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Sample records for factor b1 mediates

  1. Nuclear Factor κB1/RelA Mediates Inflammation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells at Atmospheric Oxygen Levels.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, Lakshmanan; Jose, Cynthia C; Arita, Adriana; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong; Zhang, Xiaoru; Yao, Yixin; Kartashov, Andrey V; Barski, Artem; Costa, Max; Cuddapah, Suresh

    2016-07-01

    Oxygen levels range from 2% to 9% in vivo. Atmospheric O2 levels (21%) are known to induce cell proliferation defects and cellular senescence in primary cell cultures. However, the mechanistic basis of the deleterious effects of higher O2 levels is not fully understood. On the other hand, immortalized cells including cancer cell lines, which evade cellular senescence are normally cultured at 21% O2 and the effects of higher O2 on these cells are understudied. Here, we addressed this problem by culturing immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells at ambient atmospheric, 21% O2 and lower, 10% O2. Our results show increased inflammatory response at 21% O2 but not at 10% O2. We found higher RelA binding at the NF-κB1/RelA target gene promoters as well as upregulation of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in cells cultured at 21% O2. RelA knockdown prevented the upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines at 21% O2, suggesting NF-κB1/RelA as a major mediator of inflammatory response in cells cultured at 21% O2. Interestingly, unlike the 21% O2 cultured cells, exposure of 10% O2 cultured cells to H2O2 did not elicit inflammatory response, suggesting increased ability to tolerate oxidative stress in cells cultured at lower O2 levels. PMID:26588041

  2. Tiam1 mediates neurite outgrowth induced by ephrin-B1 and EphA2

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masamitsu; Ohashi, Riuko; Nakamura, Ritsuko; Shinmura, Kazuya; Kamo, Takaharu; Sakai, Ryuichi; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2004-01-01

    Bidirectional signals mediated by Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane-bound ligands, ephrins, play pivotal roles in the formation of neural networks by induction of both collapse and elongation of neurites. However, the downstream molecular modules to deliver these cues are largely unknown. We report here that the interaction of a Rac1-specific guanine nucleotide-exchanging factor, Tiam1, with ephrin-B1 and EphA2 mediates neurite outgrowth. In cells coexpressing Tiam1 and ephrin-B1, Rac1 is activated by the extracellular stimulation of clustered soluble EphB2 receptors. Similarly, soluble ephrin-A1 activates Rac1 in cells coexpressing Tiam1 and EphA2. Cortical neurons from the E14 mouse embryos and neuroblastoma cells significantly extend neurites when placed on surfaces coated with the extracellular domain of EphB2 or ephrin-A1, which were abolished by the forced expression of the dominant-negative mutant of ephrin-B1 or EphA2. Furthermore, the introduction of a dominant-negative form of Tiam1 also inhibits neurite outgrowth induced by the ephrin-B1 and EphA2 signals. These results indicate that Tiam1 is required for neurite outgrowth induced by both ephrin-B1-mediated reverse signaling and EphA2-mediated forward signaling. PMID:14988728

  3. Lamin B1 mediates cell-autonomous neuropathology in a leukodystrophy mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Mary Y.; Lin, Shu-Ting; Verret, Laure; Huang, Yong; Kamiya, Sherry; Padiath, Quasar S.; Tong, Ying; Palop, Jorge J.; Huang, Eric J.; Ptácχek, Louis J.; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Adult-onset autosomal-dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is a progressive and fatal neurological disorder characterized by early autonomic dysfunction, cognitive impairment, pyramidal tract and cerebellar dysfunction, and white matter loss in the central nervous system. ADLD is caused by duplication of the LMNB1 gene, which results in increased lamin B1 transcripts and protein expression. How duplication of LMNB1 leads to myelin defects is unknown. To address this question, we developed a mouse model of ADLD that overexpresses lamin B1. These mice exhibited cognitive impairment and epilepsy, followed by age-dependent motor deficits. Selective overexpression of lamin B1 in oligodendrocytes also resulted in marked motor deficits and myelin defects, suggesting these deficits are cell autonomous. Proteomic and genome-wide transcriptome studies indicated that lamin B1 overexpression is associated with downregulation of proteolipid protein, a highly abundant myelin sheath component that was previously linked to another myelin-related disorder, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. Furthermore, we found that lamin B1 overexpression leads to reduced occupancy of Yin Yang 1 transcription factor at the promoter region of proteolipid protein. These studies identify a mechanism by which lamin B1 overexpression mediates oligodendrocyte cell–autonomous neuropathology in ADLD and implicate lamin B1 as an important regulator of myelin formation and maintenance during aging. PMID:23676464

  4. NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S and Nuclear Factor κB1 Mediate Acid-Induced Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 Expression in Barrett’s Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoxu; Li, Dan; Resnick, Murray B.; Wands, Jack

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of progression from Barrett’s esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not known. Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to be important in esophageal tumorigenesis. We have shown that COX-2 mediates acid-induced PGE2 production. The prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) responsible for acid-induced PGE2 production in BE, however, is not known. We found that microsomal PGES1 (mPGES1), mPGES2, and cytosolic PGES (cPGES) were present in FLO EA cells. Pulsed acid treatment significantly increased mPGES1 mRNA and protein levels but had little or no effect on mPGES2 or cPGES mRNA. Knockdown of mPGES1 by mPGES1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked acid-induced increase in PGE2 production and thymidine incorporation. Knockdown of NADPH oxidase, NOX5-S, a variant lacking calcium-binding domains, by NOX5 siRNA significantly inhibited acid-induced increase in mPGES1 expression, thymidine incorporation, and PGE2 production. Overexpression of NOX5-S significantly increased the luciferase activity in FLO cells transfected with a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in vivo activation reporter plasmid pNF-κB-Luc. Knockdown of NF-κB1 p50 by p50 siRNA significantly decreased acid-induced increase in mPGES1 expression, thymidine incorporation, and PGE2 production. Two novel NF-κB binding elements, GGAGTCTCCC and CGGGACACCC, were identified in the mPGES1 gene promoter. We conclude that mPGES1 mediates acid-induced increase in PGE2 production and cell proliferation. Acid-induced mPGES1 expression depends on activation of NOX5-S and NF-κB1 p50. Microsomal PGES1 may be a potential target to prevent or treat EA. PMID:23439561

  5. Ephrin-B1 transduces signals to activate integrin-mediated migration, attachment and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huynh-Do, Uyen; Vindis, Cécile; Liu, Hua; Cerretti, Douglas Pat; McGrew, Jeffrey T; Enriquez, Miriam; Chen, Jin; Daniel, Thomas O

    2002-08-01

    Ephrin-B/EphB family proteins are implicated in bidirectional signaling and were initially defined through the function of their ectodomain sequences in activating EphB receptor tyrosine kinases. Ephrin-B1-3 are transmembrane proteins sharing highly conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic sequences. Here we use a soluble EphB1 ectodomain fusion protein (EphB1/Fc) to demonstrate that ephrin-B1 transduces signals that regulate cell attachment and migration. EphB1/Fc induced endothelial ephrin-B1 tyrosine phosphorylation, migration and integrin-mediated (alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(5)beta(1)) attachment and promoted neovascularization, in vivo, in a mouse corneal micropocket assay. Activation of ephrin-B1 by EphB1/Fc induced phosphorylation of p46 JNK but not ERK-1/2 or p38 MAPkinases. By contrast, mutant ephrin-B1s bearing either a cytoplasmic deletion (ephrin-B1DeltaCy) or a deletion of four C-terminal amino acids (ephrin-B1DeltaPDZbd) fail to activate p46 JNK. Transient expression of intact ephin-B1 conferred EphB1/Fc migration responses on CHO cells, whereas the ephrin-B1DeltaCy and ephrin-B1DeltaPDZbd mutants were inactive. Thus ephrin-B1 transduces 'outside-in' signals through C-terminal protein interactions that affect integrin-mediated attachment and migration. PMID:12118063

  6. Substrate- and pH-Specific Antifolate Transport Mediated by Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1-SLCO2B1)

    PubMed Central

    Visentin, Michele; Chang, Min-Hwang; Romero, Michael F.; Zhao, Rongbao

    2012-01-01

    Human organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1 (OATP-B; SLCO2B1) is expressed in the apical membrane of the small intestine and the hepatocyte basolateral membrane and transports structurally diverse organic anions with a wide spectrum of pH sensitivities. This article describes highly pH-dependent OATP2B1-mediated antifolate transport and compares this property with that of sulfobromophthalein (BSP), a preferred OATP2B1 substrate. At pH 5.5 and low substrate concentrations (∼2.5 μM), only [3H]pemetrexed influx [in contrast to methotrexate (MTX), folic acid, and reduced folates] could be detected in OATP2B1-transfected HeLa R1-11 cells that lack endogenous folate-specific transporters. Influx was optimal at pH 4.5 to 5.5, falling precipitously with an increase in pH >6.0; BSP influx was independent of pH. Influx of both substrates at low pH was markedly inhibited by the proton ionophore 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone; BSP influx was also suppressed at pH 7.4. At 300 μM MTX, influx was one-third that of pemetrexed; influx of folic acid, (6S)5-methyltetrahydrofolate, or (6S)5-formyltetrahydrofolate was not detected. There were similar findings in OATP2B1-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes. The pemetrexed influx Km was ∼300 μM; the raltitrexed influx Ki was ∼70 μM at pH 5.5. Stable expression of OAPT2B1 in HeLa R1-11 cells resulted in substantial raltitrexed, but modest pemetrexed, growth inhibition consistent with their affinities for this carrier. Hence, OATP2B1 represents a low-affinity transport route for antifolates (relative affinities: raltitrexed > pemetrexed > MTX) at low pH. In contrast, the high affinity of this transporter for BSP relative to antifolates seems to be intrinsic to its binding site and independent of the proton concentration. PMID:22021325

  7. Increased susceptibility to atrial fibrillation secondary to atrial fibrosis in transgenic goats expressing transforming growth factor - B1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in people with significant morbidity and mortality. There is a strong association between atrial fibrosis and AF. Transforming growth factor B1 (TGF-B1) is an essential mediator of atrial fibrosis in animal models and human pat...

  8. Effect of pregnane X receptor ligands on transport mediated by human OATP1B1 and OATP1B3

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Chunshan; Miao, Yi; Thompson, Lucas; Wahlgren, Bret; Mock, Melissa; Stieger, Bruno; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in hepatocytes. Numerous drugs are pregnane X receptor ligands. To bind to their receptor they must cross the sinusoidal membrane. Organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) are polyspecific transporters expressed at the sinusoidal membrane of human hepatocytes. They mediate transport of a variety of drugs including the pregnane X receptor ligands rifampicin and dexamethasone. To test whether additional pregnane X receptor ligands interact with OATP1B1- and 1B3-mediated transport, we developed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines stably expressing OATP1B1 or 1B3 at high levels. OATP1B1- and 1B3-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide uptake was inhibited by several pregnane X receptor ligands in a concentration dependent way. IC50 values for rifampicin, paclitaxel, mifepristone, and troglitazone were within their respective pharmacological free plasma concentrations. Kinetic analysis revealed that clotrimazole inhibits OATP1B1-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide transport with a Ki of 7.7 ± 0.3 μM in a competitive way. However, uptake of OATP1B3-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide was stimulated and this stimulation was due to an increased apparent affinity. Transport of estrone-3-sulfate was hardly affected while all other substrates tested were inhibited. Additional azoles like fluconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole did not stimulate OATP1B3-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide transport. In summary, these results demonstrate that pregnane X receptor ligands, by inhibiting or stimulating OATP-mediated uptake, can lead to drug-drug interactions at the transporter level. PMID:18321482

  9. Chronic Moderate Alcohol Intakes Accelerate SR-B1 Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport.

    PubMed

    Li, Menghua; Diao, Yan; Liu, Ying; Huang, Hui; Li, Yanze; Tan, Peizhu; Liang, Huan; He, Qi; Nie, Junhui; Dong, Xingli; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Lingyun; Gao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is essential for all animal life. However, a high level of cholesterol in the body is strongly associated with the progression of various severe diseases. In our study, the potential involvement of alcohol in the regulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor scavenger receptor class B and type I (SR-B1)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport was investigated. We separated male C57BL/6 mice into four diets: control, alcohol, Control + HC and alcohol + HC. The SR-B1 level and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate- high- density lipoprotein (DiI-HDL) uptake were also measured in AML12 cells and HL7702 cells treated with alcohol. The control + HC diet led to increased hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels while alcohol + HC led no significant change. Compared with that of the control group, the SR-B1 mRNA level was elevated by 27.1% (P < 0.05), 123.8% (P < 0.001) and 343.6% (P < 0.001) in the alcohol, control + HC and alcohol + HC groups, respectively. In AML12 and HL7702 cells, SR-B1 level and DiI-HDL uptake were repressed by SR-B1 siRNA or GW9662. However, these effects were reversed through alcohol treatment. These data suggest that a moderate amount of alcohol plays a novel role in reverse cholesterol transport, mainly mediated by PPARγ and SR-B1. PMID:27618957

  10. Chronic Moderate Alcohol Intakes Accelerate SR-B1 Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    PubMed Central

    Li, Menghua; Diao, Yan; Liu, Ying; Huang, Hui; Li, Yanze; Tan, Peizhu; Liang, Huan; He, Qi; Nie, Junhui; Dong, Xingli; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Lingyun; Gao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is essential for all animal life. However, a high level of cholesterol in the body is strongly associated with the progression of various severe diseases. In our study, the potential involvement of alcohol in the regulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor scavenger receptor class B and type I (SR-B1)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport was investigated. We separated male C57BL/6 mice into four diets: control, alcohol, Control + HC and alcohol + HC. The SR-B1 level and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate- high- density lipoprotein (DiI-HDL) uptake were also measured in AML12 cells and HL7702 cells treated with alcohol. The control + HC diet led to increased hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels while alcohol + HC led no significant change. Compared with that of the control group, the SR-B1 mRNA level was elevated by 27.1% (P < 0.05), 123.8% (P < 0.001) and 343.6% (P < 0.001) in the alcohol, control + HC and alcohol + HC groups, respectively. In AML12 and HL7702 cells, SR-B1 level and DiI-HDL uptake were repressed by SR-B1 siRNA or GW9662. However, these effects were reversed through alcohol treatment. These data suggest that a moderate amount of alcohol plays a novel role in reverse cholesterol transport, mainly mediated by PPARγ and SR-B1. PMID:27618957

  11. Dioxin receptor and SLUG transcription factors regulate the insulator activity of B1 SINE retrotransposons via an RNA polymerase switch.

    PubMed

    Román, Angel Carlos; González-Rico, Francisco J; Moltó, Eduardo; Hernando, Henar; Neto, Ana; Vicente-Garcia, Cristina; Ballestar, Esteban; Gómez-Skarmeta, José L; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; White, Robert J; Montoliu, Lluís; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M

    2011-03-01

    Complex genomes utilize insulators and boundary elements to help define spatial and temporal gene expression patterns. We report that a genome-wide B1 SINE (Short Interspersed Nuclear Element) retrotransposon (B1-X35S) has potent intrinsic insulator activity in cultured cells and live animals. This insulation is mediated by binding of the transcription factors dioxin receptor (AHR) and SLUG (SNAI2) to consensus elements present in the SINE. Transcription of B1-X35S is required for insulation. While basal insulator activity is maintained by RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription, AHR-induced insulation involves release of Pol III and engagement of Pol II transcription on the same strand. B1-X35S insulation is also associated with enrichment of heterochromatin marks H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 downstream of B1-X35S, an effect that varies with cell type. B1-X35S binds parylated CTCF and, consistent with a chromatin barrier activity, its positioning between two adjacent genes correlates with their differential expression in mouse tissues. Hence, B1 SINE retrotransposons represent genome-wide insulators activated by transcription factors that respond to developmental, oncogenic, or toxicological stimuli. PMID:21324874

  12. CYP1B1 expression, a potential risk factor for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Erdmann, Christine A.; Russell, Marion

    2001-05-31

    CYP1B1 expression in non-tumor breast tissue from breast cancer patients and cancer-free individuals was determined to test the hypothesis that high CYP1B1 expression is a risk factor for breast cancer. Large interindividual variations in CYP1B1 expression were found with CYP1B1 levels notably higher in breast cancer patients than cancer-free individuals. The results indicate that CYP1B1 might play a role in breast cancer either through increased PAH activation or through metabolism of endogenous estrogen to a carcinogenic derivative.

  13. Cyp26b1 mediates differential neurogenicity in axial-specific populations of adult spinal cord progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, Carly; Chan, Sherwin Chun Leung; Tsang, Sze Lan; Wu, Wutian; Sham, Mai Har

    2012-08-10

    Utilization of endogenous adult spinal cord progenitor cells (SCPCs) for neuronal regeneration is a promising strategy for spinal cord repair. To mobilize endogenous SCPCs for injury repair, it is necessary to understand their intrinsic properties and to identify signaling factors that can stimulate their neurogenic potential. In this study, we demonstrate that adult mouse SCPCs express distinct combinatorial Hox genes and exhibit axial-specific stem cell properties. Lumbar-derived neurospheres displayed higher primary sphere formation and greater neurogenicity compared with cervical- and thoracic-derived neurospheres. To further understand the mechanisms governing neuronal differentiation of SCPCs from specific axial regions, we examined the neurogenic responses of adult SCPCs to retinoic acid (RA), an essential factor for adult neurogenesis. Although RA is a potent inducer of neuronal differentiation, we found that RA enhanced the generation of neurons specifically in cervical- but not lumbar-derived cells. We further demonstrate that the differential RA response was mediated by the RA-degrading enzyme cytochrome P450 oxidase b1 Cyp26b1. Lumbar cells express high levels of Cyp26b1 and low levels of the RA-synthesizing enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase Raldh2, resulting in limited activation of the RA signaling pathway in these cells. In contrast, low Cyp26b1 expression in cervical spinal cord progenitor cells allows RA signaling to be readily activated upon RA treatment. The intrinsic heterogeneity and signaling factor regulation among adult SCPCs suggest that different niche factor regimens are required for site-specific mobilization of endogenous SCPCs from distinct spatial regions of the spinal cord for injury repair.

  14. NR0B1 is required for the oncogenic phenotype mediated by EWS/FLI in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Michelle; Smith, Richard; Lessnick, Stephen L

    2006-11-01

    A number of solid tumors, such as alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and myxoid liposarcoma, are associated with recurrent translocation events that encode fusion proteins. Ewing's sarcoma is a pediatric tumor that serves as a prototype for this tumor class. Ewing's sarcomas usually harbor the (11;22)(q24;q12) translocation. The t(11;22) encodes the EWS/FLI fusion oncoprotein. EWS/FLI functions as an aberrant transcription factor, but the key target genes that are involved in oncogenesis are largely unknown. Although some target genes have been defined, many of these have been identified in heterologous model systems with uncertain relevance to the human disease. To understand the function of EWS/FLI and its targets in a more clinically relevant system, we used retroviral-mediated RNAi to "knock-down" the fusion protein in patient-derived Ewing's sarcoma cell lines. By combining transcriptional profiling data from three of these lines, we identified a conserved transcriptional response to EWS/FLI. The gene that was most reproducibly up-regulated by EWS/FLI was NR0B1. NR0B1 is a developmentally important orphan nuclear receptor with no previously defined role in oncogenesis. We validated NR0B1 as an EWS/FLI-dysregulated gene and confirmed its expression in primary human tumor samples. Functional studies revealed that ongoing NR0B1 expression is required for the transformed phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. These studies define a new role for NR0B1 in oncogenic transformation and emphasize the utility of analyzing the function of EWS/FLI in Ewing's sarcoma cells. PMID:17114343

  15. Aflatoxin B1 and M1 Degradation by Lac2 from Pleurotus pulmonarius and Redox Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Martina; Fanelli, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Liuzzi, Vania C.; Quintieri, Laura; Cimmarusti, Maria T.; Monaci, Linda; Haidukowski, Miriam; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Sanjust, Enrico; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Laccases (LCs) are multicopper oxidases that find application as versatile biocatalysts for the green bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenobiotics. In this study we elucidate the degrading activity of Lac2 pure enzyme form Pleurotus pulmonarius towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and M1 (AFM1). LC enzyme was purified using three chromatographic steps and identified as Lac2 through zymogram and LC-MS/MS. The degradation assays were performed in vitro at 25 °C for 72 h in buffer solution. AFB1 degradation by Lac2 direct oxidation was 23%. Toxin degradation was also investigated in the presence of three redox mediators, (2,2′-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) (ABTS) and two naturally-occurring phenols, acetosyringone (AS) and syringaldehyde (SA). The direct effect of the enzyme and the mediated action of Lac2 with redox mediators univocally proved the correlation between Lac2 activity and aflatoxins degradation. The degradation of AFB1 was enhanced by the addition of all mediators at 10 mM, with AS being the most effective (90% of degradation). AFM1 was completely degraded by Lac2 with all mediators at 10 mM. The novelty of this study relies on the identification of a pure enzyme as capable of degrading AFB1 and, for the first time, AFM1, and on the evidence that the mechanism of an effective degradation occurs via the mediation of natural phenolic compounds. These results opened new perspective for Lac2 application in the food and feed supply chains as a biotransforming agent of AFB1 and AFM1. PMID:27563923

  16. Coxsackieviruses B1, B3, and B5 use decay accelerating factor as a receptor for cell attachment.

    PubMed Central

    Shafren, D R; Bates, R C; Agrez, M V; Herd, R L; Burns, G F; Barry, R D

    1995-01-01

    Receptor binding and subsequent cell-mediated internalization or disassembly are the initial steps in virus replication. Cell surface molecules that participate in this process are the primary determinants of virus tissue tropism. Monoclonal antibody blockade, immunoprecipitation, and DNA transfection were used to identify decay accelerating factor as a major cell attachment receptor for coxsackieviruses B1, B3, and B5. However, expression of human decay acceleration factor on the surface of nonpermissive murine fibroblasts led only to virus attachment without subsequent replication, and it was concluded that an additional cellular cofactor(s) is required to facilitate cell entry and subsequent replication. PMID:7538177

  17. Co-repressor activity of scaffold attachment factor B1 requires sumoylation

    SciTech Connect

    Garee, Jason P.; Meyer, Rene; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} SAFB1 is sumoylated to two lysine residues K231 and K294. {yields} SAFB1 sumoylation is regulated by PIAS1 and SENP1. {yields} Sumoylation of SAFB1 regulates its transcriptional repressor activity. {yields} Mutation of sumoylation sites leads to decreased SAFB1 binding to HDAC3. -- Abstract: Sumoylation is an emerging modification associated with a variety of cellular processes including the regulation of transcriptional activities of nuclear receptors and their coregulators. As SUMO modifications are often associated with transcriptional repression, we examined if sumoylation was involved in modulation of the transcriptional repressive activity of scaffold attachment factor B1. Here we show that SAFB1 is modified by both the SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 family of proteins, on lysine's K231 and K294. Further, we demonstrate that SAFB1 can interact with PIAS1, a SUMO E3 ligase which mediates SAFB1 sumoylation. Additionally, SENP1 was identified as the enzyme desumoylating SAFB1. Mutation of the SAFB1 sumoylation sites lead to a loss of transcriptional repression, at least in part due to decreased interaction with HDAC3, a known transcriptional repressor and SAFB1 binding partner. In summary, the transcriptional repressor SAFB1 is modified by both SUMO1 and SUMO2/3, and this modification is necessary for its full repressive activity.

  18. Sodium butyrate down-regulates tristetraprolin-mediated cyclin B1 expression independent of the formation of processing bodies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiang-Tao; Xiao, Xiao-Qiang; Dai, Ju-Ji

    2015-12-01

    Butyrate regulates multiple host cellular events including the cell cycle; however, little is known about the molecular mechanism by which butyrate induces a global down-regulation of the expression of genes associated with the cell cycle. Here, we demonstrate that treating HEK293T cells and the non-small-cell lung cancer cell line A549 with a high concentration of sodium butyrate reduces cyclin B1 expression. The underlying mechanism is related to the destabilization of its mRNA by tristetraprolin, which is up-regulated in response to sodium butyrate. Specifically, the sodium butyrate stimulation reduces the mRNA and protein expression of cyclin B1 and, conversely, upregulates tristetraprolin expression. Importantly, the overexpression of tristetraprolin in HEK293T decreases the mRNA and protein expression of cyclin B1; in contrast, knockdown of tristetraprolin mediated by small interfering RNA increases its expression in response to sodium butyrate treatment for both HEK293T and A549 cells. Furthermore, results from luciferase reporter assays and RNA immunoprecipitation indicate that sodium butyrate accelerates 3' UTR-dependent cyclin B1 decay by enhancing the binding of tristetraprolin to the 3' untranslated region of cyclin B1. Surprisingly, the overexpression of tristetraprolin prevents the formation of processing bodies, and the siRNA-mediated silencing of EDC4 does not restore the sodium butyrate-induced reduction of cyclin B1 expression. Thus, we confirm that NaBu regulates ZFP36-mediated cyclin B1 expression in a manner that is independent of the formation of P-bodies. The above findings disclose a novel mechanism of sodium butyrate-mediated gene expression regulation and might benefit its application in tumor treatment.

  19. The phospholipid flippase ATP8B1 mediates apical localization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator.

    PubMed

    van der Mark, Vincent A; de Jonge, Hugo R; Chang, Jung-Chin; Ho-Mok, Kam S; Duijst, Suzanne; Vidović, Dragana; Carlon, Marianne S; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Paulusma, Coen C

    2016-09-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the phospholipid flippase ATP8B1. Apart from severe cholestatic liver disease, many PFIC1 patients develop extrahepatic symptoms characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF), such as pulmonary infection, sweat gland dysfunction and failure to thrive. CF is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel essential for epithelial fluid transport. Previously it was shown that CFTR transcript levels were strongly reduced in livers of PFIC1 patients. Here we have investigated the hypothesis that ATP8B1 is important for proper CFTR expression and function. We analyzed CFTR expression in ATP8B1-depleted intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cell lines and assessed CFTR function by measuring short-circuit currents across transwell-grown ATP8B1-depleted intestinal T84 cells and by a genetically-encoded fluorescent chloride sensor. In addition, we studied CFTR surface expression upon induction of CFTR transcription. We show that CFTR protein levels are strongly reduced in the apical membrane of human ATP8B1-depleted intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cell lines, a phenotype that coincided with reduced CFTR activity. Apical membrane insertion upon induction of ectopically-expressed CFTR was strongly impaired in ATP8B1-depleted cells. We conclude that ATP8B1 is essential for correct apical localization of CFTR in human intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cells, and that impaired CFTR localization underlies some of the extrahepatic phenotypes observed in ATP8B1 deficiency. PMID:27301931

  20. L1-mediated retrotransposition of murine B1 and B2 SINEs recapitulated in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Dewannieux, Marie; Heidmann, Thierry

    2005-06-01

    SINEs are short interspersed nucleotide elements with transpositional activity, present at a high copy number (up to a million) in mammalian genomes. They are 80-400 bp long, non-coding sequences which derive either from the 7SL RNA (e.g. human Alus, murine B1s) or tRNA (e.g. murine B2s) polymerase III-driven genes. We have previously demonstrated that Alus very efficiently divert the enzymatic machinery of the autonomous L1 LINE (long interspersed nucleotide element) retrotransposons to transpose at a high rate. Here we show, using an ex vivo assay for transposition, that both B1 and B2 SINEs can be mobilized by murine LINEs, with the hallmarks of a bona fide retrotransposition process, including target site duplications of varying lengths and integrations into A-rich sequences. Despite different phylogenetic origins, transposition of the tRNA-derived B2 sequences is as efficient as that of the human Alus, whereas that of B1s is 20-100-fold lower despite a similar high copy number of these elements in the mouse genome. We provide evidence, via an appropriate nucleotide substitution within the B1 sequence in a domain essential for its intracellular targeting, that the current B1 SINEs are not optimal for transposition, a feature most probably selected for the host sake in the course of evolution.

  1. ATP8B1-mediated spatial organization of Cdc42 signaling maintains singularity during enterocyte polarization

    PubMed Central

    Bruurs, Lucas J.M.; Donker, Lisa; Zwakenberg, Susan; Zwartkruis, Fried J.; Begthel, Harry; Knisely, A.S.; Posthuma, George; van de Graaf, Stan F.J.; Paulusma, Coen C.

