Sample records for factor egf stimulation

  1. Mobility of tethering factor EEA1 on endosomes is decreased upon stimulation of EGF receptor endocytosis in HeLa cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kosheverova, Vera V., E-mail: kosheverova_vera@incras.ru; Kamentseva, Rimma S., E-mail: rkamentseva@yandex.ru; St. Petersburg State University, 7-9, Universitetskaya nab, St. Petersburg, 199034

    Tethering factor EEA1, mediating homotypic fusion of early endosomes, was shown to be localized in membrane-bound state both in serum-deprived and stimulated for EGF receptor endocytosis cells. However, it is not known whether dynamics behavior of EEA1 is affected by EGF stimulation. We investigated EEA1 cytosol-to-membrane exchange rate in interphase HeLa cells by FRAP analysis. The data obtained fitted two-states binding model, with the bulk of membrane-associated EEA1 protein represented by the mobile fraction both in serum-starved and EGF-stimulated cells. Fast recovery state had similar half-times in the two cases: about 1.6 s and 2.8 s, respectively. However, the recovery half-time ofmore » slowly cycled EEA1 fraction significantly increased in EGF-stimulated comparing to serum-starved cells (from 21 to 99 s). We suppose that the retardation of EEA1 fluorescence recovery upon EGF-stimulation may be due to the increase of activated Rab5 on endosomal membranes, the growth of the number of tethering events between EEA1-positive vesicles and their clustering. - Highlights: • EEA1 mobility was compared in serum-starved and EGF-stimulated interphase HeLa cells. • FRAP analysis revealed fast and slow components of EEA1 recovery in both cases. • Stimulation of EGFR endocytosis did not affect fast EEA1 turnover. • EGF stimulation significantly increased half-time of slowly exchanged EEA1 fraction.« less

  2. EGF stimulates Mg{sup 2+} influx in mammary epithelial cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Trapani, Valentina; Arduini, Daniela; Luongo, Francesca

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • EGF stimulation potentiates Mg{sup 2+} influx into epithelial cells. • EGF-induced Mg{sup 2+} influx does not depend on the concomitantly induced Ca{sup 2+} signal. • EGF-induced Ca{sup 2+} signal is dependent on the presence of extracellular Mg{sup 2+}. • New players in EGF-mediated signaling might be exploited as therapeutic targets. - Abstract: Magnesium is well established as a fundamental factor that regulates cell proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms linking mitogenic signals, extracellular magnesium availability and intracellular effectors are still largely unknown. In the present study we sought to determine whether EGF regulates magnesium homeostasis in normal HC11 mammarymore » epithelial cells. To this end, we measured Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} fluxes by confocal imaging in live cells loaded with specific fluorescent ion indicators (Mag-Fluo-4 and Fluo-4, respectively). EGF stimulation induces a rapid and sustained increase in intracellular Mg{sup 2+}, concomitantly with a rise in intracellular calcium. The increase in intracellular Mg{sup 2+} derives from an influx from the extracellular compartment, and does not depend on Ca{sup 2+}. On the contrary, the increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} derives from intracellular stores, and is impaired in the absence of extracellular magnesium. Inhibition of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase by Tyrphostin AG1478 markedly inhibits EGF-induced Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} signals. These findings demonstrate that not only does Mg{sup 2+} influx represent an important step in the physiological response of epithelial cells to EGF, but unexpectedly the EGF-induced Mg{sup 2+} influx is essential for the Ca{sup 2+} signal to occur.« less

  3. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated inositol phosphate formation in hepatocytes is abolished by pertussis toxin and phorbol esters

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Johnson, R.M.; Garrison, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    The EGF-stimulated rise in intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ (Ca/sup 2 +/)/sub i/ and Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent protein phosphorylation events in isolated hepatocytes are blocked by pertussis toxin and phorbol ester pretreatment. The present study characterized the EGF-stimulated formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/) and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/) in hepatocytes using HPLC methodology to separate the InsP/sub 3/ isomers. Both 66 nM EGF and 10 nM angiotensin II (ANG II) caused a rapid increase in the Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ isomer although EGF-stimulated formation was smaller. At a concentration of ANG II (0.1 nM) which gave an equivalent rise in (Ca/sup 2more » +/)/sub i/ as 66 nM EGF, the kinetics and magnitude of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ formation were similar. EGF or ANG II-stimulated formation of the Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ isomer was more gradual and increased beyond the level of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ after 60 sec. The initial EGF and ANG II-stimulated increase in both InsP/sub 3/ isomers was not affected by removing external Ca/sup 2 +/ with a 10-fold excess of EGTA. Pretreatment of rats with pertussis toxin for 72 hrs blocked the ability of EGF to increase Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ but did not affect the increase due to ANG II. Three main pretreatment of cells with 1 ..mu..g/ml phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) also inhibited the EGF-stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ formation. PMA slightly attenuated Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ formation stimulated by 0.1 nM ANG II but not enough to affect the Ca/sup 2 +/ signal. These data suggest that the signal transduction system used by EGF receptors to increase Ins (1,4,5)P/sub 3/ in hepatocytes is somehow different from that used by ANG II receptors.« less

  4. Pretreatment with oleic acid accelerates the entrance into the mitotic cycle of EGF-stimulated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zugaza, J L; Casabiell, X A; Bokser, L; Eiras, A; Beiras, A; Casanueva, F F

    1995-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that pretreatment of several cell lines with cis-unsaturated fatty acids, like oleic acid, blocks epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced early ionic signals, and in particular the [Ca2+]i rise. In the present work we show that this blockade does not alter EGF-stimulated cellular proliferation evaluated by direct cell counting, but induces a powerful enhancement in the pulsed thymidine incorporation assay. The lack of effect of oleic acid on EGF-stimulated cellular proliferation was confirmed by repeated cell counts, cumulative thymidine incorporation, and protein synthesis, but a clear synergistic effect between oleic acid and EGF was again obtained by means of time course experiments with pulsed thymidine. Combined flow cytometry analysis and cell counts at earlier times in EGF-stimulated cells showed that oleic acids accelerates the entrance of cells into the replicative cycle leading to an earlier cell division. Afterward, these oleic acid-pretreated cells became delayed by an unknown compensatory mechanism in such a way that at 48 h post-EGF, the cell count in control and oleic acid-pretreated cells was equal. In conclusion (a) oleic acid accelerates or enhances the EGF mitogenic action and (b) in the long term cells compensate the initial perturbation with respect to untreated cells. As a side observation, the widely employed pulsed thymidine incorporation method as a measure of cell division could be extremely misleading unless experimental conditions are well controlled.

  5. Autocrine expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor ligand heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Schrevel, Marlies; Osse, E Michelle; Prins, Frans A; Trimbos, J Baptist M Z; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Gorter, Arko; Jordanova, Ekaterina S

    2017-06-01

    In cervical cancer, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in 70-90% of the cases and has been associated with poor prognosis. EGFR-based therapy is currently being explored in cervical cancer. We investigated which EGFR ligand is primarily expressed in cervical cancer and which cell type functions as the major source of this ligand. We hypothesized that macrophages are the main source of EGFR ligands and that a paracrine loop between tumor cells and macrophages is responsible for ligand expression. mRNA expression analysis was performed on 32 cervical cancer cases to determine the expression of the EGFR ligands amphiregulin, β-cellulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), epiregulin, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB‑EGF) and transforming growth factor α (TGFα). Subsequently, protein expression was determined immunohistochemically on 36 additional cases. To assess whether macrophages are the major source of EGFR ligands, immunohistochemical double staining was performed on four representative tissue slides. Expression of the chemokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) was determined by mRNA in situ hybridization. Of the known EGFR ligands, HB‑EGF had the highest mRNA expression and HB‑EGF and EGFR protein expression were highly correlated. Tumor specimens with high EGFR expression showed higher numbers of macrophages, and higher expression of GM-CSF and CCL2, but only a small subset (9%) of macrophages was found to be HB‑EGF-positive. Strikingly, 78% of cervical cancer specimens were found to express HB‑EGF. Standardized assessment of staining intensity, using spectral imaging analysis, showed that HB‑EGF expression was higher in the tumor compartment than in the stromal compartment. These results suggest that HB‑EGF is an important EGFR ligand in cervical cancer and that cervical cancer cells are the predominant source of HB‑EGF. Therefore, we propose an autocrine

  6. EGF stimulates the activation of EGF receptors and the selective activation of major signaling pathways during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Wee, Ping; Shi, Huaiping; Jiang, Jennifer; Wang, Yuluan; Wang, Zhixiang

    2015-03-01

    Mitosis and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) are both targets for cancer therapy. The role of EGFR signaling in mitosis has been rarely studied and poorly understood. The limited studies indicate that the activation of EGFR and downstream signaling pathways is mostly inhibited during mitosis. However, we recently showed that EGFR is phosphorylated in response to EGF stimulation in mitosis. Here we studied EGF-induced EGFR activation and the activation of major signaling pathways downstream of EGFR during mitosis. We showed that EGFR was strongly activated by EGF during mitosis as all the five major tyrosine residues including Y992, Y1045, Y1068, Y1086, and Y1173 were phosphorylated to a level similar to that in the interphase. We further showed that the activated EGFR is able to selectively activate some downstream signaling pathways while avoiding others. Activated EGFR is able to activate PI3K and AKT2, but not AKT1, which may be responsible for the observed effects of EGF against nocodazole-induced cell death. Activated EGFR is also able to activate c-Src, c-Cbl and PLC-γ1 during mitosis. However, activated EGFR is unable to activate ERK1/2 and their downstream substrates RSK and Elk-1. While it activated Ras, EGFR failed to fully activate Raf-1 in mitosis due to the lack of phosphorylation at Y341 and the lack of dephosphorylation at pS259. We conclude that contrary to the dogma, EGFR is activated by EGF during mitosis. Moreover, EGFR-mediated cell signaling is regulated differently from the interphase to specifically serve the needs of the cell in mitosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. EGF receptor lysosomal degradation is delayed in the cells stimulated with EGF-Quantum dot bioconjugate but earlier key events of endocytic degradative pathway are similar to that of native EGF

    PubMed Central

    Leontieva, Ekaterina A.; Kornilova, Elena S.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) complexed to ligands recognizing surface receptors undergoing internalization are an attractive tool for live cell imaging of ligand-receptor complexes behavior and for specific tracking of the cells of interest. However, conjugation of quasi-multivalent large QD-particle to monovalent small growth factors like EGF that bound their tyrosine-kinase receptors may affect key endocytic events tightly bound to signaling. Here, by means of confocal microscopy we have addressed the key endocytic events of lysosomal degradative pathway stimulated by native EGF or EGF-QD bioconjugate. We have demonstrated that the decrease in endosome number, increase in mean endosome integrated density and the pattern of EEA1 co-localization with EGF-EGFR complexes at early stages of endocytosis were similar for the both native and QD-conjugated ligands. In both cases enlarged hollow endosomes appeared after wortmannin treatment. This indicates that early endosomal fusions and their maturation proceed similar for both ligands. EGF-QD and native EGF similarly accumulated in juxtanuclear region, and live cell imaging of endosome motion revealed the behavior described elsewhere for microtubule-facilitated motility. Finally, EGF-QD and the receptor were found in lysosomes. However, degradation of receptor part of QD-EGF-EGFR-complex was delayed compared to native EGF, but not inhibited, while QDs fluorescence was detected in lysosomes even after 24 hours. Importantly, in HeLa and A549 cells the both ligands behaved similarly. We conclude that during endocytosis EGF-QD behaves as a neutral marker for degradative pathway up to lysosomal stage and can also be used as a long-term cell marker. PMID:28574831

  8. High-level expression and purification of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) with SUMO fusion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wuguang; Cao, Peng; Lei, Huangzong; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2010-03-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) can stimulate the division of various cell types and has potential clinical applications that stimulate growth and differentiation. HB-EGF has an EGF-like domain typical of all members of the EGF family. The high expression of active HB-EGF in Escherichia coli has not been successful as the protein contains three intra-molecular disulfide bonds, the same as other members of the EGF super family that are difficult to form correctly in the bacterial intracellular environment. This work fused the non-glycosylated HB-EGF gene with a small ubiquitin-related modifier gene (SUMO) by over-lap PCR. The resulting fusion gene SUMO-HBEGF was highly expressed in BL21(DE3) that the soluble SUMO-HBEGF was up to 30% of the total cellular protein. The fusion protein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and cleaved by a SUMO-specific protease Ulp1 to obtain the native HB-EGF, which was further purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. MTT assays indicated the purified HB-EGF, as well as SUMO-HBEGF, had mitogenic activity in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Differential regulation of betacellulin and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor in cultured zebrafish ovarian follicle cells by EGF family ligands.

    PubMed

    Tse, Anna Chung-Kwan; Ge, Wei

    2009-05-01

    Recently the roles of epidermal growth factor (EGF) family ligands in vertebrate ovaries have received increasing attention, including betacellulin (BTC), amphiregulin (AR), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), epiregulin, and EGF itself. In the zebrafish (Danio rerio), four members of EGF family have been identified by either molecular cloning or genome sequencing, which are EGF, TGFalpha, BTC, and HB-EGF. Although they are mostly expressed in the oocytes in the ovary, the present study demonstrated the expression of all the four EGF family ligands (egf, btc, tgfa, and hbegf) in cultured zebrafish follicle cells albeit at very low levels. Treatment of the cultured follicle cells with EGF, BTC, and HB-EGF demonstrated differential effects of these ligands on the expression of themselves. While the expression of egf was rather non-responsive to EGF, BTC, and HB-EGF, the expression of btc was consistently down-regulated by all the three molecules. In contrast, hbegf increased its expression in response to these molecules. These results suggest that there is an EGF signaling network in the zebrafish ovarian follicle, and the functionality of this network is self-regulated by its own members.

  10. Gab1 is essential for membrane translocation, activity and integrity of mTORCs after EGF stimulation in urothelial cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Hao; Chan, Po-Chao; Li, Jian-Ri; Chen, Chun-Jung; Shieh, Jeng-Jer; Fu, Yun-Ching; Chen, Hong-Chen; Wu, Ming-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of malignancy in long-term dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients in Taiwan. mTORCs (mammalian target of rapamycin complexes) and EGF are important in urothelial carcinoma. To identify the regulation of mTORCs upon EGF stimulation is necessary. mTOR integrates signals from growth factors via mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2). The mechanism of mTORC1 action has been widely studied; however, the regulation of mTORC2 has not been well studied. Here, we demonstrate that Gab1 is an important upstream regulator in EGF-mediated activation of mTORCs. In our study, we confirm that mTORCs translocate from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane via the PH domain of Gab1 upon EGF stimulation. Moreover, Gab1 associates with mTORCs. This association stabilizes the integrity of mTORCs and induces mTORC activity. Compared to normal bladder tissue, the expression of Gab1 and activity of mTORCs are elevated in urothelial carcinoma. Collectively, our results suggest that Gab1 is an essential regulator of the EGF-mediated mTORC pathways and may potentially be used as a biomarker for urothelial carcinoma to predict diagnosis and drug response. PMID:25596749

  11. Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-mediated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transinactivation and EGF receptor-independent stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by bradykinin in A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Graness, A; Hanke, S; Boehmer, F D; Presek, P; Liebmann, C

    2000-01-01

    Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) has been proposed to represent an essential link between G-protein-coupled receptors and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in various cell types. In the present work we report, in contrast, that in A431 cells bradykinin transinactivates the EGFR and stimulates MAPK activity independently of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation. Both effects of bradykinin are mediated by a pertussis-toxin-insensitive G-protein. Three lines of evidence suggest the activation of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) by bradykinin: (i) treatment of A431 cells with bradykinin decreases both basal and EGF-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, (ii) this effect of bradykinin can be blocked by two different PTP inhibitors, and (iii) bradykinin significantly increased the PTP activity in total A431 cell lysates when measured in vitro. The transmembrane receptor PTP sigma was identified as a putative mediator of bradykinin-induced downregulation of EGFR autophosphorylation. Activation of MAPK in response to bradykinin was insensitive towards AG 1478, a specific inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, but was blocked by wortmannin or bisindolylmaleimide, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and protein kinase C (PKC) respectively. These results also suggest that the bradykinin-induced activation of MAPK is independent of EGFR and indicate a pathway involving PI3-K and PKC. In addition, bradykinin evokes a rapid and transient increase in Src kinase activity. Although Src does not participate in bradykinin-induced stimulation of PTP activity, inhibition of Src by 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine leads to an increase in MAPK activation by bradykinin. Our results suggest that in A431 cells the G(q/11)-protein-coupled bradykinin B(2) receptor may stimulate PTP activity and thereby transinactivate the EGFR, and may simultaneously activate MAPK by an alternative signalling pathway

  12. Epidermal growth factor-stimulated protein phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Connelly, P.A.; Sisk, R.B.; Johnson, R.M.

    1987-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a 6-fold increase in the phosphorylation state of a cytosolic protein (pp36, M/sub r/ = 36,000, pI = 5.5) in hepatocytes isolated from fasted, male, Wistar rats. Stimulation of /sup 32/P incorporation is observed as early as 1 min following treatment of hepatocytes with EGF and is still present at 30 min after exposure to the growth factor. The phosphate incorporated into pp36 in response to EGF is located predominantly in serine but not tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of pp36 does not occur in response to insulin or to agents which specifically activate the cAMP-dependent proteinmore » kinase (S/sub p/ -cAMPS), protein kinase C (PMA) or Ca/sup 2 +//calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (A23187) in these cells. Prior treatment of hepatocytes with the cAMP analog, S/sub p/-cAMPS, or ADP-ribosylation of N/sub i/, the inhibitory GTP-binding protein of the adenylate cyclase complex, does not prevent EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of pp36. However, as seen in other cell types, pretreatment of hepatocytes with PMA abolishes all EGF-mediated responses including phosphorylation of pp36. These results suggest that EGP specifically activates an uncharacterized, serine protein kinase in hepatocytes that is distal to the intrinsic EGF receptor tyrosine protein kinase. The rapid activation of this kinase suggests that it may play an important role in the early response of the cell to EGF.« less

  13. The docking protein Gab1 is the primary mediator of EGF-stimulated activation of the PI-3K/Akt cell survival pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mattoon, Dawn R; Lamothe, Betty; Lax, Irit; Schlessinger, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Background Gab1 is a docking protein that recruits phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase) and other effector proteins in response to the activation of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). As the autophosphorylation sites on EGF-receptor (EGFR) do not include canonical PI-3 kinase binding sites, it is thought that EGF stimulation of PI-3 kinase and its downstream effector Akt is mediated by an indirect mechanism. Results We used fibroblasts isolated from Gab1-/- mouse embryos to explore the mechanism of EGF stimulation of the PI-3 kinase/Akt anti-apoptotic cell signaling pathway. We demonstrate that Gab1 is essential for EGF stimulation of PI-3 kinase and Akt in these cells and that these responses are mediated by complex formation between p85, the regulatory subunit of PI-3 kinase, and three canonical tyrosine phosphorylation sites on Gab1. Furthermore, complex formation between Gab1 and the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 negatively regulates Gab1 mediated PI-3 kinase and Akt activation following EGF-receptor stimulation. We also demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation of ErbB3 may lead to recruitment and activation of PI-3 kinase and Akt in Gab1-/- MEFs. Conclusions The primary mechanism of EGF-induced stimulation of the PI-3 kinase/Akt anti-apoptotic pathway occurs via the docking protein Gab1. However, in cells expressing ErbB3, EGF and neuroregulin can stimulate PI-3 kinase and Akt activation in a Gab1-dependent or Gab1-independent manner. PMID:15550174

  14. Areca nut components stimulate ADAM17, IL-1α, PGE2 and 8-isoprostane production in oral keratinocyte: role of reactive oxygen species, EGF and JAK signaling.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Chan, Chiu-Po; Chen, Yi-Jane; Hsien, Hsiang-Chi; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2016-03-29

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is an etiologic factor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral cancer. There are 600 million BQ chewers worldwide. The mechanisms for the toxic and inflammatory responses of BQ are unclear. In this study, both areca nut (AN) extract (ANE) and arecoline stimulated epidermal growth factor (EGF) and interleukin-1α (IL-1α) production of gingival keratinocytes (GKs), whereas only ANE can stimulate a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-isoprostane production. ANE-induced EGF production was inhibited by catalase. Addition of anti-EGF neutralizing antibody attenuated ANE-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mature ADAM9 expression and PGE2 and 8-isoprostane production. ANE-induced IL-1α production was inhibited by catalase, anti-EGF antibody, PD153035 (EGF receptor antagonist) and U0126 (MEK inhibitor) but not by α-naphthoflavone (cytochrome p450-1A1 inhibitor). ANE-induced ADAM17 production was inhibited by pp2 (Src inhibitor), U0126, α-naphthoflavone and aspirin. AG490 (JAK inhibitor) prevented ANE-stimulated ADAM17, IL-1α, PGE2 production, COX-2 expression, ADAM9 maturation, and the ANE-induced decline in keratin 5 and 14, but showed little effect on cdc2 expression and EGF production. Moreover, ANE-induced 8-isoprostane production by GKs was inhibited by catalase, anti-EGF antibody, AG490, pp2, U0126, α-naphthoflavone, Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and aspirin. These results indicate that AN components may involve in BQ-induced oral cancer by induction of reactive oxygen species, EGF/EGFR, IL-1α, ADAMs, JAK, Src, MEK/ERK, CYP1A1, and COX signaling pathways, and the aberration of cell cycle and differentiation. Various blockers against ROS, EGF, IL-1α, ADAM, JAK, Src, MEK, CYP1A1, and COX can be used for prevention or treatment of BQ chewing-related diseases.

  15. Gq protein mediates UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression by stimulating HB-EGF secretion from HaCaT human keratinocytes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Seo, MiRan; Juhnn, Yong-Sung, E-mail: juhnn@snu.ac.kr

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression to produce cellular responses including aging and carcinogenesis in skin. We hypothesised that heterotrimeric G proteins mediate UV-induced COX-2 expression by stimulating secretion of soluble HB-EGF (sHB-EGF). In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role and underlying mechanism of the {alpha} subunit of Gq protein (G{alpha}q) in UVB-induced HB-EGF secretion and COX-2 induction. We found that expression of constitutively active G{alpha}q (G{alpha}qQL) augmented UVB-induced HB-EGF secretion, which was abolished by knockdown of G{alpha}q with shRNA in HaCaT human keratinocytes. G{alpha}q was found to mediate the UVB-induced HB-EGF secretion by sequential activation of phospholipasemore » C (PLC), protein kinase C{delta} (PKC{delta}), and matrix metaloprotease-2 (MMP-2). Moreover, G{alpha}qQL mediated UVB-induced COX-2 expression in an HB-EGF-, EGFR-, and p38-dependent manner. From these results, we concluded that G{alpha}q mediates UV-induced COX-2 expression through activation of EGFR by HB-EGF, of which ectodomain shedding was stimulated through sequential activation of PLC, PKC{delta} and MMP-2 in HaCaT cells.« less

  16. SNP analyses of growth factor genes EGF, TGF{beta}-1, and HGF reveal haplotypic association of EGF with autism

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Toyoda, Takao; Thanseem, Ismail; Kawai, Masayoshi

    Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed in early childhood. Growth factors have been found to play a key role in the cellular differentiation and proliferation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is detected in several regions of the developing and adult brain, where, it enhances the differentiation, maturation, and survival of a variety of neurons. Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF{beta}) isoforms play an important role in neuronal survival, and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to exhibit neurotrophic activity. We examined the association of EGF, TGF{beta}1, and HGF genes with autism, in amore » trio association study, using DNA samples from families recruited to the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange; 252 trios with a male offspring scored for autism were selected for the study. Transmission disequilibrium test revealed significant haplotypic association of EGF with autism. No significant SNP or haplotypic associations were observed for TGF{beta}1 or HGF. Given the role of EGF in brain and neuronal development, we suggest a possible role of EGF in the pathogenesis of autism.« less

  17. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) is present on the basolateral, but not the apical, surface of enterocytes in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Playford, R J; Hanby, A M; Gschmeissner, S; Peiffer, L P; Wright, N A; McGarrity, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While it is clear that luminal epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates repair of the damaged bowel, its significance in maintaining normal gut growth remains uncertain. If EGF is important in maintaining normal gut growth, the EGF receptor (EGF-R) should be present on the apical (luminal) surface in addition to the basolateral surface. AIMS/SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study examined the distribution of the EGF-R in the epithelium throughout the human gastro-intestinal tract using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and western blotting of brush border preparations. RESULTS: Immunostaining of the oesophagus showed circumferential EGF-R positivity in the cells of the basal portions of the stratified squamous epithelium but surface cells were EGF-R negative. In the normal stomach, small intestine, and colon, immunostaining localised the receptor to the basolateral surface with the apical membranes being consistently negative. EGF-R positivity within the small intestine appeared to be almost entirely restricted to the proliferative (crypt) region. Western blotting demonstrated a 170 kDa protein in whole tissue homogenates but not in the brush border vesicle preparations. CONCLUSIONS: As the EGF-R is located only on the basolateral surfaces in the normal adult gastrointestinal tract, the major role of luminal EGF is probably to stimulate repair rather than to maintain normal gut growth. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8977341

  18. Threshold levels of ERK activation for chemotactic migration differ for NGF and EGF in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, W C; Uniyal, S; Zhou, H; Morris, V L; Chan, B M C

    2005-03-01

    In a previous study, we show that stimulation of chemotaxis in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells by nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) requires activation of the RAS-ERK signaling pathway. In this study, we compared the threshold levels of ERK activation required for EGF and NGF-stimulated chemotaxis in PC12 cells. The threshold ERK activity required for NGF to stimulate chemotaxis was approximately 30% lower than that for EGF. PD98059 treatment inhibited EGF stimulation of growth and chemotaxis; however, stimulation of chemotaxis required an EGF concentration approximately 10 times higher than for stimulation of PC12 cell growth. Thus, ERK-dependent cellular functions can be differentially elicited by the concentration of EGF. Also, treatment of PC12 cells with the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002 reduced ERK activation by NGF; thus, higher NGF concentrations were required to initiate chemotaxis and to achieve the same maximal chemotactic response seen in untreated PC12 cells. Therefore, the threshold NGF concentration to stimulate chemotaxis could be adjusted by the crosstalk between the ERK and PI3-K pathways, and the contributions of PI3-K and ERK to signal chemotaxis varied with the concentrations of NGF used. In comparison, LY294002 treatment had no effect on ERK activation by EGF, but the chemotactic response was reduced at all the concentrations of EGF tested indicating that NGF and EGF differed in the utilization of ERK and PI3-K to signal chemotaxis in PC12 cells.

  19. Lysosome trafficking is necessary for EGF-driven invasion and is regulated by p38 MAPK and Na+/H+ exchangers.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Samantha S; Steffan, Joshua J; Cardelli, James A

    2017-10-04

    Tumor invasion through a basement membrane is one of the earliest steps in metastasis, and growth factors, such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), stimulate this process in a majority of solid tumors. Basement membrane breakdown is one of the hallmarks of invasion; therefore, tumor cells secrete a variety of proteases to aid in this process, including lysosomal proteases. Previous studies demonstrated that peripheral lysosome distribution coincides with the release of lysosomal cathepsins. Immunofluorescence microscopy, western blot, and 2D and 3D cell culture techniques were performed to evaluate the effects of EGF on lysosome trafficking and cell motility and invasion. EGF-mediated lysosome trafficking, protease secretion, and invasion is regulated by the activity of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and sodium hydrogen exchangers (NHEs). Interestingly, EGF stimulates anterograde lysosome trafficking through a different mechanism than previously reported for HGF, suggesting that there are redundant signaling pathways that control lysosome positioning and trafficking in tumor cells. These data suggest that EGF stimulation induces peripheral (anterograde) lysosome trafficking, which is critical for EGF-mediated invasion and protease release, through the activation of p38 MAPK and NHEs. Taken together, this report demonstrates that anterograde lysosome trafficking is necessary for EGF-mediated tumor invasion and begins to characterize the molecular mechanisms required for EGF-stimulated lysosome trafficking.

  20. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) helps regulate EGF-induced stimulation of S-phase entry in human corneal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ishino, Yutaka; Zhu, Cheng; Harris, Deshea L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC), particularly from older donors, only proliferate weakly in response to EGF. The protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP1B, is known to negatively regulate EGF-induced signaling in several cell types by dephosphorylating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The current studies were conducted to determine whether PTP1B plays a role in regulating cell cycle entry in HCEC in response to EGF stimulation. Methods Donor corneas were obtained from the National Disease Research Interchange and accepted for study based on established exclusion criteria. PTP1B was localized in the endothelium of ex vivo corneas and in cultured cells by immunocytochemistry. Western blot analysis verified PTP1B protein expression in HCEC and then compared the relative expression of EGFR and PTP1B in HCEC from young (<3 years old) and older donors (>60 years old). The effect of inhibiting the activity of PTP1B on S-phase entry was tested by comparing time-dependent BrdU incorporation in subconfluent HCEC incubated in the presence or absence of the PTP1B inhibitor, CinnGEL 2Me, before EGF stimulation. Results PTP1B was localized in a punctate pattern mainly within the cytoplasm of HCEC in ex vivo corneas and cultured cells. Western blots revealed the presence of three PTP1B-positive bands in HCEC and the control. Further western blot analysis showed no significant age-related difference in expression of EGFR (p=0.444>0.05); however, PTP1B expression was significantly higher in HCEC from older donors (p=0.024<0.05). Pre-incubation of HCEC with the PTP1B inhibitor significantly increased (p=0.019<0.05) the number of BrdU positive cells by 48 h after EGF stimulation. Conclusions Both immunolocalization and western blot studies confirmed that PTP1B is expressed in HCEC. Staining patterns strongly suggest that at least a subset of PTP1B is localized to the cytoplasm and most likely to the endoplasmic reticulum, the known site of EGFR/PTP1B interaction

  1. Loss of EGF binding and cation transport response during differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mummery, C L; van der Saag, P T; de Laat, S W

    1983-01-01

    Mouse neuroblastoma cells (clone N1E-115) differentiate in culture upon withdrawal of serum growth factors and acquire the characteristics of neurons. We have shown tht exponentially growing N1E-115 cells possess functional epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors but that the capacity for binding EGF and for stimulation of DNA synthesis is lost as the cells differentiate. Furthermore, in exponentially growing cells, EGF induces a rapid increase in amiloride-sensitive Na+ influx, followed by stimulation of the (Na+-K+)ATPase, indicating that activation of the Na+/H+ exchange mechanism in N1E-115 cells [1] may be induced by EGF. The ionic response is also lost during differentiation, but we have shown that the stimulation of both Na+ and K+ influx is directly proportional to the number of occupied receptors in all cells whether exponentially growing or differentiating, thus only indirectly dependent on the external EGF concentration. The linearity of the relationships indicates that there is no rate-limiting step between EGF binding and the ionic response. Our data would suggest that as neuroblastoma cells differentiate and acquire neuronal properties, their ability to respond to mitogens, both biologically and in the activation of cation transport processes, progressively decreases owing to the loss of the appropriate receptors.

  2. Conformational stability of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor as influenced by glycosylation, dimerization and EGF hormone binding.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric S; Pol-Fachin, Laercio; Lins, Roberto D; Lower, Steven K

    2017-04-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important transmembrane glycoprotein kinase involved the initiation or perpetuation of signal transduction cascades within cells. These processes occur after EGFR binds to a ligand [epidermal growth factor (EGF)], thus inducing its dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation. Previous publications have highlighted the importance of glycosylation and dimerization for promoting proper function of the receptor and conformation in membranes; however, the effects of these associations on the protein conformational stability have not yet been described. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to characterize the conformational preferences of the monomeric and dimeric forms of the EGFR extracellular domain upon binding to EGF in the presence and absence of N-glycan moieties. Structural stability analyses revealed that EGF provides the most conformational stability to EGFR, followed by glycosylation and dimerization, respectively. The findings also support that EGF-EGFR binding takes place through a large-scale induced-fitting mechanism. Proteins 2017; 85:561-570. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [INHIBITORS OF MAP-KINASE PATHWAY U0126 AND PD98059 DIFFERENTLY AFFECT ORGANIZATION OF TUBULIN CYTOSKELETON AFTER STIMULATION OF EGF RECEPTOR ENDOCYTOSIS].

    PubMed

    Zlobina, M V; Steblyanko, Yu Yu; Shklyaeva, M A; Kharchenko, V V; Salova, A V; Kornilova, E S

    2015-01-01

    To confirm the hypothesis about the involvement of EGF-stimulated MAP-kinase ERK1/2 in the regulation of microtubule (MT) system, the influence of two widely used ERK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, on the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton in interphase HeLa cells during EGF receptor endocytosis has been investigated. We have found that addition of U0126 or PD98059 to not-stimulated with EGF ells for 30 min has no effect on radially organized MT system. However, in the case of U0126 addition before EGF endocytosis stimulation, the number of MT per cell decreased within 15 min after such stimulation and was followed by complete MT depolymerization by 60-90 min. Stimulation of EGF endocytosis in the presence of PD98059 resulted only in insignificant depolymerization of MT and it could be detected mainly from their minus-ends. At the same time, MT regions close to plasma membrane became stabilized, which was proved by increase in tubulin acetylation level. This situation was characteristic for all period of the experiment. It has been also found that the inhibitors affect endocytosis dynamics of EGF-receptor complexes. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the stimulation of endocytosis in the presence of U0126 generated a greater number of endosomes compared to control cells, and their number did not change significantly during the experiment. All these endosomes were localized peripherally. Effect of PD98059 resulted in the formation of lower number of endosomes that in control, but they demonstrated very slow clusterization despite the presence of some intact MT. Both inhibitors decreased EGFR colocolization with early endosomal marker EEA1, which indicated a delay in endosome fusions and maturation. The inhibitors were also shown to affect differently phospho-ERK 1 and 2 forms: U0126 completely inhibited phospho-ERK1 and 2, white, in the presence of PD98059, the two ERK forms demonstrated sharp transient activation in 15 min after stimulation, but only

  4. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulated Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization in hepatocytes is abolished by phorbol esters, pertussis toxin and partial hepatectomy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Johnson, R.M.; Garrison, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    EGF has been demonstrated to increase free intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ levels in isolated hepatocytes putatively by generation of the second messenger inositol trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/). Pretreatment of cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) inhibited the EGF (66 nM) stimulated Ca/sup 2 +/ response as measured by quin2. Inhibition by PMA was maximal within 3 min and was concentration dependent (IC/sub 50/ = 13.5 nM). Four other active phorbol ester analogues blocked the Ca/sup 2 +/ response while inactive analogues did not. EGF was unable to increase intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ levels in hepatocytes isolated from rats treated with pertussismore » toxin for 72 hrs. Neither PMA nor toxin pretreatment was able to inhibit the Ca/sup 2 +/ response to angiotensin II (Ang II). In hepatocytes isolated 24 hrs after partial hepatectomy, the Ca/sup 2 +/ response to EGF (as measured by phosphorylase activity, EC/sub 50/ = 5 nM) was completely abolished and remained attenuated for 7 days post-hepatectomy. The Ca/sup 2 +/ response to Ang II in this model system was also blunted but required 3 days for development of the full effect and within 7 days full activity is nearly restored. The results suggest that fundamental differences exist in the transduction mechanisms used by these two Ca/sup 2 +/-linked hormones to mobilize intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ (and putatively increase IP/sub 3/ formation).« less

  5. Control of Human Endometrial Stromal Cell Motility by PDGF-BB, HB-EGF and Trophoblast-Secreted Factors

    PubMed Central

    Schwenke, Maren; Knöfler, Martin; Velicky, Philipp; Weimar, Charlotte H. E.; Kruse, Michelle; Samalecos, Annemarie; Wolf, Anja; Macklon, Nick S.; Bamberger, Ana-Maria; Gellersen, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Human implantation involves extensive tissue remodeling at the fetal-maternal interface. It is becoming increasingly evident that not only trophoblast, but also decidualizing endometrial stromal cells are inherently motile and invasive, and likely contribute to the highly dynamic processes at the implantation site. The present study was undertaken to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the regulation of endometrial stromal cell motility and to identify trophoblast-derived factors that modulate migration. Among local growth factors known to be present at the time of implantation, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) triggered chemotaxis (directed locomotion), whereas platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB elicited both chemotaxis and chemokinesis (non-directed locomotion) of endometrial stromal cells. Supernatants of the trophoblast cell line AC-1M88 and of first trimester villous explant cultures stimulated chemotaxis but not chemokinesis. Proteome profiling for cytokines and angiogenesis factors revealed neither PDGF-BB nor HB-EGF in conditioned media from trophoblast cells or villous explants, while placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and PDGF-AA were identified as prominent secretory products. Among these, only PDGF-AA triggered endometrial stromal cell chemotaxis. Neutralization of PDGF-AA in trophoblast conditioned media, however, did not diminish chemoattractant activity, suggesting the presence of additional trophoblast-derived chemotactic factors. Pathway inhibitor studies revealed ERK1/2, PI3 kinase/Akt and p38 signaling as relevant for chemotactic motility, whereas chemokinesis depended primarily on PI3 kinase/Akt activation. Both chemotaxis and chemokinesis were stimulated upon inhibition of Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase. The chemotactic response to trophoblast secretions was not blunted by inhibition of isolated signaling cascades, indicating activation of

  6. Role of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in estradiol-17β-stimulated bovine satellite cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kamanga-Sollo, E; Thornton, K J; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2014-10-01

    In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters. Although the positive effects of E2 on rate and efficiency of bovine muscle growth are well established, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Combined E2 and trenbolone acetate implants result in significantly increased muscle satellite cell number in feedlot steers. Additionally, E2 treatment stimulates proliferation of cultured bovine satellite cells (BSC). Studies in nonmuscle cells have shown that binding of E2 to G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 results in activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2/9) resulting in proteolytic release of heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (hbEGF) from the cell surface. Released hbEGF binds to and activates the epidermal growth factor receptor resulting in increased proliferation. To assess if GPER-1, MMP2/9, and/or hbEGF are involved in the mechanism of E2-stimulated BSC proliferation, we have examined the effects of G36 (a specific inhibitor of GPER-1), CRM197 (a specific inhibitor of hbEGF), and MMP-2/MMP-9 Inhibitor II (an inhibitor of MMP2/9 activity) on E2-stimulated BSC proliferation. Inhibition of GPER-1, MMP2/9, or hbEGF suppresses E2-stimulated BSC proliferation (P < 0.001) suggesting that all these are required in order for E2 to stimulate BSC proliferation. These results strongly suggest that E2 may stimulate BSC proliferation by binding to GPER-1 resulting in MMP2/9-catalyzed release of cell membrane-bound hbEGF and subsequent activation of epidermal growth factor receptor by binding of released hbEGF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor as a target in intercellular regulation of epidermal basal cell growth by suprabasal retinoic acid receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, J H; Feng, X; Di, W; Peng, Z H; Li, L A; Chambon, P; Voorhees, J J

    1999-01-01

    The role of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in intercellular regulation of cell growth was assessed by targeting a dominant-negative RARalpha mutant (dnRARalpha) to differentiated suprabasal cells of mouse epidermis. dnRARalpha lacks transcriptional activation but not DNA-binding and receptor dimerization functions. Analysis of transgenic mice revealed that dnRARalpha dose-dependently impaired induction of basal cell proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by all-trans RA (tRA). dnRARalpha formed heterodimers with endogenous retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRalpha) over RA response elements in competition with remaining endogenous RARgamma-RXRalpha heterodimers, and dose-dependently impaired retinoid-dependent gene transcription. To identify genes regulated by retinoid receptors and involved in cell growth control, we analyzed the retinoid effects on expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and amphiregulin genes. In normal epidermis, tRA rapidly and selectively induced expression of HB-EGF but not the others. This induction occurred exclusively in suprabasal cells. In transgenic epidermis, dnRARalpha dose-dependently inhibited tRA induction of suprabasal HB-EGF and subsequent basal cell hyperproliferation. Together, our observations suggest that retinoid receptor heterodimers located in differentiated suprabasal cells mediate retinoid induction of HB-EGF, which in turn stimulates basal cell growth via intercellular signaling. These events may underlie retinoid action in epidermal regeneration during wound healing. PMID:10075925

  8. Coordinated Regulation Among Progesterone, Prostaglandins, and EGF-Like Factors in Human Ovulatory Follicles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yohan; Wilson, Kalin; Hannon, Patrick R; Rosewell, Katherine L; Brännström, Mats; Akin, James W; Curry, Thomas E; Jo, Misung

    2017-06-01

    In animal models, the luteinizing hormone surge increases progesterone (P4) and progesterone receptor (PGR), prostaglandins (PTGs), and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors that play essential roles in ovulation. However, little is known about the expression, regulation, and function of these key ovulatory mediators in humans. To determine when and how these key ovulatory mediators are induced after the luteinizing hormone surge in human ovaries. Timed periovulatory follicles were obtained from cycling women. Granulosa/lutein cells were collected from in vitro fertilization patients. The in vivo and in vitro expression of PGR, PTG synthases and transporters, and EGF-like factors were examined at the level of messenger RNA and protein. PGR binding to specific genes was assessed. P4 and PTGs in conditioned media were measured. PGR, PTGS2, and AREG expressions dramatically increased in ovulatory follicles at 12 to 18 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In human granulosa/lutein cell cultures, hCG increased P4 and PTG production and the expression of PGR, specific PTG synthases and transporters, and EGF-like factors, mimicking in vivo expression patterns. Inhibitors for P4/PGR and EGF-signaling pathways reduced hCG-induced increases in PTG production and the expression of EGF-like factors. PGR bound to the PTGS2, PTGES, and SLCO2A1 genes. This report demonstrated the time-dependent induction of PGR, AREG, and PTGS2 in human periovulatory follicles. In vitro studies indicated that collaborative actions of P4/PGR and EGF signaling are required for hCG-induced increases in PTG production and potentiation of EGF signaling in human periovulatory granulosa cells. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  9. Effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the bovine oviduct in vitro: Alteration by heat stress.

    PubMed

    Wijayagunawardane, Missaka P B; Hambruch, Nina; Haeger, Jan-Dirk; Pfarrer, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to be involved in control of the oviductal microenvironment. To elucidate the potential mechanisms responsible for the detrimental effect of heat stress and to identify the relation with the endocrine status, the effects of EGF on the level of phosphorylated mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK) and proliferation of bovine oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) exposed to different cyclic ovarian steroidal environments (luteal phase (LP), follicular phase (FP) and postovulatory phase (PO)) and temperatures (mild heat stress (40 C) and severe heat stress (43 C)) were investigated. Western blot was performed to evaluate phosphorylated MAPK, while proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay. Stimulation of OECs with EGF alone or with EGF in the PO and FP environments significantly increased the amount of phosphorylated MAPK, with MAPK 44 phosphorylation being highest during exposure to PO conditions. These effects were not observed in the LP. Heat treatment completely blocked effects of EGF on phosphorylated MAPK. Additionally, severe heat stress led to a significantly lower basal level of phosphorylated MAPK. PD98059 (MAPK inhibitor) completely abolished EGF-stimulated MAPK phosphorylation and OECs proliferation. Overall the results indicate that EGF has the potential to increase the amount of phosphorylated MAPK in OECs and therefore could be involved in regulation of the bovine oviductal microenvironment. However, these regulatory mechanisms may be compromised in the presence of heat stress (high ambient temperature), leading to low fertility rates and impaired embryo survival.

  10. Effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the bovine oviduct in vitro: Alteration by heat stress

    PubMed Central

    WIJAYAGUNAWARDANE, Missaka P. B.; HAMBRUCH, Nina; HAEGER, Jan-Dirk; PFARRER, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to be involved in control of the oviductal microenvironment. To elucidate the potential mechanisms responsible for the detrimental effect of heat stress and to identify the relation with the endocrine status, the effects of EGF on the level of phosphorylated mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK) and proliferation of bovine oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) exposed to different cyclic ovarian steroidal environments (luteal phase (LP), follicular phase (FP) and postovulatory phase (PO)) and temperatures (mild heat stress (40 C) and severe heat stress (43 C)) were investigated. Western blot was performed to evaluate phosphorylated MAPK, while proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay. Stimulation of OECs with EGF alone or with EGF in the PO and FP environments significantly increased the amount of phosphorylated MAPK, with MAPK 44 phosphorylation being highest during exposure to PO conditions. These effects were not observed in the LP. Heat treatment completely blocked effects of EGF on phosphorylated MAPK. Additionally, severe heat stress led to a significantly lower basal level of phosphorylated MAPK. PD98059 (MAPK inhibitor) completely abolished EGF-stimulated MAPK phosphorylation and OECs proliferation. Overall the results indicate that EGF has the potential to increase the amount of phosphorylated MAPK in OECs and therefore could be involved in regulation of the bovine oviductal microenvironment. However, these regulatory mechanisms may be compromised in the presence of heat stress (high ambient temperature), leading to low fertility rates and impaired embryo survival. PMID:26050642

  11. Coordinated Regulation Among Progesterone, Prostaglandins, and EGF-Like Factors in Human Ovulatory Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yohan; Wilson, Kalin; Hannon, Patrick R.; Rosewell, Katherine L.; Brännström, Mats; Akin, James W.; Curry, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Context: In animal models, the luteinizing hormone surge increases progesterone (P4) and progesterone receptor (PGR), prostaglandins (PTGs), and epidermal growth factor (EGF)–like factors that play essential roles in ovulation. However, little is known about the expression, regulation, and function of these key ovulatory mediators in humans. Objective: To determine when and how these key ovulatory mediators are induced after the luteinizing hormone surge in human ovaries. Design and Participants: Timed periovulatory follicles were obtained from cycling women. Granulosa/lutein cells were collected from in vitro fertilization patients. Main Outcome Measures: The in vivo and in vitro expression of PGR, PTG synthases and transporters, and EGF-like factors were examined at the level of messenger RNA and protein. PGR binding to specific genes was assessed. P4 and PTGs in conditioned media were measured. Results: PGR, PTGS2, and AREG expressions dramatically increased in ovulatory follicles at 12 to 18 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In human granulosa/lutein cell cultures, hCG increased P4 and PTG production and the expression of PGR, specific PTG synthases and transporters, and EGF-like factors, mimicking in vivo expression patterns. Inhibitors for P4/PGR and EGF-signaling pathways reduced hCG-induced increases in PTG production and the expression of EGF-like factors. PGR bound to the PTGS2, PTGES, and SLCO2A1 genes. Conclusions: This report demonstrated the time-dependent induction of PGR, AREG, and PTGS2 in human periovulatory follicles. In vitro studies indicated that collaborative actions of P4/PGR and EGF signaling are required for hCG-induced increases in PTG production and potentiation of EGF signaling in human periovulatory granulosa cells. PMID:28323945

  12. Epidermal Growth Factor-Dependent Transformation by a Human EGF Receptor Proto-Oncogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velu, Thierry J.; Beguinot, Laura; Vass, William C.; Willingham, Mark C.; Merlino, Glenn T.; Pastan, Ira; Lowy, Douglas R.

    1987-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor gene EGFR has been placed in a retrovirus vector to examine the growth properties of cells that experimentally overproduce a full-length EGF receptor. NIH 3T3 cells transfected with the viral DNA or infected with the corresponding rescued retrovirus developed a fully transformed phenotype in vitro that required both functional EGFR expression and the presence of EGF in the growth medium. Cells expressing 4 × 105 EGF receptors formed tumors in nude mice, while control cells did not. Therefore, the EGFR retrovirus, which had a titer on NIH 3T3 cells that was greater than 107 focus-forming units per milliliter, can efficiently transfer and express this gene, and increased numbers of EGF receptors can contribute to the transformed phenotype.

  13. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor is present in human amniotic fluid and breast milk.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, M P; Lara-Marquez, M; Chun, L; Besner, G E

    2002-01-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family that has been implicated in the healing of various organ injuries. Endogenous HB-EGF production is upregulated in response to injury to the kidney, liver, brain, skin, and intestine. Exogenous administration of HB-EGF protects against intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and necrosis and intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study examines the presence of endogenous HB-EGF in human amniotic fluid and breast milk, fluids that are in intimate contact with the developing and neonatal gastrointestinal tract. Breast milk samples were collected from lactating women and amniotic fluid was gathered from full-term uteri (cesarian sections) or preterm uteri (amniocentesis). Crude and partially purified breast milk and amniotic fluid samples were analyzed for HB-EGF levels using an HB-EGF-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis results showed detectable HB-EGF levels in human amniotic fluid and breast milk, ranging from 0.2 to 230 pg/mL. Breast milk and amniotic fluid subjected to heparin affinity or HB-EGF-affinity column chromatography showed bioactivity eluting at positions consistent with those known for native HB-EGF. This study represents the first report of detectable HB-EGF in human amniotic fluid and breast milk. The presence of HB-EGF in these fluids may serve a role in the development of the gastrointestinal tract in utero, and in protection against gut mucosal injury after birth. Copyright 2002 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  14. The Intracellular Juxtamembrane Domain of the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Receptor Is Responsible for the Allosteric Regulation of EGF Binding*S⃞♦

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald-Obermann, Jennifer L.; Pike, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    We have previously shown that the binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to its receptor can best be described by a model that involves negative cooperativity in an aggregating system (Macdonald, J. L., and Pike, L. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 112–117). However, despite the fact that biochemical analyses indicate that EGF induces dimerization of its receptor, the binding data provided no evidence for positive linkage between EGF binding and dimer assembly. By analyzing the binding of EGF to a number of receptor mutants, we now report that in naive, unphosphorylated EGF receptors, ligand binding is positively linked to receptor dimerization but the linkage is abolished upon autophosphorylation of the receptor. Both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated EGF receptors exhibit negative cooperativity, indicating that mechanistically, cooperativity is distinct from the phenomenon of linkage. Nonetheless, both the positive linkage and the negative cooperativity observed in EGF binding require the presence of the intracellular juxtamembrane domain. This indicates the existence of inside-out signaling in the EGF receptor system. The intracellular juxtamembrane domain has previously been shown to be required for the activation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase (Thiel, K. W., and Carpenter, G. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 19238–19243). Our experiments expand the role of this domain to include the allosteric control of ligand binding by the extracellular domain. PMID:19336395

  15. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the gastroprotective and ulcer healing actions of colloidal bismuth subcitrate (De-Nol) in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, S J; Dembinski, A; Warzecha, Z; Bielanski, W; Brzozowski, T; Drozdowicz, D

    1988-01-01

    Colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS; De-Nol) exhibits gastroprotective properties in experimental animals and enhances the healing of chronic gastroduodenal ulcers, but the mechanisms of these actions have not been entirely elucidated. The present study was designed to determine whether epidermal growth factor (EGF), which also has gastroprotective and ulcer healing properties, contributes to the action of De-Nol on the stomach in rats. It was found that De-Nol protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol damage and that this is accompanied by increased mucosal generation of prostaglandins (PG). Removal of the endogenous source of EGF (sialoadenectomy) did not significantly decrease the protective and PG stimulating effects of De-Nol. Pretreatment with exogenous EGF partially protected the stomach against ethanol injury, but did not influence the protective action of De-Nol in sialoadenectomised animals. De-Nol, like EGF given orally, enhanced the healing of chronic gastric and duodenal ulcers induced by serosal acetic acid. De-Nol was found to bind EGF in a pH-dependent manner and to accumulate it in ulcer area. Thus the peptide is available locally in high concentrations to accelerate the re-epithelialisation and tissue repair of the ulcerated mucosa. These ulcer healing effects of De-Nol were reduced by sialoadenectomy and restored in part by oral administration of EGF. We conclude that salivary glands in rats are not essential for the gastroprotection induced by De-Nol, but seem to play an important role in the ulcer healing action of this drug possibly via an EGF mediated mechanism. PMID:3260885

  16. The first EGF domain of coagulation factor IX attenuates cell adhesion and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tomomi; Kitano, Hisataka; Mamiya, Atsushi; Kokubun, Shinichiro; Hidai, Chiaki

    2016-07-01

    Coagulation factor IX (FIX) is an essential plasma protein for blood coagulation. The first epidermal growth factor (EGF) motif of FIX (EGF-F9) has been reported to attenuate cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of this motif on cell adhesion and apoptosis. Treatment with a recombinant EGF-F9 attenuated cell adhesion to the ECM within 10 min. De-adhesion assays with native FIX recombinant FIX deletion mutant proteins suggested that the de-adhesion activity of EGF-F9 requires the same process of FIX activation as that which occurs for coagulation activity. The recombinant EGF-F9 increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity release into the medium and increased the number of cells stained with annexin V and activated caspase-3, by 8.8- and 2.7-fold respectively, indicating that EGF-F9 induced apoptosis. Activated caspase-3 increased very rapidly after only 5 min of administration of recombinant EGF-F9. Treatment with EGF-F9 increased the level of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but not that of phosphorylated MAPK 44/42 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibitors of caspase-3 suppressed the release of LDH. Caspase-3 inhibitors also suppressed the attenuation of cell adhesion and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK by EGF-F9. Our data indicated that EGF-F9 activated signals for apoptosis and induced de-adhesion in a caspase-3 dependent manner. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Gene expression analysis of pig cumulus-oocyte complexes stimulated in vitro with follicle stimulating hormone or epidermal growth factor-like peptides.

    PubMed

    Blaha, Milan; Nemcova, Lucie; Kepkova, Katerina Vodickova; Vodicka, Petr; Prochazka, Radek

    2015-10-06

    The gonadotropin-induced resumption of oocyte meiosis in preovulatory follicles is preceded by expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like peptides, amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG), in mural granulosa and cumulus cells. Both the gonadotropins and the EGF-like peptides possess the capacity to stimulate resumption of oocyte meiosis in vitro via activation of a broad signaling network in cumulus cells. To better understand the rapid genomic actions of gonadotropins (FSH) and EGF-like peptides, we analyzed transcriptomes of cumulus cells at 3 h after their stimulation. We hybridized aRNA from cumulus cells to a pig oligonucleotide microarray and compared the transcriptomes of FSH- and AREG/EREG-stimulated cumulus cells with untreated control cells and vice versa. The identified over- and underexpressed genes were subjected to functional genomic analysis according to their molecular and cellular functions. The expression pattern of 50 selected genes with a known or potential function in ovarian development was verified by real-time qRT-PCR. Both FSH and AREG/EREG increased the expression of genes associated with regulation of cell proliferation, cell migration, blood coagulation and extracellular matrix remodeling. FSH alone induced the expression of genes involved in inflammatory response and in the response to reactive oxygen species. Moreover, FSH stimulated the expression of genes closely related to some ovulatory events either exclusively or significantly more than AREG/EREG (AREG, ADAMTS1, HAS2, TNFAIP6, PLAUR, PLAT, and HSD17B7). In contrast to AREG/EREG, FSH also increased the expression of genes coding for key transcription factors (CEBPB, FOS, ID1/3, and NR5A2), which may contribute to the differing expression profiles of FSH- and AREG/EREG-treated cumulus cells. The impact of FSH on cumulus cell gene transcription was higher than the impact of EGF-like factors in terms of the number of cell functions affected as well as the number of over- and

  18. EGF receptor ligands: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhuminder; Carpenter, Graham; Coffey, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Seven ligands bind to and activate the mammalian epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR/ERBB1/HER1): EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFA), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), betacellulin (BTC), amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), and epigen (EPGN). Of these, EGF, TGFA, HBEGF, and BTC are thought to be high-affinity ligands, whereas AREG, EREG, and EPGN constitute low-affinity ligands. This focused review is meant to highlight recent studies related to actions of the individual EGFR ligands, the interesting biology that has been uncovered, and relevant advances related to ligand interactions with the EGFR.

  19. EGF receptor ligands: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhuminder; Carpenter, Graham; Coffey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Seven ligands bind to and activate the mammalian epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR/ERBB1/HER1): EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFA), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), betacellulin (BTC), amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), and epigen (EPGN). Of these, EGF, TGFA, HBEGF, and BTC are thought to be high-affinity ligands, whereas AREG, EREG, and EPGN constitute low-affinity ligands. This focused review is meant to highlight recent studies related to actions of the individual EGFR ligands, the interesting biology that has been uncovered, and relevant advances related to ligand interactions with the EGFR. PMID:27635238

  20. Role of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (hbEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in trenbolone acetate-stimulated bovine satellite cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Thornton, K J; Kamange-Sollo, E; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2015-09-01

    Implanting cattle with steroids significantly enhances feed efficiency, rate of gain, and muscle growth. However, the mechanisms responsible for these improvements in muscle growth have not been fully elucidated. Trenbolone acetate (TBA), a testosterone analog, has been shown to increase proliferation rate in bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures. The classical genomic actions of testosterone have been well characterized; however, our results indicate that TBA may also initiate a quicker, nongenomic response that involves activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) resulting in activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9) that release membrane-bound heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (hbEGF), which then binds to and activates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and/or erbB2. Furthermore, the EGFR has been shown to regulate expression of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), which is well known for its role in modulating muscle growth. To determine whether this nongenomic pathway is potentially involved in TBA-stimulated BSC proliferation, we analyzed the effects of treating BSC with guanosine 5'-O-2-thiodiphosphate (GDPβS), an inhibitor of all GPCR; a MMP2 and MMP9 inhibitor (MMPI); CRM19, a specific inhibitor of hbEGF; AG1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor; AG879, a specific erbB2 kinase inhibitor; and AG1024, an IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor on TBA-stimulated proliferation rate (H-thymidine incorporation). Assays were replicated at least 9 times for each inhibitor experiment using BSC cultures obtained from at least 3 different animals. Bovine satellite cell cultures were obtained from yearling steers that had no previous exposure to androgenic or estrogenic compounds. As expected, BSC cultures treated with 10 n TBA showed ( < 0.05) increased proliferation rate when compared with control cultures. Additionally, treatment with 5 ng hbEGF/mL stimulated proliferation in BSC cultures ( < 0.05). Treatment

  1. Cross-talk between EGF and BMP9 signalling pathways regulates the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Qin, Jiaqiang; Luo, Qing; Bi, Yang; Zhu, Gaohui; Jiang, Wei; Kim, Stephanie H; Li, Mi; Su, Yuxi; Nan, Guoxin; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Ruidong; Chen, Xiang; Kong, Yuhan; Zhang, Jiye; Wang, Jinhua; Rogers, Mary Rose; Zhang, Hongyu; Shui, Wei; Zhao, Chen; Wang, Ning; Liang, Xi; Wu, Ningning; He, Yunfeng; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; Shi, Lewis L; Li, Tingyu; He, Tong-Chuan; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors, which give rise to several lineages, including bone, cartilage and fat. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. EGF acts by binding with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell surface and stimulating the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase activity of its receptor, which initiates a signal transduction cascade causing a variety of biochemical changes within the cell and regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. We have identified BMP9 as one of the most osteogenic BMPs in MSCs. In this study, we investigate if EGF signalling cross-talks with BMP9 and regulates BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. We find that EGF potentiates BMP9-induced early and late osteogenic markers of MSCs in vitro, which can be effectively blunted by EGFR inhibitors Gefitinib and Erlotinib or receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors AG-1478 and AG-494 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, EGF significantly augments BMP9-induced bone formation in the cultured mouse foetal limb explants. In vivo stem cell implantation experiment reveals that exogenous expression of EGF in MSCs can effectively potentiate BMP9-induced ectopic bone formation, yielding larger and more mature bone masses. Interestingly, we find that, while EGF can induce BMP9 expression in MSCs, EGFR expression is directly up-regulated by BMP9 through Smad1/5/8 signalling pathway. Thus, the cross-talk between EGF and BMP9 signalling pathways in MSCs may underline their important roles in regulating osteogenic differentiation. Harnessing the synergy between BMP9 and EGF should be beneficial for enhancing osteogenesis in regenerative medicine. PMID:23844832

  2. GPR30: a seven-transmembrane-spanning estrogen receptor that triggers EGF release.

    PubMed

    Filardo, Edward J; Thomas, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins and seven-transmembrane-spanning (7TM) receptors are implicated in rapid estrogen signaling. The orphan 7TM receptor GPR30 is linked to estrogen-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase, release of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related ligands, and specific estrogen binding. GPR30 acts independently of estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, and probably functions as a heptahelical ER. 7TM receptors elicit signals that stimulate second messengers, and convey intracellular signals via EGF receptors. Identification of GPR30 as a Gs-coupled 7TM receptor that triggers release of heparin-binding EGF establishes its role in cell signaling cascades initiated by estrogens, and explains their capacity to activate second messengers and promote EGF-like effects. Thus, estrogen can signal by the same mechanism as various other hormones, through a specific 7TM receptor.

  3. A potent anti-HB-EGF monoclonal antibody inhibits cancer cell proliferation and multiple angiogenic activities of HB-EGF.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shuji; Drake, Andrew W; Tsuji, Isamu; Fan, Jinhong

    2012-01-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the epidermal growth factor family and has a variety of physiological and pathological functions. Modulation of HB-EGF activity might have a therapeutic potential in the oncology area. We explored the therapeutic possibilities by characterizing the in vitro biological activity of anti-HB-EGF monoclonal antibody Y-142. EGF receptor (EGFR) ligand and species specificities of Y-142 were tested. Neutralizing activities of Y-142 against HB-EGF were evaluated in EGFR and ERBB4 signaling. Biological activities of Y-142 were assessed in cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis assays and compared with the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab, the HB-EGF inhibitor CRM197, and the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab. The binding epitope was determined with alanine scanning. Y-142 recognized HB-EGF as well as the EGFR ligand amphiregulin, and bound specifically to human HB-EGF, but not to rodent HB-EGF. In addition, Y-142 neutralized HB-EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR and ERBB4, and blocked their downstream ERK1/2 and AKT signaling. We also found that Y-142 inhibited HB-EGF-induced cancer cell proliferation, endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and VEGF production more effectively than cetuximab and CRM197 and that Y-142 was superior to bevacizumab in the inhibition of HB-EGF-induced tube formation. Six amino acids in the EGF-like domain were identified as the Y-142 binding epitope. Among the six amino acids, the combination of F115 and Y123 determined the amphiregulin cross-reactivity and that F115 accounted for the species selectivity. Furthermore, it was suggested that the potent neutralizing activity of Y-142 was derived from its recognition of R142 and Y123 and its high affinity to HB-EGF. Y-142 has a potent HB-EGF neutralizing activity that modulates multiple biological activities of HB-EGF including cancer cell proliferation and angiogenic

  4. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-ligand based molecular staging predicts prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma partly due to deregulated EGF- induced amphiregulin expression.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Ulekleiv, Camilla H; Halstensen, Trond S

    2016-09-26

    Increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its ligands is associated with poor prognosis and chemoresistance in many carcinoma types, but its role in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is unclear. Our aim was to clarify whether mRNA expression of EGFR-ligands was linked to prognosis and cisplatin resistance, and if so, which ligand was most important and how was the expression regulated. To examine the prognostic effect of EGFR-ligand expression, we analyzed tumorous mRNA expression in 399 HNSCC patients. The intracellular signaling pathways controlling epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced amphiregulin (AREG) expression were examined in three oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines. Effect of AREG on cisplatin resistance was examined by viability assays in four-, and by association in 11 OSCC cell lines. The patients were divided into five groups according to the median mRNA expression levels of four EGFR ligands, i.e. AREG, EGF, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) and beta-cellulin (BTC). The number of increased-expressed EGFR-ligands were progressively correlated to five-year survival, even in advanced TNM-stage IV patients, where five-year mortality increased from 26 % if tumor expressed none to one EGFR-ligand, to 45 % in three to four ligand expressing tumors. Thus, staging the tumor according to these EGFR-ligand mRNA expression pattern completely out performed TNM staging in predicting prognosis. Multivariate analysis identified AREG as the dominating predictor, and AREG was overexpressed in OSCC compared to tumors from other sites. Both EGF and HBEGF stimulation induced strong AREG increase in OSCC cell lines, which was partially mediated by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway, and negatively regulated by p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and phosphoinositide-3 kinase. Although increased AREG mRNA expression predicted unfavorable prognosis in platinum treated HNSCC patients, AREG did

  5. Arf6 regulates EGF-induced internalization of E-cadherin in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Zhang, Yujie; Gu, Luo; Zheng, Jianchao; Cui, Jie; Dong, Jing; Du, Jun

    2015-01-01

    E-cadherin internalization facilitates dissolution of adherens junctions and promotes tumor cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration. Our previous results have shown that Arf6 exerts pro-migratory action in breast cancer cells after EGF stimulation. Despite the fact that EGF signaling stimulates EMT of breast cancer cells, the effect of Arf6 on internalization of E-cadherin of breast cancer cells under EGF treatment remains to be determined. Here, we showed that EGF dose-dependently stimulated E-cadherin internalization by MCF-7 cells with the maximal effect at 50 ng/ml. Meanwhile, EGF treatment markedly increased Arf6 activation. Arf6 was involved in complexes of E-cadherin, and more E-cadherin was pulled down with Arf6 when the activity of the latter was increased. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays showed that transfection breast cancer cells with Arf6-T27N or Arf6 siRNA suppressed EGF-induced E-cadherin internalization. Taken together, our study demonstrated that Arf6 activation plays a potential role in EGF-induced E-cadherin internalization, providing new mechanism underlying the effect of Arf6 on promoting breast cancer cell metastasis.

  6. Cross-talk between EGF and BMP9 signalling pathways regulates the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Qin, Jiaqiang; Luo, Qing; Bi, Yang; Zhu, Gaohui; Jiang, Wei; Kim, Stephanie H; Li, Mi; Su, Yuxi; Nan, Guoxin; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Ruidong; Chen, Xiang; Kong, Yuhan; Zhang, Jiye; Wang, Jinhua; Rogers, Mary Rose; Zhang, Hongyu; Shui, Wei; Zhao, Chen; Wang, Ning; Liang, Xi; Wu, Ningning; He, Yunfeng; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; Shi, Lewis L; Li, Tingyu; He, Tong-Chuan; Li, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors, which give rise to several lineages, including bone, cartilage and fat. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. EGF acts by binding with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell surface and stimulating the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase activity of its receptor, which initiates a signal transduction cascade causing a variety of biochemical changes within the cell and regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. We have identified BMP9 as one of the most osteogenic BMPs in MSCs. In this study, we investigate if EGF signalling cross-talks with BMP9 and regulates BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. We find that EGF potentiates BMP9-induced early and late osteogenic markers of MSCs in vitro, which can be effectively blunted by EGFR inhibitors Gefitinib and Erlotinib or receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors AG-1478 and AG-494 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, EGF significantly augments BMP9-induced bone formation in the cultured mouse foetal limb explants. In vivo stem cell implantation experiment reveals that exogenous expression of EGF in MSCs can effectively potentiate BMP9-induced ectopic bone formation, yielding larger and more mature bone masses. Interestingly, we find that, while EGF can induce BMP9 expression in MSCs, EGFR expression is directly up-regulated by BMP9 through Smad1/5/8 signalling pathway. Thus, the cross-talk between EGF and BMP9 signalling pathways in MSCs may underline their important roles in regulating osteogenic differentiation. Harnessing the synergy between BMP9 and EGF should be beneficial for enhancing osteogenesis in regenerative medicine. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates epidermal growth factor-family ectodomain shedding and paracrine signaling from human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Tetsuya; Boudreault, Francis; Padem, Nurcicek; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Drazen, Jeffrey M; Tschumperlin, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Lysophospatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator implicated in tissue repair and wound healing. It mediates diverse functional effects in fibroblasts, including proliferation, migration and contraction, but less is known about its ability to evoke paracrine signaling to other cell types involved in wound healing. We hypothesized that human pulmonary fibroblasts stimulated by LPA would exhibit ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands that signal to lung epithelial cells. To test this hypothesis, we used alkaline phosphatase-tagged EGFR ligand plasmids transfected into lung fibroblasts, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect shedding of native ligands. LPA induced shedding of alkaline phosphatase-tagged heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), amphiregulin, and transforming growth factor-a; non-transfected fibroblasts shed amphiregulin and HBEGF under baseline conditions, and increased shedding of HB-EGF in response to LPA. Treatment of fibroblasts with LPA resulted in elevated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, enhanced expression of mRNA for c-fos, HB-EGF and amphiregulin, and enhanced proliferation at 96 hours. However, none of these fibroblast responses to LPA required ectodomain shedding or EGFR activity. To test the ability of LPA to stimulate paracrine signaling from fibroblasts, we transferred conditioned medium from LPA-stimulated cells, and found enhanced EGFR and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation in reporter A549 cells in excess of what could be accounted for by transferred LPA alone. These data show that LPA mediates EGF-family ectodomain shedding, resulting in enhanced paracrine signaling from lung fibroblasts to epithelial cells. © 2011 by the Wound Healing Society.

