for the first ignition attempt on the National Ignition Facility. The trade-offs in capsule scale and laser energy that must be made to achieve ignition probabilities comparable to those with other candidate ablators, beryllium and high-density carbon, are emphasized. Large numbers of 1-D simulations, meant to assess the statistical behavior of the target design, as well as 2-D simulations to assess the target's susceptibility to Rayleigh-Taylor growth are discussed.

  6. 9 CFR 351.11 - Identification and separation of technical animal fats for certification and materials for use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... technical animal fats for certification and materials for use therein; removal of wrappers, etc.; cleaning... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Facilities and Operations § 351.11 Identification and separation of technical animal fats for...

  7. 9 CFR 351.11 - Identification and separation of technical animal fats for certification and materials for use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... technical animal fats for certification and materials for use therein; removal of wrappers, etc.; cleaning... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Facilities and Operations § 351.11 Identification and separation of technical animal fats for...

  8. 9 CFR 351.11 - Identification and separation of technical animal fats for certification and materials for use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... technical animal fats for certification and materials for use therein; removal of wrappers, etc.; cleaning... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Facilities and Operations § 351.11 Identification and separation of technical animal fats for...

  9. 9 CFR 351.11 - Identification and separation of technical animal fats for certification and materials for use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... technical animal fats for certification and materials for use therein; removal of wrappers, etc.; cleaning... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Facilities and Operations § 351.11 Identification and separation of technical animal fats for...

  10. 9 CFR 351.11 - Identification and separation of technical animal fats for certification and materials for use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... technical animal fats for certification and materials for use therein; removal of wrappers, etc.; cleaning... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Facilities and Operations § 351.11 Identification and separation of technical animal fats for...

  11. Design knowledge capture for a corporate memory facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boose, John H.; Shema, David B.; Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.

    1990-01-01

    Currently, much of the information regarding decision alternatives and trade-offs made in the course of a major program development effort is not represented or retained in a way that permits computer-based reasoning over the life cycle of the program. The loss of this information results in problems in tracing design alternatives to requirements, in assessing the impact of change in requirements, and in configuration management. To address these problems, the problem was studied of building an intelligent, active corporate memory facility which would provide for the capture of the requirements and standards of a program, analyze the design alternatives and trade-offs made over the program's lifetime, and examine relationships between requirements and design trade-offs. Early phases of the work have concentrated on design knowledge capture for the Space Station Freedom. Tools are demonstrated and extended which helps automate and document engineering trade studies, and another tool is being developed to help designers interactively explore design alternatives and constraints.

  12. Redox Regulation of Heart Regeneration: An Evolutionary Tradeoff

    PubMed Central

    Elhelaly, Waleed M.; Lam, Nicholas T.; Hamza, Mohamed; Xia, Shuda; Sadek, Hesham A.

    2016-01-01

    histological evidence of proliferating myocytes, genetic fate-mapping studies confirmed that the majority of newly formed cardiomyocytes are derived from proliferation of preexisting cardiomyocytes (Porrello et al., 2011). More recently, we established an ischemic injury model where the left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated in P1 neonates (Porrello et al., 2013). The injury response was similar to the resection model, with robust cardiomyocyte proliferation throughout the myocardium, as well as restoration of normal morphology by 21 days. However, this regenerative capacity is lost by P7, after which injury results in the typical cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and scar-formation characteristic of the adult mammalian heart. Not surprisingly, the loss of this regenerative capacity coincides with binucleation and cell cycle exit of cardiomyocytes (Soonpaa et al., 1996; Walsh et al., 2010). An important approach toward a deeper understanding the loss of cardiac regenerative capacity in mammals is to first consider why, and not only how, this happens. Regeneration of the early postnatal heart following resection or ischemic infarction involves replacement of lost myocardium and vasculature with restoration of normal myocardial thickness and architecture, with long-term normalization of systolic function. Why would the heart permanently forego such a remarkable regenerative program shortly after birth? The answer may lie in within the fundamental principal of evolutionary tradeoff. PMID:28018900

  13. Technical Mathematics: Restructure of Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    Designed to accompany a series of videotapes, this textbook provides information, examples, problems, and solutions relating to mathematics and its applications in technical fields. Chapter I deals with basic arithmetic, providing information on fractions, decimals, ratios, proportions, percentages, and order of operations. Chapter II focuses on…

  14. Technical Manual. The ACT®

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual contains technical information about the ACT® college readiness assessment. The principal purpose of this manual is to document the technical characteristics of the ACT in light of its intended purposes. ACT regularly conducts research as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of its programs. The research is intended to ensure that…

  15. Technical Training for Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverland, Edgar M.

    The question has arisen as to what kind of information a manager without extensive technical training needs to learn to supervise effectively. For example, the Nike Hercules fire control platoon leader, usually an officer in his first active duty assignment, seldom has had extensive technical training. Yet he is responsibile for the…

  16. Developing Technical Skill Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing the career and technical education (CTE) community as it works to implement the 2006 Perkins Act is responding to more rigorous requirements for reporting on CTE students' technical skill attainment. The U.S. Department of Education suggested in non-regulatory guidance that states and locals use the number of…

  17. Technical and Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This issue focuses on the various forms that secondary technical and vocational education takes in different European Community Member States. "The Future for Skilled Workers" is an interview with Burkart Lutz, a German researcher. Other articles are as follows: "Contradictions in Technical and Vocational Education: The…

  18. Research in Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLennan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to list and demonstrate areas in which research needs to be carried out, or questions answered, in order to raise the quality of technical education. Design/methodology/approach: The area of technical education expanded very rapidly in the late 1950s, and there was little comprehensive knowledge regarding the…

  19. Scientific and Technical English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaclavik, Jaroslav

    Technical English differs from everyday English because of the specialized contexts in which it is used and because of the specialized interests of scientists and engineers. This text provides exercises in technical and scientific exposition in the following fields: mathematics, physics, temperature effects, mechanics, dynamics, conservation of…

  20. Research and test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A description is given of each of the following Langley research and test facilities: 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel, 7-by 10-Foot High Speed Tunnel, 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel, 13-Inch Magnetic Suspension & Balance System, 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel, 16-by 24-Inch Water Tunnel, 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel, 30-by 60-Foot Wind Tunnel, Advanced Civil Transport Simulator (ACTS), Advanced Technology Research Laboratory, Aerospace Controls Research Laboratory (ACRL), Aerothermal Loads Complex, Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF), Avionics Integration Research Laboratory, Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART), Compact Range Test Facility, Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS), Enhanced/Synthetic Vision & Spatial Displays Laboratory, Experimental Test Range (ETR) Flight Research Facility, General Aviation Simulator (GAS), High Intensity Radiated Fields Facility, Human Engineering Methods Laboratory, Hypersonic Facilities Complex, Impact Dynamics Research Facility, Jet Noise Laboratory & Anechoic Jet Facility, Light Alloy Laboratory, Low Frequency Antenna Test Facility, Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel, Mechanics of Metals Laboratory, National Transonic Facility (NTF), NDE Research Laboratory, Polymers & Composites Laboratory, Pyrotechnic Test Facility, Quiet Flow Facility, Robotics Facilities, Scientific Visualization System, Scramjet Test Complex, Space Materials Research Laboratory, Space Simulation & Environmental Test Complex, Structural Dynamics Research Laboratory, Structural Dynamics Test Beds, Structures & Materials Research Laboratory, Supersonic Low Disturbance Pilot Tunnel, Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA), Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT), Transport Systems Research Vehicle, Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and the Visual Motion Simulator (VMS).