    2015-01-01

    During yeast cell polarization localization of the small GTPase, cell division control protein 42 homologue (Cdc42) is clustered to ensure the formation of a single bud. Here we show that the disease-associated flippase ATPase class I type 8b member 1 (ATP8B1) enables Cdc42 clustering during enterocyte polarization. Loss of this regulation results in increased apical membrane size with scattered apical recycling endosomes and permits the formation of more than one apical domain, resembling the singularity defect observed in yeast. Mechanistically, we show that to become apically clustered, Cdc42 requires the interaction between its polybasic region and negatively charged membrane lipids provided by ATP8B1. Disturbing this interaction, either by ATP8B1 depletion or by introduction of a Cdc42 mutant defective in lipid binding, increases Cdc42 mobility and results in apical membrane enlargement. Re-establishing Cdc42 clustering, by tethering it to the apical membrane or lowering its diffusion, restores normal apical membrane size in ATP8B1-depleted cells. We therefore conclude that singularity regulation by Cdc42 is conserved between yeast and human and that this regulation is required to maintain healthy tissue architecture. PMID:26416959

  2. ATP8B1-mediated spatial organization of Cdc42 signaling maintains singularity during enterocyte polarization.

    PubMed

    Bruurs, Lucas J M; Donker, Lisa; Zwakenberg, Susan; Zwartkruis, Fried J; Begthel, Harry; Knisely, A S; Posthuma, George; van de Graaf, Stan F J; Paulusma, Coen C; Bos, Johannes L

    2015-09-28

    During yeast cell polarization localization of the small GTPase, cell division control protein 42 homologue (Cdc42) is clustered to ensure the formation of a single bud. Here we show that the disease-associated flippase ATPase class I type 8b member 1 (ATP8B1) enables Cdc42 clustering during enterocyte polarization. Loss of this regulation results in increased apical membrane size with scattered apical recycling endosomes and permits the formation of more than one apical domain, resembling the singularity defect observed in yeast. Mechanistically, we show that to become apically clustered, Cdc42 requires the interaction between its polybasic region and negatively charged membrane lipids provided by ATP8B1. Disturbing this interaction, either by ATP8B1 depletion or by introduction of a Cdc42 mutant defective in lipid binding, increases Cdc42 mobility and results in apical membrane enlargement. Re-establishing Cdc42 clustering, by tethering it to the apical membrane or lowering its diffusion, restores normal apical membrane size in ATP8B1-depleted cells. We therefore conclude that singularity regulation by Cdc42 is conserved between yeast and human and that this regulation is required to maintain healthy tissue architecture. PMID:26416959

  3. HNRNPA2B1 is a mediator of m6A-dependent nuclear RNA processing events

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Claudio R.; Goodarzi, Hani; Lee, Hyeseung; Liu, Xuhang; Tavazoie, Saeed; Tavazoie, Sohail F.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal modification of messenger RNA. While the presence of m6A on transcripts can impact alternative splicing, a nuclear reader of this mark that mediates the processing of nuclear transcripts has not been identified. We find that the RNA-binding HNRNPA2B1 protein binds m6A-bearing RNAs in vivo and in vitro and its biochemical footprint matches the m6A consensus motif. HNRNPA2B1 directly binds a set of nuclear transcripts and modulates their alternative splicing in a similar manner as the m6A ‘writer’ METTL3. Moreover, HNRNPA2B1 binds to m6A marks in a subset of primary-miRNA transcripts, interacts with the microRNA Microprocessor complex protein DGCR8, and promotes primary miRNA processing—phenocopying the effect of METTL3 depletion on the processing of these precursor transcripts. We propose HNRNPA2B1 to be a nuclear reader of the m6A mark and to mediate, in part, this mark’s effects on primary microRNA processing and alternative splicing. PMID:26321680

  4. Organic anion transporter 3- and organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1- and 1B3-mediated transport of catalposide

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kwon, Mihwa; Lee, Yongnam; Yoo, Ji Seok; Shin, Dae Hee; Song, Im-Sook; Lee, Hye Suk

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro transport characteristics of catalposide in HEK293 cells overexpressing organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The transport mechanism of catalposide was investigated in HEK293 and LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing the relevant transporters. The uptake of catalposide was 319-, 13.6-, and 9.3-fold greater in HEK293 cells overexpressing OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters, respectively, than in HEK293 control cells. The increased uptake of catalposide via the OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters was decreased to basal levels in the presence of representative inhibitors such as probenecid, furosemide, and cimetidine (for OAT3) and cyclosporin A, gemfibrozil, and rifampin (for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3). The concentration-dependent OAT3-mediated uptake of catalposide revealed the following kinetic parameters: Michaelis constant (Km) =41.5 μM, maximum uptake rate (Vmax) =46.2 pmol/minute, and intrinsic clearance (CLint) =1.11 μL/minute. OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated catalposide uptake also showed concentration dependency, with low CLint values of 0.035 and 0.034 μL/minute, respectively. However, the OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, and BCRP transporters were apparently not involved in the uptake of catalposide into cells. In addition, catalposide inhibited the transport activities of OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 83, 200, and 235 μM, respectively. However, catalposide did not significantly inhibit the transport activities of OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, or BCRP. In conclusion, OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 are major transporters that may regulate the pharmacokinetic properties and may cause herb–drug interactions of catalposide, although their clinical relevance awaits further evaluation. PMID:25653502

  5. Pharmacokinetic effects of curcumin on docetaxel mediated by OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and CYP450s.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolin; Li, Junxiu; Guo, Chaorui; Xing, Han; Xu, Jie; Wen, Yanli; Qiu, Zhixia; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zheng, Yi; Chen, Xijing; Zhao, Di

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin can synergistically enhance docetaxel's in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity and has been co-administrated with docetaxel in clinical trials. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel and explore its mechanism on OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and human liver microsomes (HLMs). In rats, curcumin increased the docetaxel area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-8h) and the terminal half-life (t1/2) to 1.86- and 1.55-fold, respectively. Moreover, curcumin decreased the clearance (CL) of docetaxel to 52.1%. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably expressing OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 were used to observe the effects of curcumin on OATP1B1 and OATP1B3-mediated uptake of docetaxel. Curcumin exhibited potent inhibition on OATP1B1 and OATP1B3-mediated docetaxel uptake with IC50 values of 3.81 ± 1.19 μM and 33.70 ± 1.22 μM, respectively. The inhibition of curcumin on docetaxel metabolism in HLMs indicated that curcumin can modestly inhibit the metabolism of docetaxel with the IC50 value of 22.70 ± 1.13 μM and Ki value of 24.72 ± 4.24 μM. The preclinical and clinical improved docetaxel's therapeutic efficacy when co-administrated with curcumin may be due to the inhibition of curcumin on OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and HLMs activities. Close attention should be paid when combined treatment with docetaxel and curcumin carried out clinically. PMID:27452633

  6. Montelukast Disposition: No Indication of Transporter-Mediated Uptake in OATP2B1 and OATP1B1 Expressing HEK293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brännström, Marie; Nordell, Pär; Bonn, Britta; Davis, Andrew M.; Palmgren, Anna-Pia; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Rubin, Katarina; Grime, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies with montelukast show variability in effect and polymorphic OATP2B1-dependent absorption has previously been implicated as a possible cause. This claim has been challenged with conflicting data and here we used OATP2B1-transfected HEK293 cells to clarify the mechanisms involved. For montelukast, no significant difference in cell uptake between HEK-OATP2B1 and empty vector cell lines was observed at pH 6.5 or pH 7.4, and no concentration-dependent uptake was detected. Montelukast is a carboxylic acid, a relatively potent inhibitor of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1, and has previously been postulated to be actively transported into human hepatocytes. Using OATP1B1-transfected HEK293 cells and primary human hepatocytes in the presence of OATP inhibitors we demonstrate for the first time that active OATP-dependent transport is unlikely to play a significant role in the human disposition of montelukast. PMID:26694455

  7. Montelukast Disposition: No Indication of Transporter-Mediated Uptake in OATP2B1 and OATP1B1 Expressing HEK293 Cells.

    PubMed

    Brännström, Marie; Nordell, Pär; Bonn, Britta; Davis, Andrew M; Palmgren, Anna-Pia; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Rubin, Katarina; Grime, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies with montelukast show variability in effect and polymorphic OATP2B1-dependent absorption has previously been implicated as a possible cause. This claim has been challenged with conflicting data and here we used OATP2B1-transfected HEK293 cells to clarify the mechanisms involved. For montelukast, no significant difference in cell uptake between HEK-OATP2B1 and empty vector cell lines was observed at pH 6.5 or pH 7.4, and no concentration-dependent uptake was detected. Montelukast is a carboxylic acid, a relatively potent inhibitor of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1, and has previously been postulated to be actively transported into human hepatocytes. Using OATP1B1-transfected HEK293 cells and primary human hepatocytes in the presence of OATP inhibitors we demonstrate for the first time that active OATP-dependent transport is unlikely to play a significant role in the human disposition of montelukast. PMID:26694455

  8. Identification, Ki determination and CoMFA analysis of nuclear receptor ligands as competitive inhibitors of OATP1B1-mediated estradiol-17β-glucuronide transport

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Chunshan; Wahlgren, Brett; Lushington, Gerald H.; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Evidence shows that drug-drug interactions can occur at the level of drug transporters such as the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), a group of membrane solute carriers that mediate the sodium-independent transport of a wide range of amphipathic organic compounds. The polyspecific OATP1B1 is exclusively expressed at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes and mediates uptake of amphipathic organic compounds from blood into hepatocytes. Nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that play an important role in xenobiotic disposition and human diseases. Quite a few nuclear receptor ligands interact with transport proteins. A high-resolution three-dimensional structure is critical to understand the polyspecificity of OATP1B1 to predict and prevent adverse drug-drug interactions. Unfortunately there are no crystal structures of OATPs/Oatps available to date. Therefore, in this study we attempted to elucidate the characteristics of the substrate binding site of OATP1B1 based on small molecules interacting with it. First, we identified inhibitors of the OATP1B1 model substrate estradiol-17β-glucuronide from about forty nuclear receptor ligands. Among them, GW1929, paclitaxel and troglitazone were strong inhibitors, while 5α-androstane, 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol-17-hexahydrobenzoate and estradiol-3-benzoate were weak inhibitors. Then, we selected 25 compounds and performed inhibition kinetic studies to identify competitive inhibitors and determine their Ki values which ranged from submicromolar to submillimolar. Finally, we performed CoMFA analysis on the identified competitive inhibitors. The CoMFA results indicate that the substrate binding site of OATP1B1 consists of a large hydrophobic middle part with basic residues at both ends that could be very important for substrate binding. PMID:19427586

  9. E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, sensitizes activation of Rap1 in response to epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Jenei, Veronika; Andersson, Tommy; Jakus, Judit; Dib, Karim . E-mail: k.dib@qub.ac.uk

    2005-11-01

    E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, has been implicated in growth-factor-mediated regulation of the small GTPases p21{sup Ras} and Rac. E3b1 is a regulator of Rac because it can form a complex with Sos-1 and eps8, and such a Sos-1-e3B1-eps8 complex serves as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac. In the present study, we found that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells sensitized EGF-induced activation of Rac1, whereas it had no impact on EGF-induced activation of p21{sup Ras}. Remarkably, we found that EGF-induced activation of the p21{sup Ras}-related GTPase Rap1 was also sensitized in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells. Thus, in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells, maximal EGF-induced activation of Rap1 occurs with a dose of EGF much lower than in NIH3T3/EGFR cells. We also report that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells renders EGF-induced activation of Rap1 completely dependent on Src tyrosine kinases but not on c-Abl. However, EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Rap GEF C3G occurred regardless of whether e3B1 was overexpressed or not, and this did not involve Src tyrosine kinases. Accordingly, we propose that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells leads to mobilization of Src tyrosine kinases that participate in EGF-induced activation of Rap1 and inhibition of cell proliferation.

  10. KPC1-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal processing of NF-κB1 p105 to p50 restricts tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Kravtsova-Ivantsiv, Yelena; Shomer, Inna; Cohen-Kaplan, Victoria; Snijder, Berend; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Gonen, Hedva; Sommer, Thomas; Ziv, Tamar; Admon, Arie; Naroditsky, Inna; Jbara, Muhammad; Brik, Ashraf; Pikarsky, Eli; Kwon, Yong Tae; Doweck, Ilana; Ciechanover, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    NF-κB is a key transcriptional regulator involved in inflammation and cell proliferation, survival, and transformation. Several key steps in its activation are mediated by the ubiquitin (Ub) system. One uncharacterized step is limited proteasomal processing of the NF-κB1 precursor p105 to the p50 active subunit. Here, we identify KPC1 as the Ub ligase (E3) that binds to the ankyrin repeats domain of p105, ubiquitinates it, and mediates its processing both under basal conditions and following signaling. Overexpression of KPC1 inhibits tumor growth likely mediated via excessive generation of p50. Also, overabundance of p50 downregulates p65, suggesting that a p50-p50 homodimer may modulate transcription in place of the tumorigenic p50-p65. Transcript analysis reveals increased expression of genes associated with tumor-suppressive signals. Overall, KPC1 regulation of NF-κB1 processing appears to constitute an important balancing step among the stimulatory and inhibitory activities of the transcription factor in cell growth control.

  11. Effect of water molecules on the fluorescence enhancement of Aflatoxin B1 mediated by Aflatoxin B1:beta-cyclodextrin complexes. A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Galicia, Guillermo; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Gabriela Vargas, M

    2007-01-01

    In order to explain the observed fluorescence enhancement of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) when forming AFB1:beta-cyclodextrin (AFB1:beta-CD) inclusion complexes, we have performed a theoretical (quantum chemistry calculations) study of AFB1 and AFB1:beta-CD in vacuum and in the presence of aqueous solvent. The AM1 method was used to calculate the absorption and emission wavelengths of these molecules. With the help of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) vibrational frequencies and related excitation energies of AFB1 and AFB1.(H2O)m = 4,5,6,11 were calculated. On the basis of these calculations we propose a plausible mechanism for the fluorescence enhancement of AFB1 in the presence of beta-CD: (1) before photoexcitation of AFB1 to its S1 excited state, there is a vibrational coupling between the vibrational modes involving the AFB1 carbonyl groups and the bending modes of the nearby water molecules (CG + WM); (2) these interactions allow a thermal relaxation of the excited AFB1 molecules that results in fluorescence quenching; (3) when the AFB1 molecules form inclusion complexes with beta-CD the CG + WM interaction decreases; and (4) this gives rise to a fluorescence enhancement.

  12. Further pharmacological evidence of nuclear factor-kappa B pathway involvement in bradykinin B1 receptor-sensitized responses in human umbilical vein.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Sergio Pablo; Rey-Ares, Verónica; Pujol-Lereis, Virginia Andrea; Serrano, Santiago Alejo; Rothlin, Rodolfo Pedro

    2002-06-01

    Bradykinin (BK) B(1) receptors are thought to exert a pivotal role in maintaining and modulating inflammatory processes. They are not normally present under physiological situations but are induced under physiopathological conditions. In isolated human umbilical vein (HUV), a spontaneous BK B(1) receptor up-regulation and sensitization process has been demonstrated. Based on pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate inhibition, it has been proposed that this phenomenon is dependent on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the NF-kappaB pathway involvement on BK B(1) receptor sensitization in isolated HUV, using several pharmacological tools. In 5-h incubated rings, either the I-kappaB kinase inhibitor 3-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)-2-propenenitrile (Bay 11-7082) or the proteasome activity inhibitor Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-CHO (MG-132) inhibited the development of the BK B(1) receptor-sensitized contractile responses. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) produced a leftward shift of the concentration-response curve to the BK B(1) receptor agonist, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and tumor growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) produced a rightward shift of the responses to des-Arg(9)-BK in our preparations. Taken together, these results point to NF-kappaB as a key intermediary in the activation of the expression of BK B(1) receptor-sensitized responses in HUV and support the role of inflammatory mediators in the modulation of this process.

  13. A widespread sequence-specific mRNA decay pathway mediated by hnRNPs A1 and A2/B1.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Rene; Simkin, Alfred; Floss, Doreen; Patel, Ravi; Fogarty, Elizabeth A; Scheller, Jürgen; Grimson, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) specify post-transcriptional fates of mammalian messenger RNAs (mRNAs), yet knowledge of the underlying sequences and mechanisms is largely incomplete. Here, we identify two related novel 3' UTR motifs in mammals that specify transcript degradation. These motifs are interchangeable and active only within 3' UTRs, where they are often preferentially conserved; furthermore, they are found in hundreds of transcripts, many encoding regulatory proteins. We found that degradation occurs via mRNA deadenylation, mediated by the CCR4-NOT complex. We purified trans factors that recognize the motifs and identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A1 and A2/B1, which are required for transcript degradation, acting in a previously unknown manner. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to confirm hnRNP A1 and A2/B1 motif-dependent roles genome-wide, profiling cells depleted of these factors singly and in combination. Interestingly, the motifs are most active within the distal portion of 3' UTRs, suggesting that their role in gene regulation can be modulated by alternative processing, resulting in shorter 3' UTRs.

  14. A widespread sequence-specific mRNA decay pathway mediated by hnRNPs A1 and A2/B1

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Rene; Simkin, Alfred; Floss, Doreen; Patel, Ravi; Fogarty, Elizabeth A.; Scheller, Jürgen; Grimson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    3′-untranslated regions (UTRs) specify post-transcriptional fates of mammalian messenger RNAs (mRNAs), yet knowledge of the underlying sequences and mechanisms is largely incomplete. Here, we identify two related novel 3′ UTR motifs in mammals that specify transcript degradation. These motifs are interchangeable and active only within 3′ UTRs, where they are often preferentially conserved; furthermore, they are found in hundreds of transcripts, many encoding regulatory proteins. We found that degradation occurs via mRNA deadenylation, mediated by the CCR4–NOT complex. We purified trans factors that recognize the motifs and identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A1 and A2/B1, which are required for transcript degradation, acting in a previously unknown manner. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to confirm hnRNP A1 and A2/B1 motif-dependent roles genome-wide, profiling cells depleted of these factors singly and in combination. Interestingly, the motifs are most active within the distal portion of 3′ UTRs, suggesting that their role in gene regulation can be modulated by alternative processing, resulting in shorter 3′ UTRs. PMID:27151978

  15. Effect of superoxide and inflammatory factor on aflatoxin B1 triggered hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Huimin; Li, Hongtao; Zhou, Xiaolin; Peng, Chen; Tan, Honghu; Wang, Minxin

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there have been a lot of documents confirmed that aflatoxin B1 could promote the incident rate of hepato-cellular carcinoma, but the specific mechanism is not completely clear. Some evidences showed that it might relate to oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction. So the rat hepato-cellular carcinoma model was applied in this study for being discussed. Aflatoxin B1 was applied for inducing the rats to produce hepato-cellular carcinoma model to evaluate the expression of histopathology and glutathione transferase. At the same time, we also detected the expression of antioxidase, pro-inflammatory cytokine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and etc in rat hepato-cellular carcinoma tissues. The histo-pathological results showed that the necrosis of liver cells could be observed after being induced by Aflatoxin B1 for 4 weeks. We could observe obvious hepato-cellular carcinoma in 10th week. The level of reactive oxygen species in liver cancer rose obviously, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes reduced. At the same time, the expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNFα, IL-1α, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and etc all increased significantly. In conclusion, the histological characteristics of hepato-cellular carcinoma could be induced by aflatoxin B1, and the progression of hepato-cellular carcinoma related closely to inflammatory reaction. PMID:27725881

  16. Vascular kinin B1 and B2 receptor-mediated effects in the rat isolated perfused kidney–differential regulations

    PubMed Central

    Bagaté, Karim; Develioglu, Leyla; Imbs, Jean-Louis; Michel, Bruno; Helwig, Jean-Jacques; Barthelmebs, Mariette

    1999-01-01

    Bradykinin (BK) and analogs acting preferentially at kinin B1 or B2 receptors were tested on the rat isolated perfused kidney. Kidneys were perfused in an open circuit with Tyrode's solution. Kidneys preconstricted with prostaglandin F2α were used for the analysis of vasodilator responses.BK induced a concentration-dependent renal relaxation (pD2=8.9±0.4); this vasodilator response was reproduced by a selective B2 receptor agonist, Tyr(Me)8-BK (pD2=9.0±0.1) with a higher maximum effect (Emax=78.9±6.6 and 55.8±4.3% of ACh-induced relaxation respectively, n=6 and 19, P<0.02). Icatibant (10 nM), a selective B2 receptor antagonist, abolished BK-elicited relaxation. Tachyphylaxis of kinin B2 receptors appeared when repeatedly stimulated at 10 min intervals.Des-Arg9-BK, a selective B1 receptor agonist, induced concentration-dependent vasoconstriction at micromolar concentration. Maximum response was enhanced in the presence of lisinopril (1 μM) and inhibited by R 715 (8 μM), a selective B1 receptor antagonist. Des-Arg9-[Leu8]-BK behaved as an agonist.A contractile response to des-Arg9-BK occurred after 1 h of perfusion and increased with time by a factor of about three over a 3 h perfusion. This post-isolation sensitization to des-Arg9-BK was abolished by dexamethasone (DEX, 30 mg kg−1 i.p., 3 h before the start of the experiment and 10 μM in perfusate) and actinomycin D (2 μM). Acute exposure to DEX (10 μM) had no effect on sensitized des-Arg9-BK response, in contrast to indomethacin (30 μM) that abolished it. DEX pretreatment however had no effect on BK-induced renal vasodilation.Present results indicate that the main renal vascular response to BK consists of relaxation linked to the activation of kinin B2 receptors which rapidly desensitize. Renal B1 receptors are also present and are time-dependently sensitized during the in vitro perfusion of the rat kidneys. PMID:10588918

  17. Associated factors in modulating aflatoxin B1-albumin adduct level in three Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Tao, Peng; Zhi-Ming, Liu; Tang-Wei, Liu; Le-Qun, Li; Min-Hao, Peng; Xue, Qin; Lu-Nam, Yan; Ren-Xiang, Liang; Zong-Liang, Wei; Lian-Wen, Wang; Qiao, Wang; Han-Ming, Shen; Choon-Nam, Ong; Santella, Regina M

    2005-03-01

    To elucidate the potential factors modulating exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in three Chinese populations, an epidemiologic study was conducted in Fusui County and Nanning City of Guangxi Province and Chengdu City of Sichuan Province. The incidence rates of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) for males in these three regions were 92-97 per 100,000, 32-47 per 100,000, and 21 per 100,000, respectively. Eighty-nine residents from Fusui, 196 residents from Nanning, and 118 residents from Chengdu were screened for AFB1-albumin adduct (AAA) levels and hepatitis virus (HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV, and HGV) infections, as well as liver biochemistry (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], y-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT], 5'-nucleotidase, globulin [GLO], direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, and bile acid levels). At least one marker of hepatitis virus (HV) infection was present in 47.2% (42/89) of subjects from Fusui, while in Nanning and Chengdu the values were 15.8% (31/196) and 22.0% (26/118), respectively. In contrast to females, a higher level of AAA was observed in males; the difference was statistically significant in both the Nanning (P = 0.023) and the Chengdu (P = 0.026) subjects. In the Chengdu group, there was a significantly higher level of AAA in cases with HV infection (P = 0.041). There was a close association between AAA level and BMI in the adults without HV infection (r = 0.148, P = 0.044). Also, AAA was closely associated with DBIL and GGT in non-HV-infected minors (P < 0.05), closely associated with ALB, GLO, and GGT in HV-infected minors (P < 0.05), and closely associated with IBIL, GLO, TBA, and AST in non-HV-infected adults (P < 0.01). The co-effect of HV infection and AFB1 exposure may be responsible for the high risk of HCC in the Fusui region, whereas age, gender, BMI, and HV infection may modify individual aflatoxin levels. The relationship between AAA level and liver biochemistry indicates injury induced

  18. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 protein impairs DNA repair mediated through the inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanaga, Kentaro; Sueoka, Naoko; Sato, Akemi; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo . E-mail: sueokae@post.saga-med.ac.jp

    2005-08-05

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1, an RNA binding protein, is overexpressed from the early stage of lung cancers; it is evident even in bronchial dysplasia, a premalignant lesion. We evaluated the proteins bound with hnRNP B1 and found that hnRNP B1 interacted with DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex, and recombinant hnRNP B1 protein dose-dependently inhibited DNA-PK activity in vitro. To test the effect of hnRNP B1 on DNA repair, we performed comet assay after irradiation, using normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1: reduction of hnRNP B1 treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1 induced faster DNA repair in normal HBE cells. Considering these results, we assume that overexpression of hnRNP B1 occurring in the early stage of carcinogenesis inhibits DNA-PK activity, resulting in subsequent accumulation of erroneous rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks, causing tumor progression.

  19. Glutathione-S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1-1) acts as mediator of signaling pathways involved in aflatoxin B1-induced apoptosis-autophagy crosstalk in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Paul, Souren; Jakhar, Rekha; Bhardwaj, Monika; Kang, Sun Chul

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic aflatoxin species and has been shown to be associated with specific as well as non-specific immune responses. In the present study, using murine macrophage Raw 264.7 cells as a model, we report that short exposure (6h) to AFB1 caused an increase in the cellular calcium pool in mitochondria, which in turn elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress and led to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and ultimately c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)-mediated caspase-dependent cell death. On the contrary, longer exposure (12h) to AFB1 reduced JNK phosphorylation and cell death in macrophages. Measurement of autophagic flux demonstrated that autophagy induction through the canonical pathway was responsible for suppressing AFB1-induced apoptosis after 12h. As a detailed molecular mechanism, we found that the unfolded protein response (UPR) machinery was active at 12h post-exposure to AFB1 and induced cytoprotective autophagy as confirmed by determination of major autophagic markers. Inhibition of autophagy by Beclin-1 siRNA also resulted in JNK-mediated cell death. We further established that glutathione S transferase omega1-1 (GSTO1-1), a specific class of GST, was the responsible factor between apoptosis and autophagy crosstalk. Targeting of GSTO1-1 increased JNK-mediated apoptosis by 2-fold compared to the control, whereas autophagy rate was reduced. Thus, increased expression of GSTO1-1 was associated with increased protein glutathionylation, an important protein modification in response to cellular redox status.

  20. Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1: Impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression

    SciTech Connect

    Meissonnier, Guylaine M.; Pinton, Philippe; Laffitte, Joelle; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Gong, Yun Yun; Wild, Christopher P.; Bertin, Gerard; Galtier, Pierre; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2008-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or A. parasiticus, is a frequent contaminant of food and feed. This toxin is hepatotoxic and immunotoxic. The present study analyzed in pigs the influence of AFB1 on humoral and cellular responses, and investigated whether the immunomodulation observed is produced through interference with cytokine expression. For 28 days, pigs were fed a control diet or a diet contaminated with 385, 867 or 1807 {mu}g pure AFB1/kg feed. At days 4 and 15, pigs were vaccinated with ovalbumin. AFB1 exposure, confirmed by an observed dose-response in blood aflatoxin-albumin adduct, had no major effect on humoral immunity as measured by plasma concentrations of total IgA, IgG and IgM and of anti-ovalbumin IgG. Toxin exposure did not impair the mitogenic response of lymphocytes but delayed and decreased their specific proliferation in response to the vaccine antigen, suggesting impaired lymphocyte activation in pigs exposed to AFB1. The expression level of pro-inflammatory (TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, IL-6, IFN-{gamma}) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was assessed by real-time PCR in spleen. A significant up-regulation of all 5 cytokines was observed in spleen from pigs exposed to the highest dose of AFB1. In pigs exposed to the medium dose, IL-6 expression was increased and a trend towards increased IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 was observed. In addition we demonstrate that IL-6 impaired in vitro the antigenic- but not the mitogenic-induced proliferation of lymphocytes from control pigs vaccinated with ovalbumin. These results indicate that AFB1 dietary exposure decreases cell-mediated immunity while inducing an inflammatory response. These impairments in the immune response could participate in failure of vaccination protocols and increased susceptibility to infections described in pigs exposed to AFB1.

  1. Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1: impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Meissonnier, Guylaine M; Pinton, Philippe; Laffitte, Joëlle; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Gong, Yun Yun; Wild, Christopher P; Bertin, Gérard; Galtier, Pierre; Oswald, Isabelle P

    2008-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or A. parasiticus, is a frequent contaminant of food and feed. This toxin is hepatotoxic and immunotoxic. The present study analyzed in pigs the influence of AFB1 on humoral and cellular responses, and investigated whether the immunomodulation observed is produced through interference with cytokine expression. For 28 days, pigs were fed a control diet or a diet contaminated with 385, 867 or 1807 microg pure AFB1/kg feed. At days 4 and 15, pigs were vaccinated with ovalbumin. AFB1 exposure, confirmed by an observed dose-response in blood aflatoxin-albumin adduct, had no major effect on humoral immunity as measured by plasma concentrations of total IgA, IgG and IgM and of anti-ovalbumin IgG. Toxin exposure did not impair the mitogenic response of lymphocytes but delayed and decreased their specific proliferation in response to the vaccine antigen, suggesting impaired lymphocyte activation in pigs exposed to AFB1. The expression level of pro-inflammatory (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was assessed by real-time PCR in spleen. A significant up-regulation of all 5 cytokines was observed in spleen from pigs exposed to the highest dose of AFB1. In pigs exposed to the medium dose, IL-6 expression was increased and a trend towards increased IFN-gamma and IL-10 was observed. In addition we demonstrate that IL-6 impaired in vitro the antigenic- but not the mitogenic-induced proliferation of lymphocytes from control pigs vaccinated with ovalbumin. These results indicate that AFB1 dietary exposure decreases cell-mediated immunity while inducing an inflammatory response. These impairments in the immune response could participate in failure of vaccination protocols and increased susceptibility to infections described in pigs exposed to AFB1.

  2. FSH-induced p38-MAPK-mediated dephosphorylation at serine 727 of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 decreases Cyp1b1 expression in mouse granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Cao, Rui; Xiao, Peng; Teng, Yun; Ning, Cai-Bo; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Most mammalian follicles undergo atresia at various stages before ovulation, and granulosa cell apoptosis is a major cause of antral follicular atresia. Estradiol is an essential mitogen for granulosa cell proliferation in vivo and inhibition of apoptosis. The estradiol-producing capacity and metabolism levels are important for follicle health, and sufficient estradiol is necessary for follicle development and ovulation. Cyp1b1, a member of the cytochrome P450 1 subfamily, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diverse tissues. In mouse follicles, Cyp1b1 converts estradiol to 4-hydroxyestradiol. We investigated mouse granulosa cells (MGCs) in vivo and in vitro and found that Cyp1b1 played a crucial role in estradiol metabolism in dominant follicles. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) decreased estrogen metabolism by reducing Cyp1b1 mRNA and protein levels in MGCs. Furthermore, FSH regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), a significant transcription factor of Cyp1b1, by mediating the dephosphorylation of STAT1 on serine 727 (Ser(727)) in MGCs. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) may be involved in the FSH-induced dephosphorylation of STAT1 on Ser(727) in MGCs. These results suggested that FSH functions via p38 MAPK-induced dephosphorylation at Ser(727) of STAT1 to downregulate Cyp1b1 expression and maintain the estradiol levels in mouse dominant follicles.