  8. EGF domain of coagulation factor IX is conducive to exposure of phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Hidai, Chiaki; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Kokubun, Shinichiro; Kitano, Hisataka

    2017-04-01

    Lipid rafts are an initiation site for many different signals. Recently, we reported that an EGF domain in activated coagulation factor IX (EGF-F9) increases lipid raft formation and accelerates cell migration. However, the detailed mechanism is not well understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of EGF-F9 on the cell membrane. A431 cells (derived from human squamous cell carcinoma) were treated with recombinant EGF-F9. Cells were immunocytochemically stained with probes for lipid rafts or phosphatidylserine (PS). After 3 min of treatment with EGF-F9, cholera toxin subunit B (CTxB) binding domains emerged at the adhesive tips of filopodia. Subsequently, CTxB staining was observed on the filopodial shaft. Finally, large clusters of CTxB domains were observed at the edge of cell bodies. Markers for lipid rafts, such as caveolin-1 and a GPI anchored protein, co-localized with CTxB. Staining with annexin V and XII revealed that PS was exposed at the tips of filopodia, translocated on filopodial shafts, and co-localized with CTxB at the rafts. Immunocytochemistry showed that scramblase-1 protein was present at the filopodial tips. Our data indicates that EGF-F9 accelerates PS exposure around the filopodial adhesion complex and induces clustering of lipid rafts in the cell body. PS exposure is thought to occur on cells undergoing apoptosis. Further study of the function of the EGF-F9 motif in mediating signal transduction is necessary because it is shared by a number of proteins. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  9. Decreased Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Associated with HMGB1 and Increased Hyperactivity in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), characterized by impaired social interactions and deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication, are thought to affect 1 in 88 children in the United States. There is much support for the role of growth factors in the etiology of autism. Recent research has shown that epithelial growth factor (EGF) is decreased in young autistic children (2–4 years of age). This study was designed to determine plasma levels of EGF in an older group of autistic children (mean age 10.6 years) and to correlate these EGF levels with putative biomarkers HGF, uPA, uPAR, GAD2, MPO GABA, and HMGB1, as well as symptom severity of 19 different symptoms. Subjects and methods Plasma from 38 autistic children, 11 children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS) and 40 neurotypical, age and gender similar controls was assessed for EGF concentration using ELISAs. Severity of 19 symptoms (awareness, expressive language, receptive language, (conversational) pragmatic language, focus/attention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, perseveration, fine motor skills, gross motor skills, hypotonia (low muscle tone), tiptoeing, rocking/pacing, stimming, obsessions/fixations, eye contact, sound sensitivity, light sensitivity, and tactile sensitivity) was assessed and then compared to EGF concentrations. Results In this study, we found EGF levels in autistic children and those with PDD-NOS to be significantly lower when compared with neurotypical controls. EGF levels correlated with HMGB1 levels but not the other tested putative biomarkers, and EGF correlated negatively with hyperactivity, gross motor skills, and tiptoeing but not other symptoms. Conclusions These results suggest an association between decreased plasma EGF levels and selected symptom severity. We also found a strong correlation between plasma EGF and HMGB1, suggesting inflammation is associated with decreased EGF. PMID:23645980

  10. EFFECTS OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF), TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR- (TGF), AND 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN ON FUSION OF EMBRYONIC PALATES IN SERUM-FREE ORGAN CULTURE USING WILD-TYPE, EGF KNOCKOUT, AND TGF KNOCKOUT MOUSE STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Backround: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is teratogenic in mice, producing cleft palate (CP). TCDD exposure disrupts expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, EGF, and transforming growth factor- (TGF) in the palate and affects proliferation and different...

  11. Localisation of epidermal growth factor (EGF), its specific receptor (EGF-R) and aromatase at the materno-fetal interface during placentation in the pregnant mare.

    PubMed

    Allen, W R Twink; Gower, Susan; Wilsher, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    Implantation and placentation in the mare does not commence until as late as day 40 after ovulation. The reasons for this and the growth factors and/or hormones which drive placentation when it does finally occur are of considerable academic and practical interest. Placental interface tissues recovered from 11 accurately aged and perfused-fixed horse uteri between 20 and 68 days of gestation were stained immunocytochemically for Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), its specific receptor (EGF-R) and for the steroid hormone enzyme, aromatase. EGF was present in endometrial gland and lumenal epithelia from day 20 but staining intensity increased noticeably for the protein between days 30 and 40, coincidentally with the commencing secretion of equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (eCG) from the endometrial cups and immediately prior to attachment and commencing interdigitation between the allantochorion and endometrium. EGF-R, on the other hand, was expressed strongly on the cell surface membrane of both non-invasive and invasive trophoblast and it similarly increased in staining intensity between days 30 and 40. Aromatase, the enzyme necessary for conversion of C-19 androgens to C-18 oestrogens, was expressed strongly and constantly from as early as day 12 in the non-invasive trophoblast of the allantochorion, but not the invasive trophoblast of the chorionic girdle, the progenitor tissue of the endometrial cups. The findings support the hypothesis that, in equine pregnancy, the maternal growth factor EGF synergises with maternally and fetally secreted oestrogens to drive the rapid growth and extensive vascularisation of the non-invasive, epitheliochorial, microcotyledonary placenta which results in the birth of the precocious foal after only 11 months gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein-protein interactions between SWCNT/chitosan/EGF and EGF receptor: a model of drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Rungnim, Chompoonut; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Kungwan, Nawee; Hannongbua, Supot

    2016-09-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) was used as the targeting ligand to enhance the specificity of a cancer drug delivery system (DDS) via its specific interaction with the EGF receptor (EGFR) that is overexpressed on the surface of some cancer cells. To investigate the intermolecular interaction and binding affinity between the EGF-conjugated DDS and the EGFR, 50 ns molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the complex of tethered EGFR and EGF linked to single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) through a biopolymer chitosan wrapping the tube outer surface (EGFR·EGF-CS-SWCNT-Drug complex), and compared to the EGFR·EGF complex and free EGFR. The binding pattern of the EGF-CS-SWCNT-Drug complex to the EGFR was broadly comparable to that for EGF, but the binding affinity of the EGF-CS-SWCNT-Drug complex was predicted to be somewhat better than that for EGF alone. Additionally, the chitosan chain could prevent undesired interactions of SWCNT at the binding pocket region. Therefore, EGF connected to SWCNT via a chitosan linker is a seemingly good formulation for developing a smart DDS served as part of an alternative cancer therapy.

  13. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor.

    PubMed

    Kourouniotis, George; Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-07-25

    The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to EGF receptor (EGFR) stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ) and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP) at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis.

  14. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and miR-1192 exert opposite effect on Runx2-induced osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yu, S; Geng, Q; Ma, J; Sun, F; Yu, Y; Pan, Q; Hong, A

    2013-10-17

    Osteoblast differentiation is a pivotal event in bone formation. Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) is an essential factor required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, the underlying mechanism of Runx2-regulated osteogenic differentiation is still unclear. Here, we explored the corresponding mechanism using the C2C12/Runx2(Dox) subline, which expresses Runx2 in response to doxycycline (Dox). We found that Runx2-induced osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells results in a sustained decrease in the expression of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. Forced expression of HB-EGF or treatment with HB-EGF is capable of reducing the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a defined marker of early osteoblast differentiation. HB-EGF-mediated inhibition of ALP depends upon activation of the EGFR and the downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Runx2 specifically binds to the Hbegf promoter, suggesting that Hbegf transcription is directly inhibited by Runx2. Runx2 can upregulate miR-1192, which enhances Runx2-induced osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, miR-1192 directly targets Hbegf through translational inhibition, suggesting enhancement of Runx2-induced osteogenic differentiation by miR-1192 through the downregulation of HB-EGF. Taken together, our results suggest that Runx2 induces osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells by inactivating HB-EGF-EGFR signaling through the downregulation of HB-EGF via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.

  15. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and miR-1192 exert opposite effect on Runx2-induced osteogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, S; Geng, Q; Ma, J; Sun, F; Yu, Y; Pan, Q; Hong, A

    2013-01-01

    Osteoblast differentiation is a pivotal event in bone formation. Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) is an essential factor required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. However, the underlying mechanism of Runx2-regulated osteogenic differentiation is still unclear. Here, we explored the corresponding mechanism using the C2C12/Runx2Dox subline, which expresses Runx2 in response to doxycycline (Dox). We found that Runx2-induced osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells results in a sustained decrease in the expression of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. Forced expression of HB-EGF or treatment with HB-EGF is capable of reducing the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a defined marker of early osteoblast differentiation. HB-EGF-mediated inhibition of ALP depends upon activation of the EGFR and the downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Runx2 specifically binds to the Hbegf promoter, suggesting that Hbegf transcription is directly inhibited by Runx2. Runx2 can upregulate miR-1192, which enhances Runx2-induced osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, miR-1192 directly targets Hbegf through translational inhibition, suggesting enhancement of Runx2-induced osteogenic differentiation by miR-1192 through the downregulation of HB-EGF. Taken together, our results suggest that Runx2 induces osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells by inactivating HB-EGF-EGFR signaling through the downregulation of HB-EGF via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. PMID:24136232

  16. Proteomic Analysis of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Interactome and Post-translational Modifications Associated with Receptor Endocytosis in Response to EGF and Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jiefei; Taylor, Paul; Moran, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant expression, activation, and stabilization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are causally associated with several human cancers. Post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions directly modulate the signaling and trafficking of the EGFR. Activated EGFR is internalized by endocytosis and then either recycled back to the cell surface or degraded in the lysosome. EGFR internalization and recycling also occur in response to stresses that activate p38 MAP kinase. Mass spectrometry was applied to comprehensively analyze the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and protein-protein interactions of wild type and endocytosis-defective EGFR variants before and after internalization in response to EGF ligand and stress. Prior to internalization, EGF-stimulated EGFR accumulated ubiquitin at 7 K residues and phosphorylation at 7 Y sites and at S1104. Following internalization, these modifications diminished and there was an accumulation of S/T phosphorylations. EGFR internalization and many but not all of the EGF-induced S/T phosphorylations were also stimulated by anisomycin-induced cell stress, which was not associated with receptor ubiquitination or elevated Y phosphorylation. EGFR protein interactions were dramatically modulated by ligand, internalization, and stress. In response to EGF, different E3 ubiquitin ligases became maximally associated with EGFR before (CBL, HUWE1, and UBR4) or after (ITCH) internalization, whereas CBLB was distinctively most highly EGFR associated following anisomycin treatment. Adaptin subunits of AP-1 and AP-2 clathrin adaptor complexes also became EGFR associated in response to EGF and anisomycin stress. Mutations preventing EGFR phosphorylation at Y998 or in the S1039 region abolished or greatly reduced EGFR interactions with AP-2 and AP-1, and impaired receptor trafficking. These results provide new insight into spatial, temporal, and mechanistic aspects of EGFR regulation. PMID:24797263

  17. EGF and hydrocortisone as critical factors for the co-culture of adipogenic differentiated ASCs and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Volz, Ann-Cathrin; Huber, Birgit; Schwandt, Alina Maria; Kluger, Petra Juliane

    In vitro composed vascularized adipose tissue is and will continue to be in great demand e.g. for the treatment of extensive high-graded burns or the replacement of tissue after tumor removal. Up to date, the lack of adequate culture conditions, mainly a culture medium, decelerates further achievements. In our study, we evaluated the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hydrocortisone (HC), often supplemented in endothelial cell (EC) specific media, on the co-culture of adipogenic differentiated adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and microvascular endothelial cells (mvECs). In ASCs, EGF and HC are thought to inhibit adipogenic differentiation and have lipolytic activities. Our results showed that in indirect co-culture for 14 days, adipogenic differentiated ASCs further incorporated lipids and partly gained an univacuolar morphology when kept in media with low levels of EGF and HC. In media with high EGF and HC levels, cells did not incorporate further lipids, on the contrary, cells without lipid droplets appeared. Glycerol release, to measure lipolysis, also increased with elevated amounts of EGF and HC in the culture medium. Adipogenic differentiated ASCs were able to release leptin in all setups. MvECs were functional and expressed the cell specific markers, CD31 and von Willebrand factor (vWF), independent of the EGF and HC content as long as further EC specific factors were present. Taken together, our study demonstrates that adipogenic differentiated ASCs can be successfully co-cultured with mvECs in a culture medium containing low or no amounts of EGF and HC, as long as further endothelial cell and adipocyte specific factors are available. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and enteric neural stem cell transplantation in the prevention of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jia; Zhou, Yu; Besner, Gail E

    2015-07-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with loss of neurons and glial cells in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Our goal was to determine whether enteric neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation, in conjunction with heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), could protect against experimental NEC. In vitro, HB-EGF on NSC proliferation and migration, and the effects of receptors utilized by HB-EGF to exert these effects, were determined. In vivo, mouse pups were exposed to experimental NEC and treated with NSC alone, HB-EGF alone, NSC+HB-EGF, or HB-EGF overexpressing NSC. NSC engraftment and differentiation into neurons in the ENS, intestinal injury, intestinal permeability, and intestinal motility were determined. HB-EGF promoted NSC proliferation via ErbB-1 receptors and enhanced NSC migration via ErbB-1, ErbB-4, and Nardilysin receptors. HB-EGF significantly enhanced the engraftment of transplanted NSC into the ENS during NEC. NSC transplantation significantly reduced NEC incidence and improved gut barrier function and intestinal motility, and these effects were augmented by simultaneous administration of HB-EGF or by transplantation of HB-EGF overexpressing NSC. HB-EGF promotes NSC proliferation and migration. HB-EGF and NSC reduce intestinal injury and improve gut barrier function and intestinal motility in experimental NEC. Combined HB-EGF and NSC transplantation may represent a potential future therapy to prevent NEC.

  19. SMAD4 loss enables EGF, TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9 induced activation of critical pathways to invasion in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Moz, Stefania; Basso, Daniela; Bozzato, Dania; Galozzi, Paola; Navaglia, Filippo; Negm, Ola H; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Zambon, Carlo-Federico; Padoan, Andrea; Tighe, Paddy; Todd, Ian; Franchin, Cinzia; Pedrazzoli, Sergio; Punzi, Leonardo; Plebani, Mario

    2016-10-25

    Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor overexpression, KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A and SMAD4 mutations characterize pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. This mutational landscape might influence cancer cells response to EGF, Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) and stromal inflammatory calcium binding proteins S100A8/A9. We investigated whether chronic exposure to EGF modifies in a SMAD4-dependent manner pancreatic cancer cell signalling, proliferation and invasion in response to EGF, TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9. BxPC3, homozigously deleted (HD) for SMAD4, and BxPC3-SMAD4+ cells were or not stimulated with EGF (100 ng/mL) for three days. EGF pre-treated and non pretreated cells were stimulated with a single dose of EGF (100 ng/mL), TGFβ1 (0,02 ng/mL), S100A8/A9 (10 nM). Signalling pathways (Reverse Phase Protein Array and western blot), cell migration (Matrigel) and cell proliferation (XTT) were evaluated. SMAD4 HD constitutively activated ERK and Wnt/β-catenin, while inhibiting PI3K/AKT pathways. These effects were antagonized by chronic EGF, which increased p-BAD (anti-apoptotic) in response to combined TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9 stimulation. SMAD4 HD underlied the inhibition of NF-κB and PI3K/AKT in response to TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9, which also induced cell migration. Chronic EGF exposure enhanced cell migration of both BxPC3 and BxPC3-SMAD4+, rendering the cells less sensitive to the other inflammatory stimuli. In conclusion, SMAD4 HD is associated with the constitutive activation of the ERK and Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways, and favors the EGF-induced activation of multiple signalling pathways critical to cancer proliferation and invasion. TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9 mainly inhibit NF-κB and PI3K/AKT pathways and, when combined, sinergize with EGF in enhancing anti-apoptotic p-BAD in a SMAD4-dependent manner.

  20. The expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR) during post-natal testes development in the yak.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y; Cui, Y; Yu, S; Zhang, Q; Fan, J; Abdul Rasheed, B; Yang, K

    2014-12-01

    Growth factors play critical role in cell proliferation, regulate tissue differentiation and modulate organogenesis. Several growth factors have been identified in the testes of various mammalian species in last few years. In present investigation, the objective was to determine the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in yak testicular tissue by relative quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) from mRNA and protein levels. The testicular tissues were collected from male yak at 6 and 24 months old. Results of RT-PCR and WB showed that the expression quantity of EGF and EGFR at 24 months of age was higher than at 6 months, and the increase rate of EGFR on mRNA and protein levels was higher than the increase rate EGF during post-natal testes development. Positive staining for EGF and EGFR was very low and mainly localized to Leydig cells testes at 6 months of age with immunohistochemistry, and seminiferous tubules were not observed. At 24 month of age, both the EGF and EGFR could be detected in Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells, sertoli cells and germ cells of the yak testes. However, EGF and EGFR were localized to preferential adluminal compartment and basal compartment in the seminiferous tubules, respectively. In conclusion, the findings in present studies suggest that EGF and EGFR as important paracrine and/or autocrine regulators in yak testes development and spermatogenesis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Different Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Receptor Ligands Show Distinct Kinetics and Biased or Partial Agonism for Homodimer and Heterodimer Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald-Obermann, Jennifer L.; Pike, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    The EGF receptor has seven different cognate ligands. Previous work has shown that these different ligands are capable of inducing different biological effects, even in the same cell. To begin to understand the molecular basis for this variation, we used luciferase fragment complementation to measure ligand-induced dimer formation and radioligand binding to study the effect of the ligands on subunit-subunit interactions in EGF receptor (EGFR) homodimers and EGFR/ErbB2 heterodimers. In luciferase fragment complementation imaging studies, amphiregulin (AREG) functioned as a partial agonist, inducing only about half as much total dimerization as the other three ligands. However, unlike the other ligands, AREG showed biphasic kinetics for dimer formation, suggesting that its path for EGF receptor activation involves binding to both monomers and preformed dimers. EGF, TGFα, and betacellulin (BTC) appear to mainly stimulate receptor activation through binding to and dimerization of receptor monomers. In radioligand binding assays, EGF and TGFα exhibited increased affinity for EGFR/ErbB2 heterodimers compared with EGFR homodimers. By contrast, BTC and AREG showed a similar affinity for both dimers. Thus, EGF and TGFα are biased agonists, whereas BTC and AREG are balanced agonists with respect to selectivity of dimer formation. These data suggest that the differences in biological response to different EGF receptor ligands may result from partial agonism for dimer formation, differences in the kinetic pathway utilized to generate activated receptor dimers, and biases in the formation of heterodimers versus homodimers. PMID:25086039

  2. A Mena invasion isoform potentiates EGF-induced carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Philippar, Ulrike; Roussos, Evanthia T; Oser, Matthew; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Kim, Hyung-Do; Giampieri, Silvia; Wang, Yarong; Goswami, Sumanta; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John S; Gertler, Frank B

    2008-12-01

    The spread of cancer during metastatic disease requires that tumor cells subvert normal regulatory networks governing cell motility to invade surrounding tissues and migrate toward blood and lymphatic vessels. Enabled (Ena)/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) proteins regulate cell motility by controlling the geometry of assembling actin networks. Mena, an Ena/VASP protein, is upregulated in the invasive subpopulation of breast cancer cells. In addition, Mena is alternately spliced to produce an invasion isoform, Mena(INV). Here we show that Mena and Mena(INV) promote carcinoma cell motility and invasiveness in vivo and in vitro, and increase lung metastasis. Mena and Mena(INV) potentiate epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced membrane protrusion and increase the matrix degradation activity of tumor cells. Interestingly, Mena(INV) is significantly more effective than Mena in driving metastases and sensitizing cells to EGF-dependent invasion and protrusion. Upregulation of Mena(INV) could therefore enable tumor cells to invade in response to otherwise benign EGF stimulus levels.

  3. Epidermal growth factor stimulates mouse placental lactogen I but inhibits mouse placental lactogen II secretion in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, M; Ogren, L; Endo, H; Thordarson, G; Kensinger, R; Talamantes, F

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulates the secretion of mouse placental lactogen (mPL)-I and mPL-II. Primary cell cultures were prepared from placentas from days 7, 9, and 11 of pregnancy and cultured for up to 5 days. Addition of EGF (20 ng/ml) to the medium resulted in significant stimulation of mPL-I secretion by the second day of culture in cells from days 7 and 9 of pregnancy and significant inhibition of mPL-II secretion by the third or fourth day of culture in cells from days 7, 9, and 11. Dose-response studies carried out with cells from day 7 of pregnancy demonstrated that the minimum concentration of EGF that stimulated mPL-I secretion and inhibited mPL-II secretion was 1.0 ng/ml. EGF did not affect the DNA content of the cells or cell viability, assessed by trypan blue exclusion, nor did it have a general effect on protein synthesis. There are three types of PL-containing giant cells in mouse placental cell cultures: cells that contain either mPL-I or mPL-II and cells that contain both hormones. Immunocytochemical analysis and the reverse hemolytic plaque assay indicated that EGF treatment was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of cells that produce mPL-I, but among the PL cells that contained mPL-I, there was no change in the fraction of cells that contained only mPL-I or the fraction that contained both mPL-I and mPL-II. In contrast, EGF treatment did affect the distribution of mPL-II among PL cells. In control cultures, about 75% of the cells that contained mPL-II also contained mPL-I, but in EGF-treated cultures, all of the cells that contained mPL-II also contained mPL-I. These data suggest that EGF regulates mPL-I and mPL-II secretion at least partly by regulating PL cell differentiation. PMID:1454826

  4. Comparative experimental/theoretical studies on the EGFR dimerization under the effect of EGF/EGF analogues binding: Highlighting the importance of EGF/EGFR interactions at site III interface.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Masomeh; Mahdiuni, Hamid; Rasouli, Hassan; Mansouri, Kamran; Shahlaei, Mohsen; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2018-04-14

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and their cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases play significant roles in cell proliferation and signaling. All the members of the EGFR/ErbB family are primary goals for cancer therapy, particularly for tumors of breast, cervix, ovaries, kidney, esophagus, prostate and non-small-cell lung carcinoma and head and neck tumors. However, the therapeutic ability of accessible anti-ErbB agents is limited. Therefore, recognizing EGF analogues or small organic molecules with high affinity for the extracellular domain of the EGFR is a critical target on cancer research. An effective EGF analogue should have a comparable binding affinity for EGFR in order to create an effective ligand competitive inhibition against circulating wild EGF while fails to transduce appropriate downstream signaling into the cancer cell. In our earlier study we have developed a mutant form of human EGF (mEGF, lacking the four critical amino acid residues; Gln 43 , Tyr 44 , Arg 45 and Asp 46 at the C-terminal of the protein) and its binding properties and mitogenic activity were assessed. The mEGF showed high affinity for EGFR binding domains but caused poor EGFR dimerization and phosphorylation and especially, mEGF induced EGFR internalization. However, underlying mechanism of action of EGF analogues is still unclear and thus considered to be worthwhile for further study. With regard to different effects of the EGF analogue on EGFR activating process, computational analysis of wild EGF/EGFR and mEGF/EGFR complexes (along with EGFt/EGFR complex) were done. Results of the protein dissection identified several interactions within "ligand/EGFR" that are common among EGF and EGFt/mEGF. These results disclose that while several interactions are conserved within EGF/EGFR interfaces, EGF/EGFR interactions on site III interface controls the affinity, EGFR dimerization and subsequent downstream signaling through a heterogeneous set of non-covalent interactions. These findings

  5. EGF receptor uses SOS1 to drive constitutive activation of NFκB in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    De, Sarmishtha; Dermawan, Josephine Kam Tai; Stark, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) is a central event in the responses of normal cells to inflammatory signals, and the abnormal constitutive activation of NFκB is important for the survival of most cancer cells. In nonmalignant human cells, EGF stimulates robust activation of NFκB. The kinase activity of the EGF receptor (EGFR) is required, because the potent and specific inhibitor erlotinib blocks the response. Down-regulating EGFR expression or inhibiting EGFR with erlotinib impairs constitutive NFκB activation in several different types of cancer cells and, conversely, increased activation of NFκB leads to erlotinib resistance in these cells. We conclude that EGF is an important mediator of NFκB activation in cancer cells. To explore the mechanism, we selected an erlotinib-resistant cell line in which the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless 1 (SOS1), well known to be important for EGF-dependent signaling to MAP kinases, is overexpressed. Increased expression of SOS1 increases NFκB activation in several different types of cancer cells, and ablation of SOS1 inhibits EGF-induced NFκB activation in these cells, indicating that SOS1 is a functional component of the pathway connecting EGFR to NFκB activation. Importantly, the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of SOS1 is not required for NFκB activation. PMID:25071181

  6. Tangeretin and its metabolite 4'-hydroxytetramethoxyflavone attenuate EGF-stimulated cell cycle progression in hepatocytes; role of inhibition at the level of mTOR/p70S6K.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z; Surichan, S; Ruparelia, K; Arroo, R; Boarder, M R

    2011-04-01

    The mechanisms by which the dietary compound tangeretin has anticancer effects may include acting as a prodrug, forming an antiproliferative product in cancer cells. Here we show that tangeretin also inhibits cell cycle progression in hepatocytes and investigate the role of its primary metabolite 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (4'-OH-TMF) in this effect. We used epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated rat hepatocytes, with [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA as an index of progression to S-phase of the cell cycle, and Western blots for phospho-proteins involved in the cell signalling cascade. Incubation of tangeretin with microsomes expressing CYP1A, or with hepatocytes, generated a primary product we identified as 4'-OH-TMF. Low micromolar concentrations of tangeretin or 4'-OH-TMF gave a concentration-dependent inhibition of EGF-stimulated progression to S-phase while having little effect on cell viability. To determine whether time for conversion of tangeretin to an active metabolite would enhance the inhibitory effect we used long pre-incubations; this reduced the inhibitory effect, in parallel with a reduction in the concentration of tangeretin. The EGF-stimulation of hepatocyte cell cycle progression requires signalling through Akt/mTOR/p70S6K kinase cascades. The tangeretin metabolite 4'-OH-TMF selectively inhibited S6K phosphorylation in the absence of significant inhibition of upstream Akt activity, suggesting an effect at the level of mTOR. Tangeretin and 4'-OH-TMF both inhibit cell cycle progression in primary hepatocytes. The inhibition of p70S6K phosphorylation by 4'-OH-TMF raises the possibility that inhibition of the mTOR pathway may contribute to the anticancer influence of a flavonoid-rich diet. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. SMAD4 loss enables EGF, TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9 induced activation of critical pathways to invasion in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Moz, Stefania; Basso, Daniela; Bozzato, Dania; Galozzi, Paola; Navaglia, Filippo; Negm, Ola H.; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Zambon, Carlo-Federico; Padoan, Andrea; Tighe, Paddy; Todd, Ian; Franchin, Cinzia; Pedrazzoli, Sergio; Punzi, Leonardo; Plebani, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor overexpression, KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A and SMAD4 mutations characterize pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. This mutational landscape might influence cancer cells response to EGF, Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) and stromal inflammatory calcium binding proteins S100A8/A9. We investigated whether chronic exposure to EGF modifies in a SMAD4-dependent manner pancreatic cancer cell signalling, proliferation and invasion in response to EGF, TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9. BxPC3, homozigously deleted (HD) for SMAD4, and BxPC3-SMAD4+ cells were or not stimulated with EGF (100 ng/mL) for three days. EGF pre-treated and non pretreated cells were stimulated with a single dose of EGF (100 ng/mL), TGFβ1 (0,02 ng/mL), S100A8/A9 (10 nM). Signalling pathways (Reverse Phase Protein Array and western blot), cell migration (Matrigel) and cell proliferation (XTT) were evaluated. SMAD4 HD constitutively activated ERK and Wnt/β-catenin, while inhibiting PI3K/AKT pathways. These effects were antagonized by chronic EGF, which increased p-BAD (anti-apoptotic) in response to combined TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9 stimulation. SMAD4 HD underlied the inhibition of NF-κB and PI3K/AKT in response to TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9, which also induced cell migration. Chronic EGF exposure enhanced cell migration of both BxPC3 and BxPC3-SMAD4+, rendering the cells less sensitive to the other inflammatory stimuli. In conclusion, SMAD4 HD is associated with the constitutive activation of the ERK and Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways, and favors the EGF-induced activation of multiple signalling pathways critical to cancer proliferation and invasion. TGFβ1 and S100A8/A9 mainly inhibit NF-κB and PI3K/AKT pathways and, when combined, sinergize with EGF in enhancing anti-apoptotic p-BAD in a SMAD4-dependent manner. PMID:27655713

  8. EGF Functionalized Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Promote EGF Photostability and EGFR Internalization for Photothermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Catarina Oliveira; Petersen, Steffen B.; Reis, Catarina Pinto; Rijo, Patrícia; Molpeceres, Jesús; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Gonçalves, Odete; Gomes, Andreia C.; Correia, Isabel; Vorum, Henrik; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The application of functionalized nanocarriers on photothermal therapy for cancer ablation has wide interest. The success of this application depends on the therapeutic efficiency and biocompatibility of the system, but also on the stability and biorecognition of the conjugated protein. This study aims at investigating the hypothesis that EGF functionalized polymer-coated gold nanoparticles promote EGF photostability and EGFR internalization, making these conjugated particles suitable for photothermal therapy. The conjugated gold nanoparticles (100–200 nm) showed a plasmon absorption band located within the near-infrared range (650–900 nm), optimal for photothermal therapy applications. The effects of temperature, of polymer-coated gold nanoparticles and of UVB light (295nm) on the fluorescence properties of EGF have been investigated with steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence properties of EGF, including the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts, is modulated by temperature and by the intensity of the excitation light. The presence of polymeric-coated gold nanoparticles reduced or even avoided the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts when EGF is exposed to UVB light, protecting this way the structure and function of EGF. Cytotoxicity studies of conjugated nanoparticles carried out in normal-like human keratinocytes showed small, concentration dependent decreases in cell viability (0–25%). Moreover, conjugated nanoparticles could activate and induce the internalization of overexpressed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in human lung carcinoma cells. In conclusion, the gold nanoparticles conjugated with Epidermal Growth Factor and coated with biopolymers developed in this work, show a potential application for near infrared photothermal therapy, which may efficiently destroy solid tumours, reducing the damage of the healthy tissue. PMID:27788212

  9. Novel nanofibrous dressings containing rhEGF and Aloe vera for wound healing applications.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Orue, Itxaso; Gainza, Garazi; Gutierrez, Franciso Borja; Aguirre, Jose Javier; Evora, Carmen; Pedraz, Jose Luis; Hernandez, Rosa Maria; Delgado, Araceli; Igartua, Manoli

    2017-05-25

    Nanofibrous membranes produced by electrospinning possess a large surface area-to-volume ratio, which mimics the three-dimensional structure of the extracellular matrix. Thus, nanofibrous dressings are a promising alternative for chronic wound healing, since they can replace the natural ECM until it is repaired. Therefore, in this study we have developed a PLGA nanofibrous membrane that contains recombinant human Epidermal Growth Factor (rhEGF) and Aloe vera (AV) extract. Both of them promote wound healing, as EGF is a wound healing mediator and AV stimulates the proliferation and activity of fibroblast. The obtained membranes were composed of uniform and randomly oriented fibers with an average diameter of 356.03±112.05nm, they presented a porosity of 87.92±11.96% and the amount of rhEGF was 9.76±1.75μg/mg. The in vitro viability assay demonstrated that the membranes containing rhEGF and AV improved fibroblast proliferation, revealing the beneficial effect of the combination. Furthermore, these membranes accelerated significantly wound closure and reepithelisation in an in vivo full thickness wound healing assay carried out in db/db mice. Overall, these findings demonstrated the potential of PLGA nanofibers containing rhEGF and AV for the treatment of chronic wounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The SH2 and SH3 domains of mammalian Grb2 couple the EGF receptor to the Ras activator mSos1.

    PubMed

    Rozakis-Adcock, M; Fernley, R; Wade, J; Pawson, T; Bowtell, D

    1993-05-06

    Many tyrosine kinases, including the receptors for hormones such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), nerve growth factor and insulin, transmit intracellular signals through Ras proteins. Ligand binding to such receptors stimulates Ras guanine-nucleotide-exchange activity and increases the level of GTP-bound Ras, suggesting that these tyrosine kinases may activate a guanine-nucleotide releasing protein (GNRP). In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, genetic studies have shown that Ras activation by tyrosine kinases requires the protein Sem-5/drk, which contains a single Src-homology (SH) 2 domain and two flanking SH3 domains. Sem-5 is homologous to the mammalian protein Grb2, which binds the autophosphorylated EGF receptor and other phosphotyrosine-containing proteins such as Shc through its SH2 domain. Here we show that in rodent fibroblasts, the SH3 domains of Grb2 are bound to the proline-rich carboxy-terminal tail of mSos1, a protein homologous to Drosophila Sos. Sos is required for Ras signalling and contains a central domain related to known Ras-GNRPs. EGF stimulation induces binding of the Grb2-mSos1 complex to the autophosphorylated EGF receptor, and mSos1 phosphorylation. Grb2 therefore appears to link tyrosine kinases to a Ras-GNRP in mammalian cells.

  11. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  12. Metabolic effects of growth factors and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on cultured human placental cells of early and late gestation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Guyda, H.J.

    1991-03-01

    The metabolic effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-II were determined on human placental cells in monolayer culture obtained from early gestation (less than 20 weeks) and late gestation (38-42 weeks). Parameters studied were uptake of aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), uptake of 3-O-methylglucose and (3H)thymidine incorporation into cell protein. Since benzo(alpha)pyrene (BP) inhibits EGF binding and autophosphorylation in cultured human placental cells, particularly in early gestation, we also studied the effect of benzo(alpha)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on EGF-mediated AIB uptake. The metabolic effects of EGF, insulin, and the IGFs in cultured humanmore » placental cells varied with gestational age and the growth factor studied. All three classes of growth factors stimulated AIB uptake in both early and late gestation at concentrations from 10-100 micrograms/L, well within a physiological range. However, insulin stimulation of AIB uptake was maximal at a high concentration in both early and late gestation cells, suggesting an action via type 1 IGF receptors rather than via insulin receptors. EGF stimulated 3-O-methylglucose uptake only in term placental cells. No significant stimulation of (3H)thymidine incorporation by any of the growth factors tested was seen with either early or late gestation cells. The effect of PAHs on AIB uptake by cultured placental cells was variable. BP alone stimulated AIB uptake by both very early and late gestation cells and enhanced EGF-stimulated AIB uptake. alpha-naphthoflavone alone inhibited AIB uptake at all gestational ages and inhibited EGF-stimulated AIB uptake. beta-Naphthoflavone and 3-methylcholanthrene minimally inhibited AIB uptake by early gestation cells and did not modify EGF-stimulated uptake at any gestational period.« less

  13. HEPARIN-BINDING EGF CLEAVAGE MEDIATES ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR PHOSPHORYLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously shown that exposure to zinc ions can activate epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signaling in murine fibroblasts and A431 cells through a mechanism involving Src kinase. While studying the effects of zinc ions in normal human bronchial epithelial cel...

  14. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor expression in KATO-III cells after Helicobacter pylori stimulation under the influence of strychnos Nux vomica and Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Roland; Pasching, Eva; Moser, Doris; Frass, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies have shown the stimulating effect of Helicobacter pylori on the gene expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) using the gastric epithelial cell line KATO-III. Strychnos Nux vomica (Nux vomica) and Calendula officinalis are used in highly diluted form in homeopathic medicine to treat patients suffering from gastritis and gastric ulcers. To investigate the influence of Nux vomica and Calendula officinalis on HB-EGF-like growth factor gene expression in KATO-III cells under the stimulation of H. pylori strain N6 using real-time PCR with and without addition of Nux vomica and Calendula officinalis as a 10c or 12c potency. Baseline expression and stimulation were similar to previous experiments, addition of Nux vomica 10c and Calendula officinalis 10c in a 43% ethanolic solution led to a significant reduction of H. pylori induced increase in gene expression of HB-EGF (reduced to 53.12+/-0.95% and 75.32+/-1.16% vs. control; p<0.05), respectively. Nux vomica 12c reduced HB-EGF gene expression even in dilutions beyond Avogadro's number (55.77+/-1.09%; p<0.05). Nux vomica 12c in a 21.5% ethanol showed a smaller effect (71.80+/-3.91%, p<0.05). This effect was only be observed when the drugs were primarily prepared in ethanol, not in aqueous solutions. The data suggest that both drugs prepared in ethanolic solution are potent inhibitors of H. pylori induced gene expression. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EGF Induced Centrosome Separation Promotes Mitotic Progression and Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mardin, Balca R.; Isokane, Mayumi; Cosenza, Marco R.; Krämer, Alwin; Ellenberg, Jan; Fry, Andrew M.; Schiebel, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Summary Timely and accurate assembly of the mitotic spindle is critical for the faithful segregation of chromosomes and centrosome separation is a key step in this process. The timing of centrosome separation varies dramatically between cell types; however, the mechanisms responsible for these differences and its significance are unclear. Here, we show that activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling determines the timing of centrosome separation. Premature separation of centrosomes decreases the requirement for the major mitotic kinesin Eg5 for spindle assembly, accelerates mitosis and decreases the rate of chromosome missegregation. Importantly, EGF stimulation impacts upon centrosome separation and mitotic progression to different degrees in different cell lines. Cells with high EGFR levels fail to arrest in mitosis upon Eg5 inhibition. This has important implications for cancer therapy since cells with high centrosomal response to EGF are more susceptible to combinatorial inhibition of EGFR and Eg5. PMID:23643362

  16. Nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF induces gastric cancer invasion.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Takaya; Yoshida, Michihiro; Fukuda, Shinji; Ebi, Masahide; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Joh, Takashi

    2012-05-30

    Membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) yields soluble HB-EGF, which is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand, and a carboxy-terminal fragment of HB-EGF (HB-EGF-CTF) after ectodomain shedding. We previously reported that HB-EGF-CTF and unshed proHB-EGF which has the cytoplasmic domain of proHB-EGF (HB-EGF-C), translocate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus and regulate cell cycle after shedding stimuli. However, the significance of nuclear exported HB-EGF-C in human gastric cancer is unclear. We investigated the relationship between intracellular localization of HB-EGF-C and clinical outcome in 96 gastric cancer patients treated with gastrectomy. Moreover, we established stable gastric cancer cell lines overexpressing wild-type HB-EGF (wt-HB-EGF) and mutated HB-EGF (HB-EGF-mC), which prevented HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation after shedding. Cell motility between these 2 gastric cancer cell lines was investigated using a transwell invasion assay and a wound healing assay. Of the 96 gastric cancer cases, HB-EGF-C immunoreactivity was detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in 19 cases (19.8 %) and in the cytoplasm only in 25 cases (26.0 %). The nuclear immunoreactivity of HB-EGF-C was significantly increased in stage pT3/4 tumors compared with pT1/2 tumors (T1/2 vs. T3/4: 11.1 % vs. 36.4 %, P < 0.01). The growth of wt-HB-EGF- and HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells significantly increased compared with control cells, but the growth of HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells was significantly decreased compared with wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells. Gastric cancer cell invasion obviously increased in wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells, but invasion in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells showed a slight increase compared with control cells. Moreover, wt-HB-EGF overexpression increased the effectiveness of wound healing, but had no significant effect in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells. Both the function of HB-EGF as an EGFR ligand and a novel signal for

  17. Transforming growth factor-{alpha} enhances corneal epithelial cell migration by promoting EGFR recycling.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Jennifer L; Ceresa, Brian P

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism by which transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is a more potent activator of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated corneal wound healing than epidermal growth factor (EGF). METHODS. Telomerase immortalized human corneal epithelial (hTCEpi) cells and primary human corneal epithelial cells were tested for their ability to migrate in response to EGF and TGF-alpha. In parallel, the endocytic trafficking of the EGFR in response to these same ligands was examined using indirect immunofluorescence, immunoblots, and radioligand binding. RESULTS. TGF-alpha, compared with EGF, is a more potent activator of corneal epithelial cell migration. Although both TGF-alpha and EGF were able to induce EGFR internalization and phosphorylation, only those receptors that were stimulated with EGF progressed to lysosomal degradation. EGFRs stimulated with TGF-alpha recycled back to the plasma membrane, where they could be reactivated with ligand. CONCLUSIONS. This study reveals that EGFR-mediated cell migration is limited by ligand-stimulated downregulation of the EGFR. This limitation can be overcome by treating cells with TGF-alpha because TGF-alpha stimulates EGFR endocytosis, but not degradation. After internalization of the TGF-alpha/EGFR complex, EGFR recycles back to the plasma membrane, where it can be restimulated. This sequence of events provides the receptor multiple opportunities for stimulation. Thus, stimulation with TGF-alpha prolongs EGFR signaling compared with EGF.

  18. Role of binding ligand in toxic hybrid proteins: a comparison of EGF-ricin, EGF-ricin A-chain, and ricin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Herschman, H.R.

    1984-10-30

    To analyze the influence of ricin B-chain on (i) the toxicity of hybrid-protein conjugates, (ii) the rate of cellular uptake of conjugates, and (iii) the rate at which ricin A-chain (RTA) is delivered to the cytoplasm, toxic hybrid proteins have been constructed consisting of epidermal growth factor (EGF) coupled in disulfide linkage either to ricin or to RTA. EGF-ricin is no more toxic on A431 cells than EGF-RTA. The two conjugates demonstrate similar kinetics of cellular uptake (defined as antibody irreversible toxicity). EGF-RTA and EGF-ricin, like ricin, required a 2-2 1/2 hour period at 37/sup 0/ before the onset ofmore » protein synthesis inhibition occurred. Results suggest that (i) RTA determines the processes which carry it, either in conjugate or toxin, from the plasma membrane binding site to the cytoplasm following endocytosis, and (ii) the ricin B chain is not required for these processes.« less

  19. Colon cancer cells adopt an invasive phenotype without mesenchymal transition in 3-D but not 2-D culture upon combined stimulation with EGF and crypt growth factors.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Kirsten; Tse, Edison S; Wang, Jean Yj

    2013-05-02

    The intestinal crypt homeostasis is maintained by a combination of growth factors including Wnt, R-Spondin1, Noggin and the epidermal growth factor (EGF). In human colorectal cancer, the Wnt pathway is constitutively activated through genetic and epigenetic alterations in as many as 11 genes encoding components of this crypt stem-cell maintenance mechanism. Although the proliferation of colon cancer cells does not require Wnt, it is possible that colon cancer cells can still respond to the crypt growth factors in the colonic microenvironment. A number of studies have shown that epithelial cells behave differently in 3-D versus 2-D cultures. Because the 3-D conditions more closely mimic the in vivo environment, we examined the effects of Wnt and other crypt growth factors on colon cancer cell growth in 3-D culture. Colon cancer cells were grown in 3-D matrigel supplemented with different combinations of crypt growth factors and colonies were examined for morphology and pathways. When colon cancer cells were cultured in 3-D with EGF, they grew as round spheroid colonies. However, colon cancer cells also grew as flat, disc-like colonies when cultured with EGF plus Wnt, R-Spondin1 and Noggin. Disc colonies were found to have comparable levels of E-cadherin as the spheroid colonies, but showed decreased E-cadherin at the cell-matrix contact sites. Disc colonies also elaborated F-actin rich protrusions (FRP) at the cell-matrix edge, reminiscent of an invasive phenotype but without the expression of vimentin. These E-cadherin and F-actin alterations were not induced by the four growth factors in 2-D culture. Formation of the disc colonies was inhibited by the knockdown of β-catenin and by protein kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, imatinib and MK-2206. Furthermore, withdrawal of the crypt growth factors was able to revert the disc colonies to spheroid growth, showing that the invasive phenotype was reversible dependent on the availability of growth factors. These

  20. [99mTc] HYNIC-hEGF, a potential agent for imaging of EGF receptors in vivo: preparation and pre-clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Mohammad Hossein; Almqvist, Ylva; Orlova, Anna; Shafii, Mohammad; Kairemo, Kalevi; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2005-06-01

    Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) has prognostic and predictive value in many kinds of tumors. Imaging of expression of EGFR in vivo may give valuable diagnostic information. The epidermal growth factor (EGF), a natural ligand, is a possible candidate for the targeting of EGFR. The present study describes a method for preparation of (99m)Tc-EGF via the hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) conjugation using tricine and ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA) as co-ligands. Both conjugates bound EGFR expressing cells with nanomolar affinity, and demonstrated good intracellular retention. The complex with EDDA demonstrated much higher stability in blood serum and during cysteine challenge. Biodistribution of (99m)Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-EGF in normal mice demonstrated fast blood clearance of conjugate, and its ability to bind EGFR in vivo. (99m)Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-EGF is a promising candidate for visualization of EGFR expression in vivo.

  1. Improved expression of recombinant plant-made hEGF.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David Rhys; Walmsley, Amanda Maree

    2014-11-01

    The yield of recombinant hEGF was increased approximately tenfold through a range of optimisations. Further, the recombinant protein was found to have biological activity comparable to commercial hEGF. Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a powerful mitogen that can enhance the healing of a wide range of injuries, including burns, cuts, diabetic ulcers and gastric ulcers. However, despite its clinical value, hEGF is only consistently used for the treatment of chronic diabetic ulcers due to its high cost. In this study, hEGF was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and targeted to the apoplast, ER and vacuole. Several other approaches were also included in a stepwise fashion to identify the optimal conditions for the expression of recombinant hEGF. Expression was found to be highest in the vacuole, while targeting hEGF to the ER caused a decrease in total soluble protein (TSP). Using a codon optimised sequence was found to increase vacuolar targeted hEGF yield by ~34 %, while it was unable to increase the yield of ER targeted hEGF. The use of the P19 silencing inhibitor was able to further increase expression by over threefold, and using 5-week-old plants significantly increased expression compared to 4- or 6-week-old-plants. The combined effect of these optimisations increased expression tenfold over the initial apoplast targeted construct to an average yield of 6.24 % of TSP. The plant-made hEGF was then shown to be equivalent to commercial E. coli derived hEGF in its ability to promote the proliferation of mouse keratinocytes. This study supports the potential for plants to be used for the commercial production of hEGF, and identifies a potential limitation for the further improvement of recombinant protein yields.

  2. Spatial localization of EGF family ligands and receptors in the zebrafish ovarian follicle and their expression profiles during folliculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tse, Anna Chung-Kwan; Ge, Wei

    2010-07-01

    The roles of epidermal growth factor (EGF) family in the ovary have received increasing attention recently. Despite this, the production sites of EGF family members in the ovarian follicle still remain controversial. Using zebrafish as the model, the present study investigated spatial distribution of several EGF family ligands and receptors in the follicle as well as their temporal expression profiles during folliculogenesis. RT-PCR analysis on the somatic follicle layer and oocyte revealed that all EGF family ligands examined (egf, tgfa, btc and hbegf) were mostly or exclusively expressed in the oocyte. In contrast, their common receptor (egfr) was expressed exclusively in the follicle layer. By comparison, members of activin family showed an opposite pattern of distribution. Activin subunits (inhbaa and inhbb) were both expressed exclusively in the follicle layer whereas activin receptors and follistatin were abundantly present in the oocyte. During folliculogenesis, egf, tgfa and hbegf increased their expression together with egfr in the fast secondary growth phase. The developmental profiles of EGF family during embryogenesis appeared to argue for an important role for EGF family in folliculogenesis rather than embryogenesis as maternal molecules. The present study provided clear evidence for the existence of two paracrine pathways in the follicle, the oocyte-derived EGF family ligands and follicle cell-derived activins, which may mediate oocyte-to-follicle cell and follicle cell-to-oocyte communications, respectively. The functional relationship between these two signaling systems in the follicle is suggested by the observation that all four EGFR ligands examined significantly stimulated activin subunit expression in cultured follicle cells. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of cell proliferation and estrogen synthesis by ovine LH, IGF-I, and EGF in theca interstitial cells of the domestic hen cultured in defined media.

    PubMed

    Onagbesan, O M; Peddie, M J; Williams, J

    1994-05-01

    There is relatively little information on the factors which regulate the proliferation and alterations in the steroidogenic capacity of avian theca cells during follicular maturation. The development of culture conditions for these cells to determine the effects of gonadotrophin (LH) and the growth factors epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on DNA synthesis and estrogen production is reported. Cultures were established in serum-supplemented (with fetal calf serum or chicken serum) or ITS+ (insulin, transferrin, and selenium plus additives) supplemented serum-free media. Cell replication occurred throughout the 72-hr culture period as indicated by a linear increase in the DNA content of the culture dishes. Aromatase activity of the cells as defined by conversion of androstenedione to estrogen was best maintained in serum-free medium while sera inhibited this activity. Ovine LH enhanced the aromatase activity of cultured cells from medium and small-sized follicles, while IGF-I and EGF inhibited both basal and LH-stimulated aromatase activity. LH, IGF-I, and EGF all stimulated cell proliferation as reflected by increased DNA. The responses of cells to these peptides varied with the size of the follicle, with the greatest effects on cells from F4/5.

  4. CysLT1 receptor-induced human airway smooth muscle cells proliferation requires ROS generation, EGF receptor transactivation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Ravasi, Saula; Citro, Simona; Viviani, Barbara; Capra, Valérie; Rovati, G Enrico

    2006-01-01

    Background Cysteine-containing leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs) are pivotal inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the pathophysiology of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other inflammatory conditions. In particular, cysteinyl-LTs exert a variety of effects with relevance to the aetiology of asthma such as smooth muscle contraction, eosinophil recruitment, increased microvascular permeability, enhanced mucus secretion and decreased mucus transport and, finally, airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) proliferation. We used human ASMC (HASMC) to identify the signal transduction pathway(s) of the leukotriene D4 (LTD4)-induced DNA synthesis. Methods Proliferation of primary HASMC was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGF-R) and ERK1/2 was assessed with a polyclonal anti-EGF-R or anti-phosphoERKl/2 monoclonal antibody. A Ras pull-down assay kit was used to evaluate Ras activation. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated by measuring dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF) oxidation. Results We demonstrate that in HASMC LTD4-stimulated thymidine incorporation and potentiation of EGF-induced mitogenic signaling mostly depends upon EGF-R transactivation through the stimulation of CysLT1-R. Accordingly, we found that LTD4 stimulation was able to trigger the increase of Ras-GTP and, in turn, to activate ERK1/2. We show here that EGF-R transactivation was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and that it occurred independently from Src activity, despite the observation of a strong impairment of LTD4-induced DNA synthesis following Src inhibition. More interestingly, CysLT1-R stimulation increased the production of ROS and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) abolished LTD4-induced EGF-R phosphorylation and thymidine incorporation. Conclusion Collectively, our data demonstrate that in HASMC LTD4 stimulation of a Gi/o coupled CysLT1-R triggers the transactivation of the EGF-R through the

  5. The heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF mediates localization to sites of cell-cell contact and prevents HB-EGF proteolytic release

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Prince, Robin N.; Schreiter, Eric R.; Zou, Peng

    2010-07-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a ligand for EGF receptor (EGFR) and possesses the ability to signal in juxtacrine, autocrine and/or paracrine mode, with these alternatives being governed by the degree of proteolytic release of the ligand. Although the spatial range of diffusion of released HB-EGF is restricted by binding heparan-sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in the extracellular matrix and/or cellular glycocalyx, ascertaining mechanisms governing non-released HB-EGF localization is also important for understanding its effects. We have employed a new method for independently tracking the localization of the extracellular EGFlike domain of HB-EGF and the cytoplasmic C-terminus. A striking observation wasmore » the absence of the HB-EGF transmembrane proform from the leading edge of COS-7 cells in a wound-closure assay; instead, this protein localized in regions of cell-cell contact. A battery of detailed experiments found that this localization derives from a trans interaction between extracellular HSPGs and the HBEGF heparin-binding domain, and that disruption of this interaction leads to increased release of soluble ligand and a switch in cell phenotype from juxtacrine-induced growth inhibition to autocrine-induced proliferation. Our results indicate that extracellular HSPGs serve to sequester the transmembrane pro-form of HB-EGF at the point of cell-cell contact, and that this plays a role in governing the balance between juxtacrine versus autocrine and paracrine signaling.« less

  6. Batch and fed-batch cultivation for excretive production of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) with recombinant E. Coli K12 system.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Chen, J; Xu, R; Xu, Z

    2008-01-01

    Batch and fed-batch production of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) was studied in an E. coli secretary expression system. By using MMBL medium containing 5 g/L glucose, controlling the temperature at 32 degrees C and maintaining the dissolved oxgen level over 20% saturation, a high yield of hEGF (32 mg/L) was obtained after an 18 hr batch cultivation with 0.2 mM IPTG induction at mid-log phase. Three different glucose feeding strategies were employed to further improve hEGF productivity in a bench top fermentor. Compared with the batch results, hEGF yield was improved up to 25.5% or 28.1%, respectively by intermittent or pH-stat glucose feeding, and up to 150% improvement of hEGF production was achieved by constant feeding of 200 g/L glucose solution at a rate of 0.11 mL/min. The effects of further combined feeding with other medium components and inducer on hEGF yield were also examined in the benchtop fermentor. This work is very helpful to further improve the productivity of extracellular hEGF in the recombinant E. coli system.

  7. Troyer Syndrome Protein Spartin Is Mono-Ubiquitinated and Functions in EGF Receptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Jupille, Henri; Fatheddin, Parvin; Puertollano, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    Troyer syndrome is an autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by mutation in the spartin (SPG20) gene, which encodes a widely expressed protein of unknown function. This mutation results in premature protein truncation and thus might signify a loss-of-function disease mechanism. In this study, we have found that spartin is mono-ubiquitinated and functions in degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Upon EGF stimulation, spartin translocates from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane and colocalizes with internalized EGF-Alexa. Knockdown of spartin by small interfering RNA decreases the rate of EGFR degradation and also affects EGFR internalization, recycling, or both. Furthermore, overexpression of spartin results in a prominent decrease in EGFR degradation. Taken together, our data suggest that spartin is involved in the intracellular trafficking of EGFR and that impaired endocytosis may underlie the pathogenesis of Troyer syndrome. PMID:17332501

  8. Maternal heparin-binding-EGF deficiency limits pregnancy success in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Huirong; Wang, Haibin; Tranguch, Susanne; Iwamoto, Ryo; Mekada, Eisuke; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Das, Sanjoy K.; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2007-01-01

    An intimate discourse between the blastocyst and uterus is essential for successful implantation. However, the molecular basis of this interaction is not clearly understood. Exploiting genomic Hbegf mutant mice, we show here that maternal deficiency of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) defers on-time implantation, leading to compromised pregnancy outcome. We also demonstrate that amphiregulin, but not epiregulin, partially compensates for the loss of HB-EGF during implantation. In search of the mechanism of this compensation, we found that reduced preimplantation estrogen secretion from ovarian HB-EGF deficiency is a cause of sustained expression of uterine amphiregulin before the initiation of implantation. To explore the significance specifically of uterine HB-EGF in implantation, we examined this event in mice with conditional deletion of uterine HB-EGF and found that this specific loss of HB-EGF in the uterus still defers on-time implantation without altering preimplantation ovarian estrogen secretion. The observation of normal induction of uterine amphiregulin surrounding the blastocyst at the time of attachment in these conditional mutant mice suggests a compensatory role of amphiregulin for uterine loss of HB-EGF, preventing complete failure of pregnancy. Our study provides genetic evidence that HB-EGF is critical for normal implantation. This finding has high clinical relevance, because HB-EGF signaling is known to be important for human implantation. PMID:17986609

  9. Maternal heparin-binding-EGF deficiency limits pregnancy success in mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huirong; Wang, Haibin; Tranguch, Susanne; Iwamoto, Ryo; Mekada, Eisuke; Demayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P; Das, Sanjoy K; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2007-11-13

    An intimate discourse between the blastocyst and uterus is essential for successful implantation. However, the molecular basis of this interaction is not clearly understood. Exploiting genomic Hbegf mutant mice, we show here that maternal deficiency of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) defers on-time implantation, leading to compromised pregnancy outcome. We also demonstrate that amphiregulin, but not epiregulin, partially compensates for the loss of HB-EGF during implantation. In search of the mechanism of this compensation, we found that reduced preimplantation estrogen secretion from ovarian HB-EGF deficiency is a cause of sustained expression of uterine amphiregulin before the initiation of implantation. To explore the significance specifically of uterine HB-EGF in implantation, we examined this event in mice with conditional deletion of uterine HB-EGF and found that this specific loss of HB-EGF in the uterus still defers on-time implantation without altering preimplantation ovarian estrogen secretion. The observation of normal induction of uterine amphiregulin surrounding the blastocyst at the time of attachment in these conditional mutant mice suggests a compensatory role of amphiregulin for uterine loss of HB-EGF, preventing complete failure of pregnancy. Our study provides genetic evidence that HB-EGF is critical for normal implantation. This finding has high clinical relevance, because HB-EGF signaling is known to be important for human implantation.

  10. Estradiol attenuates EGF-induced rapid uPAR mobilization and cell migration via the G-protein-coupled receptor 30 in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Henic, Emir; Noskova, Vera; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla; Hansson, Stefan; Casslén, Bertil

    2009-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates proliferation and migration in ovarian cancer cells, and high tumor expression of the EGF system correlates with poor prognosis. Epidermal growth factor upregulates urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) on the cell surface via 3 distinct mechanisms: rapid mobilization of uPAR from detergent-resistant domains, increased mRNA, and decreased degradation. G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is a newly identified membrane estrogen receptor (ER).The objective of this study was to explore the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) on uPAR expression and cell migration in ovarian cancer cells and further to identify the ER involved.We used 7 ovarian cancer cell lines, cell migration assay, cellular binding of (125)I-uPA, cellular degradation of (125)I-uPA/PAI-1 complex, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for uPAR, solid-phase enzyme immunoassay for ERalpha, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Estradiol attenuates the stimulatory effect of EGF on cell migration and uPAR expression. Specifically, E(2) reduces the very rapid increase of detergent extractable uPAR, which occurs within minutes of EGF stimulation and probably represents mobilization of uPAR from detergent-resistant domains such as lipid rafts. Estradiol influenced neither the amount of uPAR mRNA nor the rate of uPAR degradation or solubilization. The nuclear ER antagonists ICI 182780 and tamoxifen, which are GPR30 agonists, as well as the specifically constructed GPR30 agonist G1, mimicked the effect of E(2) on uPAR expression and cell migration. OVCAR-3 cells express mRNA for GPR30.Estradiol attenuates EGF-induced mobilization of ligated uPAR from detergent-resistant domains and subsequent migration in ovarian cancer cells. The response to various ER ligands indicates that this effect is mediated via the membrane ER GPR30.

  11. Improvement of Atrophic Acne Scars in Skin of Color Using Topical Synthetic Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Serum: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Marie Alexia; Herrmann, Jennifer; Moy, Lauren; Moy, Ronald

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrophic scarring in skin of color is a common, permanent, and distressing result of uncontrolled acne vulgaris. Ablative lasers and chemical peels are frequently used to improve the appearance of atrophic scars, primarily through the stimulation of collagen and elastin; however, these treatment modalities are associated with risks, such as dyspigmentation and hypertrophic scarring, especially in patients with darker skin.

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of topically applied synthetic epidermal growth factor (EGF) serum in reducing the appearance of atrophic acne scars in skin of color.

    METHODS: A single-center clinical trial was performed on twelve healthy men and women (average age 32.5) with Fitzpatrick Type IV-V skin and evidence of facial grade II-IV atrophic acne scars. Subjects applied topical EGF serum to the full-face twice daily for 12 weeks. Scar improvement was investigated at each visit using an Investigator Global Assessment (IGA), a Goodman grade, clinical photography, and patient self-assessment.

    RESULTS: Eleven subjects completed the trial. Compared to baseline, there was an improvement in mean IGA score from 3.36 (SEM = 0.15) to 2.18 (SEM = 0.33). Mean Goodman grade was reduced from 2.73 (SEM = 0.19) to 2.55 (SEM = 0.21). Of the eleven pairs of before and after photographs, nine were correctly chosen as the post-treatment image by a blind investigator. On self-assessment, 81% reported a "good" to "excellent" improvement in their scars compared to baseline (P = 0.004).

    CONCLUSION: Topical EGF may improve the appearance of atrophic acne scars in skin of color. Additional, larger studies should be conducted to better characterize improvement.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(4):322-326.

    .

  12. Modulation of epidermal growth factor effects on epithelial ion transport by intestinal trefoil factor.

    PubMed Central

    Chinery, R.; Cox, H. M.

    1995-01-01

    1. The direct epithelial effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its modulation by intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) have been studied in a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line called Colony-29 (Col-29). 2. When grown in culture as confluent monolayers and voltage-clamped in Ussing chambers, these epithelia responded with an increase in short circuit current (SCC) to basolateral as well as to apically applied EGF although the latter responses (at 10 nM) were only 25% of those observed following basolateral peptide. 3. Recombinant rat ITF (added to the basolateral surface) did not alter basal SCC levels, but it did enhance the electrogenic effects of basolateral EGF. The EC50 values for EGF-induced ion transport were 0.25 nM in control, and 0.26 nM in ITF pretreated Col-29 epithelia. A significant increase in the size of EGF responses (0.1 nM-10 nM) was observed in the presence of 10 nM ITF and the half-maximal concentration for this modulatory effect of ITF was 7.6 nM. 4. The EGF-induced increases in SCC were partially inhibited (50%) by piretanide pretreatment, indicating that Cl- secretion is involved. EGF responses either in the presence or absence of ITF were also significantly reduced (84% and 66% respectively) by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, piroxicam, therefore implicating prostaglandins as mediators of EGF-stimulated anion secretion. 5. We conclude that in confluent Col-29 epithelia, basolateral EGF stimulates a predominantly prostaglandin-dependent increase in Cl- secretion that is enhanced by basolateral ITF, and that these two peptides may interact in normal and damaged mucosa to alter the local apical solute and fluid environment. PMID:7647987

  13. Activation of EGF Receptor Kinase by L1-mediated Homophilic Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Rafique; Kristiansen, Lars V.; Romani, Susana; Garcia-Alonso, Luis; Hortsch, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are important players during neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth as well as axonal fasciculation and pathfinding. Some of these developmental processes entail the activation of cellular signaling cascades. Pharmacological and genetic evidence indicates that the neurite outgrowth-promoting activity of L1-type CAMs is at least in part mediated by the stimulation of neuronal receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), especially FGF and EGF receptors. It has long been suspected that neural CAMs might physically interact with RTKs, but their activation by specific cell adhesion events has not been directly demonstrated. Here we report that gain-of-function conditions of the Drosophila L1-type CAM Neuroglian result in profound sensory axon pathfinding defects in the developing Drosophila wing. This phenotype can be suppressed by decreasing the normal gene dosage of the Drosophila EGF receptor gene. Furthermore, in Drosophila S2 cells, cell adhesion mediated by human L1-CAM results in the specific activation of human EGF tyrosine kinase at cell contact sites and EGF receptors engage in a physical interaction with L1-CAM molecules. Thus L1-type CAMs are able to promote the adhesion-dependent activation of EGF receptor signaling in vitro and in vivo. PMID:14718570

  14. Activation of EGF receptor kinase by L1-mediated homophilic cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rafique; Kristiansen, Lars V; Romani, Susana; Garcia-Alonso, Luis; Hortsch, Michael

    2004-04-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are important players during neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth as well as axonal fasciculation and pathfinding. Some of these developmental processes entail the activation of cellular signaling cascades. Pharmacological and genetic evidence indicates that the neurite outgrowth-promoting activity of L1-type CAMs is at least in part mediated by the stimulation of neuronal receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), especially FGF and EGF receptors. It has long been suspected that neural CAMs might physically interact with RTKs, but their activation by specific cell adhesion events has not been directly demonstrated. Here we report that gain-of-function conditions of the Drosophila L1-type CAM Neuroglian result in profound sensory axon pathfinding defects in the developing Drosophila wing. This phenotype can be suppressed by decreasing the normal gene dosage of the Drosophila EGF receptor gene. Furthermore, in Drosophila S2 cells, cell adhesion mediated by human L1-CAM results in the specific activation of human EGF tyrosine kinase at cell contact sites and EGF receptors engage in a physical interaction with L1-CAM molecules. Thus L1-type CAMs are able to promote the adhesion-dependent activation of EGF receptor signaling in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Smurf1 plays a role in EGF inhibition of BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lee, Hye-Lim; Park, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Arang

    2014-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a role in supporting the proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells in bone but inhibits their osteogenic differentiation. However, the mechanism underlying EGF inhibition of osteoblast differentiation remains unclear. Smurf1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets Smad1/5 and Runx2, which are critical transcription factors for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of EGF on the expression of Smurf1, and the role of Smurf1 in EGF inhibition of osteogenic differentiation using C2C12 cells, a murine myoblast cell line. EGF increased Smurf1 expression,more » which was blocked by inhibiting the activity of either JNK or ERK. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and Smurf1 promoter assays demonstrated that c-Jun and Runx2 play roles in the EGF induction of Smurf1 transcription. EGF suppressed BMP2-induced expression of osteogenic marker genes, which were rescued by Smurf1 knockdown. EGF downregulated the protein levels of Runx2 and Smad1 in a proteasome-dependent manner. EGF decreased the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Smurf1, which was partially rescued by Smurf1 silencing. Taken together, these results suggest that EGF increases Smurf1 expression via the activation of JNK and ERK and the subsequent binding of c-Jun and Runx2 to the Smurf1 promoter and that Smurf1 mediates the inhibitory effect of EGF on BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation. - Highlights: • EGF increases the expression level of Smurf1 in mesenchymal precursor cells. • EGF reduces the protein levels and transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Smad1. • EGF suppresses BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation, which is rescued by Smurf1 knockdown.« less

  16. Characterization of the growth of murine fibroblasts that express human insulin receptors. II. Interaction of insulin with other growth factors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Randazzo, P.A.; Jarett, L.

    1990-09-01

    The effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and insulin on DNA synthesis were studied in murine fibroblasts transfected with an expression vector containing human insulin receptor cDNA (NIH 3T3/HIR) and the parental NIH 3T3 cells. In NIH 3T3/HIR cells, individual growth factors in serum-free medium stimulated DNA synthesis with the following relative efficacies: insulin greater than or equal to 10% fetal calf serum greater than PDGF greater than IGF-1 much greater than EGF. In comparison, the relative efficacies of these factors in stimulating DNA synthesis by NIH 3T3 cells were 10% fetalmore » calf serum greater than PDGF greater than EGF much greater than IGF-1 = insulin. In NIH 3T3/HIR cells, EGF was synergistic with 1-10 ng/ml insulin but not with 100 ng/ml insulin or more. Synergy of PDGF or IGF-1 with insulin was not detected. In the parental NIH 3T3 cells, insulin and IGF-1 were found to be synergistic with EGF (1 ng/ml), PDGF (100 ng/ml), and PDGF plus EGF. In NIH 3T3/HIR cells, the lack of interaction of insulin with other growth factors was also observed when the percentage of cells synthesizing DNA was examined. Despite insulin's inducing only 60% of NIH 3T3/HIR cells to incorporate thymidine, addition of PDGF, EGF, or PDGF plus EGF had no further effect. In contrast, combinations of growth factors resulted in 95% of the parental NIH 3T3 cells synthesizing DNA. The independence of insulin-stimulated DNA synthesis from other mitogens in the NIH 3T3/HIR cells is atypical for progression factor-stimulated DNA synthesis and is thought to be partly the result of insulin receptor expression in an inappropriate context or quantity.« less

  17. Influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hydrocortisone on the co-culture of mature adipocytes and endothelial cells for vascularized adipose tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Huber, Birgit; Czaja, Alina Maria; Kluger, Petra Juliane

    2016-05-01

    The composition of vascularized adipose tissue is still an ongoing challenge as no culture medium is available to supply adipocytes and endothelial cells appropriately. Endothelial cell medium is typically supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF) as well as hydrocortisone (HC). The effect of EGF on adipocytes is discussed controversially. Some studies say it inhibits adipocyte differentiation while others reported of improved adipocyte lipogenesis. HC is known to have lipolytic activities, which might result in mature adipocyte dedifferentiation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of EGF and HC on the co-culture of endothelial cells and mature adipocytes regarding their cell morphology and functionality. We showed in mono-culture that high levels of HC promoted dedifferentiation and proliferation of mature adipocytes, whereas EGF seemed to have no negative influence. Endothelial cells kept their typical cobblestone morphology and showed a proliferation rate comparable to the control independent of EGF and HC concentration. In co-culture, HC promoted dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, which was shown by a higher glycerol release. EGF had no negative impact on adipocyte morphology. No negative impact on endothelial cell morphology and functionality could be seen with reduced EGF and HC supplementation in co-culture with mature adipocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that reduced levels of HC are needed for co-culturing mature adipocytes and endothelial cells. In co-culture, EGF had no influence on mature adipocytes. Therefore, for the composition of vascularized adipose tissue constructs, the media with low levels of HC and high or low levels of EGF can be used. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  18. Effects of different ligands on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Faria, Jerusa A.Q.A.; Andrade, Carolina de; Goes, Alfredo M.

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated through binding to specific ligands and generates signals for proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell survival. Recent data show the role of nuclear EGFR in tumors. Although many EGFR ligands are upregulated in cancers, little is known about their effects on EGFR nuclear translocation. We have compared the effects of six EGFR ligands (EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin, amphiregulin, and epiregulin) on nuclear translocation of EGFR, receptor phosphorylation, migration, and proliferation. Cell fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence detected EGFR in the nucleus after EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast,more » amphiregulin and epiregulin did not generate nuclear translocation of EGFR. EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin showed correlations between a higher rate of wound closure and increased phosphorylation of residues in the carboxy-terminus of EGFR, compared to amphiregulin and epiregulin. The data indicate that EGFR is translocated to the nucleus after stimulation with EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin, and that these ligands are related to increased phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine residues, inducing migration of SkHep-1 cells. - Highlights: • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin are involved in the EGFR nuclear translocation. • Amphiregulin and epiregulin did not promote nuclear translocation of EGFR. • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin have a role in SkHep-1 cells migration. • EGFR ligands associated with better prognosis don't stimulate EGFR translocation.« less

  19. In brown adipocytes, adrenergically induced β{sub 1}-/β{sub 3}-(G{sub s})-, α{sub 2}-(G{sub i})- and α{sub 1}-(G{sub q})-signalling to Erk1/2 activation is not mediated via EGF receptor transactivation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Yanling; Fälting, Johanna M.; Mattsson, Charlotte L.