  3. The J-protein AtDjB1 is required for mitochondrial complex I activity and regulates growth and development through ROS-mediated auxin signalling.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ning; Lv, Ting-Ting; Li, Mi-Xin; Wei, Shan-Shan; Li, Yan-Yi; Zhao, Chun-Lan; Li, Bing

    2016-05-01

    AtDjB1 is a mitochondria-located J-protein in Arabidopsis thaliana It is involved in the regulation of plant growth and development; however, the exact mechanisms remain to be determined. We performed comparison analyses of phenotypes, auxin signalling, redox status, mitochondrial structure and function using wild-type plants, AtDjB1 mutants, rescued AtDjB1 mutants by AtDjB1 or YUCCA2 (an auxin synthesis gene), and AtDjB1 overexpression plants. AtDjB1 mutants (atj1-1 or atj1-4) exhibited inhibition of growth and development and reductions in the level of IAA and the expression of YUCCA genes compared to wild-type plants. The introduction of AtDjB1 or YUCCA2 into atj1-1 largely rescued phenotypic defects and the IAA level, indicating that AtDjB1 probably regulates growth and development via auxin. Furthermore, atj1-1 plants displayed a significant reduction in amount/activity of mitochondrial complex I compared to wild-type plants; this resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, exogenous H2O2 markedly inhibited the expression of YUCCA genes in wild-type plants. In contrast, the reducing agent ascorbate increased the expression of YUCCA genes and IAA level in atj1-1 plants, indicating that the low auxin level observed in atj1-1 was probably due to the high oxidation status. Overall, the data presented here suggest that AtDjB1 is required for mitochondrial complex I activity and regulates growth and development through ROS-mediated auxin signalling in Arabidopsis.

  4. The J-protein AtDjB1 is required for mitochondrial complex I activity and regulates growth and development through ROS-mediated auxin signalling.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ning; Lv, Ting-Ting; Li, Mi-Xin; Wei, Shan-Shan; Li, Yan-Yi; Zhao, Chun-Lan; Li, Bing

    2016-05-01

    AtDjB1 is a mitochondria-located J-protein in Arabidopsis thaliana It is involved in the regulation of plant growth and development; however, the exact mechanisms remain to be determined. We performed comparison analyses of phenotypes, auxin signalling, redox status, mitochondrial structure and function using wild-type plants, AtDjB1 mutants, rescued AtDjB1 mutants by AtDjB1 or YUCCA2 (an auxin synthesis gene), and AtDjB1 overexpression plants. AtDjB1 mutants (atj1-1 or atj1-4) exhibited inhibition of growth and development and reductions in the level of IAA and the expression of YUCCA genes compared to wild-type plants. The introduction of AtDjB1 or YUCCA2 into atj1-1 largely rescued phenotypic defects and the IAA level, indicating that AtDjB1 probably regulates growth and development via auxin. Furthermore, atj1-1 plants displayed a significant reduction in amount/activity of mitochondrial complex I compared to wild-type plants; this resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, exogenous H2O2 markedly inhibited the expression of YUCCA genes in wild-type plants. In contrast, the reducing agent ascorbate increased the expression of YUCCA genes and IAA level in atj1-1 plants, indicating that the low auxin level observed in atj1-1 was probably due to the high oxidation status. Overall, the data presented here suggest that AtDjB1 is required for mitochondrial complex I activity and regulates growth and development through ROS-mediated auxin signalling in Arabidopsis. PMID:27117341

  5. Allorecognition, via TgrB1 and TgrC1, mediates the transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Shigenori; Santhanam, Balaji; Katoh-Kurosawa, Mariko; Shaulsky, Gad; Kuspa, Adam

    2015-10-15

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum integrates into a multicellular organism when individual starving cells aggregate and form a mound. The cells then integrate into defined tissues and develop into a fruiting body that consists of a stalk and spores. Aggregation is initially orchestrated by waves of extracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and previous theory suggested that cAMP and other field-wide diffusible signals mediate tissue integration and terminal differentiation as well. Cooperation between cells depends on an allorecognition system comprising the polymorphic adhesion proteins TgrB1 and TgrC1. Binding between compatible TgrB1 and TgrC1 variants ensures that non-matching cells segregate into distinct aggregates prior to terminal development. Here, we have embedded a small number of cells with incompatible allotypes within fields of developing cells with compatible allotypes. We found that compatibility of the allotype encoded by the tgrB1 and tgrC1 genes is required for tissue integration, as manifested in cell polarization, coordinated movement and differentiation into prestalk and prespore cells. Our results show that the molecules that mediate allorecognition in D. discoideum also control the integration of individual cells into a unified developing organism, and this acts as a gating step for multicellularity. PMID:26395484

  6. Allorecognition, via TgrB1 and TgrC1, mediates the transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Shigenori; Santhanam, Balaji; Katoh-Kurosawa, Mariko; Shaulsky, Gad; Kuspa, Adam

    2015-10-15

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum integrates into a multicellular organism when individual starving cells aggregate and form a mound. The cells then integrate into defined tissues and develop into a fruiting body that consists of a stalk and spores. Aggregation is initially orchestrated by waves of extracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and previous theory suggested that cAMP and other field-wide diffusible signals mediate tissue integration and terminal differentiation as well. Cooperation between cells depends on an allorecognition system comprising the polymorphic adhesion proteins TgrB1 and TgrC1. Binding between compatible TgrB1 and TgrC1 variants ensures that non-matching cells segregate into distinct aggregates prior to terminal development. Here, we have embedded a small number of cells with incompatible allotypes within fields of developing cells with compatible allotypes. We found that compatibility of the allotype encoded by the tgrB1 and tgrC1 genes is required for tissue integration, as manifested in cell polarization, coordinated movement and differentiation into prestalk and prespore cells. Our results show that the molecules that mediate allorecognition in D. discoideum also control the integration of individual cells into a unified developing organism, and this acts as a gating step for multicellularity.

  7. Application of a fuzzy neural network model in predicting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-mediated perturbations of the Cyp1b1 transcriptional regulatory network in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, Andrew; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Williams, David E.; Baird, William M.

    2013-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in the environment as complex mixtures with components that have diverse carcinogenic potencies and mostly unknown interactive effects. Non-additive PAH interactions have been observed in regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene expression in the CYP1 family. To better understand and predict biological effects of complex mixtures, such as environmental PAHs, an 11 gene input-1 gene output fuzzy neural network (FNN) was developed for predicting PAH-mediated perturbations of dermal Cyp1b1 transcription in mice. Input values were generalized using fuzzy logic into low, medium, and high fuzzy subsets, and sorted using k-means clustering to create Mamdani logic functions for predicting Cyp1b1 mRNA expression. Model testing was performed with data from microarray analysis of skin samples from FVB/N mice treated with toluene (vehicle control), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or 1 of 3 combinations of diesel particulate extract (DPE), coal tar extract (CTE) and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) using leave-one-out cross-validation. Predictions were within 1 log{sub 2} fold change unit of microarray data, with the exception of the DBC treatment group, where the unexpected down-regulation of Cyp1b1 expression was predicted but did not reach statistical significance on the microarrays. Adding CTE to DPE was predicted to increase Cyp1b1 expression, whereas adding CSC to CTE and DPE was predicted to have no effect, in agreement with microarray results. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (Ahrr) was determined to be the most significant input variable for model predictions using back-propagation and normalization of FNN weights. - Highlights: ► Tested a model to predict PAH mixture-mediated changes in Cyp1b1 expression ► Quantitative predictions in agreement with microarrays for Cyp1b1 induction ► Unexpected difference in expression between DBC and other treatments predicted ► Model predictions

  8. Estrogen-mediated regulation of steroid metabolism in rat glial cells; effects on neurosteroid levels via regulation of CYP7B1-mediated catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wicher, Grzegorz; Norlin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many neuroactive steroids, including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), pregnenolone, 27-hydroxycholesterol and 17β-estradiol, are known to affect development and function of the brain and nervous system. These and other steroids can undergo tissue and/or cell-specific enzymatic conversions into steroid metabolites. Carefully regulated production of steroids with various physiological effects is important for cells of the nervous system. Astrocytes express many steroidogenic enzymes and are considered important producers of brain steroids. The quantitative roles of different pathways for steroid metabolism in rat astrocytes are not clear. In the current study we examined effects of estrogens on steroid metabolism catalyzed by CYP7B1 and other enzymes in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. The CYP7B1 enzyme, which has been linked to neurodegenerative disease, is involved in the metabolism of several important neurosteroids. In the present study, we found that 7α-hydroxylation, performed by CYP7B1, is the quantitatively most important pathway for DHEA metabolism in rat astrocytes. In addition, our present experiments on catalytic steroid conversions revealed that estrogens significantly suppress the CYP7B1-catalyzed metabolism of not only DHEA but also of pregnenolone and 27-hydroxycholesterol in rat astrocytes. These novel findings point to a regulatory mechanism for control of the cellular levels of these neurosteroids via CYP7B1. Our hypothesis that estrogens can regulate neurosteroid levels via this enzymatic reaction was supported by experiments using ELISA to assay levels of DHEA and pregnenolone in the presence or absence of estrogen. Furthermore, the present results show that estrogen suppresses CYP7B1-catalyzed 7α-hydroxylation also in primary cultures of rat Schwann cells, indicating that regulation by estrogen via this enzyme may be of relevance in both the CNS and the PNS.

  9. Role of DAX-1 (NR0B1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (NR5A1) in human adrenal function.

    PubMed

    El-Khairi, Ranna; Martinez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lin, Lin; Achermann, John C

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear receptor transcription factors DAX-1 (NR0B1) and SF-1 (NR5A1) regulate many aspects of adrenal and reproductive development and function. Disruption of the genes encoding these factors can be associated with pediatric adrenal disease. DAX-1 mutations are classically associated with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and impaired spermatogenesis. However, other phenotypes are also being reported, such as isolated mineralocorticoid insufficiency, premature sexual development, primary adrenal insufficiency in a 46, XX patient and late-onset X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. SF-1 mutations have also been associated with primary adrenal insufficiency, together with 46, XY disorders of sex development. However it is emerging that SF-1 changes are a relatively rare cause of primary adrenal failure in humans, and most individuals with SF-1 mutations have a spectrum of 46, XY disorders of sex development phenotypes. These conditions range from 46, XY females with streak gonads and müllerian structures, through children with ambiguous genitalia and inguinal testes, to severe penoscrotal hypospadias with undescended testes. Therefore, the human gonad appears to be more sensitive than the adrenal gland to loss of SF-1 function. This review will focus on the expanding range of phenotypes associated with DAX-1 and SF-1 mutations.

  10. DAX-1 (NR0B1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) in human disease.

    PubMed

    Suntharalingham, Jenifer P; Buonocore, Federica; Duncan, Andrew J; Achermann, John C

    2015-08-01

    DAX-1 (NR0B1) and SF-1 (NR5A1) are two nuclear receptor transcription factors that play a key role in human adrenal and reproductive development. Loss of DAX-1 function is classically associated with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita. This condition typically affects boys and presents as primary adrenal insufficiency in early infancy or childhood, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism at puberty and impaired spermatogenesis. Late onset forms of this condition and variant phenotypes are increasingly recognized. In contrast, disruption of SF-1 only rarely causes adrenal insufficiency, usually in combination with testicular dysgenesis. Variants in SF-1/NR5A1 more commonly cause a spectrum of reproductive phenotypes ranging from 46,XY DSD (partial testicular dysgenesis or reduced androgen production) and hypospadias to male factor infertility or primary ovarian insufficiency. Making a specific diagnosis of DAX-1 or SF-1 associated conditions is important for long-term monitoring of endocrine and reproductive function, appropriate genetic counselling for family members, and for providing appropriate informed support for young people. PMID:26303087

  11. Age, JAK2(V617F) and SF3B1 mutations are the main predicting factors for survival in refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts and marked thrombocytosis.

    PubMed

    Broséus, J; Alpermann, T; Wulfert, M; Florensa Brichs, L; Jeromin, S; Lippert, E; Rozman, M; Lifermann, F; Grossmann, V; Haferlach, T; Germing, U; Luño, E; Girodon, F; Schnittger, S

    2013-09-01

    Refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) and marked thrombocytosis (RARS-T) is a provisional entity in the World Health Organisation 2008 classification and has previously been shown to have a high proportion of JAK2(V617F) (Janus Kinase 2) and SF3B1 (Splicing Factor 3B subunit 1) mutations. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the frequency of SF3B1 mutations in a large cohort of 111 patients with RARS-T and 33 patients with RARS and to explore the prognostic impact of SF3B1 mutational status on RARS-T. The frequency of SF3B1 mutations in RARS-T (96/111, 86.5%) and RARS (28/33, 84.8%) was similar. In RARS-T, median survival was better in SF3B1-mutated patients than in SF3B1-non-mutated patients (6.9 and 3.3 years, respectively, P=0.003). RARS can be differentiated from RARS-T by the frequency of JAK2(V617F) (0% vs 48.6%). In RARS-T patients, SF3B1 (P=0.021) and JAK2 mutations (P=0.016) were independent factors for a better prognosis. Altogether, our results confirm that RARS-T is an independent entity that should be recognised by the next World Health Organisation classification. The assessment of SF3B1 mutations is of prognostic interest in RARS-T patients. Younger age, JAK2(V617F) and SF3B1 mutations are the main predicting factors for survival in RARS-T. PMID:23594705

  12. A longevity assurance gene homolog of tomato mediates resistance to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici toxins and fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Brandwagt, Bas F.; Mesbah, Laurent A.; Takken, Frank L. W.; Laurent, Pascal L.; Kneppers, Tarcies J. A.; Hille, Jacques; Nijkamp, H. John J.

    2000-01-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) produces toxins that are essential for pathogenicity of the fungus on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). AAL toxins and fumonisins of the unrelated fungus Fusarium moniliforme are sphinganine-analog mycotoxins (SAMs), which cause inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis in vitro and are toxic for some plant species and mammalian cell lines. Sphingolipids can be determinants in the proliferation or death of cells. We investigated the tomato Alternaria stem canker (Asc) locus, which mediates resistance to SAM-induced apoptosis. Until now, mycotoxin resistance of plants has been associated with detoxification and altered affinity or absence of the toxin targets. Here we show that SAM resistance of tomato is determined by Asc-1, a gene homologous to the yeast longevity assurance gene LAG1 and that susceptibility is associated with a mutant Asc-1. Because both sphingolipid synthesis and LAG1 facilitate endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in yeast, we propose a role for Asc-1 in a salvage mechanism of sphingolipid-depleted plant cells. PMID:10781105

  13. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the Halloween gene Spookiest (CYP307B1) impedes adult eclosion in the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus.

    PubMed

    Van Ekert, E; Wang, M; Miao, Y-G; Brent, C S; Hull, J J

    2016-10-01

    Ecdysteroids play a critical role in coordinating insect growth, development and reproduction. A suite of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases coded by what are collectively termed Halloween genes mediate ecdysteroid biosynthesis. In this study, we describe cloning and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the CYP307B1 Halloween gene (Spookiest) in the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus. Transcripts for Ly. hesperus Spookiest (LhSpot) were amplified from all life stages and correlated well with timing of the pre-moult ecdysteroid pulse. In adults, LhSpot was amplified from heads of both genders as well as female reproductive tissues. Heterologous expression of a LhSpot fluorescent chimera in cultured insect cells co-localized with a fluorescent marker of the endoplasmic reticulum/secretory pathway. RNAi-mediated knockdown of LhSpot in fifth instars reduced expression of ecdysone-responsive genes E74 and E75, and prevented adult development. This developmental defect was rescued following application of exogenous 20-hydroxyecdysone but not exogenous 7-dehydrocholesterol. The unequivocal RNAi effects on Ly. hesperus development and the phenotypic rescue by 20-hydroxyecdysone are causal proof of the involvement of LhSpot in ecdysteroid biosynthesis and related developmental processes, and may provide an avenue for development of new control measures against Ly. hesperus. PMID:27189651

  14. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the Halloween gene Spookiest (CYP307B1) impedes adult eclosion in the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus.

    PubMed

    Van Ekert, E; Wang, M; Miao, Y-G; Brent, C S; Hull, J J

    2016-10-01

    Ecdysteroids play a critical role in coordinating insect growth, development and reproduction. A suite of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases coded by what are collectively termed Halloween genes mediate ecdysteroid biosynthesis. In this study, we describe cloning and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the CYP307B1 Halloween gene (Spookiest) in the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus. Transcripts for Ly. hesperus Spookiest (LhSpot) were amplified from all life stages and correlated well with timing of the pre-moult ecdysteroid pulse. In adults, LhSpot was amplified from heads of both genders as well as female reproductive tissues. Heterologous expression of a LhSpot fluorescent chimera in cultured insect cells co-localized with a fluorescent marker of the endoplasmic reticulum/secretory pathway. RNAi-mediated knockdown of LhSpot in fifth instars reduced expression of ecdysone-responsive genes E74 and E75, and prevented adult development. This developmental defect was rescued following application of exogenous 20-hydroxyecdysone but not exogenous 7-dehydrocholesterol. The unequivocal RNAi effects on Ly. hesperus development and the phenotypic rescue by 20-hydroxyecdysone are causal proof of the involvement of LhSpot in ecdysteroid biosynthesis and related developmental processes, and may provide an avenue for development of new control measures against Ly. hesperus.

  15. 6β-Hydroxytestosterone, a Cytochrome P450 1B1-Testosterone-Metabolite, Mediates Angiotensin II-Induced Renal Dysfunction in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Pingili, Ajeeth K; Thirunavukkarasu, Shyamala; Kara, Mehmet; Brand, David D; Katsurada, Akemi; Majid, Dewan S A; Navar, L Gabriel; Gonzalez, Frank J; Malik, Kafait U

    2016-05-01

    6β-Hydroxytestosterone, a cytochrome P450 1B1-derived metabolite of testosterone, contributes to the development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular pathophysiology. In view of the critical role of angiotensin II in the maintenance of renal homeostasis, development of hypertension, and end-organ damage, this study was conducted to determine the contribution of 6β-hydroxytestosterone to angiotensin II actions on water consumption and renal function in male Cyp1b1(+/+) and Cyp1b1(-/-) mice. Castration of Cyp1b1(+/+) mice or Cyp1b1(-/-) gene disruption minimized the angiotensin II-induced increase in water consumption, urine output, proteinuria, and sodium excretion and decreases in urine osmolality. 6β-Hydroxytestosterone did not alter angiotensin II-induced increases in water intake, urine output, proteinuria, and sodium excretion or decreases in osmolality in Cyp1b1(+/+) mice, but restored these effects of angiotensin II in Cyp1b1(-/-) or castrated Cyp1b1(+/+) mice. Cyp1b1 gene disruption or castration prevented angiotensin II-induced renal fibrosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, urinary excretion of angiotensinogen, expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and angiotensin-converting enzyme. 6β-Hydroxytestosterone did not alter angiotensin II-induced renal fibrosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, urinary excretion of angiotensinogen, expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor, or angiotensin-converting enzyme in Cyp1b1(+/+)mice. However, in Cyp1b1(-/-) or castrated Cyp1b1(+/+) mice, it restored these effects of angiotensin II. These data indicate that 6β-hydroxytestosterone contributes to increased thirst, impairment of renal function, and end-organ injury associated with angiotensin II-induced hypertension in male mice and that cytochrome P450 1B1 could serve as a novel target for treating renal disease and hypertension in male mice.

  16. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar; Trigun, Surendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase) level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:26682000

  17. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar; Trigun, Surendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase) level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  18. Loss of endophilin-B1 exacerbates Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Wang, David B; Kinoshita, Yoshito; Kinoshita, Chizuru; Uo, Takuma; Sopher, Bryce L; Cudaback, Eiron; Keene, C Dirk; Bilousova, Tina; Gylys, Karen; Case, Amanda; Jayadev, Suman; Wang, Hong-Gang; Garden, Gwenn A; Morrison, Richard S

    2015-07-01

    Endophilin-B1, also known as Bax-interacting factor 1 (Bif-1, and encoded by SH3GLB1), is a multifunctional protein involved in apoptosis, autophagy and mitochondrial function. We recently described a unique neuroprotective role for neuron-specific alternatively spliced isoforms of endophilin-B1. To examine whether endophilin-B1-mediated neuroprotection could be a novel therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease we used a double mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 (APPswe/PSEN1dE9) mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and observed that expression of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms declined with disease progression. To determine if this reduction in endophilin-B1 has a functional role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, we crossed endophilin-B1(-/-) mice with APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice. Deletion of endophilin-B1 accelerated disease onset and progression in 6-month-old APPswe/PSEN1dE9/endophilin-B1(-/-) mice, which showed more plaques, astrogliosis, synaptic degeneration, cognitive impairment and mortality than APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice. In mouse primary cortical neuron cultures, overexpression of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms protected against amyloid-β-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, protein and mRNA levels of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms were also selectively decreased in the cerebral cortex and in the synaptic compartment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Flow sorting of synaptosomes from patients with Alzheimer's disease demonstrated a negative correlation between amyloid-β and endophilin-B1 levels. The importance of endophilin-B1 in neuronal function was further underscored by the development of synaptic degeneration and cognitive and motor impairment in endophilin-B1(-/-) mice by 12 months. Our findings suggest that endophilin-B1 is a key mediator of a feed-forward mechanism of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis where amyloid-β reduces neuron-specific endophilin-B1, which in turn enhances amyloid

  19. Loss of endophilin-B1 exacerbates Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Wang, David B; Kinoshita, Yoshito; Kinoshita, Chizuru; Uo, Takuma; Sopher, Bryce L; Cudaback, Eiron; Keene, C Dirk; Bilousova, Tina; Gylys, Karen; Case, Amanda; Jayadev, Suman; Wang, Hong-Gang; Garden, Gwenn A; Morrison, Richard S

    2015-07-01

    Endophilin-B1, also known as Bax-interacting factor 1 (Bif-1, and encoded by SH3GLB1), is a multifunctional protein involved in apoptosis, autophagy and mitochondrial function. We recently described a unique neuroprotective role for neuron-specific alternatively spliced isoforms of endophilin-B1. To examine whether endophilin-B1-mediated neuroprotection could be a novel therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease we used a double mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 (APPswe/PSEN1dE9) mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and observed that expression of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms declined with disease progression. To determine if this reduction in endophilin-B1 has a functional role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, we crossed endophilin-B1(-/-) mice with APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice. Deletion of endophilin-B1 accelerated disease onset and progression in 6-month-old APPswe/PSEN1dE9/endophilin-B1(-/-) mice, which showed more plaques, astrogliosis, synaptic degeneration, cognitive impairment and mortality than APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice. In mouse primary cortical neuron cultures, overexpression of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms protected against amyloid-β-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, protein and mRNA levels of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms were also selectively decreased in the cerebral cortex and in the synaptic compartment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Flow sorting of synaptosomes from patients with Alzheimer's disease demonstrated a negative correlation between amyloid-β and endophilin-B1 levels. The importance of endophilin-B1 in neuronal function was further underscored by the development of synaptic degeneration and cognitive and motor impairment in endophilin-B1(-/-) mice by 12 months. Our findings suggest that endophilin-B1 is a key mediator of a feed-forward mechanism of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis where amyloid-β reduces neuron-specific endophilin-B1, which in turn enhances amyloid

  20. Multiple EphB receptors mediate dorsal-ventral retinotopic mapping via similar bi-functional responses to ephrin-B1

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Todd; Lim, Yoo-Shick; Santiago, Alicia; O’Leary, Dennis D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The projection from retina to the superior colliculus in mice is organized in a retinotopic map that develops through the formation and guidance of interstitial branches extended by retinal ganglion cell axons. Bidirectional branch guidance along the lateral-medial collicular axis is critical to mapping the dorsal-ventral retinal axis. EphB receptor tyrosine kinases expressed in an overall low to high dorsal-ventral retinal gradient have been implicated in this mapping in response to the graded low to high lateral-medial expression of a ligand, ephrin-B1, in the superior colliculus. However, the relative contributions of EphBs and ephrin-B1 are not well understood. We examined EphB1, EphB2, and EphB3 mutant mice and find that each has ectopic arborizations of retinal axon branches lateral to their appropriate termination zone, with no qualitative differences in aberrant mapping, suggesting a similar role for each EphB. However, the frequency of cases with map defects progressively rises in compound EphB mutants coincident with the number of EphB null alleles from one to five of the six total alleles indicating that EphB level is critical. We analyzed branch extension in vitro and find that dorsal branches, with low EphB levels, exhibit a negative response to ephrin-B1, whereas ventral branches, with high EphB levels, exhibit a positive response to ephrin-B1. Using EphB mutant retina, we show that both of these differential branch extension responses are dependent on EphB level. Our findings show a bifunctional action of ephrin-B1 regulated by EphB levels that can account for the bidirectional extension of interstitial branches required to establish a retinotopic map. PMID:25051176

  1. Comparison of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and nested-PCR assay targeting the RE and B1 gene for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in blood samples of children with leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Shirzad; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad; Pournia, Yadollah; Zebardast, Nozhat; Kazemi, Bahram

    2014-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis diagnosis constitutes an important measure for disease prevention and control. In this paper, a newly described DNA amplification technique, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and nested-PCR targeting the repeated element (RE) and B1 gene, were compared to each other for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in blood samples of children with leukaemia. One hundred ten blood samples from these patients were analyzed by LAMP and nested-PCR. Out of 50 seropositive samples (IgM+, IgG+), positive results were obtained with 92% and 86% on RE, B1-LAMP and 82% and 68% on RE, B1-nested PCR analyses, respectively. Of the 50 seronegative samples, three, two and one samples were detected positive by RE-LAMP, B1-LAMP and RE-nested PCR assays, respectively, while none were detected positive by B1-nested PCR. None of the 10 IgM-, IgG+ samples was detected positive after testing LAMP and nested-PCR assays in duplicate. This is the first report of a study in which the LAMP method was applied with high sensitivity and efficacy for the diagnosis of T. gonii in blood samples of children with leukaemia.

  2. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the Halloween gene spookiest (CYP307B1) impedes adult eclosion in the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroids play a critical role in coordinating insect growth, development, and reproduction. A suite of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases coded by what are collectively termed Halloween genes mediate ecdysteroid biosynthesis. In this study, we describe cloning and RNAi-mediated knockdown of the CYP3...

  3. Vitamin B1

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flash 6 » Sound: No High score: Yes Credits » Chicken Farm Game - Why do we need vitamin B1? - ... save lives. You have one minute to feed chickens suffering from beriberi with the correct food to ...

  4. The involvement of intracellular Ca2+ in 5-HT1B/1D receptor-mediated contraction of the rabbit isolated renal artery

    PubMed Central

    Hill, P B; Dora, K A; Hughes, A D; Garland, C J

    2000-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine1B/1D (5-HT1B/1D) receptor coupling to contraction was investigated in endothelium-denuded rabbit isolated renal arteries, by simultaneously measuring tension and intracellular [Ca2+], and tension in permeabilized smooth muscle cells.In intact arterial segments, 1 nM–10 μM 5-HT failed to induce contraction or increase the fura-2 fluorescence ratio (in the presence of 1 μM ketanserin and prazosin to block 5-HT2 and α1-adrenergic receptors, respectively). However, in vessels pre-exposed to either 20 mM K+ or 30 nM U46619, 5-HT stimulated concentration-dependent increases in both tension and intracellular [Ca2+].1 nM–10 μM U46619 induced concentration-dependent contractions. In the presence of nifedipine (0.3 and 1 μM) the maximal contraction to U46619 (10 μM) was reduced by around 70%. The residual contraction was abolished by the putative receptor operated channel inhibitor, SKF 96365 (2 μM).With 0.3 μM nifedipine present, 100 nM U46619 evoked similar contraction to 30 nM U46619 in the absence of nifedipine, but contraction to 5-HT (1 nM–10 μM) was abolished.In permeabilized arterial segments, 10 mM caffeine, 1 μM IP3 or 100 μM phenylephrine, each evoked transient contractions by releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores, whereas 5-HT had no effect. In intact arterial segments pre-stimulated with 20 mM K+, 5-HT-evoked contractions were unaffected by 1 μM thapsigargin, which inhibits sarco- and endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPases.In vessels permeabilized with α-toxin and then pre-contracted with Ca2+ and GTP, 5-HT evoked further contraction, reflecting increased myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity.Contraction linked to 5-HT1B/1D receptor stimulation in the rabbit renal artery can be explained by an influx of external Ca2+ through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and sensitization of the contractile myofilaments to existing levels of Ca2+, with no release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. PMID

  5. Comparative study of in vitro prooxidative properties and genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 and its laccase-mediated detoxification products.

    PubMed

    Zeinvand-Lorestani, Hamed; Sabzevari, Omid; Setayesh, Neda; Amini, Mohsen; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Amir; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the enzymatic detoxification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by laccase was studied, and the prooxidant properties and mutagenicity of the detoxification products were compared with those of AFB1. The optimal enzymatic reaction occurred in 0.1M of citrate buffer containing 20% DMSO at 35 °C, a pH of 4.5, and a laccase activity of 30 U mL(-1). After 2 d, sixty-seven percent of the toxic substrate was removed. The prooxidative properties of the detoxified products (27% versus 86%) and the mutagenicity were significantly decreased in comparison with the parent toxin. Unlike AFB1, which promoted metabolism-dependent genetic mutations by base-pair substitution, the detoxified products did not induce genotoxicity. Comparison of the Km values for AFB1 and riboflavin, a valuable food nutrient, indicated that laccase showed greater affinity for the toxin than for riboflavin.

  6. Sda1, a Cys2-His2 zinc finger transcription factor, is involved in polyol metabolism and fumonisin B1 production in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Malapi-Wight, Martha; Smith, Jonathon; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Bluhm, Burton H; Shim, Won-Bo

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot and stalk rot of maize, both of which reduce grain quality and yield. Additionally, F. verticillioides produces the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) during infection of maize kernels, and thus potentially compromises human and animal health. The current knowledge is fragmentary regarding the regulation of FB1 biosynthesis, particularly when considering interplay with environmental factors such as nutrient availability. In this study, SDA1 of F. verticillioides, predicted to encode a Cys-2 His-2 zinc finger transcription factor, was shown to play a key role in catabolizing select carbon sources. Growth of the SDA1 knock-out mutant (Δsda1) was completely inhibited when sorbitol was the sole carbon source and was severely impaired when exclusively provided mannitol or glycerol. Deletion of SDA1 unexpectedly increased FB1 biosynthesis, but reduced arabitol and mannitol biosynthesis, as compared to the wild-type progenitor. Trichoderma reesei ACE1, a regulator of cellulase and xylanase expression, complemented the F. verticillioides Δsda1 mutant, which indicates that Ace1 and Sda1 are functional orthologs. Taken together, the data indicate that Sda1 is a transcriptional regulator of carbon metabolism and toxin production in F. verticillioides.

  7. [Vitamin B1 (thiamine)].

    PubMed

    Guilland, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin B1 (or thiamine) plays a key role in energy production from glucose. Since the main fuel of the nervous system is glucose, thiamine deficiency causes severe neurological symptoms. The biological exploration of vitamin B1 status is based on the measurement of thiamine pyrophosphate concentration or of the activity of a thiamine-dependent enzyme, transketolase, in erythrocytes. Severe deficiency states can be observed in chronic alcoholics, after protracted vomiting during pregnancy and after bariatric surgery. Mild deficiencies are common in the general population, but their clinical consequences are still unclear. PMID:24298824

  8. Avermectin B1

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Avermectin B1 ; CASRN 65195 - 55 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  9. Elucidation of separate, but collaborative functions of the rRNA methyltransferase-related human mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 in mitochondrial biogenesis reveals new insight into maternally inherited deafness.

    PubMed

    Cotney, Justin; McKay, Sharen E; Shadel, Gerald S

    2009-07-15

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is controlled by signaling networks that relay information to and from the organelles. However, key mitochondrial factors that mediate such pathways and how they contribute to human disease are not understood fully. Here we demonstrate that the rRNA methyltransferase-related human mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 are key downstream effectors of mitochondrial biogenesis that perform unique, yet cooperative functions. The primary function of h-mtTFB2 is mtDNA transcription and maintenance, which is independent of its rRNA methyltransferase activity, while that of h-mtTFB1 is mitochondrial 12S rRNA methylation needed for normal mitochondrial translation, metabolism and cell growth. Over-expression of h-mtTFB1 causes 12S rRNA hypermethylation, aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis and increased sorbitol-induced cell death. These phenotypes are recapitulated in cells harboring the pathogenic A1555G mtDNA mutation, implicating a deleterious rRNA methylation-dependent retrograde signal in maternally inherited deafness pathology and shedding significant insight into how h-mtTFB1 acts as a nuclear modifier of this disease.

  10. Elucidation of separate, but collaborative functions of the rRNA methyltransferase-related human mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 in mitochondrial biogenesis reveals new insight into maternally inherited deafness

    PubMed Central

    Cotney, Justin; McKay, Sharen E.; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is controlled by signaling networks that relay information to and from the organelles. However, key mitochondrial factors that mediate such pathways and how they contribute to human disease are not understood fully. Here we demonstrate that the rRNA methyltransferase-related human mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 are key downstream effectors of mitochondrial biogenesis that perform unique, yet cooperative functions. The primary function of h-mtTFB2 is mtDNA transcription and maintenance, which is independent of its rRNA methyltransferase activity, while that of h-mtTFB1 is mitochondrial 12S rRNA methylation needed for normal mitochondrial translation, metabolism and cell growth. Over-expression of h-mtTFB1 causes 12S rRNA hypermethylation, aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis and increased sorbitol-induced cell death. These phenotypes are recapitulated in cells harboring the pathogenic A1555G mtDNA mutation, implicating a deleterious rRNA methylation-dependent retrograde signal in maternally inherited deafness pathology and shedding significant insight into how h-mtTFB1 acts as a nuclear modifier of this disease. PMID:19417006

  11. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated biotransformation of the antitrypanosomal methamidoxime prodrug DB844 forms novel metabolites through intramolecular rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Wujian; Yang, Sihyung; Ansede, John H.; Stephens, Chad E.; Bridges, Arlene S.; Voyksner, Robert D.; Ismail, Mohamed A.; Boykin, David W.; Tidwell, Richard R.; Hall, James Edwin; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    DB844 (CPD-594-12), N-methoxy-6-{5-[4-(N-methoxyamidino)phenyl]-furan-2-yl}-nicotinamidine, is an oral prodrug that has shown promising efficacy in both mouse and monkey models of second stage human African trypanosomiasis. However, gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was observed with high doses in a vervet monkey safety study. In the current study, we compared the metabolism of DB844 by hepatic and extrahepatic cytochrome P450s to determine if differences in metabolite formation underlie the observed GI toxicity. DB844 undergoes sequential O-demethylation and N-dehydroxylation in the liver to form the active compound DB820 (CPD-593-12). However, extrahepatic CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 produced two new metabolites, MX and MY. Accurate mass and collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry analyses of the metabolites supported proposed structures of MX and MY. In addition, MY was confirmed with a synthetic standard and detection of nitric oxide release when DB844 was incubated with CYP1A1. Taken altogether, we propose that MX is formed by insertion of an oxygen into the amidine C=N to form an oxaziridine, which is followed by intramolecular rearrangement of the adjacent O-methyl group and subsequent release of nitric oxide. The resulting imine ester, MX, is further hydrolyzed to form MY. These findings may contribute to furthering the understanding of toxicities associated with benzamidoxime- and benzmethamidoxime-containing molecules. PMID:24186380

  12. LXXLL motifs and AF-2 domain mediate SHP (NR0B2) homodimerization and DAX1 (NR0B1)-DAX1A heterodimerization.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Anita K; Zhang, Yao-Hua; McCabe, Edward R B

    2007-01-01

    Small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2) is an unusual orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a corepressor of other nuclear receptors through heterodimeric interactions. Mutations in SHP are associated with mild obesity and insulin resistance. The protein domain structure of SHP is similar to Dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 (DAX1; NR0B1). Mutations in DAX1 cause AHC with associated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. DAX1A is an alternatively spliced isoform of DAX1 that lacks the last 80 amino acids of the DAX1 C-terminal repressor domain and is replaced by a novel 10-amino acid motif. We have previously shown homodimerization of SHP and DAX1 individually, heterodimerization of DAX1 with SHP, and heterodimerization of DAX1 with DAX1A. In these studies, we investigated the domains and residues of SHP involved in SHP homodimerization and DAX1-SHP heterodimerization and also further characterized DAX1-DAX1 homodimerization and DAX1-DAX1A heterodimerization. We showed involvement of the SHP LXXLL motifs and AF-2 domain in SHP homodimerization and DAX1-SHP heterodimerization. We demonstrated redundancy of the LXXLL motifs in DAX1 homodimerization. While DAX1A subcellular localization is mostly cytoplasmic, DAX1-DAX1A heterodimers existed in the nucleus, suggesting differential functions for DAX1A in each compartment. We showed that the AF-2 domain of DAX1 is involved in DAX1-DAX1A heterodimerization. These results indicate that NR0B family members use similar mechanisms for homodimerization as well as heterodimerization. These resemble coactivator-receptor interactions that may have potential functional consequences for molecular mechanisms of the NR0B family. PMID:17686645

  13. Sulforaphane- and phenethyl isothiocyanate-induced inhibition of aflatoxin B1-mediated genotoxicity in human hepatocytes: role of GSTM1 genotype and CYP3A4 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gross-Steinmeyer, Kerstin; Stapleton, Patricia L; Tracy, Julia H; Bammler, Theo K; Strom, Stephen C; Eaton, David L

    2010-08-01

    Primary cultures of human hepatocytes were used to investigate whether the dietary isothiocyanates, sulforaphane (SFN), and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) can reduce DNA adduct formation of the hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B(1) (AFB). Following 48 h of pretreatment, 10 and 50 microM SFN greatly decreased AFB-DNA adduct levels, whereas 25muM PEITC decreased AFB-DNA adducts in some but not all hepatocyte preparations. Microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analyses of gene expression in SFN and PEITC-treated hepatocytes demonstrated that SFN greatly decreased cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 mRNA but did not induce the expression of either glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 or GSTT1. The protective effects of SFN required pretreatment; cotreatment of hepatocytes with SFN and AFB in the absence of pretreatment had no effect on AFB-DNA adduct formation. When AFB-DNA adduct formation was evaluated by GST genotype, the presence of one or two functional alleles of GSTM1 was associated with a 75% reduction in AFB-DNA adducts, compared with GSTM1 null. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the inhibition of AFB-DNA adduct formation by SFN is dependent on changes in gene expression rather than direct inhibition of catalytic activity. Transcriptional repression of genes involved in AFB bioactivation (CYP3A4 and CYP1A2), but not transcriptional activation of GSTs, may be responsible for the protective effects of SFN. Although GSTM1 expression was not induced by SFN, the presence of a functional GSTM1 allele can afford substantial protection against AFB-DNA damage in human liver. The downregulation of CYP3A4 by SFN may have important implications for drug interactions. PMID:20442190

  14. Impact of exercise and vitamin B1 intake on hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and spatial memory performance in a rat model of stress.

    PubMed

    E Dief, Abeer; M Samy, Doaa; I Dowedar, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses through modulation of neurotropic factors or neurotransmitters. Therefore, we investigated the role of exercise and thiamine supplementation on spatial memory and on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and acetylcholine (Ach) content in the hippocampus of the stressed animals. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (8 rats/group): control group; stress group; swimming and stress group; and thiamine and stress group. All animals were assessed by a T maze for spatial memory or open field test for locomotion and anxiety. BDNF and Ach were estimated in the hippocampus. Chronic immobilization stress resulted in a significant decrease in BDNF and Ach levels in the hippocampus and impairment in spatial memory functions and decreased basal activity. However, either swimming training or thiamine intake for 30 d was proved to induce a significant increase both in BDNF and Ach in conjunction with improved performance in the T maze, marked anxiolytic effect and enhanced ambulation in the open field test, as compared to the stress group. Interestingly, swimming-exercised rats showed significantly higher levels of BDNF versus thiamine-receiving rats, while thiamine-receiving rats showed higher locomotor activity and less freezing behavior in the open field test compared to the swimming group. It was concluded that decreased BDNF and Ach after stress exposure could be a mechanism for the deleterious actions of stress on memory function; swimming exercise or vitamin B1 supplementation for 30 d was a protective tool to improve coping with chronic stress by modulating BDNF and Ach content along with enhancement of memory functions and motor activities.

  15. Maturation promoting factor destabilization facilitates postovulatory aging-mediated abortive spontaneous egg activation in rat.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Shilpa; Koch, Biplob; Chaube, Shail K

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether destabilization of maturation promoting factor (MPF) leads to postovulatory aging-mediated abortive spontaneous egg activation (SEA). If so, we wished to determine whether changes in Wee-1 as well as Emi2 levels are associated with MPF destabilization during postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA in rats eggs aged in vivo. For this purpose, sexually immature female rats were given a single injection (20 IU IM) of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin for 48 h followed by single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (20 IU). Ovulated eggs were collected after 14, 17, 19 and 21 h post-hCG surge to induce postovulatory aging in vivo. The morphological changes, Wee1, phosphorylation status of cyclin dependent kinase 1(Cdk1), early mitotic inhibitor 2 (Emi2), anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), cyclin B1, mitotic arrest deficient protein (MAD2) levels and Cdk1 activity were analyzed. The increased Wee 1 level triggered phosphorylation of Thr-14/Tyr-15 and dephosphorylation of Thr-161 residues of Cdk1. The decrease of Emi2 level was associated with increased APC/C level and decreased cyclin B1 level. Changes in phosphorylation status of Cdk1 and reduced cyclin B1 level resulted in destabilization of MPF. The destabilized MPF finally led to postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA in rat eggs. It was concluded that the increase of Wee 1 but decrease of Emi2 level triggers MPF destabilization and thereby postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA in rat eggs. PMID:26991553

  16. Activation of the human keratinocyte B1 bradykinin receptor induces expression and secretion of metalloproteases 2 and 9 by transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Matus, Carola E; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Pavicic, Francisca; González, Carlos B; Concha, Miguel; Bhoola, Kanti D; Burgos, Rafael A; Figueroa, Carlos D

    2016-09-01

    The B1 bradykinin receptor (BDKRB1) is a component of the kinin cascade localized in the human skin. Some of the effects produced by stimulation of BDKRB1 depend on transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but the mechanisms involved in this process have not been clarified yet. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a BDKRB1 agonist on wound healing in a mouse model and the migration and secretion of metalloproteases 2 and 9 from human HaCaT keratinocytes and delineate the signalling pathways that triggered their secretion. Although stimulation of BDKRB1 induces weak chemotactic migration of keratinocytes and wound closure in an in vitro scratch-wound assay, the BDKRB1 agonist improved wound closure in a mouse model. BDKRB1 stimulation triggers synthesis and secretion of both metalloproteases, effects that depend on the activity of EGFR and subsequent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and PI3K/Akt. In the mouse model, immunoreactivity for both gelatinases was concentrated around wound borders. EGFR transactivation by BDKRB1 agonist involves Src kinases family and ADAM17. In addition to extracellular matrix degradation, metalloproteases 2 and 9 regulate cell migration and differentiation, cell functions that are associated with the role of BDKRB1 in keratinocyte differentiation. Considering that BDKRB1 is up-regulated by inflammation and/or by cytokines that are abundant in the inflammatory milieu, more stable BDKRB1 agonists may be of therapeutic value to modulate wound healing.

  17. Fumonisin B1, a mycotoxin contaminant of cereal grains, and inducer of apoptosis via the tumour necrosis factor pathway and caspase activation.

    PubMed

    Ciacci-Zanella, J R; Jones, C

    1999-07-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme, a prevalent fungus which infects corn or other cereal grains. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most common mycotoxin produced by F. moniliforme, suggesting that it has toxicological significance. The structure of FB1 resembles sphingoid bases and it inhibits ceramide synthase. As sphingoid bases regulate cell growth, differentiation, transformation and apoptosis, it is reasonable to hypothesize that FB1 can also regulate these activities. Previous studies concluded that FB1 induced apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest in CV-1 cells (African green monkey kidney fibroblasts). In this study, we have identified genes that inhibit FB1-induced apoptosis in CV-1 cells and in two primary human cell types (lung fibroblasts and neonatal kidney cells). A baculovirus gene. inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), protected CV-1 and the human cells from apoptosis. IAP blocks apoptosis which is induced by the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) pathway. Inhibition of interleukin converting enzymes (ICE proteases or caspases) by the baculovirus gene p35 also inhibited FB1-induced apoptosis. FB1 treatment led to cleavage of Rb (retinoblastoma protein) at its C-terminus in CV-1 or human lung cells. As the C-terminus of Rb is cleaved by ICE proteases during apoptosis, this supports an active role for ICE proteases in FB1-induced apoptosis. The tumour suppressor gene p53 was not required for FB1-induced apoptosis because p53-/- primary mouse embryo fibroblasts underwent apoptosis following FB1 treatment. Furthermore, Bcl-2 was not an effective inhibitor of FB1-induced apoptosis in CV-1 or IMR-90 cells. In summary, these results demonstrate that the TNF pathway and caspases plays an important role in FB1-induced apoptosis.

  18. Factors Mediating the Adjustment to Involuntary Childlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatelli, Ronald M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored stressors that accompany experience of involuntary childlessness and examined mediators of adjustment to infertility in married individuals. Data showed deleterious effect that coping with infertility can have on couple's sexual relationship. Findings suggest important relationship between self-esteem, marital commitment, and positive…

  19. Boeing XF2B-1 (F2B-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Boeing XF2B-1 (F2B-1): Serving as the prototype for the F2B-1 shipboard fighter, the XF2B-1 differed visually in having a pointed spinner and an unbalanced rudder. Like many aircraft of its day, the Boeing model 69 was powered by a Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial engine.

  20. Associations of serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct level with socio-demographic factors and aflatoxins intake from nuts and related nut products in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Rosma, Ahmad; Latiff, Aishah A; Izzah, A Nurul

    2012-04-01

    Aflatoxins are one of the major risk factors in the multi-factorial etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, the information on aflatoxins exposure is very important in the intervention planning in order to reduce the dietary intake of aflatoxins, especially among the children. This study investigated the relationship between aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) lysine adduct levers in serum and socio-demographic factors and dietary intake of aflatoxins from nuts and nut products in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in five districts of Penang. A survey on socio-demographic characteristics was administered to 364 healthy adults from the three main ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian). A total of 170 blood samples were successfully collected and tested for the level of AFB(1)-lysine adduct. 97% of the samples contained AFB(1)-lysine adduct above the detection limit of 0.4 pg/mg albumin and ranged from 0.20 to 23.16 pg/mg albumin (mean±standard deviation=7.67±4.54 pg/mg albumin; median=7.12 pg/mg albumin). There was no significant association between AFB(1)-lysine adduct levels with gender, district, education level, household number and occupation when these socio-demographic characteristics were examined according to high or low levels of AFB(1)-lysine. However, participants in the age group of 31-50 years were 3.08 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels compared to those aged between 18 and 30 years (P=0.026). Significant difference (P=0.000) was found among different ethnic groups. Chinese and Indian participants were 3.05 and 2.35 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels than Malay. The result of AFB(1)-lysine adduct suggested that Penang adult population is likely to be exposed to AFB(1) but at a level of less than that needed to cause direct acute illness or death. PMID:22230243

  1. Loss of Ypk1, the Yeast Homolog to the Human Serum- and Glucocorticoid-induced Protein Kinase, Accelerates Phospholipase B1-mediated Phosphatidylcholine Deacylation*

    PubMed Central

    Surlow, Beth A.; Cooley, Benjamin M.; Needham, Patrick G.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.; Patton-Vogt, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Ypk1, the yeast homolog of the human serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (Sgk1), affects diverse cellular activities, including sphingolipid homeostasis. We now report that Ypk1 also impacts the turnover of the major phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC). Pulse-chase radiolabeling reveals that a ypk1Δ mutant exhibits increased PC deacylation and glycerophosphocholine production compared with wild type yeast. Deletion of PLB1, a gene encoding a B-type phospholipase that hydrolyzes PC, in a ypk1Δ mutant curtails the increased PC deacylation. In contrast to previous data, we find that Plb1 resides in the ER and in the medium. Consistent with a link between Ypk1 and Plb1, the levels of both Plb1 protein and PLB1 message are elevated in a ypk1Δ strain compared with wild type yeast. Furthermore, deletion of PLB1 in a ypk1Δ mutant exacerbates phenotypes associated with loss of YPK1, including slowed growth and sensitivity to cell wall perturbation, suggesting that increased Plb1 activity buffers against the loss of Ypk1. Because Plb1 lacks a consensus phosphorylation site for Ypk1, we probed other processes under the control of Ypk1 that might be linked to PC turnover. Inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis by the drug myriocin or through utilization of a lcb1-100 mutant results in increased PLB1 expression. Furthermore, we discovered that the increase in PLB1 expression observed upon inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis or loss of Ypk1 is under the control of the Crz1 transcription factor. Taken together, these results suggest a functional interaction between Ypk1 and Plb1 in which altered sphingolipid metabolism up-regulates PLB1 expression via Crz1. PMID:25258318

  2. Selective amplification of cDNA sequence from total RNA by cassette-ligation mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR): application to sequencing 6.5 kb genome segment of hantavirus strain B-1.

    PubMed

    Isegawa, Y; Sheng, J; Sokawa, Y; Yamanishi, K; Nakagomi, O; Ueda, S

    1992-12-01

    A method, referred to as cassette-ligation mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has been developed to permit selective and specific amplification of cDNA sequence from total cellular RNA. This technique comprises (i) digestion of cDNA with multiple restriction enzymes, (ii) ligation of cleavage products to double-stranded DNA cassettes possessing a corresponding restriction site and (iii) amplification of cassette-ligated restriction fragments containing a short, known sequence (but not all the other ligation products) by PCR using the specific and cassette primers; the specific primer is designed to prime synthesis from the known sequence of the cDNA whereas the cassette primer anneals to one strand of the cassette. Sequencing from the cassette primer provides information to design a new primer for the next walking step. The amplified cDNA fragments are often larger than the maximum DNA fragments (500-600 bp) that can be sequenced without the need of synthesizing internal sequencing primer. Each of such large cDNA fragments is dissected into smaller DNA fragments by repeating cassette-ligation mediated PCR exploiting different restriction sites and different sets of cassette primers. This dissection process reduces the number of specific primers to a minimum, thereby increasing the speed of sequencing and minimizing the overall cost. We have successfully applied this cDNA walking and sequencing by the cassette-ligation mediated PCR to the sequencing of an entire 6.5 kb genome segment of hantavirus strain B-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Secretome identification of immune cell factors mediating metastatic cell homing

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Brian A.; Wu, Jia J.; Azarin, Samira M.; Nanavati, Dhaval; Rao, Shreyas S.; Bushnell, Grace G.; Medicherla, Chaitanya B.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic cell homing is a complex process mediated in part by diffusible factors secreted from immune cells found at a pre-metastatic niche. We report on connecting secretomics and TRanscriptional Activity CEll aRray (TRACER) data to identify functional paracrine interactions between immune cells and metastatic cells as novel mediators of homing. Metastatic breast cancer mouse models were used to generate a diseased splenocyte conditioned media (D-SCM) containing immune cell secreted factors. MDA-MB-231 metastatic cell activity including cell invasion, migration, transendothelial migration, and proliferation were increased in D-SCM relative to control media. Our D-SCM secretome analysis yielded 144 secreted factor candidates that contribute to increased metastatic cell activity. The functional mediators of homing were identified using MetaCore software to determine interactions between the immune cell secretome and the TRACER-identified active transcription factors within metastatic cells. Among the 5 candidate homing factors identified, haptoglobin was selected and validated in vitro and in vivo as a key mediator of homing. Our studies demonstrate a novel systems biology approach to identify functional signaling factors associated with a cellular phenotype, which provides an enabling tool that complements large-scale protein identification provided by proteomics. PMID:26634905

  4. Loss of endophilin-B1 exacerbates Alzheimer’s disease pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David B.; Kinoshita, Yoshito; Kinoshita, Chizuru; Uo, Takuma; Sopher, Bryce L.; Cudaback, Eiron; Keene, C. Dirk; Bilousova, Tina; Gylys, Karen; Case, Amanda; Jayadev, Suman; Wang, Hong-Gang; Garden, Gwenn A.

    2015-01-01

    Endophilin-B1, also known as Bax-interacting factor 1 (Bif-1, and encoded by SH3GLB1), is a multifunctional protein involved in apoptosis, autophagy and mitochondrial function. We recently described a unique neuroprotective role for neuron-specific alternatively spliced isoforms of endophilin-B1. To examine whether endophilin-B1-mediated neuroprotection could be a novel therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s disease we used a double mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 (APPswe/PSEN1dE9) mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease and observed that expression of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms declined with disease progression. To determine if this reduction in endophilin-B1 has a functional role in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis, we crossed endophilin-B1−/− mice with APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice. Deletion of endophilin-B1 accelerated disease onset and progression in 6-month-old APPswe/PSEN1dE9/endophilin-B1−/− mice, which showed more plaques, astrogliosis, synaptic degeneration, cognitive impairment and mortality than APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice. In mouse primary cortical neuron cultures, overexpression of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms protected against amyloid-β-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, protein and mRNA levels of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms were also selectively decreased in the cerebral cortex and in the synaptic compartment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Flow sorting of synaptosomes from patients with Alzheimer’s disease demonstrated a negative correlation between amyloid-β and endophilin-B1 levels. The importance of endophilin-B1 in neuronal function was further underscored by the development of synaptic degeneration and cognitive and motor impairment in endophilin-B1−/− mice by 12 months. Our findings suggest that endophilin-B1 is a key mediator of a feed-forward mechanism of Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis where amyloid-β reduces neuron-specific endophilin-B1, which in turn

  5. CYP1B1 Enhances Cell Proliferation and Metastasis through Induction of EMT and Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling via Sp1 Upregulation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yeo-Jung; Baek, Hyoung-Seok; Ye, Dong-Jin; Shin, Sangyun; Kim, Donghak; Chun, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a major E2 hydroxylase involved in the metabolism of potential carcinogens. CYP1B1 expression has been reported to be higher in tumors compared to normal tissues, especially in hormone-related cancers including breast, ovary, and prostate tumors. To explore the role of CYP1B1 in cancer progression, we investigated the action of CYP1B1 in cells with increased CYP1B1 via the inducer 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA) or an overexpression vector, in addition to decreased CYP1B1 via the inhibitor tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) or siRNA knockdown. We observed that CYP1B1 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. To understand its molecular mechanism, we measured key oncogenic proteins including β-catenin, c-Myc, ZEB2, and matrix metalloproteinases following CYP1B1 modulation. CYP1B1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling via upregulation of CTNNB1, ZEB2, SNAI1, and TWIST1. Sp1, a transcription factor involved in cell growth and metastasis, was positively regulated by CYP1B1, and suppression of Sp1 expression by siRNA or DNA binding activity using mithramycin A blocked oncogenic transformation by CYP1B1. Therefore, we suggest that Sp1 acts as a key mediator for CYP1B1 action. Treatment with 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), a major metabolite generated by CYP1B1, showed similar effects as CYP1B1 overexpression, indicating that CYP1B1 activity mediated various oncogenic events in cells. In conclusion, our data suggests that CYP1B1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis by inducing EMT and Wnt/β-catenin signaling via Sp1 induction. PMID:26981862

  6. CYP1B1 Enhances Cell Proliferation and Metastasis through Induction of EMT and Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling via Sp1 Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yeo-Jung; Baek, Hyoung-Seok; Ye, Dong-Jin; Shin, Sangyun; Kim, Donghak; Chun, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a major E2 hydroxylase involved in the metabolism of potential carcinogens. CYP1B1 expression has been reported to be higher in tumors compared to normal tissues, especially in hormone-related cancers including breast, ovary, and prostate tumors. To explore the role of CYP1B1 in cancer progression, we investigated the action of CYP1B1 in cells with increased CYP1B1 via the inducer 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA) or an overexpression vector, in addition to decreased CYP1B1 via the inhibitor tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) or siRNA knockdown. We observed that CYP1B1 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. To understand its molecular mechanism, we measured key oncogenic proteins including β-catenin, c-Myc, ZEB2, and matrix metalloproteinases following CYP1B1 modulation. CYP1B1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling via upregulation of CTNNB1, ZEB2, SNAI1, and TWIST1. Sp1, a transcription factor involved in cell growth and metastasis, was positively regulated by CYP1B1, and suppression of Sp1 expression by siRNA or DNA binding activity using mithramycin A blocked oncogenic transformation by CYP1B1. Therefore, we suggest that Sp1 acts as a key mediator for CYP1B1 action. Treatment with 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), a major metabolite generated by CYP1B1, showed similar effects as CYP1B1 overexpression, indicating that CYP1B1 activity mediated various oncogenic events in cells. In conclusion, our data suggests that CYP1B1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis by inducing EMT and Wnt/β-catenin signaling via Sp1 induction. PMID:26981862

  7. [The interactions between natural products and OATP1B1].