    2013-10-15

    Brown adipose tissue is unusual in that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine influences cell destiny in ways generally associated with effects of classical growth factors: regulation of cell proliferation, of apoptosis, and progression of differentiation. The norepinephrine effects are mediated through G-protein-coupled receptors; further mediation of such stimulation to e.g. Erk1/2 activation is in cell biology in general accepted to occur through transactivation of the EGF receptor (by external or internal pathways). We have examined here the significance of such transactivation in brown adipocytes. Stimulation of mature brown adipocytes with cirazoline (α{sub 1}-adrenoceptor coupled via G{sub q}), clonidine (α{sub 2} via G{submore » i}) or CL316243 (β{sub 3} via G{sub s}) or via β{sub 1}-receptors significantly activated Erk1/2. Pretreatment with the EGF receptor kinase inhibitor AG1478 had, remarkably, no significant effect on Erk1/2 activation induced by any of these adrenergic agonists (although it fully abolished EGF-induced Erk1/2 activation), demonstrating absence of EGF receptor-mediated transactivation. Results with brown preadipocytes (cells in more proliferative states) were not qualitatively different. Joint stimulation of all adrenoceptors with norepinephrine did not result in synergism on Erk1/2 activation. AG1478 action on EGF-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation showed a sharp concentration–response relationship (IC{sub 50} 0.3 µM); a minor apparent effect of AG1478 on norepinephrine-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation showed nonspecific kinetics, implying caution in interpretation of partial effects of AG1478 as reported in other systems. Transactivation of the EGF receptor is clearly not a universal prerequisite for coupling of G-protein coupled receptors to Erk1/2 signalling cascades. - Highlights: • In brown adipocytes, norepinephrine regulates proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation. • EGF receptor transactivation is supposed to

  20. Ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization alters the intrauterine cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor milieu encountered by the embryo.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Carolien M; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Fauser, Bart C J M; Heijnen, Cobi J; Macklon, Nick S

    2010-10-01

    To elucidate the impact of ovarian stimulation on the intrauterine milieu represented by the cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor profile in endometrial secretions aspirated before embryo transfer. Prospective cohort study. Fertility center in tertiary referral university hospital. Forty-two patients undergoing ovarian stimulation with GnRH analogues were recruited. They participated in both a natural and an ovarian-stimulated cycle for within patient comparisons. Endometrial secretion aspiration was performed immediately before embryo transfer. The concentrations of 17 mediators known to be involved in human embryo implantation were assessed by multiplex immunoassay. After correction for multiple testing, significantly higher concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HbEGF), eotaxin, and dickkopf homologue-1 were present in endometrial secretions obtained in stimulated compared with natural cycles. Endometrial secretion analysis provides a novel means of investigating the effect of ovarian stimulation on the intrauterine milieu. The in vivo milieu encountered by the embryo after transfer is significantly altered by ovarian stimulation. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Proteomic snapshot of the EGF-induced ubiquitin network

    PubMed Central

    Argenzio, Elisabetta; Bange, Tanja; Oldrini, Barbara; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Peesari, Raghunath; Mari, Sara; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Mann, Matthias; Polo, Simona

    2011-01-01

    The activity, localization and fate of many cellular proteins are regulated through ubiquitination, a process whereby one or more ubiquitin (Ub) monomers or chains are covalently attached to target proteins. While Ub-conjugated and Ub-associated proteomes have been described, we lack a high-resolution picture of the dynamics of ubiquitination in response to signaling. In this study, we describe the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-regulated Ubiproteome, as obtained by two complementary purification strategies coupled to quantitative proteomics. Our results unveil the complex impact of growth factor signaling on Ub-based intracellular networks to levels that extend well beyond what might have been expected. In addition to endocytic proteins, the EGF-regulated Ubiproteome includes a large number of signaling proteins, ubiquitinating and deubiquitinating enzymes, transporters and proteins involved in translation and transcription. The Ub-based signaling network appears to intersect both housekeeping and regulatory circuitries of cellular physiology. Finally, as proof of principle of the biological relevance of the EGF-Ubiproteome, we demonstrated that EphA2 is a novel, downstream ubiquitinated target of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), critically involved in EGFR biological responses. PMID:21245847

  2. HB-EGF function in cardiac valve development requires interaction with heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Ryo; Mine, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Taichiro; Minami, Seigo; Saeki, Kazuko; Mekada, Eisuke

    2010-07-01

    HB-EGF, a member of the EGF family of growth factors, plays an important role in cardiac valve development by suppressing mesenchymal cell proliferation. Here, we show that HB-EGF must interact with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) to properly function in this process. In developing valves, HB-EGF is synthesized in endocardial cells but accumulates in the mesenchyme by interacting with HSPGs. Disrupting the interaction between HB-EGF and HSPGs in an ex vivo model of endocardial cushion explants resulted in increased mesenchymal cell proliferation. Moreover, homozygous knock-in mice (HB(Delta)(hb/)(Delta)(hb)) expressing a mutant HB-EGF that cannot bind to HSPGs developed enlarged cardiac valves with hyperproliferation of mesenchymal cells; this resulted in a phenotype that resembled that of Hbegf-null mice. Interestingly, although Hbegf-null mice had abnormal heart chambers and lung alveoli, HB(Delta)(hb/)(Delta)(hb) mice did not exhibit these defects. These results indicate that interactions with HSPGs are essential for the function of HB-EGF, especially in cardiac valve development, in which HB-EGF suppresses mesenchymal cell proliferation.

  3. Modulation of focal adhesion constituents and their down-stream events by EGF: On the cross-talk of integrins and growth factor receptors.

    PubMed

    Eberwein, Philipp; Laird, Dougal; Schulz, Simon; Reinhard, Thomas; Steinberg, Thorsten; Tomakidi, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Within the concept of integrin growth factor receptor (GFR) cross-talk, little is known about the effects of GFRs on focal adhesions (FAs). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether EGF can modulate constituents of FAs and subsequent down-stream events. To this end, EGF-treated keratinocytes were subjected to combined fluorescence imaging and western blotting, to quantify expression and/or activation of molecules, involved in integrin GFR cross-talk, and receptor proximal and distal signaling events. Generally, EGF response revealed an amplified redistribution or activation of molecules under study, which will be explained in detail from the plasma membrane to the cell interior. In addition to significant activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) at tyrosine Tyr845, a remarkable redistribution was detectable for the focal adhesion constituents, integrin ß1 and ß3, and zyxin. Increased activation also applied to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) by phosphorylation at Tyr397, Tyr576, and Src at Tyr418, while total FAK remained unchanged. Risen activity was seen as well for the analyzed distal down-stream events, p190RhoGAP and MAP kinases p42/44. Intriguingly, Src-specific inhibitor Herbimycin A abrogated the entire EGF response except FAK Tyr397 phosphorylation, independent of EGF presence. Mechanistically, our results show that EGF modulates adhesion in a dual fashion, by firstly redistributing focal adhesion constituents to adhesion sites, but also by amplifying levels of activated RhoA antagonist p190RhoGAP, important for cell motility. Further, the findings suggest that the observed EGF response underlies an EGFR integrin cross-talk under recruitment of receptor proximal FAK and Src, and MAP kinase and p190RhoGAP as receptor distal events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperature-induced unfolding of epidermal growth factor (EGF): insight from molecular dynamics simulation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chunli; Pattani, Varun; Tunnell, James W.; Ren, Pengyu

    2010-01-01

    Thermal disruption of protein structure and function is a potentially powerful therapeutic vehicle. With the emerging nanoparticle-targeting and femtosecond laser technology, it is possible to deliver heating locally to specific molecules. It is therefore important to understand how fast a protein can unfold or lose its function at high temperatures, such as near the water boiling point. In this study, the thermal damage of EGF was investigated by combining the replica exchange (136 replicas) and conventional molecular dynamics simulations. The REMD simulation was employed to rigorously explore the free energy landscape of EGF unfolding. Interestingly, besides the native and unfolded states, we also observed a distinct molten globule (MG) state that retained substantial amount of native contacts. Based on the understanding that which the unfolding of EGF is a three-state process, we have examined the unfolding kinetics of EGF (N→ MG→h multiple 20-ns conventional MD simulations. The Arrhenius prefactors and activation energy barriers determined from the simulation are within the range of previously studied proteins. In contrast to the thermal damage of cells and tissues which take place on the time scale of seconds to hours at relatively low temperatures, the denaturation of proteins occur in nanoseconds when the temperature of heat bath approaches the boiling point. PMID:20466569

  5. Epidermal growth factor–stimulated Akt phosphorylation requires clathrin or ErbB2 but not receptor endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Garay, Camilo; Judge, Gurjeet; Lucarelli, Stefanie; Bautista, Stephen; Pandey, Rohan; Singh, Tanveer; Antonescu, Costin N.

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding to its receptor (EGFR) activates several signaling intermediates, including Akt, leading to control of cell survival and metabolism. Concomitantly, ligand-bound EGFR is incorporated into clathrin-coated pits—membrane structures containing clathrin and other proteins—eventually leading to receptor internalization. Whether clathrin might regulate EGFR signaling at the plasma membrane before vesicle scission is poorly understood. We compared the effect of clathrin perturbation (preventing formation of, or receptor recruitment to, clathrin structures) to that of dynamin2 (allowing formation of clathrin structures but preventing EGFR internalization) under conditions in which EGFR endocytosis is clathrin dependent. Clathrin perturbation by siRNA gene silencing, with the clathrin inhibitor pitstop2, or knocksideways silencing inhibited EGF-simulated Gab1 and Akt phosphorylation in ARPE-19 cells. In contrast, perturbation of dynamin2 with inhibitors or by siRNA gene silencing did not affect EGF-stimulated Gab1 or Akt phosphorylation. EGF stimulation enriched Gab1 and phospho-Gab1 within clathrin structures. ARPE-19 cells have low ErbB2 expression, and overexpression and knockdown experiments revealed that robust ErbB2 expression bypassed the requirement for clathrin for EGF-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Thus clathrin scaffolds may represent unique plasma membrane signaling microdomains required for signaling by certain receptors, a function that can be separated from vesicle formation. PMID:26246598

  6. Epidermal growth factor induction of front–rear polarity and migration in keratinocytes is mediated by integrin-linked kinase and ELMO2

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ernest; Dagnino, Lina

    2012-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent chemotactic and mitogenic factor for epidermal keratinocytes, and these properties are central for normal epidermal regeneration after injury. The involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases as mediators of the proliferative effects of EGF is well established. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate motogenic responses to this growth factor are not clearly understood. An obligatory step for forward cell migration is the development of front–rear polarity and formation of lamellipodia at the leading edge. We show that stimulation of epidermal keratinocytes with EGF, but not with other growth factors, induces development of front–rear polarity and directional migration through a pathway that requires integrin-linked kinase (ILK), Engulfment and Cell Motility-2 (ELMO2), integrin β1, and Rac1. Furthermore, EGF induction of front–rear polarity and chemotaxis require the tyrosine kinase activity of the EGF receptor and are mediated by complexes containing active RhoG, ELMO2, and ILK. Our findings reveal a novel link between EGF receptor stimulation, ILK-containing complexes, and activation of small Rho GTPases necessary for acquisition of front–rear polarity and forward movement. PMID:22160594

  7. Epidermal growth factor induction of front-rear polarity and migration in keratinocytes is mediated by integrin-linked kinase and ELMO2.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ernest; Dagnino, Lina

    2012-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent chemotactic and mitogenic factor for epidermal keratinocytes, and these properties are central for normal epidermal regeneration after injury. The involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases as mediators of the proliferative effects of EGF is well established. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate motogenic responses to this growth factor are not clearly understood. An obligatory step for forward cell migration is the development of front-rear polarity and formation of lamellipodia at the leading edge. We show that stimulation of epidermal keratinocytes with EGF, but not with other growth factors, induces development of front-rear polarity and directional migration through a pathway that requires integrin-linked kinase (ILK), Engulfment and Cell Motility-2 (ELMO2), integrin β1, and Rac1. Furthermore, EGF induction of front-rear polarity and chemotaxis require the tyrosine kinase activity of the EGF receptor and are mediated by complexes containing active RhoG, ELMO2, and ILK. Our findings reveal a novel link between EGF receptor stimulation, ILK-containing complexes, and activation of small Rho GTPases necessary for acquisition of front-rear polarity and forward movement.

  8. Negative Cooperativity in the EGF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Scatchard analyses of the binding of EGF to its receptor yield concave up Scatchard plots, indicative of some type of heterogenity in ligand binding affinity. This was typically interpreted as being due to the presence of two independent binding site–one of high affinity representing ≤10% of the receptor population and one of low affinity making up the bulk of the receptors. However, the concept of two independent binding sites is difficult to reconcile with the X-ray structures of the dimerized EGF receptor that show symmetric binding of the two ligands. A new approach to the analysis of 125I-EGF binding data combined with the structure of the singly-occupied Drosophila EGF receptor have now shown that this heterogeneity is due to the presence of negative cooperativity in the EGF receptor. Concerns that negative cooperativity precludes ligand-induced dimerization of the EGF receptor confuse the concepts of linkage cooperativity. Linkage refers to the effect of ligand on the assembly of dimers while cooperativity refers to the effect of ligand binding to one subunit on ligand binding to the other subunit within a preassembled dimer. Binding of EGF to its receptor is positively linked with dimer assembly but shows negative cooperativity within the dimer. PMID:22260659

  9. Epidermal growth factor regulation of glutathione S-transferase gene expression in the rat is mediated by class Pi glutathione S-transferase enhancer I.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M; Imagawa, M; Aoki, Y

    2000-07-01

    Using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays we showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PenCB) induce class Pi glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells. GSTP1 enhancer I (GPEI), which is required for the stimulation of GSTP1 expression by PenCB, also mediates EGF and TGF alpha stimulation of GSTP1 gene expression. However, hepatocyte growth factor and insulin did not stimulate GPEI-mediated gene expression. On the other hand, the antioxidant reagents butylhydroxyanisole and t-butylhydroquinone, stimulated GPEI-mediated gene expression, but the level of GSTP1 mRNA was not elevated. Our observations suggest that EGF and TGF alpha induce GSTP1 by the same signal transduction pathway as PenCB. Since the sequence of GPEI is similar to that of the antioxidant responsive element (ARE), some factors which bind to ARE might play a role in GPEI-mediated gene expression.

  10. Epidermal growth factor regulation of glutathione S-transferase gene expression in the rat is mediated by class Pi glutathione S-transferase enhancer I.

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, M; Imagawa, M; Aoki, Y

    2000-01-01

    Using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays we showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PenCB) induce class Pi glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells. GSTP1 enhancer I (GPEI), which is required for the stimulation of GSTP1 expression by PenCB, also mediates EGF and TGF alpha stimulation of GSTP1 gene expression. However, hepatocyte growth factor and insulin did not stimulate GPEI-mediated gene expression. On the other hand, the antioxidant reagents butylhydroxyanisole and t-butylhydroquinone, stimulated GPEI-mediated gene expression, but the level of GSTP1 mRNA was not elevated. Our observations suggest that EGF and TGF alpha induce GSTP1 by the same signal transduction pathway as PenCB. Since the sequence of GPEI is similar to that of the antioxidant responsive element (ARE), some factors which bind to ARE might play a role in GPEI-mediated gene expression. PMID:10861232

  11. Internalization Mechanisms of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor after Activation with Different Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lasse; Grandal, Michael Vibo; Knudsen, Stine Louise Jeppe; van Deurs, Bo; Grøvdal, Lene Melsæther

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates normal growth and differentiation, but dysregulation of the receptor or one of the EGFR ligands is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. There are eight ligands for EGFR, however most of the research into trafficking of the receptor after ligand activation focuses on the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). For a long time it was believed that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was the major pathway for internalization of the receptor, but recent work suggests that different pathways exist. Here we show that clathrin ablation completely inhibits internalization of EGF- and TGF-α-stimulated receptor, however the inhibition of receptor internalization in cells treated with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) or betacellulin (BTC) was only partial. In contrast, clathrin knockdown fully inhibits EGFR degradation after all ligands tested. Furthermore, inhibition of dynamin function blocked EGFR internalization after stimulation with all ligands. Knocking out a number of clathrin-independent dynamin-dependent pathways of internalization had no effect on the ligand-induced endocytosis of the EGFR. We suggest that EGF and TGF-α lead to EGFR endocytosis mainly via the clathrin-mediated pathway. Furthermore, we suggest that HB-EGF and BTC also lead to EGFR endocytosis via a clathrin-mediated pathway, but can additionally use an unidentified internalization pathway or better recruit the small amount of clathrin remaining after clathrin knockdown. PMID:23472148

  12. TGF{beta} induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ebi, Masahide; Kataoka, Hiromi, E-mail: hkataoka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp; Shimura, Takaya

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} TGF{beta} induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. {yields} TGF{beta} induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. {yields} TGF{beta} enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. {yields} Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGF{beta}. {yields} ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGF{beta}-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGF{beta} inhibition on cellmore » growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGF{beta} and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGF{beta}. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGF{beta} was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGF{beta} was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGF{beta}-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGF{beta} induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to

  13. ROLES OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF-A) IN MEDIATION OF DIOXIN (TCDD)-INDUCED DELAYS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE MAMMARY GLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roles of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGF-a) in Mediation of Dioxin (TCDD)-Induced Delays in Development of the Mouse Mammary Gland.
    Suzanne E. Fenton, Barbara Abbott, Lamont Bryant, and Angela Buckalew. U.S. EPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Tox...

  14. Crk synergizes with epidermal growth factor for epithelial invasion and morphogenesis and is required for the met morphogenic program.

    PubMed

    Lamorte, Louie; Rodrigues, Sonia; Naujokas, Monica; Park, Morag

    2002-10-04

    Activation of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase through its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor, stimulates cell spreading, cell dispersal, and the inherent morphogenic program of various epithelial cell lines. Although both hepatocyte growth factor and epidermal growth factor (EGF) can activate downstream signaling pathways in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells, EGF fails to promote the breakdown of cell-cell junctional complexes and initiate an invasive morphogenic program. We have undertaken a strategy to identify signals that synergize with EGF in this process. We provide evidence that the overexpression of the CrkII adapter protein complements EGF-stimulated pathways to induce cell dispersal in two-dimensional cultures and cell invasion and branching morphogenesis in three-dimensional collagen gels. This finding correlates with the ability of CrkII to promote the breakdown of adherens junctions in stable cell lines and the ability of EGF to stimulate enhanced Rac activity in cells overexpressing CrkII. We have previously shown that the Gab1-docking protein is required for branching morphogenesis downstream of the Met receptor. Consistent with a role for CrkII in promoting EGF-dependent branching morphogenesis, the binding of Gab1 to CrkII is required for the branching morphogenic program downstream of Met. Together, our data support a role for the CrkII adapter protein in epithelial invasion and morphogenesis and underscores the importance of considering the synergistic actions of signaling pathways in cancer progression.

  15. Stimulation of phosphatidylcholine breakdown and diacylglycerol production by growth factors in Swiss-3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Price, B D; Morris, J D; Hall, A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a number of growth factors on phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) turnover in Swiss-3T3 cells was studied. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), bombesin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vasopressin rapidly stimulated PtdCho hydrolysis, diacylglycerol (DAG) production, and PtdCho synthesis. Insulin and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) stimulated PtdCho synthesis, but not its breakdown, whereas epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bradykinin were without effect. Stimulation of PtdCho hydrolysis by the above ligands resulted in increased production of phosphocholine and DAG (due to phospholipase C activity) and significant amounts of choline, suggesting activation of a phospholipase D as well. CDP-choline and glycerophosphocholine levels were unchanged. Down-regulation of protein kinase C with PMA (400 nM, 40 h) abolished the stimulation of PtdCho hydrolysis and PtdCho synthesis by PMA, bombesin, PDGF and vasopressin, but not the stimulation of PtdCho synthesis by insulin and PGF2 alpha. PtdCho hydrolysis therefore occurs predominantly by activation of protein kinase C (either by PMA or PtdIns hydrolysis) leading to elevation of DAG levels derived from non-PtdIns(4,5)P2 sources. PtdCho synthesis occurs by both a protein kinase C-dependent pathway (stimulated by PMA, PDGF, bombesin and vasopressin) and a protein kinase C-independent pathway (stimulated by insulin and PGF2 alpha). DAG production from PtdCho hydrolysis is not the primary signal to activate protein kinase C, but may contribute to long-term activation of this kinase. PMID:2690829

  16. Restoration of CpG Methylation in The Egf Promoter Region during Rat Liver Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Deming, Li; Ziwei, Li; Xueqiang, Guo; Cunshuan, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important factor for healing after tissue damage in diverse experimental models. It plays an important role in liver regeneration (LR). The objective of this experiment is to investigate the methylation variation of 10 CpG sites in the Egf promoter region and their relevance to Egf expression during rat liver regenera- tion. As a follow up of our previous study, rat liver tissue was collected after rat 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) during the re-organization phase (from days 14 to days 28). Liver DNA was extracted and modified by sodium bisulfate. The methylation status of 10 CpG sites in Egf promoter region was determined using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as BSP method. The results showed that 3 (sites 3, 4 and 9) out of 10 CpG sites have strikingly methylation changes during the re-organization phase compared to the regeneration phase (from 2 hours to 168 hours, P=0.002, 0.048 and 0.018, respectively). Our results showed that methylation modification of CpGs in the Egf promoter region could be restored to the status before PH operation and changes of methylation didn't affect Egf mRNA expression during the re-organization phase.

  17. Restoration of CpG Methylation in The Egf Promoter Region during Rat Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Li; Ziwei, Li; Xueqiang, Guo; Cunshuan, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important factor for healing after tissue damage in diverse experimental models. It plays an important role in liver regeneration (LR). The objective of this experiment is to investigate the methylation variation of 10 CpG sites in the Egf promoter region and their relevance to Egf expression during rat liver regenera- tion. As a follow up of our previous study, rat liver tissue was collected after rat 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) during the re-organization phase (from days 14 to days 28). Liver DNA was extracted and modified by sodium bisulfate. The methylation status of 10 CpG sites in Egf promoter region was determined using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as BSP method. The results showed that 3 (sites 3, 4 and 9) out of 10 CpG sites have strikingly methylation changes during the re-organization phase compared to the regeneration phase (from 2 hours to 168 hours, P=0.002, 0.048 and 0.018, respectively). Our results showed that methylation modification of CpGs in the Egf promoter region could be restored to the status before PH operation and changes of methylation didn’t affect Egf mRNA expression during the re-organization phase. PMID:26464832

  18. Expression of renal distal tubule transporters TRPM6 and NCC in a rat model of cyclosporine nephrotoxicity and effect of EGF treatment.

    PubMed

    Ledeganck, Kristien J; Boulet, Gaëlle A; Horvath, Caroline A; Vinckx, Marleen; Bogers, Johannes J; Van Den Bossche, Rita; Verpooten, Gert A; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2011-09-01

    Renal magnesium (Mg(2+)) and sodium (Na(+)) loss are well-known side effects of cyclosporine (CsA) treatment in humans, but the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Recently, it was shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates Mg(2+) reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) via TRPM6 (Thébault S, Alexander RT, Tiel Groenestege WM, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ. J Am Soc Nephrol 20: 78-85, 2009). In the DCT, the final adjustment of renal sodium excretion is regulated by the thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), which is activated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the molecular mechanisms of CsA-induced hypomagnesemia and hyponatremia. Therefore, the renal expression of TRPM6, TRPM7, EGF, EGF receptor, claudin-16, claudin-19, and the NCC, and the effect of the RAAS on NCC expression, were analyzed in vivo in a rat model of CsA nephrotoxicity. Also, the effect of EGF administration on these parameters was studied. CsA significantly decreased the renal expression of TRPM6, TRPM7, NCC, and EGF, but not that of claudin-16 and claudin-19. Serum aldosterone was significantly lower in CsA-treated rats. In control rats treated with EGF, an increased renal expression of TRPM6 together with a decreased fractional excretion of Mg(2+) (FE Mg(2+)) was demonstrated. EGF did not show this beneficial effect on TRPM6 and FE Mg(2+) in CsA-treated rats. These data suggest that CsA treatment affects Mg(2+) homeostasis via the downregulation of TRPM6 in the DCT. Furthermore, CsA downregulates the NCC in the DCT, associated with an inactivation of the RAAS, resulting in renal sodium loss.

  19. SMOC Binds to Pro-EGF, but Does Not Induce Erk Phosphorylation via the EGFR.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J Terrig; Chhuy-Hy, Lina; Andrykovich, Kristin R; Moos, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to identify the cell-associated protein(s) through which SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) induces mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) became a candidate. However, although in 32D/EGFR cells, the EGFR was phosphorylated in the presence of a commercially available human SMOC-1 (hSMOC-1), only minimal phosphorylation was observed in the presence of Xenopus SMOC-1 (XSMOC-1) or human SMOC-2. Analysis of the commercial hSMOC-1 product demonstrated the presence of pro-EGF as an impurity. When the pro-EGF was removed, only minimal EGFR activation was observed, indicating that SMOC does not signal primarily through EGFR and its receptor remains unidentified. Investigation of SMOC/pro-EGF binding affinity revealed a strong interaction that does not require the C-terminal extracellular calcium-binding (EC) domain of SMOC or the EGF domain of pro-EGF. SMOC does not appear to potentiate or inhibit MAPK signaling in response to pro-EGF, but the interaction could provide a mechanism for retaining soluble pro-EGF at the cell surface.

  20. Oleic acid blocks EGF-induced [Ca2+]i release without altering cellular metabolism in fibroblast EGFR T17.

    PubMed

    Zugaza, J L; Casabiell, X A; Bokser, L; Casanueva, F F

    1995-02-06

    EGFR-T17 cells were pretreated with oleic acid and 5-10 minutes later stimulated with EGF, to study if early ionic signals are instrumental in inducing metabolic cellular response. Oleic acid blocks EGF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and Ca2+ influx without altering 2-deoxyglucose and 2-aminobutiryc acid uptake nor acute, nor chronically. Oleic acid it is shown, in the first minutes favors the entrance of both molecules to modify the physico-chemical membrane state. On the other hand, oleic acid is unable to block protein synthesis. The results suggest that EGF-induced Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ca2+ pathway does not seem to be decisive in the control of cellular metabolic activity.

  1. Specific Inhibitors of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor or Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Reduce Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Annette B.; Moomaw, Cindy R.; Morgan, Daniel L.; Bonner, James C.

    1999-01-01

    The proliferation of myofibroblasts is a central feature of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study we have used tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the tyrphostin class to specifically block autophosphorylation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R) or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). AG1296 specifically inhibited autophosphorylation of PDGF-R and blocked PDGF-stimulated [3H]thymidine uptake by rat lung myofibroblasts in vitro. AG1478 was demonstrated as a selective blocker of EGF-R autophosphorylation and inhibited EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis in vitro. In a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis caused by intratracheal instillation of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), intraperitoneal delivery of 50 mg/kg AG1296 or AG1478 in dimethylsulfoxide 1 hour before V2O5 instillation and again 2 days after instillation reduced the number of epithelial and mesenchymal cells incorporating bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu) by ∼50% at 3 and 6 days after instillation. V2O5 instillation increased lung hydroxyproline fivefold 15 days after instillation, and AG1296 was more than 90% effective in preventing the increase in hydroxyproline, whereas AG1478 caused a 50% to 60% decrease in V2O5-stimulated hydroxyproline accumulation. These data provide evidence that PDGF and EGF receptor ligands are potent mitogens for collagen-producing mesenchymal cells during pulmonary fibrogenesis, and targeting tyrosine kinase receptors could offer a strategy for the treatment of fibrotic lung diseases. PMID:10393853

  2. Development of Cu-64 labeled EGF for In Vivo PET Imaging of EGFR Expression

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Backer, Joseph M.

    2009-07-12

    In this project we proposed to establish feasibility of the development of targeted tracers for radionuclide imaging of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in cancer patients. The significance and impact of the proposed radiotracers are determined by the crucial role that EGFR plays in many cancers and by the rapid entrance of EGFR-inhibiting drugs into clinic. Clinical experience, however, revealed that only 10-25% of patients that are defined as EGFR-positive by immunohistochemical analysis respond to EGFR-directed therapeutics and there is poor correlation between EGFR immunohistochemistry and treatment. Therefore, for more efficacious use of EGFR-targeting therapeutics, there is a need formore » information about EGFR activity in patients. We hypothesized that radionuclide imaging of functionally active EGFR will provide such information and would allow for 1) rational patient stratification, 2) rapid monitoring of responses to therapy, and 3) development of personalized treatment regimens. We hypothesized that tracers based epidermal growth factor (EGF), a natural EGFR ligand, as a targeting vector would be particularly advantageous. First, only functionally active and therefore critical for disease progression EGFRs will bind and internalize an EGF-based tracer. Second, continuous internalization of EGF-based tracers by recyclable EGFR would lead to intracellular accumulation of radionuclide and improved signal-to-background ratio. Third, small size of EGF relative to antibodies would facilitate tumor penetration with vastly better non-specific soft tissue and blood clearance rates. Fourth, as a human protein, EGF is not expected to be immunogenic. Finally, at the beginning of this project, we have already engineered and expressed functionally active EGF with an N-terminal Cys-tag for site-specific conjugation of various payloads, including radionuclide chelators. In the Phase I of this project, in collaboration with Dr. Blankenberg’s group at

  3. RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION OF CLEFT PALATE IN EGF AND TGF-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE: STAGE SPECIFIC INFLUENCES OF GROWTH FACTOR EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABBOTT, B. D., LEFFLER, K.E. AND BUCKALEW, A.R, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Retinoic acid induction of cleft palate (CP) in EGF and TGF knockout mice: Stage specific influences of growth factor expression.
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  4. Expression of EGF and EGFR strongly correlates with metastasis of pancreatic ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pryczynicz, Anna; Guzińska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna; Kemona, Andrzej; Czyzewska, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor family members: EGF, EGFR and the c-erbB-2(HER-2/neu) gene product have been found to play a role in carcinomas of the stomach, liver, breast, ovary and lungs. Recent reports have indicated that they are also involved in the growth of pancreatic ductal carcinoma, its invasiveness and metastasis. Thirty-six patients with pancreatic ductal carcinoma were analysed with respect to sex, age, histological type, malignancy grade (G), pTN status (pTN), local lymph node involvement and distant metastasis. The tumor levels of EGF, EGFR and c-erbB-2 expression were determined immunohistochemically. Expression of c-erbB-2 was observed in 24/36 cases, EGF in 13/36 cases and EGFR in 18/36 cases. Overexpression of EGF and EGFR was associated with metastasis to lymph nodes and other organs. A correlation was also found between EGF expression and the presence of EGFR in the tumour. The expression of c-erbB-2 protein was not found to correlate with any parameters. EGF and EGFR play a key role in neoplastic spread through lymph node involvement and metastasis to other organs.

  5. A functional EGF+61 polymorphism is associated with severity of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qunli; Cao, Chao; Chen, Zhongbo; Tabusi, Mahebali; Chen, Li; Deng, Zaichun

    2015-05-01

    Involvement of epidermal growth factor (EGF) is reported in diseases caused by hypoxia. Its functional polymorphism may alter its transcription, affecting EGF expression, contributing to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to investigate associations of EGF+61 polymorphism and risk of OSA. Two hundred two participants were enrolled in this case-control study. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and EGF 61A/G polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. No significant association between EGF 61 A/G polymorphism and risk of OSA was observed in any of the gene models tested (AA vs. GG: OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.37-2.55; P = 0.95). However, compared with GG genotype, AG genotype associated with decreased risk of severe OSA (AG vs. GG: OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.11-0.94). Our study showed that AG genotype has a protective effect on OSA patients against severe disease, although EGF 61A/G polymorphisms have no role on the risk of the disease. Additional large studies should further validate our findings.

  6. Boca-dependent maturation of β-propeller/EGF modules in low-density lipoprotein receptor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Culi, Joaquim; Springer, Timothy A; Mann, Richard S

    2004-01-01

    The extracellular portions of cell surface receptor proteins are often comprised of independently folding protein domains. As they are translated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), some of these domains require protein chaperones to assist in their folding. Members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family require the chaperone called Boca in Drosophila or its ortholog, Mesoderm development, in the mouse. All LDLRs have at least one six-bladed β-propeller domain, which is immediately followed by an epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat. We show here that Boca is specifically required for the maturation of these β-propeller/EGF modules through the secretory pathway, but is not required for other LDLR domains. Protein interaction data suggest that as LDLRs are translated into the ER, Boca binds to the β-propeller. Subsequently, once the EGF repeat is translated, the β-propeller/EGF module achieves a more mature state that has lower affinity for Boca. We also show that Boca-dependent β-propeller/EGF modules are found not only throughout the LDLR family but also in the precursor to the mammalian EGF ligand. PMID:15014448

  7. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced muscle satellite cell activation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nagata, Yosuke, E-mail: cynagata@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Ohashi, Kazuya; Wada, Eiji

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle can regenerate repeatedly due to the presence of resident stem cells, called satellite cells. Because satellite cells are usually quiescent, they must be activated before participating in muscle regeneration in response to stimuli such as injury, overloading, and stretch. Although satellite cell activation is a crucial step in muscle regeneration, little is known of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Recent work showed that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays crucial roles in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells. We investigated the role of growth factors in S1P-mediated satellite cell activation. We found that epidermalmore » growth factor (EGF) in combination with insulin induced proliferation of quiescent undifferentiated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, which are also known as reserve cells, in serum-free conditions. Sphingosine kinase activity increased when reserve cells were stimulated with EGF. Treatment of reserve cells with the D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine, Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, or siRNA duplexes specific for sphingosine kinase 1, suppressed EGF-induced C2C12 activation. We also present the evidence showing the S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. Moreover, we demonstrated a combination of insulin and EGF promoted activation of satellite cells on single myofibers in a manner dependent on SPHK and S1P2. Taken together, our observations show that EGF-induced satellite cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor. - Highlights: • EGF in combination with insulin induces proliferation of quiescent C2C12 cells. • Sphingosine kinase activity increases when reserve cells are stimulated with EGF. • EGF-induced activation of reserve cells is dependent on sphingosine kinase and ERK. • The S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. • EGF-induced reserve cell activation is mediated by S1P and

  8. Effects of structurally stabilized EGF and bFGF on wound healing in type I and type II diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Mi; Lee, Kyoung-Mi; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Ik Kyu; Kang, Hwi Ju; Shin, Hang-Cheol; Baek, Dawoon; Choi, Yoorim; Park, Kwang Hwan; Lee, Jin Woo

    2018-01-15

    Diabetes mellitus comprises a multiple metabolic disorder that affects millions of people worldwide and consequentially poses challenges for clinical treatment. Among the various complications, diabetic ulcer constitutes the most prevalent associated disorder and leads to delayed wound healing. To enhance wound healing capacity, we developed structurally stabilized epidermal growth factor (ST-EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (ST-bFGF) to overcome limitations of commercially available EGF (CA-EGF) and bFGF (CA-bFGF), such as short half-life and loss of activity after loading onto a matrix. Neither ST-EGF nor ST-bFGF was toxic, and both were more stable at higher temperatures than CA-EGF and CA-bFGF. We loaded ST-EGF and ST-bFGF onto a hyaluronate-collagen dressing (HCD) matrix, a biocompatible carrier, and tested the effectiveness of this system in promoting wound healing in a mouse model of diabetes. Wounds treated with HCD matrix loaded with 0.3 μg/cm 2 ST-EGF or 1 μg/cm 2 ST-bFGF showed a more rapid rate of tissue repair as compared to the control in type I and II diabetes models. Our results indicate that an HDC matrix loaded with 0.3 μg/cm 2 ST-EGF or 1 μg/cm 2 ST-bFGF can promote wound healing in diabetic ulcers and are suitable for use in wound dressings owing to their stability for long periods at room temperature. Various types of dressing materials loaded with growth factors, such as VEGF, EGF, and bFGF, are widely used to effect wound repair. However, such growth factor-loaded materials have several limitations for use as therapeutic agents in healing-impaired diabetic wounds. To overcome these limitations, we have developed new materials containing structurally stabilized EGF (ST-EGF) and bFGF (ST-bFGF). To confirm the wound healing capacity of newly developed materials (ST-EGF and ST-bFGF-loaded hyaluronate-collagen dressing [HCD] matrix), we applied these matrices in type I and type II diabetic wounds. Notably, these matrices were

  9. EGF does not induce Msx-1 and Msx-2 in dental mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y H; Kollar, E J; Upholt, W B; Mina, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous heterospecific tissue recombinations indicate that mandibular epithelium exerts the first known inductive signal for odontogenesis in mouse embryos. BMP-4 and EGF are two growth factors implicated as signaling molecules mediating the initial inductive epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during odontogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of these growth factors and mouse mandibular epithelium on expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 genes in molar-forming mesenchyme. Agarose beads soaked in growth factors or pieces of mouse mandibular epithelium (E11) were placed in contact with E11 molar-forming mesenchyme and cultured for 24 h. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that, in contrast to mouse mandibular epithelium and BMP-4-releasing beads, EGF-releasing beads did not induce the expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 in E11 molar-forming mesenchyme. These observations suggest that whereas BMP-4 may be involved in activation of Msx-1 and Msx-2 in the underlying mesenchyme, EGF may regulate events involved in the formation of dental lamina.

  10. Responsiveness of intestinal epithelial cell turnover to TGF-alpha after bowel resection in a rat is correlated with EGF receptor expression along the villus-crypt axis.

    PubMed

    Sukhotnik, Igor; Mogilner, Jorge G; Shaoul, Ron; Karry, Rahel; Lieber, Michael; Suss-Toby, Edith; Ure, Benno M; Coran, Arnold G

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) enhances enterocyte proliferation and stimulates intestinal adaptation after massive bowel resection. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of TGF-alpha on enterocyte turnover and correlated it with epidermal-growth factor (EGF) receptor expression along the villus-crypt axis in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Male rats were divided into three groups, sham rats underwent bowel transection (group A); SBS rats underwent a 75% bowel resection (group B); and SBS/TGF-alpha rats underwent bowel resection and were treated with TGF-alpha (75 microg/kg) (group C) from the seventh postoperative day. Parameters of intestinal adaptation, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis were determined on day 15. Villus tips, lateral villi and crypts were separated using laser capture microdissection. EGF receptor expression for each compartment was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (Taqman). Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA test, with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Treatment with TGF-alpha resulted in a significant increase in all parameters of intestinal adaptation. EGF receptor expression in crypts significantly increased in SBS rats (vs sham rats) (0.035 +/- 0.013 vs 0.010 +/- 0.002 Log ng Total RNA/18 s) and was accompanied by a significant increase in enterocyte proliferation (169 +/- 8 vs 138 +/- 5 BrdU positive cells/per 10 crypts, P < 0.05) and decreased apoptosis following TGF-alpha administration (group C). A significant decrease in EGF receptor expression at the tip of the villus (0.005 +/- 0.002 vs 0.029 +/- 0.014 Log ng Total RNA/18 s) and in the lateral villus (0.003 +/- 0.001 vs 0.028 +/- 0.006 Log ng Total RNA/18 s) in SBS (group B) rats (vs sham, group A) was accompanied by increased cell apoptosis in these compartments following treatment with TGF-alpha (group C). In a rat model of SBS, TGF-alpha increased enterocyte proliferation

  11. Insufficiency of pro-heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor shedding enhances hypoxic cell death in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts via the activation of caspase-3 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    PubMed

    Uetani, Teruyoshi; Nakayama, Hironao; Okayama, Hideki; Okura, Takafumi; Higaki, Jitsuo; Inoue, Hirofumi; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2009-05-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a cardiogenic and cardiohypertrophic growth factor. ProHB-EGF, a product of the Hb-egf gene and the precursor of HB-EGF, is anchored to the plasma membrane. Its ectodomain region is shed by a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) when activated by various stimulations. It has been reported that an uncleavable mutant of Hb-egf, uc-Hb-egf, produces uc-proHB-EGF, which is not cleaved by ADAMs and causes dilation of the heart in knock-in mice. This suggests that the shedding of proHB-EGF is essential for the development and survival of cardiomyocytes: however, the molecular mechanism involved has remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between uc-proHB-EGF expression and cardiomyocyte survival. Human uc-proHB-EGF was adenovirally introduced into the rat cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2, and the cells were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Uc-proHB-EGF-expressing H9c2 cells underwent apoptosis under normoxic conditions, which distinctly increased under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, we observed an increased Caspase-3 activity, reactive oxygen species accumulation, and an increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity in the uc-proHB-EGF-expressing H9c2 cells. Treatment of the uc-proHB-EGF transfectants with inhibitors of Caspase-3, reactive oxygen species, and JNK, namely, Z-VAD-fmk, N-acetylcysteine, and SP600125, respectively, significantly reduced hypoxic cell death. These data indicate that insufficiency of proHB-EGF shedding under hypoxic stress leads to cardiomyocyte apoptosis via Caspase-3- and JNK-dependent pathways.

  12. Egr-1 is a critical regulator of EGF-receptor-mediated expansion of subventricular zone neural stem cells and progenitors during recovery from hypoxia–hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, Dhivyaa; Balan, Murugabaskar; Jiang, Yuhui; Cohen, Rachel B.; Kotenko, Sergei V.; Levison, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    We recently established that the EGF-R (epidermal growth factor receptor) (EGF-R) is an essential regulator of the reactive expansion of SVZ (subventricular zone) NPs (neural precursors) that occurs during recovery from hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. The purpose of the current studies was to identify the conditions and the transcription factor (s) responsible for inducing the EGF-R. Here, we show that the increase in EGF-R expression and the more rapid division of the NPs can be recapitulated in in vitro by exposing SVZ NPs to hypoxia and hypoglycemia simultaneously, but not separately. The EGF-R promoter has binding sites for multiple transcription factors that includes the zinc finger transcription factor, Egr-1. We show that Egr-1 expression increases in NPs, but not astrocytes, following hypoxia and hypoglycemia where it accumulates in the nucleus. To determine whether Egr-1 is necessary for EGF-R expression, we used SiRNAs (small interfering RNA) specific for Egr-1 to decrease Egr-1 expression. Knocking-down Egr-1 decreased basal levels of EGF-R and it abolished the stress-induced increase in EGF-R expression. By contrast, HIF-1 accumulation did not contribute to EGF-R expression and FGF-2 only modestly induced EGF-R. These studies establish a new role for Egr-1 in regulating the expression of the mitogenic EGF-R. They also provide new information into mechanisms that promote NP expansion and provide insights into strategies for amplifying the numbers of stem cells for CNS (central nervous system) regeneration. PMID:23763269

  13. Developmental defects in zebrafish for classification of EGF pathway inhibitors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pruvot, Benoist; Curé, Yoann; Djiotsa, Joachim

    2014-01-15

    One of the major challenges when testing drug candidates targeted at a specific pathway in whole animals is the discrimination between specific effects and unwanted, off-target effects. Here we used the zebrafish to define several developmental defects caused by impairment of Egf signaling, a major pathway of interest in tumor biology. We inactivated Egf signaling by genetically blocking Egf expression or using specific inhibitors of the Egf receptor function. We show that the combined occurrence of defects in cartilage formation, disturbance of blood flow in the trunk and a decrease of myelin basic protein expression represent good indicators for impairmentmore » of Egf signaling. Finally, we present a classification of known tyrosine kinase inhibitors according to their specificity for the Egf pathway. In conclusion, we show that developmental indicators can help to discriminate between specific effects on the target pathway from off-target effects in molecularly targeted drug screening experiments in whole animal systems. - Highlights: • We analyze the functions of Egf signaling on zebrafish development. • Genetic blocking of Egf expression causes cartilage, myelin and circulatory defects. • Chemical inhibition of Egf receptor function causes similar defects. • Developmental defects can reveal the specificity of Egf pathway inhibitors.« less

  14. Anti-MUC1 antibody inhibits EGF receptor signaling in cancer cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hisatsune, Akinori, E-mail: hisatsun@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Nakayama, Hideki; Kawasaki, Mitsuru

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} We identified changes in the expression and function of EGFR by anti-MUC1 antibody. {yields} An anti-MUC1 antibody GP1.4 decreased EGFR from cell surface by internalization. {yields} GP1.4 specifically inhibited ERK signaling triggered EGF-EGFR signaling pathway. {yields} Internalization of EGFR was dependent on the presence of MUC1 on cell surface. {yields} GP1.4 significantly inhibited EGF-dependent cancer cell proliferation and migration. -- Abstract: MUC1 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein aberrantly overexpressed in various cancer cells. High expression of MUC1 is closely associated with cancer progression and metastasis, leading to poor prognosis. We previously reported that MUC1 is internalizedmore » by the binding of the anti-MUC1 antibody, from the cell surface to the intracellular region via the macropinocytotic pathway. Since MUC1 is closely associated with ErbBs, such as EGF receptor (EGFR) in cancer cells, we examined the effect of the anti-MUC1 antibody on EGFR trafficking. Our results show that: (1) anti-MUC1 antibody GP1.4, but not another anti-MUC1 antibody C595, triggered the internalization of EGFR in pancreatic cancer cells; (2) internalization of EGFR by GP1.4 resulted in the inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by EGF stimulation, in a MUC1 dependent manner; (3) inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by GP1.4 resulted in the suppression of proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. We conclude that the internalization of EGFR by anti-MUC1 antibody GP1.4 inhibits the progression of cancer cells via the inhibition of EGFR signaling.« less

  15. Zyxin regulates migration of renal epithelial cells through activation of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Hee; McNally, Brian T; Igarashi, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF-1β) is an epithelial tissue-specific transcription factor that regulates gene expression in the kidney, liver, pancreas, intestine, and other organs. Mutations of HNF-1β in humans produce renal cysts and congenital kidney anomalies. Here, we identify the LIM-domain protein zyxin as a novel binding partner of HNF-1β in renal epithelial cells. Zyxin shuttles to the nucleus where it colocalizes with HNF-1β. Immunoprecipitation of zyxin in leptomycin B-treated cells results in coprecipitation of HNF-1β. The protein interaction requires the second LIM domain of zyxin and two distinct domains of HNF-1β. Overexpression of zyxin stimulates the transcriptional activity of HNF-1β, whereas small interfering RNA silencing of zyxin inhibits HNF-1β-dependent transcription. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces translocation of zyxin into the nucleus and stimulates HNF-1β-dependent promoter activity. The EGF-mediated nuclear translocation of zyxin requires activation of Akt. Expression of dominant-negative mutant HNF-1β, knockdown of zyxin, or inhibition of Akt inhibits EGF-stimulated cell migration. These findings reveal a novel pathway by which extracellular signals are transmitted to the nucleus to regulate the activity of a transcription factor that is essential for renal epithelial differentiation.

  16. TERATOGENICITY OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) IN MICE LACKING THE EXPRESSION OF EGF AND/OR TGFALPHA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure produces hydronephrosis and cleft palate in mice. These responses are correlated with disruption of expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor ligands, primarily EGF and transforming growth factor-alpha ...

  17. Killing of cultured hepatocytes by conjugates of asialofetuin and EGF linked to the A chains of ricin or diphtheria toxin.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D L; Cawley, D B; Herschman, H R

    1982-06-01

    A disulfide-linked conjugate between asialofetuin (ASF) and the toxic A chain (RTA) of ricin is as potent a toxin for cultured rat hepatocytes as our previously described conjugate between ASF and fragment A of diphtheria toxin (DTA). An RTA conjugate of epidermal growth factor (EGF) was a potent toxin for 3T3 cells. In contrast, EGF-DTA was essentially nontoxic for 3T3 cells. We have now examined the toxicity of EGF-RTA and EGF-DTA on cultured hepatocytes. The EGF-DTA conjugate, nontoxic to 3T3 cells, is also a potent toxin for hepatocytes. We also observed a decrease with time of culture in the sensitivity of hepatocytes to the ASF and EGF conjugates. This decrease is not a result of a decrease in EGF or asialoglycoprotein receptors.

  18. Metalloproteinase-dependent transforming growth factor-alpha release mediates neurotensin-stimulated MAP kinase activation in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dezheng; Zhan, Yanai; Koon, Hon Wai; Zeng, Huiyan; Keates, Sarah; Moyer, Mary P; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2004-10-15

    Expression of the neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) and its high affinity receptor (NTR1) is increased during the course of Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced acute colitis, and NTR1 antagonism attenuates the severity of toxin A-induced inflammation. We recently demonstrated in non-transformed human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells that NT treatment caused activation of a Ras-mediated MAP kinase pathway that significantly contributes to NT-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion. Here we used NCM460 cells, which normally express low levels of NTR1, and NCM460 cells stably transfected with NTR1 to identify the upstream signaling molecules involved in NT-NTR1-mediated MAP kinase activation. We found that inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by either an EGFR neutralizing antibody or by its specific inhibitor AG1478 (0.2 microm) blocked NT-induced MAP kinase activation. Moreover, NT stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR, and pretreatment with a broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat reduced NT-induced MAP kinase activation. Using neutralizing antibodies against the EGFR ligands EGF, heparin-binding-EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha), or amphiregulin we have shown that only the anti-TGFalpha antibody significantly decreases NT-induced phosphorylation of EGFR and MAP kinases. Furthermore, inhibition of the EGF receptor by AG1478 significantly reduced NT-induced IL-8 promoter activity and IL-8 secretion. This is the first report demonstrating that NT binding to NTR1 transactivates the EGFR and that this response is linked to NT-mediated proinflammatory signaling. Our findings indicate that matrix metalloproteinase-mediated release of TGFalpha and subsequent EGFR transactivation triggers a NT-mediated MAP kinase pathway that leads to IL-8 gene expression in human colonic epithelial cells.

  19. Modulation of keratinocyte motility. Correlation with production of extracellular matrix molecules in response to growth promoting and antiproliferative factors.

    PubMed Central

    Nickoloff, B. J.; Mitra, R. S.; Riser, B. L.; Dixit, V. M.; Varani, J.

    1988-01-01

    Normal human epidermal keratinocytes (KC) grown under conditions that maintain the undifferentiated state are highly motile. Migration of these cells as measured in two different assays (migration out of an agarose drop explant, and into micropore filters in a modified Boyden chamber), is stimulated by fibronectin (FN) and to a lesser extent by thrombospondin (TSP). In contrast, laminin (LN) inhibits KC migration. Cultivation of the cells for 1 day under conditions that induce differentiation (ie, in the presence of 1.4 mM Ca2+) suppresses KC motility. A number of soluble growth modulating polypeptide factors also influence KC migration. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulate KC motility. These factors simultaneously induce KC production of FN and a significant portion of the stimulated motility can be inhibited with antibodies to FN. EGF and somatomedin-C (SM-C), but not TGF-beta, also stimulate TSP production while EGF and SM-C (but not TGF-beta) induce KC proliferation. In contrast to these factors, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) inhibits KC production of both FN and TSP and concomitantly inhibits both motility and proliferation. These data suggest that KC properties essential for normal wound healing (ie, motility and proliferation) are regulated by both extracellular matrix molecules and soluble peptide factors. Finally, these effects of various growth promoting and antiproliferative factors on KCs may, in part, be mediated through alteration in the endogenous production of extracellular matrix molecules by KCs. Images Figure 2 PMID:2458044

  20. Regulation of EGF receptor signaling by the MARVEL domain-containing protein CKLFSF8.

    PubMed

    Jin, Caining; Ding, Peiguo; Wang, Ying; Ma, Dalong

    2005-11-21

    It is known that chemokine-like factor superfamily 8 (CKLFSF8), a member of the CKLF superfamily, has four putative transmembrane regions and a MARVEL domain. Its structure is similar to TM4SF11 (plasmolipin) and widely distributed in normal tissue. However, its function is not yet known. We show here that CKLFSF8 is associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and that ectopic expression of CKLFSF8 in several cell lines suppresses EGF-induced cell proliferation, whereas knockdown of CKLFSF8 by siRNA promotes cell proliferation. In cells overexpressing CKLFSF8, the initial activation of EGFR was not affected, but subsequent desensitization of EGF-induced signaling occurred rapidly. This attenuation was correlated with an increased rate of receptor endocytosis. In contrast, knockdown of CKLFSF8 by siCKLFSF8 delayed EGFR endocytosis. These results identify CKLFSF8 as a novel regulator of EGF-induced signaling and indicate that the association of EGFR with four transmembrane proteins is critical for EGFR desensitization.

  1. Altered (/sup 125/I)epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in psoriasis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nanney, L.B.; Stoscheck, C.M.; Magid, M.

    1986-03-01

    Stimulation of growth and differentiation of human epidermis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) is mediated by its binding to specific receptors. Whether EGF receptors primarily mediate cell division or differentiation in hyperproliferative disease such as psoriasis vulgaris is unclear. To study the pathogenesis of psoriasis, 4-mm2 punch biopsy specimens of normal, uninvolved, and involved psoriatic skin were assayed for EGF receptors by autoradiographic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods. Using autoradiographic and immunohistochemical methods, basal keratinocytes were found to contain the greatest number of EGF binding sites and immunoreactive receptors as compared to the upper layers of the epidermis in both normalmore » epidermis and psoriatic skin. No EGF receptor differences between normal and psoriatic epidermis were observed in this layer. In the upper layers of the epidermis, a 2-fold increase in EGF binding capacity was observed in psoriatic skin as compared with normal thin or thick skin. Biochemical methods indicated that (/sup 125/I)EGF binding was increased in psoriatic epidermis as compared with similar thickness normal epidermis when measured on a protein basis. Epidermal growth factor was shown to increase phosphorylation of the EGF receptor in skin. EGF receptors retained in the nonmitotic stratum spinosum and parakeratotic stratum corneum may reflect the incomplete, abnormal differentiation that occurs in active psoriatic lesions. Alternatively, retained EGF receptors may play a direct role in inhibiting cellular differentiation in the suprabasal layers.« less

  2. HB-EGF embedded in PGA/PLLA scaffolds via subcritical CO2 augments the production of tissue engineered intestine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchun; Nelson, Tyler; Cromeens, Barrett; Rager, Terrence; Lannutti, John; Johnson, Jed; Besner, Gail E

    2016-10-01

    The ability to deliver sustained-release, biologically active growth factors through custom designed tissue engineering scaffolds at sites of tissue regeneration offers great therapeutic opportunity. Due to the short in vivo half-lives of most growth factors, it is challenging to deliver these proteins to sites of interest where they may be used before being degraded. The application of subcritical CO2 uses gas-phase CO2 at subcritical pressures ranging from 41 to 62 bar (595-913 PSI) which avoids foaming by reducing the amount of CO2 dissolved in the polymer and maintains completely reversible plasticization. In the current study, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) was embedded into polyglycolic acid (PGA)/Poly-l-latic acid (PLLA) scaffolds via subcritical CO2 exposure for the production of tissue engineered intestine (TEI). PGA fiber morphology after subcritical CO2 exposure was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the distribution of HB-EGF embedded in the scaffold fibers was detected by HB-EGF immunofluorescent staining. In vivo implantation of HB-EGF-embedded scaffolds confirmed significantly improved TEI structure as a result of local delivery of the trophic growth factor. These findings may be critical for the production of TEI in the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{beta}/{delta} in epidermal growth factor-induced HaCaT cell proliferation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liang Pengfei; Jiang Bimei; Yang Xinghua

    2008-10-15

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to be a potent mitogen for epidermal cells both in vitro and in vivo, thus contributing to the development of an organism. It has recently become clear that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{beta}/{delta} (PPAR{beta}/{delta}) expression and activation is involved in the cell proliferation. However, little is known about the role of PPAR{beta}/{delta} in EGF-induced proliferation of HaCaT keratinocytes. In this study, HaCaT cells were cultured in the presence and absence of EGF and we identified that EGF induced an increase of PPAR{beta}/{delta} mRNA and protein level expression in time-dependent and dose-dependent manner, and AG1487, anmore » EGF receptor (EGFR) special inhibitor, caused attenuation of PPAR{beta}/{delta} protein expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that EGF significantly increased PPAR{beta}/{delta} binding activity in HaCaT keratinocytes. Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (asODNs) against PPAR{beta}/{delta} caused selectively inhibition of PPAR{beta}/{delta} protein content induced by EGF and significantly attenuated EGF-mediated cell proliferation. Treatment of the cells with L165041, a specific synthetic ligand for PPAR{beta}/{delta}, significantly enhanced EGF-mediated cell proliferation. Finally, c-Jun ablation inhibited PPAR{beta}/{delta} up-regulation induced by EGF, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed that c-Jun bound to the PPAR{beta}/{delta} promoter and the binding increased in EGF-stimulated cells. These results demonstrate that EGF induces PPAR{beta}/{delta} expression in a c-Jun-dependent manner and PPAR{beta}/{delta} plays a vital role in EGF-stimulated proliferation of HaCaT cells.« less

  4. Interferon-γ alters downstream signaling originating from epidermal growth factor receptor in intestinal epithelial cells: functional consequences for ion transport.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gisela; Marchelletta, Ronald R; McCole, Declan F; Barrett, Kim E

    2012-01-13

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) regulates many cellular functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and ion transport. Our aim was to investigate whether long term treatment with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) modulates EGF activation of downstream signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells and if this contributes to dysregulation of epithelial ion transport in inflammation. Polarized monolayers of T(84) and HT29/cl.19A colonocytes were preincubated with IFN-γ prior to stimulation with EGF. Basolateral potassium transport was studied in Ussing chambers. We also studied inflamed colonic mucosae from C57BL/6 mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium or mdr1a knock-out mice and controls. IFN-γ increased intestinal epithelial EGFr expression without increasing its phosphorylation. Conversely, IFN-γ caused a significant decrease in EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of specific EGFr tyrosine residues and activation of ERK but not Akt-1. In IFNγ-pretreated cells, the inhibitory effect of EGF on carbachol-stimulated K(+) channel activity was lost. In inflamed colonic tissues, EGFr expression was significantly increased, whereas ERK phosphorylation was reduced. Thus, although it up-regulates EGFr expression, IFN-γ causes defective EGFr activation in colonic epithelial cells via reduced phosphorylation of specific EGFr tyrosine residues. This probably accounts for altered downstream signaling consequences. These observations were corroborated in the setting of colitis. IFN-γ also abrogates the ability of EGF to inhibit carbachol-stimulated basolateral K(+) currents. Our data suggest that, in the setting of inflammation, the biological effect of EGF, including the inhibitory effect of EGF on Ca(2+)-dependent ion transport, is altered, perhaps contributing to diarrheal and other symptoms in vivo.

  5. ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES SRC-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES Src-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)
    Weidong Wu1, Lee M. Graves2, Gordon N. Gill3 and James M. Samet4 1Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology; 2Department of Pharmacology, University o...

  6. A tissue factor-cascade-targeted strategy to tumor vasculature: a combination of EGFP-EGF1 conjugation nanoparticles with photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Yin, Yanxue; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Bo; Tan, Pei; Jiang, Ting; Mei, Heng; Deng, Jun; Wang, Huafang; Guo, Tao; Pang, Zhiqing; Hu, Yu

    2017-05-09

    Tumor requires tumor vasculature to supply oxygen and nutrients so as to support its continued growth, as well as provide a main route for metastatic spread. In this study, a TF-cascade-targeted strategy aiming to disrupt tumor blood vessels was developed by combination of TF-targeted HMME-loaded drug delivery system and PDT. PDT is a promising new modality in the treatment of cancers, which employs the interaction between a tumor-localizing photosensitizer and light of an appropriate wavelength to bring about ROS-induced cell death. In vitro results showed that protein EGFP-EGF1modification could significantly contribute to the uptake of nanoparticles by TF over-expressed BCECs. In vivo multispectral fluorescent imaging, the EGFP-EGF1 conjugated nanoparticles showed significantly higher accumulation in tumor tissues than non-conjugated ones. Tumor tissue slides further presented that EGFP-EGF1 conjugated nanoparticles showed significantly higher accumulation in tumor vasculature than non-conjugated ones. In vitro study demonstrated that PDT increased TF expression of BCECs. In vivo imaging, ex vivo imaging and tumor tissue slides showed that PDT further contribute EGFP-EGF1-NP accumulation in tumor. These promising results indicated that PDT enhanced EGFP-EGF1modified PEG-PLGA nanoparticle accumulation in tumor vaculature. Considering that EGFP-EGF1 conjugation enhanced nanoparticles uptake by TF over-expressed endothelium and PDT increased endothelium TF expression. We conclude that PDT triggered a TF cascade targeted effect. A combination of both EGFP-EGF1 modification and PDT provided a positive feed-back target effect to tumor vessels and might have a great potential for tumor therapy.

  7. Effects of epidermal growth factor on bone formation and resorption in vivo

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Marie, P.J.; Hott, M.; Perheentupa, J.

    1990-02-01

    The effects of mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) on bone formation and resorption were examined in male mice. EGF administration (2-200 ng.g-1.day-1 ip for 7 days) induced a dose-dependent rise in plasma EGF levels that remained within physiological range. Histomorphometric analysis of caudal vertebrae showed that EGF (20 and 200 ng.g-1.day-1) reduced the endosteal matrix and mineral appositional rates after 5 days of treatment as measured by double (3H)proline labeling and double tetracycline labeling, respectively. This effect was transitory and was not observed after 7 days of EGF administration. EGF administered for 7 days induced a dose-dependent increase in themore » periosteal osteoblastic and tetracycline double-labeled surfaces. At high dosage (200 ng.g-1.day-1) EGF administration increased the osteoclastic surface and the number of acid phosphatase-stained osteoclasts, although plasma calcium remained normal. The results show that EGF administration at physiological doses induces distinct effects on endosteal and periosteal bone formation and that the effects are dependent on EGF dosage and duration of treatment. This study indicates that EGF at physiological dosage stimulates periosteal bone formation and increases endosteal bone resorption in the growing mouse.« less

  8. Wounding-induced synthesis of hyaluronic acid in organotypic epidermal cultures requires the release of heparin-binding egf and activation of the EGFR.

    PubMed

    Monslow, James; Sato, Nobuyuki; Mack, Judith A; Maytin, Edward V

    2009-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a glycosaminoglycan located between keratinocytes in the epidermis, accumulates dramatically following skin wounding. To study inductive mechanisms, a rat keratinocyte organotypic culture model that faithfully mimics HA metabolism was used. Organotypic cultures were needle-punctured 100 times, incubated for up to 24 hours, and HA analyzed by histochemical and biochemical methods. Within 15 minutes post-injury, HA levels had elevated two-fold, increasing to four-fold by 24 hours. HA elevations far from the site of injury suggested the possible involvement of a soluble HA-inductive factor. Media transfer experiments (from wounded cultures to unwounded cultures) confirmed the existence of a soluble factor. From earlier evidence, we hypothesized that an EGF-like growth factor might be responsible. This was confirmed as follows: (1) EGFR kinase inhibitor (AG1478) completely prevented wounding-induced HA accumulation. (2) Rapid tyrosine-phosphorylation of EGFR correlated well with the onset of increased HA synthesis. (3) A neutralizing antibody that recognizes heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) blocked wounding-induced HA synthesis by > or =50%. (4) Western analyses showed that release of activated HB-EGF (but neither amphiregulin nor EGF) occured after wounding. In summary, rapid HA accumulation after epidermal wounding occurs through a mechanism requiring cleavage of HB-EGF and activation of EGFR signaling.

  9. [Construction and expression of the targeting super-antigen EGF-SEA fusion gene].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yang; Peng, Shaoping; Liao, Zhiying; Liu, Jiafeng; Liu, Xuemei; Chen, Weifeng

    2014-05-01

    To construct expression vector for the SEA-EGF fusion gene. Clone the SEA gene and the EGF gene segment with PCR and RT-PCR independently, and connect this two genes by the bridge PCR. Insert the fusion gene EGF-SEA into the expression vector PET-44. Induced the secretion of the fusion protein SEA-EGF by the antileptic. The gene fragment encoding EGF and SEA mature peptide was successfully cloned. The fusion gene EGF-SEA was successfully constructed and was inserted into expression vector. The new recombinant expression vector for fusion gene EGF-SEA is specific for head and neck cancer, laid the foundation for the further study of fusion protein SEA-EGF targeting immune therapy in head and neck tumors.

  10. Human trophoblast survival at low oxygen concentrations requires metalloproteinase-mediated shedding of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Armant, D. Randall; Kilburn, Brian A.; Petkova, Anelia; Edwin, Samuel S.; Duniec-Dmuchowski, Zophia M.; Edwards, Holly J.; Romero, Roberto; Leach, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), which is expressed in the placenta during normal pregnancy, is downregulated in pre-eclampsia, a human pregnancy disorder associated with poor trophoblast differentiation and survival. This growth factor protects against apoptosis during stress, suggesting a role in trophoblast survival in the relatively low O2 (∼2%) environment of the first trimester conceptus. Using a well-characterized human first trimester cytotrophoblast cell line, we found that a 4-hour exposure to 2% O2 upregulates HBEGF synthesis and secretion independently of an increase in its mRNA. Five other expressed members of the EGF family are largely unaffected. At 2% O2, signaling via HER1 or HER4, known HBEGF receptors, is required for both HBEGF upregulation and protection against apoptosis. This positive-feedback loop is dependent on metalloproteinase-mediated cleavage and shedding of the HBEGF ectodomain. The restoration of trophoblast survival by the addition of soluble HBEGF in cultures exposed to low O2 and metalloproteinase inhibitor suggests that the effects of HBEGF are mediated by autocrine/paracrine, rather than juxtacrine, signaling. Our results provide evidence that a post-transcriptional mechanism induced in trophoblasts by low O2 rapidly amplifies HBEGF signaling to inhibit apoptosis. These findings have a high clinical significance, as the downregulation of HBEGF in pre-eclampsia is likely to be a contributing factor leading to the demise of trophoblasts. PMID:16407398

  11. Human trophoblast survival at low oxygen concentrations requires metalloproteinase-mediated shedding of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor.

    PubMed

    Armant, D Randall; Kilburn, Brian A; Petkova, Anelia; Edwin, Samuel S; Duniec-Dmuchowski, Zophia M; Edwards, Holly J; Romero, Roberto; Leach, Richard E

    2006-02-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), which is expressed in the placenta during normal pregnancy, is down regulated in pre-eclampsia, a human pregnancy disorder associated with poor trophoblast differentiation and survival. This growth factor protects against apoptosis during stress, suggesting a role in trophoblast survival in the relatively low O(2) ( approximately 2%) environment of the first trimester conceptus. Using a well-characterized human first trimester cytotrophoblast cell line, we found that a 4-hour exposure to 2% O(2) upregulates HBEGF synthesis and secretion independently of an increase in its mRNA. Five other expressed members of the EGF family are largely unaffected. At 2% O(2), signaling via HER1 or HER4, known HBEGF receptors, is required for both HBEGF upregulation and protection against apoptosis. This positive-feedback loop is dependent on metalloproteinase-mediated cleavage and shedding of the HBEGF ectodomain. The restoration of trophoblast survival by the addition of soluble HBEGF in cultures exposed to low O(2) and metalloproteinase inhibitor suggests that the effects of HBEGF are mediated by autocrine/paracrine, rather than juxtacrine, signaling. Our results provide evidence that a post-transcriptional mechanism induced in trophoblasts by low O(2) rapidly amplifies HBEGF signaling to inhibit apoptosis. These findings have a high clinical significance, as the downregulation of HBEGF in pre-eclampsia is likely to be a contributing factor leading to the demise of trophoblasts.

  12. NHERF-1 regulation of EGF and neurotensin signalling in HT-29 epithelial cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kruger, Wade A.; Monteith, Gregory R.; Poronnik, Philip, E-mail: philip.poronnik@sydney.edu.au

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► NHERF-1 expression was abundant throughout HT-29 cells consistent with a cancerous phenotype. ► Knockdown of NHERF-1 lead to a significant reduction in cell proliferation. ► EGF and neurotensin-mediated proliferation was inhibited by knockdown of NHERF-1. ► Neurotensin-mediated Ca{sup 2+} response was abolished by knockdown of NHERF-1. -- Abstract: Neurotensin receptors (NT-R) and the epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) are commonly overexpressed in many epithelial origin tumours. In addition to their role as mitogenic mediators through specific cell signalling, recent studies indicate that the activity/expression of scaffold proteins responsible for the assembly and coordination of the signalling complexes maymore » also have central roles in epithelial transformation. In particular, the “epithelial” PSD-95/Dlg/Zo-1 (PDZ) scaffold/adapter protein, Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger regulatory factor isoform one (NHERF-1), has been identified as a potential regulator of cellular transformation. NHERF-1 is a known regulator of EGF-R function and plays numerous roles in G-protein-coupled receptor signalling. Because of the synergistic signalling between these two potent mitogens, we investigated a potential role for NHERF-1 in the molecular mechanism linking the aberrant proliferative phenotype initiated by some G-Protein-coupled receptor activators in the colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line. Knockdown (80%) of endogenous NHERF-1 leads to significant reduction in proliferation rate; an effect that could not be recovered by exogenous application of either NT or EGF. Inhibition of the EGF-R with AG1487 also inhibited proliferation and this effect could not be recovered with NT. Knockdown of NHERF-1 significantly altered the expression of the EGF-R, and almost completely abolished the NT-mediated increases in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+}. Knockdown of NHERF-1 also attenuated UTP-mediated purinergic Ca{sup 2+} signalling. Taken together

  13. A Phase III Clinical Trial of the Epidermal Growth Factor Vaccine CIMAvax-EGF as Switch Maintenance Therapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro C; Popa, Xitllaly; Martínez, Odeth; Mendoza, Silvia; Santiesteban, Eduardo; Crespo, Tatiana; Amador, Rosa M; Fleytas, Ricardo; Acosta, Soraida C; Otero, Yanine; Romero, Gala N; de la Torre, Ana; Cala, Mireysi; Arzuaga, Lina; Vello, Loisel; Reyes, Delmairis; Futiel, Niurka; Sabates, Teresa; Catala, Mauricio; Flores, Yoanna I; Garcia, Beatriz; Viada, Carmen; Lorenzo-Luaces, Patricia; Marrero, Maria A; Alonso, Liuba; Parra, Jenelin; Aguilera, Nadia; Pomares, Yaisel; Sierra, Patricia; Rodríguez, Gryssell; Mazorra, Zaima; Lage, Agustin; Crombet, Tania; Neninger, Elia

    2016-08-01

    EGFR is a well-validated target for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CIMAvax-EGF is a therapeutic cancer vaccine composed of human recombinant EGF conjugated to a carrier protein and Montanide ISA51 as adjuvant. The vaccine is intended to induce antibodies against self EGFs that block EGF-EGFR interaction. To evaluate overall survival, safety, immunogenicity, and EGF concentration in serum after CIMAvax-EGF, a randomized phase III trial was done in patients with advanced NSCLC. Four to 6 weeks after first-line chemotherapy, 405 patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC were randomly assigned to a vaccine group, which received CIMAvax-EGF or a control group, treated with best supportive care. Long-term vaccination was very safe. Most frequent adverse reactions were grade 1 or 2 injection-site pain, fever, vomiting, and headache. Vaccination induced anti-EGF antibodies and decreased serum EGF concentration. In the safety population, median survival time (MST) was 10.83 months in the vaccine arm versus 8.86 months in the control arm. These differences were not significant according the standard log rank (HR, 0.82; P = 0.100), but according a weighted log rank (P = 0.04) that was applied once the nonproportionality of the HR was verified. Survival benefit was significant (HR, 0.77; P = 0.036) in the per-protocol setting (patients receiving at least four vaccine doses): MST was 12.43 months for the vaccine arm versus 9.43 months for the control arm. MST was higher (14.66 months) for vaccinated patients with high EGF concentration at baseline. Switch maintenance with CIMAvax-EGF was well tolerated and significantly increased MST of patients that completed induction vaccination. Baseline EGF concentration predicted survival benefit. Clin Cancer Res; 22(15); 3782-90. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Effective Delivery of Doxycycline and Epidermal Growth Factor for Expedited Healing of Chronic Wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Abhilash

    The problems and high medical costs associated with chronic wounds necessitate an economical bioactive wound dressing. A new strategy was investigated to inhibit MMP-9 proteases and to release epidermal growth factor (EGF) to enhance healing. Doxycycline (DOX) and EGF were encapsulated on polyacrylic acid modified polyurethane film (PAA-PU) using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly. The number of bilayers tuned the concentration of DOX and EGF released over time with over 94% bioactivity of EGF retained over 4 days. A simple wound model in which MMP-9 proteases were added to cell culture containing fibroblast cells demonstrated that DOX inhibited the proteases providing a protective environment for the released EGF to stimulate cell migration and proliferation at a faster healing rate. In the presence of DOX, only small amounts of the highly bioactive EGF are sufficient to close the wound. Results show that this is new and promising bioactive dressing for effective wound management.