    PubMed

    Shi, Mei-zhi; Liu, Yu; Bian, Jia-lin; Jin, Meng; Gui, Chun-shan

    2015-07-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is an important liver-specific uptake transporter, which mediates transport of numerous endogenous substances and drugs from blood into hepatocytes. To identify and investigate potential modulators of OATP1B1 from natural products, the effect of 21 frequently used natural compounds and extracts on OATP1B1-mediated fluorescein methotrexate transport was studied by using Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing OATP1B1 (CHO-OATP1B1) in 96-well plates. This method could be used for the screening of large compound libraries. Our studies showed that some flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, chrysanthemum flavonoids and mulberrin) and triterpenoids (e.g., glycyrrhetinic acid and glycyrrhizic acid) were inhibitors of OATP1B1 with IC50 values less than 16 µmol · L(-1). The IC50 value of glycyrrhetinic acid on OATP1B1 was comparable to its blood concentration in clinics, indicating an OATPlB1-mediated drug-drug interaction could occur. Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that flavonoids had much higher inhibitory activity than their glycosides. Furthermore, the type and length of saccharides had a significant effect on their activity. In addition, we used OATP1B1 substrates fluvastatin and rosuvastatin as probe drugs to investigate the substrate-dependent effect of several natural compounds on the function of OATP1B1 in vitro. Our results demonstrated that the effect of these natural products on the function of OATPlB1 was substrate-dependent. In summary, this study would be conducive to predicting and avoiding potential OATP1B1-mediated drug-drug and drug-food interactions and thus provide the experimental basis and guidance for rational drug use. PMID:26552146

  8. SH2B1 in β-Cells Promotes Insulin Expression and Glucose Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zheng; Morris, David L.; Jiang, Lin; Liu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Insulin deficiency drives the progression of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic β-cell insulin expression and secretion are tightly regulated by nutrients and hormones; however, intracellular signaling proteins that mediate nutrient and hormonal regulation of insulin synthesis and secretion are not fully understood. SH2B1 is an SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein. It enhances the activation of the Janus tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways in response to a verity of hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Here we identify SH2B1 as a new regulator of insulin expression. In rat INS-1 832/13 β-cells, SH2B1 knockdown decreased, whereas SH2B1 overexpression increased, both insulin expression and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. SH2B1-deficent islets also had reduced insulin expression, insulin content, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Heterozygous deletion of SH2B1 decreased pancreatic insulin content and plasma insulin levels in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, thus exacerbating hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. In addition, overexpression of JAK2 increased insulin promoter activity, and SH2B1 enhanced the ability of JAK2 to activate the insulin promoter. Overexpression of SH2B1 also increased the expression of Pdx1 and the recruitment of Pdx1 to the insulin promoter in INS-1 832/13 cells, whereas silencing of SH2B1 had the opposite effects. Consistently, Pdx1 expression was lower in SH2B1-deficient islets. These data suggest that the SH2B1 in β-cells promotes insulin synthesis and secretion at least in part by enhancing activation of JAK2 and/or Pdx1 pathways in response to hormonal and nutritional signals. PMID:24645678

  9. SH2B1 in β-cells promotes insulin expression and glucose metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Morris, David L; Jiang, Lin; Liu, Yong; Rui, Liangyou

    2014-05-01

    Insulin deficiency drives the progression of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic β-cell insulin expression and secretion are tightly regulated by nutrients and hormones; however, intracellular signaling proteins that mediate nutrient and hormonal regulation of insulin synthesis and secretion are not fully understood. SH2B1 is an SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein. It enhances the activation of the Janus tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways in response to a verity of hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Here we identify SH2B1 as a new regulator of insulin expression. In rat INS-1 832/13 β-cells, SH2B1 knockdown decreased, whereas SH2B1 overexpression increased, both insulin expression and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. SH2B1-deficent islets also had reduced insulin expression, insulin content, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Heterozygous deletion of SH2B1 decreased pancreatic insulin content and plasma insulin levels in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, thus exacerbating hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance. In addition, overexpression of JAK2 increased insulin promoter activity, and SH2B1 enhanced the ability of JAK2 to activate the insulin promoter. Overexpression of SH2B1 also increased the expression of Pdx1 and the recruitment of Pdx1 to the insulin promoter in INS-1 832/13 cells, whereas silencing of SH2B1 had the opposite effects. Consistently, Pdx1 expression was lower in SH2B1-deficient islets. These data suggest that the SH2B1 in β-cells promotes insulin synthesis and secretion at least in part by enhancing activation of JAK2 and/or Pdx1 pathways in response to hormonal and nutritional signals.

  10. Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) Models for the Prediction of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR/ ErbB-1) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yue; Qu, Dan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Gong, Ya-Nan; Yan, Aixia

    2016-01-01

    EGFR (ErbB-1/HER1) kinase plays an important role in cancer therapy. Two classification models were established to predict whether a compound is an inhibitor or a decoy of human EGFR (ErbR-1) by using Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) and support vector machine (SVM). A dataset containing 1248 ATP binding site inhibitors and 3090 decoys was collected and randomly divided into a training set (831 inhibitors and 2064 decoys) and a test set (417 inhibitors and 1029 decoys). The descriptors that represent molecular structures were calculated by software ADRIANA.Code. Thirteen significant descriptors including five global descriptors and eight 2D property autocorrelation descriptors were selected by Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise analysis. The prediction accuracies on training set and test set are 98.5% and 96.3% for SOM model, 99.0% and 97.0% for SVM model, respectively. Both of these two classification models have good performance on distinguishing EGFR inhibitors from decoys. PMID:27074760

  11. Boeing F3B-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served aboard the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers Lexington and Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was powered by a Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial engine.

  12. Properties of bcr-abl-transformed mouse 12B1 cells secreting interleukin-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF): II. Adverse effects of GM-CSF.

    PubMed

    Petráčková, Martina; Staněk, Libor; Mandys, Václav; Dundr, Pavel; Vonka, Vladimír

    2012-06-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is considered to be the most effective immunostimulating factor for the construction of gene-engineered anti-cancer vaccines. In some tumour cells, this type of genetic modification has resulted in the loss of the oncogenic potential. This was not the case with bcr-abl-transformed mouse 12B1 cells. A cell line, designated 12B1/GM-CSF/cl-5 producing more than 100 ng/106 cells/24 h, displayed higher pathogenicity than the parental, non-transduced cells. Although the tumours induced by the parental 12B1 cells and 12B1/GM-CSF/cl-5 cells appeared nearly at the same time and then grew at an approximately equal rate, the latter mice were in a much poorer clinical condition. In these animals the growth of the tumours was associated with gradually increasing blood levels of GM-CSF. In both groups of animals splenomegaly was observed; it was much more pronounced in the case of 12B1/GM-CSF/cl-5-inoculated animals. While in the case of animals inoculated with the parental cells the splenomegaly was probably mainly due to infiltration with tumour cells, in the animals inoculated with the GM-CSF-secreting cells splenomegaly and derangement of parenchymal organs, such as lungs, liver and kidneys, were more complex, including congestion and infiltration with hemopoietic cells, predominantly immature cells of myeloid lineage. The most conspicuous of these changes was the hyperaemia of the lungs. No such alterations were seen in animals inoculated with the parental cells. On the other hand, the contents of T regulatory cells were comparable in both groups and they increased in parallel at the end of the observation period. When GM-CSF neutralizing antibody was administered to animals inoculated with the 12B1/GM-CSF/cl-5 cells, the pathological changes observed within the organs were suppressed, this proving that the overproduced GM-CSF and not any other substance, played the key role in their induction.

  13. B1 bradykinin receptors and sensory neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C. L.; Naeem, S.; Phagoo, S. B.; Campbell, E. A.; Urban, L.; Burgess, G. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The location of the B1 bradykinin receptors involved in inflammatory hyperalgesia was investigated. 2. No specific binding of the B1 bradykinin receptor ligand [3H]-des-Arg10-kallidin was detected in primary cultures of rat dorsal root ganglion neurones, even after treatment with interleukin-1 beta (100 iu ml-1). 3. In dorsal root ganglion neurones, activation of B2 bradykinin receptors stimulated polyphosphoinositidase C. In contrast, B1 bradykinin receptor agonists (des-Arg9-bradykinin up to 10 microM and des-Arg10-kallidin up to 1 microM) failed to activate polyphosphoinositidase C, even in neurones that had been treated with interleukin-1 beta (100 iu ml-1), prostaglandin E2 (1 microM) or prostaglandin I2 (1 microM). 4. Dorsal root ganglion neurones removed from rats (both neonatal and 14 days old) that had been pretreated with inflammatory mediators (Freund's complete adjuvant, or carrageenan) failed to respond to B1 bradykinin receptor selective agonists (des-Arg9-bradykinin up to 10 microM and des-Arg10-kallidin up to 1 microM). 5. Bradykinin (25 nM to 300 nM) evoked ventral root responses when applied to peripheral receptive fields or central terminals of primary afferents in the neonatal rat spinal cord and tail preparation. In contrast, des-Arg9-bradykinin (50 nM to 500 nM) failed to evoke ventral root depolarizations in either control rats or in animals that developed inflammation following ultraviolet irradiation of the tail skin. 6. The results of the present study imply that the B1 bradykinin receptors that contribute to hypersensitivity in models of persistent inflammatory hyperalgesia are located on cells other than sensory neurones where they may be responsible for releasing mediators that sensitize or activate the nociceptors. PMID:8832074

  14. Kinin B1 and B2 receptor expression in osteoblasts and fibroblasts is enhanced by interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Effects dependent on activation of NF-kappaB and MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Brechter, Anna Bernhold; Persson, Emma; Lundgren, Inger; Lerner, Ulf H

    2008-07-01

    Pro-inflammatory mediators formed by the kallikrein-kinin system can stimulate bone resorption and synergistically potentiate bone resorption induced by IL-1 and TNF-alpha. We have shown that the effect is associated with synergistically enhanced RANKL expression and enhanced prostaglandin biosynthesis, due to increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression. In the present study, the effects of osteotropic cytokines and different kinins on the expression of receptor subtypes for bradykinin (BK), des-Arg10-Lys-BK (DALBK), IL-1beta and TNF-alpha have been investigated. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha enhanced kinin B1 and B2 receptor binding in the human osteoblastic cell line MG-63 and the mRNA expression of B1 and B2 receptors in MG-63 cells, human gingival fibroblasts and intact mouse calvarial bones. Kinins did not affect mRNA expression of IL-1 or TNF receptors. EMSA showed that IL-1beta and TNF-alpha activated NF-kappaB and AP-1 in MG-63 cells. IL-1beta stimulated NF-kappaB via a non-canonical pathway (p52/p65) and TNF-alpha via the canonical pathway (p50/p65). Activation of AP-1 involved c-Jun in both IL-1beta and TNF-alpha stimulated cells, but c-Fos only in TNF-alpha stimulated cells. Phospho-ELISA and Western blots showed that IL-1beta activated JNK and p38, but not ERK 1/2 MAP kinase. Pharmacological inhibitors showed that NF-kappaB, p38 and JNK were important for IL-1beta induced stimulation of B1 receptors, and NF-kappaB and p38 for B2 receptors. p38 and JNK were important for TNF-alpha induced stimulation of B1 receptors, whereas NF-kappaB, p38 and JNK were involved in TNF-alpha induced expression of B2 receptors. These data show that IL-1beta and TNF-alpha upregulate B1 and B2 receptor expression by mechanisms involving activation of both NF-kappaB and MAP kinase pathways, but that signal transduction pathways are different for IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. The enhanced kinin receptor expression induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha might be one

  15. Expression of kinin B(1) receptor in fresh or cultured rabbit aortic smooth muscle: role of NF-kappa B.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Thierry; Morissette, Guillaume; Bouthillier, Johanne; Levesque, Luc; Marceau, François

    2002-07-01

    Kinin B(1) receptor (B(1)R) expression and the importance of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B in this process were evaluated in models based on the rabbit aorta: freshly isolated tissue (postisolation induction) and cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs). A 3-h incubation of freshly isolated tissues determined a sharp B(1)R mRNA increase (RT-PCR). Coincubation of tissues with a stimulus (interleukin-1 beta, fetal bovine serum, epidermal growth factor, or cycloheximide) further increased mRNA levels. Cultured SMCs possessed a basal population of surface B(1)Rs ([(3)H]Lys-des-Arg(9)-bradykinin binding) that was upregulated by treatments with the same set of stimuli (binding, mRNA, nuclear runon). Pharmacological inhibitors of NF-kappa B (MG-132, BAY 11-7082, dexamethasone) or actinomycin D reduced the postisolation induction of B(1)Rs in fresh aortic tissue (contractility or mRNA) and the cytokine effect on cells (mRNA, binding). NF-kappa B may be a common mediator of various stimuli that increase B(1)R gene transcription in the rabbit aorta, including tissue isolation, but cycloheximide also stabilizes B(1)R mRNA. The SMC models faithfully mimic the in vivo situation with regard to B(1)R regulation.

  16. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B1 Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Pauline E.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-01-01

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB1 albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people. PMID:26633502

  17. Differential cellular expression of organic anion transporting peptides OATP1A2 and OATP2B1 in the human retina and brain: implications for carrier-mediated transport of neuropeptides and neurosteriods in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Vavricka, Stephan R; Meier, Peter J; Stieger, Bruno

    2015-07-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are polyspecific organic anion transporters, which are expressed in the blood-brain barrier, the choroid plexus, and other organs. The physiologic function of OATPs in extrahepatic tissues remains ambiguous. In rat retina, members of the OATP family are expressed. We therefore investigated the human retina for the expression of OATP1A2 and OATP2B1 and extended the study to human brain. Furthermore, we searched for peptide neurotransmitters as novel OATP substrates. OATP1A2 displayed a broad expression pattern in human retina as assessed by immunofluorescence localization. It is expressed in photoreceptor bodies and somas of amacrine cells. OATP1B2 expression is restricted to the inner nuclear layer and to the inner plexiform layer. Using paraffin sections from human cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus, OATP1A2 was localized to neurons and neuronal processes, while OATP2B1 is expressed in endothelial cells of brain capillaries. Substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide were identified as substrates for OATP1A2 and OATP2B1. Double-labeling immunofluorescence of human retina demonstrated the presence of substance P and of vasoactive intestinal peptides in neurons expressing OATP1A2 and OATP2B1, respectively. The expression of OATP1A2 and OATP2B1 in retinal neurons implies a role of these transporters in the reuptake of peptide neurotransmitters released from retinal neurons. The abundant expression of OATP1A2 in brain neurons points to the possibility that OATP1A2 could be involved in the homeostasis of neurosteroids. The high expression of OATP2B1 in brain capillaries supports an important function of OATPs in substance penetration across the blood-brain barrier.

  18. B1-induced caspase-independent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells is mediated by down-regulation of Bcl-2 via p53 binding to P2 promoter TATA box

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Xin; Xu Ke; Xu Yufang; Liu Jianwen Qian Xuhong

    2011-10-01

    The Bcl-2 family contains a panel of proteins which are conserved regulators of apoptosis in mammalian cells, like the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. According to its significant role in altering susceptibility to apoptosis, the deciphering of the mechanism of Bcl-2 expression modulation may be crucial for identifying therapeutics strategies for cancer. Treatment with naphthalimide-based DNA intercalators, including M2-A and R16, generally leads to a decrease in Bcl-2 intracellular amounts. Whereas the interest for these chemotherapeutics is accompanied by advances in the fundamental understanding of their anticancer properties, the molecular mechanism underlying changes in Bcl-2 expression remains poorly understood. We report here that p53 contributes to Bcl-2 down-regulation induced by B1, a novel naphthalimide-based DNA intercalating agent. Indeed, the decrease in Bcl-2 protein levels observed during B1-induced apoptosis was correlated to the decrease in mRNA levels, as a result of the inhibition of Bcl-2 transcription and promoter activity. In this context, we evaluated p53 contribution in the Bcl-2 transcriptional down-regulation. We found a significant increase of p53 binding to P{sub 2} promoter TATA box in MCF7 cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation. These data suggest that B1-induced caspase-independent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells is associated with the activation of p53 and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Our study strengthens the links between p53 and Bcl-2 at a transcriptional level, upon naphthalimide-based DNA intercalator treatment. - Research Highlights: > B1 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, following a transcriptional decrease in Bcl-2. > B1 treatment triggered p53 activation and leads to a p53-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-2. > B1 induced significant increase of p53 binding to Bcl-2 P{sub 2} promoter TATA box.

  19. Upregulation of retinoic acid receptor-beta by the epidermal growth factor-receptor inhibitor PD153035 is not mediated by blockade of ErbB pathways.

    PubMed

    Grunt, Thomas W; Tomek, Katharina; Wagner, Renate; Puckmair, Klaudia; Kainz, Birgit; Rünzler, Dominik; Gaiger, Alexander; Köhler, Gottfried; Zielinski, Christoph C

    2007-06-01

    Inhibiting epidermal growth factor-receptor (ErbB-1) represents a powerful anticancer strategy. Activation of retinoid pathways is also in development for cancer treatment. Retinoic acid receptor-beta-the tumor suppressor and main retinoid mediator--is silenced in many tumors. The ErbB-1 inhibitor PD153035 cooperates with retinoic acid during growth inhibition and induces retinoic acid receptor-beta suggesting that ErbB-1 controls retinoic acid receptor-beta. However, here we demonstrate that ErbB pathways are not involved in PD153035-mediated retinoic acid receptor-beta-upregulation. PD153035 inhibits ErbB-1-phosphorylation, whereas its derivative EBE-A22 is inactive. Yet both inhibit cell growth and upregulate retinoic acid receptor-beta in ErbB-1-overexpressing (MDA-MB-468), moderately expressing (OVCAR-3), ErbB-1-negative (MDA-MB-453) or ErbB-negative cells (CEM, Jurkat). Both bind DNA, whereas the closely related ErbB-1 inhibitors AG1478 and ZD1839, which are inactive on retinoic acid receptor-beta, do not significantly bind DNA. None of the other ErbB-1/ErbB-2 inhibitors tested (RG-14620, LFM-A12, AG879, AG825) affect retinoic acid receptor-beta. PD153035 decreases methylation of the retinoic acid receptor-beta2 promoter. In OVCAR-3, it stimulates dislodgement of histone deacetylase 1 from the promoter and acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Consequently, PD153035 facilitates recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the promoter and stimulates transcriptional activity. Moreover, PD153035 increases the retinoic acid receptor-beta mRNA half-life. No other retinoid receptor, nor estrogen receptor-alpha, nor RASSF1A is upregulated by PD153035. Thus PD153035 induces retinoic acid receptor-beta by ErbB-independent transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. This report highlights a triple action for an ErbB-1 inhibitor (ErbB-1 inhibition, DNA intercalation, retinoic acid receptor-beta-induction). Such multitargeting drugs bear great potential for cancer

  20. Activated human platelets induce factor XIIa-mediated contact activation.

    PubMed

    Bäck, Jennie; Sanchez, Javier; Elgue, Graciela; Ekdahl, Kristina Nilsson; Nilsson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that isolated platelets in buffer systems can promote activation of FXII or amplify contact activation, in the presence of a negatively charge substance or material. Still proof is lacking that FXII is activated by platelets in a more physiological environment. In this study we investigate if activated platelets can induce FXII-mediated contact activation and whether this activation affects clot formation in human blood. Human platelets were activated with a thrombin receptor-activating peptide, SFLLRN-amide, in platelet-rich plasma or in whole blood. FXIIa and FXIa in complex with preferentially antithrombin (AT) and to some extent C1-inhibitor (C1INH) were generated in response to TRAP stimulation. This contact activation was independent of surface-mediated contact activation, tissue factor pathway or thrombin. In clotting whole blood FXIIa-AT and FXIa-AT complexes were specifically formed, demonstrating that AT is a potent inhibitor of FXIIa and FXIa generated by platelet activation. Contact activation proteins were analyzed by flow cytometry and FXII, FXI, high-molecular weight kininogen, and prekallikrein were detected on activated platelets. Using chromogenic assays, enzymatic activity of platelet-associated FXIIa, FXIa, and kallikrein were demonstrated. Inhibition of FXIIa in non-anticoagulated blood also prolonged the clotting time. We conclude that platelet activation triggers FXII-mediated contact activation on the surface and in the vicinity of activated platelets. This leads specifically to generation of FXIIa-AT and FXIa-AT complexes, and contributes to clot formation. Activated platelets may thereby constitute an intravascular locus for contact activation, which may explain the recently reported importance of FXII in thrombus formation. PMID:19878657

  1. Transcription factor-mediated reprogramming toward hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ebina, Wataru; Rossi, Derrick J

    2015-01-01

    De novo generation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from renewable cell types has been a long sought-after but elusive goal in regenerative medicine. Paralleling efforts to guide pluripotent stem cell differentiation by manipulating developmental cues, substantial progress has been made recently toward HSC generation via combinatorial transcription factor (TF)-mediated fate conversion, a paradigm established by Yamanaka's induction of pluripotency in somatic cells by mere four TFs. This review will integrate the recently reported strategies to directly convert a variety of starting cell types toward HSCs in the context of hematopoietic transcriptional regulation and discuss how these findings could be further developed toward the ultimate generation of therapeutic human HSCs. PMID:25712209

  2. FGF-23 regulates CYP27B1 transcription in the kidney and in extra-renal tissues.

    PubMed

    Chanakul, Ankanee; Zhang, Martin Y H; Louw, Andrew; Armbrecht, Harvey J; Miller, Walter L; Portale, Anthony A; Perwad, Farzana

    2013-01-01

    The mitochondrial enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase, which is encoded by the CYP27B1 gene, converts 25OHD to the biological active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). Renal 1α-hydroxylase activity is the principal determinant of the circulating 1,25(OH)2D concentration and enzyme activity is tightly regulated by several factors. Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) decreases serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations by suppressing CYP27B1 mRNA abundance in mice. In extra-renal tissues, 1α-hydroxylase is responsible for local 1,25(OH)2D synthesis, which has important paracrine actions, but whether FGF-23 regulates CYP27B1 gene expression in extra-renal tissues is unknown. We sought to determine whether FGF-23 regulates CYP27B1 transcription in the kidney and whether extra-renal tissues are target sites for FGF-23-induced suppression of CYP27B1. In HEK293 cells transfected with the human CYP27B1 promoter, FGF-23 suppressed promoter activity by 70%, and the suppressive effect was blocked by CI-1040, a specific inhibitor of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2. To examine CYP27B1 transcriptional activity in vivo, we crossed fgf-23 null mice with mice bearing the CYP27B1 promoter-driven luciferase transgene (1α-Luc). In the kidney of FGF-23 null/1α-Luc mice, CYP27B1 promoter activity was increased by 3-fold compared to that in wild-type/1α-Luc mice. Intraperitoneal injection of FGF-23 suppressed renal CYP27B1 promoter activity and protein expression by 26% and 60% respectively, and the suppressive effect was blocked by PD0325901, an ERK1/2 inhibitor. These findings provide evidence that FGF-23 suppresses CYP27B1 transcription in the kidney. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in FGF-23 null/1α-Luc mice, CYP27B1 promoter activity and mRNA abundance are increased in several extra-renal sites. In the heart of FGF-23 null/1α-Luc mice, CYP27B1 promoter activity and mRNA were 2- and 5-fold higher, respectively, than in control mice. We also

  3. Bayesian non-negative factor analysis for reconstructing transcription factor mediated regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transcriptional regulation by transcription factor (TF) controls the time and abundance of mRNA transcription. Due to the limitation of current proteomics technologies, large scale measurements of protein level activities of TFs is usually infeasible, making computational reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory network a difficult task. Results We proposed here a novel Bayesian non-negative factor model for TF mediated regulatory networks. Particularly, the non-negative TF activities and sample clustering effect are modeled as the factors from a Dirichlet process mixture of rectified Gaussian distributions, and the sparse regulatory coefficients are modeled as the loadings from a sparse distribution that constrains its sparsity using knowledge from database; meantime, a Gibbs sampling solution was developed to infer the underlying network structure and the unknown TF activities simultaneously. The developed approach has been applied to simulated system and breast cancer gene expression data. Result shows that, the proposed method was able to systematically uncover TF mediated transcriptional regulatory network structure, the regulatory coefficients, the TF protein level activities and the sample clustering effect. The regulation target prediction result is highly coordinated with the prior knowledge, and sample clustering result shows superior performance over previous molecular based clustering method. Conclusions The results demonstrated the validity and effectiveness of the proposed approach in reconstructing transcriptional networks mediated by TFs through simulated systems and real data. PMID:22166063

  4. Musashi mediates translational repression of the Drosophila hypoxia inducible factor.

    PubMed

    Bertolin, Agustina P; Katz, Maximiliano J; Yano, Masato; Pozzi, Berta; Acevedo, Julieta M; Blanco-Obregón, Dalmiro; Gándara, Lautaro; Sorianello, Eleonora; Kanda, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Srebrow, Anabella; Wappner, Pablo

    2016-09-19

    Adaptation to hypoxia depends on a conserved α/β heterodimeric transcription factor called Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF), whose α-subunit is regulated by oxygen through different concurrent mechanisms. In this study, we have identified the RNA binding protein dMusashi, as a negative regulator of the fly HIF homologue Sima. Genetic interaction assays suggested that dMusashi participates of the HIF pathway, and molecular studies carried out in Drosophila cell cultures showed that dMusashi recognizes a Musashi Binding Element in the 3' UTR of the HIFα transcript, thereby mediating its translational repression in normoxia. In hypoxic conditions dMusashi is downregulated, lifting HIFα repression and contributing to trigger HIF-dependent gene expression. Analysis performed in mouse brains revealed that murine Msi1 protein physically interacts with HIF-1α transcript, suggesting that the regulation of HIF by Msi might be conserved in mammalian systems. Thus, Musashi is a novel regulator of HIF that inhibits responses to hypoxia specifically when oxygen is available.

  5. Musashi mediates translational repression of the Drosophila hypoxia inducible factor

    PubMed Central

    Bertolin, Agustina P.; Katz, Maximiliano J.; Yano, Masato; Pozzi, Berta; Acevedo, Julieta M.; Blanco-Obregón, Dalmiro; Gándara, Lautaro; Sorianello, Eleonora; Kanda, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Srebrow, Anabella; Wappner, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to hypoxia depends on a conserved α/β heterodimeric transcription factor called Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF), whose α-subunit is regulated by oxygen through different concurrent mechanisms. In this study, we have identified the RNA binding protein dMusashi, as a negative regulator of the fly HIF homologue Sima. Genetic interaction assays suggested that dMusashi participates of the HIF pathway, and molecular studies carried out in Drosophila cell cultures showed that dMusashi recognizes a Musashi Binding Element in the 3′ UTR of the HIFα transcript, thereby mediating its translational repression in normoxia. In hypoxic conditions dMusashi is downregulated, lifting HIFα repression and contributing to trigger HIF-dependent gene expression. Analysis performed in mouse brains revealed that murine Msi1 protein physically interacts with HIF-1α transcript, suggesting that the regulation of HIF by Msi might be conserved in mammalian systems. Thus, Musashi is a novel regulator of HIF that inhibits responses to hypoxia specifically when oxygen is available. PMID:27141964

  6. The three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors: sushi domains and the B1 family of G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Marilyn H; Grace, Christy R R; Riek, Roland; Vale, Wylie W

    2006-07-01

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors, CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, belong to the B1 subfamily of G protein-coupled Receptors (GPCRs), including receptors for secretin, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), calcitonin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The peptide ligand family comprises CRF, Ucn 1, 2, and 3. CRF plays the major role in integrating the response to stress. Additionally, the ligands exhibit many effects on muscle, pancreas, heart, and the GI, reproductive, and immune systems. CRF-R1 has higher affinity for CRF than does CRF-R2 while both receptors bind Ucn 1 equally. CRF-R2 shows specificity for Ucns 2 and 3. A major binding domain of the CRFRs is the N terminus/first extracellular domain (ECD1). Soluble proteins corresponding to the ECD1s of each receptor bind CRF ligands with nanomolar affinities. Our three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a soluble protein corresponding to the ECD1 of CRF-R2beta (1) identified its structural fold as a Sushi domain/short consensus repeat (SCR), stabilized by three disulfide bridges, two tryptophan residues, and an internal salt bridge (Asp65-Arg101). Disruption of the bridge by D65A mutation abrogates ligand recognition and results in loss of the well-defined disulfide pattern and Sushi domain structure. NMR analysis of the ECD1 in complex with astressin identified key amino acids involved in ligand recognition. Mutation of some of these residues in the full-length receptor reduces its affinity for CRF ligands. A structure-based sequence comparison shows conservation of key amino acids in all the B1 subfamily receptors, suggesting a corresponding conservation of a Sushi domain structural fold of their ECD1s.