  15. Resveratrol modulates MED28 (Magicin/EG-1) expression and inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Fen; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Chiou, Yi-Siou; Cheng, An-Chin; Huang, Han

    2011-11-09

    Resveratrol and pterostilbene exhibit diverse biological activities. MED28, a subunit of the mammalian Mediator complex for transcription, was also identified as magicin, an actin cytoskeleton Grb2-associated protein, and as endothelial-derived gene (EG-1). Several tumors exhibit aberrant MED28 expression, whereas the underlying mechanism is unclear. Triple-negative breast cancers, often expressing epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), are associated with metastasis and poor survival. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of resveratrol and pterostilbene and to investigate the role of MED28 in EGFR-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Pretreatment of resveratrol, but not pterostlbene, suppressed EGF-mediated migration and expression of MED28 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, overexpression of MED28 increased migration, and the addition of EGF further enhanced migration. Our data indicate that resveratrol modulates the effect of MED28 on cellular migration, presumably through the EGFR/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, in breast cancer cells.

  16. Spatio-temporal imaging of EGF-induced activation of protein kinase A by FRET in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin Jun; Chen, Xiao-Chuan; Xing, Da

    2004-07-01

    Intracellular molecular interaction is important for the study of cell physiology, yet current relevant methods require fixation or microinjection and lack temporal or spatial resolution. We introduced a new method -- fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to detect molecular interaction in living cells. On the basis of FRET principle, A-kinase activity reporter (AKAR) protein was designed to consist of the fusions of cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), a phosphoamino acid binding domain, a consensus substrate for protein kinase-A (PKA), and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). In this study, the designed pAKAR plasmid was used to transfect a human lung cancer cell line (ASTC-a-1). When the AKAR-transfected cells were treated by forskolin (Fsk), we were able to observe the efficient transfer of energy from excited CFP to YFP within the AKAR molecule by fluorescence microcopy, whereas no FRET was detected in the transfected cells without the treatment of Fsk. When the cells were treated by Epidermal growth factor (EGF), the change of FRET was observed at different subcellular locations, reflecting PKA activation inside the cells upon EGF stimulation. The successful design of a fluorescence reporter of PKA activation and its application demonstrated the superiority of this technology in the research of intracellular protein-protein interaction.

  17. Helicobacter pylori potentiates epithelial:mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer: links to soluble HB-EGF, gastrin and matrix metalloproteinase-7

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yinfei; Grabowska, Anna M; Clarke, Philip A; Whelband, Elisabeth; Robinson, Karen; Argent, Richard H; Tobias, Amanda; Kumari, Rajendra; Atherton, John C

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is a major risk factor in the development of distal gastric adenocarcinoma. Development of the invasive phenotype is associated with the phenomenon of epithelial:mesenchymal transition (EMT). Soluble heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) has been implicated in this process. A study was undertaken to investigate the possibility that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 is upregulated in H pylori infection as a result of hypergastrinaemia, which may enhance shedding of HB-EGF and contribute towards EMT in gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods Three gastric epithelial cell lines (AGS, MGLVA1 and ST16) were co-cultured with the pathogenic H pylori strain 60190 and non-pathogenic strain Tx30a in an in vitro infection model. Gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, HB-EGF shedding by ELISA and protein expression by immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry. The INS-GAS mouse, a transgenic mouse model of gastric carcinogenesis which overexpresses amidated gastrin, was used to investigate the in vivo relationship between HB-EGF, MMP-7, gastrin and EMT. Results The pathogenic strain of H pylori significantly upregulated EMT-associated genes Snail, Slug and vimentin in all three gastric cell lines to a greater degree than the non-pathogenic strain. Pathogenic H pylori also upregulated HB-EGF shedding, a factor implicated in EMT, which was partially dependent on both gastrin and MMP-7 expression. Gastrin and MMP-7 siRNAs and MMP-7 neutralising antibody significantly reduced upregulation of HB-EGF shedding in H pylori infected gastric cell lines and reduced EMT gene expression. The effect of H pylori on EMT was also reversed by gastrin siRNA. Neutralisation of gastrin in the INS-GAS mouse model reduced expression of MMP-7, HB-EGF and key EMT proteins. Conclusion The upregulation of MMP-7 by pathogenic H pylori is partially dependent on gastrin and may have a role in the development of gastric

  18. Targeting autocrine HB-EGF signaling with specific ADAM12 inhibition using recombinant ADAM12 prodomain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Miles A.; Moss, Marcia L.; Powell, Gary; Petrovich, Robert; Edwards, Lori; Meyer, Aaron S.; Griffith, Linda G.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2015-10-01

    Dysregulation of ErbB-family signaling underlies numerous pathologies and has been therapeutically targeted through inhibiting ErbB-receptors themselves or their cognate ligands. For the latter, “decoy” antibodies have been developed to sequester ligands including heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF); however, demonstrating sufficient efficacy has been difficult. Here, we hypothesized that this strategy depends on properties such as ligand-receptor binding affinity, which varies widely across the known ErbB-family ligands. Guided by computational modeling, we found that high-affinity ligands such as HB-EGF are more difficult to target with decoy antibodies compared to low-affinity ligands such as amphiregulin (AREG). To address this issue, we developed an alternative method for inhibiting HB-EGF activity by targeting its cleavage from the cell surface. In a model of the invasive disease endometriosis, we identified A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) as a protease implicated in HB-EGF shedding. We designed a specific inhibitor of ADAM12 based on its recombinant prodomain (PA12), which selectively inhibits ADAM12 but not ADAM10 or ADAM17. In endometriotic cells, PA12 significantly reduced HB-EGF shedding and resultant cellular migration. Overall, specific inhibition of ligand shedding represents a possible alternative to decoy antibodies, especially for ligands such as HB-EGF that exhibit high binding affinity and localized signaling.

  19. Modeling invasive breast cancer: growth factors propel progression of HER2-positive premalignant lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pradeep, C-R; Zeisel, A; Köstler, WJ; Lauriola, M; Jacob-Hirsch, J; Haibe-Kains, B; Amariglio, N; Ben-Chetrit, N; Emde, A; Solomonov, I; Neufeld, G; Piccart, M; Sagi, I; Sotiriou, C; Rechavi, G; Domany, E; Desmedt, C; Yarden, Y

    2013-01-01

    The HER2/neu oncogene encodes a receptor-like tyrosine kinase whose overexpression in breast cancer predicts poor prognosis and resistance to conventional therapies. However, the mechanisms underlying aggressiveness of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)-overexpressing tumors remain incompletely understood. Because it assists epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neuregulin receptors, we overexpressed HER2 in MCF10A mammary cells and applied growth factors. HER2-overexpressing cells grown in extracellular matrix formed filled spheroids, which protruded outgrowths upon growth factor stimulation. Our transcriptome analyses imply a two-hit model for invasive growth: HER2-induced proliferation and evasion from anoikis generate filled structures, which are morphologically and transcriptionally analogous to preinvasive patients’ lesions. In the second hit, EGF escalates signaling and transcriptional responses leading to invasive growth. Consistent with clinical relevance, a gene expression signature based on the HER2/EGF-activated transcriptional program can predict poorer prognosis of a subgroup of HER2-overexpressing patients. In conclusion, the integration of a three-dimensional cellular model and clinical data attributes progression of HER2-overexpressing lesions to EGF-like growth factors acting in the context of the tumor's microenvironment. PMID:22139081

  20. Polyurethane foam containing rhEGF as a dressing material for healing diabetic wounds: Synthesis, characterization, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Do Gi; Choi, Hyun Jun; Yoon, Hyoung Soon; Thambi, Thavasyappan; Lee, Doo Sung

    2015-11-01

    Diabetic wounds are a major health issue associated with diabetes mellitus. To surmount this issue, we developed polyurethane foams (PUFs) incorporating varying amounts of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) (rhEGF-PUFs) as a wound dressing for diabetic wounds. From electron microscopy images, it was found that the pore size of the rhEGF-PUFs surface (the wound contact layer) was less than 100μm, regardless of rhEGF content. The release of rhEGF from the PUFs was evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The result showed that the release of rhEGF was time and concentration dependent, i.e., the amount of released rhEGF significantly increased as the immersion time and the rhEGF content of the PUFs increased. In vitro cytotoxicity testing showed that rhEGF-PUFs increased the viability of HaCaT human keratinocytes and CCD986-sk human fibroblasts, which indicated that the incorporated rhEGF maintained its biological activity. In an in vitro scratch wound healing assay, the wound closure rate was faster in CCD986-sk human fibroblasts than in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Finally, the rhEGF-PUFs were evaluated as an in vivo treatment in a full-thickness wound model in diabetized Sprague-Dawley rats. The result indicated that compared with PUFs, rhEGF-PUFs accelerated wound healing by promoting wound contraction, re-epithelialization, collagen deposition and the formation of a skin appendage. These findings demonstrate that rhEGF-PUFs are a promising dressing for diabetic wounds. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Phosphoproteome and transcriptome analyses of ErbB ligand-stimulated MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takeshi; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Yumoto, Noriko; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Hatakeyama, Mariko

    2008-01-01

    Cellular signal transduction pathways and gene expression are tightly regulated to accommodate changes in response to physiological environments. In the current study, molecules were identified that are activated as a result of intracellular signaling and immediately expressed as mRNA in MCF-7 breast cancer cells shortly after stimulation of ErbB receptor ligands, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or heregulin (HRG). For the identification of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and expressed genes, a SILAC (stable isotopic labeling using amino acids in cell culture) method and Affymetrix gene expression array system, respectively, were used. Unexpectedly, the overlapping of genes appeared in two experimental datasets was very low for HRG (43 hits in the proteome data, 1,655 in the transcriptome data, and 5 hits common to both datasets), while no overlapping gene was detected for EGF (15 hits in the proteome data, 211 hits in the transcriptome data, and no hits common to both datasets). The HRG overlapping genes included ERBB2, NEDD9, MAPK3, JUP and EPHA2. Biological pathway analysis indicated that HRG-stimulated molecular activation is significantly related to cancer pathways including bladder cancer, chronic myeloid leukemia and pancreatic cancer (p < 0.05). The proteome datasets of EGF and HRG contain molecules that are related to Axon guidance, ErbB signaling and VEGF signaling at a high rate.

  2. Stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}/CXCL12) stimulates ovarian cancer cell growth through the EGF receptor transactivation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Porcile, Carola; Bajetto, Adriana; Barbieri, Federica

    2005-08-15

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death in gynecologic diseases in which there is evidence for a complex chemokine network. Chemokines are a family of proteins that play an important role in tumor progression influencing cell proliferation, angiogenic/angiostatic processes, cell migration and metastasis, and, finally, regulating the immune cells recruitment into the tumor mass. We previously demonstrated that astrocytes and glioblastoma cells express both the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and that SDF-1{alpha} treatment induced cell proliferation, supporting the hypothesis that chemokines may play an important role in tumor cells' growth in vitro.more » In the present study, we report that CXCR4 and SDF-1 are expressed in OC cell lines. We demonstrate that SDF-1{alpha} induces a dose-dependent proliferation in OC cells, by the specific interaction with CXCR4 and a biphasic activation of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases. Our results further indicate that CXCR4 activation induces EGF receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation that in turn was linked to the downstream intracellular kinases activation, ERK1/2 and Akt. In addition, we provide evidence for cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (c-Src) involvement in the SDF-1/CXCR4-EGFR transactivation. These results suggest a possible important 'cross-talk' between SDF-1/CXCR4 and EGFR intracellular pathways that may link signals of cell proliferation in ovarian cancer.« less

  3. Drosophila bunched integrates opposing DPP and EGF signals to set the operculum boundary.

    PubMed

    Dobens, L L; Peterson, J S; Treisman, J; Raftery, L A

    2000-02-01

    The Drosophila BMP homolog DPP can function as a morphogen, inducing multiple cell fates across a developmental field. However, it is unknown how graded levels of extracellular DPP are interpreted to organize a sharp boundary between different fates. Here we show that opposing DPP and EGF signals set the boundary for an ovarian follicle cell fate. First, DPP regulates gene expression in the follicle cells that will create the operculum of the eggshell. DPP induces expression of the enhancer trap reporter A359 and represses expression of bunched, which encodes a protein similar to the mammalian transcription factor TSC-22. Second, DPP signaling indirectly regulates A359 expression in these cells by downregulating expression of bunched. Reduced bunched function restores A359 expression in cells that lack the Smad protein MAD; ectopic expression of BUNCHED suppresses A359 expression in this region. Importantly, reduction of bunched function leads to an expansion of the operculum and loss of the collar at its boundary. Third, EGF signaling upregulates expression of bunched. We previously demonstrated that the bunched expression pattern requires the EGF receptor ligand GURKEN. Here we show that activated EGF receptor is sufficient to induce ectopic bunched expression. Thus, the balance of DPP and EGF signals sets the boundary of bunched expression. We propose that the juxtaposition of cells with high and low BUNCHED activity organizes a sharp boundary for the operculum fate.

  4. Ableson Kinases Negatively Regulate Invadopodia Function and Invasion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Inhibiting an HB-EGF Autocrine Loop

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Karen E.; Walk, Elyse L.; Ammer, Amanda Gatesman; Kelley, Laura C.; Martin, Karen H.; Weed, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a proclivity for locoregional invasion. HNSCC mediates invasion in part through invadopodia-based proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Activation of Src, Erk1/2, Abl and Arg downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) modulates invadopodia activity through phosphorylation of the actin regulatory protein cortactin. In MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, Abl and Arg function downstream of Src to phosphorylate cortactin, promoting invadopodia ECM degradation activity and thus assigning a pro-invasive role for Ableson kinases. We report that Abl kinases have an opposite, negative regulatory role in HNSCC where they suppress invadopodia and tumor invasion. Impairment of Abl expression or Abl kinase activity with imatinib mesylate enhanced HNSCC matrix degradation and 3D collagen invasion, functions that were impaired in MDA-MB-231. HNSCC lines with elevated EGFR and Src activation did not contain increased Abl or Arg kinase activity, suggesting Src could bypass Abl/Arg to phosphorylate cortactin and promote invadopodia ECM degradation. Src transformed Abl−/−/Arg−/− fibroblasts produced ECM degrading invadopodia containing pY421 cortactin, indicating that Abl/Arg are dispensable for invadopodia function in this system. Imatinib treated HNSCC cells had increased EGFR, Erk1/2 and Src activation, enhancing cortactin pY421 and pS405/418 required for invadopodia function. Imatinib stimulated shedding of the EGFR ligand heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) from HNSCC cells, where soluble HB-EGF enhanced invadopodia ECM degradation in HNSCC but not in MDA-MB-231. HNSCC cells treated with inhibitors of the EGFR invadopodia pathway indicated that EGFR and Src are required for invadopodia function. Collectively our results indicate that Abl kinases negatively regulate HNSCC invasive processes through suppression of an HB-EGF autocrine loop responsible for activating a EGFR-Src-cortactin cascade

  5. TCDD AND EGF AFFECT MAPK PATHWAY ACTIVATION IN MURINE EMBRYONIC PALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Palatal fusion occurs on GD 14-15 in the mouse, accompanied by a decrease in EGF receptor (EGFR) at the medial edge of the palatal shelves. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces cleft palate and maintains EGF and EGF receptor (EGFR) expression levels in the medial ed...

  6. Insulin-Like Growth Factor and Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling in Breast Cancer Cell Growth: Focus on Endocrine Resistant Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Tzardi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer for women worldwide with a lifetime risk amounting to a staggering total of 10%. It is well established that the endogenous synthesis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) polypeptide growth factors are closely correlated to malignant transformation and all the steps of the breast cancer metastatic cascade. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both estrogens and growth factors stimulate the proliferation of steroid-dependent tumor cells, and that the interaction between these signaling pathways occurs at several levels. Importantly, the majority of breast cancer cases are estrogen receptor- (ER-) positive which have a more favorable prognosis and pattern of recurrence with endocrine therapy being the backbone of treatment. Unfortunately, the majority of patients progress to endocrine therapy resistant disease (acquired resistance) whereas a proportion of patients may fail to respond to initial therapy (de novo resistance). The IGF-I and EGF downstream signaling pathways are closely involved in the process of progression to therapy resistant disease. Modifications in the bioavailability of these growth factors contribute critically to disease progression. In the present review therefore, we will discuss in depth how IGF and EGF signaling participate in breast cancer pathogenesis and progression to endocrine resistant disease. PMID:26258011

  7. Effects of retinoids on differentiation, lipid metabolism, epidermal growth factor, and low-density lipoprotein binding in squamous carcinoma cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ponec, M.; Weerheim, A.; Havekes, L.

    The relationship among keratinocyte differentiation capacity, lipid synthesis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism, plasma membrane composition, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding has been studied in SCC-12F2 cells. The differentiation capacity of the cells, i.e., ionophore-induced cornified envelope formation, was inhibited by various retinoids and stimulated by hydrocortisone. Retinoids that caused a significant reduction of cornified envelope formation, i.e., retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid, caused only minor changes in lipid synthesis and plasma membrane composition. Arotinoid ethylsulfone, having a minor effect on cornified envelope formation, caused a drastic inhibition of cholesterol synthesis resulting in changes in the plasma membrane composition. Hydrocortisonemore » stimulated cornified envelope formation but had only minor effects on lipid synthesis and plasma membrane composition. Of all retinoids tested, only arotinoid ethylsulfone caused a drastic increase in EGF binding, while hydrocortisone had no effect. These results clearly demonstrate that the plasma membrane composition is not related to keratinocyte differentiation capacity, but most likely does determine EGF binding. Furthermore, EGF binding does not determine keratinocyte differentiation capacity.« less

  8. The effects of EGF and IGF-1 on FSH-mediated in vitro maturation of domestic cat oocytes derived from follicular and luteal stages.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Koray; Vural, M Rıfat; Küplülü, Sükrü; Ozcan, Ziya; Polat, I Mert

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-1) on the in vitro maturation of cat oocytes recovered from follicular and luteal stage ovaries. Oocytes from follicular (n=580) and luteal (n=209) stages were harvested and divided into four groups, which were cultured in FSH-mediated maturation medium supplemented with: (1) EGF alone (25ng/mL); (2) IGF-1 alone (100ng/mL); (3) EGF+IGF-1 (25ng/mL EGF+100ng/mL IGF-I); or (4) no growth factor (control). The proportion of follicular stage oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage was significantly higher than that of oocytes obtained at the luteal stage in both control and study groups (p<0.001). The percentages of oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage during the follicular period were 62.6% in control; 70.9% in EGF; 72.8% in IGF-1, and 78.1% in EGF+IGF-1 groups, whereas the respective values for gametes collected from luteal stage ovaries were 12.5%, 17.5%, 12.5%, and 16.9%. Additionally, the differences between the study and control groups were significant in the case of follicular stage oocytes. Finally, supplementing the maturation medium with EGF and/or IGF-1 significantly enhanced the meiotic maturation of oocytes recovered from follicular stage ovaries. The present study also demonstrated that the combination of EGF and IGF-I provides an additional or synergic effect on meiotic maturation of oocytes recovered from the follicular stage. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. Egf Signaling Directs Neoblast Repopulation by Regulating Asymmetric Cell Division in Planarians.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kai; Thi-Kim Vu, Hanh; Mohan, Ryan D; McKinney, Sean A; Seidel, Chris W; Alexander, Richard; Gotting, Kirsten; Workman, Jerry L; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2016-08-22

    A large population of proliferative stem cells (neoblasts) is required for physiological tissue homeostasis and post-injury regeneration in planarians. Recent studies indicate that survival of a few neoblasts after sublethal irradiation results in the clonal expansion of the surviving stem cells and the eventual restoration of tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity. However, the precise mechanisms regulating the population dynamics of neoblasts remain largely unknown. Here, we uncovered a central role for epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling during in vivo neoblast expansion mediated by Smed-egfr-3 (egfr-3) and its putative ligand Smed-neuregulin-7 (nrg-7). Furthermore, the EGF receptor-3 protein localizes asymmetrically on the cytoplasmic membrane of neoblasts, and the ratio of asymmetric to symmetric cell divisions decreases significantly in egfr-3(RNAi) worms. Our results not only provide the first molecular evidence of asymmetric stem cell divisions in planarians, but also demonstrate that EGF signaling likely functions as an essential regulator of neoblast clonal expansion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Europium-labeled epidermal growth factor and neurotensin: novel probes for receptor-binding studies.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Ohad; Hillairet de Boisferon, Marc; Lombet, Alain; Gruaz-Guyon, Anne; Gayer, Batya; Skrzydelsky, Delphine; Kohen, Fortune; Forgez, Patricia; Scherz, Avigdor; Rostene, William; Salomon, Yoram

    2002-02-01

    We investigated the possibility of labeling two biologically active peptides, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neurotensin (NT), with europium (Eu)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. More specifically, we tested them as probes in studying receptor binding using time-resolved fluorescence of Eu3+. The relatively simple synthesis yields ligands with acceptable binding characteristics similar to isotopically labeled derivatives. The binding affinity (Kd) of labeled Eu-EGF to human A431 epidermal carcinoid cells was 3.6 +/- 1.2 nM, similar to the reported Kd values of EGF, whereas the Kd of Eu-NT to human HT29 colon cancer cells (7.4 +/- 0.5 nM) or to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the high-affinity NT receptor (CHO-NT1) were about 10-fold higher than the Kd values of NT. The bioactivity of the Eu-labeled EGF as determined by stimulation of cultured murine D1 hematopoietic cell proliferation was nearly the same as that obtained with native EGF. The maximal stimulation of Ca2+ influx with NT and Eu-NT in CHO-NT1 cells was similar, but the respective K0.5 values were 20 pM and 1 nM, corresponding to differences in the binding affinities previously described. The results of these studies indicate that Eu labeling of peptide hormones and growth factor molecules ranging from 10(3) to 10(5) Da can be conveniently accomplished. Importantly, the Eu-labeled products are stable for approximately 2 years and are completely safe for laboratory use compared to the biohazardous radioligands. Thus, Eu-labeled peptides present an attractive alternative for commonly used radiolabeled ligands in biological studies in general and in receptor assays in particular.

  11. Microfluidic platform for single cell analysis under dynamic spatial and temporal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiyoung; Ryu, Hyunryul; Chung, Minhwan; Kim, Youngtaek; Blum, Yannick; Lee, Sung Sik; Pertz, Olivier; Jeon, Noo Li

    2018-05-01

    Recent research on cellular responses is shifting from static observations recorded under static stimuli to real-time monitoring in a dynamic environment. Since cells sense and interact with their surrounding microenvironment, an experimental platform where dynamically changing cellular microenvironments should be recreated in vitro. There has been a lack of microfluidic devices to support spatial and temporal stimulations in a simple and robust manner. Here, we describe a microfluidic device that generates dynamic chemical gradients and pulses in both space and time using a single device. This microfluidic device provides at least 12h of continuous stimulations that can be used to observe responses from mammalian cells. Combination of the microfluidic de-vice with live-cell imaging facilitates real-time observation of dynamic cellular response at single cell level. Using stable HEK cells with biosensors, ERK (Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase) activities were observed un-der the pulsatile and ramping stimulations of EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor). We quantified ERK activation even at extremely low EGF concentration (0.0625µg/ml), which can not be observed using conventional techniques such as western blot. Cytoskeleton re-arrangement of the 3T3 fibroblast (stable transfection with Lifeact-GFP) was compared under abrupt and gradually changing gradient of PDGF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EGF receptor-targeting peptide conjugate incorporating a near-IR fluorescent dye and a novel 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-based (64)Cu(II) chelator assembled via click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Viehweger, Katrin; Barbaro, Lisa; García, Karina Pombo; Joshi, Tanmaya; Geipel, Gerhard; Steinbach, Jörg; Stephan, Holger; Spiccia, Leone; Graham, Bim

    2014-05-21

    A new Boc-protected 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN)-based pro-chelator compound featuring a "clickable" azidomethylpyridine pendant has been developed as a building block for the construction of multimodal imaging agents. Conjugation to a model alkyne (propargyl alcohol), followed by deprotection, generates a pentadentate ligand, as confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis of the corresponding distorted square-pyramidal Cu(II) complex. The ligand exhibits rapid (64)Cu(II)-binding kinetics (>95% radiochemical yield in <5 min) and a high resistance to demetalation. It may thus prove suitable for use in (64)Cu(II)-based in vivo positron emission tomography (PET). The new chelating building block has been applied to the construction of a bimodal (PET/fluorescence) peptide-based imaging probe targeting the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, which is highly overexpressed on the surface of several types of cancer cells. The probe consists of a hexapeptide sequence, Leu-Ala-Arg-Leu-Leu-Thr (designated "D4"), followed by a Cys-β-Ala-β-Ala spacer, then a β-homopropargylglycine residue with the TACN-based chelator "clicked" to its side chain. A sulfonated near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent cyanine dye (sulfo-Cy5) was introduced at the N-terminus to study the EGF receptor-binding ability of the probe by laser-fluorescence spectroscopy. Binding was also confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation methods, and an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of ca. 10 nM was determined from radioactivity-based measurements of probe binding to two EGF receptor-expressing cell lines (FaDu and A431). The probe is shown to be a biased or partial allosteric agonist of the EGF receptor, inducing phosphorylation of Thr669 and Tyr992, but not the Tyr845, Tyr998, Tyr1045, Tyr1068, or Tyr1148 residues of the receptor, in the absence of the orthosteric EGF ligand. Additionally, the probe was found to suppress the EGF-stimulated autophosphorylation of these latter residues, indicating that it is also

  13. Transformation-specific interaction of the bovine papillomavirus E5 oncoprotein with the platelet-derived growth factor receptor transmembrane domain and the epidermal growth factor receptor cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, B D; Goldstein, D J; Rutledge, L; Vass, W C; Lowy, D R; Schlegel, R; Schiller, J T

    1993-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus E5 transforming protein appears to activate both the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R) by a ligand-independent mechanism. To further investigate the ability of E5 to activate receptors of different classes and to determine whether this stimulation occurs through the extracellular domain required for ligand activation, we constructed chimeric genes encoding PDGF-R and EGF-R by interchanging the extracellular, membrane, and cytoplasmic coding domains. Chimeras were transfected into NIH 3T3 and CHO(LR73) cells. All chimeras expressed stable protein which, upon addition of the appropriate ligand, could be activated as assayed by tyrosine autophosphorylation and biological transformation. Cotransfection of E5 with the wild-type and chimeric receptors resulted in the ligand-independent activation of receptors, provided that a receptor contained either the transmembrane domain of the PDGF-R or the cytoplasmic domain of the EGF-R. Chimeric receptors that contained both of these domains exhibited the highest level of E5-induced biochemical and biological stimulation. These results imply that E5 activates the PDGF-R and EGR-R by two distinct mechanisms, neither of which specifically involves the extracellular domain of the receptor. Consistent with the biochemical and biological activation data, coimmunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that E5 formed a complex with any chimera that contained a PDGF-R transmembrane domain or an EGF-R cytoplasmic domain, with those chimeras containing both domains demonstrating the greatest efficiency of complex formation. These results suggest that although different domains of the PDGF-R and EGF-R are required for E5 activation, both receptors are activated directly by formation of an E5-containing complex. Images PMID:8394451

  14. An EGFR wild type-EGFRvIII-HB-EGF feed forward loop regulates the activation of EGFRvIII

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Yang, Chin-Rang; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Cipher, Daisha J.; Puliyappadamba, Vineshkumar Thidil; Rehman, Alizeh; Jiwani, Ameena J.; Mickey, Bruce; Madden, Christopher; Raisanen, Jack; Burma, Sandeep; Saha, Debabrata; Wang, Zhixiang; Pingle, Sandeep C.; Kesari, Santosh; Boothman, David A.; Habib, Amyn A.

    2014-01-01

    EGFRvIII is a key oncogene in glioblastoma (GBM). EGFRvIII results from an in frame deletion in the extracellular domain of EGFR, does not bind ligand, and is thought to be constitutively active. While EGFRvIII dimerization is known to activate EGFRvIII, the factors that drive EGFRvIII dimerization and activation are not well understood. Here we present a new model of EGFRvIII activation and propose that oncogenic activation of EGFRvIII in glioma cells is driven by co-expressed activated EGFR wild type (EGFRwt). Increasing EGFRwt leads to a striking increase in EGFRvIII tyrosine phosphorylation and activation while silencing EGFRwt inhibits EGFRvIII activation. Both the dimerization arm and the kinase activity of EGFRwt are required for EGFRvIII activation. EGFRwt activates EGFRvIII by facilitating EGFRvIII dimerization. We have previously identified HB-EGF, a ligand for EGFRwt, as a gene induced specifically by EGFRvIII. In this study we show that HB-EGF, is induced by EGFRvIII only when EGFRwt is present. Remarkably, altering HB-EGF recapitulates the effect of EGFRwt on EGFRvIII activation. Thus, increasing HB-EGF leads to a striking increase in EGFRvIII tyrosine phosphorylation while silencing HB-EGF attenuates EGFRvIII phosphorylation, suggesting that an EGFRvIII-HB-EGF-EGFRwt feed forward loop regulates EGFRvIII activation. Silencing EGFRwt or HB-EGF leads to a striking inhibition of EGFRvIII induced tumorigenicity, while increasing EGFRwt or HB-EGF levels resulted in accelerated EGFRvIII mediated oncogenicity in an orthotopic mouse model. Furthermore, we demonstrate the existence of this loop in human GBM. Thus, our data demonstrate that oncogenic activation of EGFRvIII in GBM is likely maintained by a continuous EGFRwt-EGFRvIII-HBEGF loop, potentially an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24077285

  15. Immuno-modulatory effect of local rhEGF treatment during tissue repair in diabetic ulcers.

    PubMed

    García-Honduvilla, Natalio; Cifuentes, Alberto; Ortega, Miguel A; Pastor, Marta; Gainza, Garazi; Gainza, Eusebio; Buján, Julia; Álvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2018-04-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that can be severely impaired due to pathological situations such as diabetes mellitus. Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication of this pathology and are characterized by an excessive inflammatory response. In this work, the effects of local treatment with recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) were studied using a full-thickness wound healing model in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound healing process was assessed with different concentrations of rhEGF (0.1, 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0 µg/mL), placebo and both diabetic and non-diabetic controls ( n  = 53). The macroscopic healing observed in treated diabetic rats was affected by rhEGF concentration. Histologically, we also observed an improvement in the epithelialization, granulation tissue formation and maturation in treated groups, finding again the best response at doses of 0.5 and 2.0 µg/mL. Afterwards, the tissue immune response over time was assessed in diabetic rats using the most effective concentrations of rhEGF (0.5 and 2.0 µg/mL), compared to controls. The presence of macrophages, CD4 + T lymphocytes and CD8 + T lymphocytes, in the reparative tissue was quantified, and cytokine expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. rhEGF treatment caused a reduction in the number of infiltrating macrophages in the healing tissue of diabetic, as well as diminished activation of these leukocytes. These findings show that local administration of rhEGF improves the healing process of excisional wounds and the quality of the neoformed tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, this treatment reduces the local inflammation associated with diabetic healing, indicating immuno-modulatory properties. © 2018 The authors.

  16. Prostaglandin E2-stimulated prostanoid EP4 receptors induce prolonged de novo prostaglandin E2 synthesis through biphasic phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases mediated by activation of protein kinase A in HCA-7 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Hiromichi; Seira, Naofumi; Kurata, Naoki; Araki, Yumi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Regan, John W; Murayama, Toshihiko

    2015-12-05

    Approximately two decades have passed since E-type prostanoid 4 (EP4) receptors were cloned, and the signaling pathways mediated by these receptors have since been implicated in cancer development through the alliance of Gαi-protein/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) activation. Although prostanoid EP4 receptors were initially identified as Gαs-coupled receptors, the specific/distinctive role(s) of prostanoid EP4 receptor-induced cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathways in cancer development have not yet been elucidated in detail. We previously reported using HCA-7 human colon cancer cells that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-stimulated prostanoid EP4 receptors induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as an initiating event in development of colon cancer. Moreover, this induction of COX-2 was mediated by transactivation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. However, direct activation of EGF receptors by EGF also induced similar amounts of COX-2 in this cell line. Thus, the emergence of unique role(s) for prostanoid EP4 receptors is expected by clarifying the different signaling mechanisms between PGE2-stimulated prostanoid EP4 receptors and EGF-stimulated EGF receptors to induce COX-2 and produce PGE2. We here demonstrated that prostanoid EP4 receptor activation by PGE2 in HCA-7 cells led to PKA-dependent re-activation of ERKs, which resulted in prolonged de novo synthesis of PGE2. Although EGF-stimulated EGF receptors in cells also induced COX-2 and the de novo synthesis of PGE2, the activation of this pathway was transient and not mediated by PKA. Therefore, the novel mechanism underlying prolonged de novo synthesis of PGE2 has provided an insight into the importance of prostanoid EP4 receptor-mediated Gαs-protein/cAMP/PKA pathway in development of colon cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Derived Signals Within Plasma Membrane Clathrin Structures.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Stefanie; Delos Santos, Ralph Christian; Antonescu, Costin N

    2017-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is an important regulator of cell growth, proliferation, survival, migration, and metabolism. EGF binding to EGFR triggers the activation of the receptor's intrinsic kinase activity, in turn eliciting the recruitment of many secondary signaling proteins and activation of downstream signals, such as the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, a process requiring the phosphorylation of Gab1. While the identity of many signals that can be activated by EGFR has been revealed, how the spatiotemporal organization of EGFR signaling within cells controls receptor outcome remains poorly understood. Upon EGF binding at the plasma membrane, EGFR is internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis following recruitment to clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Further, plasma membrane CCPs, but not EGFR internalization, are required for EGF-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Signaling intermediates such as phosphorylated Gab1, which lead to Akt phosphorylation, are enriched within CCPs upon EGF stimulation. These findings indicate that some plasma membrane CCPs also serve as signaling microdomains required for certain facets of EGFR signaling and are enriched in key EGFR signaling intermediates. Understanding how the spatiotemporal organization of EGFR signals within CCP microdomains controls receptor signaling outcome requires imaging methods that can systematically resolve and analyze the properties of CCPs, EGFR and key signaling intermediates. Here, we describe methods using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging and analysis to systematically study the enrichment of EGFR and key EGFR-derived signals within CCPs.

  18. Overcoming acquired drug resistance in colorectal cancer cells by targeted delivery of 5-FU with EGF grafted hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lijue; She, Xiaodong; Wang, Tao; He, Li; Shigdar, Sarah; Duan, Wei; Kong, Lingxue

    2015-08-01

    Acquired drug resistance (ADR) can be developed in colorectal cancer cells after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment and diminish the effectiveness of chemotherapy. In this work, acquired 5-FU resistance in the colorectal cancer cell line SW480 was obtained with the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene expression which can convert 5-FU to its inactive metabolite. To overcome ADR in colorectal cancer, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) grafted with epidermal growth factor (EGF) were used as nanocarriers to deliver 5-FU to colorectal cancer cells with acquired drug resistance. The effect and mechanism of 5-FU loaded EGF grafted HMSNs (EGF-HMSNs-5-FU) in overcoming acquired drug resistance in SW480/ADR cells were studied. The EGF-HMSNs were demonstrated to be specifically internalized in EGFR overexpressed SW480/ADR cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis and can escape from endo-lysosomes. The EGF-HMSNs-5-FU exhibited much higher cytotoxicity on SW480/ADR cells than HMSNs-5-FU and free 5-FU while the plain HMSNs did not show significant cytotoxicity. The mechanism of EGF-HMSNs-5-FU in overcoming drug resistance in SW480/ADR cells could be attributed to the specific internalization of EGF-HMSNs-5-FU in EGFR overexpressed cells which can lead to high intracellular drug accumulation and cause cell death through S phase arrest.Acquired drug resistance (ADR) can be developed in colorectal cancer cells after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment and diminish the effectiveness of chemotherapy. In this work, acquired 5-FU resistance in the colorectal cancer cell line SW480 was obtained with the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene expression which can convert 5-FU to its inactive metabolite. To overcome ADR in colorectal cancer, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) grafted with epidermal growth factor (EGF) were used as nanocarriers to deliver 5-FU to colorectal cancer cells with acquired drug resistance. The

  19. Role of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor α in the developing stomach

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, E; Newell, S; Brownlee, K; Farmery, S; Cullinane, C; Reid, W; Jackson, P; Gray, S; Primrose, J; Lagopoulos, M

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) or the related transforming growth factor α (TGFα) may have a role in the developing human stomach; to substantiate the presence of EGF in human liquor in the non-stressed infant and whether EGF in amniotic fluid is maternally or fetally derived.
METHODS—The temporal expression and localisation of EGF, TGFα, and their receptors during fetal and neonatal life were examined in 20 fetal and five infant stomachs. Simultaneously, samples of amniotic fluid and fetal urine from 10 newborn infants were collected and assayed for EGF by radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS—EGF immunoreactivity was not noted in any of the specimens examined. In contrast, TGFα immunoreactivity was shown in mucous cells from 18 weeks of gestation onwards. EGF receptor immunoreactivity was seen on superficial mucous cells in gastric mucosa from 18 weeks of gestation onwards. The median concentration of EGF was 30 and 8.5 pg/ml in amniotic fluid and fetal urine, respectively, suggesting that EGF is not produced by the fetus.
CONCLUSIONS—This study adds weight to the hypothesis that swallowed EGF, probably produced by the amniotic membranes, and locally produced TGFα, may have a role in the growth and maturation of the human stomach.

 Keywords: epidermal growth factor; transforming growth factor α; EGF receptors; stomach PMID:9175944

  20. Lefty Blocks a Subset of TGFβ Signals by Antagonizing EGF-CFC Coreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Simon K; Olale, Felix; Brivanlou, Ali H

    2004-01-01

    Members of the EGF-CFC family play essential roles in embryonic development and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. The TGFβ signals Nodal and Vg1/GDF1, but not Activin, require EGF-CFC coreceptors to activate Activin receptors. We report that the TGFβ signaling antagonist Lefty also acts through an EGF-CFC-dependent mechanism. Lefty inhibits Nodal and Vg1 signaling, but not Activin signaling. Lefty genetically interacts with EGF-CFC proteins and competes with Nodal for binding to these coreceptors. Chimeras between Activin and Nodal or Vg1 identify a 14 amino acid region that confers independence from EGF-CFC coreceptors and resistance to Lefty. These results indicate that coreceptors are targets for both TGFβ agonists and antagonists and suggest that subtle sequence variations in TGFβ signals result in greater ligand diversity. PMID:14966532

  1. Combined inhibition of EMMPRIN and epidermal growth factor receptor prevents the growth and migration of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Ishikawa, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    It has been reported that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression is associated with the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in some solid tumors; however, the relationship of EMMPRIN with EGFR in head and neck cancers is not fully understood. To determine the relationship between EMMPRIN and EGFR in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), HNSCC cells were stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF), a ligand of EGFR. EMMPRIN expression in HNSCC cells was upregulated by EGF. In addition, EGF stimulation induced HNSCC cell invasion and MMP-9 expression. This increase in invasion and MMP-9 expression was abrogated by downmodulation of EMMPRIN. Furthermore, to determine the effects of combined EMMPRIN and EGFR targeting in HNSCC, HNSCC cells were treated with an EMMPRIN function-blocking antibody and the EGFR inhibitor AG1478. This combined treatment resulted in greater inhibition of HNSCC cell proliferation and migration compared with the individual agents alone. These results suggest that EMMPRIN mediates EGFR-induced tumorigenicity and that combined targeting of EMMPRIN and EGFR may be an efficacious treatment approach.

  2. Ezrin/NF-kB activation regulates epithelial- mesenchymal transition induced by EGF and promotes metastasis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingru; Lin, Zhaoyu; Chen, Bin; Chen, Shuang; Jiang, Zhipeng; Zhou, Taicheng; Hou, Zehui; Wang, Youyuan

    2017-08-01

    There is growing evidence that epithelial mesenchymal-transition (EMT) plays significant roles in terms of tumor metastasis. There are a lot of cytokines inducing EMT of tumor cells, EGF is one of the important cytokines.Ezrin is a connexin between the cytoskeleton and the cell membrane, which is closely related to the morphological movement and metastasis of tumor cells.EGF can activate Ezrin and affects cell motility. In recent years, many studies have shown that NF-kB acts as an important transcription factor, involving in the process of EMT. However, does Ezrin participate in the regulation of EGF-induced EMT through the NF-kB pathway? This question needs us to discuss.In the present study, we found that EGF could induce colorectal cancer cells to develop EMT,enhance their ability to invade and migrate and promotes phosphorylation of Ezrin Tyr353.On the other hand, inhibition of Ezrin could reverse EGF-induced EMT and inhibit NF-kB P65 translocating into the nucleus. Finally, knockout of Ezrin inhibited EGF-induced lung metastasis of colorectal cancer xenografts and abnormal activation of Ezrin and NF-kB were related with colorectal cancer metastasis and poor prognosis. Our present results suggest that Ezrin/NF-kB pathway may provide experimental evidence for new targeted drugs for colorectal cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. High Efficient Expression, Purification, and Functional Characterization of Native Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Yu, Jieying; Lin, Jinglian; Wu, Shaomin; Li, Shan; Wang, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a small, mitotic growth polypeptide that promotes the proliferation of various cells and is widely applied in clinical practices. However, high efficient expression of native hEGF in Escherichia coli has not been successful, since three disulfide bonds in monomer hEGF made it unable to fold into correct 3D structure using in vivo system. To tackle this problem, we fused Mxe GyrA intein (Mxe) at the C-terminal of hEGF followed by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and 10x His-tag to construct a chimeric protein hEGF-Mxe-SUMO-H 10 . The fusion protein was highly expressed at the concentration of 281 mg/L and up to 59.5% of the total cellular soluble proteins. The fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and 29.4 mg/L of native hEGF can be released by thiol induced N-terminal cleavage without any proteases. The mitotic activity in Balb/c 3T3 cells is proliferated by commercial and recombinant hEGF measured with methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay which indicated that recombinant hEGF protein stimulates the cell proliferation similar to commercial protein. This study significantly improved the yield and reduced the cost of hEGF in the recombinant E. coli system and could be a better strategy to produce native hEGF for pharmaceutical development.

  4. Cigarette smoke induces aberrant EGF receptor activation which mediates lung cancer development and resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Filosto, Simone; Becker, Cathleen R.; Goldkorn, Tzipora

    2015-01-01

    The EGF Receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling are implicated in lung cancer development. Therefore, much effort was spent in developing specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that bind to the EGFR ATP-pocket, blocking EGFR phosphorylation/signaling. Clinical use of TKIs is effective in a subset of lung cancers with mutations in the EGFR kinase domain, rendering the receptor highly susceptible to TKIs. However, these benefits are limited, and emergence of additional EGFR mutations usually results in TKI resistance and disease progression. Previously, we demonstrated one mechanism linking cigarette smoke (CS) to EGFR-driven lung cancer. Specifically, exposure of lung epithelial cells to CS-induced oxidative stress stimulates aberrant EGFR phosphorylation/activation with impaired receptor ubiquitination/degradation. The abnormal stabilization of the activated receptor leads to uncontrolled cell growth and tumorigenesis. Here we describe for the first time a novel post-translational mechanism of EGFR resistance to TKIs. Exposure of airway epithelial cells to CS causes aberrant phosphorylation/activation of EGFR, resulting in a conformation that is different from that induced by the ligand EGF. Unlike EGF-activated EGFR, CS-activated EGFR binds c-Src and caveolin-1 and does not undergo canonical dimerization. Importantly, the CS-activated EGFR is not inhibited by TKIs (AG1478; Erlotinib; Gefitinib); in fact, the CS exposure induces TKI-resistance even in the TKI-sensitive EGFR mutants. Our findings demonstrate that CS exposure stimulates not only aberrant EGFR phosphorylation impairing receptor degradation, but also induces a different EGFR conformation and signaling that are resistant to TKIs. Together, these findings offer new insights into CS-induced lung cancer development and TKI resistance. PMID:22302097

  5. Rapid Induction of Apoptosis in Gastrulating Mouse Embryos by Ethanol and Its Prevention by HB-EGF

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Brian A.; Chiang, Po Jen; Wang, Jun; Flentke, George R.; Smith, Susan M.; Armant, D. Randall

    2006-01-01

    Background Ethanol exposure during gastrulation and early neurulation induces apoptosis within certain embryonic cell populations, leading to craniofacial and neurological defects. There is currently little information about the initial kinetics of ethanol-induced apoptosis, and interest in the ability of endogenous survival factors to moderate apoptosis is growing. Ethanol alters intracellular signaling, leading to cell death in chick embryos, suggesting that apoptosis could occur rapidly and that signaling pathways activated by survival factors might reduce apoptosis. Methods Pregnant mice were intubated with 1, 2, or 4 g/kg ethanol on day 7.5 of embryogenesis (E7.5) 1, 3, or 6, hours before harvesting gastrulation-stage embryos. Control animals received maltose/dextran. Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) were determined by gas chromatography. E7.5 embryos isolated from untreated dams were cultured in vitro for 1 or 3 hr with 0 or 400 mg% ethanol and 0 or 5 nM heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF). Apoptosis was quantified using fluorescence microscopy to detect annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation [terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-X nick end labeling (TUNEL)] in whole-mount or sectioned embryos. Results Both annexin V binding and TUNEL were elevated (p<0.05) in embryos exposed in utero to 1 g/kg ethanol for 3 hours, increasing linearly with time and ethanol concentration. Apoptosis increased (p<0.05) in all germ cell layers. Mice treated with 4 g/kg sustained BAC of 400 mg% for nearly 3 hours, significantly increasing apoptosis within the first hour. Cultured embryos exposed to 400 mg% ethanol displayed 2- to 3-fold more TUNEL than vehicle-treated embryos (p<0.05); however, exogenous HB-EGF prevented apoptosis. Conclusions Ethanol rapidly produced apoptosis in gastrulation-stage embryos, consistent with induction by intracellular signaling. The ethanol-induced apoptotic pathway was blocked by the

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptors destined for the nucleus are internalized via a clathrin-dependent pathway

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    De Angelis Campos, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, Michele Angela; Andrade, Carolina de

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} EGF and its receptor translocates to the nucleus in liver cells. {yields} Real time imaging shows that EGF moves to the nucleus. {yields} EGF moves with its receptor to the nucleus. {yields} Dynamin and clathrin are necessary for EGFR nuclear translocation. -- Abstract: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) transduces its actions via the EGF receptor (EGFR), which can traffic from the plasma membrane to either the cytoplasm or the nucleus. However, the mechanism by which EGFR reaches the nucleus is unclear. To investigate these questions, liver cells were analyzed by immunoblot of cell fractions, confocal immunofluorescence and realmore » time confocal imaging. Cell fractionation studies showed that EGFR was detectable in the nucleus after EGF stimulation with a peak in nuclear receptor after 10 min. Movement of EGFR to the nucleus was confirmed by confocal immunofluorescence and labeled EGF moved with the receptor to the nucleus. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown clathrin in order to assess the first endocytic steps of EGFR nuclear translocation in liver cells. A mutant dynamin (dynamin K44A) was also used to determine the pathways for this traffic. Movement of labeled EGF or EGFR to the nucleus depended upon dynamin and clathrin. This identifies the pathway that mediates the first steps for EGFR nuclear translocation in liver cells.« less

  7. EGFR ligands drive multipotential stromal cells to produce multiple growth factors and cytokines via early growth response-1.

    PubMed

    Kerpedjieva, Svetoslava S; Kim, Duk Soo; Barbeau, Dominique J; Tamama, Kenichi

    2012-09-01

    Cell therapy with adult bone marrow multipotential stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) presents a promising approach to promote wound healing and tissue regeneration. The strong paracrine capability of various growth factors and cytokines is a key mechanism of MSC-mediated wound healing and tissue regeneration, and the goal of this study is to understand the underlying mechanism that supports the strong paracrine machineries in MSCs. Microarray database analyses revealed that early growth response-1 (EGR1) is highly expressed in MSCs. Our previous studies showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment induces growth factor production in MSCs in vitro. Since EGF strongly upregulates EGR1, we hypothesized that EGF receptor (EGFR)-EGR1 signaling plays a pivotal role in MSC paracrine activity. EGF treatment upregulated the gene expression of growth factors and cytokines, including EGFR ligands in a protein kinase C (PKC)- and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-dependent manner, and it was reversed by shRNA against EGR1. PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate enhanced EGFR tyrosyl phosphorylation and upregulated the gene expression of growth factors and cytokines in a heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) inhibitor CRM197 sensitive manner, indicating an involvement of autocrined HBEGF in the downstream of PKC signaling. Moreover, stimulation with growth factors and cytokines induced the expression of EGFR ligands, presumably via EGR1 upregulation. These data indicate EGR1 as a convergence point of multiple signaling pathways, which in turn augments the production of multiple growth factors and cytokines by enhancing the autocrine signaling with EGFR ligands.

  8. Convection enhanced delivery of boronated EGF as a molecular targeting agent for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weilian; Wu, Gong; Huo, Tianyao; Tjarks, Werner; Ciesielski, Michael; Fenstermaker, Robert A.; Ross, Brain D.; Wikstrand, Carol J.; Riley, Kent J.; Binns, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we have evaluated a boronated dendrimer-epidermal growth factor (BD-EGF) bioconjugate as a molecular targeting agent for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of the human EGFR gene-transfected F98 rat glioma, designated F98EGFR. EGF was chemically linked to a heavily boronated polyamidoamine dendrimer (BD) by means of the heterobifunctional reagent, mMBS. Biodistribution studies were carried out at 6 h and 24 h following intratumoral (i.t.) injection or intracerebral (i.c.) convection enhanced delivery (CED) of 125I-labeled or unlabeled BD-EGF (40 μg 10B/10 μg EGF) to F98 glioma bearing rats. At 24 h. there was 43% more radioactivity in EGFR(+) tumors following CED compared to i.t. injection, and a doubling of the tumor boron concentration (22.3 μg/g vs. 11.7 μg/g). CED of BD-EGF resulted in a 7.2× increase in the volume of distribution within the infused cerebral hemisphere and a 1.9× increase in tumor uptake of BD-EGF compared with i.t. injection. Based on these favorable bio-distribution data, BNCT was carried out at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology nuclear reactor 14 days following i.c. tumor implantation and 24 h. after CED of BD-EGF. These animals had a MST of 54.1 ± 4.7 days compared to 43.0 ± 2.8 days following i.t. injection. Rats that received BD-EGF by CED in combination with i.v. boronophenylalanine (BPA), which has been used in both experimental and clinical studies, had a MST of 86.0 ± 28.1 days compared to 39.8 ± 1.6 days for i.v. BPA alone (P < 0.01), 30.9 ± 1.4 days for irradiated controls and 25.1 ± 1.0 days for untreated controls (overall P < 0.0001). These data have demonstrated that the efficacy of BNCT was significantly increased (P < 0.006), following i.c CED of BD-EGF compared to i.t injection, and that the survival data were equivalent to those previously reported by us using the boronated anti-human-EGF mAb, C225 (cetuximab). PMID:19588228

  9. Repeated dose intramuscular injection of the CIMAvax-EGF vaccine in Sprague Dawley rats induces local and systemic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, A; Casacó, A; González, B; Ledón, N; Sorlozabal, J; León, A; Gómez, D; González, Y; Bada, A M; González, C; Arteaga, M E; Ramírez, H; Fuentes, D

    2012-05-09

    CIMAvax-EGF consists of a human recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF), coupled to P64k, a recombinant carrier protein from N. meningitis, and Montanide ISA 51 as adjuvant. The vaccine immunization induces a specific antibody production, inhibiting the EGF/EGF-R interaction through EGF deprivation. The objective of this study was to assess the CIMAvax-EGF toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats after intramuscular administration of repeated doses (6 months) and at the same time to determine if rat is a relevant species for studying CIMAvax-EGF vaccine. Rats were randomly distributed into four groups: control, Montanide ISA 51, treated with 1× and 15× of human total dose of the antigen. Animals were immunized weekly during 9 weeks, plus 9 immunizations every 14 days. Rats were inspected daily for clinical signs. Body weight, food consumption, and rectal temperature were measured during the administration of doses. Blood samples were collected for hematological, serum biochemical determinations and EGF titles at the beginning, three months and at the end of experimentation. Gross necropsy and histological examination of tissues were performed on animals at the end of the assay. Vaccine provoked the apparition of antibodies against EGF in the rats, demonstrating rat species relevance in these studies. Body weight gain, food and water consumption were not affected. CIMAvax-EGF and Montanide ISA 51 produced local damage at the administration site, showing multiple cysts and granulomas. Both vaccine-treated groups showed neutrophil elevation, besides an AST increase probably related to the damage at the administration site. Rectal temperature was found to be significantly higher in 15× treated group after immunizations, probably induced by the inflammatory process at the injection site. In summary, the clinical pathology findings together with the body temperature results, appear to be caused by the inflammatory reaction at the administration site of the vaccine, mainly

  10. Recombinant porcine epidermal growth factor-secreting Lactococcus lactis promotes the growth performance of early-weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Studies showed that food-grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) and NICE expression system have superior performance in exogenous protein expression. This study aimed to construct and express porcine EGF (pEGF), and use L. lactis as vehicle for producing and delivering pEGF. Furthermore, investigating biological activity of pEGF and exploring applications feasibility of combination effects of L. lactis and pEGF on early weaned piglets’ production. Results A recombinant Lactococcus lactis which produced and secreted pEGF at 1000 ng/ml in culture supernatant was generated. Secreted pEGF was a fully biologically active protein, as demonstrated by its capacity to stimulate L929 mouse fibroblast cell line proliferation in vitro. For in vivo study, forty piglets were randomly allocated to control, antibiotic control, empty vector-expressing L. lactis (LL-EV) and pEGF-secreting L. lactis (LL-pEGF). After 14 d of rearing, final body weight and average daily gain in LL-pEGF were greater (P < 0.05, 8.95 vs. 8.37 kg, 206.1 vs. 157.7 g/day, respectively) than those in control, but no significant differences between LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control. Overall period average daily feed intake was higher in LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control than in control (P < 0.05, 252.9, 255.6, 250.0, 207.3 g/day, respectively). No significant difference was observed on ADFI/ADG. LL-pEGF increased villous height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum than in control and LL-EV (P < 0.05). Sucrase in the 3 intestinal segments, aminopeptidase A in the duodenum and Jejunum, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidase IV in the duodenum in LL-pEGF were higher than those in control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus counts decreased in the ileum and Lactobacillus increased in the ileum and cecum digesta in LL-pEGF compare with the

  11. Effect of the anti-receptor ligand-blocking 225 monoclonal antibody on EGF receptor endocytosis and sorting

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jaramillo, Maria L.; Leon, Zully; Grothe, Suzanne

    The anti-receptor antibody, 225 mAb, is known to block binding of ligand to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the effect of this neutralizing antibody on EGFR endocytosis, trafficking and degradation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that endocytosis of {sup 125}I-225 mAb occurs, albeit with a slower rate than that of EGF. Using pulse chase assays, we show that internalized {sup 125}I-225 mAb is recycled to the surface much more efficiently than internalized {sup 125}I-EGF. Also, we found that internalization of {sup 125}I-225 mAb, in contrast to that of EGF, is independent of receptor tyrosine kinase activity, as evidencedmore » by its insensitivity to AG1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Analysis of the levels of cell surface and total EGFR showed that treatment with 225 mAb results in a 30-40% decrease in surface EGFR and a relatively slow downregulation of total EGFR. Taken together, these data indicate that 225 mAb induces internalization and downregulation of EGFR via a mechanism distinct from that underlying EGF-induced EGFR internalization and downregulation.« less

  12. Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein synthesis by inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Magae, Junji

    2013-12-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic from Ascochyta viciae, in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-1 responsive human breast cancer cells. Ascofuranone significantly and selectively suppressed EGF-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation, whereas it did not affect the expression of HIF-1β. Furthermore, ascofuranone inhibited the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by reducing protein HIF-1α. Mechanistically, we found that the inhibitory effects of ascofuranone on HIF-1α protein expression are associated with the inhibition of synthesis HIF-1α throughmore » an EGF-dependent mechanism. In addition, ascofuranone suppressed EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase, but the phosphorylation of ERK/JNK/p38 kinase was not affected by ascofuranone. These results suggest that ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein translation through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathways and plays a novel role in the anti-angiogenic action. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effect of ascofuranone on HIF-1α expression is EGF-specific regulation. • Ascofuranone decreases HIF-1α protein synthesis through Akt/mTOR pathways. • Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced VEGF production and tumor angiogenesis.« less

  13. Function-specific intracellular signaling pathways downstream of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor utilized by human trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Jessmon, Philip; Kilburn, Brian A; Romero, Roberto; Leach, Richard E; Armant, D Randall

    2010-05-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) is expressed by trophoblast cells throughout gestation. First-trimester cytotrophoblast cells are protected from hypoxia-induced apoptosis because of the accumulation of HBEGF through a posttranscriptional autocrine mechanism. Exogenous application of HBEGF is cytoprotective in a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model and initiates trophoblast extravillous differentiation to an invasive phenotype. The downstream signaling pathways induced by HBEGF that mediate these various cellular activities were identified using two human first-trimester cytotrophoblast cell lines, HTR-8/SVneo and SW.71, with similar results. Recombinant HBEGF (1 nM) induced transient phosphorylation of MAPK3/1 (ERK), MAPK14 (p38), and AKT within 15 min and JNK after 1-2 h. To determine which downstream pathways regulate the various functions of HBEGF, cells were treated with specific inhibitors of the ERK upstream regulator MEK (U0126), the AKT upstream regulator phosphoinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase (LY294002), MAPK14 (SB203580), and JNK (SP600125), as well as with inactive structural analogues. Only SB203580 specifically prevented HBEGF-mediated rescue during H/R, while each inhibitor attenuated HBEGF-stimulated cell migration. Accumulation of HBEGF at reduced oxygen was blocked only by a combination of U0126, SB203580, and SP600125. We conclude that HBEGF advances trophoblast extravillous differentiation through coordinate activation of PI3 kinase, ERK, MAPK14, and JNK, while only MAPK14 is required for its antiapoptotic activity. Additionally, hypoxia induces an autocrine increase in HBEGF protein levels through MAPK14, JNK or ERK. These experiments reveal a complexity of the intracellular signaling circuitry that regulates trophoblast functions critical for implantation and placentation.

  14. Filamin A Modulates Kinase Activation and Intracellular Trafficking of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors in Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Jennifer L.; Zhu, Tie-Nian; O'Connell, Michael P.; Hoek, Keith S.; Indig, Fred E.; Frank, Brittany P.; Morris, Christa; Kole, Sutapa; Hasskamp, Joanne; Elias, George; Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Bernier, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The actin-binding protein filamin A (FLNa) affects the intracellular trafficking of various classes of receptors and has a potential role in oncogenesis. However, it is unclear whether FLNa regulates the signaling capacity and/or down-regulation of the activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Here it is shown that partial knockdown of FLNa gene expression blocked ligand-induced EGFR responses in metastatic human melanomas. To gain greater insights into the role of FLNa in EGFR activation and intracellular sorting, we used M2 melanoma cells that lack endogenous FLNa and a subclone in which human FLNa cDNA has been stably reintroduced (M2A7 cells). Both tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination of EGFR were significantly lower in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated M2 cells when compared with M2A7 cells. Moreover, the lack of FLNa interfered with EGFR interaction with the ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl. M2 cells exhibited marked resistance to EGF-induced receptor degradation, which was very active in M2A7 cells. Despite comparable rates of EGF-mediated receptor endocytosis, internalized EGFR colocalized with the lysosomal marker lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 in M2A7 cells but not M2 cells, in which EGFR was found to be sequestered in large vesicles and subsequently accumulated in punctated perinuclear structures after EGF stimulation. These results suggest the requirement of FLNa for efficient EGFR kinase activation and the sorting of endocytosed receptors into the degradation pathway. PMID:19213840

  15. Combined immunotherapy of breast cancer with EGF and VEGF vaccines from DNA shuffling in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dong; Yu, Xin; Chen, Bing; Li, Zhitao; Ding, Jia; Zhao, Xiuyun; Qi, Gaofu

    2017-06-01

    Development of EGF and VEGF vaccines with high antigenicity for combined immunotherapy of EGF-EGFR signaling-dependent epithelial tumors such as breast cancer. EGF genes from mouse, human and chicken were randomly assembled to chimeric genes by DNA shuffling, then a chimeric EGF was selected out by PCR, SDS-PAGE and immunization for combined immunotherapy of breast cancer with a previously constructed chimeric VEGF vaccine from shuffling. Combined vaccination with chimeric EGF and VEGF from shuffling could induce high titer of antibodies against EGF and VEGF to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis, and improve the survival rate of mice with breast cancer. Combined vaccination with EGF and VEGF from shuffling showed better immunotherapy on EGF-EGFR signaling-dependent epithelial tumors such as breast cancer than the single-agent EGF vaccination.

  16. Interference by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin with cultured mouse submandibular gland branching morphogenesis involves reduced epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kiukkonen, Anu; Sahlberg, Carin; Partanen, Anna-Maija

    2006-05-01

    Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to mouse embryonic teeth, sharing features of early development with salivary glands in common, involves enhanced apoptosis and depends on the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. EGF receptor signaling, on the other hand, is essential for salivary gland branching morphogenesis. To see if TCDD impairs salivary gland morphogenesis and if the impairment is associated with EGF receptor signaling, we cultured mouse (NMRI) E13 submandibular glands with TCDD or TCDD in combination with EGF or fibronectin (FN), both previously found to enhance branching morphogenesis. Explants were examined stereomicroscopically and processed to paraffin sections. TCDD exposuremore » impaired epithelial branching and cleft formation, resulting in enlarged buds. The glands were smaller than normal. EGF and FN alone concentration-dependently stimulated or inhibited branching morphogenesis but when co-administered with TCDD, failed to compensate for its effect. TCDD induced cytochrome P4501A1 expression in the glandular epithelium, indicating activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. TCDD somewhat increased epithelial apoptosis as observed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated nick end-labeling method but the increase could not be correlated with morphological changes. The frequency of proliferating cells was not altered. Corresponding to the reduced cleft sites in TCDD-exposed explants, FN immunoreactivity in the epithelium was reduced. The results show that TCDD, comparably with EGF and FN at morphogenesis-inhibiting concentrations, impaired salivary gland branching morphogenesis in vitro. Together with the failure of EGF and FN at morphogenesis-stimulating concentrations to compensate for the effect of TCDD this implies that TCDD toxicity to developing salivary gland involves reduced EGF receptor signaling.« less

  17. Quantification of growth factor signaling and pathway cross talk by live-cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Sean M.

    2017-01-01

    Peptide growth factors stimulate cellular responses through activation of their transmembrane receptors. Multiple intracellular signaling cascades are engaged following growth factor–receptor binding, leading to short- and long-term biological effects. Each receptor-activated signaling pathway does not act in isolation but rather interacts at different levels with other pathways to shape signaling networks that are distinctive for each growth factor. To gain insights into the specifics of growth factor-regulated interactions among different signaling cascades, we developed a HeLa cell line stably expressing fluorescent live-cell imaging reporters that are readouts for two major growth factor-stimulated pathways, Ras–Raf–Mek–ERK and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase–Akt. Incubation of cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) resulted in rapid, robust, and sustained ERK signaling but shorter-term activation of Akt. In contrast, hepatocyte growth factor induced sustained Akt signaling but weak and short-lived ERK activity, and insulin-like growth factor-I stimulated strong long-term Akt responses but negligible ERK signaling. To address potential interactions between signaling pathways, we employed specific small-molecule inhibitors. In cells incubated with EGF or platelet-derived growth factor-AA, Raf activation and the subsequent stimulation of ERK reduced Akt signaling, whereas Mek inhibition, which blocked ERK activation, enhanced Akt and turned transient effects into sustained responses. Our results reveal that individual growth factors initiate signaling cascades that vary markedly in strength and duration and demonstrate in living cells the dramatic effects of cross talk from Raf and Mek to PI 3-kinase and Akt. Our data further indicate how specific growth factors can encode distinct cellular behaviors by promoting complex interactions among signaling pathways. PMID:28100485

  18. Elevated EGF Levels in the Blood Serum of Dogs with Periodontal Diseases and Oral Tumours.

    PubMed

    Sobczyńska-Rak, Aleksandra; Żylińska, Beata; Polkowska, Izabela; Szponder, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Paradontopathy and neoplasms of the oral cavity represent one of the greatest challenges in human and animal dentistry. EGF plays a key role in maintaining the integrity and proper rate of cell proliferation in normal oral epithelium. The aim of the present study was to study serum levels of EGF in dogs diagnosed with periodontal diseases and oral cavity tumours. The samples comprised of cancerous tissue sections and serum obtained from dogs of various breeds, aged between 5-13 years. Serum EGF concentrations were measured by an immunoenzymatic method. The median for EGF concentration in serum of dogs suffered from severe periodontal diseases was greater when compared to the control group. EGF concentration in dogs with malignant tumours was significantly higher than in those with non-malignant growths. A positive correlation between EGF concentration and tumour size was also observed. EGF level in dogs diagnosed with benign tumours was comparable to the control group. The blood serum level of EGF increases significantly in patients with malignant oral tumours and advanced periodontal disease. In malignant tumours, the high level of EGF correlates with the size and invasiveness of the neoplasm. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Lineage-specific co-evolution of the Egf receptor/ligand signaling system.

    PubMed

    Laisney, Juliette A G C; Braasch, Ingo; Walter, Ronald B; Meierjohann, Svenja; Schartl, Manfred

    2010-01-27

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) with its numerous ligands has fundamental roles in development, cell differentiation and physiology. Dysfunction of the receptor-ligand system contributes to many human malignancies. Consistent with such various tasks, the Egfr gene family has expanded during vertebrate evolution as a consequence of several rounds of whole genome duplication. Of particular interest is the effect of the fish-specific whole genome duplication (FSGD) on the ligand-receptor system, as it has supplied this largest group of vertebrates with additional opportunities for sub- and/or neofunctionalization in this signaling system. We identified the predicted components of the Egf receptor-ligand signaling system in teleost fishes (medaka, platyfish, stickleback, pufferfishes and zebrafish). We found two duplicated egfr genes, egfra and egfrb, in all available teleost genomes. Surprisingly only one copy for each of the seven Egfr ligands could be identified in most fishes, with zebrafish hbegf being the only exception. Special focus was put on medaka, for which we more closely investigated all Egf receptors and Egfr ligands. The different expression patterns of egfra, egfrb and their ligands in medaka tissues and embryo stages suggest differences in role and function. Preferential co-expression of different subsets of Egfr ligands corroborates the possible subfunctionalization and specialization of the two receptors in adult tissues. Bioinformatic analyses of the ligand-receptor interface between Egfr and its ligands show a very weak evolutionary conservation within this region. Using in vitro analyses of medaka Egfra, we could show that this receptor is only activated by medaka ligands, but not by human EGF. Altogether, our data suggest a lineage-specific Egfr/Egfr ligand co-evolution. Our data indicate that medaka Egfr signaling occurs via its two copies, Egfra and Egfrb, each of them being preferentially coexpressed with different subsets of Egfr

  20. Lineage-specific co-evolution of the Egf receptor/ligand signaling system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) with its numerous ligands has fundamental roles in development, cell differentiation and physiology. Dysfunction of the receptor-ligand system contributes to many human malignancies. Consistent with such various tasks, the Egfr gene family has expanded during vertebrate evolution as a consequence of several rounds of whole genome duplication. Of particular interest is the effect of the fish-specific whole genome duplication (FSGD) on the ligand-receptor system, as it has supplied this largest group of vertebrates with additional opportunities for sub- and/or neofunctionalization in this signaling system. Results We identified the predicted components of the Egf receptor-ligand signaling system in teleost fishes (medaka, platyfish, stickleback, pufferfishes and zebrafish). We found two duplicated egfr genes, egfra and egfrb, in all available teleost genomes. Surprisingly only one copy for each of the seven Egfr ligands could be identified in most fishes, with zebrafish hbegf being the only exception. Special focus was put on medaka, for which we more closely investigated all Egf receptors and Egfr ligands. The different expression patterns of egfra, egfrb and their ligands in medaka tissues and embryo stages suggest differences in role and function. Preferential co-expression of different subsets of Egfr ligands corroborates the possible subfunctionalization and specialization of the two receptors in adult tissues. Bioinformatic analyses of the ligand-receptor interface between Egfr and its ligands show a very weak evolutionary conservation within this region. Using in vitro analyses of medaka Egfra, we could show that this receptor is only activated by medaka ligands, but not by human EGF. Altogether, our data suggest a lineage-specific Egfr/Egfr ligand co-evolution. Conclusions Our data indicate that medaka Egfr signaling occurs via its two copies, Egfra and Egfrb, each of them being preferentially coexpressed

  1. Activated protein C cofactor function of protein S: a critical role for Asp95 in the EGF1-like domain

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Helena M.; Arantes, Márcia J.; Crawley, James T. B.; Luken, Brenda M.; Tran, Sinh; Dahlbäck, Björn; Rezende, Suely M.