  7. Endophilin B1 regulates EGFR endocytic degradation in prostate cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J-Y; Xiong, Y; Zhang, W; Wan, J; Wan, J

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (Pca) is one of the most common types of cancer for elder men. Aberrant expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR downstream signaling have been known to contribute to disease progression in prostate cancer. EGF-stimulated EGFR is internalized and the process of endocytic degradation of EGFR mediates its signaling which is frequently dysregulated in many kinds of cancer. In the present study, we demonstrated that endophilin B1 expression was inhibited and EGFR expression was significantly increased in prostate cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that suppression of endophilin B1 increased EGFR levels via delaying EGFR internalization triggered by EGF and its intracellular degradation. Endophilin B1 decreased also sustained EGFR downstream signaling such as Erk1/2 phosphorylation in response to EGF stimulation and promoted prostate cancer cell proliferation which is EGF independent. Our data indicated that endophilin B1 mediated the biological function of EGFR in cancer cell proliferation through regulating the EGFR endocytic trafficking and downstream signaling. PMID:27609472

  8. A Novel Role for Adipose Ephrin-B1 in Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Takuya; Maeda, Norikazu; Inoue, Kana; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Tsushima, Yu; Matsuda, Keisuke; Yamaoka, Masaya; Suganami, Takayoshi; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-01-01

    Aims Ephrin-B1 (EfnB1) was selected among genes of unknown function in adipocytes or adipose tissue and subjected to thorough analysis to understand its role in the development of obesity. Methods and Results EfnB1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in adipose tissues of obese mice and such reduction was mainly observed in mature adipocytes. Exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and their culture with RAW264.7 cells reduced EFNB1 levels. Knockdown of adipose EFNB1 increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1) mRNA level and augmented the TNF-α-mediated THP-1 monocyte adhesion to adipocytes. Adenovirus-mediated adipose EFNB1-overexpression significantly reduced the increase in Mcp-1 mRNA level induced by coculture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with RAW264.7 cells. Monocyte adherent assay showed that adipose EfnB1-overexpression significantly decreased the increase of monocyte adhesion by coculture with RAW264.7 cells. TNF-α-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was reduced by EFNB1-overexpression. Conclusions EFNB1 contributes to the suppression of adipose inflammatory response. In obesity, reduction of adipose EFNB1 may accelerate the vicious cycle involved in adipose tissue inflammation. PMID:24098442

  9. MAN1B1 deficiency: an unexpected CDG-II.

    PubMed

    Rymen, Daisy; Peanne, Romain; Millón, María B; Race, Valérie; Sturiale, Luisa; Garozzo, Domenico; Mills, Philippa; Clayton, Peter; Asteggiano, Carla G; Quelhas, Dulce; Cansu, Ali; Martins, Esmeralda; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Gonçalves-Rocha, Miguel; Topaloglu, Haluk; Jaeken, Jaak; Foulquier, François; Matthijs, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of rare metabolic diseases, due to impaired protein and lipid glycosylation. In the present study, exome sequencing was used to identify MAN1B1 as the culprit gene in an unsolved CDG-II patient. Subsequently, 6 additional cases with MAN1B1-CDG were found. All individuals presented slight facial dysmorphism, psychomotor retardation and truncal obesity. Generally, MAN1B1 is believed to be an ER resident alpha-1,2-mannosidase acting as a key factor in glycoprotein quality control by targeting misfolded proteins for ER-associated degradation (ERAD). However, recent studies indicated a Golgi localization of the endogenous MAN1B1, suggesting a more complex role for MAN1B1 in quality control. We were able to confirm that MAN1B1 is indeed localized to the Golgi complex instead of the ER. Furthermore, we observed an altered Golgi morphology in all patients' cells, with marked dilatation and fragmentation. We hypothesize that part of the phenotype is associated to this Golgi disruption. In conclusion, we linked mutations in MAN1B1 to a Golgi glycosylation disorder. Additionally, our results support the recent findings on MAN1B1 localization. However, more work is needed to pinpoint the exact function of MAN1B1 in glycoprotein quality control, and to understand the pathophysiology of its deficiency. PMID:24348268

  10. ACTH Regulation of Adrenal SR-B1.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Azhar, Salman; Kraemer, Fredric B

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal gland is one of the prominent sites for steroid hormone synthesis. Lipoprotein-derived cholesterol esters (CEs) delivered via SR-B1 constitute the dominant source of cholesterol for steroidogenesis, particularly in rodents. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates steroidogenesis through downstream actions on multiple components involved in steroidogenesis. Both acute and chronic ACTH treatments can modulate SR-B1 function, including its transcription, posttranscriptional stability, phosphorylation and dimerization status, as well as the interaction with other protein partners, all of which result in changes in the ability of SR-B1 to mediate HDL-CE uptake and the supply of cholesterol for conversion to steroids. Here, we provide a review of the recent findings on the regulation of adrenal SR-B1 function by ACTH. PMID:27242666

  11. ACTH Regulation of Adrenal SR-B1

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Azhar, Salman; Kraemer, Fredric B.

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal gland is one of the prominent sites for steroid hormone synthesis. Lipoprotein-derived cholesterol esters (CEs) delivered via SR-B1 constitute the dominant source of cholesterol for steroidogenesis, particularly in rodents. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates steroidogenesis through downstream actions on multiple components involved in steroidogenesis. Both acute and chronic ACTH treatments can modulate SR-B1 function, including its transcription, posttranscriptional stability, phosphorylation and dimerization status, as well as the interaction with other protein partners, all of which result in changes in the ability of SR-B1 to mediate HDL-CE uptake and the supply of cholesterol for conversion to steroids. Here, we provide a review of the recent findings on the regulation of adrenal SR-B1 function by ACTH. PMID:27242666

  12. EWS/FLI and its downstream target NR0B1 interact directly to modulate transcription and oncogenesis in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Michelle; Smith, Richard; Iyer, Anita K; McCabe, Edward R B; Lessnick, Stephen L

    2009-12-01

    Most Ewing's sarcomas harbor chromosomal translocations that encode fusions between EWS and ETS family members. The most common fusion, EWS/FLI, consists of an EWSR1-derived strong transcriptional activation domain fused, in-frame, to the DNA-binding domain-containing portion of FLI1. EWS/FLI functions as an aberrant transcription factor to regulate genes that mediate the oncogenic phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. One of these regulated genes, NR0B1, encodes a corepressor protein, and likely plays a transcriptional role in tumorigenesis. However, the genes that NR0B1 regulates and the transcription factors it interacts with in Ewing's sarcoma are largely unknown. We used transcriptional profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify genes that are regulated by NR0B1, and compared these data to similar data for EWS/FLI. Although the transcriptional profile overlapped as expected, we also found that the genome-wide localization of NR0B1 and EWS/FLI overlapped as well, suggesting that they regulate some genes coordinately. Further analysis revealed that NR0B1 and EWS/FLI physically interact. This protein-protein interaction is likely to be relevant for the development of Ewing's sarcoma because mutations in NR0B1 that disrupt the interaction have transcriptional consequences and also abrogate oncogenic transformation. Taken together, these data suggest that EWS/FLI and NR0B1 physically interact, coordinately modulate gene expression, and mediate the transformed phenotype of Ewing's sarcoma. PMID:19920188

  13. Physiologic Expression of Sf3b1(K700E) Causes Impaired Erythropoiesis, Aberrant Splicing, and Sensitivity to Therapeutic Spliceosome Modulation.

    PubMed

    Obeng, Esther A; Chappell, Ryan J; Seiler, Michael; Chen, Michelle C; Campagna, Dean R; Schmidt, Paul J; Schneider, Rebekka K; Lord, Allegra M; Wang, Lili; Gambe, Rutendo G; McConkey, Marie E; Ali, Abdullah M; Raza, Azra; Yu, Lihua; Buonamici, Silvia; Smith, Peter G; Mullally, Ann; Wu, Catherine J; Fleming, Mark D; Ebert, Benjamin L

    2016-09-12

    More than 80% of patients with the refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have mutations in Splicing Factor 3B, Subunit 1 (SF3B1). We generated a conditional knockin mouse model of the most common SF3B1 mutation, Sf3b1(K700E). Sf3b1(K700E) mice develop macrocytic anemia due to a terminal erythroid maturation defect, erythroid dysplasia, and long-term hematopoietic stem cell (LT-HSC) expansion. Sf3b1(K700E) myeloid progenitors and SF3B1-mutant MDS patient samples demonstrate aberrant 3' splice-site selection associated with increased nonsense-mediated decay. Tet2 loss cooperates with Sf3b1(K700E) to cause a more severe erythroid and LT-HSC phenotype. Furthermore, the spliceosome modulator, E7017, selectively kills SF3B1(K700E)-expressing cells. Thus, SF3B1(K700E) expression reflects the phenotype of the mutation in MDS and may be a therapeutic target in MDS. PMID:27622333

  14. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    PubMed

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management. PMID:25658124

  15. Characterization of the rat glutathione S-transferase Yc2 subunit gene, GSTA5: identification of a putative antioxidant-responsive element in the 5'-flanking region of rat GSTA5 that may mediate chemoprotection against aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Pulford, D J; Hayes, J D

    1996-08-15

    We have isolated and characterized genomic DNA encoding the rat glutathione S-transferase Yc2 subunit. This protein is now referred to as rGSTA5 and is noteworthy because of its high activity towards aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide, its marked inducibility by chemoprotectors, its sex-specific regulation, and its over-expression in hepatoma and preneoplastic nodules. The rGSTA5 gene, which was isolated on two overlapping bacteriophage lambda clones, is approx. 12 kb in length and, unlike other class Alpha genes described to date, it comprises six exons. The transcription start site has been identified 228 bp upstream from the ATG translational initiation codon, and is situated 51 bp downstream from a consensus TATA-box. Deletion analysis, using luciferase reporter constructs, has shown that the region between -177 bp and +65 bp from the transcriptional start site contains a functional promoter. Computer-assisted analysis of the upstream sequence has indicated the presence of an antioxidant-responsive element (ARE), and several elements thought to be required for tissue-specific expression of the enzyme. In addition, several putative oestrogen-responsive half sites were observed in both upstream and intronic sequences. PMID:8761455

  16. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a... pipelines, electric utilities and hydroelectric projects....

  17. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a... pipelines, electric utilities and hydroelectric projects....

  18. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a... pipelines, electric utilities and hydroelectric projects....

  19. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a... pipelines, electric utilities and hydroelectric projects....

  20. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a... pipelines, electric utilities and hydroelectric projects....

  1. LPS-inducible factor(s) from activated macrophages mediates cytolysis of Naegleria fowleri amoebae

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, S.F.; Marciano-Cabral, F.

    1986-03-01

    Soluble cytolytic factors of macrophage origin have previously been described with respect to their tumoricidal activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism and possible factor(s) responsible for cytolysis of the amoeba Naegleria fowleri by activated peritoneal macrophages from B6C3F1 mice. Macrophages or conditioned medium (CM) from macrophage cultures were incubated with /sup 3/H-Uridine labeled amoebae. Percent specific release of label served as an index of cytolysis. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and Corynebacterium parvum macrophages demonstrated significant cytolysis of amoebae at 24 h with an effector to target ratio of 10:1. Treatment of macrophages with inhibitors of RNA or protein synthesis blocked amoebicidal activity. Interposition of a 1 ..mu..m pore membrane between macrophages and amoebae inhibited killing. Inhibition in the presence of the membrane was overcome by stimulating the macrophages with LPS. CM from SPS-stimulated, but not unstimulated, cultures of activated macrophages was cytotoxic for amoebae. The activity was heat sensitive and was recovered from ammonium sulfate precipitation of the CM. Results indicate that amoebicidal activity is mediated by a protein(s) of macrophage origin induced by target cell contact or stimulation with LPS.

  2. The role of B-1 cells in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Monowar; Holodick, Nichol E; Rothstein, Thomas L; Wang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    B-1 lymphocytes exhibit unique phenotypic, ontogenic, and functional characteristics that differ from the conventional B-2 cells. B-1 cells spontaneously secrete germline-like, repertoire-skewed polyreactive natural antibody, which acts as a first line of defense by neutralizing a wide range of pathogens before launching of the adaptive immune response. Immunomodulatory molecules such as interleukin-10, adenosine, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3, and interleukin-35 are also produced by B-1 cells in the presence or absence of stimulation, which regulate acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Considerable progress has been made during the past three decades since the discovery of B-1 cells, which has improved not only our understanding of their phenotypic and ontogenic uniqueness but also their role in various inflammatory diseases including influenza, pneumonia, sepsis, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmunity, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Recent identification of human B-1 cells widens the scope of this field, leading to novel innovations that can be implemented from bench to bedside. Among the vast number of studies on B-1 cells, we have carried out a literature review highlighting current trends in the study of B-1 cell involvement during inflammation, which may result in a paradigm shift toward sustainable therapeutics in various inflammatory diseases.

  3. The role of B-1 cells in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Monowar; Holodick, Nichol E; Rothstein, Thomas L; Wang, Ping

    2015-12-01

    B-1 lymphocytes exhibit unique phenotypic, ontogenic, and functional characteristics that differ from the conventional B-2 cells. B-1 cells spontaneously secrete germline-like, repertoire-skewed polyreactive natural antibody, which acts as a first line of defense by neutralizing a wide range of pathogens before launching of the adaptive immune response. Immunomodulatory molecules such as interleukin-10, adenosine, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3, and interleukin-35 are also produced by B-1 cells in the presence or absence of stimulation, which regulate acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Considerable progress has been made during the past three decades since the discovery of B-1 cells, which has improved not only our understanding of their phenotypic and ontogenic uniqueness but also their role in various inflammatory diseases including influenza, pneumonia, sepsis, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmunity, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Recent identification of human B-1 cells widens the scope of this field, leading to novel innovations that can be implemented from bench to bedside. Among the vast number of studies on B-1 cells, we have carried out a literature review highlighting current trends in the study of B-1 cell involvement during inflammation, which may result in a paradigm shift toward sustainable therapeutics in various inflammatory diseases. PMID:26427372

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor distribution in burn wounds. Implications for growth factor-mediated repair.

    PubMed Central

    Wenczak, B A; Lynch, J B; Nanney, L B

    1992-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) along with several related peptide growth factors has been shown both in vivo and in vitro to accelerate events associated with epidermal wound repair. EGF and transforming growth factor alpha act by binding to a common EGF receptor tyrosine kinase thereby initiating a series of events which ultimately regulate cell proliferation. This study examined the immunohistochemical localization of EGF receptor (EGF-R) in burn wound margins, adjacent proliferating epithelium, and closely associated sweat ducts, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles. Tissue specimens removed during surgical debridement were obtained from full and partial thickness burn wounds in 32 patients with total body surface area burns ranging from 2 to 88%. In the early postburn period (days 2-4), prominent staining for EGF-R was found in undifferentiated, marginal keratinocytes, adjacent proliferating, hypertrophic epithelium, and both marginal and nonmarginal hair follicles, sweat ducts, and sebaceous glands. During the late postburn period (days 5-16), EGF-R was depleted along leading epithelial margins; however, immunoreactive EGF-R remained intensely positive in the hypertrophic epithelium and all skin appendages. Increased detection of immunoreactive EGF-R and the presence of [125I]EGF binding in the hypertrophic epithelium correlated positively with proliferating cell nuclear antigen distributions. Thus, the presence of EGF-R in the appropriate keratinocyte populations suggests a functional role for this receptor during wound repair. Dynamic modulation in EGF receptor distribution during the temporal sequence of repair provides further evidence that an EGF/transforming growth factor alpha/EGF-R-mediated pathway is activated during human wound repair. Images PMID:1361495

  5. Endocytic Accessory Factors and Regulation of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Merrifield, Christien J.; Kaksonen, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Up to 60 different proteins are recruited to the site of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in an ordered sequence. These accessory proteins have roles during all the different stages of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. First, they participate in the initiation of the endocytic event, thereby determining when and where endocytic vesicles are made; later they are involved in the maturation of the clathrin coat, recruitment of specific cargo molecules, bending of the membrane, and finally in scission and uncoating of the nascent vesicle. In addition, many of the accessory components are involved in regulating and coupling the actin cytoskeleton to the endocytic membrane. We will discuss the different accessory components and their various roles. Most of the data comes from studies performed with cultured mammalian cells or yeast cells. The process of endocytosis is well conserved between these different organisms, but there are also many interesting differences that may shed light on the mechanistic principles of endocytosis. PMID:25280766

  6. Combined Proteomics and Transcriptomics Identifies Carboxypeptidase B1 and Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) Associated Proteins as Putative Biomarkers of Metastasis in Low Grade Breast Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Bouchal, Pavel; Dvořáková, Monika; Roumeliotis, Theodoros; Bortlíček, Zbyněk; Ihnatová, Ivana; Procházková, Iva; Ho, Jenny T. C.; Maryáš, Josef; Imrichová, Hana; Budinská, Eva; Vyzula, Rostislav; Garbis, Spiros D.; Vojtěšek, Bořivoj; Nenutil, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Current prognostic factors are insufficient for precise risk-discrimination in breast cancer patients with low grade breast tumors, which, in disagreement with theoretical prognosis, occasionally form early lymph node metastasis. To identify markers for this group of patients, we employed iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS proteomics to 24 lymph node positive and 24 lymph node negative grade 1 luminal A primary breast tumors. Another group of 48 high-grade tumors (luminal B, triple negative, Her-2 subtypes) was also analyzed to investigate marker specificity for grade 1 luminal A tumors. From the total of 4405 proteins identified (FDR<5%), the top 65 differentially expressed together with 30 previously identified and control markers were analyzed also at transcript level. Increased levels of carboxypeptidase B1 (CPB1), PDZ and LIM domain protein 2 (PDLIM2), and ring finger protein 25 (RNF25) were associated specifically with lymph node positive grade 1 tumors, whereas stathmin 1 (STMN1) and thymosin beta 10 (TMSB10) associated with aggressive tumor phenotype also in high grade tumors at both protein and transcript level. For CPB1, these differences were also observed by immunohistochemical analysis on tissue microarrays. Up-regulation of putative biomarkers in lymph node positive (versus negative) luminal A tumors was validated by gene expression analysis of an independent published data set (n = 343) for CPB1 (p = 0.00155), PDLIM2 (p = 0.02027) and RELA (p = 0.00015). Moreover, statistically significant connections with patient survival were identified in another public data set (n = 1678). Our findings indicate unique pro-metastatic mechanisms in grade 1 tumors that can include up-regulation of CPB1, activation of NF-κB pathway and changes in cell survival and cytoskeleton. These putative biomarkers have potential to identify the specific minor subpopulation of breast cancer patients with low grade tumors who are at higher than expected risk of recurrence and who would benefit

  7. Generation and characterization of a Cyp4b1 null mouse and the role of CYP4B1 in the activation and toxicity of Ipomeanol.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Oliver T; Liggitt, H Denny; Rettie, Allan E; Kelly, Edward J

    2013-08-01

    4-Ipomeanol (IPO) is a prototypical pulmonary toxin that requires P450-mediated metabolic activation to reactive intermediates in order to elicit its toxic effects. CYP4B1 is a pulmonary enzyme that has been shown, in vitro, to have a high capacity for bioactivating IPO. In order to determine, unambiguously, the role of CYP4B1 in IPO bioactivation in vivo, we generated Cyp4b1 null mice following targeted disruption of the gene downstream of exon 1. Cyp4b1 (-/-) mice are viable and healthy, with no overt phenotype, and no evidence of compensatory upregulation of other P450 isoforms in any of the tissues examined. Pulmonary and renal microsomes prepared from male Cyp4b1 (-/-) mice exhibited no detectable expression of the protein and catalyzed the in vitro bioactivation of IPO at < 10% of the rates observed in tissue microsomes from Cyp4b1 (+/+) animals. Administration of IPO (20mg/kg) to Cyp4b1 (+/+) mice resulted in characteristic lesions in the lung, and to a lesser extent in the kidney, which were completely absent in Cyp4b1 (-/-) mice. We conclude that CYP4B1 is a critical enzyme for the bioactivation of IPO in vivo and that the Cyp4b1 (-/-) mouse is a useful model for studying CYP4B1-dependent metabolism and toxicity. PMID:23748241

  8. Generation and Characterization of a Cyp4b1 Null Mouse and the Role of CYP4B1 in the Activation and Toxicity of Ipomeanol

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    4-Ipomeanol (IPO) is a prototypical pulmonary toxin that requires P450-mediated metabolic activation to reactive intermediates in order to elicit its toxic effects. CYP4B1 is a pulmonary enzyme that has been shown, in vitro, to have a high capacity for bioactivating IPO. In order to determine, unambiguously, the role of CYP4B1 in IPO bioactivation in vivo, we generated Cyp4b1 null mice following targeted disruption of the gene downstream of exon 1. Cyp4b1 −/− mice are viable and healthy, with no overt phenotype, and no evidence of compensatory upregulation of other P450 isoforms in any of the tissues examined. Pulmonary and renal microsomes prepared from male Cyp4b1 −/− mice exhibited no detectable expression of the protein and catalyzed the in vitro bioactivation of IPO at < 10% of the rates observed in tissue microsomes from Cyp4b1 +/+ animals. Administration of IPO (20mg/kg) to Cyp4b1 +/+ mice resulted in characteristic lesions in the lung, and to a lesser extent in the kidney, which were completely absent in Cyp4b1 −/− mice. We conclude that CYP4B1 is a critical enzyme for the bioactivation of IPO in vivo and that the Cyp4b1 −/− mouse is a useful model for studying CYP4B1-dependent metabolism and toxicity. PMID:23748241

  9. Coagulation factor V mediates inhibition of tissue factor signaling by activated protein C in mice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai Po H; Kerschen, Edward J; Basu, Sreemanti; Hernandez, Irene; Zogg, Mark; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J; Toso, Raffaella; Rezaie, Alireza R; Fernández, José A; Camire, Rodney M; Ruf, Wolfram; Griffin, John H; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-11-19

    The key effector molecule of the natural protein C pathway, activated protein C (aPC), exerts pleiotropic effects on coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation. Coagulation-independent cell signaling by aPC appears to be the predominant mechanism underlying its highly reproducible therapeutic efficacy in most animal models of injury and infection. In this study, using a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis, we demonstrate marked disease stage-specific effects of the anticoagulant and cell signaling functions of aPC. aPC resistance of factor (f)V due to the R506Q Leiden mutation protected against detrimental anticoagulant effects of aPC therapy but also abrogated the anti-inflammatory and mortality-reducing effects of the signaling-selective 5A-aPC variant that has minimal anticoagulant function. We found that procofactor V (cleaved by aPC at R506) and protein S were necessary cofactors for the aPC-mediated inhibition of inflammatory tissue-factor signaling. The anti-inflammatory cofactor function of fV involved the same structural features that govern its cofactor function for the anticoagulant effects of aPC, yet its anti-inflammatory activities did not involve proteolysis of activated coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. These findings reveal a novel biological function and mechanism of the protein C pathway in which protein S and the aPC-cleaved form of fV are cofactors for anti-inflammatory cell signaling by aPC in the context of endotoxemia and infection.

  10. What factors mediate the relationship between global self-worth and weight and shape concerns?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Edel; Dooley, Barbara; Menton, Aoife; Dolphin, Louise

    2016-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether the relationship between global self-worth and weight concerns and global self-worth and shape concerns was mediated by pertinent body image factors, while controlling for gender and estimated BMI. Participants were 775 adolescents (56% male) aged 12-18years (M=14.6; SD=1.50). Mediation analysis revealed a direct and a mediated effect between global self-worth and two body image models: 1) weight concerns and 2) shape concerns. The strongest mediators in both models were physical appearance, restrained eating, and depression. Partial mediation was observed for both models, indicating that body image factors which span cognitive, affective, and behavioral constructs, explain the association between global self-worth and weight and shape concerns. Implications for future research, weight and shape concern prevention and global self-worth enhancement programs are discussed. PMID:26894257

  11. Cyclin B1 Vaccine Delays Spontaneous Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Laura A, Vella; Min, Yu; Amy, Phillips; Olivera J, Finn

    2012-01-01

    We previously identified cyclin B1-specific T cells and antibodies in cancer patients with cyclin B1+ tumors and also in some healthy individuals. We also demonstrated that these responses may be important in cancer immunosurveillance by showing that vaccination against cyclin B1 prevents growth of transplantable cyclin B1+ tumors in mice. Constitutive overexpression of cyclin B1 was determined to correlate with the lack of p53 function. This allowed us to use p53−/− mice as a model that better approximates human disease. p53−/− mice spontaneously develop cyclin B1+ tumors. At 5–6 weeks of age, when the mice were still healthy with no evidence of tumor, they received the cyclin B1 vaccine and were then observed for tumor growth. We demonstrate that cyclin B1 vaccination can delay spontaneous cyclin B1+ tumor growth and increases median survival of tumor bearing p53−/− mice. PMID:19769738

  12. 8 CFR 343b.1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the form designated by USCIS with the fee specified in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) and in accordance with the form instructions. He shall not be furnished with verification of his naturalization for such purpose... NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.1 Application. A naturalized citizen who desires...

  13. 8 CFR 343b.1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the form designated by USCIS with the fee specified in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) and in accordance with the form instructions. He shall not be furnished with verification of his naturalization for such purpose... NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.1 Application. A naturalized citizen who desires...

  14. 8 CFR 343b.1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the form designated by USCIS with the fee specified in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) and in accordance with the form instructions. He shall not be furnished with verification of his naturalization for such purpose... NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.1 Application. A naturalized citizen who desires...

  15. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  16. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  17. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  18. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  19. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE...

  20. SH2B1 in β-Cells Regulates Glucose Metabolism by Promoting β-Cell Survival and Islet Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zheng; Morris, David L.; Jiang, Lin; Liu, Yong; Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    IGF-1 and insulin promote β-cell expansion by inhibiting β-cell death and stimulating β-cell proliferation, and the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/Akt pathway mediates insulin and IGF-1 action. Impaired β-cell expansion is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Here, we identified SH2B1, which is highly expressed in β-cells, as a novel regulator of β-cell expansion. Silencing of SH2B1 in INS-1 832/13 β-cells attenuated insulin- and IGF-1–stimulated activation of the PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway and increased streptozotocin (STZ)-induced apoptosis; conversely, overexpression of SH2B1 had the opposite effects. Activation of the PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway in β-cells was impaired in pancreas-specific SH2B1 knockout (PKO) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). HFD-fed PKO mice also had increased β-cell apoptosis, decreased β-cell proliferation, decreased β-cell mass, decreased pancreatic insulin content, impaired insulin secretion, and exacerbated glucose intolerance. Furthermore, PKO mice were more susceptible to STZ-induced β-cell destruction, insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. These data indicate that SH2B1 in β-cells is an important prosurvival and proproliferative protein and promotes compensatory β-cell expansion in the insulin-resistant state and in response to β-cell stress. PMID:24150605

  1. Fibrinogen blocks the autoactivation and thrombin-mediated activation of factor XI on dextran sulfate.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, C F; Colman, R W

    1992-01-01

    The intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation is activated when factor XIa, one of the three contact-system enzymes, is generated and then activates factor IX. Factor XI has been shown to be efficiently activated in vitro by surface-bound factor XIIa after factor XI is transported to the surface by its cofactor, high molecular weight kininogen (HK). However, individuals lacking any of the three contact-system proteins--namely, factor XII, prekallikrein, and HK--do not suffer from bleeding abnormalities. This mystery has led several investigators to search for an "alternate" activation pathway for factor XI. Recently, factor XI has been reported to be autoactivated on the soluble "surface" dextran sulfate, and thrombin was shown to accelerate the autoactivation. However, it was also reported that HK, the cofactor for factor XIIa-mediated activation of factor XI, actually diminishes the thrombin-catalyzed activation rate of factor XI. Nonetheless, it was suggested that thrombin was a more efficient activator than factor XIIa. In this report we investigated the effect of fibrinogen, the major coagulation protein in plasma, on the activation rate of factor XI. Fibrinogen, the preferred substrate for thrombin in plasma, virtually prevented autoactivation of factor XI as well as the thrombin-mediated activation of factor XI, while having no effect on factor XIIa-catalyzed activation. HK dramatically curtailed the autoactivation of factor XI in addition to the thrombin-mediated activation. These data indicate that factor XI would not be autoactivated in a plasma environment, and thrombin would, therefore, be unlikely to potentiate the activation. We believe that the "missing pathway" for factor XI activation remains an enigma that warrants further investigation. PMID:1454798

  2. Analysis of fumonisin B1-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C; Ciacci-Zanella, J R; Zhang, Y; Henderson, G; Dickman, M

    2001-01-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme, a prevalent fungus that infects corn and other cereal grains. Fumonisin B1(FB1 is the most common mycotoxin produced by F. moniliforme, suggesting it has toxicologic significance. The structure of FB1 resembles sphingoid bases, and it inhibits ceramide synthase. Because sphingoid bases regulate cell growth, differentiation, transformation, and apoptosis, it is not surprising to find that FB1 can alter growth of certain mammalian cells. Previous studies concluded FB1-induced apoptosis, or cell cycle arrest, in African green monkey kidney fibroblasts (CV-1). In this study we have identified genes that inhibit FB1 induced apoptosis in CV-1 cells and two mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF). A baculovirus gene, inhibitor of apoptosis (CpIAP), protected these cells from apoptosis. CpIAP blocks apoptosis induced by the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathway as well as other mechanisms. Further support for the involvement of the TNF signal transduction pathway in FB1 induced apoptosis was the cleavage of caspase 8. Inhibition of caspases by the baculovirus gene (italic)p35 also inhibited FB1-induced apoptosis. The tumor suppressor gene p53 was not required for FB1 induced apoptosis because p53-/- MEF undergo apoptosis following FB1 treatment. Furthermore, Bcl-2 was not an effective inhibitor of FB1-induced apoptosis in CV-1 cells or p53+/+ MEF. In summary, these results provide new information to help understand the mechanism by which FB1 induces apoptosis. PMID:11359701

  3. The Mediator Complex MED15 Subunit Mediates Activation of Downstream Lipid-Related Genes by the WRINKLED1 Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jung; Jang, In-Cheol; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2016-07-01

    The Mediator complex is known to be a master coordinator of transcription by RNA polymerase II, and this complex is recruited by transcription factors (TFs) to target promoters for gene activation or repression. The plant-specific TF WRINKLED1 (WRI1) activates glycolysis-related and fatty acid biosynthetic genes during embryogenesis. However, no Mediator subunit has yet been identified that mediates WRI1 transcriptional activity. Promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion experiments showed that MEDIATOR15 (MED15) is expressed in the same cells in the embryo as WRI1. We found that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MED15 subunit of the Mediator complex interacts directly with WRI1 in the nucleus. Overexpression of MED15 or WRI1 increased transcript levels of WRI1 target genes involved in glycolysis and fatty acid biosynthesis; these genes were down-regulated in wild-type or WRI1-overexpressing plants by silencing of MED15 However, overexpression of MED15 in the wri1 mutant also increased transcript levels of WRI1 target genes, suggesting that MED15 also may act with other TFs to activate downstream lipid-related genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the association of MED15 with six WRI1 target gene promoters. Additionally, silencing of MED15 resulted in reduced fatty acid content in seedlings and mature seeds, whereas MED15 overexpression increased fatty acid content in both developmental stages. Similar results were found in wri1 mutant and WRI1 overexpression lines. Together, our results indicate that the WRI1/MED15 complex transcriptionally regulates glycolysis-related and fatty acid biosynthetic genes during embryogenesis. PMID:27246098

  4. Transcription factors mediate long-range enhancer–promoter interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nolis, Ilias K.; McKay, Daniel J.; Mantouvalou, Eva; Lomvardas, Stavros; Merika, Menie; Thanos, Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    We examined how remote enhancers establish physical communication with target promoters to activate gene transcription in response to environmental signals. Although the natural IFN-β enhancer is located immediately upstream of the core promoter, it also can function as a classical enhancer element conferring virus infection-dependent activation of heterologous promoters, even when it is placed several kilobases away from these promoters. We demonstrated that the remote IFN-β enhancer “loops out” the intervening DNA to reach the target promoter. These chromatin loops depend on sequence-specific transcription factors bound to the enhancer and the promoter and thus can explain the specificity observed in enhancer–promoter interactions, especially in complex genetic loci. Transcription factor binding sites scattered between an enhancer and a promoter can work as decoys trapping the enhancer in nonproductive loops, thus resembling insulator elements. Finally, replacement of the transcription factor binding sites involved in DNA looping with those of a heterologous prokaryotic protein, the λ repressor, which is capable of loop formation, rescues enhancer function from a distance by re-establishing enhancer–promoter loop formation. PMID:19923429

  5. In vivo formation of N-acyl-fumonisin B1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are fungal toxins found in corn and in corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most common and is toxic to animals, causes cancer in rodents, and is a suspected risk factor for cancer and birth defects in humans. The hydrolyzed form of FB1 (HFB1) also occurs in foods and is metabolize...