    2010-01-01

    Protein S has an established role in the protein C anticoagulant pathway, where it enhances the factor Va (FVa) and factor VIIIa (FVIIIa) inactivating property of activated protein C (APC). Despite its physiological role and clinical importance, the molecular basis of its action is not fully understood. To clarify the mechanism of the protein S interaction with APC, we have constructed and expressed a library of composite or point variants of human protein S, with residue substitutions introduced into the Gla, thrombin-sensitive region (TSR), epidermal growth factor 1 (EGF1), and EGF2 domains. Cofactor activity for APC was evaluated by calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) using protein S–deficient plasma. Of 27 variants tested initially, only one, protein S D95A (within the EGF1 domain), was largely devoid of functional APC cofactor activity. Protein S D95A was, however, γ-carboxylated and bound phospholipids with an apparent dissociation constant (Kdapp) similar to that of wild-type (WT) protein S. In a purified assay using FVa R506Q/R679Q, purified protein S D95A was shown to have greatly reduced ability to enhance APC-induced cleavage of FVa Arg306. It is concluded that residue Asp95 within EGF1 is critical for APC cofactor function of protein S and could define a principal functional interaction site for APC. PMID:20308596

  2. KGF and EGF signalling block hair follicle induction and promote interfollicular epidermal fate in developing mouse skin

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Gavin D.; Bazzi, Hisham; Fantauzzo, Katherine A.; Waters, James M.; Crawford, Heather; Hynd, Phil; Christiano, Angela M.; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary A key initial event in hair follicle morphogenesis is the localised thickening of the skin epithelium to form a placode, partitioning future hair follicle epithelium from interfollicular epidermis. Although many developmental signalling pathways are implicated in follicle morphogenesis, the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, also known as FGF7) receptors are not defined. EGF receptor (EGFR) ligands have previously been shown to inhibit developing hair follicles; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been characterised. Here we show that receptors for EGF and KGF undergo marked downregulation in hair follicle placodes from multiple body sites, whereas the expression of endogenous ligands persist throughout hair follicle initiation. Using embryonic skin organ culture, we show that when skin from the sites of primary pelage and whisker follicle development is exposed to increased levels of two ectopic EGFR ligands (HBEGF and amphiregulin) and the FGFR2(IIIb) receptor ligand KGF, follicle formation is inhibited in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We then used downstream molecular markers and microarray profiling to provide evidence that, in response to KGF and EGF signalling, epidermal differentiation is promoted at the expense of hair follicle fate. We propose that hair follicle initiation in placodes requires downregulation of the two pathways in question, both of which are crucial for the ongoing development of the interfollicular epidermis. We have also uncovered a previously unrecognised role for KGF signalling in the formation of hair follicles in the mouse. PMID:19474150

  3. EGFR Ligands Drive Multipotential Stromal Cells to Produce Multiple Growth Factors and Cytokines via Early Growth Response-1

    PubMed Central

    Kerpedjieva, Svetoslava S.; Kim, Duk Soo; Barbeau, Dominique J.

    2012-01-01

    Cell therapy with adult bone marrow multipotential stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) presents a promising approach to promote wound healing and tissue regeneration. The strong paracrine capability of various growth factors and cytokines is a key mechanism of MSC-mediated wound healing and tissue regeneration, and the goal of this study is to understand the underlying mechanism that supports the strong paracrine machineries in MSCs. Microarray database analyses revealed that early growth response-1 (EGR1) is highly expressed in MSCs. Our previous studies showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment induces growth factor production in MSCs in vitro. Since EGF strongly upregulates EGR1, we hypothesized that EGF receptor (EGFR)–EGR1 signaling plays a pivotal role in MSC paracrine activity. EGF treatment upregulated the gene expression of growth factors and cytokines, including EGFR ligands in a protein kinase C (PKC)- and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase–extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-dependent manner, and it was reversed by shRNA against EGR1. PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate enhanced EGFR tyrosyl phosphorylation and upregulated the gene expression of growth factors and cytokines in a heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) inhibitor CRM197 sensitive manner, indicating an involvement of autocrined HBEGF in the downstream of PKC signaling. Moreover, stimulation with growth factors and cytokines induced the expression of EGFR ligands, presumably via EGR1 upregulation. These data indicate EGR1 as a convergence point of multiple signaling pathways, which in turn augments the production of multiple growth factors and cytokines by enhancing the autocrine signaling with EGFR ligands. PMID:22316125

  4. Alkyl isothiocyanates suppress epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activity but augment tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takahiro; Uehara, Yoshimasa; Kawajiri, Hiroo; Ryoyama, Kazuo; Yamori, Takao; Fuke, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    We have reported the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) derived from a Japanese spice, wasabi. In order to obtain some clues about the mechanism of the anticancer activity, we have studied the effect of alkyl isothiocyanates (MITCs) on protein kinase activities. The anti-autophosphorylation activity of MITCs with respect to the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated receptor kinase of A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells was examined by incorporation of radioactive ATP into an acid-insoluble fraction. Their anti-phosphorylation activity with respect to the non-receptor protein kinase was analyzed by a standard SDS-PAGE method. All the tested MITCs interfered with the EGF-stimulated receptor kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner, although their effects were less than 1/10 of that of erbstatin in microg/ml. On the other hand, the MITCs did not interfere with non-receptor kinases (kinase A, kinase C, tyrosine kinase and calmodulin dependent kinase III), but enhanced non-receptor tyrosine kinase. A possible anticancer mechanism of MITCs may involve the suppression of EGF receptor kinase activity and augmentation of non-receptor PTK.

  5. Function-Specific Intracellular Signaling Pathways Downstream of Heparin-Binding EGF-Like Growth Factor Utilized by Human Trophoblasts1

    PubMed Central

    Jessmon, Philip; Kilburn, Brian A.; Romero, Roberto; Leach, Richard E.; Armant, D. Randall

    2010-01-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) is expressed by trophoblast cells throughout gestation. First-trimester cytotrophoblast cells are protected from hypoxia-induced apoptosis because of the accumulation of HBEGF through a posttranscriptional autocrine mechanism. Exogenous application of HBEGF is cytoprotective in a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model and initiates trophoblast extravillous differentiation to an invasive phenotype. The downstream signaling pathways induced by HBEGF that mediate these various cellular activities were identified using two human first-trimester cytotrophoblast cell lines, HTR-8/SVneo and SW.71, with similar results. Recombinant HBEGF (1 nM) induced transient phosphorylation of MAPK3/1 (ERK), MAPK14 (p38), and AKT within 15 min and JNK after 1–2 h. To determine which downstream pathways regulate the various functions of HBEGF, cells were treated with specific inhibitors of the ERK upstream regulator MEK (U0126), the AKT upstream regulator phosphoinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase (LY294002), MAPK14 (SB203580), and JNK (SP600125), as well as with inactive structural analogues. Only SB203580 specifically prevented HBEGF-mediated rescue during H/R, while each inhibitor attenuated HBEGF-stimulated cell migration. Accumulation of HBEGF at reduced oxygen was blocked only by a combination of U0126, SB203580, and SP600125. We conclude that HBEGF advances trophoblast extravillous differentiation through coordinate activation of PI3 kinase, ERK, MAPK14, and JNK, while only MAPK14 is required for its antiapoptotic activity. Additionally, hypoxia induces an autocrine increase in HBEGF protein levels through MAPK14, JNK or ERK. These experiments reveal a complexity of the intracellular signaling circuitry that regulates trophoblast functions critical for implantation and placentation. PMID:20130271

  6. Epidermal Growth Factor and Interleukin-1β Utilize Divergent Signaling Pathways to Synergistically Upregulate Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Expression in Human Amnion-Derived WISH Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, William E.; Rovin, Brad H.; Kniss, Douglas A.

    2006-01-01

    In human parturition, uterotonic prostaglandins (PGs) arise predominantly via increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 [also known as prostaglandin synthase 2]) within intra-uterine tissues. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), both inducers of COX-2 transcription, are among numerous factors that accumulate within amniotic fluid with advancing gestation. It was previously demonstrated that EGF could potentiate IL-1β-driven PGE2 production in amnion and amnion-derived (WISH) cells. To define the mechanism for this observation, we hypothesized that EGF and IL-1β might exhibit synergism in regulating COX-2 gene expression. In WISH cells, combined treatment with EGF and IL-1β resulted in a greater-than-additive increase in COX-2 mRNA relative to challenge with either agent independently. Augmentation of IL-1β-induced transactivation by EGF was not observed in cells harboring reporter plasmids bearing nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) regulatory elements alone, but was evident when a fragment (−891/+9) of the COX-2 gene 5′-promoter was present. Both agents transiently activated intermediates of multiple signaling pathways potentially involved in the regulation of COX-2 gene expression. The 26 S proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, selectively abrogated IL-1β-driven NFκB activation and COX-2 mRNA expression. Only pharmacologic blockade of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase eliminated COX-2 expression following EGF stimulation. We conclude that EGF and IL-1β appear to signal through different signaling cascades leading to COX-2 gene expression. IL-1β employs the NFκB pathway predominantly, while the spectrum of EGF signaling is broader and includes p38 kinase. The synergism observed between IL-1β and EGF does not rely on augmented NFκB function, but rather, occurs through differential use of independent response elements within the COX-2 promoter. PMID:15329330

  7. Quantification of growth factor signaling and pathway cross talk by live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Gross, Sean M; Rotwein, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Peptide growth factors stimulate cellular responses through activation of their transmembrane receptors. Multiple intracellular signaling cascades are engaged following growth factor-receptor binding, leading to short- and long-term biological effects. Each receptor-activated signaling pathway does not act in isolation but rather interacts at different levels with other pathways to shape signaling networks that are distinctive for each growth factor. To gain insights into the specifics of growth factor-regulated interactions among different signaling cascades, we developed a HeLa cell line stably expressing fluorescent live-cell imaging reporters that are readouts for two major growth factor-stimulated pathways, Ras-Raf-Mek-ERK and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-Akt. Incubation of cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) resulted in rapid, robust, and sustained ERK signaling but shorter-term activation of Akt. In contrast, hepatocyte growth factor induced sustained Akt signaling but weak and short-lived ERK activity, and insulin-like growth factor-I stimulated strong long-term Akt responses but negligible ERK signaling. To address potential interactions between signaling pathways, we employed specific small-molecule inhibitors. In cells incubated with EGF or platelet-derived growth factor-AA, Raf activation and the subsequent stimulation of ERK reduced Akt signaling, whereas Mek inhibition, which blocked ERK activation, enhanced Akt and turned transient effects into sustained responses. Our results reveal that individual growth factors initiate signaling cascades that vary markedly in strength and duration and demonstrate in living cells the dramatic effects of cross talk from Raf and Mek to PI 3-kinase and Akt. Our data further indicate how specific growth factors can encode distinct cellular behaviors by promoting complex interactions among signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Blockade of epidermal growth factor- or heregulin-dependent ErbB2 activation with the anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody 2C4 has divergent downstream signaling and growth effects.

    PubMed

    Jackson, James G; St Clair, Patricia; Sliwkowski, Mark X; Brattain, Michael G

    2004-04-01

    Due to heterodimerization and a variety of stimulating ligands, the ErbB receptor system is both diverse and flexible, which proves particularly advantageous to the aberrant signaling of cancer cells. However, specific mechanisms of how a particular receptor contributes to generating the flexibility that leads to aberrant growth regulation have not been well described. We compared the utilization of ErbB2 in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heregulin stimulation in colon carcinoma cells. Anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody 2C4 blocked heregulin-stimulated phosphorylation of ErbB2 and ErbB3; activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K), and Akt; proliferation; and anchorage-independent growth. 2C4 blocked EGF-mediated phosphorylation of ErbB2 and inhibited PI3K/Akt and anchorage-independent growth but did not affect ErbB1 or MAPK. Immunoprecipitations showed that ErbB3 and Grb2-associated binder (Gab) 1 were phosphorylated and associated with PI3K activity after heregulin treatment and that Gab1 and Gab2, but not ErbB3, were phosphorylated and associated with PI3K activity after EGF treatment. These data show that monoclonal antibody 2C4 inhibited all aspects of heregulin signaling as well as anchorage-independent and monolayer growth. Furthermore, we identify ErbB2 as a critical component of EGF signaling to the Gab1/Gab2-PI3K-Akt pathway and anchorage-independent growth, but EGF stimulation of MAPK and monolayer growth can occur efficiently without the contribution of ErbB2.

  9. Context-Dependent Sensitivity to Mutations Disrupting the Structural Integrity of Individual EGF Repeats in the Mouse Notch Ligand DLL1

    PubMed Central

    Schuster-Gossler, Karin; Cordes, Ralf; Müller, Julia; Geffers, Insa; Delany-Heiken, Patricia; Taft, Manuel; Preller, Matthias; Gossler, Achim

    2016-01-01

    The highly conserved Notch-signaling pathway mediates cell-to-cell communication and is pivotal for multiple developmental processes and tissue homeostasis in adult organisms. Notch receptors and their ligands are transmembrane proteins with multiple epidermal-growth-factor-like (EGF) repeats in their extracellular domains. In vitro the EGF repeats of mammalian ligands that are essential for Notch activation have been defined. However, in vivo the significance of the structural integrity of each EGF repeat in the ligand ectodomain for ligand function is still unclear. Here, we analyzed the mouse Notch ligand DLL1. We expressed DLL1 proteins with mutations disrupting disulfide bridges in each individual EGF repeat from single-copy transgenes in the HPRT locus of embryonic stem cells. In Notch transactivation assays all mutations impinged on DLL1 function and affected both NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 receptors similarly. An allelic series in mice that carried the same point mutations in endogenous Dll1, generated using a mini-gene strategy, showed that early developmental processes depending on DLL1-mediated NOTCH activation were differently sensitive to mutation of individual EGF repeats in DLL1. Notably, some mutations affected only somite patterning and resulted in vertebral column defects resembling spondylocostal dysostosis. In conclusion, the structural integrity of each individual EGF repeat in the extracellular domain of DLL1 is necessary for full DLL1 activity, and certain mutations in Dll1 might contribute to spondylocostal dysostosis in humans. PMID:26801181

  10. A cyclic peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein inhibits the proliferative effects of the epidermal growth factor and estradiol in MCF7 cells.

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristian; Antileo, Elmer; Epuñán, Maráa José; Pino, Ana María; Valladares, Luis Emilio; Sierralta, Walter Daniel

    2008-06-01

    A cyclic peptide derived from the active domain of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells stimulated with the epidermal growth factor (EGF) or estradiol (E2). The action of these three agents on cell growth was independent of the presence of calf serum in the culture medium. Our results demonstrated that the cyclic peptide interfered markedly with the regulation of MAPK by activated c-erbB2. The cyclic peptide showed no effect on the E2-stimulated release of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 nor on the shedding of heparin-binding EGF into the culture medium. We propose that the AFP-derived cyclic peptide represents a valuable novel antiproliferative agent for treating breast cancer.

  11. SKN-1-independent transcriptional activation of glutathione S-transferase 4 (GST-4) by EGF signaling

    PubMed Central

    Van de Walle, Pieter; Schoofs, Liliane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In C. elegans research, transcriptional activation of glutathione S-transferase 4 (gst-4) is often used as a read-out for SKN-1 activity. While many heed an assumed non-exclusivity of the GFP reporter signal driven by the gst-4 promoter to SKN-1, this is also often ignored. We here show that gst-4 can also be transcriptionally activated by EOR-1, a transcription factor mediating effects of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. Along with enhancing exogenous oxidative stress tolerance, EOR-1 inde-pendently of SKN-1 increases gst-4 transcription in response to augmented EGF signaling. Our findings caution researchers within the C. elegans community to always rely on sufficient experimental controls when assaying SKN-1 transcriptional activity with a gst-4p::gfp reporter, such as SKN-1 loss-of-function mutants and/or additional target genes next to gst-4. PMID:28090393

  12. Exposure to the cytokine EGF leads to abnormal hyperactivity of pallidal GABA neurons: implications for schizophrenia and its modeling.

    PubMed

    Sotoyama, Hidekazu; Namba, Hisaaki; Chiken, Satomi; Nambu, Atsushi; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies on a cytokine model for schizophrenia reveal that the hyperdopaminergic innervation and neurotransmission in the globus pallidus (GP) is involved in its behavioral impairments. Here, we further explored the physiological consequences of the GP abnormality in the indirect pathway, using the same schizophrenia model established by perinatal exposure to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Single-unit recordings revealed that the neural activity from the lateral GP was elevated in EGF-treated rats in vivo and in vitro (i.e., slice preparations), whereas the central area of the GP exhibited no significant differences. The increase in the pallidal activity was normalized by subchronic treatment with risperidone, which is known to ameliorate their behavioral deficits. We also monitored extracellular GABA concentrations in the substantia nigra, one of the targets of pallidal efferents. There was a significant increase in basal GABA levels in EGF-treated rats, whereas high potassium-evoked GABA effluxes and glutamate levels were not affected. A neurotoxic lesion in the GP of EGF-treated rats normalized GABA concentrations to control levels. Corroborating our in vivo results, GABA release from GP slices was elevated in EGF-treated animals. These findings suggest that the hyperactivity and enhanced GABA release of GP neurons represent the key pathophysiological features of this cytokine-exposure model for schizophrenia. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  13. Tas13D inhibits growth of SMMC-7721 cell via suppression VEGF and EGF expression.

    PubMed

    He, Huai-Zhen; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Yan-Min

    2012-01-01

    Taspine, isolated from Radix et Rhizoma Leonticis has demosntrated potential proctiective effects against cancer. Tas13D, a novel taspine derivative synthetized by structure-based drug design, have been shown to possess interesting biological and pharmacological activities. The current study was designed to evaluate its antiproliferative activity and underlying mechanisms. Antiproliferative activity of tas13D was evaluated by xenograft in athymic mice in vivo, and by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and cell migration assays with human liver cancer (SMMC-7721) cell lines in vitro. Docking between tas13D and VEGFR and EGFR was studied by with a Sybyl/Surflex module. VEGF and EGF and their receptor expression was determined by ELISA and real-time PCR methods, respectively. Our present study showed that tas13D inhibited SMMC-7721 xenograft tumor growth, bound tightly with the active site of kinase domains of EGFR and VEGFR, and reduced SMMC-7721 cell proliferation (IC=34.7 μmol/L) and migration compared to negative controls. VEGF and EGF mRNAs were significantly reduced by tas13D treatment in a dose-dependent manner, along with VEGF and EGF production. The obtained results suggest that tas13D inhibits tumor growth and cell proliferation by inhibiting cell migration, downregulating mRNA expression of VEGF and EGF, and decreasing angiogenic factor production. Tas13D deserves further consideration as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  14. Hypoxia triggers a proangiogenic pathway involving cancer cell microvesicles and PAR-2-mediated heparin-binding EGF signaling in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Katrin J; Kucharzewska, Paulina; Christianson, Helena C; Sköld, Stefan; Löfstedt, Tobias; Johansson, Maria C; Mörgelin, Matthias; Bengzon, Johan; Ruf, Wolfram; Belting, Mattias

    2011-08-09

    Highly malignant tumors, such as glioblastomas, are characterized by hypoxia, endothelial cell (EC) hyperplasia, and hypercoagulation. However, how these phenomena of the tumor microenvironment may be linked at the molecular level during tumor development remains ill-defined. Here, we provide evidence that hypoxia up-regulates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2), i.e., a G-protein-coupled receptor of coagulation-dependent signaling, in ECs. Hypoxic induction of PAR-2 was found to elicit an angiogenic EC phenotype and to specifically up-regulate heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). Inhibition of HB-EGF by antibody neutralization or heparin treatment efficiently counteracted PAR-2-mediated activation of hypoxic ECs. We show that PAR-2-dependent HB-EGF induction was associated with increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation attenuated PAR-2-dependent HB-EGF induction as well as EC activation. Tissue factor (TF), i.e., the major initiator of coagulation-dependent PAR signaling, was substantially induced by hypoxia in several types of cancer cells, including glioblastoma; however, TF was undetectable in ECs even at prolonged hypoxia, which precludes cell-autonomous PAR-2 activation through TF. Interestingly, hypoxic cancer cells were shown to release substantial amounts of TF that was mainly associated with secreted microvesicles with exosome-like characteristics. Vesicles derived from glioblastoma cells were found to trigger TF/VIIa-dependent activation of hypoxic ECs in a paracrine manner. We provide evidence of a hypoxia-induced signaling axis that links coagulation activation in cancer cells to PAR-2-mediated activation of ECs. The identified pathway may constitute an interesting target for the development of additional strategies to treat aggressive brain tumors.

  15. A combination of cytokines EGF and CNTF protects the functional beta cell mass in mice with short-term hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Lemper, Marie; De Groef, Sofie; Stangé, Geert; Baeyens, Luc; Heimberg, Harry

    2016-09-01

    When the beta cell mass or function declines beyond a critical point, hyperglycaemia arises. Little is known about the potential pathways involved in beta cell rescue. As two cytokines, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), restored a functional beta cell mass in mice with long-term hyperglycaemia by reprogramming acinar cells that transiently expressed neurogenin 3 (NGN3), the current study assesses the effect of these cytokines on the functional beta cell mass after an acute chemical toxic insult. Glycaemia and insulin levels, pro-endocrine gene expression and beta cell origin, as well as the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling, were assessed in EGF+CNTF-treated mice following acute hyperglycaemia. The mice were hyperglycaemic 1 day following i.v. injection of the beta cell toxin alloxan, when the two cytokines were applied. One week later, 68.6 ± 4.6% of the mice had responded to the cytokine treatment and increased their insulin(+) cell number to 30% that of normoglycaemic control mice, resulting in restoration of euglycaemia. Although insulin(-) NGN3(+) cells appeared following acute EGF+CNTF treatment, genetic lineage tracing showed that the majority of the insulin(+) cells originated from pre-existing beta cells. Beta cell rescue by EGF+CNTF depends on glycaemia rather than on STAT3-induced NGN3 expression in acinar cells. In adult mice, EGF+CNTF allows the rescue of beta cells in distress when treatment is given shortly after the diabetogenic insult. The rescued beta cells restore a functional beta cell mass able to control normal blood glucose levels. These findings may provide new insights into compensatory pathways activated early after beta cell loss.

  16. Both sides of the same coin: Rac1 splicing regulating by EGF signaling.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2017-04-01

    EGF, a well-studied mitogen for cancer cells, is revealed to induce an E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor SPSB1, which recruits the Elongin B/C-Collin complex to trigger ubiquitylation of the negative splicing regulator hnRNP A1. This event is synergized with EGF-activated SR proteins to alter alternative splicing of a key small GTPase Rac1 to enhance cell migration, highlighting converging EGF signals on both negative and positive splicing regulators to jointly promote a key cancer pathway.

  17. Conditioned media from a renal cell carcinoma cell line demonstrates the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H; Zajac, J; Macchia, R J

    1993-09-01

    In a previous report, we demonstrated the isolation and purification of a heparin binding growth factor from human renal carcinoma, and suggested that this growth factor may play a role in the neovascularity and growth of the tumor. In this report, we demonstrate that the growth of the renal cell carcinoma cell line RC29 is stimulated by the addition of exogenous fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha). Also, media conditioned by this cell line was able to stimulate growth of the A431 vulvar tumor cell line, known for its high concentration of EGF receptors, 3T3 fibroblasts, human umbilical vein (HUV) cells and RC29 cells. Using heparin-sepharose chromatography and then SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), we were able to demonstrate several proteins in the conditioned media of the RC29 cell line. Using Western blot analysis, we detected that at least one of the proteins expressed in this conditioned media was FGF and that it belongs to the basic, not acidic, family of fibroblast growth factors. These findings suggest that renal tumors may express growth factors that may play a direct role in maintaining their unrestricted proliferation.

  18. EGF induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem-like cell properties in human oral cancer cells via promoting Warburg effect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qilin; Zhang, Qunzhou; Ishida, Yasutaka; Hajjar, Souren; Tang, Xudong; Shi, Haoran; Dang, Chi V; Le, Anh D

    2017-02-07

    "Warburg effect", the enhanced glycolysis or aerobic glycolysis, confers cancer cells the ability to survive and proliferate even under stressed conditions. In this study, we explored the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in orchestrating Warburg effect, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, and the acquisition of cancer stem-like cell properties in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Our results showed that EGF induces EMT process in OSCC cells, which correlates with the acquisition of cancer stem-like properties, including the enrichment of CD44+/CD24- population of cancer cells and an increased expression of CSC-related genes, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) and Bmi-1. We also showed that EGF concomitantly enhanced L-lactate production, while blocking glycolysis by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) robustly reversed EGF-induced EMT process and CSC-like properties in OSCC cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that EGF promoted EMT process and CSC generation through EGFR/PI3K/HIF-1α axis-orchestrated glycolysis. Using an orthotopic tumor model of human OSCC (UM-SCC1) injected in the tongue of BALB/c nude mice, we showed that treatment with 2-DG in vivo significantly inhibited the metastasis of tumor cells to the regional cervical lymph nodes and reduced the expression of ALDH1 and vimentin in both in situ tumors and tumor cell-invaded regional lymph nodes. Taken together, these findings have unveiled a new mechanism that EGF drives OSCC metastasis through induction of EMT process and CSC generation, which is driven by an enhanced glycolytic metabolic program in OSCC cells.

  19. Hair growth is promoted by BeauTop via expression of EGF and FGF-7

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Ying; Yang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Ching-Che; Yu, Min-Chien; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2018-01-01

    Minoxidil and finasteride have been approved to treat hair loss by the Food and Drug Administration. However, the further elucidation of treatments for hair loss, including those using Chinese herbal medicine, remains important clinically. BeauTop (BT) is a health food supplement which contains Ginseng radix, Astragali radix, Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustri fructus, Rehmannia glutinosa and Eclipta prostrata (Linn). Susbsequent to oral administration of BT at 0.6 g/kg/day to wax/rosin-induced alopecia in C57BL/6 mice, BT significantly induced hair growth at day 8 compared with control treatment (P<0.05). The expression levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7 were increased compared with control animals on day 8. In contrast, levels of FGF-5 of the BT group were reduced compared with the control on day 12. There were no effects on the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1. The results demonstrated that the mechanism of BT improving alopecia is potentially associated with modulation of EGF and FGF-7 levels. Taken together, it is suggested that BT may have a potential effect of the promotion of hair growth. PMID:29693180

  20. Effects of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) in vitro and in vivo on reovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Organ, Edward L; Nalbantyan, Christopher D; Nanney, Lillian B; Woodward, Stephen C; Sheng, Jinsong; Dubois, Raymond N; Price, James; Sutcliffe, Marilyn; Coffey, Robert J; Rubin, Donald H

    2004-07-01

    We have utilized growth factors in in vitro and in vivo systems to examine the role of cellular proliferation in reovirus replication. In vitro, proliferating RIE-1 cells can be infected with whole reovirus virions, but are relatively resistant to infection once confluent (Go arrest). It has been shown that TGF-alpha, which signals through the EGF-receptor (EGF-R), is capable of dramatically increasing the number of RIE-1 cells entering the S-phase in the presence of additional serum factors. Stimulation of the EGF-R without serum results in minimal increases in cells entering the S-phase with a restriction in reovirus replication. Therefore, other factors in serum are essential for fully permissive infection. In vivo, we used metallothionein (MT) promoter/enhancer-TGF-alpha transgenic mice to study the effect of cytokine activation on reovirus type 1 infection. Virus replication decreased following oral infection in these transgenic mice at 1 month of age, concordant with increased mucin production. Titers of reovirus obtained from the livers of 1 year old transgenic mice were approximately 10-fold higher than titers obtained in control mice. Taken together, these data indicate that while growth factor activation ultimately leads to an increase in virus infectivity, other factors may be necessary for reovirus replication.

  1. Epidermal growth factor induces G protein-coupled receptor 30 expression in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Albanito, Lidia; Sisci, Diego; Aquila, Saveria; Brunelli, Elvira; Vivacqua, Adele; Madeo, Antonio; Lappano, Rosamaria; Pandey, Deo Prakash; Picard, Didier; Mauro, Loredana; Andò, Sebastiano; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2008-08-01

    Different cellular receptors mediate the biological effects induced by estrogens. In addition to the classical nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs)-alpha and -beta, estrogen also signals through the seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-30. Using as a model system SkBr3 and BT20 breast cancer cells lacking the classical ER, the regulation of GPR30 expression by 17beta-estradiol, the selective GPR30 ligand G-1, IGF-I, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) was evaluated. Transient transfections with an expression plasmid encoding a short 5'-flanking sequence of the GPR30 gene revealed that an activator protein-1 site located within this region is required for the activating potential exhibited only by EGF. Accordingly, EGF up-regulated GPR30 protein levels, which accumulated predominantly in the intracellular compartment. The stimulatory role elicited by EGF on GPR30 expression was triggered through rapid ERK phosphorylation and c-fos induction, which was strongly recruited to the activator protein-1 site found in the short 5'-flanking sequence of the GPR30 gene. Of note, EGF activating the EGF receptor-MAPK transduction pathway stimulated a regulatory loop that subsequently engaged estrogen through GPR30 to boost the proliferation of SkBr3 and BT20 breast tumor cells. The up-regulation of GPR30 by ligand-activated EGF receptor-MAPK signaling provides new insight into the well-known estrogen and EGF cross talk, which, as largely reported, contributes to breast cancer progression. On the basis of our results, the action of EGF may include the up-regulation of GPR30 in facilitating a stimulatory role of estrogen, even in ER-negative breast tumor cells.

  2. Active G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 (MMP2/9), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are necessary for trenbolone acetate-induced alterations in protein turnover rate of fused bovine satellite cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Thornton, K J; Kamanga-Sollo, E; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2016-06-01

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA), a testosterone analog, increases protein synthesis and decreases protein degradation in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures. However, the mechanism through which TBA alters these processes remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that androgens improve rate and extent of muscle growth through a nongenomic mechanism involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). We hypothesized that TBA activates GPCR, resulting in activation of MMP2/9 that releases hbEGF, which activates the EGFR and/or erbB2. To determine whether the proposed nongenomic pathway is involved in TBA-mediated alterations in protein turnover, fused BSC cultures were treated with TBA in the presence or absence of inhibitors for GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R, and resultant protein synthesis and degradation rates were analyzed. Assays were replicated at least 9 times for each inhibitor experiment utilizing BSC cultures obtained from at least 3 different steers that had no previous exposure to steroid compounds. As expected, fused BSC cultures treated with 10 n TBA exhibited increased ( < 0.05) protein synthesis rates and decreased ( < 0.05) protein degradation rates when compared to control cultures. Treatment of fused BSC cultures with 10 n TBA in the presence of inhibitors for GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R suppressed ( < 0.05) TBA-mediated increases in protein synthesis rate. Alternatively, inhibition of GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R in the presence of 10 n TBA each had no ( > 0.05) effect on TBA-mediated decreases in protein degradation. However, inhibition of both EGFR and erbB2 in the presence of 10 n TBA resulted in decreased ( < 0.05) ability of TBA to decrease protein degradation rate. Additionally, fused BSC cultures treated with 10 n

  3. Angiotensin II stimulates calcium-dependent activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Zohn, I E; Yu, H; Li, X; Cox, A D; Earp, H S

    1995-01-01

    In GN4 rat liver epithelial cells, angiotensin II (Ang II) and other agonists which activate phospholipase C stimulate tyrosine kinase activity in a calcium-dependent, protein kinase C (PKC)-independent manner. Since Ang II also produces a proliferative response in these cells, we investigated downstream signaling elements traditionally linked to growth control by tyrosine kinases. First, Ang II, like epidermal growth factor (EGF), stimulated AP-1 binding activity in a PKC-independent manner. Because increases in AP-1 can reflect induction of c-Jun and c-Fos, we examined the activity of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family members Erk-1 and -2 and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which are known to influence c-Jun and c-Fos transcription. Ang II stimulated MAP kinase (MAPK) activity but only approximately 50% as effectively as EGF; again, these effects were independent of PKC. Ang II also produced a 50- to 200-fold activation of JNK in a PKC-independent manner. Unlike its smaller effect on MAPK, Ang II was approximately four- to sixfold more potent in activating JNK than EGF was. Although others had reported a lack of calcium ionophore-stimulated JNK activity in lymphocytes and several other cell lines, we examined the role of calcium in GN4 cells. The following results suggest that JNK activation in rat liver epithelial cells is at least partially Ca(2+) dependent: (i) norepinephrine and vasopressin hormones that increase inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate stimulated JNK; (ii) both thapsigargin, a compound that produces an intracellular Ca(2+) signal, and Ca(2+) ionophores stimulated a dramatic increase in JNK activity (up to 200-fold); (iii) extracellular Ca(2+) chelation with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) inhibited JNK activation by ionophore and intracellular chelation with 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxymethyl-ester (BAPTA-AM) partially inhibited JNK activation by Ang II or thapsigargin; and (iv) JNK

  4. Effect of TPA on ion fluxes and DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that phorbol esters can decrease the affinity of epidermal growth factor (EGF) for its cellular receptors. Investigations of the consequences of the interaction between phorbol esters and EGF, however, have been limited to EGF-stimulated Na/H exchange in A431 cells (Whitely, B., D. Cassel, Y.-X. Zuang, and L. Glaser, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:1162-1166). In the present study, the effect of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on EGF-stimulated ion transport and DNA synthesis was determined in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (A7r5). It was found that TPA stimulated Na/H exchange when added alone (half-maximal stimulatory concentration, 25 nM). However, when cells were pretreated with TPA and then challenged with EGF, TPA significantly inhibited EGF-stimulated Na/H exchange (78%; half-maximal inhibition [Ki] at 2.5 nM). Subsequently the effects of TPA on Na/K/Cl co-transport were measured. TPA was observed to inhibit Na/K/Cl co-transport (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, 50 nM) and also to inhibit EGF-stimulated Na/K/Cl co-transport (100%; Ki at 5 nM). Finally, the effects of TPA on DNA synthesis were assessed. TPA had a modest stimulatory effect on DNA synthesis (half-maximal stimulatory concentration, 6 nM), but had a significant inhibitory effect on EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis (56%; Ki at 5 nM). These findings suggest that the inhibitory effect of TPA on EGF-receptor functions goes beyond previously reported effects on Na/H exchange in A431 cells and extends to EGF-stimulation of Na/K/Cl co- transport and DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:2410432

  5. Normal calves produced after transfer of embryos cultured in a chemically defined medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization in Japanese black cows.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Nobutada; Umeki, Hidenobu; Nishino, Osamu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether high concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) would have a beneficial effect on bovine embryo development in vitro and to obtain normal calves by using an ovum pick up method and embryo culture in a chemically defined medium. When compared with controls, EGF (100 or 200 ng/ml) or IGF-I (50 or 100 ng/ml) significantly increased the rate of embryos that developed into blastocysts during an 8-day culture after the in vitro fertilization of oocytes obtained from ovaries from a slaughterhouse. IGF-I induced a dose-dependent increase in cell number in both the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, whereas EGF stimulated proliferation only in the inner cell mass. A combination of EGF (100 ng/ml) and IGF-I (50 ng/ml) produced an additive effect, and embryos developed into blastocysts at a comparatively high rate (27.9%) compared with controls (12.0%). A similar rate of development was achieved using a combination of EGF and IGF-I in the culture of embryos following ovum pick up by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration and in vitro fertilization, and 5 blastocysts that developed after the culture were transferred into uteri; two embryos implanted, and normal calves were born. These results suggest that the combined use of EGF and IGF-I makes bovine embryo culture in a chemically defined medium a practical and useful procedure for producing blastocysts, and its application to embryo culture following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization could be useful for producing normal calves.

  6. EGF-mediated EGFR/ERK signaling pathway promotes germinative cell proliferation in Echinococcus multilocularis that contributes to larval growth and development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Fan; Li, Xiu; Dai, Mengya; Wu, Jianjian; Guo, Xinrui; Tian, Huimin; Heng, Zhijie; Lu, Ying; Chai, Xiaoli; Wang, Yanhai

    2017-02-01

    Larvae of the tapeworm E. multilocularis cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most lethal helminthic infections in humans. A population of stem cell-like cells, the germinative cells, is considered to drive the larval growth and development within the host. The molecular mechanisms controlling the behavior of germinative cells are largely unknown. Using in vitro cultivation systems we show here that the EGFR/ERK signaling in the parasite can promote germinative cell proliferation in response to addition of human EGF, resulting in stimulated growth and development of the metacestode larvae. Inhibition of the signaling by either the EGFR inhibitors CI-1033 and BIBW2992 or the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 impairs germinative cell proliferation and larval growth. These data demonstrate the contribution of EGF-mediated EGFR/ERK signaling to the regulation of germinative cells in E. multilocularis, and suggest the EGFR/ERK signaling as a potential therapeutic target for AE and perhaps other human cestodiasis.

  7. EGF-mediated EGFR/ERK signaling pathway promotes germinative cell proliferation in Echinococcus multilocularis that contributes to larval growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu; Dai, Mengya; Wu, Jianjian; Guo, Xinrui; Tian, Huimin; Heng, Zhijie; Lu, Ying; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Background Larvae of the tapeworm E. multilocularis cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most lethal helminthic infections in humans. A population of stem cell-like cells, the germinative cells, is considered to drive the larval growth and development within the host. The molecular mechanisms controlling the behavior of germinative cells are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal findings Using in vitro cultivation systems we show here that the EGFR/ERK signaling in the parasite can promote germinative cell proliferation in response to addition of human EGF, resulting in stimulated growth and development of the metacestode larvae. Inhibition of the signaling by either the EGFR inhibitors CI-1033 and BIBW2992 or the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 impairs germinative cell proliferation and larval growth. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate the contribution of EGF-mediated EGFR/ERK signaling to the regulation of germinative cells in E. multilocularis, and suggest the EGFR/ERK signaling as a potential therapeutic target for AE and perhaps other human cestodiasis. PMID:28241017

  8. Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase cleaves off the NH2-terminal portion of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor and converts it into a heparin-independent growth factor.

    PubMed

    Koshikawa, Naohiko; Mizushima, Hiroto; Minegishi, Tomoko; Iwamoto, Ryo; Mekada, Eisuke; Seiki, Motoharu

    2010-07-15

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (ErbB) and EGF family members represent promising targets for cancer therapy. Heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family and is an important target for therapy in some types of human cancers. Processing of HB-EGF by proprotein convertases, and successively, by ADAM family proteases, generates a soluble growth factor that requires heparin as a cofactor. Although heparin potentiates HB-EGF activity in vitro, it is not clear how the heparin-binding activity of HB-EGF is regulated. Here, we show that membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP; MMP14), a potent invasion-promoting protease, markedly enhances HB-EGF-dependent tumor formation in mice. MT1-MMP additionally cleaves HB-EGF and removes the NH(2)-terminal 20 amino acids that are important for binding heparin. Consequently, the processing of HB-EGF by MT1-MMP converts HB-EGF into a heparin-independent growth factor with enhanced mitogenic activity, and thereby, expression of both proteins costimulates tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. The ErbB family of receptors expressed in human gastric carcinoma cells play a role in mediating enhanced HB-EGF activity by MT1-MMP during invasive cell growth in collagen. Thus, we shed light on a new mechanism whereby HB-EGF activity is regulated that should be considered when designing HB-EGF-targeted cancer therapy. (c)2010 AACR.

  9. FACS-based Isolation of Neural and Glioma Stem Cell Populations from Fresh Human Tissues Utilizing EGF Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Tome-Garcia, Jessica; Doetsch, Fiona; Tsankova, Nadejda M.

    2018-01-01

    Direct isolation of human neural and glioma stem cells from fresh tissues permits their biological study without prior culture and may capture novel aspects of their molecular phenotype in their native state. Recently, we demonstrated the ability to prospectively isolate stem cell populations from fresh human germinal matrix and glioblastoma samples, exploiting the ability of cells to bind the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) ligand in fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We demonstrated that FACS-isolated EGF-bound neural and glioblastoma populations encompass the sphere-forming colonies in vitro, and are capable of both self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. Here we describe in detail the purification methodology of EGF-bound (i.e., EGFR+) human neural and glioma cells with stem cell properties from fresh postmortem and surgical tissues. The ability to prospectively isolate stem cell populations using native ligand-binding ability opens new doors for understanding both normal and tumor cell biology in uncultured conditions, and is applicable for various downstream molecular sequencing studies at both population and single-cell resolution. PMID:29516026

  10. Comparative measurement of ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, EGF and IGF-1 in breast milk of mothers with overweight/obese and normal-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Khodabakhshi, A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Rooki, H; Vakili, R; Hashemy, S-I; Mirhafez, S R; Shakeri, M-T; Kashanifar, R; Pourbafarani, R; Mirzaei, H; Dahri, M; Mazidi, M; Ferns, G; Safarian, M

    2015-05-01

    Obese infants are more susceptible to develop adulthood obesity and its related comorbidities. Previous studies have shown the presence of hormones and growth factors in maternal breast milk that may influence infant adiposity. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in concentrations of three hormones and two growth factors in the breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants. In this cross-sectional study, 40 mothers with overweight or obese infants (weight for length percentile >97) and 40 age-matched mothers with normal-weight infant (-10 < weight for length percentile < 85) who were between 2 and 5 months of age were enrolled. Anthropometric indices of infants and mothers were measured by routine methods. Breast milk concentrations of ghrelin and adiponectin, leptin, epithelial growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The mean breast milk concentration of ghrelin was higher in mothers with normal-weight infants, 137.50 pg/ml, than in mothers with obese infants, 132.00 pg/ml (P=0.001). This was also true regarding the concentration of EGF in mothers with (0/04 ng/ml) and without (0/038 ng/ml) normal-weight infants (P=0.01). No significant differences were observed in concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and IGF-1 between two groups (P > 0.05). There was also a significant positive correlation between EGF and ghrelin in both groups. This study revealed that there was a correlation between ghrelin and EGF level in breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants, suggesting a possible regulatory effect of these two hormones on weight in infants.

  11. Real-Time Single Molecule Visualization of SH2 Domain Membrane Recruitment in Growth Factor Stimulated Cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dongmyung

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, single molecule tracking (SMT) techniques have emerged as a versatile tool for molecular cell biology research. This approach allows researchers to monitor the real-time behavior of individual molecules in living cells with nanometer and millisecond resolution. As a result, it is possible to visualize biological processes as they occur at a molecular level in real time. Here we describe a method for the real-time visualization of SH2 domain membrane recruitment from the cytoplasm to epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced phosphotyrosine sites on the EGF receptor. Further, we describe methods that utilize SMT data to define SH2 domain membrane dynamics parameters such as binding (τ), dissociation (k d ), and diffusion (D) rates. Together these methods may allow us to gain greater understanding of signal transduction dynamics and the molecular basis of disease-related aberrant pathways.

  12. Transforming growth factor alpha, Shope fibroma growth factor, and vaccinia growth factor can replace myxoma growth factor in the induction of myxomatosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Opgenorth, A; Nation, N; Graham, K; McFadden, G

    1993-02-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) homologues encoded by vaccinia virus, myxoma virus, and malignant rabbit fibroma virus have been shown to contribute to the pathogenicity of virus infection upon inoculation of susceptible hosts. However, since the primary structures of these growth factors and the disease profiles induced by different poxvirus genera vary substantially, the degree to which the various EGF homologues perform similar roles in viral pathogenesis remains unclear. In order to determine whether different EGF-like growth factors can perform qualitatively similar functions in the induction of myxomatosis in rabbits, we created recombinant myxoma virus variants in which the native growth factor, myxoma growth factor (MGF), was disrupted and replaced with either vaccinia virus growth factor, Shope fibroma growth factor, or rat transforming growth factor alpha. Unlike the control virus containing an inactivated MGF gene, which caused marked attenuation of the disease syndrome and substantially less proliferation of the epithelial cell layers in the conjunctiva and respiratory tract, the recombinant myxoma virus strains expressing heterologous growth factors produced infections which were both clinically and histopathologically indistinguishable from wild-type myxomatosis. We conclude that these poxviral and cellular EGF-like growth factors, which are diverse with respect to primary structure and origin, have similar biological functions in the context of myxoma virus pathogenesis and are mitogenic for the same target cells.

  13. Regulation of Hyaluronan (HA) Metabolism Mediated by HYBID (Hyaluronan-binding Protein Involved in HA Depolymerization, KIAA1199) and HA Synthases in Growth Factor-stimulated Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Aya; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Sachiko; Morikawa, Tomohiko; Kawabata, Keigo; Kobayashi, Masaki; Sakai, Shingo; Takahashi, Yoshito; Okada, Yasunori; Inoue, Shintaro

    2015-12-25

    Regulation of hyaluronan (HA) synthesis and degradation is essential to maintenance of extracellular matrix homeostasis. We recently reported that HYBID (HYaluronan-Binding protein Involved in hyaluronan Depolymerization), also called KIAA1199, plays a key role in HA depolymerization in skin and arthritic synovial fibroblasts. However, regulation of HA metabolism mediated by HYBID and HA synthases (HASs) under stimulation with growth factors remains obscure. Here we report that TGF-β1, basic FGF, EGF, and PDGF-BB commonly enhance total amount of HA in skin fibroblasts through up-regulation of HAS expression, but molecular size of newly produced HA is dependent on HYBID expression levels. Stimulation of HAS1/2 expression and suppression of HYBID expression by TGF-β1 were abrogated by blockade of the MAPK and/or Smad signaling and the PI3K-Akt signaling, respectively. In normal human skin, expression of the TGF-β1 receptors correlated positively with HAS2 expression and inversely with HYBID expression. On the other hand, TGF-β1 up-regulated HAS1/2 expression but exerted only a slight suppressive effect on HYBID expression in synovial fibroblasts from the patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, resulting in the production of lower molecular weight HA compared with normal skin and synovial fibroblasts. These data demonstrate that although TGF-β1, basic FGF, EGF, and PDGF-BB enhance HA production in skin fibroblasts, TGF-β1 most efficiently contributes to production of high molecular weight HA by HAS up-regulation and HYBID down-regulation and suggests that inefficient down-regulation of HYBID by TGF-β1 in arthritic synovial fibroblasts may be linked to accumulation of depolymerized HA in synovial fluids in arthritis patients. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Hypoxia triggers a proangiogenic pathway involving cancer cell microvesicles and PAR-2–mediated heparin-binding EGF signaling in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Katrin J.; Kucharzewska, Paulina; Christianson, Helena C.; Sköld, Stefan; Löfstedt, Tobias; Johansson, Maria C.; Mörgelin, Matthias; Bengzon, Johan; Ruf, Wolfram; Belting, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    Highly malignant tumors, such as glioblastomas, are characterized by hypoxia, endothelial cell (EC) hyperplasia, and hypercoagulation. However, how these phenomena of the tumor microenvironment may be linked at the molecular level during tumor development remains ill-defined. Here, we provide evidence that hypoxia up-regulates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2), i.e., a G-protein–coupled receptor of coagulation-dependent signaling, in ECs. Hypoxic induction of PAR-2 was found to elicit an angiogenic EC phenotype and to specifically up-regulate heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). Inhibition of HB-EGF by antibody neutralization or heparin treatment efficiently counteracted PAR-2–mediated activation of hypoxic ECs. We show that PAR-2–dependent HB-EGF induction was associated with increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation attenuated PAR-2–dependent HB-EGF induction as well as EC activation. Tissue factor (TF), i.e., the major initiator of coagulation-dependent PAR signaling, was substantially induced by hypoxia in several types of cancer cells, including glioblastoma; however, TF was undetectable in ECs even at prolonged hypoxia, which precludes cell-autonomous PAR-2 activation through TF. Interestingly, hypoxic cancer cells were shown to release substantial amounts of TF that was mainly associated with secreted microvesicles with exosome-like characteristics. Vesicles derived from glioblastoma cells were found to trigger TF/VIIa–dependent activation of hypoxic ECs in a paracrine manner. We provide evidence of a hypoxia-induced signaling axis that links coagulation activation in cancer cells to PAR-2–mediated activation of ECs. The identified pathway may constitute an interesting target for the development of additional strategies to treat aggressive brain tumors. PMID:21788507

  15. A theoretical model for the Gla-TSR-EGF-1 region of the anticoagulant cofactor protein S: From biostructural pathology to specie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villoutreix, Bruno O.; Teleman, Olle; Dahlbäck, Björn

    1997-05-01

    Protein S (PS), which functions as a species-specific anticoagulant cofactor to activated protein C (APC), is a mosaic protein that interacts with the phospholipid membrane via its γ-carboxyglutamate-rich (Gla) module. This module is followed by the thrombin-sensitive region (TSR), sensitive to thrombin cleavage, four epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like modules and a last region referred to as the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) domain. Of these, the TSR and the first EGF-like regions have been shown to be important for the species-specific interaction with APC. Difficulties in crystallising PS have so far hindered its study at the atomic level. Here, we report theoretical models for the Gla and EGF-1 modules of human PS constructed using prothrombin and factor X experimental structures. The TSR was built interactively. Analysis of the model linked with the large body of biochemical literature on PS and related proteins leads to suggestions that (i) the TSR stabilises the calcium-loaded Gla module through hydrophobic and ionic interactions and its conformation depends on the presence of the Gla module; (ii) the TSR does not form a calcium binding site but is protected from thrombin cleavage in the calcium-loaded form owing to short secondary structure elements and close contact with the Gla module; (iii) the PS missense mutations in this region are consistent with the structural data, except in one case which needs further investigation; and (iv) the two PS `faces' involving regions of residues Arg49-Gln52-Lys97 (TSR-EGF-1) and Thr103-Pro106 (EGF-1) may be involved in species-specific interactions with APC as they are richer in nonconservative substitution when comparing human and bovine protein S. This preliminary model helps to plan future experiments and the resulting data will be used to further validate and optimise the present structure.

  16. Overexpression of Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor Mediates Liver Fibrosis in Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongze; Ding, Qian; Chen, Lei; Ji, Chenguang; Hao, Huiyao; Wang, Jia; Qi, Wei; Xie, Xiaoli; Ma, Junji; Li, Aidi; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Xiaotian; Jiang, Huiqing

    2017-08-01

    The role of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in liver fibrosis is not clear and is sometimes even contradictory. To clarify this role, a HB-EGF transgenic (Tg) mouse model was, for the first time, used to evaluate the functions of HB-EGF in liver fibrosis. For the in vivo study, carbon tetrachloride injection and bile duct ligation treatment were used to induce liver fibrosis in HB-EGF Tg mice and wild-type (WT) mice, respectively. Primary hepatic satellite cells (HSCs) were isolated from HB-EGF Tg and WT mice for the in vitro study. Compared with the WT mice, HB-EGF Tg mice were shown to develop more severe liver fibrosis when treated with carbon tetrachloride or bile duct ligation, with increased matrix metalloproteinases 13 activity and enhanced expression of fibrogenic genes including α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I. HB-EGF gene transfer led to an increase in proliferation and a decrease in apoptosis in primary HSCs. The ERK signaling pathway was more highly activated in primary HSCs from HB-EGF Tg mice than in those from WT mice. Our investigation confirmed the profibrotic effect of HB-EGF on the liver using a Tg mouse model. This result may contribute to the elucidation of HB-EGF as a therapeutic target in liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hair growth is promoted by BeauTop via expression of EGF and FGF‑7.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Ying; Yang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Ching-Che; Yu, Min-Chien; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2018-06-01

    Minoxidil and finasteride have been approved to treat hair loss by the Food and Drug Administration. However, the further elucidation of treatments for hair loss, including those using Chinese herbal medicine, remains important clinically. BeauTop (BT) is a health food supplement which contains Ginseng radix, Astragali radix, Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustri fructus, Rehmannia glutinosa and Eclipta prostrata (Linn). Susbsequent to oral administration of BT at 0.6 g/kg/day to wax/rosin‑induced alopecia in C57BL/6 mice, BT significantly induced hair growth at day 8 compared with control treatment (P<0.05). The expression levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)‑7 were increased compared with control animals on day 8. In contrast, levels of FGF‑5 of the BT group were reduced compared with the control on day 12. There were no effects on the expression of insulin‑like growth factor 1. The results demonstrated that the mechanism of BT improving alopecia is potentially associated with modulation of EGF and FGF‑7 levels. Taken together, it is suggested that BT may have a potential effect of the promotion of hair growth.

  18. Urine epidermal growth factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 or their ratio as predictors of complete remission in primary glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Chanrat, Eakkapat; Worawichawong, Supanat; Radinahamed, Piyanuch; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Nongnuch, Arkom; Assanatham, Montira; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Kitiyakara, Chagriya

    2018-04-01

    The balance of several cytokines likely influences the resolution of glomerulonephritis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) is a chemokine that promotes renal inflammation whereas epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates protective responses. Previously, high urine MCP-1(MCP-1) and low urine EGF (EGF) levels were found to be associated with tubulointerstitial fibrosis, but there is limited information on the value of these mediators as predictors of therapeutic responses or long term outcome in primary glomerulonephritis. To determine the performance of urine EGF, MCP-1 or their ratio at baseline as biomarkers to predict complete remission, and the relationship of these mediators with subsequent renal function 24 months later in primary glomerulonephritis. This is a prospective study of patients with biopsy-proven primary glomerulonephritis. Baseline urine samples were collected at biopsy before therapy. MCP-1 and EGF were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and expressed as a ratio to urine creatinine (ng/mgCr) or as EGF/MCP-1 ratio (ng/ng). Proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF) were monitored after therapy. Complete remission (CR) was defined as proteinuria ≤ 0.3 g/gCr. Median follow-up was 20 months. Of all patients (n = 74), 38 patients (51.4%) subsequently achieved CR. Baseline urine EGF and EGF/MCP-1 levels were significantly higher in CR compared to Not CR. By contrast, MCP-1 was not different. High EGF (EGF > 75 ng/mgCr) was a significant predictor (OR 2.28) for CR by multivariate analysis after adjusting for proteinuria, blood pressure, baseline eGFR. In patients who completed 24 months follow-up (n = 43), baseline EGF correlated inversely with proteinuria and positively with eGFR at 24 months. High urine EGF level is a promising biomarker of CR. Baseline EGF levels correlated with kidney function at 2 years. EGF/MCP-1 was not superior to EGF alone. Further studies are necessary to

  19. Resveratrol Inhibits the Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Migration of Osteoblasts: the Suppression of SAPK/JNK and Akt.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Tetsu; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Kainuma, Shingo; Sakai, Go; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kozawa, Osamu; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol enriched in the skins of grapes and berries, that shows various beneficial effects for human health. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism behind the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, and the effect of resveratrol on this cell migration. The cell migration was examined using Boyden chamber, and phosphorylation of each kinase was analyzed by Western blotting. The EGF-induced migration was suppressed by PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK1/2, as well as SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, SP600125, an inhibitor of SAPK/JNK, and deguelin, an inhibitor of Akt. In contrast, rapamycin, an inhibitor of upstream kinase of p70 S6 kinase, and fasudil, an inhibitor of Rho-kinase, hardly affected the migration. Resveratrol significantly reduced the EGF-induced migration in a dose-dependent manner. SRT1720, an SIRT1 activator, suppressed the migration by EGF. In addition, resveratrol markedly attenuated the EGF-induced phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK and Akt without affecting the phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase or p38 MAP kinase. The phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK and Akt induced by EGF was down-regulated by SRT1720. Our results strongly suggest that resveratrol reduces the EGF-stimulated migration of osteoblasts via suppression of SAPK and Akt, and that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol is mediated in part via SIRT1. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Interleukin 6 inhibits proliferation and, in cooperation with an epidermal growth factor receptor autocrine loop, increases migration of T47D breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Badache, A; Hynes, N E

    2001-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional regulator of immune response, hematopoiesis, and acute phase reactions, has also been shown to regulate cancer cell proliferation. We have investigated IL-6 signaling pathways and cellular responses in the T47D breast carcinoma cell line. The IL-6-type cytokines, IL-6 and oncostatin M, simultaneously inhibited cell proliferation and increased cell migration. In T47D cells, IL-6 stimulated the activation of Janus-activated kinase 1 tyrosine kinase and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT3 transcription factors. Expression of dominant negative STAT3 in the cells strongly reduced IL-6-mediated growth inhibition but did not prevent IL-6-induced cell migration. IL-6 treatment led to activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) pathways. Inhibition of MAPK or PI3K activity reversed IL-6- and oncostatin M-stimulated migration. Because cross-talk between cytokine receptors and members of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases has been described previously, we have examined their interaction in T47D cells. Down-regulation of ErbB receptor activity, through the use of specific pharmacological inhibitors or dominant negative receptor constructs, revealed that IL-6-induced MAPK activation was largely dependent on epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor activity, but not on ErbB-2 activity. Using a monoclonal antibody that interferes with EGF receptor-ligand interaction, we have shown that in T47D cells, IL-6 cooperates with an EGF receptor autocrine activity loop for signaling through the MAPK and PI3K pathways and for cell migration. Both the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 and the multisubstrate docking molecule Gab1, which are potential links between IL-6 and the MAPK/PI3K pathways, were constitutively associated with the active EGF receptor. On IL-6 stimulation, SHP-2 and Gab1 were recruited to the gp130 subunit of the IL-6 receptor and tyrosine

  1. Factors Associated with Speech-Sound Stimulability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lof, Gregory L.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined stimulability in 30 children (ages 3 to 5) with articulation impairments. Factors found to relate to stimulability were articulation visibility, the child's age, the family's socioeconomic status, and the child's overall imitative ability. Perception, severity, otitis media history, language abilities, consistency of…

  2. Model of a ternary complex between activated factor VII, tissue factor and factor IX.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-wen W; Pellequer, Jean-Luc; Schved, Jean-François; Giansily-Blaizot, Muriel

    2002-07-01

    Upon binding to tissue factor, FVIIa triggers coagulation by activating vitamin K-dependent zymogens, factor IX (FIX) and factor X (FX). To understand recognition mechanisms in the initiation step of the coagulation cascade, we present a three-dimensional model of the ternary complex between FVIIa:TF:FIX. This model was built using a full-space search algorithm in combination with computational graphics. With the known crystallographic complex FVIIa:TF kept fixed, the FIX docking was performed first with FIX Gla-EGF1 domains, followed by the FIX protease/EGF2 domains. Because the FIXa crystal structure lacks electron density for the Gla domain, we constructed a chimeric FIX molecule that contains the Gla-EGF1 domains of FVIIa and the EGF2-protease domains of FIXa. The FVIIa:TF:FIX complex has been extensively challenged against experimental data including site-directed mutagenesis, inhibitory peptide data, haemophilia B database mutations, inhibitor antibodies and a novel exosite binding inhibitor peptide. This FVIIa:TF:FIX complex provides a powerful tool to study the regulation of FVIIa production and presents new avenues for developing therapeutic inhibitory compounds of FVIIa:TF:substrate complex.

  3. Heparin binding epidermal growth factor in renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Gemma M; Nijboer, Willemijn N; Seelen, Marc A; Sandovici, Maria; Bos, Eelke M; Melenhorst, Wynand B W H; Trzpis, Monika; Kloosterhuis, Niels J; Visser, Lydia; Henning, Rob H; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Ploeg, Rutger J; Sunnarborg, Susan W; van Goor, Harry

    2010-06-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and its ligands are crucially involved in the renal response to ischaemia. We studied the heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), a major ligand for the EGF receptor, in experimental and human ischaemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). HB-EGF mRNA and protein expression was studied in rat kidneys and cultured human tubular (HK-2) cells that were subjected to IRI and in human donor kidneys during transplantation. The effect of EGF receptor inhibition was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, urinary HB-EGF protein excretion was studied after renal transplantation. Finally, HB-EGF KO and WT mice were subjected to IRI to study the role of HB-EGF in renal injury. HB-EGF mRNA was significantly up-regulated in the early phase of IRI in rats, cells, and human donor biopsies. Treatment with PKI-166 reduces macrophage accumulation and interstitial alpha-SMA in the early phase of IRI in rats. In vitro, PKI-166 causes a marked reduction in HB-EGF-induced cellular proliferation. Urinary HB-EGF is increased after transplantation compared with control urines from healthy subjects. HB-EGF KO mice subjected to IRI revealed significantly less morphological damage after IRI, compared with WT mice. We conclude that IRI results in early induction of HB-EGF mRNA and protein in vivo and in vitro. Absence of HB-EGF and inhibition of the EGF receptor in the early phase of IRI has protective effects, suggesting a modulating role for HB-EGF.

  4. Circular RNAs are long-lived and display only minimal early alterations in response to a growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Enuka, Yehoshua; Lauriola, Mattia; Feldman, Morris E.; Sas-Chen, Aldema; Ulitsky, Igor; Yarden, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are widespread circles of non-coding RNAs with largely unknown function. Because stimulation of mammary cells with the epidermal growth factor (EGF) leads to dynamic changes in the abundance of coding and non-coding RNA molecules, and culminates in the acquisition of a robust migratory phenotype, this cellular model might disclose functions of circRNAs. Here we show that circRNAs of EGF-stimulated mammary cells are stably expressed, while mRNAs and microRNAs change within minutes. In general, the circRNAs we detected are relatively long-lived and weakly expressed. Interestingly, they are almost ubiquitously co-expressed with the corresponding linear transcripts, and the respective, shared promoter regions are more active compared to genes producing linear isoforms with no detectable circRNAs. These findings imply that altered abundance of circRNAs, unlike changes in the levels of other RNAs, might not play critical roles in signaling cascades and downstream transcriptional networks that rapidly commit cells to specific outcomes. PMID:26657629

  5. Understanding the role of growth factors in modulating stem cell tenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana I; Rodrigues, Márcia T; Lee, Sang-Jin; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E

    2013-01-01

    Current treatments for tendon injuries often fail to fully restore joint biomechanics leading to the recurrence of symptoms, and thus resulting in a significant health problem with a relevant social impact worldwide. Cell-based approaches involving the use of stem cells might enable tailoring a successful tendon regeneration outcome. As growth factors (GFs) powerfully regulate the cell biological response, their exogenous addition can further stimulate stem cells into the tenogenic lineage, which might eventually depend on stem cells source. In the present study we investigate the tenogenic differentiation potential of human- amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) with several GFs associated to tendon development and healing; namely, EGF, bFGF, PDGF-BB and TGF-β1. Stem cells response to biochemical stimuli was studied by screening of tendon-related genes (collagen type I, III, decorin, tenascin C and scleraxis) and proteins found in tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) (Collagen I, III, and Tenascin C). Despite the fact that GFs did not seem to influence the synthesis of tendon ECM proteins, EGF and bFGF influenced the expression of tendon-related genes in hAFSCs, while EGF and PDGF-BB stimulated the genetic expression in hASCs. Overall results on cellular alignment morphology, immunolocalization and PCR analysis indicated that both stem cell source can be biochemically induced towards tenogenic commitment, validating the potential of hASCs and hAFSCs for tendon regeneration strategies.

  6. EGF-CFC proteins are essential coreceptors for the TGF-β signals Vg1 and GDF1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Simon K.; Olale, Felix; Bennett, James T.; Brivanlou, Ali H.; Schier, Alexander F.

    2003-01-01

    The TGF-β signals Nodal, Activin, GDF1, and Vg1 have been implicated in mesoderm induction and left-right patterning. Nodal and Activin both activate Activin receptors, but only Nodal requires EGF-CFC coreceptors for signaling. We report that Vg1 and GDF1 signaling in zebrafish also depends on EGF-CFC proteins, but not on Nodal signals. Correspondingly, we find that in Xenopus Vg1 and GDF1 bind to and signal through Activin receptors only in the presence of EGF-CFC proteins. These results establish that multiple TGF-β signals converge on Activin receptor/EGF-CFC complexes and suggest a more widespread requirement for coreceptors in TGF-β signaling than anticipated previously. PMID:12514096

  7. Transforming growth factor-alpha short-circuits downregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, X; Gulliford, T; Huang, G; Epstein, R J

    1999-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand which is distinguished from EGF by its acid-labile structure and potent transforming function. We recently reported that TGFalpha induces less efficient EGFR heterodimerization and downregulation than does EGF (Gulliford et al., 1997, Oncogene, 15:2219-2223). Here we use isoform-specific EGFR and ErbB2 antibodies to show that the duration of EGFR signalling induced by a single TGFalpha exposure is less than that induced by equimolar EGF. The protein trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA) reduces the duration of EGF signalling to an extent similar to that seen with TGFalpha alone; the effects of TGFalpha and BFA on EGFR degradation are opposite, however, with TGFalpha sparing EGFR from downregulation but BFA accelerating EGF-dependent receptor loss. This suggests that BFA blocks EGFR recycling and thus shortens EGF-dependent receptor signalling, whereas TGFalpha shortens receptor signalling and thus blocks EGFR downregulation. Consistent with this, repeated application of TGFalpha is accompanied by prolonged EGFR expression and signalling, whereas similar application of EGF causes receptor downregulation and signal termination. These findings indicate that constitutive secretion of pH-labile TGFalpha may perpetuate EGFR signalling by permitting early oligomer dissociation and dephosphorylation within acidic endosomes, thereby extinguishing a phosphotyrosine-based downregulation signal and creating an irreversible autocrine growth loop.

  8. A histological and micro-CT investigation in to the effect of NGF and EGF on the periodontal, alveolar bone, root and pulpal healing of replanted molars in a rat model - a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate, utilising micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histology, whether the topical application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF) can enhance periodontal, alveolar bone, root and pulpal tissue regeneration while minimising the risk of pulpal necrosis, root resorption and ankylosis of replanted molars in a rat model. Methods Twelve four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham, collagen, EGF and NGF. The maxillary right first molar was elevated and replanted with or without a collagen membrane impregnated with either the growth factors EGF or NGF, or a saline solution. Four weeks after replantation, the animals were sacrificed and the posterior maxilla was assessed using histological and micro-CT analysis. The maxillary left first molar served as the control for the corresponding right first molar. Results Micro-CT analysis revealed a tendency for all replanted molars to have reduced root length, root volume, alveolar bone height and inter-radicular alveolar bone volume. It appears that the use of the collagen membrane had a negative effect while no positive effect was noted with the incorporation of EGF or NGF. Histologically, the incorporation of the collagen membrane was found to negatively affect pulpal, root, periodontal and alveolar bone healing with pulpal inflammation and hard tissue formation, extensive root resorption and alveolar bone fragmentation. The incorporation of EGF and NGF did not improve root, periodontal or alveolar bone healing. However, EGF was found to improve pulp vascularisation while NGF-improved pulpal architecture and cell organisation, although not to the level of the control group. Conclusions Results indicate a possible benefit on pulpal vascularisation and pulpal cell organisation following the incorporation of EGF and NGF, respectively, into the alveolar socket of replanted molars in the rat model. No potential benefit of EGF and

  9. Restraint Stress Inhibits Mouse Implantation: Temporal Window and the Involvement of HB-EGF, Estrogen and Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hong-Jie; Liang, Bo; Zheng, Liang-Liang; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2013-01-01

    It is known that psychological stress affects reproduction in women, but it is unknown whether the effect is by impairing implantation. Although studies suggest that long periods of auditory or restraint stress may inhibit implantation in rats and mice, the exact stage of pregnancy at which stress impairs implantation is unclear. Furthermore, whether stress impairs implantation by decreasing the heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), estrogen and/or progesterone and whether by acting on embryos or on the uterus need further investigations. In this study, a 24-h restraint stress was initiated at 15:30 of day 3 (regimen 1) or at 07:30 (regimen 2) or 15:30 of day 4 (regimen 3) of pregnancy (vaginal plug  =  day 1) to observe effects of restraint stress applied at different peri-implantation stages on implantation. Among the three regimens, whereas regimens 1 and 3 affected neither term pregnancy nor litter size, regimen 2 reduced both. Further observations indicated that regimen 2 of restraint stress also delayed blastocyst hatching and the attachment reaction, decreased serum concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, and down regulated the expression of HB-EGF in both the endometrium and blastocysts. Taken together, the results suggested that restraint stress inhibited mouse implantation in a temporal window-dependent manner and by impairing blastocyst activation and hatching and uterine receptivity via down-regulating HB-EGF, estrogen and progesterone. Thus, the stress applied within the implantation window impaired implantation by acting on both embryos and the uterus. PMID:24244689

  10. EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors diminish transforming growth factor-alpha-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hardie, William D; Davidson, Cynthia; Ikegami, Machiko; Leikauf, George D; Le Cras, Timothy D; Prestridge, Adrienne; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Korfhagen, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is a ligand for the EGF receptor (EGFR). EGFR activation is associated with fibroproliferative processes in human lung disease and animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. We determined the effects of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva) on the development and progression of TGF-alpha-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Using a doxycycline-regulatable transgenic mouse model of lung-specific TGF-alpha expression, we determined effects of treatment with gefitinib and erlotinib on changes in lung histology, total lung collagen, pulmonary mechanics, pulmonary hypertension, and expression of genes associated with synthesis of ECM and vascular remodeling. Induction in the lung of TGF-alpha caused progressive pulmonary fibrosis over an 8-wk period. Daily administration of gefitinib or erlotinib prevented development of fibrosis, reduced accumulation of total lung collagen, prevented weight loss, and prevented changes in pulmonary mechanics. Treatment of mice with gefitinib 4 wk after the induction of TGF-alpha prevented further increases in and partially reversed total collagen levels and changes in pulmonary mechanics and pulmonary hypertension. Increases in expression of genes associated with synthesis of ECM as well as decreases of genes associated with vascular remodeling were also prevented or partially reversed. Administration of gefitinib or erlotinib did not cause interstitial fibrosis or increases in lavage cell counts. Administration of small molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors prevented further increases in and partially reversed pulmonary fibrosis induced directly by EGFR activation without inducing inflammatory cell influx or additional lung injury.

  11. αPIX Is a Trafficking Regulator that Balances Recycling and Degradation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kortüm, Fanny; Harms, Frederike Leonie; Hennighausen, Natascha; Rosenberger, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Endosomal sorting is an essential control mechanism for signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We report here that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPIX, which modulates the activity of Rho-GTPases, is a potent bimodal regulator of EGFR trafficking. αPIX interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, an enzyme that attaches ubiquitin to EGFR, thereby labelling this tyrosine kinase receptor for lysosomal degradation. We show that EGF stimulation induces αPIX::c-Cbl complex formation. Simultaneously, αPIX and c-Cbl protein levels decrease, which depends on both αPIX binding to c-Cbl and c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase activity. Through interaction αPIX sequesters c-Cbl from EGFR and this results in reduced EGFR ubiquitination and decreased EGFR degradation upon EGF treatment. However, quantitatively more decisive for cellular EGFR distribution than impaired EGFR degradation is a strong stimulating effect of αPIX on EGFR recycling to the cell surface. This function depends on the GIT binding domain of αPIX but not on interaction with c-Cbl or αPIX exchange activity. In summary, our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated function of αPIX as a strong promoter of EGFR recycling. We suggest that the novel recycling regulator αPIX and the degradation factor c-Cbl closely cooperate in the regulation of EGFR trafficking: uncomplexed αPIX and c-Cbl mediate a positive and a negative feedback on EGFR signaling, respectively; αPIX::c-Cbl complex formation, however, results in mutual inhibition, which may reflect a stable condition in the homeostasis of EGF-induced signal flow. PMID:26177020

  12. Selective inhibition of the platelet-derived growth factor signal transduction pathway by a protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the 2-phenylaminopyrimidine class.