  6. Observation of B Meson decays to b1pi and b1K.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Tico, J Garra; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Pegna, D Lopes; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Vazquez, W Panduro; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2007-12-14

    We present the results of searches for decays of B mesons to final states with a b1 meson and a charged pion or kaon. The data, collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, represent 382x10(6) BB[over ] pairs produced in e+e- annihilation. The results for the branching fractions are, in units of 10(-6), B(B+-->b1(0)pi+)=6.7+/-1.7+/-1.0, B(B+-->b1(0)K+)=9.1+/-1.7+/-1.0, B(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=10.9+/-1.2+/-0.9, and B(B0-->b1(-)K+)=7.4+/-1.0+/-1.0, with the assumption that B(b1-->omega pi)=1. We also measure charge and flavor asymmetries A(ch)(B+-->b1(0)pi+)=0.05+/-0.16+/-0.02, Ach(B+-->b1(0)K+)=-0.46+/-0.20+/-0.02, A(ch)(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=-0.05+/-0.10+/-0.02, C(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=-0.22+/-0.23+/-0.05, DeltaC(B0-->b1(-/+)pi(+/-))=-1.04+/-0.23+/-0.08, and A(ch)(B0-->b1(-)K+)=-0.07+/-0.12+/-0.02. The first error quoted is statistical, and the second systematic. PMID:18233439

  7. FGF-23 Regulates CYP27B1 Transcription in the Kidney and in Extra-Renal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chanakul, Ankanee; Zhang, Martin Y. H.; Louw, Andrew; Armbrecht, Harvey J.; Miller, Walter L.; Portale, Anthony A.; Perwad, Farzana

    2013-01-01

    The mitochondrial enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase, which is encoded by the CYP27B1 gene, converts 25OHD to the biological active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). Renal 1α-hydroxylase activity is the principal determinant of the circulating 1,25(OH)2D concentration and enzyme activity is tightly regulated by several factors. Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) decreases serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations by suppressing CYP27B1 mRNA abundance in mice. In extra-renal tissues, 1α-hydroxylase is responsible for local 1,25(OH)2D synthesis, which has important paracrine actions, but whether FGF-23 regulates CYP27B1 gene expression in extra-renal tissues is unknown. We sought to determine whether FGF-23 regulates CYP27B1 transcription in the kidney and whether extra-renal tissues are target sites for FGF-23-induced suppression of CYP27B1. In HEK293 cells transfected with the human CYP27B1 promoter, FGF-23 suppressed promoter activity by 70%, and the suppressive effect was blocked by CI-1040, a specific inhibitor of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2. To examine CYP27B1 transcriptional activity in vivo, we crossed fgf-23 null mice with mice bearing the CYP27B1 promoter-driven luciferase transgene (1α-Luc). In the kidney of FGF-23 null/1α-Luc mice, CYP27B1 promoter activity was increased by 3-fold compared to that in wild-type/1α-Luc mice. Intraperitoneal injection of FGF-23 suppressed renal CYP27B1 promoter activity and protein expression by 26% and 60% respectively, and the suppressive effect was blocked by PD0325901, an ERK1/2 inhibitor. These findings provide evidence that FGF-23 suppresses CYP27B1 transcription in the kidney. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in FGF-23 null/1α-Luc mice, CYP27B1 promoter activity and mRNA abundance are increased in several extra-renal sites. In the heart of FGF-23 null/1α-Luc mice, CYP27B1 promoter activity and mRNA were 2- and 5-fold higher, respectively, than in control mice. We also

  8. 8 CFR 343b.1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.1 Application. A naturalized citizen who desires to... Form N-565. He shall not be furnished with verification of his naturalization for such purpose in...

  9. 8 CFR 343b.1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.1 Application. A naturalized citizen who desires to... Form N-565. He shall not be furnished with verification of his naturalization for such purpose in...

  10. Activating transcription factor 6 derepression mediates neuroprotection in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, José R; Zhang, Hongyu; Villar, Diego; González, Paz; Dopazo, Xose M; Morón-Oset, Javier; Higueras, Elena; Oliveros, Juan C; Arrabal, María D; Prieto, Angela; Cercós, Pilar; González, Teresa; De la Cruz, Alicia; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rábano, Alberto; Valenzuela, Carmen; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Marta; Li, Jia-Yi; Mellström, Britt

    2016-02-01

    Deregulated protein and Ca2+ homeostasis underlie synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD); however, the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, is reduced in murine in vivo and in vitro HD models and in HD patients. DREAM downregulation was observed early after birth and was associated with endogenous neuroprotection. In the R6/2 mouse HD model, induced DREAM haplodeficiency or blockade of DREAM activity by chronic administration of the drug repaglinide delayed onset of motor dysfunction, reduced striatal atrophy, and prolonged life span. DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active ATF6, improving prosurvival UPR function in striatal neurons. Together, our results identify a role for DREAM silencing in the activation of ATF6 signaling, which promotes early neuroprotection in HD.

  11. Activating transcription factor 6 derepression mediates neuroprotection in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, José R; Zhang, Hongyu; Villar, Diego; González, Paz; Dopazo, Xose M; Morón-Oset, Javier; Higueras, Elena; Oliveros, Juan C; Arrabal, María D; Prieto, Angela; Cercós, Pilar; González, Teresa; De la Cruz, Alicia; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rábano, Alberto; Valenzuela, Carmen; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Marta; Li, Jia-Yi; Mellström, Britt

    2016-02-01

    Deregulated protein and Ca2+ homeostasis underlie synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD); however, the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, is reduced in murine in vivo and in vitro HD models and in HD patients. DREAM downregulation was observed early after birth and was associated with endogenous neuroprotection. In the R6/2 mouse HD model, induced DREAM haplodeficiency or blockade of DREAM activity by chronic administration of the drug repaglinide delayed onset of motor dysfunction, reduced striatal atrophy, and prolonged life span. DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active ATF6, improving prosurvival UPR function in striatal neurons. Together, our results identify a role for DREAM silencing in the activation of ATF6 signaling, which promotes early neuroprotection in HD. PMID:26752648

  12. Sequence dependence of transcription factor-mediated DNA looping

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stephanie; Lindén, Martin; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    DNA is subject to large deformations in a wide range of biological processes. Two key examples illustrate how such deformations influence the readout of the genetic information: the sequestering of eukaryotic genes by nucleosomes and DNA looping in transcriptional regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These kinds of regulatory problems are now becoming amenable to systematic quantitative dissection with a powerful dialogue between theory and experiment. Here, we use a single-molecule experiment in conjunction with a statistical mechanical model to test quantitative predictions for the behavior of DNA looping at short length scales and to determine how DNA sequence affects looping at these lengths. We calculate and measure how such looping depends upon four key biological parameters: the strength of the transcription factor binding sites, the concentration of the transcription factor, and the length and sequence of the DNA loop. Our studies lead to the surprising insight that sequences that are thought to be especially favorable for nucleosome formation because of high flexibility lead to no systematically detectable effect of sequence on looping, and begin to provide a picture of the distinctions between the short length scale mechanics of nucleosome formation and looping. PMID:22718983

  13. Activating transcription factor 6 derepression mediates neuroprotection in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, José R.; Zhang, Hongyu; Villar, Diego; González, Paz; Dopazo, Xose M.; Morón-Oset, Javier; Higueras, Elena; Oliveros, Juan C.; Arrabal, María D.; Prieto, Angela; Cercós, Pilar; González, Teresa; De la Cruz, Alicia; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rábano, Alberto; Valenzuela, Carmen; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Marta; Li, Jia-Yi; Mellström, Britt

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated protein and Ca2+ homeostasis underlie synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD); however, the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, is reduced in murine in vivo and in vitro HD models and in HD patients. DREAM downregulation was observed early after birth and was associated with endogenous neuroprotection. In the R6/2 mouse HD model, induced DREAM haplodeficiency or blockade of DREAM activity by chronic administration of the drug repaglinide delayed onset of motor dysfunction, reduced striatal atrophy, and prolonged life span. DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active ATF6, improving prosurvival UPR function in striatal neurons. Together, our results identify a role for DREAM silencing in the activation of ATF6 signaling, which promotes early neuroprotection in HD. PMID:26752648

  14. Educational differentials in US adult mortality: An examination of mediating factors.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard G; Hummer, Robert A; Everett, Bethany G

    2013-03-01

    We use human capital theory to develop hypotheses regarding the extent to which the association between educational attainment and US adult mortality is mediated by such economic and social resources as family income and social support; such health behaviors as inactivity, smoking, and excessive drinking; and such physiological measures as obesity, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors. We employ the NHANES Linked Mortality File, a large nationally representative prospective data set that includes an extensive number of factors thought to be important in mediating the education-mortality association. We find that educational differences in mortality for the total population and for specific causes of death are most prominently explained by family income and health behaviors. However, there are age-related differences in the effects of the mediating factors. Higher education enables individuals to effectively coalesce and leverage their diverse and substantial resources to reduce their mortality and increase their longevity.

  15. Large dynamic range relative B1+ mapping

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Aaron T.; Aljabar, Paul; Malik, Shaihan J.; Jezzard, Peter; Robson, Matthew D.; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Koopmans, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Parallel transmission (PTx) requires knowledge of the B1+ produced by each element. However, B1+ mapping can be challenging when transmit fields exhibit large dynamic range. This study presents a method to produce high quality relative B1+ maps when this is the case. Theory and Methods The proposed technique involves the acquisition of spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) images at multiple radiofrequency drive levels for each transmitter. The images are combined using knowledge of the SPGR signal equation using maximum likelihood estimation, yielding an image for each channel whose signal is proportional to the B1+ field strength. Relative B1+ maps are then obtained by taking image ratios. The method was tested using numerical simulations, phantom imaging, and through in vivo experiments. Results The numerical simulations demonstrated that the proposed method can reconstruct relative transmit sensitivities over a wide range of B1+ amplitudes and at several SNR levels. The method was validated at 3 Tesla (T) by comparing it with an alternative B1+ mapping method, and demonstrated in vivo at 7T. Conclusion Relative B1+ mapping in the presence of large dynamic range has been demonstrated through numerical simulations, phantom imaging at 3T and experimentally at 7T. The method will enable PTx to be applied in challenging imaging scenarios at ultrahigh field. Magn Reson Med 76:490–499, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26308375

  16. MR fingerprinting with simultaneous B1 estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sawiak, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose MR fingerprinting (MRF) can be used for quantitative estimation of physical parameters in MRI. Here, we extend the method to incorporate B1 estimation. Methods The acquisition is based on steady state free precession MR fingerprinting with a Cartesian trajectory. To increase the sensitivity to the B1 profile, abrupt changes in flip angle were introduced in the sequence. Slice profile and B1 effects were included in the dictionary and the results from two‐ and three‐dimensional (3D) acquisitions were compared. Acceleration was demonstrated using retrospective undersampling in the phase encode directions of 3D data exploiting redundancy between MRF frames at the edges of k‐space. Results Without B1 estimation, T2 and B1 were inaccurate by more than 20%. Abrupt changes in flip angle improved B1 maps. T1 and T2 values obtained with the new MRF methods agree with classical spin echo measurements and are independent of the B1 field profile. When using view sharing reconstruction, results remained accurate (error <10%) when sampling under 10% of k‐space from the 3D data. Conclusion The methods demonstrated here can successfully measure T1, T2, and B1. Errors due to slice profile can be substantially reduced by including its effect in the dictionary or acquiring data in 3D. Magn Reson Med 76:1127–1135, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. PMID:26509746

  17. Association of Endophilin B1 with Cytoplasmic Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Barylko, Barbara; Eichorst, John P; Mueller, Joachim D; Albanesi, Joseph P; Chen, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Endophilins are SH3- and BAR domain-containing proteins implicated in membrane remodeling and vesicle formation. Endophilins A1 and A2 promote the budding of endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, whereas endophilin B1 has been implicated in vesicle budding from intracellular organelles, including the trans-Golgi network and late endosomes. We previously reported that endophilins A1 and A2 exist almost exclusively as soluble dimers in the cytosol. Here, we present results of fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy analyses indicating that, in contrast, the majority of endophilin B1 is present in multiple copies on small, highly mobile cytoplasmic vesicles. Formation of these vesicles was enhanced by overexpression of wild-type dynamin 2, but suppressed by expression of a catalytically inactive dynamin 2 mutant. Using dual-color heterospecies partition analysis, we identified the epidermal growth factor receptor on endophilin B1 vesicles. Moreover, a proportion of endophilin B1 vesicles also contained caveolin, whereas clathrin was almost undetectable on those vesicles. These results raise the possibility that endophilin B1 participates in dynamin 2-dependent formation of a population of transport vesicles distinct from those generated by A-type endophilins. PMID:27508440

  18. Biobehavioral Factors Mediate Exercise Effects on Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Laura Q; Vicari, Sandra; Trammell, Rita; Hopkins-Price, Patricia; Fogleman, Amanda; Spenner, Allison; Rao, Krishna; Courneya, Kerry S; Hoelzer, Karen S; Robbs, Randall; Verhulst, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Examine mediators of fatigue response to an exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors (BCS) in a pilot randomized controlled trial. Methods Postmenopausal BCS (n=46; ≤ Stage II), off primary treatment, and reporting fatigue and/or sleep dysfunction were randomized to a 3-month exercise intervention (160 minutes/week of moderate intensity aerobic walking, twice weekly resistance training with resistance bands) or control group. Six discussion group sessions provided behavioral support to improve adherence. Fatigue, serum cytokines, accelerometer physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, sleep dysfunction, and psychosocial factors were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Results Exercise intervention effect sizes for fatigue were: fatigue intensity d=0.30 (p=.34), interference d=−0.38 (p=.22), and general fatigue d=−0.49 (p=.13). Using Freedman-Schatzkin difference-in-coefficients tests, increase in fatigue intensity was significantly mediated by interleukin (IL)-6 (82%), IL-10 (94%), IL-6:IL-10 (49%), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha:IL-10 (78%) with reduced sleep dysfunction increasing the relationship between intervention and fatigue intensity rather than mediating intervention effects (−88%). Decrease in fatigue interference was mediated by sleep dysfunction (35%) while IL-10 and pro:anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios increased the relationship between intervention and interference (−25% to −40%). The reduction in general fatigue was significantly mediated by minutes of physical activity (76%), sleep dysfunction (45%), and physical activity enjoyment (40%) with IL-10 (−40%) and IL-6:IL-10 (−11%) increasing the intervention-fatigue relationship. In the intervention group, higher baseline fatigue, anxiety, depression, and perceived exercise barriers interference predicted a greater decline in fatigue interference and/or general fatigue during the intervention. Conclusions Biobehavioral factors mediated and enhanced

  19. Heat Shock Factor 1 Mediates Latent HIV Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Xiao-Yun; Lin, Jian; Li, Min-Min; Shen, Xin-Tian; Liu, Shu-Wen

    2016-01-01

    HSF1, a conserved heat shock factor, has emerged as a key regulator of mammalian transcription in response to cellular metabolic status and stress. To our knowledge, it is not known whether HSF1 regulates viral transcription, particularly HIV-1 and its latent form. Here we reveal that HSF1 extensively participates in HIV transcription and is critical for HIV latent reactivation. Mode of action studies demonstrated that HSF1 binds to the HIV 5′-LTR to reactivate viral transcription and recruits a family of closely related multi-subunit complexes, including p300 and p-TEFb. And HSF1 recruits p300 for self-acetylation is also a committed step. The knockout of HSF1 impaired HIV transcription, whereas the conditional over-expression of HSF1 improved that. These findings demonstrate that HSF1 positively regulates the transcription of latent HIV, suggesting that it might be an important target for different therapeutic strategies aimed at a cure for HIV/AIDS. PMID:27189267

  20. Heat Shock Factor 1 Mediates Latent HIV Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Xiao-Yun; Lin, Jian; Li, Min-Min; Shen, Xin-Tian; Liu, Shu-Wen

    2016-05-18

    HSF1, a conserved heat shock factor, has emerged as a key regulator of mammalian transcription in response to cellular metabolic status and stress. To our knowledge, it is not known whether HSF1 regulates viral transcription, particularly HIV-1 and its latent form. Here we reveal that HSF1 extensively participates in HIV transcription and is critical for HIV latent reactivation. Mode of action studies demonstrated that HSF1 binds to the HIV 5'-LTR to reactivate viral transcription and recruits a family of closely related multi-subunit complexes, including p300 and p-TEFb. And HSF1 recruits p300 for self-acetylation is also a committed step. The knockout of HSF1 impaired HIV transcription, whereas the conditional over-expression of HSF1 improved that. These findings demonstrate that HSF1 positively regulates the transcription of latent HIV, suggesting that it might be an important target for different therapeutic strategies aimed at a cure for HIV/AIDS.

  1. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Substance Use: Mediation by Individual, Family, and School Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina A.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Tucker, Joan S.; Zhou, Annie J.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined racial/ethnic differences in alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among a diverse sample of approximately 5,500 seventh and eighth graders. We also evaluated the extent to which individual, family, and school factors mediated racial/ ethnic disparities in use. Method: Students (49% male) from 16 participating middle schools in southern California reported on lifetime and past-month substance use, individual factors (expectancies and resistance self-efficacy), family factors (familism, parental respect, and adult and older sibling use), and school factors (school-grade use and perceived peer use). We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of consumption for each racial/ethnic group adjusting for sex, grade, and family structure. Path analysis models tested mediation of racial/ethnic differences through individual, family, and school factors. Results: After adjusting for sex, grade, and family structure, Hispanics reported higher and Asians reported lower lifetime and past-month substance use, compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians. Rates of substance use did not differ between non-Hispanic African Americans and Caucasians. Several individual factors mediated the relationship between Hispanic ethnicity and substance use, including negative expectancies and resistance self-efficacy. Higher use among Hispanics was generally not explained by family or school factors. By contrast, several factors mediated the relationship between Asian race and lower alcohol use, including individual, family (parental respect, adult and older sibling use), and school (perceived peer use, school-grade use) factors. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of targeting specific individual, family, and school factors in tailored intervention efforts to reduce substance use among young minority adolescents. PMID:20731969

  2. PTEN modulates vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated signaling and angiogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianhua; Kontos, Christopher D

    2002-03-29

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is activated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and many of the angiogenic cellular responses of VEGF are regulated by the lipid products of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The tumor suppressor PTEN has been shown to down-regulate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling, yet the effects of PTEN on VEGF-mediated signaling and angiogenesis are unknown. Inhibition of endogenous PTEN in cultured endothelial cells by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a dominant negative PTEN mutant (PTEN-C/S) enhanced VEGF-mediated Akt phosphorylation, and this effect correlated with decreases in caspase-3 cleavage, caspase-3 activity, and DNA degradation after induction of apoptosis with tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Overexpression of PTEN-C/S also enhanced VEGF-mediated endothelial cell proliferation and migration. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type PTEN inhibited the anti-apoptotic, proliferative, and chemotactic effects of VEGF. Moreover, PTEN-C/S increased the length of vascular sprouts in the rat aortic ring assay and modulated VEGF-mediated tube formation in an in vitro angiogenesis assay, whereas PTEN-wild type inhibited these effects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that PTEN potently modulates VEGF-mediated signaling and function and that PTEN is a viable target in therapeutic approaches to promote or inhibit angiogenesis.

  3. NR0B1A: an alternatively spliced form of NR0B1.

    PubMed

    Ho, John; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Huang, Bing-Ling; McCabe, Edward R B

    2004-12-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor DAX1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal-AHC critical region on the X chromosome gene 1), encoded by the NR0B1 gene, plays important roles in the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal (HPAG) axis as well as in sex determination. Mutations in NR0B1 cause the X-linked cytomegalic form of adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC), and associated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Over-expression of NR0B1 results in sex reversal in mice and duplication of the 160kb DSS locus in human patients results in a sex-reversed phenotype (XY females). The purpose of these investigations was to determine if alternatively spliced forms of NR0B1 existed. Analysis of expressed sequence tag data predicted a truncated isoform of DAX1. We confirmed the presence of an alternatively spliced form of NR0B1, which we will refer to as NR0B1A, by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and will refer to the deduced protein isoform as DAX1A. Sequencing of the NR0B1A cDNA revealed slight differences from the recently described splice form, DAX1alpha. NR0B1A is encoded by NR0B1 exon 1 and exon 2A located within the 3385 nt intron between NR0B1 exons 1 and 2. Exon 2A includes 35 nt of coding sequence. NR0B1A encodes a deduced protein sequence, DAX1A, of 400 amino acids compared with 470 amino acids for DAX1. RT-PCR detected expression of NR0B1A in adrenal gland, testis, ovary, and pancreas. The identification of NR0B1A and the deduced DAX1A requires reinterpretation of many previous experiments involving expression and knockout of NR0B1 and DAX1.

  4. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior. PMID:25772427

  5. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior.

  6. CYP1B1 inhibition attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity through a mid-chain HETEs-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Maayah, Zaid H; Althurwi, Hassan N; Abdelhamid, Ghada; Lesyk, Gabriela; Jurasz, Paul; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2016-03-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) has been reported to be a very potent and effective anticancer agent. However, clinical treatment with DOX has been greatly limited due to its cardiotoxicity. Furthermore, several studies have suggested a role for cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and mid-chain hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (mid-chain HETEs) in DOX-induced cardiac toxicity. Therefore, we hypothesized that DOX induced cardiotoxicity is mediated through the induction of CYP1B1 and its associated mid-chain HETEs metabolite. To test our hypothesis, Sprague-Dawley rats and RL-14 cells were treated with DOX in the presence and absence of 2,3',4,5'-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS), a selective CYP1B1 inhibitor. Thereafter, cardiotoxicity parameters were determined using echocardiography, histopathology, and gene expression. Further, the level of mid-chain HETEs was quantified using liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry. Our results showed that DOX induced cardiotoxicity in vivo and in vitro as evidenced by deleterious changes in echocardiography, histopathology, and hypertrophic markers. Importantly, the TMS significantly reversed these changes. Moreover, the DOX-induced cardiotoxicity was associated with a proportional increase in the formation of cardiac mid-chain HETEs both in vivo and in our cell culture model. Interestingly, the inhibition of cardiotoxicity by TMS was associated with a dramatic decrease in the formation of cardiac mid-chain HETEs suggesting a mid-chain HETEs-dependent mechanism. Mechanistically, the protective effect of TMS against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity was mediated through the inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence that the inhibition of CYP1B1 and mid-chain HETE formation attenuate DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.

  7. Neurotransmitters in rats fed fumonisin B1.

    PubMed

    Porter, J K; Voss, K A; Chamberlain, W J; Bacon, C W; Norred, W P

    1993-03-01

    Fumonisin B1, a toxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme, has been associated with a neurotoxic syndrome in horses known as equine leukoencephlomalacia. Previous investigations showed that F. moniliforme cultured on corn and incorporated into rat chow increased brain 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) and 5HIAA: serotonin (5HT) ratios in these animals. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine whether fumonisin B1 would produce related neurochemical effects in the brain and pineal gland of male and female rats. Rats were fed fumonisin B1 at 15, 50, and 150 ppm for 4 weeks. No differences occurred in brain concentrations of norepinephrine, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, homovanillic acid, 5HT, 5HIAA, and the 5HIAA to 5HT ratios in either male or female rats, nor where there differences between the sexes. When compared across sexes, the norepinephrine to dopamine ratios were decreased (P < 0.05) in the 150-ppm-treated animals. This may suggest a fumonisin B1-induced imbalance in brain norepinephrine and/or dopamine. No differences were observed in pineal norepinephrine, 5HT, 5HIAA, and the 5HIAA to 5HT ratios. Since fumonisin B1 failed to duplicate the effects of the F. moniliforme-induced imbalances in 5HT and 5HIAA metabolism in the brains of rats, other mycotoxins from F. moniliforme may be responsible for these effects.

  8. Differences and Similarities in TRAIL- and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Necroptotic Signaling in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Sosna, Justyna; Philipp, Stephan; Fuchslocher Chico, Johaiber; Saggau, Carina; Fritsch, Jürgen; Föll, Alexandra; Plenge, Johannes; Arenz, Christoph; Pinkert, Thomas; Kalthoff, Holger; Trauzold, Anna; Schmitz, Ingo; Schütze, Stefan; Adam, Dieter

    2016-10-15

    Recently, a type of regulated necrosis (RN) called necroptosis was identified to be involved in many pathophysiological processes and emerged as an alternative method to eliminate cancer cells. However, only a few studies have elucidated components of TRAIL-mediated necroptosis useful for anticancer therapy. Therefore, we have compared this type of cell death to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated necroptosis and found similar signaling through acid and neutral sphingomyelinases, the mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi, Atg5, and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Notably, executive mechanisms of both TRAIL- and TNF-mediated necroptosis are independent of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), and depletion of p38α increases the levels of both types of cell death. Moreover, we found differences in signaling between TNF- and TRAIL-mediated necroptosis, e.g., a lack of involvement of ubiquitin carboxyl hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) and Atg16L1 in executive mechanisms of TRAIL-mediated necroptosis. Furthermore, we discovered indications of an altered involvement of mitochondrial components, since overexpression of the mitochondrial protein Bcl-2 protected Jurkat cells from TRAIL- and TNF-mediated necroptosis, and overexpression of Bcl-XL diminished only TRAIL-induced necroptosis in Colo357 cells. Furthermore, TRAIL does not require receptor internalization and endosome-lysosome acidification to mediate necroptosis. Taken together, pathways described for TRAIL-mediated necroptosis and differences from those for TNF-mediated necroptosis might be unique targets to increase or modify necroptotic signaling and eliminate tumor cells more specifically in future anticancer approaches. PMID:27528614

  9. Social Competence as a Mediating Factor in Reduction of Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langeveld, Johannes H.; Gundersen, Knut K.; Svartdal, Frode

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to explore how social competence reduces behavioral problems. Based on previous findings, we assume that increased social competence can be regarded as a mediating factor in reducing behavior problems. All participants (children and adolescents, n = 112) received an intervention intended to increase social…

  10. Factors Mediating the Effect of Gender on Ninth-Grade Turkish Students' Misconceptions Concerning Electric Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sencar, Selen; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and analyze possible factors that mediate the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits. A Simple Electric Circuit Concept Test (SECCT), including items with both practical and theoretical contexts, and an Interest-Experience Questionnaire about Electricity…

  11. Risk Factors and Mediators of the Vascular Dysfunction Associated with Hypertension in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Stephanie J.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with significant hemodynamic changes and vasodilation in the uterine and systemic circulation in order to meet the metabolic demands of the mother and developing fetus. Hypertension in pregnancy (HTN-Preg) and preeclampsia (PE) are major complications and life-threatening conditions to both the mother and fetus. PE is precipitated by various genetic, dietary and environmental factors. Although the initiating events of PE are unclear, inadequate invasion of cytotrophoblasts into the uterine artery is thought to reduce uteroplacental perfusion pressure and lead to placental ischemia/hypoxia. Placental hypoxia induces the release of biologically active factors such as growth factor inhibitors, anti-angiogenic proteins, inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, hypoxia-inducible factors, and antibodies to vascular angiotensin II receptor. These bioactive factors affect the production/activity of various vascular mediators in the endothelium, smooth muscle and extracellular matrix, leading to severe vasoconstriction and HTN. As an endothelial cell disorder, PE is associated with decreased vasodilator mediators such as nitric oxide, prostacyclin and hyperpolarizing factor and increased vasoconstrictor mediators such as endothelin, angiotensin II and thromboxane A2. PE also involves enhanced mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle contraction including intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), and [Ca2+]i sensitization pathways such as protein kinase C, Rho-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Changes in extracellular matrix composition and matrix metalloproteases activity also promote vascular remodeling and further vasoconstriction in the uterine and systemic circulation. Characterization of the predisposing risk factors, the biologically active factors, and the vascular mediators associated with PE holds the promise for early detection, and should help design specific genetic and pharmacological tools for the management

  12. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  13. Psychopathy and violence: Does antisocial cognition mediate the relationship between the PCL: YV factor scores and violent offending?