    PubMed Central

    Buchdunger, E; Zimmermann, J; Mett, H; Meyer, T; Müller, M; Regenass, U; Lydon, N B

    1995-01-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor is a member of the transmembrane growth factor receptor protein family with intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. We describe a potent protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (CGP 53716) that shows selectivity for the PDGF receptor in vitro and in the cell. The compound shows selectivity for inhibition of PDGF-mediated events such as PDGF receptor autophosphorylation, cellular tyrosine phosphorylation, and c-fos mRNA induction in response to PDGF stimulation of intact cells. In contrast, ligand-induced autophosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, insulin receptor, and the insulin-like growth factor I receptor, as well as c-fos mRNA expression induced by EGF, fibroblast growth factor, and phorbol ester, was insensitive to inhibition by CGP 53716. In antiproliferative assays, the compound was approximately 30-fold more potent in inhibiting PDGF-mediated growth of v-sis-transformed BALB/c 3T3 cells relative to inhibition of EGF-dependent BALB/Mk cells, interleukin-3-dependent FDC-P1 cells, and the T24 bladder carcinoma line. When tested in vivo using highly tumorigenic v-sis- and human c-sis-transformed BALB/c 3T3 cells, CGP 53716 showed antitumor activity at well-tolerated doses. In contrast, CGP 53716 did not show antitumor activity against xenografts of the A431 tumor, which overexpresses the EGF receptor. These findings suggest that CGP 53716 may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases involving abnormal cellular proliferation induced by PDGF receptor activation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7708684

  13. N-WASP and cortactin are involved in invadopodium-dependent chemotaxis to EGF in breast tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    DesMarais, Vera; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Oser, Matthew; Soon, Lilian; Mouneimne, Ghassan; Sarmiento, Corina; Eddy, Robert; Condeelis, John

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic mammary carcinoma cells, which have previously been observed to form mature, matrix degrading invadopodia on a thick ECM matrix, are able to form invadopodia with similar characteristics on glass without previously applied matrix. They form in response to EGF, and contain the usual invadopodium core proteins N-WASP, Arp2/3, cortactin, cofilin, and F-actin. The study of invadopodia on glass allows for higher resolution analysis including the use of total internal reflection microscopy and analysis of their relationship to other cell motility events, in particular, lamellipodium extension and chemotaxis toward an EGF gradient. Invadopodium formation on glass requires N-WASP and cortactin but not microtubules. In a gradient of EGF more invadopodia form on the side of the cells facing the source of EGF. In addition, depletion of N-WASP or cortactin, which blocks invadopodium fromation, inhibits chemotaxis of cells towards EGF. This appears to be a localized defect in chemotaxis since depletion of N-WASP or cortactin via siRNA had no effect on lamellipodium protrusion or barbed end generation at the lamellipodium's leading edge. Since chemotaxis to EGF by breast tumor cells is involved in metastasis, inhibiting N-WASP activity in breast tumor cells might prevent metastasis of tumor cells while not affecting chemotaxis-dependent innate immunity which depends on WASp function in macrophages. PMID:19373774

  14. Reduced expression of the epidermal growth factor signaling system in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Armant, D R; Fritz, R; Kilburn, B A; Kim, Y M; Nien, J K; Maihle, N J; Romero, R; Leach, R E

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling system regulates trophoblast differentiation, and its disruption could contribute to perinatal disease. We hypothesized that this pathway is altered in preeclampsia, a disorder associated with trophoblast apoptosis and failure to invade and remodel the uterine spiral arteries. Six EGF family peptides and a truncated EGF receptor splice variant (p110/EGFR) were examined using immunohistochemistry in the trophoblast of placentas (N = 76) from women with preeclampsia, and compared to placentas from women of similar gestational age (GA) with preterm labor (PTL) or small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, as well as normal term placentas. EGF, transforming growth factor-α (TGFA), and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) were evaluated using ELISA in maternal plasma from another 20 pregnancies with or without preeclampsia. Cell death was evaluated in the HTR-8/SVneo human cytotrophoblast cell line using TUNEL to evaluate the protective effects of EGF peptides. Trophoblast HBEGF, TGFA, and EGF were significantly reduced in preeclampsia compared to PTL and SGA, while p110/EGFR accumulated significantly on the surface of the chorionic villi (p < 0.05). Plasma EGF levels were significantly decreased in preeclamptic patients, compared to non-preeclamptic patients (p < 0.05). HBEGF, EGF, TGFA, epiregulin, and betacellulin each blocked cytotrophoblast cell death in vitro (p < 0.05). Three members of the EGF family are dysregulated in placentas with preeclampsia, whereas p110/EGFR, a potential EGF receptor antagonist, is overexpressed. These findings are consistent with the concept that disruption of the EGF signaling system contributes to aberrant trophoblast development associated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced Expression of the Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling System in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Armant, D. Randall; FRITZ, Rani; KILBURN, Brian A.; KIM, Yeon Mee; NIEN, Jyh Kae; MAIHLE, Nita J.; ROMERO, Roberto; LEACH, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling system regulates trophoblast differentiation, and its disruption could contribute to perinatal disease. We hypothesized that this pathway is altered in preeclampsia, a disorder associated with trophoblast apoptosis and failure to invade and remodel the uterine spiral arteries. Methods Six EGF family peptides and a truncated EGF receptor splice variant (p110/EGFR) were examined using immunocytochemistry in the trophoblast of placentas (N=76) from women with preeclampsia, and compared to placentas from women of similar gestational age (GA) with preterm labor (PTL) or small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, as well as normal term placentas. EGF, transforming growth factor-α (TGFA), and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) were evaluated using ELISA in maternal plasma from another 20 pregnancies with or without preeclampsia. Cell death was evaluated in the HTR-8/SVneo human cytotrophoblast cell line using TUNEL to evaluate the protective effects of EGF peptides. Results Trophoblast HBEGF, TGFA, and EGF were significantly reduced in preeclampsia compared to PTL and SGA, while p110/EGFR accumulated significantly on the surface of the chorionic villi (p<0.05). Plasma EGF levels were significantly decreased in preeclamptic patients, compared to non-preeclamptic patients (p<0.05). HBEGF, EGF, TGFA, epiregulin, and betacellulin each blocked cytotrophoblast cell death in vitro (p< 0.05). Discussion Three members of the EGF family are dysregulated in placentas with preeclampsia, whereas p110/EGFR, a potential EGF receptor antagonist, is overexpressed. These findings are consistent with the concept that disruption of the EGF signaling system contributes to aberrant trophoblast development associated with preeclampsia. PMID:25589361

  16. Photoaffinity labelling of the ATP-binding site of the epidermal growth factor-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Kudlow, J E; Leung, Y

    1984-06-15

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), after binding to its receptor, activates a tyrosine-specific protein kinase which phosphorylates several substrates, including the EGF receptor itself. The effects of a photoaffinity analogue of ATP, 3'-O-(3-[N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino]propionyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate (arylazido-beta-alanyl-ATP) on the EGF-dependent protein kinase in A431 human tumour cell plasma membrane vesicles was investigated. This analogue was capable of inactivating the EGF-receptor kinase in a photodependent manner. Partial inactivation occurred at an analogue concentration of 1 microM and complete inactivation occurred at 10 microM when a 2 min light exposure was used. Arylazido-beta-alanine at 100 microM and ATP at 100 microM were incapable of inactivating the enzyme with 2 min of light exposure. The photodependent inactivation of the enzyme by the analogue could be partially blocked by 20 mM-ATP and more effectively blocked by either 20 mM-adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate or 20 mM-guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate, indicating nucleotide-binding site specificity. Arylazido-beta-alanyl-[alpha-32P]ATP was capable of labelling membrane proteins in a photodependent manner. Numerous proteins were labelled, the most prominent of which ran with an apparent Mr of 53000 on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A band of minor intensity was seen of Mr corresponding to the EGF receptor (170000). Immunoprecipitation of affinity-labelled and solubilized membranes with an anti-(EGF receptor) monoclonal antibody demonstrated that the Mr 170000 receptor protein was photoaffinity labelled by the analogue. The Mr 53000 peptide was not specifically bound by the anti-receptor antibody. The affinity labelling of the receptor was not enhanced by EGF, suggesting that EGF stimulation of the kinase activity does not result from changes in the affinity of the kinase for ATP. These studies demonstrate that arylazido-beta-alanyl-ATP interacts with the ATP

  17. The cell-penetrating peptide domain from human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) has anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jue-Yeon; Seo, Yoo-Na; Park, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yoon-Jeong; Chung, Chong-Pyoung

    2012-03-23

    A heparin-binding peptide (HBP) sequence from human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) was identified and was shown to exhibit cell penetration activity. This cell penetration induced an anti-inflammatory reaction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. HBP penetrated the cell membrane during the 10 min treatment and reduced the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, HBP inhibited the LPS-induced upregulation of cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6, and decreased the interstitial infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in a lung inflammation model. HBP inhibited NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses by directly blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and by subsequently inhibiting the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. Taken together, this novel HBP may be potentially useful candidate for anti-inflammatory treatments and can be combined with other drugs of interest to transport attached molecules into cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MicroRNA-132 targets HB-EGF upon IgE-mediated activation in murine and human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Viktor; Érsek, Barbara; Wiener, Zoltán; Tömböl, Zsófia; Szabó, Péter M; Igaz, Péter; Falus, András

    2012-03-01

    MicroRNAs provide an additional layer in the regulation of gene expression acting as repressors with several targets at the posttranscriptional level. This study describes microRNA expression patterns during differentiation and activation of mast cells. The expression levels of 567 different mouse miRNAs were compared by microarray between c-Kit+ committed progenitors, mucosal mast cells, resting and IgE-crosslinked BMMCs in vitro. The strongest upregulation of miR-132 upon IgE-mediated activation was validated in human cord blood-derived mast cells as well. HB-EGF growth factor also upregulated upon activation and was ranked high by more prediction algorithms. Co-transfection of miR-132 mimicking precursor and the 3'UTR of human Hbegf-containing luciferase vector proves that the predicted binding site is functional. In line with this, neutralization of miR-132 by anti-miR inhibitor leads to sustained production of HB-EGF protein in activated mast cells. Our data provide a novel example for negative regulation of a growth factor by an upregulated miRNA. © Springer Basel AG 2011

  19. Epidermal growth factor inhibits rat pancreatic cell proliferation, causes acinar cell hypertrophy, and prevents caerulein-induced desensitization of amylase release.

    PubMed

    Morisset, J; Larose, L; Korc, M

    1989-06-01

    The in vivo effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on pancreatic growth and digestive enzyme concentrations were compared with the actions of the pancreatic secretagogue caerulein in the adult rat. EGF (10 micrograms/kg BW) did not alter pancreatic weight or protein content. However, this concentration of EGF inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA by 44%, decreased DNA content by 20%, and increased the concentrations of amylase, chymotrypsinogen, and protein by 106%, 232%, and 42%, respectively. Pancreatic acini prepared from EGF-treated rats exhibited a characteristic secretory response to caerulein that was superimposable to that obtained in acini from saline-treated rats. In both groups of acini half-maximal and maximal stimulation of amylase release occurred at approximately 5 pM and 50 pM caerulein, respectively. In contrast to EGF, caerulein (1 microgram/kg BW) increased pancreatic weight by 29% and protein content by 59%, and enhanced [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA by 70%. Although caerulein increased the concentrations of pancreatic amylase and chymotrypsinogen by 38% and 297%, respectively, pancreatic acini prepared from caerulein-treated rats were less sensitive to the actions of caerulein in vitro when compared with acini from control rats. Indeed, the EC50 was shift from 4.8 pM to 9.8 pM after 4 days of treatment. EGF potentiated the actions of caerulein on pancreatic weight, protein content, and chymotrypsinogen concentration, and prevented the caerulein-induced alteration in the secretory responsiveness of the acinar cell. Conversely, caerulein reversed the inhibitory effect of EGF on thymidine incorporation. These findings suggest that EGF may modulate the trophic effects of certain gastrointestinal hormones, and may participate in the regulation of pancreatic exocrine function in vivo.

  20. EGF-dependent re-routing of vesicular recycling switches spontaneous phosphorylation suppression to EGFR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Baumdick, Martin; Brüggemann, Yannick; Schmick, Malte; Xouri, Georgia; Sabet, Ola; Davis, Lloyd; Chin, Jason W; Bastiaens, Philippe IH

    2015-01-01

    Autocatalytic activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) coupled to dephosphorylating activity of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) ensures robust yet diverse responses to extracellular stimuli. The inevitable tradeoff of this plasticity is spontaneous receptor activation and spurious signaling. We show that a ligand-mediated switch in EGFR trafficking enables suppression of spontaneous activation while maintaining EGFR’s capacity to transduce extracellular signals. Autocatalytic phosphorylation of tyrosine 845 on unliganded EGFR monomers is suppressed by vesicular recycling through perinuclear areas with high PTP1B activity. Ligand-binding results in phosphorylation of the c-Cbl docking tyrosine and ubiquitination of the receptor. This secondary signal relies on EGF-induced EGFR self-association and switches suppressive recycling to directional trafficking. The re-routing regulates EGFR signaling response by the transit-time to late endosomes where it is switched-off by high PTP1B activity. This ubiquitin-mediated switch in EGFR trafficking is a uniquely suited solution to suppress spontaneous activation while maintaining responsiveness to EGF. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12223.001 PMID:26609808

  1. Effects of epidermal growth factor, interleukin 1 and nitric oxide on prostaglandin production by guinea-pig uterus.

    PubMed

    Keeble, J E; Poyser, N L

    2002-08-01

    Initial experiments in the present study investigated the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and sodium nitroprusside (a nitric oxide donor) on the output of prostaglandins from guinea-pig uterus on day 7 of the oestrous cycle. Superfusion of day 7 guinea-pig uterus in vitro with either EGF or sodium nitroprusside increased the output of PGF(2alpha) and 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), but not of PGE(2). IL-1beta had no effect on the output of these three prostaglandins. EGF still increased the output of PGF(2alpha), but did not increase the output of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) in a calcium-depleted superfusate. Subsequent experiments investigated the effect of sodium nitroprusside on contractile activity of day 7 guinea-pig uterus. Basal spontaneous activity of both the intact uterus and isolated myometrium superfused in vitro was low. Sodium nitroprusside increased the contractile activity of these tissues two- to fourfold. EGF did not affect the contractile activity of the uterus, indicating that sodium nitroprusside-induced contractions are not due to increased prostaglandin production. Overall, the findings indicate that EGF and nitric oxide may act as mediators in the mechanism by which oestradiol acting on a progesterone-primed uterus stimulates the increase in PGF(2alpha) production by the guinea-pig uterus necessary for luteolysis. Nitric oxide may increase the spontaneous activity of the uterus when this activity is low.

  2. Inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway in mitotic COS7 cells is due to the inability of EGFR/Raf to transduce EGF signaling to downstream proteins.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huaiping; Zhang, Tianying; Yi, Yongqing; Ma, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have shown that Ras-ERK signaling in mitosis is closed due to the inhibition of signal transduction, the events involved in the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in mitotic COS7 cells. The results demonstrated that treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) failed to increase the endocytosis of EGF-EGFR (EGF receptor) complexes in mitotic COS7 cells, although a large amount of endosomes were found in asynchronous COS7 cells. Clathrin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were inhibited whereas caveolin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were almost unaffected. Y1068 and Y1086 residues of EGFR in the mitotic COS7 cells were activated. However, Grb2 and Shc in the mitotic COS7 cells did not bind to activated EGFR. Ras activity was inhibited in the mitotic COS7 cells whereas its downstream protein, Raf, was obviously phosphorylated by EGF in mitosis. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also increased the phosphorylation levels of Raf in the mitotic COS7 cells. Nevertheless, Raf phosphorylation in mitosis was significantly inhibited by AG1478. Lastly, activation of EGF-mediated MEK and ERK in the mitotic COS7 cells was obviously inhibited. In summary, our results suggest that the Ras-ERK pathway is inhibited in mitotic COS7 cells which may be the dual result of the difficulty in the transduction of EGF signaling by EGFR or Raf to downstream proteins.

  3. Radiation-Induced Esophagitis In Vivo and In Vitro Reveals That Epidermal Growth Factor Is a Potential Candidate for Therapeutic Intervention Strategy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Jeon, Seong-Uk; Lee, Chan-Ju

    Purpose: To establish and characterize radiation-induced esophagitis (RIE) in vivo and in vitro. Methods and Materials: Fractionated thoracic irradiation at 0, 8, 12, or 15 Gy was given daily for 5 days to Balb/c or C57Bl/6 mice. Changes in body weight gain and daily food intake were assessed. At the end of the study, we removed the esophagus and examined histology by hematoxylin and eosin staining, immune cell infiltration and apoptosis by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and gene expression changes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Het-1A human esophageal epithelial cells were irradiated at 6 Gy, treated with recombinant human growth factors, and examined for genemore » expression changes, apoptosis, proliferation, and signal transduction pathways. Results: We observed that irradiation at 12 Gy or 15 Gy per fraction produced significant reduction in body weight and decreased food intake in Balb/c mice but not as much in C57Bl/6 mice. Further analyses of Balb/c mice irradiated at 12 Gy/fraction revealed attenuated epithelium, inflamed mucosa, and increased numbers of infiltrating CD4+ helper T cells and apoptotic cells. Moreover, we found that expression of tissue inhibitor for metalloproteinase-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and stromal-derived factor-1 were increased, whereas epidermal growth factor (EGF) was decreased. Irradiated Het-1A cells similarly showed a significant decrease in expression of EGF and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Treatment of EGF but not CTGF partially protected Het-1A cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and revealed phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT, and ERK signaling pathways. Conclusions: We established a mouse model of RIE in Balb/c mice with 12 Gy × 5 fractions, which showed reduced body weight gain, food intake, and histopathologic features similar to those of human esophagitis. Decreased EGF

  4. G protein-coupled receptor 30 expression is up-regulated by EGF and TGF alpha in estrogen receptor alpha-positive cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vivacqua, Adele; Lappano, Rosamaria; De Marco, Paola; Sisci, Diego; Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca; Fuqua, Suzanne A W; Andò, Sebastiano; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the regulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)30 expression in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive endometrial, ovarian, and estrogen-sensitive, as well as tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and TGF alpha transactivate the GPR30 promoter and accordingly up-regulate GPR30 mRNA and protein levels only in endometrial and tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. These effects exerted by EGF and TGF alpha were dependent on EGF receptor (EGFR) expression and activation and involved phosphorylation of the Tyr(1045) and Tyr(1173) EGFR sites. Using gene-silencing experiments and specific pharmacological inhibitors, we have ascertained that EGF and TGF alpha induce GPR30 expression through the EGFR/ERK transduction pathway, and the recruitment of c-fos to the activator protein-1 site located within GPR30 promoter sequence. Interestingly, we show that functional cross talk of GPR30 with both activated EGFR and ER alpha relies on a physical interaction among these receptors, further extending the potential of estrogen to trigger a complex stimulatory signaling network in hormone-sensitive tumors. Given that EGFR/HER2 overexpression is associated with tamoxifen resistance, our data may suggest that ligand-activated EGFR could contribute to the failure of tamoxifen therapy also by up-regulating GPR30, which in turn could facilitates the action of estrogen. In addition, important for resistance is the ability of tamoxifen to bind to and activate GPR30, the expression of which is up-regulated by EGFR activation. Our results emphasize the need for new endocrine agents able to block widespread actions of estrogen without exerting any stimulatory activity on transduction pathways shared by the steroid and growth factor-signaling networks.

  5. A potencial theranostic agent for EGF-R expression tumors: (177)Lu-DOTA-nimotuzumab.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Victoria; Zhang, Xiuli; Fernandez, Marcelo; Diaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando; Deutscher, Susan L; Balter, Henia; Quinn, Thomas P; Cabral, Pablo

    2012-10-01

    In this work Nimotuzumab (monoclonal antibody, recognizes the EGF-R) was radiolabeled with (177)Lu as a potential cancer therapy radiopharmaceutical. In-vitro cell binding studies and in-vivo biodistribution and imaging studies were performed to determine the radiochemical stability, targeting specificity and pharmacokinetics of the (177)Lu-labeled antibody. Nimotuzumab was derivatized with DOTA-NHS at room temperature for 2 hours. DOTA-Nimotuzumab was radiolabeled with (177)LuCl3 (15 MBq/mg) at 37°C for 1 h. The radiochemical purity was assessed by ITLC, silica gel and by RP-HPLC. Binding specificity studies were performed with EGF-R positive A431 human epithelial carcinoma and EGF-R negative MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cells. Biodistribution studies were performed in healthy female CD-1 mice at 1 h, 4 h, 24 h, and A431 xenografted nude mice at 10 min, 1 h, 4 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 96 h. SPECT-CT imaging studies were performed in A431 xenografted mice at 24 h post injection. DOTA-Nimotuzumab was efficiently labeled with (177) LuCl(3) at 37°C. The in vitro stability of labeled product was optimal over 24 h in buffered saline and mouse serum. Specific recognition of EGF-R by (177)Lu-DOTA-Nimotuzumab was observed in A431 cell binding studies. Biodistribution studies demonstrated increasing tumor uptake of (177)Lu-DOTA-Nimotuzumab over time, with tumor to muscle ratios of 6.26, 10.68, and 18.82 at 4 h, 24 h, and 96 h post injection. Imaging of A431 xenografted mice showed high uptake in the tumor. (177)Lu-DOTA-Nimotuzumab has the potential to be a promising therapy agent, which may be useful in the treatment of patients with EGF-R positive cancer.

  6. ROLE OF RAS IN METAL-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR AND NFKB SIGNALING IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have shown previously that EGF receptor signaling is triggered by some metals associated with ambient air particles. Western blot using phospho-specific antibodies showed that As, Zn and V activated EGF receptor tyrosine kinase and the downstream kinases, MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. Us...

  7. Phospholipase D2 Enhances Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Akt Activation in EL4 Lymphoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Manpreet S; Brauner, Daniel J; Meier, Kathryn E

    2010-07-02

    Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) generates phosphatidic acid through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. PLD2 has been shown to play a role in enhancing tumorigenesis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can both activate and interact with PLD2. Murine lymphoma EL4 cells lacking endogenous PLD2 present a unique model to elucidate the role of PLD2 in signal transduction. In the current study, we investigated effects of PLD2 on EGF response. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to establish that both parental cells and PLD2 transfectants express endogenous EGFR. Levels of EGFR protein are increased in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. EGF stimulates proliferation of EL4 cells transfected with active PLD2, but not parental cells or cells transfected with inactive PLD2. EGF-mediated proliferation in cells expressing active PLD2 is dependent on the activities of both the EGFR and the PI3K/Akt pathway, as demonstrated by studies using protein kinase inhibitors. EGF-induced invasion through a synthetic extracellular matrix is enhanced in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. Taken together, the data suggest that PLD2 acts in concert with EGFR to enhance mitogenesis and invasion in lymphoma cells.

  8. Phospholipase D2 Enhances Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Akt Activation in EL4 Lymphoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chahal, Manpreet S.; Brauner, Daniel J.; Meier, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) generates phosphatidic acid through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. PLD2 has been shown to play a role in enhancing tumorigenesis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can both activate and interact with PLD2. Murine lymphoma EL4 cells lacking endogenous PLD2 present a unique model to elucidate the role of PLD2 in signal transduction. In the current study, we investigated effects of PLD2 on EGF response. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to establish that both parental cells and PLD2 transfectants express endogenous EGFR. Levels of EGFR protein are increased in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. EGF stimulates proliferation of EL4 cells transfected with active PLD2, but not parental cells or cells transfected with inactive PLD2. EGF-mediated proliferation in cells expressing active PLD2 is dependent on the activities of both the EGFR and the PI3K/Akt pathway, as demonstrated by studies using protein kinase inhibitors. EGF-induced invasion through a synthetic extracellular matrix is enhanced in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. Taken together, the data suggest that PLD2 acts in concert with EGFR to enhance mitogenesis and invasion in lymphoma cells. PMID:27713341

  9. Keratinocyte response to immobilized growth factors for enhanced dermal wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefonek-Puccinelli, Tracy Jane

    Chronic wounds cost billions of dollars per year to treat and wound care is limited to ineffective and/or expensive options. Chronic wounds are characterized by a failure to reepithelialize, as well as deficiencies in growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), normally present during wound healing. Our system described herein begins to tackle the problems associated with designing bioactive materials for chronic wound healing applications. We show that we can induce accelerated keratinocyte migration with photo-immobilized EGF and further control migration speed through the culture of cells on different types of gradient patterns of EGF. We also successfully immobilized IGF-1 while retaining its bioactivity, and further showed it induces directed keratinocyte migration, although not as potently as immobilized EGF. Potential synergy between co-immobilized IGF-1 and EGF was also investigated, although EGF continued to dominate the cellular response, and no significant increase in cell migration was achieved via the addition of IGF-1 to the system. To further understand cellular response to our immobilized growth factors, we investigated keratinocyte signaling and function in response to changes in EGF presentation. It was found that immobilized and soluble EGF can play different, yet complementary, roles in regulating keratinocyte function. Specifically, keratinocytes responded to immobilized EGF with high EGF receptor (EGFR) activation, accompanied by low proliferation and high migratory activity. In contrast, keratinocytes treated with soluble EGF displayed a highly proliferative, rather than migratory, phenotype. We then transitioned our photo-immobilization techniques to materials that may be more suitable as a wound dressing, such as silk fibroin films. Silk fibroin is a natural fiber with many desirable qualities for a biomaterial including high strength and elasticity, biocompatibility, a beta

  10. Differentiated thyroid cancer cell invasion is regulated through epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/gelatinase A

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Michael W; Rougier, Jean-Philippe; Park, Jin-Woo; Duh, Quan-Yang; Wong, Mariwil; Werb, Zena; Clark, Orlo H

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms of invasion in thyroid cancer remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that signaling via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulates thyroid cancer cell invasion by altering the expression and cleavage of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Papillary and follicular carcinoma cell lines were treated with EGF, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478, and the MMP inhibitors GM-6001 and Col-3. Flow cytometry was used to detect EGFR. In vitro invasion assays, gelatin zymography, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR were used to assess the changes in invasive behavior and MMP expression and activation. All cell lines were found to overexpress functional EGFR. EGF stimulated invasion by thyroid cancer cells up to sevenfold (P<0.0001), a process that was antagonized completely by AG1478 and Col-3, partially by GM-6001, but not by the serine protease inhibitor aprotinin. EGF upregulated expression of MMP-9 (2.64– to 8.89-fold, P<0.0001) and membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP, 1.97- to 2.67-fold, P<0.0001). This effect was blocked completely by AG1478 and partially by Col-3. The activation of MMP-2 paralleled MT1-MMP expression. We demonstrate that MMPs are critical effectors of invasion in the papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cell lines studied. Invasion is regulated by signaling through EGFR, an effect mediated by augmentation of gelatinase expression and activation. MMP inhibitors and growth factor antagonists may be effective tumoristatic agents for the treatment of aggressive thyroid carcinomas. PMID:17158762

  11. Endothelial cell stimulating angiogenesis factor.

    PubMed

    Weiss, J B; McLaughlin, B

    1998-04-01

    Endothelial cell stimulating angiogenesis factor (ESAF) is a small (> 1000 Da) dialysable non-peptide molecule with potent angiogenic activity. ESAF activates the major pro-matrix metalloproteinases and also uniquely reactivates the complex of these active enzymes with their tissue inhibitors resulting in both active enzyme and inhibitor. These actions may be pivotal in its role as an angiogenic factor. ESAF is primarily involved in angiogenic conditions where inflammatory cells are not evident such as foetal bone growth and electrically stimulated skeletal muscles and proliferative retinopathy. However, high levels also occur in actively growing human intracranial tumours but it is not noticeably elevated in rheumatoid arthritic synovial fluid. Its extreme potency and low molecular mass make its structural determination difficult. Possible therapeutic applications would be in the treatment of ischaemic ulcers, acceleration of fracture repair, infertility and more modestly in the correction of baldness. Analogues of ESAF could be of value in treating angiogenic diseases such as psoriasis and proliferative retinopathy.

  12. DSE promotes aggressive glioma cell phenotypes by enhancing HB-EGF/ErbB signaling.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen-Chieh; Liao, Chih-Kai; Tsai, You-Huan; Tseng, To-Jung; Chuang, Li-Ching; Lan, Chyn-Tair; Chang, Hung-Ming; Liu, Chiung-Hui

    2018-01-01

    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the tumor microenvironment promotes glioma progression. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans appear in the ECM and on the cell surface, and can be catalyzed by dermatan sulfate epimerase to form chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) hybrid chains. Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DSE) is overexpressed in many types of cancer, and CS/DS chains mediate several growth factor signals. However, the role of DSE in gliomas has never been explored. In the present study, we determined the expression of DSE in gliomas by consulting a public database and conducting immunohistochemistry on a tissue array. Our investigation revealed that DSE was upregulated in gliomas compared with normal brain tissue. Furthermore, high DSE expression was associated with advanced tumor grade and poor survival. We found high DSE expression in several glioblastoma cell lines, and DSE expression directly mediated DS chain formation in glioblastoma cells. Knockdown of DSE suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioblastoma cells. In contrast, overexpression of DSE in GL261 cells enhanced these malignant phenotypes and in vivo tumor growth. Interestingly, we found that DSE selectively regulated heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF)-induced signaling in glioblastoma cells. Inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 with afatinib suppressed DSE-enhanced malignant phenotypes, establishing the critical role of the ErbB pathway in regulating the effects of DSE expression. This evidence indicates that upregulation of DSE in gliomas contributes to malignant behavior in cancer cells. We provide novel insight into the significance of DS chains in ErbB signaling and glioma pathogenesis.

  13. The endosomal transcriptional regulator RNF11 integrates degradation and transport of EGFR

    PubMed Central

    Boncompain, Gaelle; Laketa, Vibor; Poser, Ina; Beck, Martin; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    Stimulation of cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces internalization and partial degradation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) by the endo-lysosomal pathway. For continuous cell functioning, EGFR plasma membrane levels are maintained by transporting newly synthesized EGFRs to the cell surface. The regulation of this process is largely unknown. In this study, we find that EGF stimulation specifically increases the transport efficiency of newly synthesized EGFRs from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. This coincides with an up-regulation of the inner coat protein complex II (COPII) components SEC23B, SEC24B, and SEC24D, which we show to be specifically required for EGFR transport. Up-regulation of these COPII components requires the transcriptional regulator RNF11, which localizes to early endosomes and appears additionally in the cell nucleus upon continuous EGF stimulation. Collectively, our work identifies a new regulatory mechanism that integrates the degradation and transport of EGFR in order to maintain its physiological levels at the plasma membrane. PMID:27872256

  14. The cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM251 regulates the expression of the EGF receptor and its ligands via destabilization of oestrogen-related receptor α protein

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, JL; Sanghvi, M; O'Connell, MP; Krzysik-Walker, SM; Moaddel, R; Bernier, M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE AM251 is an inverse agonist of the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) that can exert ‘off-target’ effects in vitro and in CB1R knock-out mice. AM251 is also potent at modulating tumour cell growth, suggesting that growth factor-mediated oncogenic signalling could be regulated by AM251. Since dysregulation of the EGF receptor has been associated with carcinogenesis, we examined AM251 regulation of EGF receptor (EGFR) expression and function. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The various biological functions of AM251 were measured in CB1R-negative human cancer cells. Pharmacological and genetic approaches were used to validate the data. KEY RESULTS The mRNA levels for EGFR and its associated ligands, including HB-EGF, were induced several fold in PANC-1 and HCT116 cells in response to AM251. This event was associated with enhanced expression of EGFR on the cell surface with concomitant increase in EGF-induced cellular responses in AM251-treated cells. Exposure to XCT790, a synthetic inverse agonist of the orphan nuclear oestrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), also induced EGFR and HB-EGF expression to the same extent as AM251, whereas pretreatment with the ERRα-selective agonist, biochanin A, blunted AM251 actions. AM251 promoted the degradation of ERRα protein without loss of the corresponding mRNA. Knock-down of ERRα by siRNA-based approach led to constitutive induction of EGFR and HB-EGF levels, and eliminated the biological responses of AM251 and XCT790. Finally, AM251 displaced diethylstilbestrol prebound to the ligand-binding domain of ERRα. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS AM251 up-regulates EGFR expression and signalling via a novel non-CB1R-mediated pathway involving destabilization of ERRα protein in selected cancer cell lines. PMID:21449913

  15. Double emulsion electrospun nanofibers as a growth factor delivery vehicle for salivary gland regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foraida, Zahraa I.; Sharikova, Anna; Peerzada, Lubna N.; Khmaladze, Alexander; Larsen, Melinda; Castracane, James

    2017-08-01

    Sustained delivery of growth factors, proteins, drugs and other biologically active molecules is necessary for tissue engineering applications. Electrospun fibers are attractive tissue engineering scaffolds as they partially mimic the topography of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, they do not provide continuous nourishment to the tissue. In search of a biomimetic scaffold for salivary gland tissue regeneration, we previously developed a blend nanofiber scaffold composed of the protein elastin and the synthetic polymer polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). The nanofiber scaffold promoted in vivo-like salivary epithelial cell tissue organization and apicobasal polarization. However, in order to enhance the salivary cell proliferation and biomimetic character of the scaffold, sustained growth factor delivery is needed. The composite nanofiber scaffold was optimized to act as a growth factor delivery system using epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a model protein. The nanofiber/EGF hybrid nanofibers were synthesized by double emulsion electrospinning where EGF is emulsified within a water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsion system. Successful incorporation of EGF was confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. EGF release profile was characterized using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) of the EGF content. Double emulsion electrospinning resulted in slower release of EGF. We demonstrated the potential of the proposed double emulsion electrospun nanofiber scaffold for the delivery of growth factors and/or drugs for tissue engineering and pharmaceutical applications.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of N-parinaroyl analogs of ganglioside GM3 and de-N-acetyl GM3. Interactions with the EGF receptor kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, W.; Welti, R.; Hafner-Strauss, S.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A specific plasma membrane glycosphingolipid, known as ganglioside GM3, can regulate the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor; this modulation is not associated with alterations in hormone binding to the receptor. GM3 inhibits EGF receptor tyrosyl kinase activity in detergent micelles, in plasma membrane vesicles, and in whole cells. In addition, immunoaffinity-purified EGF receptor preparations contain ganglioside GM3 (Hanai et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 10915-10921), implying that the glycosphingolipid is intimately associated with the receptor kinase in cell membranes. Both the nature of this association and the molecular mechanism of kinase inhibition remain to be elucidated. In this report, we describe the synthesis of a fluorescent analog of ganglioside GM3, in which the native fatty acid was replaced with trans-parinaric acid. This glycosphingolipid inhibited the receptor kinase activity in a manner similar to that of the native ganglioside. A modified fluorescent glycosphingolipid, N-trans-parinaroyl de-N-acetyl ganglioside GM3, was also prepared. This analog, like the nonfluorescent de-N-acetyl ganglioside GM3, had no effect on receptor kinase activity. Results from tryptophan fluorescence quenching and steady-state anisotropy measurements in membranes containing these fluorescent probes and the human EGF receptor were consistent with the notion that GM3, but not de-N-acetyl GM3, interacts specifically with the receptor in intact membranes.

  17. Aldosterone interaction with epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Gekle, Michael; Freudinger, Ruth; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Silbernagl, Stefan

    2002-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and ion transport by using extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 as a downstream signal. Furthermore, the EGF-receptor (EGF-R) is involved in signaling by G protein-coupled receptors, growth hormone, and cytokines by means of transactivation. It has been suggested that steroids interact with peptide hormones, in part, by rapid, potentially nongenomic, mechanisms. Previously, we have shown that aldosterone modulates Na(+)/H(+) exchange in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by means of ERK1/2 in a way similar to growth factors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that aldosterone uses the EGF-R as a heterologous signal transducer in MDCK cells. Nanomolar concentrations of aldosterone induce a rapid increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, cellular Ca(2+) concentration, and Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity similar to increases induced by EGF. Furthermore, aldosterone induced a rapid increase in EGF-R-Tyr phosphorylation, and inhibition of EGF-R kinase abolished aldosterone-induced signaling. Inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation reduced the Ca(2+) response, whereas prevention of Ca(2+) influx did not abolish ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our data show that aldosterone uses the EGF-R-ERK1/2 signaling cascade to elicit its rapid effects in MDCK cells.

  18. Regional control of Drosophila gut stem cell proliferation: EGF establishes GSSC proliferative set point & controls emergence from quiescence.

    PubMed

    Strand, Marie; Micchelli, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cells vary widely in their rates of proliferation. Some stem cells are constitutively active, while others divide only in response to injury. The mechanism controlling this differential proliferative set point is not well understood. The anterior-posterior (A/P) axis of the adult Drosophila midgut has a segmental organization, displaying physiological compartmentalization and region-specific epithelia. These distinct midgut regions are maintained by defined stem cell populations with unique division schedules, providing an excellent experimental model with which to investigate this question. Here, we focus on the quiescent gastric stem cells (GSSCs) of the acidic copper cell region (CCR), which exhibit the greatest period of latency between divisions of all characterized gut stem cells, to define the molecular basis of differential stem cell activity. Our molecular genetic analysis demonstrates that the mitogenic EGF signaling pathway is a limiting factor controlling GSSC proliferation. We find that under baseline conditions, when GSSCs are largely quiescent, the lowest levels of EGF ligands in the midgut are found in the CCR. However, acute epithelial injury by enteric pathogens leads to an increase in EGF ligand expression in the CCR and rapid expansion of the GSSC lineage. Thus, the unique proliferative set points for gut stem cells residing in physiologically distinct compartments are governed by regional control of niche signals along the A/P axis.

  19. Epidermal Growth Factor Enhances Cellular Uptake of Polystyrene Nanoparticles by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Phuc, Le Thi Minh; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2017-06-19

    The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies to assess the influence of cellular factors, such as growth factor responses, on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the uptake efficiency of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) by A431 cells, a human carcinoma epithelial cell line. The results showed that EGF enhanced the uptake efficiency of A431 cells for PS NPs. In addition, inhibition and localization studies of PS NPs and EGF receptors (EGFRs) indicated that cellular uptake of PS NPs is related to the binding of EGF-EGFR complex and PS NPs. Different pathways are used to enter the cells depending on the presence or absence of EGF. In the presence of EGF, cellular uptake of PS NPs is via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas, in the absence of EGF, uptake of PS NPs does not involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our findings indicate that EGF enhances cellular uptake of PS NPs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This result could be important for developing safe nanoparticles and their safe use in medical applications.

  20. Vasopressin up-regulates the expression of growth-related immediate-early genes via two distinct EGF receptor transactivation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Lida Q.; Reyes, Carlos E.; Sarmiento, José M.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; Navarro, Javier; González, Carlos B.

    2008-01-01

    Activation of V1a receptor triggers the expression of growth-related immediate-early genes (IEGs), including c-Fos and Egr-1. Here we found that pre-treatment of rat vascular smooth muscle A-10 cell line with the EGF receptor inhibitor AG1478 or the over-expression of an EGFR dominant negative mutant (HEBCD533) blocked the vasopressin-induced expression of IEGs, suggesting that activation of these early genes mediated by V1a receptor is via transactivation of the EGF receptor. Importantly, the inhibition of the metalloproteinases, which catalyzed the shedding of the EGF receptor agonist HB-EGF, selectively blocked the vasopressin-induced expression c-Fos. On the other hand, the inhibition of c-Src selectively blocked the vasopressin-induced expression of Egr-1. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression of c-Fos, the expression of Egr-1 was mediated via the Ras/MEK/MAPK-dependent signalling pathway. Vasopressin-triggered expression of both genes required the release of intracellular calcium, activation of PKC and β-arrestin 2. These findings demonstrated that vasopressin up-regulated the expression of c-Fos and Erg-1 via transactivation of two distinct EGF receptor-dependent signalling pathways. PMID:18571897

  1. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor messenger RNA in neoplastic and nonneoplastic human kidney tissue.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H; Michaeli, J; Cordon-Cardo, C; Goldenberg, A S; Heston, W D; Fair, W R

    1989-06-15

    Using Northern blot analysis, we have demonstrated that mRNA for transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) was expressed in five malignant kidney tissue specimens but was not detected in their autologous nonneoplastic homologues. In addition, the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor mRNA in these malignant tissues was 2- to 3-fold greater than in nontransformed tissues. In two cases examined using immunohistochemistry, we were able to correlate the increased expression of the mRNA with an increase in protein expression. Since TGF-alpha is known to bind to the EGF receptor, the finding of an increased expression of both TGF-alpha and EGF receptor mRNA in kidney tumor tissue suggests that interaction between TGF-alpha and the EGF receptor may play a role in promoting transformation and/or proliferation of kidney neoplasms, perhaps by an autocrine mechanism.

  2. A review of the influence of growth factors and cytokines in in vitro human keratinocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Peplow, Philip V; Chatterjee, Marissa P

    2013-04-01

    Keratinocyte migration from the wound edge is a crucial step in the reepithelization of cutaneous wounds. Growth factors and cytokines, released from cells that invade the wound matrix, play an important role, and several in vitro assays have been performed to elucidate this. The purposes of this study were to review in vitro human studies on keratinocyte migration to identify those growth factors or cytokines that stimulate keratinocyte migration and whether these assays might serve as a screening procedure prior to testing combinations of growth factors or cytokines to promote wound closure in vivo. Research papers investigating effect of growth factors and cytokines on human keratinocyte migration in vitro were retrieved from library sources, PubMed databases, reference lists of papers, and searches of relevant journals. Fourteen different growth factors and cytokines enhanced migration in scratch wound assay and HGF together with TGF-β, and IGF-1 with EGF, were more stimulatory than either growth factor alone. HGF with TGF-β1 had a greater chemokinetic effect than either growth factor alone in transmigration assay. TGF-β1, FGF-7, FGF-2 and AGF were chemotactic to keratinocytes. EGF, TGF-α, IL-1α, IGF and MGSA enhanced cell migration on ECM proteins. Many growth factors and cytokines enhanced migration of keratinocytes in vitro, and certain combinations of growth factors were more stimulatory than either alone. These and other combinations that stimulate keratinocyte migration in vitro should be tested for effect on wound closure and repair in vivo. The scratch wound assay provides a useful, inexpensive and easy-to-perform screening method for testing individual or combinations of growth factors or cytokines, or growth factors combined with other modalities such as laser irradiation, prior to performing wound healing studies with laboratory animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain injury expands the numbers of neural stem cells and progenitors in the SVZ by enhancing their responsiveness to EGF

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, Dhivyaa; Lazzarino, Deborah A; Felling, Ryan J; Balan, Murugabaskar; Kotenko, Sergei V; Levison, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    There is an increase in the numbers of neural precursors in the SVZ (subventricular zone) after moderate ischaemic injuries, but the extent of stem cell expansion and the resultant cell regeneration is modest. Therefore our studies have focused on understanding the signals that regulate these processes towards achieving a more robust amplification of the stem/progenitor cell pool. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the role of the EGFR [EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor] in the regenerative response of the neonatal SVZ to hypoxic/ischaemic injury. We show that injury recruits quiescent cells in the SVZ to proliferate, that they divide more rapidly and that there is increased EGFR expression on both putative stem cells and progenitors. With the amplification of the precursors in the SVZ after injury there is enhanced sensitivity to EGF, but not to FGF (fibroblast growth factor)-2. EGF-dependent SVZ precursor expansion, as measured using the neurosphere assay, is lost when the EGFR is pharmacologically inhibited, and forced expression of a constitutively active EGFR is sufficient to recapitulate the exaggerated proliferation of the neural stem/progenitors that is induced by hypoxic/ischaemic brain injury. Cumulatively, our results reveal that increased EGFR signalling precedes that increase in the abundance of the putative neural stem cells and our studies implicate the EGFR as a key regulator of the expansion of SVZ precursors in response to brain injury. Thus modulating EGFR signalling represents a potential target for therapies to enhance brain repair from endogenous neural precursors following hypoxic/ischaemic and other brain injuries. PMID:19570028

  4. Coordinated Pulses of mRNA and of Protein Translation or Degradation Produce EGF-Induced Protein Bursts.

    PubMed

    Golan-Lavi, Roni; Giacomelli, Chiara; Fuks, Garold; Zeisel, Amit; Sonntag, Johanna; Sinha, Sanchari; Köstler, Wolfgang; Wiemann, Stefan; Korf, Ulrike; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan

    2017-03-28

    Protein responses to extracellular cues are governed by gene transcription, mRNA degradation and translation, and protein degradation. In order to understand how these time-dependent processes cooperate to generate dynamic responses, we analyzed the response of human mammary cells to the epidermal growth factor (EGF). Integrating time-dependent transcript and protein data into a mathematical model, we inferred for several proteins their pre-and post-stimulus translation and degradation coefficients and found that they exhibit complex, time-dependent variation. Specifically, we identified strategies of protein production and degradation acting in concert to generate rapid, transient protein bursts in response to EGF. Remarkably, for some proteins, for which the response necessitates rapidly decreased abundance, cells exhibit a transient increase in the corresponding degradation coefficient. Our model and analysis allow inference of the kinetics of mRNA translation and protein degradation, without perturbing cells, and open a way to understanding the fundamental processes governing time-dependent protein abundance profiles. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel role of cannabinoid receptor 2 in inhibiting EGF/EGFR and IGF-I/IGF-IR pathways in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Mohamad; Ahirwar, Dinesh; Ravi, Janani; Nasser, Mohd W; Ganju, Ramesh K

    2017-05-02

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CNR2 or CB2) is an integral part of the endocannabinoid system. Although CNR2 is highly expressed in the breast cancer tissues as well as breast cancer cell lines, its functional role in breast tumorigenesis is not well understood. We observed that estrogen receptor-α negative (ERα-) breast cancer cells highly express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as well as insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR). We also observed IGF-IR upregulation in ERα+ breast cancer cells. In addition, we found that higher CNR2 expression correlates with better recurrence free survival in ERα- and ERα+ breast cancer patients. Therefore, we analyzed the role of CNR2 specific agonist (JWH-015) on EGF and/or IGF-I-induced tumorigenic events in ERα- and ERα+ breast cancers. Our studies showed that CNR2 activation inhibited EGF and IGF-I-induced migration and invasion of ERα+ and ERα- breast cancer cells. At the molecular level, JWH-015 inhibited EGFR and IGF-IR activation and their downstream targets STAT3, AKT, ERK, NF-kB and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In vivo studies showed that JWH-015 significantly reduced breast cancer growth in ERα+ and ERα- breast cancer mouse models. Furthermore, we found that the tumors derived from JWH-015-treated mice showed reduced activation of EGFR and IGF-IR and their downstream targets. In conclusion, we show that CNR2 activation suppresses breast cancer through novel mechanisms by inhibiting EGF/EGFR and IGF-I/IGF-IR signaling axes.

  6. O-GlcNAc on NOTCH1 EGF repeats regulates ligand-induced Notch signaling and vascular development in mammals.

    PubMed

    Sawaguchi, Shogo; Varshney, Shweta; Ogawa, Mitsutaka; Sakaidani, Yuta; Yagi, Hirokazu; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kato, Koichi; Sundaram, Subha; Stanley, Pamela; Okajima, Tetsuya

    2017-04-11

    The glycosyltransferase EOGT transfers O-GlcNAc to a consensus site in epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats of a limited number of secreted and membrane proteins, including Notch receptors. In EOGT-deficient cells, the binding of DLL1 and DLL4, but not JAG1, canonical Notch ligands was reduced, and ligand-induced Notch signaling was impaired. Mutagenesis of O-GlcNAc sites on NOTCH1 also resulted in decreased binding of DLL4. EOGT functions were investigated in retinal angiogenesis that depends on Notch signaling. Global or endothelial cell-specific deletion of Eogt resulted in defective retinal angiogenesis, with a mild phenotype similar to that caused by reduced Notch signaling in retina. Combined deficiency of different Notch1 mutant alleles exacerbated the abnormalities in Eogt -/- retina, and Notch target gene expression was decreased in Eogt -/- endothelial cells. Thus, O-GlcNAc on EGF repeats of Notch receptors mediates ligand-induced Notch signaling required in endothelial cells for optimal vascular development.

  7. Bioactive factors in milk across lactation: maternal effects and influence on infant growth in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Robin; Hinde, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Among mammals, numerous bioactive factors in milk vary across mothers and influence offspring outcomes. This emerging area of research has primarily investigated such dynamics within rodent biomedical models, domesticated dairy breeds, and among humans in clinical contexts. Less understood are signaling factors in the milk of non-human primates. Here, we report on multiple bioactive components in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) milk and their associations with maternal and infant characteristics. Milk samples were collected from 59 macaques at multiple time points across lactation in conjunction with maternal and infant morphometrics and life-history animal records. Milk was assayed for adiponectin (APN), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGF-R), and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2). Regression models were constructed to assess the contributions of maternal factors on variation in milk bioactives, and on the relationship of this variation to infant body mass and growth. Maternal body mass, parity, social rank and infant sex were all predictive of concentrations of milk bioactives. Primiparous mothers produced milk with higher adiponectin, but lower EGF, than multiparous mothers. Heavier mothers produced milk with lower EGF and EGF-R, but higher TGF-β2. Mothers of daughters produced milk with higher TGF-β2. Mid-ranking mothers produced milk with higher mean EGF and adiponectin concentrations than low-ranking mothers. Milk EGF and EGF-R were positively associated with infant body mass and growth rate. Importantly, these signaling bioactives (APN, EGF, EGF-R, TGF-β2) were significantly correlated with nutritional values of milk. The effects of milk signals remained after controlling for the available energy in milk revealing the added physiological role of non-nutritive milk bioactives in the developing infant. Integrating analyses of energetic and other bioactive components of milk yields an important perspective for interpreting the

  8. Interleukin-1 stimulates zinc uptake by human thymic epithelial cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Coto, J.A.; Hadden, J.W.

    1991-03-15

    Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are known to secrete peptides which influence the differentiation and maturation of T-lymphocytes. These peptides include the thymic hormones thymulin, thymosin-{alpha}1, and thymopoietin. The biological activity of thymulin is dependent on the presence of zinc in an equimolar ratio. The authors have shown that both interleukin-1{alpha}(IL-1{alpha}) and interleukin-1{beta}(IL-1{beta}), which stimulate proliferation of TEC, stimulate the uptake of Zn-65 in-vitro independent of this proliferation. Mitomycin-C was used to inhibit the proliferation of TEC. Two other stimulators of proliferation of TEC, bovine pituitary extract (BPE) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), did not stimulate zinc uptake by the TECmore » independent of proliferation. They have also shown, utilizing in-situ hybridization, that IL-1 and zinc induce metallothionein(MT) mRNA expression in human thymic epithelial cells. The exact role of metallothionein is not clear, but it is thought to be involved in regulation of trace metal metabolism, especially in maintenance of zinc homeostasis. Their current hypothesis is that IL-1 stimulates uptake of zinc into the TEC, followed by its complexing with metallothionein. Zinc is then thought to be transferred from metallothionein to thymulin. Immunostaining, utilizing an antithymulin antibody and a fluoresceinated goat anti-rabbit second antibody, confirms the presence of thymulin in TEC and its dependence on zinc. Upon stimulation, thymulin is then secreted. Known stimulants for thymulin include progesterone, dexamethasone, estradiol, testosterone, and prolactin. None of these secretagogues increase zinc uptake, suggesting the priming of the zinc-thymulin complex is unrelated to the regulation of its secretion.« less

  9. Indirubin, an acting component of indigo naturalis, inhibits EGFR activation and EGF-induced CDC25B gene expression in epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Lin, Yin-Ku; Tsai, Chi-Neu; Wang, Ta-Min; Chen, Tzu-Ya; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2012-08-01

    Topical indigo naturalis ointment is clinically proved to be an effective therapy for plaque-type psoriasis. Indirubin, as the active component of indigo naturalis, inhibits cell proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. However, the detailed underlying mechanism is not fully understood. To further investigate the anti-proliferating effects of indigo naturalis and indirubin on epidermal keratinocytes. The decreased expression of CDC25B in indigo naturalis- or indirubin-treated epidermal keratinocytes, as revealed by cDNA microarray analysis, was studied. The CDC25B expression was examined under different serum concentrations and compared between primary and immortalized keratinocytes. The activation of EGFR and the effect of EGF on the cell proliferation and CDC25B expression were also investigated in epidermal keratinocytes. RT/real-time PCR and western blot method were used to analyze the CDC25B expression at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Indigo naturalis and indirubin were confirmed to down-regulate CDC25B expression significantly at both the mRNA and protein levels. The growth-dependent expression of CDC25B was demonstrated by the increased expression in serum-stimulated and immortalized keratinocytes. The activation of EGF receptor, known to be highly expressed in psoriatic lesions, was inhibited by indigo naturalis or indirubin. The cell proliferation and CDC25B expression of epidermal keratinocytes were induced by EGF alone and confirmed to be inhibited by indigo naturalis or indirubin. Except being a common therapeutic target in various cancers, CDC25B also plays an important role in the hyper-proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes which can be suppressed by anti-psoriatic drug indigo naturalis and its component, indirubin. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidermal growth factor treatment decreases mortality and is associated with improved gut integrity in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2008-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a cytoprotective peptide that has healing effects on the intestinal mucosa. We sought to determine whether systemic administration of EGF after the onset of sepsis improved intestinal integrity and decreased mortality. FVB/N mice were subjected to either sham laparotomy or 2 x 23 cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Septic mice were further randomized to receive injection of either 150 microg kg(-1) d(-1) (i.p.) EGF or 0.9% saline (i.p.). Circulating EGF levels were decreased after CLP compared with sham animals but were unaffected by giving exogenous EGF treatment. In contrast, intestinal EGF levels increased after CLP and were further augmented by exogenous EGF treatment. Intestinal EGF receptor was increased after CLP, whether assayed by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, or Western blot, and exogenous EGF treatment decreased intestinal EGF receptor. Villus length decreased 2-fold between sham and septic animals, and EGF treatment resulted in near total restitution of villus length. Sepsis decreased intestinal proliferation and increased intestinal apoptosis. This was accompanied by increased expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bid and Fas-associated death domain, as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 cip1/waf Epidermal growth factor treatment after the onset of sepsis restored both proliferation and apoptosis to levels seen in sham animals and normalized expression of Bid, Fas-associated death domain, and p21 cip1/waf . To determine whether improvements in gut homeostasis were associated with a decrease in sepsis-induced mortality, septic mice with or without EGF treatment after CLP were followed 7 days for survival. Mortality decreased from 60% to 30% in mice treated with EGF after the onset of sepsis (P < 0.05). Thus, EGF may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis in part due to its ability to protect intestinal integrity.

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor Enhances Cellular Uptake of Polystyrene Nanoparticles by Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Phuc, Le Thi Minh; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between nanoparticles and cells has been studied extensively, but most research has focused on the effect of various nanoparticle characteristics, such as size, morphology, and surface charge, on the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. In contrast, there have been very few studies to assess the influence of cellular factors, such as growth factor responses, on the cellular uptake efficiency of nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the uptake efficiency of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) by A431 cells, a human carcinoma epithelial cell line. The results showed that EGF enhanced the uptake efficiency of A431 cells for PS NPs. In addition, inhibition and localization studies of PS NPs and EGF receptors (EGFRs) indicated that cellular uptake of PS NPs is related to the binding of EGF–EGFR complex and PS NPs. Different pathways are used to enter the cells depending on the presence or absence of EGF. In the presence of EGF, cellular uptake of PS NPs is via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas, in the absence of EGF, uptake of PS NPs does not involve clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our findings indicate that EGF enhances cellular uptake of PS NPs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This result could be important for developing safe nanoparticles and their safe use in medical applications. PMID:28629179

  12. Cellular localization of the activated EGFR determines its effect on cell growth in MDA-MB-468 cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hyatt, Dustin C.; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2008-11-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is a ubiquitously expressed receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates diverse cell functions that are dependent upon cell type, the presence of downstream effectors, and receptor density. In addition to activating biochemical pathways, ligand stimulation causes the EGFR to enter the cell via clathrin-coated pits. Endocytic trafficking influences receptor signaling by controlling the duration of EGFR phosphorylation and coordinating the receptor's association with downstream effectors. To better understand the individual contributions of cell surface and cytosolic EGFRs on cell physiology, we used EGF that was conjugated to 900 nm polystyrene beads (EGF-beads). EGF-beads canmore » stimulate the EGFR and retain the activated receptor at the plasma membrane. In MDA-MB-468 cells, a breast cancer cell line that over-expresses the EGFR, only internalized, activated EGFRs stimulate caspase-3 and induce cell death. Conversely, signaling cascades triggered from activated EGFR retained at the cell surface inhibit caspase-3 and promote cell proliferation. Thus, through endocytosis, the activated EGFR can differentially regulate cell growth in MDA-MB-468 cells.« less

  13. Preimplantation embryo development in vitro: cooperative interactions among embryos and role of growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Paria, B C; Dey, S K

    1990-01-01

    We have established a model that shows cooperative interaction among preimplantation embryos and the role of growth factors on their development and growth. Two-cell mouse embryos cultured singly in 25-microliters microdrops had inferior development to blastocysts and lower cell numbers per blastocyst compared with those cultured in groups of 5 or 10. The inferior development of singly cultured embryos was markedly improved by addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) or transforming growth factor alpha or beta 1 (TGF-alpha or TGF-beta 1) to the culture medium. The stage of embryonic development, primarily affected by these treatments, was between eight-cell/morula and blastocyst. Furthermore, blastocysts developed from eight-cell embryos cultured in groups or singly in the presence of EGF showed a higher incidence of zona hatching compared with those cultured singly in the absence of EGF. Detection of EGF receptors on the embryonic cell surface at eight-cell/morula and blastocyst stages suggests beneficial effects of EGF or TGF-alpha on preimplantation embryo development and blastocyst functions. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) had no influence on embryo development. To further document the cooperative interactions among embryos, the volume of the culture medium was doubled to 50 microliters. This increase in culture volume was even more detrimental to the development of singly cultured embryos. However, this detrimental effect was significantly reversed by EGF and reversed even more markedly by a combination of EGF and TGF-beta 1 but not by TGF-beta 1 alone. Although TGF-beta 1 plus IGF-I caused a modest improvement of embryo development, the response was not as great as shown by EGF alone. Furthermore, IGF-I had no additive effect on EGF-induced embryonic development. The study presents clear evidence that specific growth factors of embryonic and/or reproductive tract origin participate in preimplantation embryo development and blastocyst functions in an

  14. Epidermal growth factor and tumor necrosis factor α cooperatively promote the motility of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines via synergistic induction of fibronectin by NF-κB/p65.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zong-Cai; Ning, Fen; Wang, Hai-Fang; Chen, Dan-Yang; Cai, Yan-Na; Sheng, Hui-Ying; Lash, Gendie E; Liu, Li; Du, Jun

    2017-11-01

    The interaction between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and their microenvironment plays a fundamental role in tumor metastasis. The HCC microenvironment is rich in epidermal growth factor (EGF) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), which may cooperatively, rather than individually, interact with tumor cells to influence their biological behavior. Immunohistochemistry was performed to study the expression of EGF and TNFα in HCCs. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, wound healing scratch and invasion assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to study the combined roles of EGF and TNFα in the motility of HCC cells in vitro. We demonstrated that both EGF and TNFα were highly expressed in HCCs, and HCCs with higher expression of both EGF and TNFα were more frequently rated as high-grade tumors. In vitro, EGF and TNFα cooperatively promoted the motility of HCC cells mainly via synergistic induction of an extracellular matrix glycoprotein fibronectin (FN). Mechanistically, EGF and TNFα jointly increased the nuclear translocation and PKC mediated phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 which could bind to the -356bp to -259bp fragment of the FN promoter, leading to a markedly increased activity of the FN promoter in HCC cells. HCCs with higher expression of both EGF and TNFα were more frequently rated as high-grade tumors. EGF and TNFα cooperatively promoted the motility of HCC cells mainly through NF-κB/p65 mediated synergistic induction of FN in vitro. These findings highlight the crosstalk between EGF and TNFα in promoting HCC, and provide potential targets for HCC prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative gene expression profiling of ADAMs, MMPs, TIMPs, EMMPRIN, EGF-R and VEGFA in low grade meningioma.

    PubMed

    Rooprai, Harcharan K; Martin, Andrew J; King, Andrew; Appadu, Usha D; Jones, Huw; Selway, Richard P; Gullan, Richard W; Pilkington, Geoffrey J

    2016-12-01

    MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases), ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) and TIMPs (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases) are implicated in invasion and angiogenesis: both are tissue remodeling processes involving regulated proteolysis of the extracellular matrix, growth factors and their receptors. The expression of these three groups and their correlations with clinical behaviour has been reported in gliomas but a similar comprehensive study in meningiomas is lacking. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the patterns of expression of 23 MMPs, 4 TIMPs, 8 ADAMs, selective growth factors and their receptors in 17 benign meningiomas using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results indicated very high gene expression of 13 proteases, inhibitors and growth factors studied: MMP2 and MMP14, TIMP-1, -2 and -3, ADAM9, 10, 12, 15 and 17, EGF-R, EMMPRIN and VEGF-A, in almost every meningioma. Expression pattern analysis showed several positive correlations between MMPs, ADAMs, TIMPs and growth factors. Furthermore, our findings suggest that expression of MMP14, ADAM9, 10, 12, 15 and 17, TIMP-2, EGF-R and EMMPRIN reflects histological subtype of meningioma such that fibroblastic subtype had the highest mRNA expression, transitional subtype was intermediate and meningothelial type had the lowest expression. In conclusion, this is the first comprehensive study characterizing gene expression of 8 ADAMs in meningiomas. These neoplasms, although by histological definition benign, have invasive potential. Taken together, the selected elevated gene expression pattern may serve to identify targets for therapeutic intervention or indicators of biological progression and recurrence.

  16. Neurotensin-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation and growth of human colonic cancer cells are independent from growth factors receptors activation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Massa, Fabienne; Tormo, Aurelie; Beraud-Dufour, Sophie

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} We compare intracellular pathways of NT and EGF in HT29 cells. {yields} NT does not transactivate EGFR. {yields} Transactivation of EGFR is not a general rule in cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Neurotensin (NT) promotes the proliferation of human colonic cancer cells by undefined mechanisms. We already demonstrated that, in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, the effects of NT were mediated by a complex formed between the NT receptor-1 (NTSR1) and-3 (NTSR3). Here we examined cellular mechanisms that led to NT-induced MAP kinase phosphorylation and growth factors receptors transactivation in colonic cancer cells and proliferation inmore » HT29 cells. With the aim to identify upstream signaling involved in NT-elicited MAP kinase activation, we found that the stimulatory effects of the peptide were totally independent from the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) both in the HT29 and the HCT116 cells. NT was unable to promote phosphorylation of EGFR and to compete with EGF for its binding to the receptor. Pharmacological approaches allowed us to differentiate EGF and NT signaling in HT29 cells since only NT activation of Erk1/2 was shown to be sensitive to PKC inhibitors and since only NT increased the intracellular level of calcium. We also observed that NT was not able to transactivate Insulin-like growth factor receptor. Our findings indicate that, in the HT29 and HCT116 cell lines, NT stimulates MAP kinase phosphorylation and cell growth by a pathway which does not involve EGF system but rather NT receptors which transduce their own intracellular effectors. These results indicate that depending on the cell line used, blocking EGFR is not the general rule to inhibit NT-induced cancer cell proliferation.« less

  17. Targeting tumor cells via EGF receptors: selective toxicity of an HBEGF-toxin fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Chandler, L A; Sosnowski, B A; McDonald, J R; Price, J E; Aukerman, S L; Baird, A; Pierce, G F; Houston, L L

    1998-09-25

    Over-expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a hallmark of numerous solid tumors, thus providing a means of selectively targeting therapeutic agents. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HBEGF) binds to EGFRs with high affinity and to heparan sulfate proteoglycans, resulting in increased mitogenic potential compared to other EGF family members. We have investigated the feasibility of using HBEGF to selectively deliver a cytotoxic protein into EGFR-expressing tumor cells. Recombinant fusion proteins consisting of mature human HBEGF fused to the plant ribosome-inactivating protein saporin (SAP) were expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified HBEGF-SAP chimeras inhibited protein synthesis in a cell-free assay and competed with EGF for binding to receptors on intact cells. A construct with a 22-amino-acid flexible linker (L22) between the HBEGF and SAP moieties exhibited an affinity for the EGFR that was comparable to that of HBEGF. The sensitivity to HBEGF-L22-SAP was determined for a variety of human tumor cell lines, including the 60 cell lines comprising the National Cancer Institute Anticancer Drug Screen. HBEGF-L22-SAP was cytotoxic in vitro to a variety of EGFR-bearing cell lines and inhibited growth of EGFR-over-expressing human breast carcinoma cells in vivo. In contrast, the fusion protein had no effect on small-cell lung carcinoma cells, which are EGFR-deficient. Our results demonstrate that fusion proteins composed of HBEGF and SAP exhibit targeting specificity and cytotoxicity that may be of therapeutic value in treating a variety of EGFR-bearing malignancies.

  18. Mechanism of HSV infection through soluble adapter-mediated virus bridging to the EGF receptor

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nakano, Kenji, E-mail: kenakano@med.kyushu-u.ac.j; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2011-04-25

    Herpes simplex virus entry into cells requires the binding of envelope glycoprotein D (gD) to an entry receptor. Depending on the cell, entry occurs by different mechanisms, including fusion at the cell surface or endocytosis. Here we examined the entry mechanism through a non-HSV receptor mediated by a soluble bi-specific adapter protein composed of recognition elements for gD and the EGF receptor (EGFR). Virus entered into endosomes using either EGF or an EGFR-specific single chain antibody (scFv) for receptor recognition. Infection was less efficient with the EGF adapter which could be attributed to its weaker binding to a viral gD.more » Infection mediated by the scFv adapter was pH sensitive, indicating that gD-EGFR bridging alone was insufficient for capsid release from endosomes. We also show that the scFv adapter enhanced infection of EGFR-expressing tumor tissue in vivo. Our results indicate that adapters may retarget HSV infection without drastically changing the entry mechanism.« less

  19. Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates proneural wave propagation when combined with EGF-mediated reaction diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Makoto; Yasugi, Tetsuo; Minami, Yoshiaki; Miura, Takashi; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Notch-mediated lateral inhibition regulates binary cell fate choice, resulting in salt and pepper patterns during various developmental processes. However, how Notch signaling behaves in combination with other signaling systems remains elusive. The wave of differentiation in the Drosophila visual center or “proneural wave” accompanies Notch activity that is propagated without the formation of a salt and pepper pattern, implying that Notch does not form a feedback loop of lateral inhibition during this process. However, mathematical modeling and genetic analysis clearly showed that Notch-mediated lateral inhibition is implemented within the proneural wave. Because partial reduction in EGF signaling causes the formation of the salt and pepper pattern, it is most likely that EGF diffusion cancels salt and pepper pattern formation in silico and in vivo. Moreover, the combination of Notch-mediated lateral inhibition and EGF-mediated reaction diffusion enables a function of Notch signaling that regulates propagation of the wave of differentiation. PMID:27535937

  20. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor ameliorate the proinflammatory response in human meningococcal septic shock?

    PubMed

    Rojahn, Astrid; Brusletto, Berit; Øvstebø, Reidun; Haug, Kari B F; Kierulf, Peter; Brandtzaeg, Petter

    2008-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor acts cooperatively with interleukin-10 in down-regulating monocyte function in severe meningococcal septic shock. 1) We quantified the plasma levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-10, Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide and the number of N. meningitidis DNA copies in 28 patients with systemic meningococcal disease. 2) We studied the inhibitory effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on normal human monocytes stimulated with purified meningococcal lipopolysaccaride. 3) We monitored the inhibitory effects of endogenously produced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-10 in meningococcal shock plasmas on monocytes. Comparative, experimental study. University Hospital and laboratory. Twenty-eight patients with systemic meningococcal disease, 13 with persistent shock, 7 died, and 15 without shock. The median levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in shock and nonshock patients were 1.7 x 10(6) and 8.1 x 10(2) pg/mL; interleukin-10, 2.1 x 10(4) and 4 x 10(1) pg/mL; number of N. meningitidis DNA copies, 2.9 x 10(7) and <10(3)/mL; and lipopolysaccharide, 105 and <0.04 endotoxin units/mL, respectively. The plasma levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were reduced by 50% within 4 to 6 hrs after initiation of antibiotic treatment. In model experiments with lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-10 reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by mean 30% and 92%, respectively. When plasmas from three shock patients were depleted of native granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or interleukin-10 by immunoprecipitation, no increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha release occurred after removal of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, whereas removal of interleukin-10 increased the tumor necrosis factor-alpha release eight-fold. Although

  1. High glucose promotes pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via the induction of EGF expression and transactivation of EGFR.

    PubMed

    Han, Liang; Ma, Qingyong; Li, Junhui; Liu, Han; Li, Wei; Ma, Guodong; Xu, Qinhong; Zhou, Shuang; Wu, Erxi

    2011-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that a large portion of pancreatic cancer patients suffer from either hyperglycemia or diabetes, both of which are characterized by high blood glucose level. However, the underlying biological mechanism of this phenomenon is largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the proliferative ability of two human pancreatic cancer cell lines, BxPC-3 and Panc-1, was upregulated by high glucose in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the promoting effect of high glucose levels on EGF transcription and secretion but not its receptors in these PC cell lines was detected by using an EGF-neutralizing antibody and RT-PCR. In addition, the EGFR transactivation is induced by high glucose levels in concentration- and time-dependent manners in PC cells in the presence of the EGF-neutralizing antibody. These results suggest that high glucose promotes pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via the induction of EGF expression and transactivation of EGFR. Our findings may provide new insight on the links between high glucose level and PC in terms of the molecular mechanism and reveal a novel therapeutic strategy for PC patients who simultaneously suffer from either diabetes or hyperglycemia.

  2. Epidermal growth factor impairs palatal shelf adhesion and fusion in the Tgf-β 3 null mutant.

    PubMed

    Barrio, M Carmen; Del Río, Aurora; Murillo, Jorge; Maldonado, Estela; López-Gordillo, Yamila; Paradas-Lara, Irene; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Catón, Javier; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    The cleft palate presented by transforming growth factor-β3 (Tgf-β3) null mutant mice is caused by altered palatal shelf adhesion, cell proliferation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation and cell death. The expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (Tgf-β1) and muscle segment homeobox-1 (Msx-1) is modified in the palates of these knockout mice, and the cell proliferation defect is caused by the change in EGF expression. In this study, we aimed to determine whether this change in EGF expression has any effect on the other mechanisms altered in Tgf-β3 knockout mouse palates. We tested the effect of inhibiting EGF activity in vitro in the knockout palates via the addition of Tyrphostin AG 1478. We also investigated possible interactions between EGF, Tgf-β1 and Msx-1 in Tgf-β3 null mouse palate cultures. The results show that the inhibition of EGF activity in Tgf-β3 null mouse palate cultures improves palatal shelf adhesion and fusion, with a particular effect on cell death, and restores the normal distribution pattern of Msx-1 in the palatal mesenchyme. Inhibition of TGF-β1 does not affect either EGF or Msx-1 expression. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Physiological epidermal growth factor concentrations activate high affinity receptors to elicit calcium oscillations.

    PubMed

    Marquèze-Pouey, Béatrice; Mailfert, Sébastien; Rouger, Vincent; Goaillard, Jean-Marc; Marguet, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Signaling mediated by the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is crucial in tissue development, homeostasis and tumorigenesis. EGF is mitogenic at picomolar concentrations and is known to bind its receptor on high affinity binding sites depending of the oligomerization state of the receptor (monomer or dimer). In spite of these observations, the cellular response induced by EGF has been mainly characterized for nanomolar concentrations of the growth factor, and a clear definition of the cellular response to circulating (picomolar) concentrations is still lacking. We investigated Ca2+ signaling, an early event in EGF responses, in response to picomolar doses in COS-7 cells where the monomer/dimer equilibrium is unaltered by the synthesis of exogenous EGFR. Using the fluo5F Ca2+ indicator, we found that picomolar concentrations of EGF induced in 50% of the cells a robust oscillatory Ca2+ signal quantitatively similar to the Ca2+ signal induced by nanomolar concentrations. However, responses to nanomolar and picomolar concentrations differed in their underlying mechanisms as the picomolar EGF response involved essentially plasma membrane Ca2+ channels that are not activated by internal Ca2+ store depletion, while the nanomolar EGF response involved internal Ca2+ release. Moreover, while the picomolar EGF response was modulated by charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ channels, the nanomolar response was insensitive to the blockade of these ion channels.

  4. The Na+-Taurocholate Cotransporting Polypeptide Traffics with the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xintao; Wang, Pijun; Wang, Wenjun; Murray, John W.; Wolkoff, Allan W.

    2015-01-01

    Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (ntcp) mediates uptake of bile acids as well as serving as the receptor for hepatitis B virus in human liver. Previous studies showed that ntcp traffics on microtubules between the cell surface and endocytic vesicles. Specific inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC)ζ resulted in loss of microtubule-based motility of these vesicles in vitro and in living cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize the PKCζ target. Incubation of ntcp-containing endocytic vesicles with γ-32P-ATP revealed a 180 kDa phosphoglycoprotein that was identified as the EGF receptor (EGFR). Surface biotinylation of HuH7 cells expressing GFP-ntcp revealed substantially reduced trafficking of ntcp to the cell surface with EGFR knockdown. Microtubule-based motility of ntcp-containing endocytic vesicles was also significantly reduced when they were not associated with EGFR. Ntcp was also found to undergo cellular redistribution upon stimulation of cells with EGF, consistent with a model in which ntcp and EGF-EGFR internalize into common endocytic vesicles from which they segregate, trafficking EGF-EGFR to lysosomes and recycling ntcp to the plasma membrane. EGF regulation of ntcp trafficking may play a heretofore unanticipated role in subcellular targeting of ntcp ligands such as hepatitis B. PMID:26650232

  5. Bioactive factors in milk across lactation: Maternal effects and influence on infant growth in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Robin M; Hinde, Katie

    2016-08-01

    Among mammals, numerous bioactive factors in milk vary across mothers and influence offspring outcomes. This emerging area of research has primarily investigated such dynamics within rodent biomedical models, domesticated dairy breeds, and among humans in clinical contexts. Less understood are signaling factors in the milk of non-human primates. Here, we report on multiple bioactive components in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) milk and their associations with maternal and infant characteristics. Milk samples were collected from 59 macaques at multiple time points across lactation in conjunction with maternal and infant morphometrics and life-history animal records. Milk was assayed for adiponectin (APN), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGF-R), and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2 ). Regression models were constructed to assess the contributions of maternal factors on variation in milk bioactives, and on the relationship of this variation to infant body mass and growth. Maternal body mass, parity, social rank, and infant sex were all predictive of concentrations of milk bioactives. Primiparous mothers produced milk with higher adiponectin, but lower EGF, than multiparous mothers. Heavier mothers produced milk with lower EGF and EGF-R, but higher TGF-β2 . Mothers of daughters produced milk with higher TGF-β2 . Mid-ranking mothers produced milk with higher mean EGF and adiponectin concentrations than low-ranking mothers. Milk EGF and EGF-R were positively associated with infant body mass and growth rate. Importantly, these signaling bioactives (APN, EGF, EGF-R, and TGF-β2 ) were significantly correlated with nutritional values of milk. The effects of milk signals remained after controlling for the available energy in milk revealing the added physiological role of non-nutritive milk bioactives in the developing infant. Integrating analyses of energetic and other bioactive components of milk yields an important perspective for interpreting

  6. Effect of OPC-12759 on EGF receptor activation, p44/p42 MAPK activity, and secretion in conjunctival goblet cells.

    PubMed

    Ríos, J David; Shatos, Marie A; Urashima, Hiroki; Dartt, Darlene A

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if OPC-12759 stimulates secretion from conjunctival goblet cells in culture and if it activates the EGF receptor (EGFR) and p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) to cause mucin secretion. Conjunctival goblet cells were cultured from pieces of male rat conjunctiva. OPC-12759 was added at increasing concentrations and for varying times to the cultured cells. The cholinergic agonist carbachol was used as a positive control. In selected experiments an inhibitor of the EGFR, AG1478, or an inhibitor of the kinase that activates MAPK, U0126, were added before OPC-12759. Goblet cell secretion of high molecular weight glycoconjugates was measured by an enzyme-linked lectin assay using the lectin UEA-1. Activation of the EGFR and MAPK were determined with Western blotting analysis using antibodies specific to the phosphorylated and the total amounts of these proteins. We found that OPC-12759 induced goblet cell secretion in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of the EGFR with AG1478 blocked secretion stimulated by OPC-12759. Inhibition of MAPK with U0126 also blocked secretion stimulated by OPC-12759. OPC-12759 increased the phosphorylation of the EGFR and MAPK in a time-dependent manner. We concluded that OPC-12759 stimulates secretion from cultured conjunctival goblet cells by activating the EGFR, which then induces MAPK activity.

  7. Positional cloning identifies zebrafish one-eyed pinhead as a permissive EGF-related ligand required during gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Talbot, W S; Schier, A F

    1998-01-23

    The zebrafish one-eyed pinhead (oep) mutation disrupts embryonic development, resulting in cyclopia and defects in endoderm, prechordal plate, and ventral neuroectoderm formation. We report the molecular isolation of oep using a positional cloning approach. The oep gene encodes a novel EGF-related protein with similarity to the EGF-CFC proteins cripto, cryptic, and FRL-1. Wild-type oep protein contains a functional signal sequence and is membrane-associated. Following ubiquitous maternal and zygotic expression, highest levels of oep mRNA are found in the gastrula margin and in axial structures and forebrain. Widespread misexpression of both membrane-attached and secreted forms of oep rescues prechordal plate and forebrain development in mutant embryos but does not lead to the ectopic induction of these cell types in wild-type fish. These results establish an essential but permissive role for an EGF-related ligand during vertebrate gastrulation.

  8. Nanoconjugation prolongs endosomal signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor and enhances apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Xu, F.; Reinhard, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that intracellular signaling can be subject to strict spatial control. As the covalent attachment of a signaling ligand to a nanoparticle (NP) impacts ligand-receptor binding, uptake, and trafficking, nanoconjugation provides new opportunities for manipulating intracellular signaling in a controlled fashion. To establish the effect of nanoconjugation on epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediated signaling, we investigate here the intracellular fate of nanoconjugated EGF (NP-EGF) and its bound receptor (EGFR) by quantitative correlated darkfield/fluorescence microscopy and density-based endosomal fractionation. We demonstrate that nanoconjugation prolongs the dwell time of phosphorylated receptors in the early endosomes and that the retention of activated EGFR in the early endosomes is accompanied by an EGF mediated apoptosis at effective concentrations that do not induce apoptosis in the case of free EGF. Overall, these findings indicate nanoconjugation as a rational strategy for modifying signaling that acts by modulating the temporo-spatial distribution of the activated EGF-EGFR ligand-receptor complex.It is becoming increasingly clear that intracellular signaling can be subject to strict spatial control. As the covalent attachment of a signaling ligand to a nanoparticle (NP) impacts ligand-receptor binding, uptake, and trafficking, nanoconjugation provides new opportunities for manipulating intracellular signaling in a controlled fashion. To establish the effect of nanoconjugation on epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediated signaling, we investigate here the intracellular fate of nanoconjugated EGF (NP-EGF) and its bound receptor (EGFR) by quantitative correlated darkfield/fluorescence microscopy and density-based endosomal fractionation. We demonstrate that nanoconjugation prolongs the dwell time of phosphorylated receptors in the early endosomes and that the retention of activated EGFR in the early endosomes is accompanied by an EGF

  9. Localisation of stem cell factor, stanniocalcin-1, connective tissue growth factor and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor in the bovine uterus at the time of blastocyst formation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Martin, D; Carrocera, S; Alonso-Guervos, M; Mora, M I; Corrales, F J; Peynot, N; Giraud-Delville, C; Duranthon, V; Sandra, O; Gómez, E

    2017-10-01

    Early embryonic losses before implantation account for the highest rates of reproductive failure in mammals, in particular when in vitro-produced embryos are transferred. In the present study, we used molecular biology techniques (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction), classical immunohistochemical staining coupled with confocal microscopy and proteomic analysis (multiple reaction monitoring and western blot analysis) to investigate the role of four growth factors in embryo-uterine interactions during blastocyst development. Supported by a validated embryo transfer model, the study investigated: (1) the expression of stem cell factor (SCF), stanniocalcin-1 (STC1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in bovine uterine fluid; (2) the presence of SCF, STC1, CTGF and HB-EGF mRNA and protein in the bovine endometrium and embryos; and (3) the existence of reciprocal regulation between endometrial and embryonic expression of SCF, STC1, CTGF and HB-EGF. The results suggest that these growth factors most likely play an important role during preimplantation embryo development in cattle. The information obtained from the present study can contribute to improving the performance of in vitro culture technology in cattle and other species.

  10. EGF targeted fluorescence molecular tomography as a predictor of PDT outcomes in pancreas cancer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Davis, Scott C.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Isabelle, Martin E.; O'Hara, Julia; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2010-02-01

    Verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising adjuvant therapy for pancreas cancer and investigations for its use are currently underway in both orthotopic xenograft mouse models and in human clinical trials. The mouse models have been studied extensively using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a measure of surrogate response to verteporfin PDT and it was found that tumor lines with different levels of aggression respond with varying levels to PDT. MR imaging was successful in determining the necrotic volume caused by PDT but there was difficultly in distinguishing inflamed tissues and regions of surviving tumor. In order to understand the molecular changes within the tumor immediately post-PDT we propose the implementation of MR-guided fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) in conjunction with an exogenously administered fluorescently labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF-IRDye800CW, LI-COR Biosciences). We have previously shown that MR-guided FMT is feasible in the mouse abdomen when multiple regions of fluorescence are considered from contributing internal organs. In this case the highly aggressive AsPC-1 (+EGFR) orthotopic tumor was implanted in SCID mice, interstitial verteporfin PDT (1mg/kg, 20J/cm) was performed when the tumor reached ~60mm3 and both tumor volume and EGF binding were followed with MR-guided FMT.

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor Improves Intestinal Integrity and Survival in Murine Sepsis Following Chronic Alcohol Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Klingensmith, Nathan J; Yoseph, Benyam P; Liang, Zhe; Lyons, John D; Burd, Eileen M; Margoles, Lindsay M; Koval, Michael; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2017-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a cytoprotective protein that improves survival in preclinical models of sepsis through its beneficial effects on intestinal integrity. Alcohol use disorder worsens intestinal integrity and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critical illness. We sought to determine whether chronic alcohol ingestion alters the host response to systemic administration of EGF in sepsis. Six-week-old FVB/N mice were randomized to receive 20% alcohol or water for 12 weeks. All mice then underwent cecal ligation and puncture to induce polymicrobial sepsis. Mice were then randomized to receive either intraperitoneal injection of EGF (150 μg/kg/day) or normal saline. Water-fed mice given EGF had decreased 7-day mortality compared with water-fed mice (18% vs. 55%). Alcohol-fed mice given EGF also had decreased 7-day mortality compared with alcohol-fed mice (48% vs. 79%). Notably, while systemic EGF improved absolute survival to a similar degree in both water-fed and alcohol-fed mice, mortality was significantly higher in alcohol+EGF mice compared with water+EGF mice. Compared with water-fed septic mice, alcohol-fed septic mice had worsened intestinal integrity with intestinal hyperpermeability, increased intestinal epithelial apoptosis, decreased proliferation and shorter villus length. Systemic administration of EGF to septic alcohol-fed mice decreased intestinal permeability compared with septic alcohol-fed mice given vehicle, with increased levels of the tight junction mediators claudin-5 and JAM-A. Systemic administration of EGF to septic alcohol-fed mice also decreased intestinal apoptosis with an improvement in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. EGF also improved both crypt proliferation and villus length in septic alcohol-fed mice. EGF administration resulted in lower levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 10 in alcohol-fed mice. EGF is therefore

  12. Single molecule force spectroscopy for in-situ probing oridonin inhibited ROS-mediated EGF-EGFR interactions in living KYSE-150 cells.

    PubMed

    Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Jiang, Jinhuan; Yang, Fen; Cai, Huaihong; Yang, Peihui; Cai, Jiye; Chen, Zheng W

    2017-05-01

    As the active anticancer component of Rabdosia Rubescens, oridonin has been proved to show strong anticancer activity in cancer cells, which is also found to be closely related to its specific inhibition effects on the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity. In this study, atomic force microscopy based single molecule force spectroscopy (AFM-SMFS) was used for real-time and in-situ detection of EGF-EGFR interactions in living esophageal cancer KYSE-150 cells to evaluate the anticancer activity of oridonin for the first time. Oridonin was found to induce apoptosis and also reduce EGFR expression in KYSE-150 cells. AFM-SMFS results demonstrated that oridonin could inhibit the binding between EGF and EGFR in KYSE-150 cells by decreasing the unbinding force and binding probability for EGF-EGFR complexes, which was further proved to be closely associated with the intracellular ROS level. More precise mechanism studies based on AFM-SMFS demonstrated that oridonin treatment could decrease the energy barrier width, increase the dissociation off rate constant and decrease the activation energy of EGF-EGFR complexes in ROS dependent way, suggesting oridonin as a strong anticancer agent targeting EGF-EGFR interactions in cancer cells through ROS dependent mechanism. Our results not only suggested oridonin as a strong anticancer agent targeting EGF-EGFR interactions in ROS dependent mechanism, but also highlighted AFM-SMFS as a powerful technique for pharmacodynamic studies by detecting ligand-receptor interactions, which was also expected to be developed into a promising tool for the screening and mechanism studies of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-coding Double-stranded RNA and Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Induce Growth Factor Expression from Keratinocytes and Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Adase, Christopher A.; Borkowski, Andrew W.; Zhang, Ling-juan; Williams, Michael R.; Sato, Emi; Sanford, James A.

    2016-01-01

    A critical function for skin is that when damaged it must simultaneously identify the nature of the injury, repair barrier function, and limit the intrusion of pathogenic organisms. These needs are carried out through the detection of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and a response that includes secretion of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In this study, we analyzed how non-coding double-stranded RNA (dsRNAs) act as a DAMP in the skin and how the human cathelicidin AMP LL-37 might influence growth factor production in response to this DAMP. dsRNA alone significantly increased the expression of multiple growth factors in keratinocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Furthermore, RNA sequencing transcriptome analysis found that multiple growth factors increase when cells are exposed to both LL-37 and dsRNA, a condition that mimics normal wounding. Quantitative PCR and/or ELISA validated that growth factors expressed by keratinocytes in these conditions included, but were not limited to, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC), betacellulin (BTC), EGF, epiregulin (EREG), and other members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily. These results identify a novel role for DAMPs and AMPs in the stimulation of repair and highlight the complex interactions involved in the wound environment. PMID:27048655

  14. Non-identical distribution pattern of epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor in the mouse uterus during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jaber, L; Kan, F W

    1998-10-01

    In the present study, we examined by immunohistochemistry the cell-specific distribution of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in the mouse uterus during the oestrous cycle and throughout the first 7 days of pregnancy. Paraffin-embedded tissue samples were immunostained using the avidin-biotin peroxidase technique and then examined by light microscopy. Our results showed that immunostaining for EGF was detected in the stroma but not in the luminal or glandular epithelium. A high concentration of EGF was detected in the stroma around the time of embryo implantation at days 3, 4 and 5 of pregnancy. The implanted embryo at day 7 of gestation showed immunostaining for EGF between the ectoderm and endoderm layers. The cell distribution pattern for PDGF was found to be different from that observed with EGF. Luminal and glandular epithelia displayed PDGF immunostaining throughout the first 7 days of pregnancy, with the highest intensity at days 4 and 5 of gestation. In contrast, no immunostaining was observed in the luminal and glandular epithelia at post-oestrus, dioestrus and pro-oestrus stages. However, a weak reaction started to appear at oestrus. The embryo at the blastocyst stage displayed a strong immunoreaction for antibody against PDGF. In addition, the decidual boundary zone surrounding the implanted embryo at days 5, 6 and 7 of gestation also showed an immunostaining for PDGF. The present observations demonstrate clearly the presence of EGF and PDGF in the mouse uterus in high concentrations at the peri-implantation period. Thus, our results, together with what is known about the effect of EGF and PDGF in controlling the growth, differentiation and activation of a variety of cell types, suggest a possible role for these growth factors during the preparation of the endometrium for implantation in controlling the proliferation activity of stromal and/or epithelial cells.

  15. Is receptor oligomerization causally linked to activation of the EGF receptor kinase?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Transduction of a signal from an extracellular peptide hormone to produce an intracellular response is often mediated by a cell surface receptor, which is usually a glycoprotein. The secondary intracellular signal(s) generated after hormone binding to the receptor have been intensively studied. The nature of the primary signal generated by ligand binding to the receptor is understood less well in most cases. The particular case of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is analyzed, and evidence for or against two dissimilar models of primary signal transduction is reviewed. Evidence for the most widely accepted current model is found to be unconvincing. Evidence for the other model is substantial but indirect; a direct test of this model remains to be done.

  16. ERK2-mediated C-terminal serine phosphorylation of p300 is vital to the regulation of epidermal growth factor-induced keratin 16 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Ju; Wang, Ying-Nai; Chang, Wen-Chang

    2007-09-14

    We previously reported that the epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulates the gene expression of keratin 16 by activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling which in turn enhances the recruitment of p300 to the keratin 16 promoter. The recruited p300 functionally cooperates with Sp1 and c-Jun to regulate the gene expression of keratin 16. This study investigated in detail the molecular events incurred upon p300 whereby EGF caused an enhanced interaction between p300 and Sp1. EGF apparently induced time- and dose-dependent phosphorylation of p300, both in vitro and in vivo, through the activation of ERK2. The six potential ERK2 phosphorylation sites, including three threonine and three serine residues as revealed by sequential analysis, were first identified in vitro. Confirmation of these six sites in vivo indicated that these three serine residues (Ser-2279, Ser-2315, and Ser-2366) on the C terminus of p300 were the major signaling targets of EGF. Furthermore, the C-terminal serine phosphorylation of p300 stimulated its histone acetyltransferase activity and enhanced its interaction with Sp1. These serine phosphorylation sites on p300 controlled the p300 recruitment to the keratin 16 promoter. When all three serine residues on p300 were replaced by alanine, EGF could no longer induce the gene expression of keratin 16. Taken together, these results strongly suggested that the ERK2-mediated C-terminal serine phosphorylation of p300 was a key event in the regulation of EGF-induced keratin 16 expression. These results also constituted the first report identifying the unique p300 phosphorylation sites induced by ERK2 in vivo.

  17. Nimrod, a putative phagocytosis receptor with EGF repeats in Drosophila plasmatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurucz, Eva; Márkus, Róbert; Zsámboki, János; Folkl-Medzihradszky, Katalin; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Vilmos, Péter; Udvardy, Andor; Krausz, Ildikó; Lukacsovich, Tamás; Gateff, Elisabeth; Zettervall, Carl-Johan; Hultmark, Dan; Andó, István

    2007-04-03

    The hemocytes, the blood cells of Drosophila, participate in the humoral and cellular immune defense reactions against microbes and parasites [1-8]. The plasmatocytes, one class of hemocytes, are phagocytically active and play an important role in immunity and development by removing microorganisms as well as apoptotic cells. On the surface of circulating and sessile plasmatocytes, we have now identified a protein, Nimrod C1 (NimC1), which is involved in the phagocytosis of bacteria. Suppression of NimC1 expression in plasmatocytes inhibited the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. Conversely, overexpression of NimC1 in S2 cells stimulated the phagocytosis of both S. aureus and Escherichia coli. NimC1 is a 90-100 kDa single-pass transmembrane protein with ten characteristic EGF-like repeats (NIM repeats). The nimC1 gene is part of a cluster of ten related nimrod genes at 34E on chromosome 2, and similar clusters of nimrod-like genes are conserved in other insects such as Anopheles and Apis. The Nimrod proteins are related to other putative phagocytosis receptors such as Eater and Draper from D. melanogaster and CED-1 from C. elegans. Together, they form a superfamily that also includes proteins that are encoded in the human genome.

  18. Structural modulation of factor VIIa by full-length tissue factor (TF1-263): implication of novel interactions between EGF2 domain and TF.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ramesh; Sen, Prosenjit

    2018-02-01

    Tissue factor (TF)-mediated factor VII (FVII) activation and a subsequent proteolytic TF-FVIIa binary complex formation is the key step initiating the coagulation cascade, with implications in various homeostatic and pathologic scenarios. TF binding allosterically modifies zymogen-like free FVIIa to its highly catalytically active form. As a result of unresolved crystal structure of the full-length TF 1-263 -FVIIa binary complex and free FVIIa, allosteric alterations in FVIIa following its binding to full-length TF and the consequences of these on function are not entirely clear. The present study aims to map and identify structural alterations in FVIIa and TF resulting from full-length TF binding to FVIIa and the key events responsible for enhanced FVIIa activity in coagulation. We constructed the full-length TF 1-263 -FVIIa membrane bound complex using computational modeling and subjected it to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. MD simulations showed that TF alters the structure of each domain of FVIIa and these combined alterations contribute to enhanced TF-FVIIa activity. Detailed, domain-wise investigation revealed several new non-covalent interactions between TF and FVIIa that were not found in the truncated soluble TF-FVIIa crystal structure. The structural modulation of each FVIIa domain imparted by TF indicated that both inter and intra-domain communication is crucial for allosteric modulation of FVIIa. Our results suggest that these newly formed interactions can provide additional stability to the protease domain and regulate its activity profile by governing catalytic triad (CT) orientation and localization. The unexplored newly formed interactions between EGF2 and TF provides a possible explanation for TF-induced allosteric activation of FVIIa.

  19. Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through suppression of p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chia-Hui

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are highly invasive and have a higher rate of distant metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in EGF/EGFR-mediated malignant progression and metastasis of TNBCs. Various studies have revealed that treatment with gallic acid down-regulates MMP-9 expression in cancer cells, and that conjugation of phytochemical compounds with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) increases the anti-tumor activity of the phytochemical compounds. Thus, the effect of gallic acid-capped AuNPs (GA-AuNPs) on MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells was analyzed in the present study. The so-called green synthesis of AuNPs by means of gallic acid was performed at pHmore » 10, and the resulting GA-AuNPs had spherical shape with an average diameter of approximately 50 nm. GA-AuNPs notably suppressed migration and invasion of EGF-treated cells, and inhibited EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. GA-AuNPs abrogated EGF-induced Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun phosphorylation, leading to down-regulation of MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression in EGF-treated cells. Meanwhile, EGF-induced p300 stabilization was found to be involved in MMP-9 expression, whereas GA-AuNPs inhibited the EGF-promoted stability of the p300 protein. Although GA-AuNPs and gallic acid suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation via the same signaling pathway, the effective concentration of gallic acid was approximately 100-fold higher than that of GA-AuNPs for inhibition of MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated cells to a similar extent. Collectively, our data indicate that, in comparison with gallic acid, GA-AuNPs have a superior ability to inhibit EGF/EGFR-mediated MMP-9 expression in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings also point to a way to improve the anti-tumor activity of gallic acid. - Highlights: • Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression. • EGF-induced MMP-9 expression via p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation. • Gallic

  20. Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7/HB-EGF signaling and increased formation of elastin-like structures.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Catharina; Hass, Ralf

    2009-10-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) and a complex interplay of cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix (ECM) interactions provide important platforms to determine cellular senescence and a potentially tumorigenic transformation of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). An enhanced formation of extracellular filaments, consisting of elastin-like structures, in senescent post-selection HMEC populations was paralleled by a significantly increased expression of its precursor protein tropoelastin and matched with a markedly elevated activity of the cross-linking enzyme family of lysyl oxidases (LOX). RNAi experiments revealed both the ECM metalloproteinase MMP-7 and the growth factor HB-EGF as potential effectors of an increased tropoelastin expression. Moreover, co-localization of MMP-7 and HB-EGF as well as a concomittant downstream signaling via Fra-1 indicated a possible association between the reduced MMP-7 enzyme activity and an impaired HB-EGF processing, resulting in an enhanced tropoelastin synthesis during senescence of HMEC. In agreement with previous work, these findings suggested an important influence of the extracellular proteinase MMP-7 on the aging process of HMEC, affecting both extracellular remodeling as well as intracellular signaling pathways.

  1. Expression of a functional epidermal growth factor receptor on human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and its signaling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Baer, Patrick C; Schubert, Ralf; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Plösser, Michaela; Geiger, Helmut

    2009-05-01

    Adult stem cells act as a pluripotent source of regenerative cells during tissue injury. Despite expanded research in stem cell biology, understanding how growth and migration of adipose-derived adult mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) are governed by interactions with growth factors is very limited. One important property of ASC is the presence of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and the cellular response to soluble EGF. Expression of the EGF receptor was proven by PCR and Western blotting. Signal transduction was analyzed by Western blotting and PhosFlow assay. EGF caused robust phosphorylation of SHC and ERK1/2, which could be inhibited by EGF receptor antagonist AG1478 and MEK inhibitor PD98059. ASC proliferation was determined by MTT assay. Stem cell migration was analyzed in a modified Boyden chamber. Incubation with EGF led to cell proliferation and induced cell migration, but did not change the undifferentiated state of the cells. In the kidney, injured renal tubular cells express high amounts of EGF. Therefore, our results may highlight a mechanism underlying renal regeneration. Thus, future in vivo studies that focus on the effects of EGF on recruitment of ASC to sites of injury are necessary.

  2. Human IgG2 antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor effectively trigger antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity but, in contrast to IgG1, only by cells of myeloid lineage.

    PubMed

    Schneider-Merck, Tanja; Lammerts van Bueren, Jeroen J; Berger, Sven; Rossen, Kai; van Berkel, Patrick H C; Derer, Stefanie; Beyer, Thomas; Lohse, Stefan; Bleeker, Wim K; Peipp, Matthias; Parren, Paul W H I; van de Winkel, Jan G J; Valerius, Thomas; Dechant, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is usually considered an important mechanism of action for immunotherapy with human IgG1 but not IgG2 Abs. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) Ab panitumumab represents the only human IgG2 Ab approved for immunotherapy and inhibition of EGF-R signaling has been described as its principal mechanism of action. In this study, we investigated effector mechanisms of panitumumab compared with zalutumumab, an EGF-R Ab of the human IgG1 isotype. Notably, panitumumab was as effective as zalutumumab in recruiting ADCC by myeloid effector cells (i.e., neutrophils and monocytes) in contrast to NK cell-mediated ADCC, which was only induced by the IgG1 Ab. Neutrophil-mediated tumor cell killing could be stimulated by myeloid growth factors and was triggered via FcgammaRIIa. Panitumumab-mediated ADCC was significantly affected by the functional FcgammaRIIa-R131H polymorphism and was induced more effectively by neutrophils from FcgammaRIIa-131H homozygous donors than from -131R individuals. This polymorphism did not affect neutrophil ADCC induced by the IgG1 Ab zalutumumab. The in vivo activity of both Abs was assessed in two animal models: a high-dose model, in which signaling inhibition is a dominant mechanism of action, and a low-dose model, in which effector cell recruitment plays a prominent role. Zalutumumab was more effective than panitumumab in the high-dose model, reflecting its stronger ability to induce EGF-R downmodulation and growth inhibition. In the low-dose model, zalutumumab and panitumumab similarly prevented tumor growth. Thus, our results identify myeloid cell-mediated ADCC as a potent and additional mechanism of action for EGF-R-directed immunotherapy.

  3. Immunohistochemical demonstration of epidermal growth factor in human gastric cancer xenografts of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyuki, T; Shimizu, Y; Onda, M; Tokunaga, A; Kiyama, T; Nishi, K; Mizutani, T; Matsukura, N; Tanaka, N; Akimoto, M

    1990-02-15

    Thirty-two surgical specimens and three cell lines of human gastric cancers were used for subcutaneous transplantation into nude mice, resulting in the establishment of eight (25%) xenografts from the surgical specimens and two (67%) from the cell lines. The localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the surgical specimens and cell lines of the gastric cancers and their xenografts in nude mice was then investigated immunohistochemically. Epidermal growth factor was stained in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells, being detected in 16 (50%) of the 32 surgical specimens and in all of the cell lines. Seven (44%) of the sixteen EGF-positive surgical specimens and one (6%) of the 16 EGF-negative ones were tumorigenic in nude mice. All of the xenografts in nude mice were positive for EGF. The tumorigenicity of human gastric cancer xenografts in nude mice may, therefore, be correlated with the presence of EGF in cancer cells.

  4. Controlled-release of epidermal growth factor from cationized gelatin hydrogel enhances corneal epithelial wound healing.

    PubMed

    Hori, Kuniko; Sotozono, Chie; Hamuro, Junji; Yamasaki, Kenta; Kimura, Yu; Ozeki, Makoto; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2007-04-02

    We designed a new ophthalmic drug-delivery system for epidermal growth factor (EGF) from the biodegradable hydrogel of cationized gelatin. We placed a cationized gelatin hydrogel (CGH) with incorporated (125)I-labelled EGF in the conjunctival sac of mice and measured the residual radioactivity at different times to evaluate the in vivo profile of EGF release. Approximately 60-67% and 10-12% of EGF applied initially remained 1 and 7 days after application, respectively; whereas EGF delivered in topically applied solution or via EGF impregnation of soft contact lenses disappeared within the first day. We also placed CGH films with 5.0 mug of incorporated EGF on round corneal defects in rabbits to evaluate the healing process using image analysis software and to assess epithelial proliferation immunohistochemically by counting the number of Ki67-positive cells. The application of a CGH film with incorporated EGF resulted in a reduction in the epithelial defect in rabbit corneas accompanied by significantly enhanced epithelial proliferation compared with the reduction seen after the topical application of EGF solution or the placement of an EGF-free CGH film. The controlled release of EGF from a CGH placed over a corneal epithelial defect accelerated ocular surface wound healing.

  5. Epidermal growth factor-like growth factors prevent apoptosis of alcohol-exposed human placental cytotrophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Garen S; Chiang, Po Jen; Smith, Susan M; Romero, Roberto; Armant, D Randall

    2007-07-01

    Maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy can produce an array of birth defects comprising fetal alcohol syndrome. A hallmark of fetal alcohol syndrome is intrauterine growth retardation, which is associated with elevated apoptosis of placental cytotrophoblast cells. Using a human first trimester cytotrophoblast cell line, we examined the relationship between exposure to ethanol and cytotrophoblast survival, as well as the ameliorating effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factors produced by human cytotrophoblast cells. After exposure to 0-100 mM ethanol, cell death was quantified by the TUNEL method, and expression of the nuclear proliferation marker, Ki67, was measured by immunohistochemistry. The mode of cell death was determined by assessing annexin V binding, caspase 3 activation, pyknotic nuclear morphology, reduction of TUNEL by caspase inhibition, and cellular release of lactate dehydrogenase. Ethanol significantly reduced proliferation and increased cell death approximately 2.5-fold through the apoptotic pathway within 1-2 h of exposure to 50 mM alcohol. Exposure to 25-50 mM ethanol significantly increased transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), but not EGF or amphiregulin (AREG). When cytotrophoblasts were exposed concurrently to 100 mM ethanol and 1 nM HBEGF or TGFA, the increase in apoptosis was prevented, while EGF ameliorated at 10 nM and AREG was weakly effective. HBEGF survival-promoting activity required ligation of either of its cognate receptors, HER1 or HER4. These findings reveal the potential for ethanol to rapidly induce cytotrophoblast apoptosis. However, survival factor induction could provide cytotrophoblasts with an endogenous cytoprotective mechanism.

  6. Expression of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor in term chorionic villous explants and its role in trophoblast survival.

    PubMed

    Imudia, A N; Kilburn, B A; Petkova, A; Edwin, S S; Romero, R; Armant, D R

    2008-09-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) induces trophoblast extravillous differentiation and prevents apoptosis. These functions are compromised in preeclampsia. Because HBEGF is downregulated in placentas delivered by women with preeclampsia, we have examined its expression and cytoprotective activity in term villous explants. Chorionic villous explants prepared from non-pathological placentas collected by cesarean section at term were cultured at either 20% or 2% O2 and treated with the HBEGF antagonist CRM197 or recombinant HBEGF. Paraffin sections were assayed for trophoblast death, proliferation and HBEGF expression using the TUNEL method, immunohistochemistry for nuclear Ki67 expression and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry with image analysis, respectively. Trophoblast cell death was increased significantly after 8h of culture with CRM197 or by culture for 2h at 2% O2. Exogenous HBEGF prevented cell death due to hypoxia. Proliferative capacity was not affected by culture at either 20% or 2% O2. Contrary to first trimester placenta, term trophoblasts do not elevate HBEGF expression in response to hypoxia. However, low endogenous levels of HBEGF are required to maintain survival. Therefore, HBEGF-mediated signaling significantly reduces trophoblast cell death at term and its deficiency in preeclampsia could negatively impact trophoblast survival.

  7. Expression of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor in term chorionic villous explants and its role in trophoblast survival

    PubMed Central

    Imudia, Anthony N.; Kilburn, Brian A.; Petkova, Anelia; Edwin, Samuel S.; Romero, Roberto; Armant, D. Randall

    2008-01-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) induces trophoblast extravillous differentiation and prevents apoptosis. These functions are compromised in preeclampsia. Because HBEGF is downregulated in placentas delivered by women with preeclampsia, we have examined its expression and cytoprotective activity in term villous explants. Chorionic villous explants prepared from non-pathological placentas collected by cesarean section at term were cultured at either 20% or 2% O2 and treated with the HBEGF antagonist CRM197 or recombinant HBEGF. Paraffin sections were assayed for trophoblast death, proliferation and HBEGF expression using the TUNEL method, immunohistochemistry for nuclear Ki67 expression and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry with image analysis, respectively. Trophoblast cell death was increased significantly after 8 h of culture with CRM197 or by culture for 2 h at 2% O2. Exogenous HBEGF prevented cell death due to hypoxia. Proliferative capacity was not affected by culture at either 20% or 2% O2. Contrary to first trimester placenta, term trophoblasts do not elevate HBEGF expression in response to hypoxia. However, low endogenous levels of HBEGF are required to maintain survival. Therefore, HBEGF-mediated signaling significantly reduces trophoblast cell death at term and its deficiency in preeclampsia could negatively impact trophoblast survival. PMID:18691754

  8. FGF coordinates air sac development by activation of the EGF ligand Vein through the transcription factor PntP2.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Josefa; Bota-Rabassedas, Neus; Franch-Marro, Xavier

    2015-12-03

    How several signaling pathways are coordinated to generate complex organs through regulation of tissue growth and patterning is a fundamental question in developmental biology. The larval trachea of Drosophila is composed of differentiated functional cells and groups of imaginal tracheoblasts that build the adult trachea during metamorphosis. Air sac primordium cells (ASP) are tracheal imaginal cells that form the dorsal air sacs that supply oxygen to the flight muscles of the Drosophila adult. The ASP emerges from the tracheal branch that connects to the wing disc by the activation of both Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling pathways. Together, these pathways promote cell migration and proliferation. In this study we demonstrate that Vein (vn) is the EGF ligand responsible for the activation of the EGFR pathway in the ASP. We also find that the Bnl-FGF/Btl pathway regulates the expression of vn through the transcription factor PointedP2 (PntP2). Furthermore, we show that the FGF target gene escargot (esg) attenuates EGFR signaling at the tip cells of the developing ASP, reducing their mitotic rate to allow proper migration. Altogether, our results reveal a link between Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling and provide novel insight into how the crosstalk of these pathways regulates migration and growth.

  9. FGF coordinates air sac development by activation of the EGF ligand Vein through the transcription factor PntP2

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Josefa; Bota-Rabassedas, Neus; Franch-Marro, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    How several signaling pathways are coordinated to generate complex organs through regulation of tissue growth and patterning is a fundamental question in developmental biology. The larval trachea of Drosophila is composed of differentiated functional cells and groups of imaginal tracheoblasts that build the adult trachea during metamorphosis. Air sac primordium cells (ASP) are tracheal imaginal cells that form the dorsal air sacs that supply oxygen to the flight muscles of the Drosophila adult. The ASP emerges from the tracheal branch that connects to the wing disc by the activation of both Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling pathways. Together, these pathways promote cell migration and proliferation. In this study we demonstrate that Vein (vn) is the EGF ligand responsible for the activation of the EGFR pathway in the ASP. We also find that the Bnl-FGF/Btl pathway regulates the expression of vn through the transcription factor PointedP2 (PntP2). Furthermore, we show that the FGF target gene escargot (esg) attenuates EGFR signaling at the tip cells of the developing ASP, reducing their mitotic rate to allow proper migration. Altogether, our results reveal a link between Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling and provide novel insight into how the crosstalk of these pathways regulates migration and growth. PMID:26632449

  10. Epidermal growth factor upregulates motility of Mat-LyLu rat prostate cancer cells partially via voltage-gated Na+ channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yanning; Brackenbury, William J.; Onganer, Pinar U.; Montano, Ximena; Porter, Louise M.; Bates, Lucy F.; Djamgoz, Mustafa B. A.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this investigation was to determine whether a functional relationship existed between epidermal growth factor (EGF) and voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) upregulation, both associated with strongly metastatic prostate cancer cells. Incubation with EGF for 24 h more than doubled VGSC current density. Similar treatment with EGF significantly and dose-dependently enhanced the cells’ migration through Transwell filters. Both the patch clamp recordings and the migration assay suggested that endogenous EGF played a similar role. Importantly, co-application of EGF and tetrodotoxin, a highly selective VGSC blocker, abolished 65% of the potentiating effect of EGF. It is suggested that a significant portion of the EGF-induced enhancement of migration occurred via VGSC activity. PMID:17960590

  11. A Novel Positive Feedback Loop Mediated by the Docking Protein Gab1 and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Gerard A.; Falasca, Marco; Zhang, Zhongtao; Ong, Siew Hwa; Schlessinger, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The Gab1 protein is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to various growth factors and serves as a docking protein that recruits a number of downstream signaling proteins, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase). To determine the role of Gab1 in signaling via the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) we tested the ability of Gab1 to associate with and modulate signaling by this receptor. We show that Gab1 associates with the EGFR in vivo and in vitro via pTyr sites 1068 and 1086 in the carboxy-terminal tail of the receptor and that overexpression of Gab1 potentiates EGF-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and Jun kinase signaling pathways. A mutant of Gab1 unable to bind the p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase is defective in potentiating EGFR signaling, confirming a role for PI-3 kinase as a downstream effector of Gab1. Inhibition of PI-3 kinase by a dominant-interfering mutant of p85 or by Wortmannin treatment similarly impairs Gab1-induced enhancement of signaling via the EGFR. The PH domain of Gab1 was shown to bind specifically to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3], a product of PI-3 kinase, and is required for activation of Gab1-mediated enhancement of EGFR signaling. Moreover, the PH domain mediates Gab1 translocation to the plasma membrane in response to EGF and is required for efficient tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab1 upon EGF stimulation. In addition, overexpression of Gab1 PH domain blocks Gab1 potentiation of EGFR signaling. Finally, expression of the gene for the lipid phosphatase PTEN, which dephosphorylates PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, inhibits EGF signaling and translocation of Gab1 to the plasma membrane. These results reveal a novel positive feedback loop, modulated by PTEN, in which PI-3 kinase functions as both an upstream regulator and a downstream effector of Gab1 in signaling via the EGFR. PMID:10648629

  12. Dose-related influence of sodium selenite on apoptosis in human thyroid follicles in vitro induced by iodine, EGF, TGF-beta, and H2O2.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Petra; Rank, Petra; Hallfeldt, Klaus L J; Krebs, Bjarne; Gärtner, Roland

    2006-08-01

    Apoptosis of thyroid follicular cells is induced by high doses of iodide, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), as well as H2O2 and might be attenuated by antioxidants. Therefore, we examined the apoptotic index induced by these substances in selenium-treated vs untreated human thyroid follicular cells. Reconstituted human thyroid follicles were incubated with sodium selenite (10 or 100 nM) for 72 h; controls received none. The follicles were then distributed to 24-well plates and incubated with potassium iodide (5, 10, or 20 nM), EGF (5 ng/mL), TGF-beta (5 ng/mL), or H2O2 (100 muM). Apoptosis was determined by a mitochondrial potential assay and the number of apoptotic cells counted by two independent, experienced technicians and the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was determined. Asignificant increase of apoptic cells was obtained in control thyroid follicles treated with iodine (5, 10, or 20 microM), thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) 1, or 10 mU/mL in combination with 5 and 10 microM iodine, EGF (5 ng/mL) and TGF-beta (5 ng/mL), or H2O2 (100 microM) (p < 0.001). In contrast, in thyroid follicles preincubated with 10 or 100 nM sodium selenite, the apoptototic index was identical to the basal rate. In H2O2-treated follicles, the apoptotic index was still significantly elevated but 50% lower compared to control cells. The GPx activity increased from 1.4 +/- 0.2 to 2.25 +/- 0.4 mU/microg DNA with 10 nMselenite and 2.6 + 0.4 mU/microg DNA with 100 nM selenite. Sodium selenite might increase the antioxidative potential in human thyroid follicles in vitro and therefore diminish the apoptosis induced by TGF-beta, EGF, iodide, and even H2O2.

  13. Transforming growth factor (TGF. beta. ) decreases the proliferation of human bone marrow fibroblasts by inhibiting the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) binding

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bryckaert, M.C.; Tobelem, G.; Lindroth, M.

    1988-12-01

    Human bone marrow fibroblasts were cultivated and characterized by immunofluorescent staining and electron microscopy. Their interactions with PDGF and TGF{beta} were studied. While a positive intracellular antifibronectin staining was observed, the cultured cells were not labeled with specific antibodies toward factor VIII von Willebrand factor (F VIII/vWF), desmin, and macrophage antigen. The binding of pure human PDGF to the cultured bone marrow fibroblasts was investigated. Addition of an excess of unlabeled PDGF decreased the binding to 75 and 80%, which means that the nonspecific binding represented 20-25% of total binding, whereas epidermal growth factor (EGF) had no effect. Two classesmore » of sites were detected by Scatchard analysis. The stimulation of DNA synthesis of PDGF was quantified by ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation. The results suggested that PDGF and TGF{beta} could modulate the growth of bone marrow fibroblasts.« less

  14. Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha is commonly present in colorectal neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, S.; Imanishi, K.; Yoshihara, M.; Haruma, K.; Sumii, K.; Kajiyama, G.; Akamatsu, S.

    1991-01-01

    Surgical specimens from 19 patients with invasive colorectal cancers and 12 specimens of normal mucosa from the same patients were examined immunohistochemically for the production of the immunoreactive (IR-) transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha and IR-epidermal growth factor (EGF) with an anti-TGF-alpha monoclonal antibody (MAb) OAL-MTG01 and anti-EGF MAb KEM-10. Immunoreactive TGF-alpha was detected in 16 (84.2%) of 19 colorectal cancers. In contrast, there was no IR-TGF-alpha in the gland cells of normal mucosa. Immunoreactive EGF was detected in 7 (36.8%) of 19 colorectal cancers and 1 (8.3%) of 12 cases of normal mucosa. The production of both IR-TGF-alpha and IR-EGF in colorectal cancer did not differ by histologic type and Dukes' stage. Immunoreactive TGF-alpha was detected at significantly higher incidence than IR-EGF in colorectal cancer. These results indicate that IR-TGF-alpha should prove valuable as a possible tumor marker in colorectal cancers, and it may be very useful in understanding the biology of colorectal cancer. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1853928

  15. Epidermal growth factor treatment decreases mortality and is associated with improved gut integrity in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jessica A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Buchman, Timothy G.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2007-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a cytoprotective peptide that has healing effects on the intestinal mucosa. We sought to determine whether systemic administration of EGF following the onset of sepsis improved intestinal integrity and decreased mortality. FVB/N mice were subjected to either sham laparotomy or 2×23 cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Septic mice were further randomized to receive intraperitoneal injection of either 150 μg/kg/day EGF or 0.9% saline. Circulating EGF levels were decreased following CLP compared to sham animals but were unaffected by giving exogenous EGF treatment. In contrast, intestinal EGF levels increased following CLP, and were further augmented by exogenous EGF treatment. Intestinal EGF-receptor (EGF-R) was increased following CLP whether assayed by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR or western blot, and exogenous EGF treatment decreased intestinal EGF-R. Villus length decreased 2-fold between sham and septic animals, and EGF treatment resulted in near total restitution of villus length. Sepsis decreased intestinal proliferation and increased intestinal apoptosis. This was accompanied by increased expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bid and FADD, as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21cip1/waf. EGF treatment after the onset of sepsis restored both proliferation and apoptosis to levels seen in sham animals and normalized expression of Bid, FADD, and p21cip1/waf. To determine whether improvements in gut homeostasis were associated with a decrease in sepsis-induced mortality, septic mice with or without EGF treatment after CLP were followed seven days for survival. Mortality decreased from 60% to 30% in mice treated with EGF after the onset of sepsis (p<0.05). EGF may thus be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis, in part due to its ability to protect intestinal integrity. PMID:18004230

  16. Expression of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in a Murine T- Cell Hybridoma: A Transmembrane Protein Tyrosine Kinase Can Synergize with the T-Cell Antigen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    protein kirases suchmembrane P17K. nln T ts ebaepoenkr sssc as the EGFR or platelet-derived growth factor re,,,ptor. For instance, the EGFR and TCR...stimulated with EGF (100 ng/mi, in PBS containing phosphatase inhibitors , lysed, and immunoprecip. 5 min, B) anti Thy- I antibody (07 1:50 dilution or...washed in PBS containing phosphatase inhibitors and lysed. Total cellular MX1- lysate was subjected to SDS.PAGE. Western-transferred, and im- Mxi

  17. Phosphorylation of hepatocyte growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor of human hepatocytes can be maintained in a (3D) collagen sandwich culture system.

    PubMed

    Engl, Tobias; Boost, Kim A; Leckel, Kerstin; Beecken, Wolf-Dietrich; Jonas, Dietger; Oppermann, Elsie; Auth, Marcus K H; Schaudt, André; Bechstein, Wolf-Otto; Blaheta, Roman A

    2004-08-01

    In vitro culture models that employ human liver cells could be potent tools for predictive studies on drug toxicity and metabolism in the pharmaceutical industry. However, an adequate receptor responsiveness is necessary to allow intracellular signalling and metabolic activity. We tested the ability of three-dimensionally arranged human hepatocytes to respond to the growth factors hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF). Isolated adult human hepatocytes were cultivated within a three-dimensional collagen gel (sandwich) or on a two-dimensional collagen matrix. Cells were treated with HGF or EGF and expression and phosphorylative activity of HGF receptors (HGFr, c-met) or EGF receptors (EGFr) were measured by flow cytometry and Western blot. Increasing HGFr and EGFr levels were detected in hepatocytes growing two-dimensionally. However, both receptors were not activated in presence of growth factors. In contrast, when hepatocytes were plated within a three-dimensional matrix, HGFr and EGFr levels remained constantly low. However, both receptors became strongly phosphorylated by soluble HGF or EGF. We conclude that cultivation of human hepatocytes in a three-dimensionally arranged in vitro system allows the maintenance of specific functional activities. The necessity of cell dimensionality for HGFr and EGFr function should be considered when an adequate in vitro system has to be introduced for drug testing.

  18. The SRC homology 2 domain of Rin1 mediates its binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor and regulates receptor endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, M Alejandro; Kong, Chen; Chen, Pin-I; Horazdovsky, Bruce F; Stahl, Philip D

    2003-08-22

    Activated epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) recruit intracellular proteins that mediate receptor signaling and endocytic trafficking. Rin1, a multifunctional protein, has been shown to regulate EGFR internalization (1). Here we show that EGF stimulation induces a specific, rapid, and transient membrane recruitment of Rin1 and that recruitment is dependent on the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Rin1. Immunoprecipitation of EGFR is accompanied by co-immunoprecipitation of Rin1 in a time- and ligand-dependent manner. Association of Rin1 and specifically the SH2 domain of Rin1 with the EGFR was dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of the intracellular domain of the EGFR. The recruitment of Rin1, observed by light microscopy, indicated that although initially cytosolic, Rin1 was recruited to both plasma membrane and endosomes following EGF addition. Moreover, the expression of the SH2 domain of Rin1 substantially impaired the internalization of EGF without affecting internalization of transferrin. Finally, we found that Rin1 co-immunoprecipitated with a number of tyrosine kinase receptors but not with cargo endocytic receptors. These results indicate that Rin1 provides a link via its SH2 domain between activated tyrosine kinase receptors and the endocytic pathway through the recruitment and activation of Rab5a.

  19. E2F1 transcription factor and its impact on growth factor and cytokine signaling.

    PubMed

    Ertosun, Mustafa Gokhan; Hapil, Fatma Zehra; Osman Nidai, Ozes

    2016-10-01

    E2F1 is a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The transactivation capacity of E2F1 is regulated by pRb. In its hypophosphorylated form, pRb binds and inactivates DNA binding and transactivating functions of E2F1. The growth factor stimulation of cells leads to activation of CDKs (cyclin dependent kinases), which in turn phosphorylate Rb and hyperphosphorylated Rb is released from E2F1 or E2F1/DP complex, and free E2F1 can induce transcription of several genes involved in cell cycle entry, induction or inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, growth factors and cytokines generally utilize E2F1 to direct cells to either fate. Furthermore, E2F1 regulates expressions of various cytokines and growth factor receptors, establishing positive or negative feedback mechanisms. This review focuses on the relationship between E2F1 transcription factor and cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, TGF-beta, G-CSF, LIF), growth factors (EGF, KGF, VEGF, IGF, FGF, PDGF, HGF, NGF), and interferons (IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-γ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine interferes with the epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhihua; Yang, Jun; Huang, Yun; Yu, Yingnian

    2005-03-01

    Many environmental factors, such as ultraviolet (UV) and arsenic, can induce the clustering of cell surface receptors, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This is accompanied by the phosphorylation of the receptors and the activation of ensuing cellular signal transduction pathways, which are implicated in the various cellular responses caused by the exposure to these factors. In this study, we have shown that N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), an alkylating agent, also induced the clustering of EGFR in human amnion FL cells, which was similar in morphology to that of epidermal growth factor treatment. However, MNNG treatment did not activate Ras, the downstream mediator in EGFR signaling pathway, as compared to EGF treatment. The autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues Y1068 and Y1173 at the intracellular domain of EGFR, which is related to Ras activation under EGF treatment, was also not observed by MNNG exposure. Interestingly, although MNNG did not affect the binding of EGF to EGFR, MNNG can interfere with EGF function. For instance, pre-incubating FL cells with MNNG inhibited the autophosphorylation of EGFR by EGF treatment, as well as the activation of Ras. In addition, the phosphorylation of Y845 on EGFR by EGF, which is mediated through c-Src or related kinases but not autophosphorylation, was also affected by MNNG. Therefore, MNNG may influence the tyrosine kinase activity as well as the phosphorylation of EGFR through its interaction with EGFR.

  1. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yoneda, T.; Urade, M.; Sakuda, M.

    We previously demonstrated that human embryonic mesenchymal cells derived from the palate (HEMP cells) retain alkaline phosphatase (ALP) content and capacity for collagen synthesis after long-term culture, and their growth is markedly stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF). There was a dramatic decrease in ALP content and capacity to synthesize collagen in HEMP cells (HEMP-RV cells) persistently infected with rubella virus (RV). EGF increased ALP activity and decreased collagen synthesis in HEMP cells, whereas EGF showed no effect on these activities in HEMP-RV cells. Growth of HEMP-RV cells was slightly reduced compared with that of HEMP cells. EGF stimulated growthmore » of HEMP cells and to a lesser extent of HEMP-RV cells. Binding of /sup 125/I-EGF to cell-surface receptors in HEMP-RV cells was, to our surprise, twice as much as that in HEMP cells. However, internalization of bound /sup 125/I-EGF in HEMP-RV cells was profoundly diminished. Thus, persistent RV infection causes not only changes in HEMP cell growth and differentiation but a decrease in or loss of HEMP cell responsiveness to EGF. The effects of persistent RV infection on palatal cell differentiation as well as growth may be responsible for the pathogenesis of congenital rubella. Furthermore, since HEMP cells appear to be closely related to osteoblasts, these results suggest a mechanism for RV-induced osseous abnormalities manifested in congenital rubella patients.« less

  2. Factors influencing parental decision making about stimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rana; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Aslani, Parisa

    2013-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pediatric psychological condition commonly treated with stimulant medications. Negative media reports and stigmatizing societal attitudes surrounding the use of these medications make it difficult for parents of affected children to accept stimulant treatment, despite it being first line therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence parental decision making regarding stimulant treatment for ADHD. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies: 1) that employed qualitative methodology, 2) that highlighted treatment decision(s) about stimulant medication, 3) in which the decision(s) were made by the parent of a child with an official ADHD diagnosis, and 4) that examined the factors affecting the decision(s) made. Individual factors influencing parental treatment decision making, and the major themes encompassing these factors, were identified and followed by a thematic analysis. Eleven studies reporting on the experiences of 335 parents of children with ADHD were included. Four major themes encompassing influences on parents' decisions were derived from the thematic analysis performed: confronting the diagnosis, external influences, apprehension regarding therapy, and experience with the healthcare system. The findings of this systematic review reveal that there are multiple factors that influence parents' decisions about stimulant therapy. This information can assist clinicians in enhancing information delivery to parents of children with ADHD, and help reduce parental ambivalence surrounding stimulant medication use. Future work needs to address parental concerns about stimulants, and increase their involvement in shared decision making with clinicians to empower them to make the most appropriate treatment decision for their child.

  3. Synthetic Human NOTCH1 EGF Modules Unraveled Molecular Mechanisms for the Structural and Functional Roles of Calcium Ions and O-Glycans in the Ligand-Binding Region.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Shun; Koide, Ryosuke; Hinou, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-02-09

    The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily highly conserved mechanism that operates across multicellular organisms and is critical for cell-fate decisions during development and homeostasis in most tissues. Notch signaling is modified by posttranslational glycosylations of the Notch extracellular EGF-like domain. To evaluate the structural and functional roles of various glycoforms at multiple EGF domains in the human Notch transmembrane receptor, we established a universal method for the construction of NOTCH1 EGF modules displaying the desired O-glycans at the designated glycosylation sites. The versatility of this strategy was demonstrated by the rapid and highly efficient synthesis of NOTCH1 EGF12 concurrently having a β-D-glucopyranose-initiated glycan (Xylα1 → 3Xylα1 → 3Glcβ1 →) at Ser458 and α-L-fucopyranose-initiated glycan (Neu5Acα2 → 3Galβ1 → 4GlcNAcβ1 → 3Fucα1 →) at Thr466. The efficiency of the proper folding of the glycosylated EGF12 was markedly enhanced in the presence of 5 mM CaCl2. A nuclear magnetic resonance study revealed the existence of strong nuclear Overhauser effects between key sugar moieties and neighboring amino acid residues, indicating that both O-glycans contribute independently to the intramolecular stabilization of the antiparallel β-sheet structure in the ligand-binding region of EGF12. A preliminary test using synthetic human NOTCH1 EGF modules showed significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation and adhesiveness of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549, demonstrating for the first time evidence that exogenously applied synthetic EGF modules have the ability to interact with intrinsic Notch ligands on the surface of cancer cells.

  4. Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through suppression of p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chia-Hui; Chang, Long-Sen

    2016-11-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are highly invasive and have a higher rate of distant metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in EGF/EGFR-mediated malignant progression and metastasis of TNBCs. Various studies have revealed that treatment with gallic acid down-regulates MMP-9 expression in cancer cells, and that conjugation of phytochemical compounds with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) increases the anti-tumor activity of the phytochemical compounds. Thus, the effect of gallic acid-capped AuNPs (GA-AuNPs) on MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells was analyzed in the present study. The so-called green synthesis of AuNPs by means of gallic acid was performed at pH10, and the resulting GA-AuNPs had spherical shape with an average diameter of approximately 50nm. GA-AuNPs notably suppressed migration and invasion of EGF-treated cells, and inhibited EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. GA-AuNPs abrogated EGF-induced Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun phosphorylation, leading to down-regulation of MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression in EGF-treated cells. Meanwhile, EGF-induced p300 stabilization was found to be involved in MMP-9 expression, whereas GA-AuNPs inhibited the EGF-promoted stability of the p300 protein. Although GA-AuNPs and gallic acid suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation via the same signaling pathway, the effective concentration of gallic acid was approximately 100-fold higher than that of GA-AuNPs for inhibition of MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated cells to a similar extent. Collectively, our data indicate that, in comparison with gallic acid, GA-AuNPs have a superior ability to inhibit EGF/EGFR-mediated MMP-9 expression in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings also point to a way to improve the anti-tumor activity of gallic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering of a mammalian O-glycosylation pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: production of O-fucosylated epidermal growth factor domains.

    PubMed

    Chigira, Yuko; Oka, Takuji; Okajima, Tetsuya; Jigami, Yoshifumi

    2008-04-01

    Development of a heterologous system for the production of homogeneous sugar structures has the potential to elucidate structure-function relationships of glycoproteins. In the current study, we used an artificial O-glycosylation pathway to produce an O-fucosylated epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The in vivo O-fucosylation system was constructed via expression of genes that encode protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 and the EGF domain, along with genes whose protein products convert cytoplasmic GDP-mannose to GDP-fucose. This system allowed identification of an endogenous ability of S. cerevisiae to transport GDP-fucose. Moreover, expression of EGF domain mutants in this system revealed the different contribution of three disulfide bonds to in vivo O-fucosylation. In addition, lectin blotting revealed differences in the ability of fucose-specific lectin to bind the O-fucosylated structure of EGF domains from human factors VII and IX. Further introduction of the human fringe gene into yeast equipped with the in vivo O-fucosylation system facilitated the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to the EGF domain from factor IX but not from factor VII. The results suggest that engineering of an O-fucosylation system in yeast provides a powerful tool for producing proteins with homogenous carbohydrate chains. Such proteins can be used for the analysis of substrate specificity and the production of antibodies that recognize O-glycosylated EGF domains.

  6. Saccharin and Cyclamate Inhibit Binding of Epidermal Growth Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, L. S.

    1981-02-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) to 18 cell lines, including HeLa (human carcinoma), MDCK (dog kidney cells), HTC (rat hepatoma), K22 (rat liver), HF (human foreskin), GM17 (human skin fibroblasts), XP (human xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts), and 3T3-L1 (mouse fibroblasts), was inhibited by saccharin and cyclamate. The human cells were more sensitive to inhibition by these sweeteners than mouse or rat cells. EGF at doses far above the physiological levels reversed the inhibition in rodent cells but not in HeLa cells. In HeLa cells, the doses of saccharin and cyclamate needed for 50% inhibition were 3.5 and 9.3 mg/ml, respectively. Glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, sucrose, and xylitol did not inhibit EGF binding. Previous studies have shown that phorbol esters, strongly potent tumor promoters, also inhibit EGF binding to tissue culture cells. To explain the EGF binding inhibition by such greatly dissimilar molecules as phorbol esters, saccharin, and cyclamate, it is suggested that they operate through the activation of a hormone response control unit.

  7. The relationship between somatostatin, epidermal growth factor, and steroid hormone receptors in breast cancer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Reubi, J.C.; Torhorst, J.

    1989-09-15

    The somatostatin (SS) and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor content have been established in 36 primary breast cancers by receptor autoradiography on adjacent tissue sections. Iodine 125 (125I)-EGF was used as radioligand for EGF receptor visualization whereas an iodinated SS-28 analogue or an octapeptide SS analogue were used to measure SS receptors. Six of 36 tumors contained SS receptors, whereas ten of the 36 tumors were shown to contain EGF receptors. None of the tumor samples containing SS receptors were simultaneously EGF receptor positive. In contrast, all SS receptor-positive tumors simultaneously contained steroid receptors. The positive correlation between SSmore » receptors and steroid receptors as well as the negative correlation between SS receptors and EGF receptors therefore suggest that the small percentage of SS receptor-positive breast tumors are a group of differentiated breast tumors with a good prognosis. In these cases, combined hormonetherapy including SS analogs may be of potential interest.« less

  8. Epidermal growth factor improves survival and prevents intestinal injury in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Jessica A.; Vithayathil, Paul J.; Khailova, Ludmila; Lawrance, Christopher P.; Samocha, Alexandr J.; Jung, Enjae; Leathersich, Ann M.; Dunne, W. Michael; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality from pneumonia is mediated, in part, through extrapulmonary causes. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has broad cytoprotective effects, including potent restorative properties in the injured intestine. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EGF treatment following Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. FVB/N mice underwent intratracheal injection of either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or saline and were then randomized to receive either systemic EGF or vehicle beginning immediately or 24 hours after the onset of pneumonia. Systemic EGF decreased seven-day mortality from 65% to 10% when initiated immediately after the onset of pneumonia and to 27% when initiated 24 hours after the onset of pneumonia. Even though injury in pneumonia is initiated in the lungs, the survival advantage conferred by EGF was not associated with improvements in pulmonary pathology. In contrast, EGF prevented intestinal injury by reversing pneumonia-induced increases in intestinal epithelial apoptosis and decreases in intestinal proliferation and villus length. Systemic cytokines, kidney and liver function were unaffected by EGF therapy although EGF decreased pneumonia-induced splenocyte apoptosis. To determine whether the intestine was sufficient to account for extrapulmonary effects induced by EGF, a separate set of experiments were done using transgenic mice with enterocyte-specific overexpression of EGF (IFABP-EGF mice) which were compared to WT mice subjected to pneumonia. IFABP-EGF mice had improved survival compared to WT mice following pneumonia (50% vs. 28% respectively, p<0.05) and were protected from pneumonia-induced intestinal injury. Thus, EGF may be a potential adjunctive therapy for pneumonia, mediated in part by its effects on the intestine. PMID:21701422

  9. Use of SLAM and PVRL4 and identification of pro-HB-EGF as cell entry receptors for wild type phocine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Melia, Mary M; Earle, John Philip; Abdullah, Haniah; Reaney, Katherine; Tangy, Frederic; Cosby, Sara Louise

    2014-01-01

    Signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) has been identified as an immune cell receptor for the morbilliviruses, measles (MV), canine distemper (CDV), rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) viruses, while CD46 is a receptor for vaccine strains of MV. More recently poliovirus like receptor 4 (PVRL4), also known as nectin 4, has been identified as a receptor for MV, CDV and PPRV on the basolateral surface of polarised epithelial cells. PVRL4 is also up-regulated by MV in human brain endothelial cells. Utilisation of PVRL4 as a receptor by phocine distemper virus (PDV) remains to be demonstrated as well as confirmation of use of SLAM. We have observed that unlike wild type (wt) MV or wtCDV, wtPDV strains replicate in African green monkey kidney Vero cells without prior adaptation, suggesting the use of a further receptor. We therefore examined candidate molecules, glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and the tetraspan proteins, integrin β and the membrane bound form of heparin binding epithelial growth factor (proHB-EGF),for receptor usage by wtPDV in Vero cells. We show that wtPDV replicates in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing SLAM and PVRL4. Similar wtPDV titres are produced in Vero and VeroSLAM cells but more limited fusion occurs in the latter. Infection of Vero cells was not inhibited by anti-CD46 antibody. Removal/disruption of GAG decreased fusion but not the titre of virus. Treatment with anti-integrin β antibody increased rather than decreased infection of Vero cells by wtPDV. However, infection was inhibited by antibody to HB-EGF and the virus replicated in CHO-proHB-EGF cells, indicating use of this molecule as a receptor. Common use of SLAM and PVRL4 by morbilliviruses increases the possibility of cross-species infection. Lack of a requirement for wtPDV adaptation to Vero cells raises the possibility of usage of proHB-EGF as a receptor in vivo but requires further investigation.

  10. Epidermal growth factor improves survival and prevents intestinal injury in a murine model of pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Jessica A; Vithayathil, Paul J; Khailova, Ludmila; Lawrance, Christopher P; Samocha, Alexandr J; Jung, Enjae; Leathersich, Ann M; Dunne, W Michael; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-10-01

    Mortality from pneumonia is mediated, in part, through extrapulmonary causes. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has broad cytoprotective effects, including potent restorative properties in the injured intestine. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EGF treatment following Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. FVB/N mice underwent intratracheal injection of either P. aeruginosa or saline and were then randomized to receive either systemic EGF or vehicle beginning immediately or 24 h after the onset of pneumonia. Systemic EGF decreased 7-day mortality from 65% to 10% when initiated immediately after the onset of pneumonia and to 27% when initiated 24 h after the onset of pneumonia. Even though injury in pneumonia is initiated in the lungs, the survival advantage conferred by EGF was not associated with improvements in pulmonary pathology. In contrast, EGF prevented intestinal injury by reversing pneumonia-induced increases in intestinal epithelial apoptosis and decreases in intestinal proliferation and villus length. Systemic cytokines and kidney and liver function were unaffected by EGF therapy, although EGF decreased pneumonia-induced splenocyte apoptosis. To determine whether the intestine was sufficient to account for extrapulmonary effects induced by EGF, a separate set of experiments was done using transgenic mice with enterocyte-specific overexpression of EGF (IFABP-EGF [intestinal fatty acid-binding protein linked to mouse EGF] mice), which were compared with wild-type mice subjected to pneumonia. IFABP-EGF mice had improved survival compared with wild-type mice following pneumonia (50% vs. 28%, respectively, P < 0.05) and were protected from pneumonia-induced intestinal injury. Thus, EGF may be a potential adjunctive therapy for pneumonia, mediated in part by its effects on the intestine.

  11. MUC5AC, a Gel-Forming Mucin Accumulating in Gallstone Disease, Is Overproduced via an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Pathway in the Human Gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Finzi, Laetitia; Barbu, Véronique; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Mergey, Martine; Kirkwood, Kimberly S.; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Peschaud, Frédérique; Paye, François; Nadel, Jay A.; Housset, Chantal

    2006-01-01

    Despite evidence that mucin overproduction is critical in the pathogenesis of gallstones, the mechanisms triggering mucin production in gallstone disease are unknown. Here, we tested the potential implication of an inflammation-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) pathway in the regulation of gallbladder mucin synthesis. In gallbladder tissue sections from subjects with cholesterol gallstones, mucus accumulation was associated with neutrophil infiltration and with increased expressions of EGF-R and of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In primary cultures of human gallbladder epithelial cells, TNF-α induced EGF-R overexpression. In the presence of TNF-α, EGF-R ligands (either EGF or transforming growth factor-α) caused significant increases in MUC5AC mRNA and protein production, whereas expression of the other gallbladder mucins MUC1, MUC3, and MUC5B was unchanged. In addition, on gallbladder tissue sections from subjects with gallstones, increased MUC5AC immunoreactivity was detected in the epithelium and within mucus gel in the lumen. Studies in primary cultures demonstrated that MUC5AC up-regulation induced by the combination of TNF-α with EGF-R ligands was completely blunted by inhibitors of EGF-R tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-related kinase kinase. In conclusion, an inflammation-dependent EGF-R cascade causes overproduction of the gel-forming mucin MUC5AC, which accumulates in cholesterol gallstone disease. The ability to interrupt this cascade is of potential interest in the prevention of cholesterol gallstones. PMID:17148666

  12. Rac regulates vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated motility.

    PubMed

    Soga, N; Connolly, J O; Chellaiah, M; Kawamura, J; Hruska, K A

    2001-01-01

    During angiogenesis endothelial cells migrate towards a chemotactic stimulus. Understanding the mechanism of endothelial cell migration is critical to the therapeutic manipulation of angiogenesis and ultimately cancer prevention. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent chemotactic stimulus of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. The endothelial cell signal transduction pathway of VEGF represents a potential target for cancer therapy, but the mechanisms of post-receptor signal transduction including the roles of rho family GTPases in regulating the cytoskeletal effects of VEGF in endothelial cells are not understood. Here we analyze the mechanisms of cell migration in the mouse brain endothelial cell line (bEND3). Stable transfectants containing a tetracycline repressible expression vector were used to induce expression of Rac mutants. Endothelial cell haptotaxis was stimulated by constitutively active V12Rac on collagen and vitronectin coated supports, and chemotaxis was further stimulated by VEGF. Osteopontin coated supports were the most stimulatory to bEND3 haptotaxis, but VEGF was not effective in further increasing migration on osteopontin coated supports. Haptotaxis on support coated with collagen, vitronectin, and to a lesser degree osteopontin was inhibited by N17 Rac. N17 Rac expression blocked stimulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis by VEGF. As part of the chemotactic stimulation, VEGF caused a loss of actin organization at areas of cell-cell contact and increased stress fiber expression in endothelial cells which were directed towards pores in the transwell membrane. N17 Rac prevented the stimulation of cell-cell contact disruption and the stress fiber stimulation by VEGF. These data demonstrate two pathways of regulating endothelial cell motility, one in which Rac is activated by matrix/integrin stimulation and is a crucial modulator of endothelial cell haptotaxis. The other pathway, in the presence of osteopontin, is Rac independent

  13. Bone sialoprotein stimulates focal adhesion-related signaling pathways: role in migration and survival of breast and prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Jonathan A R; Sodek, Jaro; Hunter, Graeme K; Goldberg, Harvey A

    2009-08-15

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a secreted glycoprotein found in mineralized tissues however, BSP is aberrantly expressed in a variety of osteotropic tumors. Elevated BSP expression in breast and prostate primary carcinomas is directly correlated with increased bone metastases and tumor progression. In this study, the intracellular signaling pathways responsible for BSP-induced migration and tumor survival were examined in breast and prostate cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, Hs578T and PC3). Additionally, the effects of exogenous TGF-beta1 and EGF, cytokines associated with tumor metastasis and present in high-levels in the bone microenvironment, were examined in BSP-expressing cancer cells. Expression of BSP but not an integrin-binding mutant (BSP-KAE) in tumor cell lines resulted in increased levels of alpha(v)-containing integrins and number of mature focal adhesions. Adhesion of cells to recombinant BSP or the expression of BSP stimulated focal adhesion kinase and ERK phosphorylation, as well as activated AP-1-family proteins. Activation of these pathways by BSP expression increased the expression of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-14. The BSP-mediated activation of the FAK-associated pathway resulted in increased cancer cell invasion in a Matrigel-coated Boyden-chamber assay and increased cell survival upon withdrawal of serum. Addition of EGF or TGF-beta1 to the BSP-expressing cell lines significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, AP-1 activation, MMP-2 expression, cell migration and survival compared to untreated cells expressing BSP. This study thus defines the cooperative mechanisms by which BSP can enhance specific factors associated with a metastatic phenotype in tumor cell lines, an effect that is increased by circulating TGF-beta1 and EGF. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Aciculatin Inhibits Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Production by Human Interleukin 1β-Stimulated Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Kao-Shang; Wang, Jyh-Horng; Wu, Yi-Wen; Teng, Che-Ming; Chen, Chien-Chih; Yang, Chia-Ron

    2012-01-01

    The expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), the major regulator of neutrophil maturation, by human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) can be stimulated by the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). G-CSF is known to contribute to the pathologic processes of destructive arthritis, but the induction mechanism remains unknown. The aims of this study were to identify the signaling pathways involved in IL-1β-stimulated G-CSF production and to determine whether this process was inhibited by aciculatin (8-((2R,4S,5S,6R)-tetrahydro-4,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-yl)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one), the major bioactive component of Chrysopogon aciculatus. IL-1β-induced cytokine expression was evaluated by measuring mRNA and protein levels by RT-PCR, ELISA, and Milliplex® assay. Whether aciculatin inhibited IL-1β-stimulated G-CSF expression, and if so, how, were evaluated using western blot assay, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and a reporter gene assay. Neutrophil differentiation was determined by Wright-Giemsa staining and flow cytometry. Aciculatin markedly inhibited G-CSF expression induced by IL-1β (10 ng/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner (1–10 µM). In clarifying the mechanisms involved, aciculatin was found to inhibit the IL-1β-induced activation of the IκB kinase (IKK)/IκB/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways by suppressing the DNA binding activity of the transcription factors NF-κB and activator protein (AP)-1. Furthermore, aciculatin significantly inhibited the G-CSF-mediated phosphorylation of Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) and Akt and neutrophil differentiation from precursor cells. Our results show that aciculatin inhibits IL-1β-stimulated G-CSF expression and the subsequent neutrophil differentiation, suggesting that it might have therapeutic potential for inflammatory arthritis. PMID

  15. MET Signaling Mediates Intestinal Crypt-Villus Development, Regeneration, and Adenoma Formation and Is Promoted by Stem Cell CD44 Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Sander P J; Zeilstra, Jurrit; van Andel, Harmen; Mijnals, R Clinton; Zaunbrecher, Joost; Duivenvoorden, Annet A M; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T

    2017-10-01

    Resistance of metastatic human colorectal cancer cells to drugs that block epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling could be caused by aberrant activity of other receptor tyrosine kinases, activating overlapping signaling pathways. One of these receptor tyrosine kinases could be MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We investigated how MET signaling, and its interaction with CD44 (a putative MET coreceptor regulated by Wnt signaling and highly expressed by intestinal stem cells [ISCs] and adenomas) affects intestinal homeostasis, regeneration, and adenoma formation in mini-gut organoids and mice. We established organoid cultures from ISCs stimulated with HGF or EGF and assessed intestinal differentiation by immunohistochemistry. Mice with total epithelial disruption of MET (Ah Cre /Met fl/fl /LacZ) or ISC-specific disruption of MET (Lgr5 Creert2 /Met fl/fl /LacZ) and control mice (Ah Cre /Met +/+ /LacZ, Lgr5 Creert2 /Met +/+ /LacZ) were exposed to 10 Gy total body irradiation; intestinal tissues were collected, and homeostasis and regeneration were assessed by immunohistochemistry. We investigated adenoma organoid expansion stimulated by HGF or EGF using adenomas derived from Lgr5 Creert2 /Met fl/fl /Apc fl/fl and Lgr5 Creert2 /Met +/+ /Apc fl/fl mice. The same mice were evaluated for adenoma prevalence and size. We also quantified adenomas in Ah Cre /Met fl/fl /Apc fl/+ mice compared with Ah Cre /Met +/+ /Apc fl/+ control mice. We studied expansion of organoids generated from crypts and adenomas, stimulated by HGF or EGF, that were derived from mice expressing different CD44 splice variants (Cd44 +/+ , Cd44 -/- , Cd44 s/s , or Cd44 v4-10/v4-10 mice). Crypts incubated with EGF or HGF expanded into self-organizing mini-guts with similar levels of efficacy and contained all differentiated cell lineages. MET-deficient mice did not have defects in intestinal homeostasis. Total body irradiation reduced numbers of proliferating crypts in Ah Cre

  16. Enterocyte-specific epidermal growth factor prevents barrier dysfunction and improves mortality in murine peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jessica A; Gan, Heng; Samocha, Alexandr J; Fox, Amy C; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-09-01

    Systemic administration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) decreases mortality in a murine model of septic peritonitis. Although EGF can have direct healing effects on the intestinal mucosa, it is unknown whether the benefits of systemic EGF in peritonitis are mediated through the intestine. Here, we demonstrate that enterocyte-specific overexpression of EGF is sufficient to prevent intestinal barrier dysfunction and improve survival in peritonitis. Transgenic FVB/N mice that overexpress EGF exclusively in enterocytes (IFABP-EGF) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to either sham laparotomy or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Intestinal permeability, expression of the tight junction proteins claudins-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -8, occludin, and zonula occludens-1; villus length; intestinal epithelial proliferation; and epithelial apoptosis were evaluated. A separate cohort of mice was followed for survival. Peritonitis induced a threefold increase in intestinal permeability in WT mice. This was associated with increased claudin-2 expression and a change in subcellular localization. Permeability decreased to basal levels in IFABP-EGF septic mice, and claudin-2 expression and localization were similar to those of sham animals. Claudin-4 expression was decreased following CLP but was not different between WT septic mice and IFABP-EGF septic mice. Peritonitis-induced decreases in villus length and proliferation and increases in apoptosis seen in WT septic mice did not occur in IFABP-EGF septic mice. IFABP-EGF mice had improved 7-day mortality compared with WT septic mice (6% vs. 64%). Since enterocyte-specific overexpression of EGF is sufficient to prevent peritonitis-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and confers a survival advantage, the protective effects of systemic EGF in septic peritonitis appear to be mediated in an intestine-specific fashion.

  17. Epidermal growth factor administration decreases liver glycogen and causes mild hyperglycaemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Grau, M; Tebar, F; Ramírez, I; Soley, M

    1996-04-01

    Several laboratories report different effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on glycogen metabolism in hepatocytes. The discrepancies may be attributed to differences in the experimental conditions. It is therefore important to establish the actual effect of EGF in vivo. Because large physiological variations of EGF concentration in plasma occur in mice, we used this species to address this question. In freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes, EGF increased glycogen degradation in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal effect (36% increase over basal glycogenolysis) was smaller than maximal effects of classical glycogenolytic hormones like adrenaline or glucagon (more than 150% increase over basal). This is in keeping with the smaller effect of EGF on phosphorylase a activity. In contrast with these hormones, EGF did not inhibit glycolysis. Thus these effects of EGF in mouse hepatocytes are similar to those recently described by us in rat hepatocytes [Quintana, Grau, Moreno, Soler, Ramirez and Soley (1995) Biochem J 308, 889-894]. When administered to whole animals, EGF increased phosphorylase a activity, decreased the glycogen content in the liver and caused mild hyperglycaemia. Taking together the results obtained for isolated cells and for whole animals, we suggest that the glucosyl residues released from glycogen are used mostly by the liver rather than released to the circulation. This would be different from the action of the classical glycogenolytic hormones, adrenaline and glucagon.

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation by estrogen via the G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR30: a novel signaling pathway with potential significance for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Filardo, Edward J

    2002-02-01

    The biological and biochemical effects of estrogen have been ascribed to its known receptors, which function as ligand-inducible transcription factors. However, estrogen also triggers rapid activation of classical second messengers (cAMP, calcium, and inositol triphosphate) and stimulation of intracellular signaling cascades mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP K), PI3K and eNOS. These latter events are commonly activated by membrane receptors that either possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity or couple to heterotrimeric G-proteins. We have shown that estrogen transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to MAP K signaling axis via the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR30, through the release of surface-bound proHB-EGF from estrogen receptor (ER)-negative human breast cancer cells [Molecular Endocrinology 14 (2000) 1649]. This finding is consistent with a growing body of evidence suggesting that transactivation of EGFRs by GPCRs is a recurrent theme in cell signaling. GPCR-mediated transactivation of EGFRs by estrogen provides a previously unappreciated mechanism of cross-talk between estrogen and serum growth factors, and explains prior data reporting the EGF-like effects of estrogen. This novel mechanism by which estrogen activates growth factor-dependent signaling and its implications for breast cancer biology are discussed further in this review.

  19. Blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling leads to inhibition of renal cell carcinoma growth in the bone of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristy L; Doucet, Michele; Price, Janet E; Baker, Cheryl; Kim, Sun Jin; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2003-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) frequently produces metastases to the musculoskeletal system that are a major source of morbidity in the form of pain, immobilization, fractures, neurological compromise, and a decreased ability to perform activities of daily living. Patients with metastatic RCC therefore have a dismal prognosis because there is no effective adjuvant treatment for this disease. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signaling cascade is important in the growth and metastasis of RCC, its blockade has been hypothesized to inhibit tumor growth and hence prevent resultant bone destruction. We determined whether blockade of EGF-R by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor PKI 166 inhibited the growth of RCC in bone. We use a novel cell line, RBM1-IT4, established from a human RCC bone metastasis. Protein and mRNA expression of the ligands and receptors was assessed by Western and Northern blots. The stimulation of RBM1-IT4 cells with epidermal growth factor or transforming growth factor alpha resulted in increased cellular proliferation and tyrosine kinase autophosphorylation. PKI 166 prevented these effects. First, RBM1-IT4 cells were implanted into the tibia of nude mice, where they established lytic, progressively growing lesions, after which the mice were treated with PKI 166 alone or in combination with paclitaxel (Taxol). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells in control mice expressed activated EGF-R. Treatment of mice with PKI 166 alone or in combination with Taxol produced a significant decrease in the incidence and size of bone lesions as compared with the results in control or Taxol-treated mice (P < 0.001). Treatment with PKI 166 also decreased the expression of phosphorylated EGF-R by tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells, and this was even more pronounced with PKI 166 plus Taxol treatment. The PKI 166 plus Taxol combination produced apoptosis of tumor cells and tumor

  20. Bio-Imaging of Colorectal Cancer Models Using Near Infrared Labeled Epidermal Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gadi; Lecht, Shimon; Arien-Zakay, Hadar; Ettinger, Keren; Amsalem, Orit; Oron-Herman, Mor; Yavin, Eylon; Prus, Diana; Benita, Simon; Nissan, Aviram; Lazarovici, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Novel strategies that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have led to the clinical development of monoclonal antibodies, which treat metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) but only subgroups of patients with increased wild type KRAS and EGFR gene copy, respond to these agents. Furthermore, resistance to EGFR blockade inevitably occurred, making future therapy difficult. Novel bio-imaging (BOI) methods may assist in quantization of EGFR in mCRC tissue thus complementing the immunohistochemistry methodology, in guiding the future treatment of these patients. The aim of the present study was to explore the usefulness of near infrared-labeled EGF (EGF-NIR) for bio-imaging of CRC using in vitro and in vivo orthotopic tumor CRC models and ex vivo human CRC tissues. We describe the preparation and characterization of EGF-NIR and investigate binding, using BOI of a panel of CRC cell culture models resembling heterogeneity of human CRC tissues. EGF-NIR was specifically and selectively bound by EGFR expressing CRC cells, the intensity of EGF-NIR signal to background ratio (SBR) reflected EGFR levels, dose-response and time course imaging experiments provided optimal conditions for quantization of EGFR levels by BOI. EGF-NIR imaging of mice with HT-29 orthotopic CRC tumor indicated that EGF-NIR is more slowly cleared from the tumor and the highest SBR between tumor and normal adjacent tissue was achieved two days post-injection. Furthermore, images of dissected tissues demonstrated accumulation of EGF-NIR in the tumor and liver. EGF-NIR specifically and strongly labeled EGFR positive human CRC tissues while adjacent CRC tissue and EGFR negative tissues expressed weak NIR signals. This study emphasizes the use of EGF-NIR for preclinical studies. Combined with other methods, EGF-NIR could provide an additional bio-imaging specific tool in the standardization of measurements of EGFR expression in CRC tissues. PMID:23144978

  1. Bio-imaging of colorectal cancer models using near infrared labeled epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Gadi; Lecht, Shimon; Arien-Zakay, Hadar; Ettinger, Keren; Amsalem, Orit; Oron-Herman, Mor; Yavin, Eylon; Prus, Diana; Benita, Simon; Nissan, Aviram; Lazarovici, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Novel strategies that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have led to the clinical development of monoclonal antibodies, which treat metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) but only subgroups of patients with increased wild type KRAS and EGFR gene copy, respond to these agents. Furthermore, resistance to EGFR blockade inevitably occurred, making future therapy difficult. Novel bio-imaging (BOI) methods may assist in quantization of EGFR in mCRC tissue thus complementing the immunohistochemistry methodology, in guiding the future treatment of these patients. The aim of the present study was to explore the usefulness of near infrared-labeled EGF (EGF-NIR) for bio-imaging of CRC using in vitro and in vivo orthotopic tumor CRC models and ex vivo human CRC tissues. We describe the preparation and characterization of EGF-NIR and investigate binding, using BOI of a panel of CRC cell culture models resembling heterogeneity of human CRC tissues. EGF-NIR was specifically and selectively bound by EGFR expressing CRC cells, the intensity of EGF-NIR signal to background ratio (SBR) reflected EGFR levels, dose-response and time course imaging experiments provided optimal conditions for quantization of EGFR levels by BOI. EGF-NIR imaging of mice with HT-29 orthotopic CRC tumor indicated that EGF-NIR is more slowly cleared from the tumor and the highest SBR between tumor and normal adjacent tissue was achieved two days post-injection. Furthermore, images of dissected tissues demonstrated accumulation of EGF-NIR in the tumor and liver. EGF-NIR specifically and strongly labeled EGFR positive human CRC tissues while adjacent CRC tissue and EGFR negative tissues expressed weak NIR signals. This study emphasizes the use of EGF-NIR for preclinical studies. Combined with other methods, EGF-NIR could provide an additional bio-imaging specific tool in the standardization of measurements of EGFR expression in CRC tissues.

  2. Square cell packing in the Drosophila embryo through spatiotemporally regulated EGF receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Masako; Zallen, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cells display dynamic and diverse morphologies during development, but the strategies by which differentiated tissues achieve precise shapes and patterns are not well understood. Here we identify a developmental program that generates a highly ordered square cell grid in the Drosophila embryo through sequential and spatially regulated cell alignment, oriented cell division, and apicobasal cell elongation. The basic leucine zipper transcriptional regulator Cnc is necessary and sufficient to produce a square cell grid in the presence of a midline signal provided by the EGF receptor ligand, Spitz. Spitz orients cell divisions through a Pins/LGN-dependent spindle positioning mechanism and controls cell shape and alignment through a transcriptional pathway that requires the Pointed ETS domain protein. These results identify a strategy for producing ordered square cell packing configurations in epithelia and reveal a molecular mechanism by which organized tissue structure is generated through spatiotemporally regulated responses to EGF receptor activation. PMID:26506305

  3. Protective effects of skin permeable epidermal and fibroblast growth factor against ultraviolet-induced skin damage and human skin wrinkles.

    PubMed

    An, Jae Jin; Eum, Won Sik; Kwon, Hyuck Se; Koh, Jae Sook; Lee, Soo Yun; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Cho, Yong-Jun; Kim, Dae Won; Han, Kyu Huyng; Park, Jinseu; Jang, Sang Ho; Choi, Soo Young

    2013-12-01

    Epidermal and fibroblast growth factor (EGF and FGF1) proteins play an important role in the regeneration and proliferation of skin cells. EGF and FGF1 have considerable potential as possible therapeutic or cosmetic agents for the treatment of skin damage including wrinkles. Using protein transduction domains (PTD), we investigated whether PTD-EGF and FGF1 transduced into skin cells and tissue. Transduced proteins showed protective effects in a UV-induced skin damage model as well as against skin wrinkles. Transduced PTD-EGF and FGF1 proteins were detected by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. The effects of PTD-EGF and FGF1 were examined by WST assay, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and skin wrinkle parameters. The PTD-EGF and FGF1 increased cell proliferation and collagen type 1 alpha 1 protein accumulation in skin tissue. Also, PTD-EGF and FGF1 inhibited UV-induced skin damage. Furthermore, topical application of PTD-EGF and FGF1 contained ampoules which were considered to improve the wrinkle parameters of human skin. These results show that PTD-EGF and FGF1 can be a potential therapeutic or cosmetic agent for skin damaged and injury including wrinkles and aging. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Epidermal growth factor improves intestinal integrity and survival in murine sepsis following chronic alcohol ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Klingensmith, Nathan J.; Yoseph, Benyam P.; Liang, Zhe; Lyons, John D.; Burd, Eileen M.; Margoles, Lindsay M.; Koval, Michael; Ford, Mandy L.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a cytoprotective protein that improves survival in preclinical models of sepsis through its beneficial effects on intestinal integrity. Alcohol use disorder worsens intestinal integrity and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critical illness. We sought to determine whether chronic alcohol ingestion alters the host response to systemic administration of EGF in sepsis. Six week old FVB/N mice were randomized to receive 20% alcohol or water for 12 weeks. All mice then underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce polymicrobial sepsis. Mice were then randomized to receive either intraperitoneal injection of EGF (150 μg/kg/day) or normal saline. Water-fed mice given EGF mice had decreased seven-day mortality compared to water-fed mice (18% vs. 55%). Alcohol-fed mice given EGF also had decreased seven day mortality compared to alcohol-fed mice (48% vs. 79%). Notably, while systemic EGF improved absolute survival to a similar degree in both water-fed and alcohol-fed mice, mortality was significantly higher in alcohol+EGF mice compared to water+EGF mice. Compared to water-fed septic mice, alcohol-fed septic mice had worsened intestinal integrity with intestinal hyperpermeability, increased intestinal epithelial apoptosis, decreased proliferation and shorter villus length. Systemic administration of EGF to septic alcohol-fed mice decreased intestinal permeability compared to septic alcohol-fed mice given vehicle, with increased levels of the tight junction mediators claudin-5 and JAM-A. Systemic administration of EGF to septic alcohol-fed mice also decreased intestinal apoptosis with an improvement in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. EGF also improved both crypt proliferation and villus length in septic alcohol-fed mice. EGF administration resulted in lower levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines MCP-1, TNF and IL-10 in alcohol-fed mice. EGF is therefore effective at improving both intestinal integrity and

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 strongly potentiates growth factor-induced proliferation of mammary epithelial cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Montesano, Roberto; Sarkoezi, Rita; Schramek, Herbert

    2008-09-12

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines that elicit pleiotropic effects on biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. With respect to cell proliferation, BMPs can exert either mitogenic or anti-mitogenic activities, depending on the target cells and their context. Here, we report that in low-density cultures of immortalized mammary epithelial cells, BMP-4 did not stimulate cell proliferation by itself. However, when added in combination with suboptimal concentrations of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FGF-7, FGF-10, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), BMP-4 potently enhanced growth factor-induced cell proliferation. These results reveal a hithertomore » unsuspected interplay between BMP-4 and growth factors in the regulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation. We suggest that the ability of BMP-4 to potentiate the mitogenic activity of multiple growth factors may contribute to mammary gland ductal morphogenesis as well as to breast cancer progression.« less

  6. Epidermal Growth Factor Increases LRF/Pokemon Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Anshu; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Leukemia/lymphoma related factor/POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (LRF/Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of proteins that promotes oncogenesis in several forms of cancer. Recently, we found higher LRF expression in human breast and prostate carcinomas compared to the corresponding normal tissues. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of LRF expression in human prostate cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival of prostate cancer cells. There was significantly higher level of LRF expression in the nucleus of LNCaP and PC-3 cells than RWPE-1 cells. A significant increase in LRF expression was observed with increasing doses of EGF in more aggressive and androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells suggesting that EGF signaling pathway is critical in upregulating the expression of LRF/Pokemon to promote oncogenesis. PMID:21640721

  7. Activation of BAD by therapeutic inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and transactivation by insulin-like growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Andrew P; Valentijn, Anthony J; Wang, Pengbo; Ranger, Ann M; Bundred, Nigel; O'Hare, Michael J; Wakeling, Alan; Korsmeyer, Stanley J; Streuli, Charles H

    2002-08-02

    Novel cancer chemotherapeutics are required to induce apoptosis by activating pro-apoptotic proteins. Both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) provide potent survival stimuli in many epithelia, and activation of their receptors is commonly observed in solid human tumors. Here we demonstrate that blockade of the EGF receptor by a new drug in phase III clinical trails for cancer, ZD1839, potently induces apoptosis in mammary epithelial cell lines and primary cultures, as well as in a primary pleural effusion from a breast cancer patient. We identified the mechanism of apoptosis induction by ZD1839. We showed that it prevents cell survival by activating the pro-apoptotic protein BAD. Moreover, we demonstrate that IGF transactivates the EGF receptor and that ZD1839 blocks IGF-mediated phosphorylation of MAPK and BAD. Many cancer therapies kill tumor cells by inducing apoptosis as a consequence of targeting DNA; however, the threshold at which apoptosis can be triggered through DNA damage is often different from that in normal cells. Our results indicate that by targeting a growth factor-mediated survival signaling pathway, BAD phosphorylation can be manipulated therapeutically to induce apoptosis.

  8. Epidermal growth factor enhances osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Del Angel-Mosqueda, Casiano; Gutiérrez-Puente, Yolanda; López-Lozano, Ada Pricila; Romero-Zavaleta, Ricardo Emmanuel; Mendiola-Jiménez, Andrés; Medina-De la Garza, Carlos Eduardo; Márquez-M, Marcela; De la Garza-Ramos, Myriam Angélica

    2015-09-03

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) play an important role in extracellular matrix mineralization, a complex process required for proper bone regeneration, one of the biggest challenges in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic potential of EGF and bFGF on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Human DPSCs were isolated using CD105 magnetic microbeads and characterized by flow cytometry. To induce osteoblast differentiation, the cells were cultured in osteogenic medium supplemented with EGF or bFGF at a low concentration. Cell morphology and expression of CD146 and CD10 surface markers were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy. To measure mineralization, an alizarin red S assay was performed and typical markers of osteoblastic phenotype were evaluated by RT-PCR. EGF treatment induced morphological changes and suppression of CD146 and CD10 markers. Additionally, the cells were capable of producing calcium deposits and increasing the mRNA expression to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) in relation to control groups (p < 0.001). However, bFGF treatment showed an inhibitory effect. These data suggests that DPSCs in combination with EGF could be an effective stem cell-based therapy for bone tissue engineering applications in periodontics and oral implantology.

  9. Specific receptors for epidermal growth factor in rat intestinal microvillus membranes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Thompson, J.F.

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present in high concentrations in milk, salivary, and pancreaticobiliary secretions. EGF, delivered to the intestinal lumen by these fluids, appears to influence intestinal proliferation. Because EGF exerts its mitogenic effect through binding to specific membrane-bound receptors, binding studies of {sup 125}I-labeled EGF to purified microvillus membrane (MVM) preparations fetal, newborn, and adult rat small intestine were performed. Using the membrane filter technique, binding of {sup 125}I-EGF to adult MVM was specific, saturable, and reversible. Adult and fetal MVM binding was rapid and reached a plateau after 30 min at both 20 and 37{degree}C. No bindingmore » was detected at 4{degree}C. Specific binding increased linearly from 0 to 75 {mu}g MVM protein. Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of receptors in fetal and adult MVM with an association constant of 1.0 {+-} 0.35 {times} 10{sup 9} and 2.3 {+-} 1.6 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Binding capacity was 435.0 {+-} 89 and 97.7 {+-} 41.3 fmol {sup 125}I-EGF bound/mg MVM protein for fetal and adult MVM, respectively. Newborn MVM binding was negligible. After binding, cross-linking utilizing disuccinimidyl suberate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, autoradiography revealed a 170-kDa receptor. These data demonstrate specific receptors for EGF on MVM of rat small intestine and, thus, suggest a mechanism for the intraluminal regulation of enterocyte proliferation by EGF.« less

  10. A virally inactivated functional growth factor preparation from human platelet concentrates.

    PubMed

    Su, C-Y; Kuo, Y P; Lin, Y C; Huang, C-T; Tseng, Y H; Burnouf, T

    2009-08-01

    Human platelet growth factors (HPGF) are essential for tissue regeneration and may replace fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell therapy. No method for the manufacture of standardized virally inactivated HPGF has been developed yet. Platelet concentrates (PC) were subjected to solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment (1% TnBP/1% Triton X-45), oil extraction, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and sterile filtration. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB, -BB and -AA, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) were measured by ELISA. Composition in proteins and lipids was determined, protein profiles were obtained by SDS-PAGE, and TnBP and Triton X-45 were assessed by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Cell growth promoting activity of HPGF was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay using human embryonic kidney (HEK293A) fibroblast and Statens Seruminstitute rabbit corneal (SIRC) epithelial cell lines. The GF preparation contained a mean of 16.66, 2.04, 1.53, 72.19, 0.33, 48.59 and 0.44 ng/ml of PDGF-AB, -BB, -AA, TGF-beta1, EGF, IGF-1 and VEGF, respectively. The protein profile was typical of platelet releasates and had less than 2 p.p.m. of residual S/D agents. MTS assay of HEK293A and SIRC cultures showed that the GF preparation at 10% and 0.1% (v/v), respectively, could successfully replace 10% FBS for cell proliferation. Cell-stimulating activity of HPGF on HEK293A was over twice that of PC releasates. STANDARDIZED and functional virally inactivated HPGF can be prepared from human PC for possible applications in cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

  11. Efficacy of recombinant bovine epidermal growth factor in the treatment of experimental subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in a ewe model.

    PubMed

    Gabadage, Kamal; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Campbell, John; Luby, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common contagious mastitis pathogen of dairy cattle. Antimicrobial treatment of infected cattle results in variable cure rates. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays an important role in the modulation of host innate immune responses and the regulation of mammary epithelial regeneration, indicating that EGF may be useful as a treatment for mastitis. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant bovine EGF (rbEGF) for the treatment of S aureus intramammary infection (IMI) using an ovine model. Each ewe was experimentally infected with S aureus in both udder halves. One udder half of each ewe received one of two treatments: EGF (n=13) or pirlimycin (n=13). The contralateral udder half of each ewe received sterile saline as a control. The bacteriological cure rate following rbEGF was significantly lower (15 per cent) than that attained with pirlimycin hydrochloride (61 per cent) and did not differ from that following treatment with sterile saline. Cure rates following treatment with rbEGF were not significantly different to those following sterile saline. Given that EGF is associated with modulation of host immunity and wound healing, future studies into EGF should not focus on whether EGF increases cure rates of S aureus IMI.

  12. Bradykinin-induced growth inhibition of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells is paralleled by a decrease in epidermal-growth-factor receptor expression.

    PubMed Central

    Van Zoelen, E J; Peters, P H; Afink, G B; Van Genesen, S; De Roos, D G; Van Rotterdam, W; Theuvenet, A P

    1994-01-01

    Normal rat kidney fibroblasts, grown to density arrest in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF), can be induced to undergo phenotypic transformation by treatment with transforming growth factor beta or retinoic acid. Here we show that bradykinin blocks this growth-stimulus-induced loss of density-dependent growth arrest by a specific receptor-mediated mechanism. The effects of bradykinin are specific, and are not mimicked by other phosphoinositide-mobilizing agents such as prostaglandin F2 alpha. Northern-blot analysis and receptor-binding studies demonstrate that bradykinin also inhibits the retinoic acid-induced increase in EGF receptor levels in these cells. These studies provide additional evidence that EGF receptor levels modulate EGF-induced expression of the transformed phenotype in these cells. Images Figure 5 PMID:8135739

  13. Oxidant and antioxidant events during epidermal growth factor therapy to cutaneous wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Kalay, Zeynep; Cevher, Sule Coskun

    2012-08-01

    Cutaneous wound healing is a highly complex process, which includes inflammation, cell proliferation, matrix deposition and remodelling phases. Various growth factors, like epidermal growth factor (EGF), play an important role during wound healing. However, little is known about relationship between EGF and oxidant-antioxidant events in cutaneous wound healing models. Thus we planned to evaluate the connection between EGF therapy and oxidative stress in dermal tissue followed by wounding. Fifty-four adult male Wistar-albino rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, untreated and topical EGF administrated group. A linear full-thickness excision of 40 mm in length on both sides of spinal cord was made on the back of each rat and sutured under anaesthesia and sterile conditions. Excision was closed with 4/0 atraumatic silk suture. EGF solution was freshly prepared at 10 ng/ml dose in thilotears gel under aseptic conditions. Following the surgery, 1 ml of EGF solution was administered to wound strips one time in everyday. The animals were euthanised and wound tissues were collected on days 1, 5, 7 and 14. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substans (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), reactive nitrogen oxide species (NOx), ascorbic acid levels and superoxide dismutase activity were measured spectrophotometrically. TBARS levels decreased and NOx levels increased on day 5 after operation, and GSH levels were increased on day 14 in EGF administered group compared with untreated group. Our data showed that EGF may act like an antioxidant by scavenging toxic oxidation products in wound tissue. In addition, it may contribute healing of the wound tissue in earlier stages and suggest a potential effective role for antioxidant therapies, especially until day 5. © 2011 The Authors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  14. Notch1 stimulation induces a vascularization switch with pericyte-like cell differentiation of glioblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guichet, Pierre-Olivier; Guelfi, Sophie; Teigell, Marisa; Hoppe, Liesa; Bakalara, Norbert; Bauchet, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Lamszus, Katrin; Rothhut, Bernard; Hugnot, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforms (GBMs) are highly vascularized brain tumors containing a subpopulation of multipotent cancer stem cells. These cells closely interact with endothelial cells in neurovascular niches. In this study, we have uncovered a close link between the Notch1 pathway and the tumoral vascularization process of GBM stem cells. We observed that although the Notch1 receptor was activated, the typical target proteins (HES5, HEY1, and HEY2) were not or barely expressed in two explored GBM stem cell cultures. Notch1 signaling activation by expression of the intracellular form (NICD) in these cells was found to reduce their growth rate and migration, which was accompanied by the sharp reduction in neural stem cell transcription factor expression (ASCL1, OLIG2, and SOX2), while HEY1/2, KLF9, and SNAI2 transcription factors were upregulated. Expression of OLIG2 and growth were restored after termination of Notch1 stimulation. Remarkably, NICD expression induced the expression of pericyte cell markers (NG2, PDGFRβ, and α-smooth muscle actin [αSMA]) in GBM stem cells. This was paralleled with the induction of several angiogenesis-related factors most notably cytokines (heparin binding epidermal growth factor [HB-EGF], IL8, and PLGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP9), and adhesion proteins (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM1], intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM1], and integrin alpha 9 [ITGA9]). In xenotransplantation experiments, contrasting with the infiltrative and poorly vascularized tumors obtained with control GBM stem cells, Notch1 stimulation resulted in poorly disseminating but highly vascularized grafts containing large vessels with lumen. Notch1-stimulated GBM cells expressed pericyte cell markers and closely associated with endothelial cells. These results reveal an important role for the Notch1 pathway in regulating GBM stem cell plasticity and angiogenic properties. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  15. EphA2 is a key effector of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway regulating glioblastoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, Yuho; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2016-08-01

    EphA2, a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in a variety of malignancies, including glioblastoma, and its expression is correlated with poor prognosis. EphA2 acts as a tumor promoter through a ligand ephrin-independent mechanism, which requires phosphorylation of EphA2 on serine 897 (S897), leading to increased cell migration and invasion. In this study, we show that ligand-independent EphA2 signaling occurs downstream of the MEK/ERK/RSK pathway and mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell proliferation in glioblastoma cells. Suppression of EphA2 expression by long-term exposure to ligand ephrinA1 or EphA2-targeted shRNA inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation. Stimulation of the cells with EGF induced EphA2 S897 phosphorylation, which was suppressed by MEK and RSK inhibitors, but not by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt inhibitors. The RSK inhibitor or RSK2-targeted shRNA also suppressed EGF-induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type EphA2 promoted cell proliferation without EGF stimulation, whereas overexpression of EphA2-S897A mutant suppressed EGF- or RSK2-induced proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that EphA2 is a key downstream target of the MEK/ERK/RSK signaling pathway in the regulation of glioblastoma cell proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Promotes Glomerular Injury and Renal Failure in Rapidly Progressive Crescentic Glomerulonephritis; the Identification of Possible Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bollée, Guillaume; Flamant, Martin; Schordan, Sandra; Fligny, Cécile; Rumpel, Elisabeth; Milon, Marine; Schordan, Eric; Sabaa, Nathalie; Vandermeersch, Sophie; Galaup, Ariane; Rodenas, Anita; Casal, Ibrahim; Sunnarborg, Susan W; Salant, David J; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Threadgill, David W; Quaggin, Susan E; Dussaule, Jean-Claude; Germain, Stéphane; Mesnard, Laurent; Endlich, Karlhans; Boucheix, Claude; Belenfant, Xavier; Callard, Patrice; Endlich, Nicole; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is a clinical a morphological expression of severe glomerular injury. Glomerular injury manifests as a proliferative histological pattern (“crescents”) with accumulation of T cells and macrophages, and proliferation of intrinsic glomerular cells. We show de novo induction of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in intrinsic glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) from both mice and humans with RPGN. HB-EGF induction increases phosphorylation of the EGFR/ErbB1 receptor in mice with RPGN. In HB-EGF-deficient mice, EGFR activation in glomeruli is absent and the course of RPGN is improved. Autocrine HB-EGF induces a phenotypic switch in podocytes in vitro. Conditional deletion of the Egfr gene from podocytes of mice alleviates the severity of RPGN. Pharmacological blockade of EGFR also improves the course of RPGN, even when started 4 days after the induction of experimental RPGN. This suggests that targeting the HB-EGF/EGFR pathway could also be beneficial for treatment of human RPGN. PMID:21946538

  17. [Changes of epidermal growth factor level in blood serum, saliva and gastric juice in children with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Zhukova, E A; Vidmanova, T A; Viskova, I N; Kolesov, S A; Korkotashvili, L V; Shirokova, N Iu; Kan'kova, N Iu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate EGF content in biological mediums in children with duodenum ulcer depending on phase of the disease and different variants of its course. The present study was performed in Federal State Establishment "Nizhniy Novgorod Research Institute of Children Gastroenterology", Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia. 92 children, between the ages of 8 to 17, with duodenum ulcer were under observation. Endoscopy was performed by Pentax endoscope (FG-24V). EGF detection was performed in blood serum, gastric juice and saliva by ELISA method with Human EGF Kit, "Invitrogen", USA. The peculiarities of EGF level changes in human biological mediums, depending on phase of the disease. The highest EGF level was detected with acute peptic ulcer in the presence of ulcerous defects. EGF level increasing was marked out in the remission phaseas ulcerous defects healing, and it didn't reach normal values in gastric juice. EGF content changes in biological mediums were revealed with different variants of duodenum ulcer clinical course in children. The lowest EGF level was marked out in blood, saliva and gastric juice with unfavorable course of the disease (frequent relapses, cicatricial-ulcerous strains formation), which can serve as a prognostic factor.

  18. Epidermal Growth Factor Relieves Inflammatory Signals in Staphylococcus aureus-Treated Human Epidermal Keratinocytes and Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Nc/Nga Mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Young; Lee, You Jin; Kim, Ji Min; Kang, Hyun Ji; Cho, Sang Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun

    2018-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a defective immunologic barrier, which is aggravated by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) . Epidermal growth factor (EGF) suppresses inflammation and EGF receptor inhibitors increased S. aureus colonization. Thus, we investigated the potential roles of EGF in AD, which is often aggravated by S. aureus . We determined how EGF affects the expression of inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) treated with heat-inactivated S. aureus (HKSA) in vitro and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesions in Nc/Nga mice. HKSA increased IL-6 and NF κ B expression; EGF treatment had the opposite effect. EGF increased human β defensin-2 expression in HEKs and murine β defensin-3 in mice. In mice, both EGF and pimecrolimus groups showed less erythema with significantly reduced inflammation and decreased expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin. EGF relieved S. aureus -induced inflammation and AD-like skin lesions in Nc/Nga mice. Therefore, EGF could be a potential topical treatment for AD.

  19. Epidermal Growth Factor Relieves Inflammatory Signals in Staphylococcus aureus-Treated Human Epidermal Keratinocytes and Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Nc/Nga Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Young; Lee, You Jin; Kim, Ji Min; Kang, Hyun Ji

    2018-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a defective immunologic barrier, which is aggravated by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) suppresses inflammation and EGF receptor inhibitors increased S. aureus colonization. Thus, we investigated the potential roles of EGF in AD, which is often aggravated by S. aureus. We determined how EGF affects the expression of inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) treated with heat-inactivated S. aureus (HKSA) in vitro and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesions in Nc/Nga mice. HKSA increased IL-6 and NFκB expression; EGF treatment had the opposite effect. EGF increased human β defensin-2 expression in HEKs and murine β defensin-3 in mice. In mice, both EGF and pimecrolimus groups showed less erythema with significantly reduced inflammation and decreased expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin. EGF relieved S. aureus-induced inflammation and AD-like skin lesions in Nc/Nga mice. Therefore, EGF could be a potential topical treatment for AD.

  20. The receptor tyrosine kinase ERBB4 is expressed in skin keratinocytes and influences epidermal proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hoesl, Christine; Röhrl, Jennifer M; Schneider, Marlon R; Dahlhoff, Maik

    2018-04-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and associated receptors ERBB2 and ERBB3 are important for skin development and homeostasis. To date, ERBB4 could not be unambiguously identified in the epidermis. The aim of this study was to analyze the ERBB-receptor family with a special focus on ERBB4 in vitro in human keratinocytes and in vivo in human and murine epidermis. We compared the transcript levels of all ERBB-receptors and the seven EGFR-ligands in HaCaT and A431 cells. ERBB-receptor activity was analyzed after epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation by Western blot analysis. The location of the receptors was investigated by immunofluorescence in human keratinocytes and skin. Finally, we investigated the function of ERBB4 in the epidermis of skin-specific ERBB4-knockout mice. After EGF stimulation, all ligands were upregulated except for epigen. Expression levels of EGFR were unchanged, but all other ERBB-receptors were down-regulated after EGF stimulation, although all ERBB-receptors were phosphorylated. We detected ERBB4 at mRNA and protein levels in both human epidermal cell lines and in the basal layer of human and murine epidermis. Skin-specific ERBB4-knockout mice revealed a significantly reduced epidermal thickness with a decreased proliferation rate. ERBB4 is expressed in the basal layer of human epidermis and cultured keratinocytes as well as in murine epidermis. Moreover, ERBB4 is phosphorylated in HaCaT cells due to EGF stimulation, and its deletion in murine epidermis affects skin thickness by decreasing proliferation. ERBB4 is expressed in human keratinocytes and plays a role in murine skin homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High vascular delivery of EGF, but low receptor binding rate is observed in AsPC-1 tumors as compared to normal pancreas.

    PubMed

    Samkoe, Kimberley S; Sexton, Kristian; Tichauer, Kenneth M; Hextrum, Shannon K; Pardesi, Omar; Davis, Scott C; O'Hara, Julia A; Hoopes, P Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W

    2012-08-01

    Cellular receptor targeted imaging agents present the potential to target extracellular molecular expression in cancerous lesions; however, the image contrast in vivo does not reflect the magnitude of overexpression expected from in vitro data. Here, the in vivo delivery and binding kinetics of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was determined for normal pancreas and AsPC-1 orthotopic pancreatic tumors known to overexpress EGFR. EGFR in orthotopic xenograft AsPC-1 tumors was targeted with epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated with IRDye800CW. The transfer rate constants (k(e), K₁₂, k₂₁, k₂₃, and k₃₂) associated with a three-compartment model describing the vascular delivery, leakage rate and binding of targeted agents were determined experimentally. The plasma excretion rate, k (e), was determined from extracted blood plasma samples. K₁₂, k₂₁, and k₃₂ were determined from ex vivo tissue washing studies at time points ≥ 24 h. The measured in vivo uptake of IRDye800CW-EGF and a non-targeted tracer dye, IRDye700DX-carboxylate, injected simultaneously was used to determined k₂₃. The vascular exchange of IRDye800CW-EGF in the orthotopic tumor (K₁₂ and k₂₁) was higher than in the AsPC-1 tumor as compared to normal pancreas, suggesting that more targeted agent can be taken up in tumor tissue. However, the cellular associated (binding) rate constant (k₂₃) was slightly lower for AsPC-1 pancreatic tumor (4.1 × 10(-4) s(-1)) than the normal pancreas (5.5 × 10(-4) s(-1)), implying that less binding is occurring. Higher vascular delivery but low cellular association in the AsPC-1 tumor compared to the normal pancreas may be indicative of low receptor density due to low cellular content. This attribute of the AsPC-1 tumor may indicate one contributing cause of the difficulty in treating pancreatic tumors with cellular targeted agents.

  2. Dihydrotestosterone activates the MAPK pathway and modulates maximum isometric force through the EGF receptor in isolated intact mouse skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, M M; Mutungi, G

    2010-02-01

    It is generally believed that steroid hormones have both genomic and non-genomic (rapid) actions. Although the latter form an important component of the physiological response of these hormones, little is known about the cellular signalling pathway(s) mediating these effects and their physiological functions in adult mammalian skeletal muscle fibres. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the non-genomic actions of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and their physiological role in isolated intact mammalian skeletal muscle fibre bundles. Our results show that treating the fibre bundles with physiological concentrations of DHT increases both twitch and tetanic contractions in fast twitch fibres. However, it decreases them in slow twitch fibres. These changes in force are accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK1/2 in both fibre types and that of regulatory myosin light chains in fast twitch fibres. Both effects were insensitive to inhibitors of Src kinase, androgen receptor, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. However, they were abolished by the MAPK/ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor PD98059 and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor inhibitor tyrphostin AG 1478. In contrast, testosterone had no effect on force and increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in slow twitch fibres only. From these results we conclude that sex steroids have non-genomic actions in isolated intact mammalian skeletal muscle fibres. These are mediated through the EGF receptor and one of their main physiological functions is the enhancement of force production in fast twitch skeletal muscle fibres.

  3. Protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP1B, expression and activity in rat corneal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Deshea L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The current studies were conducted to determine whether the protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP1B, plays a role in regulating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Tyr992 phosphorylation and cell cycle entry in rat corneal endothelial cells. Methods Corneas were obtained from male Sprague-Dawley rats. PTP1B mRNA and protein expression were compared in confluent and subconfluent cells by RT-PCR and western blots. Immunocytochemistry was used to determine the subcellular localization of both PTP1B and EGFR following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. Western blots were used to analyze the time-dependent effect of EGF on phosphorylation of EGFR Tyr992 plus or minus CinnGEL 2Me, an inhibitor of PTP1B activity. The effect of PTP1B inhibition on cell cycle entry was determined by calculating the percent of Ki67-positive cells following EGF treatment. Results PTP1B mRNA expression was similar in confluent and subconfluent cells, but PTP1B protein was expressed at 3 fold higher levels in subconfluent cells. Positive staining for PTP1B was localized in vesicular structures below the plasma membrane. EGFR staining was located at cell-cell borders in untreated endothelium, but was mainly cytoplasmic by 15 min after EGF treatment. In control cultures, phosphorylation of EGFR Tyr992 peaked by 5 min following EGF stimulation and rapidly decreased to basal levels by 30 min. In cultures pretreated with CinnGEL 2Me, Tyr992 phosphorylation peaked 2 min following EGF addition and was consistently sustained at a higher level than controls until 60 min after treatment. By 18 h following EGF treatment, cultures pretreated with CinnGEL 2Me exhibited a 1.7 fold increase in the number of Ki67-positive cells compared with control cultures. Conclusions Comparison of PTP1B mRNA and protein levels indicates that PTP1B expression is regulated mainly at the protein level and is higher in subconfluent cells. PTP1B was located in vesicles below the plasma membrane. The fact that

  4. In Vitro Expression of Cytokeratin 19 in Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Is Induced by Epidermal Growth Factor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shangliang; Wang, Mingzhu; Chen, Xinglu; Chen, Shaolian; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jianbin; Wang, Jinhui; Yang, Xiaorong; Cai, Xiangsheng

    2018-06-21

    BACKGROUND Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) is a typical epithelial marker. In this study, we determined whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) could enhance CK19 expression in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), thereby inducing the differentiation of ADSCs into epithelial-like cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS ADSCs were isolated from perinephric fat, and the expression of CD29, CD90, and CD105 was confirmed. Following isolation, ADSCs were cultured in static medium or medium containing EGF or bFGF. RESULTS Flow cytometry revealed that EGF and bFGF could alter mesenchymal stem cell markers as well as the cell cycle of ADSCs. Western blotting and immunofluorescence revealed that after 14 days, EGF treatment enhanced the expression of CK19 in ADSCs. CONCLUSIONS Our findings offer important insight for the clinical use of ADSCs in the generation of epithelial-like cells in the future.

  5. The EGF receptor family as targets for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, J; Baselga, J

    2000-12-27

    Human carcinomas frequently express high levels of receptors in the EGF receptor family, and overexpression of at least two of these receptors, the EGF receptor (EGFr) and closely related ErbB2, has been associated with a more aggressive clinical behavior. Further, transfection or activation of high levels of these two receptors in nonmalignant cell lines can lead to a transformed phenotype. For these reasons therapies directed at preventing the function of these receptors have the potential to be useful anti-cancer treatments. In the last two decades monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which block activation of the EGFr and ErbB2 have been developed. These MAbs have shown promising preclinical activity and 'chimeric' and 'humanized' MAbs have been produced in order to obviate the problem of host immune reactions. Clinical activity with these antibodies has been documented: trastuzumab, a humanized anti-ErbB2 MAb, is active and was recently approved in combination with paclitaxel for the therapy of patients with metastatic ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer; IMC-C225, a chimeric anti-EGFr MAb, has shown impressive activity when combined with radiation therapy and reverses resistance to chemotherapy. In addition to antibodies, compounds that directly inhibit receptor tyrosine kinases have shown preclinical activity and early clinical activity has been reported. A series of phase III studies with these antibodies and direct tyrosine kinase inhibitors are ongoing or planned, and will further address the role of these active anti-receptor agents in the treatment of patients with cancer.

  6. Histamine and epidermal growth factor in women with fibrocystic changes of the breast.

    PubMed

    Sieja, K; Stanosz, S; Glowińska, N

    2003-04-01

    In this study, the blood serum concentrations of histamine (HA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) of women with fibrocystic changes (FCCs) of the breast were estimated. The control group comprised 32 women (mean age 44.9+/-4.4 years) without any pathologic changes in their breasts. The study group was made up of 81 women (mean age 44.5+/-3.5 years) with FCCs. The changes were divided into three subtypes: fibrous, cystic, and fibrocystic. In women with FCCs the concentrations of HA (P<0.01) and EGF (P<0.01) were significantly higher than in women without any changes in their breasts (control group). The concentration of EGF in blood serum was significantly higher in women with the fibrocystic subtype of FCC (P<0.001) than in healthy women. No correlations between the blood serum concentrations of HA and of EGF were found in either the control group or the study group. The significantly higher blood serum concentrations of HA and EGF women with FCCs than in healthy women suggest that HA and EGF have a role in the development of this disease.

  7. [Effect of total flavones from Cuscuta chinensis on expression of Fas/FasL, PCNA and HB-EGF in SD rats model with bromocriptine-induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Xia; You, Zhao-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2008-11-01

    To explore the effect of total flavones from cuscuta chinensis (TFCC) on expression of Fas, PCNA and HB-EGF in SD rats model with bromocriptine-induced abortion. The model rats of bromocriptine during 6-8 d of pregnancy induced early abortion was established, adopting respectively herbs in high and low dosage and progesterone affect model rat and after 12 d, Immunohistochemical was applied to determine Fas, HB-EGF and PCNA in deciduas and placenta. Expression of PCNA on trophoblast and deciduas, HB-EGF on trophoblast, PR on deciduas in the model used Semen cuscutae flavonoid, proesterone and normal pregnacy, were significantlly higher than those of the pure model. Expression of Fas on trophoblast and deciduas in above four groups, were significantlly lower than those of the pure model. There were no expression of HB-EGF on deciduas. TFCC regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of the deciduas and cytotrophoblasts and prevents spontaneous abortions.

  8. Salivary epidermal growth factor correlates with hospitalization length in rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Rial, J; Curras-Tuala, M J; Talavero-González, C; Rodríguez-Tenreiro, C; Vilanova-Trillo, L; Gómez-Carballa, A; Rivero-Calle, I; Justicia-Grande, A; Pardo-Seco, J; Redondo-Collazo, L; Salas, A; Martinón-Torres, F

    2017-05-30

    The IFI27 interferon gene expression has been found to be largely increased in rotavirus (RV)-infected patients. IFI27 gene encodes for a protein of unknown function, very recently linked to epidermal proliferation and related to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) protein. The EGF is a low-molecular-weight polypeptide that is mainly produced by submandibular and parotid glands, and it plays an important physiological role in the maintenance of oro-esophageal and gastric tissue integrity. Our aim was to determine salivary EGF levels in RV-infected patients in order to establish its potential relationship with IFI27 increased expression and EGF-mediated mucosal protection in RV infection. We conducted a prospective comparative study using saliva samples from 27 infants infected with RV (sampled at recruitment during hospital admission and at convalescence, i.e. at least 3 months after recovery) and from 36 healthy control children. Median (SD) EGF salivary concentration was 777 (529) pg/ml in RV-infected group at acute phase and 356 (242) pg/m at convalescence, while it was 337 (119) pg/ml in the healthy control group. A significant association was found between EGF levels and hospitalization length of stay (P-value = 0.022; r 2  = -0.63). The salivary levels of EGF are significantly increased during the acute phase of natural RV infection, and relate to length of hospitalization. Further assessment of this non-invasive biomarker in RV disease is warranted.

  9. Tissue-engineered cartilage: the crossroads of biomaterials, cells and stimulating factors.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Nandana; Devi, Dipali; Mandal, Biman B

    2015-02-01

    Damage to cartilage represents one of the most challenging tasks of musculoskeletal therapeutics due to its limited propensity for healing and regenerative capabilities. Lack of current treatments to restore cartilage tissue function has prompted research in this rapidly emerging field of tissue regeneration of functional cartilage tissue substitutes. The development of cartilaginous tissue largely depends on the combination of appropriate biomaterials, cell source, and stimulating factors. Over the years, various biomaterials have been utilized for cartilage repair, but outcomes are far from achieving native cartilage architecture and function. This highlights the need for exploration of suitable biomaterials and stimulating factors for cartilage regeneration. With these perspectives, we aim to present an overview of cartilage tissue engineering with recent progress, development, and major steps taken toward the generation of functional cartilage tissue. In this review, we have discussed the advances and problems in tissue engineering of cartilage with strong emphasis on the utilization of natural polymeric biomaterials, various cell sources, and stimulating factors such as biophysical stimuli, mechanical stimuli, dynamic culture, and growth factors used so far in cartilage regeneration. Finally, we have focused on clinical trials, recent innovations, and future prospects related to cartilage engineering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Morphology and dynamics of tumor cell colonies propagating in epidermal growth factor supplemented media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, N. E.; Carballido, M.; Pasquale, M. A.; González, P. H.; Azzaroni, O.; Arvia, A. J.

    2018-07-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a key role in physiological and pathological processes. This work reports on the influence of EGF concentration (c EGF) on the modulation of individual cell phenotype and cell colony kinetics with the aim of perturbing the colony front roughness fluctuations. For this purpose, HeLa cell colonies that remain confluent along the whole expansion process with initial quasi-radial geometry and different initial cell populations, as well as colonies with initial quasi-linear geometry and large cell population, are employed. Cell size and morphology as well as its adhesive characteristics depend on c EGF. Quasi-radial colonies (QRC) expansion kinetics in EGF-containing medium exhibits a complex behavior. Namely, at the first stages of growth, the average QRC radius evolution can be described by a t 1/2 diffusion term coupled with exponential growth kinetics up to a critical time, and afterwards a growth regime approaching constant velocity. The extension of each regime depends on c EGF and colony history. In the presence of EGF, the initial expansion of quasi-linear colonies (QLCs) also exhibits morphological changes at both the cell and the colony levels. In these cases, the cell density at the colony border region becomes smaller than in the absence of EGF and consequently, the extension of the effective rim where cell duplication and motility contribute to the colony expansion increases. QLC front displacement velocity increases with c EGF up to a maximum value in the 2–10 ng ml‑1 range. Individual cell velocity is increased by EGF, and an enhancement in both the persistence and the ballistic characteristics of cell trajectories can be distinguished. For an intermediate c EGF, collective cell displacements contribute to the roughening of the colony contours. This global dynamics becomes compatible with the standard Kardar–Parisi–Zhang growth model, although a faster colony roughness saturation in EGF-containing medium

  11. Epidermal growth factor increases LRF/Pokemon expression in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Anshu; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2011-10-01

    Leukemia/lymphoma related factor/POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (LRF/Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of proteins that promotes oncogenesis in several forms of cancer. Recently, we found higher LRF expression in human breast and prostate carcinomas compared to the corresponding normal tissues. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of LRF expression in human prostate cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival of prostate cancer cells. There was significantly higher level of LRF expression in the nucleus of LNCaP and PC-3 cells than RWPE-1 cells. A significant increase in LRF expression was observed with increasing doses of EGF in more aggressive and androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells suggesting that EGF signaling pathway is critical in upregulating the expression of LRF/Pokemon to promote oncogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate human colon cancer cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Belo, Angelica; Cheng, Kunrong; Chahdi, Ahmed; Shant, Jasleen; Xie, Guofeng; Khurana, Sandeep; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2011-05-01

    Muscarinic receptors (CHRM) are overexpressed in colon cancer. To explore a role for muscarinic receptor signaling in colon cancer metastasis, we used human H508 and HT29 colon cancer cells that coexpress epidermal growth factor (ERBB) and CHRM3 receptors. In a wound closure model, following 8-h incubation of H508 cells with 100 μM ACh we observed a threefold increase in cell migration indistinguishable from the actions of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Atropine blocked the actions of ACh but not of EGF. In SNU-C4 colon cancer cells that express ERBB but not CHRM, EGF caused a threefold increase in migration; ACh had no effect. ACh-induced cell migration was attenuated by chemical inhibitors of ERBB1 activation, by anti-ERBB1 antibody, and by inhibitors of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Consistent with matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7)-mediated release of an ERBB1 ligand, heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HBEGF), ACh-induced migration was inhibited by an MMP inhibitor and by anti-MMP7 and -HBEGF antibodies. ACh-induced cell migration was blocked by inhibiting RhoA and ROCK, key proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton. ACh-induced RhoA activation was attenuated by agents that inhibit ERBB1, ERK, and PI3K activation. Collectively, these findings indicate that ACh-induced cell migration is mediated by MMP7-mediated release of HBEGF, an ERBB ligand that activates ERBB1 and downstream ERK and PI3K signaling. In a cell invasion model, ACh-induced HT29 cell invasion was blocked by atropine. In concert with previous observations, these findings indicate that muscarinic receptor signaling plays a key role in colon cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion.

  13. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate human colon cancer cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Belo, Angelica; Cheng, Kunrong; Chahdi, Ahmed; Shant, Jasleen; Xie, Guofeng; Khurana, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Muscarinic receptors (CHRM) are overexpressed in colon cancer. To explore a role for muscarinic receptor signaling in colon cancer metastasis, we used human H508 and HT29 colon cancer cells that coexpress epidermal growth factor (ERBB) and CHRM3 receptors. In a wound closure model, following 8-h incubation of H508 cells with 100 μM ACh we observed a threefold increase in cell migration indistinguishable from the actions of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Atropine blocked the actions of ACh but not of EGF. In SNU-C4 colon cancer cells that express ERBB but not CHRM, EGF caused a threefold increase in migration; ACh had no effect. ACh-induced cell migration was attenuated by chemical inhibitors of ERBB1 activation, by anti-ERBB1 antibody, and by inhibitors of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Consistent with matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7)-mediated release of an ERBB1 ligand, heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HBEGF), ACh-induced migration was inhibited by an MMP inhibitor and by anti-MMP7 and -HBEGF antibodies. ACh-induced cell migration was blocked by inhibiting RhoA and ROCK, key proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton. ACh-induced RhoA activation was attenuated by agents that inhibit ERBB1, ERK, and PI3K activation. Collectively, these findings indicate that ACh-induced cell migration is mediated by MMP7-mediated release of HBEGF, an ERBB ligand that activates ERBB1 and downstream ERK and PI3K signaling. In a cell invasion model, ACh-induced HT29 cell invasion was blocked by atropine. In concert with previous observations, these findings indicate that muscarinic receptor signaling plays a key role in colon cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. PMID:21273532

  14. Growth factor-functionalized silk membranes support wound healing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bienert, M; Hoss, M; Bartneck, M; Weinandy, S; Böbel, M; Jockenhövel, S; Knüchel, R; Pottbacker, K; Wöltje, M; Jahnen-Dechent, W; Neuss, S

    2017-08-16

    Chronic wounds represent a serious problem in daily medical routine requiring improved wound care. Silk of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) has been used to form a variety of biomaterials for medical applications. We genetically engineered B. mori to produce silk functionalized with growth factors to promote wound healing in vitro. In this study FGF-, EGF-, KGF-, PDGF- or VEGF-functionalized silk membranes were compared to native B. mori silk membranes without growth factors for their ability to support wound healing in vitro. All silk membranes were cytocompatible and supported macrophage secretion of neutrophil recruiting factor CXCL1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). VEGF-functionalized silk significantly outperformed other growth factor-functionalized silk membranes, but not native silk in angiogenesis assays. In addition, EGF- and VEGF-functionalized silk membranes slightly enhanced macrophage adhesion compared to silk without growth factors. In wound healing assays in vitro (reduction of wound lesion), dermal equivalents showed a higher wound healing capacity when covered with EGF-, FGF- or VEGF-functionalized silk membranes compared to native, KGF- or PDGF-functionalized silk membranes. Keratinocyte migration and growth is overstimulated by KGF- and VEGF-functionalized silk membranes. In conclusion, growth factor-functionalized silk membranes prepared from genetically engineered silk worm glands are promising wound dressings for future wound healing therapies.

  15. The multiple roles of epidermal growth factor repeat O-glycans in animal development

    PubMed Central

    Haltom, Amanda R; Jafar-Nejad, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeat is a common, evolutionarily conserved motif found in secreted proteins and the extracellular domain of transmembrane proteins. EGF repeats harbor six cysteine residues which form three disulfide bonds and help generate the three-dimensional structure of the EGF repeat. A subset of EGF repeats harbor consensus sequences for the addition of one or more specific O-glycans, which are initiated by O-glucose, O-fucose or O-N-acetylglucosamine. These glycans are relatively rare compared to mucin-type O-glycans. However, genetic experiments in model organisms and cell-based assays indicate that at least some of the glycosyltransferases involved in the addition of O-glycans to EGF repeats play important roles in animal development. These studies, combined with state-of-the-art biochemical and structural biology experiments have started to provide an in-depth picture of how these glycans regulate the function of the proteins to which they are linked. In this review, we will discuss the biological roles assigned to EGF repeat O-glycans and the corresponding glycosyltransferases. Since Notch receptors are the best studied proteins with biologically-relevant O-glycans on EGF repeats, a significant part of this review is devoted to the role of these glycans in the regulation of the Notch signaling pathway. We also discuss recently identified proteins other than Notch which depend on EGF repeat glycans to function properly. Several glycosyltransferases involved in the addition or elongation of O-glycans on EGF repeats are mutated in human diseases. Therefore, mechanistic understanding of the functional roles of these carbohydrate modifications is of interest from both basic science and translational perspectives. PMID:26175457

  16. Differential role of EGF and BFGF in human GBM-TIC proliferation: relationship to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor sensibility.

    PubMed

    Bajetto, A; Porcile, C; Pattarozzi, A; Scotti, L; Aceto, A; Daga, A; Barbieri, F; Florio, T

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most devastating human tumors being rapidly fatal despite aggressive surgery, radiation and chemotherapies. It is characterized by extensive dissemination of tumor cells within the brain that hinders complete surgical resection. GBM tumor initiating-cells (TICs) are a rare subpopulation of cells responsible for tumor development, growth, invasiveness and recurrence after chemotherapy. TICs from human GBM can be selected in vitro using the same conditions permissive for the growth of normal neural cells, of which share some features including marker expression, self-renewal capacity, long-term proliferation, and ability to differentiate into neuronal and glial cells. EGFR overexpression and its constitutive activation is one of the most important signaling alteration identified in GBM, and its pharmacological targeting represents an attractive therapeutic goal. We previously demonstrated that human GBM TICs have different sensitivity to the EGFR kinase inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib, depending on the differential modulation of downstream signaling cascades. In this work we investigated the mechanisms of resistance to erlotinib in two human GBM TIC cultures, analyzing EGF and bFGF individual contribution to proliferation, clonogenicity, and migration. We demonstrated the presence of a small cell subpopulation whose proliferation is supported by EGF and a larger one mainly dependent on bFGF. Thus, insensitivity to EGFR kinase inhibitors as far as TIC proliferation results from a predominant FGFR activation that hides the inhibitory effects induced on EGFR signaling. Conversely, EGF and bFGF induced cell migration with similar efficacy. In addition, unlike neural stem/progenitors cells, the removal of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans from cell surface was unable to discern EGF- and bFGF-dependent subpopulations in GBM TICs.

  17. Enhancement of trophoblast differentiation and survival by low molecular weight heparin requires heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor.

    PubMed

    Bolnick, Alan D; Bolnick, Jay M; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Kilburn, Brian A; Pasalodos, Omar J; Singhal, Pankaj K; Dai, Jing; Diamond, Michael P; Armant, D Randall; Drewlo, Sascha

    2017-06-01

    Does low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) require heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HBEGF) signaling to induce extravillous trophoblast differentiation and decrease apoptosis during oxidative stress? LMWH increased HBEGF expression and secretion, and HBEGF signaling was required to stimulate trophoblast extravillous differentiation, increase invasion in vitro and reduce trophoblast apoptosis during oxidative stress. Abnormal trophoblast differentiation and survival contribute to placental insufficiency syndromes, including preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Preeclampsia often manifests as a pro-thrombotic state, with unsuccessful transformation of the spiral arteries that reduces oxygen supply and can produce placental infarction. LMWH improves placental function by increasing blood flow. Recent data suggest that the actions of LMWH transcend its anti-coagulative properties, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. There is evidence that LMWH alters the expression of human HBEGF in trophoblast cells, which regulates human trophoblast pathophysiology. HBEGF, itself, is capable of increasing trophoblast survival and invasiveness. First-trimester placental explants and the HTR-8/SVneo cell line, established using extravillous trophoblast outgrowths from first-trimester villous explants, were treated in vitro with LMWH to examine the effects on HBEGF signaling and trophoblast function under normal physiological and pathological conditions. A highly specific antagonist of HBEGF and other inhibitors of HBEGF downstream signaling were used to determine the relationship between LMWH treatment and HBEGF. Placental tissues (n = 5) were obtained with IRB approval and patient consent from first-trimester terminations. Placental explants and HTR-8/SVneo cells were cultured on plastic or Matrigel™ and treated with a therapeutic dose of LMWH (Enoxaparin; 10 IU/ml), with or without CRM197, pan Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (ERBB

  18. Blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells for therapy of androgen-independent human prostate cancer growing in the bone of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Jin; Uehara, Hisanori; Karashima, Takashi; Shepherd, David L; Killion, Jerald J; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2003-03-01

    We determined whether blockade of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signaling pathway by oral administration of the EGF-R tyrosine kinase inhibitor (PKI 166) alone or in combination with injectable Taxol inhibits the growth of PC-3MM2 human prostate cancer cells in the bone of nude mice. Male nude mice implanted with PC-3MM2 cells in the tibia were treated with oral administrations of PKI 166 or PKI 166 plus injectable Taxol beginning 3 days after implantation. The incidence and size of bone tumors and destruction of bone were determined by digitalized radiography. Expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF-R, and activated EGF-R in tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. Oral administration of PKI 166 or PKI 166 plus injectable Taxol reduced the incidence and size of bone tumors and destruction of bone. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PC-3MM2 cells growing adjacent to the bone expressed high levels of EGF and activated EGF-R, whereas tumor cells in the adjacent musculature did not. Moreover, endothelial cells within the bone tumor lesions, but not in uninvolved bone or tumors in the muscle, expressed high levels of activated EGF-R. Treatment with PKI 166 and more so with PKI 166 plus Taxol significantly inhibited phosphorylation of EGF-R on tumor and endothelial cells and induced significant apoptosis and endothelial cells within tumor lesions. These data indicate that endothelial cells exposed to EGF produced by tumor cells express activated EGF-R and that targeting EGF-R can produce significant therapeutic effects against prostate cancer bone metastasis.

  19. Density-dependent regulation of growth of BSC-1 cells in cell culture: control of growth by serum factors.

    PubMed Central

    Holley, R W; Armour, R; Baldwin, J H; Brown, K D; Yeh, Y C

    1977-01-01

    BSC-1 cells grow slowly, to high cell density, in medium with 0.1% calf serum. An increase in the serum concentration increases both the growth rate of the cells and the final cell density. The serum can be replaced to some extent by epidermal growth factor (EGF). Initiation of DNA synthesis in BSC-1 cells that have spread into a "wound" in a crowded cell layer requires the addition of a trace of serum or EGF, if the cells have previously been deprived of serum. The binding of 125I-labeled EGF to low-density and high-density BSC-1 cells has been studied. Binding is faster to low-density cells. Cells at low cell density also bind much more EGF per cell than cells at high cell density. The fraction of bound 125I-labeled EGF that is present on the cell surface as intact EGF is larger at low than at high cell density. The results indicate that the number of available EGF receptors per cell decreases drastically as the cell density increases. It is suggested that a decrease in the number of available EGF receptor sites per cell, and the accompanying decrease in sensitivity of the cells to EGF, contributes to density-dependent regulation of growth of these cells. Images PMID:303774

  20. Near Infrared Optical Visualization of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Levels in COLO205 Colorectal Cell Line, Orthotopic Tumor in Mice and Human Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gadi; Lecht, Shimon; Oron-Herman, Mor; Momic, Tatjana; Nissan, Aviram; Lazarovici, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present the applicability of imaging epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor levels in preclinical models of COLO205 carcinoma cells in vitro, mice with orthotopic tumors and ex vivo colorectal tumor biopsies, using EGF-labeled with IRDye800CW (EGF-NIR). The near infrared (NIR) bio-imaging of COLO205 cultures indicated specific and selective binding, reflecting EGF receptors levels. In vivo imaging of tumors in mice showed that the highest signal/background ratio between tumor and adjacent tissue was achieved 48 hours post-injection. Dissected colorectal cancer tissues from different patients demonstrated ex vivo specific imaging using the NIR bio-imaging platform of the heterogeneous distributed EGF receptors. Moreover, in the adjacent gastrointestinal tissue of the same patients, which by Western blotting was demonstrated as EGF receptor negative, no labeling with EGF-NIR probe was detected. Present results support the concept of tumor imaging by measuring EGF receptor levels using EGF-NIR probe. This platform is advantageous for