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; DeLisi, Matt

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether proactive and reactive antisocial cognition mediate the effect of Factors 1 (core personality features) and 2 (behavioral deviance) of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) on violent offending. In this study Bandura et al.'s (1996) Moral Disengagement (MD) scale and the Impulse Control (IC) scale of the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI; Weinberger & Schwartz, 1990) served as proxies for proactive and reactive antisocial cognition, respectively. It was hypothesized that proactive antisocial cognition (MD) would mediate the Factor 1-violence relationship and that both proactive antisocial cognition and reactive antisocial cognition (IC) would mediate the Factor 2-violence relationship. A 3-wave path analysis of data from 1,354 adjudicated delinquents produced results consistent with the first part of the hypothesis (i.e., proactive antisocial mediation of the Factor 1-violence relationship) but inconsistent with the second part of the hypothesis (i.e., only proactive antisocial cognition mediated the Factor 2-violence relationship). Whereas the direct path from Factor 1 to violent offending was no longer significant when MD and IC were taken into account, the direct path from Factor 2 to violent offender remained significant even after MD and IC were included as mediators. This suggests that whereas proactive antisocial cognition plays a major role in mediating the Factor 1-violence relationship, the Factor 2-violence relationship is mediated by proactive antisocial cognition and variables not included or not adequately covered in the current study.

  14. CYP7B1 Enzyme Deletion Impairs Reproductive Behaviors in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oyola, Mario G.; Zuloaga, Damian G.; Carbone, David; Malysz, Anna M.; Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Handa, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to androgenic properties mediated via androgen receptors, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) also regulates estrogenic functions via an alternate pathway. These estrogenic functions of DHT are mediated by its metabolite 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3β-diol) binding to estrogen receptor β (ERβ). CYP7B1 enzyme converts 3β-diol to inactive 6α- or 7α-triols and plays an important role as a regulator of estrogenic functions mediated by 3β-diol. Using a mutant mouse carrying a null mutation for the CYP7B1 gene (CYP7B1KO), we examined the contribution of CYP7B1 on physiology and behavior. Male, gonadectomized (GDX) CYP7B1KO and their wild type (WT) littermates were assessed for their behavioral phenotype, anxiety-related behavioral measures, and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis reactivity. No significant effects of genotype were evident in anxiety-like behaviors in open field (OFA), light-dark (L/D) exploration, and elevated plus maze (EPM). T significantly reduced open arm time on the EPM while not affecting L/D exploratory and OFA behaviors in CYP7B1KO and WT littermates. T also attenuated the corticosterone response to EPM in both genotypes. In GDX animals, T was able to reinstate male-specific reproductive behaviors (latencies and number of mounts, intromission, and ejaculations) in the WT but not in the CYP7B1KO mice. The male reproductive behavior defect in CYP7B1KO seems to be due to their inability to distinguish olfactory cues from a behavioral estrus female. CYP7B1KO mice also showed a reduction in androgen receptor mRNA expression in the olfactory bulb. Our findings suggest a novel role for the CYP7B1 enzyme in the regulation of male reproductive behaviors. PMID:25849728

  15. 32 CFR 242b.1 - Regents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SCIENCES § 242b.1 Regents. (a) History and name. The Congress of the United States in the Uniformed... to conduct the business of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and designated this body “the Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences,”...

  16. 32 CFR 242b.1 - Regents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SCIENCES § 242b.1 Regents. (a) History and name. The Congress of the United States in the Uniformed... to conduct the business of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and designated this body “the Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences,”...

  17. 32 CFR 242b.1 - Regents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SCIENCES § 242b.1 Regents. (a) History and name. The Congress of the United States in the Uniformed... to conduct the business of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and designated this body “the Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences,”...

  18. 32 CFR 242b.1 - Regents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SCIENCES § 242b.1 Regents. (a) History and name. The Congress of the United States in the Uniformed... to conduct the business of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and designated this body “the Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences,”...

  19. 32 CFR 242b.1 - Regents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SCIENCES § 242b.1 Regents. (a) History and name. The Congress of the United States in the Uniformed... to conduct the business of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and designated this body “the Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences,”...

  20. Prostaglandin F2α Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Transforming Growth Factor B1 Via Induction of the Early Growth Response 1 Gene (EGR1) in the Bovine Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaoying; Arvisais, Edward W.; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Dong-bao; Roy, Shyamal K.; Pate, Joy L.; Hansen, Thomas R.; Rueda, Bo R.; Davis, John S.

    2008-01-01

    In most mammals, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) is believed to be a trigger that induces the regression of the corpus luteum (CL), whereby progesterone synthesis is inhibited, the luteal structure involutes, and the reproductive cycle resumes. Studies have shown that the early growth response 1 (EGR1) protein can induce the expression of proapoptotic proteins, suggesting that EGR1 may play a role in luteal regression. Our hypothesis is that EGR1 mediates the actions of PGF2α by inducing the expression of TGF β1 (TGFB1), a key tissue remodeling protein. The levels of EGR1 mRNA and protein were up-regulated in the bovine CL during PGF2α-induced luteolysis in vivo and in PGF2α-treated luteal cells in vitro. Using chemical and genetic approaches, the RAF/MAPK kinase (MEK) 1/ERK pathway was identified as a proximal signaling event required for the induction of EGR1 in PGF2α-treated cells. Treatment with PGF2α increased the expression of TGFB1 mRNA and protein as well as the binding of EGR1 protein to TGFB1 promoter in bovine luteal cells. The effect of PGF2α on TGFB1 expression was mimicked by a protein kinase C (PKC)/RAF/MEK1/ERK activator or adenoviral-mediated expression of EGR1. The stimulatory effect of PGF2α on TGFB1 mRNA and TGFB1 protein secretion was inhibited by blockade of MEK1/ERK signaling and by adenoviral-mediated expression of NAB2, an EGR1 binding protein that inhibits EGR1 transcriptional activity. Treatment of luteal cells with TGFB1 reduced progesterone secretion, implicating TGFB1 in luteal regression. These studies demonstrate that PGF2α stimulates the expression of EGR1 and TGFB1 in the CL. We suggest that EGR1 plays a role in the expression of genes whose cognate proteins coordinate luteal regression. PMID:17916653

  1. Impact of viral attachment factor expression on antibody-mediated neutralization of flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Obara, Christopher J; Dowd, Kimberly A; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Pierson, Theodore C

    2013-03-01

    Neutralization of flaviviruses requires engagement of the virion by antibodies with a stoichiometry that exceeds a required threshold. Factors that modulate the number of antibodies bound to an individual virion when it contacts target cells impact neutralization potency. However, the contribution of cellular factors to the potency of neutralizing antibodies has not been explored systematically. Here we investigate the relationship between expression level of a viral attachment factor on cells and the neutralizing potency of antibodies. Analysis of the attachment factor DC-SIGNR on cells in neutralization studies failed to identify a correlation between DC-SIGNR expression and antibody-mediated protection. Furthermore, neutralization potency was equivalent on a novel Jurkat cell line induced to express DC-SIGNR at varying levels. Finally, blocking virus-attachment factor interactions had no impact on neutralization activity. Altogether, our studies suggest that cellular attachment factor expression is not a significant contributor to the potency of neutralizing antibodies to flaviviruses.

  2. Downregulation of kinin B1 receptor function by B2 receptor heterodimerization and signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Brovkovych, Viktor; Zhang, Yongkang; Tan, Fulong; Skidgel, Randal A

    2015-01-01

    Signaling through the G protein-coupled kinin receptors B1 (kB1R) and B2 (kB2R) plays a critical role in inflammatory responses mediated by activation of the kallikrein-kinin system. The kB2R is constitutively expressed and rapidly desensitized in response to agonist whereas kB1R expression is upregulated by inflammatory stimuli and it is resistant to internalization and desensitization. Here we show that the kB1R heterodimerizes with kB2Rs in co-transfected HEK293 cells and natively expressing endothelial cells, resulting in significant internalization and desensitization of the kB1R response in cells pre-treated with kB2R agonist. However, pre-treatment of cells with kB1R agonist did not affect subsequent kB2R responses. Agonists of other G protein-coupled receptors (thrombin, lysophosphatidic acid) had no effect on a subsequent kB1R response. The loss of kB1R response after pretreatment with kB2R agonist was partially reversed with kB2R mutant Y129S, which blocks kB2R signaling without affecting endocytosis, or T342A, which signals like wild type but is not endocytosed. Co-endocytosis of the kB1R with kB2R was dependent on β-arrestin and clathrin-coated pits but not caveolae. The sorting pathway of kB1R and kB2R after endocytosis differed as recycling of kB1R to the cell surface was much slower than that of kB2R. In cytokine-treated human lung microvascular endothelial cells, pre-treatment with kB2R agonist inhibited kB1R-mediated increase in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) caused by kB1R stimulation (to generate nitric oxide) and blocked the profound drop in TER caused by kB1R activation in the presence of pyrogallol (a superoxide generator). Thus, kB1R function can be downregulated by kB2R co-endocytosis and signaling, suggesting new approaches to control kB1R signaling in pathological conditions. PMID:25289859

  3. Systematic Identification of Core Transcription Factors Mediating Dysregulated Links Bridging Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Wenjing; Ping, Yanyan; Zhao, Hongying; Xu, Chaohan; Li, Yiqun; Wang, Li; Li, Feng; Hu, Jing; Huang, Teng; Lv, Yanling; Ren, Huan; Li, Xia

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows a tight link between inflammation and cancer. However, comprehensive identification of pivotal transcription factors (i.e., core TFs) mediating the dysregulated links remains challenging, mainly due to a lack of samples that can effectively reflect the connections between inflammation and tumorigenesis. Here, we constructed a series of TF-mediated regulatory networks from a large compendium of expression profiling of normal colonic tissues, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and colorectal cancer (CRC), which contains 1201 samples in total, and then proposed a network-based approach to characterize potential links bridging inflammation and cancer. For this purpose, we computed significantly dysregulated relationships between inflammation and their linked cancer networks, and then 24 core TFs with their dysregulated genes were identified. Collectively, our approach provides us with quite important insight into inflammation-associated tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, which could also be applied to identify functionally dysregulated relationships mediating the links between other different disease phenotypes. PMID:24386215

  4. Advancing coalition theory: the effect of coalition factors on community capacity mediated by member engagement.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle C; Swan, Deanne W

    2012-08-01

    Community coalitions have the potential to enhance a community's capacity to engage in effective problem solving for a range of community concerns. Although numerous studies have documented correlations between member engagement and coalition processes and structural characteristics, fewer have examined associations between coalition factors and community capacity outcomes. The current study uses data from an evaluation of the California Healthy Cities and Communities program to examine pathways between coalition factors (i.e. membership, processes), member engagement (i.e. participation, satisfaction) and community capacity as hypothesized by the Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT). Surveys were completed by 231 members of 19 healthy cities and communities coalitions. Multilevel mediation analyses were used to examine possible mediating effects of member engagement on three community capacity indicators: new skills, sense of community and social capital. Results generally supported CCAT. Member engagement mediated the effects of leadership and staffing on community capacity outcomes. Results also showed that member engagement mediated several relationships between process variables (i.e. task focus, cohesion) and community capacity, but several unmediated direct effects were also observed. This suggests that although member engagement does explain some relationships, it alone is not sufficient to explain how coalition processes influence indicators of community capacity.

  5. Functional analysis of host factors that mediate the intracellular lifestyle of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qing-Ming; Luo, Jijing; Lin, Xiaorong; Pei, Jianwu; Li, Lei; Ficht, Thomas A; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn), the major causative agent of human fungal meningoencephalitis, replicates within phagolysosomes of infected host cells. Despite more than a half-century of investigation into host-Cn interactions, host factors that mediate infection by this fungal pathogen remain obscure. Here, we describe the development of a system that employs Drosophila S2 cells and RNA interference (RNAi) to define and characterize Cn host factors. The system recapitulated salient aspects of fungal interactions with mammalian cells, including phagocytosis, intracellular trafficking, replication, cell-to-cell spread and escape of the pathogen from host cells. Fifty-seven evolutionarily conserved host factors were identified using this system, including 29 factors that had not been previously implicated in mediating fungal pathogenesis. Subsequent analysis indicated that Cn exploits host actin cytoskeletal elements, cell surface signaling molecules, and vesicle-mediated transport proteins to establish a replicative niche. Several host molecules known to be associated with autophagy (Atg), including Atg2, Atg5, Atg9 and Pi3K59F (a class III PI3-kinase) were also uncovered in our screen. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated depletion of these autophagy proteins in murine RAW264.7 macrophages demonstrated their requirement during Cn infection, thereby validating findings obtained using the Drosophila S2 cell system. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy analyses demonstrated that Atg5, LC3, Atg9a were recruited to the vicinity of Cn containing vacuoles (CnCvs) in the early stages of Cn infection. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy and/or PI3-kinase activity further demonstrated a requirement for autophagy associated host proteins in supporting infection of mammalian cells by Cn. Finally, systematic trafficking studies indicated that CnCVs associated with Atg proteins, including Atg5, Atg9a and LC3, during trafficking to a terminal intracellular compartment that

  6. Transforming growth factor-β: an important mediator in Helicobacter pylori-associated pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nianshuang; Xie, Chuan; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic, helical bacillus that specifically colonizes the gastric mucosa. The interaction of virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors contributes to the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated conditions, such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Infection with H. pylori has recently been recognized as the strongest risk factor for gastric cancer. As a pleiotropic cytokine, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β regulates various biological processes, including cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis. Recent studies have shed new light on the involvement of TGF-β signaling in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. This review focuses on the potential etiological roles of TGF-β in H. pylori-mediated gastric pathogenesis. PMID:26583078

  7. Total Synthesis of Leupyrrin B1: A Potent Inhibitor of Human Leukocyte Elastase.

    PubMed

    Thiede, Sebastian; Wosniok, Paul R; Herkommer, Daniel; Schulz-Fincke, Anna-Christina; Gütschow, Michael; Menche, Dirk

    2016-08-19

    The total synthesis of leupyrrin B1 was accomplished by an expedient strategy that involves an optimized HATU-mediated amide coupling protocol of elaborate substrates. The generally useful procedure was also successfully applied in an improved total synthesis of leupyrrin A1. Finally, leupyrrins A1 and B1 were evaluated toward a panel of proteases, and human leukocyte elastase was discovered as a molecular target of the leupyrrins. PMID:27486674

  8. [Production of a dialysable transfer factor of cell mediated immunity by lymphoblastoid cells in continuous proliferation].

    PubMed

    Goust, J M; Viza, D; Moulias, R; Trejdosiewicz, L; Lesourd, B; Marescot, M R; Prévot, A

    1975-01-20

    Four lymphoblastoid cell lines tested in this work contain normally a dialysable moiety having by ultraviolet spectroscopy, column chromatography (Biogel P 10) and chemically the same properties than human dialysable Transfer Factor (TFd), but unable to transfer cell mediated immune response against common antigens. Two of them are able to do so after incubation with minimal amounts of TFd. Production of a molecule identical to human TFd is possible in some lymphoblastoid cell lines after induction with TFd. PMID:808340

  9. Transforming growth factor β-mediated suppression of antitumor T cells requires FoxP1 transcription factor expression.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Tom L; Rutkowski, Melanie R; Allegrezza, Michael J; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Tesone, Amelia J; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Nguyen, Jenny M; Sarmin, Fahmida; Borowsky, Mark E; Tchou, Julia; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2014-09-18

    Tumor-reactive T cells become unresponsive in advanced tumors. Here we have characterized a common mechanism of T cell unresponsiveness in cancer driven by the upregulation of the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P1 (Foxp1), which prevents CD8⁺ T cells from proliferating and upregulating Granzyme-B and interferon-γ in response to tumor antigens. Accordingly, Foxp1-deficient lymphocytes induced rejection of incurable tumors and promoted protection against tumor rechallenge. Mechanistically, Foxp1 interacted with the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3 in preactivated CD8⁺ T cells in response to microenvironmental transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and was essential for its suppressive activity. Therefore, Smad2 and Smad3-mediated c-Myc repression requires Foxp1 expression in T cells. Furthermore, Foxp1 directly mediated TGF-β-induced c-Jun transcriptional repression, which abrogated T cell activity. Our results unveil a fundamental mechanism of T cell unresponsiveness different from anergy or exhaustion, driven by TGF-β signaling on tumor-associated lymphocytes undergoing Foxp1-dependent transcriptional regulation.

  10. Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis induced in vivo by platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Montrucchio, G.; Lupia, E.; de Martino, A.; Battaglia, E.; Arese, M.; Tizzani, A.; Bussolino, F.; Camussi, G.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the role of an endogenous production of nitric oxide (NO) in the in vitro migration of endothelial cells and in the in vivo angiogenic response elicited by platelet-activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The NO synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), but not its enantiomer D-NAME, prevented chemotaxis of endothelial cells induced in vitro by PAF and by TNF. The motogenic activity of TNF was also inhibited by WEB 2170, a specific PAF-receptor antagonist. In contrast, chemotaxis induced by bFGF was not prevented by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. Angiogenesis was studied in vivo in a murine model in which Matrigel was used as a vehicle for the delivery of mediators. In this model, the angiogenesis induced by PAF and TNF was inhibited by WEB 2170 and L-NAME but not by D-NAME. In contrast, angiogenesis induced by bFGF was not affected by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. TNF, but not bFGF, induced PAF synthesis within Matrigel. These results suggest that NO mediates the angiogenesis induced by PAF as well as that induced by TNF, which is dependent on the production of PAF. In contrast, the angiogenic effect of bFGF appears to be both PAF and NO independent. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9250168

  11. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-BETA MEDIATED SUPPRESSION OF ANTI-TUMOR T CELLS REQUIRES FOXP1 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Tom L.; Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Allegrezza, Michael J.; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Tesone, Amelia J.; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Nguyen, Jenny M.; Sarmin, Fahmida; Borowsky, Mark E.; Tchou, Julia; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Tumor-reactive T cells become unresponsive in advanced tumors. Here we have characterized a common mechanism of T cell unresponsiveness in cancer driven by the up-regulation of the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P1 (Foxp1), which prevents CD8+ T cells from proliferating and up-regulating Granzyme-B and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in response to tumor antigens. Accordingly, Foxp1-deficient lymphocytes induced rejection of incurable tumors, and promoted protection against tumor re-challenge. Mechanistically, Foxp1 interacted with the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3 in pre-activated CD8+ T cells in response to microenvironmental transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and was essential for its suppressive activity. Therefore, Smad2 and Smad3-mediated c-Myc repression requires Foxp1 expression in T cells. Furthermore, Foxp1 directly mediated TGF-β-induced c-Jun transcriptional repression, which abrogated T cell activity. Our results unveil a fundamental mechanism of T cell unresponsiveness different from anergy or exhaustion, driven by TGF-β signaling on tumor-associated lymphocytes undergoing Foxp1-dependent transcriptional regulation. PMID:25238097

  12. Establishing a Framework of Influential Factors on Empowering Primary School Students in Peer Mediation

    PubMed Central

    Jorbozeh, Hamideh; Dehdari, Tahereh; Ashoorkhani, Mahnaz; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empowerment of children and adolescents in terms of social skills is critical for promoting their social health. Objectives: This study attempts to explore a framework of influential factors on empowering primary school students by means of peer mediation from the stakeholders' point of view, as a qualitative content analysis design. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis (conventional method). Seven focused group discussions and six in-depth interviews were conducted with schoolchildren, parents and education authorities. Following each interview, recordings were entered to an open code software and analyzed. Data collection was continued up to data saturation. Results: Within the provided framework, the participants' views and comments were classified into two major categories “educational empowerment” and “social empowerment”, and into two themes; “program” and “advocacy”. The “program” theme included factors such as design and implementation, development, maintenance and improvement, and individual and social impact. The “advocacy” theme included factors such as social, emotional and physical support. Conclusions: The explained framework components regarding peer mediation are useful to design peace education programs and to empower school-age children in peer mediation. PMID:25763191

  13. Self-other representations mediate the relationship between Five-Factor Model depression and depressive states.

    PubMed

    Huprich, Steven K; Pouliot, Gregory S; Bruner, Reino

    2012-01-01

    While it is well established that trait depression is a risk factor for experiencing increased rates of episodes of depression, it is also the case that the ways in which the self and others are perceived, and nature of the relationship between self and other, predispose individuals to frequent depressive episodes. In this study, 182 psychiatric outpatients at three treatment facilities were evaluated for Five-Factor Model depressive traits, depressive states, and self-other representations (object relations). It was hypothesized that object relations would mediate the relationship between trait and state depression. Results partially confirmed this hypothesis. While trait depression significantly predicted variance in the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck et al., 1988), two dimensions of the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI; Bell, 1995)--Alienation and Insecure Attachment--partially mediated the relationship between trait and state depression. Similarly, trait depression predicted tendencies to experience frequent shifts toward depressive episodes, although the Insecure Attachment and Egocentricity scales of the BORRTI fully mediated the relationship between trait depression and depressive lability. Knowledge of self-other representations, which is being considered for inclusion in the DSM-5, allows for a more refined understanding of those factors that contribute shifts in depressive mood. PMID:22642436

  14. Exploring socio-cultural factors that mediate, facilitate, & constrain the health and empowerment of refugee youth.

    PubMed

    Edge, Sara; Newbold, K Bruce; McKeary, Marie

    2014-09-01

    Studies on youth health and well-being are predominantly quantitative and expert-driven with less attention given to how youth understand what it means to be healthy themselves and the role of socio-cultural factors in shaping this. Knowledge on the perceptions and experiences of refugee youth is particularly lacking and notable given their unique stressors related to migratory, settlement and integration experiences. We contribute a better understanding of how refugee youth themselves define and contextualize health, with particular emphasis given to socio-cultural factors that enable or constrain health promotion efforts and individual health agency. This research was undertaken at a downtown drop-in centre in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada that provided settlement and integration services to newcomer youth. We employ a grounded theory approach and draw upon participant observation, focus groups and in-depth interviews. Twenty-six youth (age 18-25 years), representing 12 different countries of origin participated. The youth defined health very broadly touching upon many typical determinants of health (e.g. education, income, etc.). Yet factors of most importance (as demonstrated by the frequency and urgency in which they were discussed by youth) included a sense of belonging, positive self-identity, emotional well-being, and sense of agency or self-determination. We conceptualize these as "mediating" factors given the youth argued they enabled or constrained their ability to cope with adversities related to other health determinant categories. The youth also discussed what we interpret as "facilitators" that encourage mediating factors to manifest positively (e.g. informal, non-biomedical settings and programs that nurture trust, break down access barriers, and promote a sense of community amongst peers, mentors, and health professionals). When creating health promotion strategies for refugee youth (and perhaps youth more generally) it is important to understand the

  15. Expression of nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2-mediated genes differentiates tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhongqing; Lv, Jingzhu; Kelly, Gabriel T; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Xiaojie; Gu, Wanjun; Yin, Xiaofeng; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Tong

    2016-07-01

    During infection and host defense, nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2) dependent signaling is an efficient antioxidant defensive mechanism used by host cells to control the destructive effects of reactive oxygen species. This allows for effective defense responses against microbes while minimizing oxidative injury to the host cell itself. As a central regulator of antioxidant genes, Nrf2 has gained great attention in its pivotal role in infection, especially in tuberculosis (TB), the top infectious disease killer worldwide. To elucidate the genes potentially regulated by Nrf2 in TB, we conducted a meta-analysis on published gene expression datasets. Firstly, we compared the global gene expression profiles between control and Nrf2-deficient human cells. The differentially expressed genes were deemed as "Nrf2-mediated genes". Next, the whole blood gene expression pattern of TB patients was compared with that of healthy controls, pneumonia patients, and lung cancer patients. We found that the genes deregulated in TB significantly overlap with the Nrf2-mediated genes. Based on the intersection of Nrf2-mediated and TB-regulated genes, we identified an Nrf2-mediated 17-gene signature, which reflects a cluster of gene ontology terms highly related to TB physiology. We demonstrated that the 17-gene signature can be used to distinguish TB patients from healthy controls and patients with latent TB infection, pneumonia, or lung cancer. Also, the Nrf2-mediated gene signature can be used as an indicator of the anti-TB therapeutic response. More importantly, we confirmed that the predictive power of the Nrf2-mediated 17-gene signature is significantly better than the random gene sets selected from the human transcriptome. Also, the 17-gene signature performs even better than the random gene signatures selected from TB-associated genes. Our study confirms the central role of Nrf2 in TB pathogenesis and provides a novel and useful diagnostic method to differentiate TB

  16. TGF-α/HA complex promotes tympanic membrane keratinocyte migration and proliferation via ErbB1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Mei Teh, Bing; Redmond, Sharon L.; Shen, Yi; Atlas, Marcus D.; Marano, Robert J.; Dilley, Rodney J.

    2013-04-01

    Tympanic membrane perforations are common and represent a management challenge to clinicians. Current treatments for chronic perforations involve a graft surgery and require general anaesthesia, including associated costs and morbidities. Bioactive molecules (e.g. growth factors, cytokines) play an important role in promoting TM wound healing following perforation and the use of growth factors as a topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations has been suggested as an alternative to surgery. However, the choice of bioactive molecules best suited to promote wound healing has yet to be identified. We investigated the effects of hyaluronic acid, vitronectin, TGF-α, IL-24 and their combinations on migration, proliferation and adhesion of cultured human tympanic membrane-derived keratinocytes (hTM), in addition to their possible mechanisms of action. We found that TGF-α, TGF-α/HA and TGF-α/IL-24 promoted wound healing by significantly increasing both migration and proliferation. TGF-α and/or HA treated cells showed comparable cell–cell adhesion whilst maintaining an epithelial cell phenotype. With the use of receptor binding inhibitors for ErbB1 (AG1478) and CD44 (BRIC235), we revealed that the activation of ErbB1 is required for TGF-α/HA-mediated migration and proliferation. These results suggest factors that may be incorporated into a tissue-engineered membrane or directly as topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations and hence reduce the need for a surgery. - Highlights: ► TGF-α, TGF-α/HA and TGF-α/IL-24 improved hTM keratinocyte migration and proliferation. ► TGF-α and/or HA maintained epithelial cell phenotype. ► TGF-α/HA-mediated migration and proliferation requires activation of ErbB1 receptor.

  17. Theory on the dynamic memory in the transcription-factor-mediated transcription activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, R.

    2011-04-01

    We develop a theory to explain the origin of the static and dynamical memory effects in transcription-factor-mediated transcription activation. Our results suggest that the following inequality conditions should be satisfied to observe such memory effects: (a) τL≫max(τR,τE), (b) τLT≫τT, and (c) τI⩾(τEL+τTR) where τL is the average time required for the looping-mediated spatial interactions of enhancer—transcription-factor complex with the corresponding promoter—RNA-polymerase or eukaryotic RNA polymerase type II (PolII in eukaryotes) complex that is located L base pairs away from the cis-acting element, (τR,τE) are respectively the search times required for the site-specific binding of the RNA polymerase and the transcription factor with the respective promoter and the cis-regulatory module, τLT is the time associated with the relaxation of the looped-out segment of DNA that connects the cis-acting site and promoter, τT is the time required to generate a complete transcript, τI is the transcription initiation time, τEL is the elongation time, and τTR is the termination time. We have theoretically derived the expressions for the various searching, looping, and loop-relaxation time components. Using the experimentally determined values of various time components we further show that the dynamical memory effects cannot be experimentally observed whenever the segment of DNA that connects the cis-regulatory element with the promoter is not loaded with bulky histone bodies. Our analysis suggests that the presence of histone-mediated compaction of the connecting segment of DNA can result in higher values of looping and loop-relaxation times, which is the origin of the static memory in the transcription activation that is mediated by the memory gene loops in eukaryotes.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor gene expression is mediated by protein kinase C following activation by ionizing radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Hallahan, D. E.; Virudachalam, S.; Sherman, M. L.; Huberman, E.; Kufe, D. W.; Weichselbaum, R. R.; Univ. of Chicago; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Univ. of Chicago

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production following X-irradiation has been implicated in the biological response to ionizing radiation. Protein kinase C (PKC) is suggested to participate in TNF transcriptional induction and X-ray-mediated gene expression. We therefore studied radiation-mediated TNF expression in HL-60 cells with diminished PKC activity produced by either pretreatment with protein kinase inhibitors or prolonged 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment. Both treatments resulted in attenuation of radiation-mediated TNF induction. Consistent with these results, we found no detectable induction of TNF expression following X-irradiation in the HL-60 variant deficient in PKC-mediated signal transduction. The rapid activation of PKC following {gamma}-irradiation was established using an in vitro assay measuring phosphorylation of a PKC specific substrate. A 4.5-fold increase in PKC activity occurred 15 to 30 s following irradiation, which declined to baseline at 60 s. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of phosphoproteins extracted from irradiated cells demonstrated in vivo phosphorylation of the PKC specific substrate Mr 80,000 protein at 45 s following X-irradiation. These findings indicate that signal transduction via the PKC pathway is required for the induction of TNF gene expression by ionizing radiation.

  19. B-1B excels in conventional role

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.B.

    1992-07-01

    A report is presented of an observational flight performed in a USAF B-1B to better understand the operational aspects of the aircraft's new conventional bombing mission as an integral element of a multiaircraft tactical strike package. The basic flight plan consisted of a standard takeoff and climb, cruising to the training area at 22,000 ft, descending for a 400 ft low-level run, making two simulated bomb drops, and climbing back to 25,000 ft for the return to base. Attention is given the new/enhanced avionics, the ALQ-161 defensive electronic warfare system and ripple-release Mk. 82 bombing procedures.

  20. Global gene profiling of aging lungs in Atp8b1 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Ramani; Stearns, Timothy M.; Czachor, Alexander; Fukumoto, Jutaro; Turn, Christina; Westermann-Clark, Emma; Breitzig, Mason; Tan, Lee; Lockey, Richard F.; King, Benjamin L.; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent studies implicate cardiolipin oxidation in several age-related diseases. Atp8b1 encoding Type 4 P-type ATPases is a cardiolipin transporter. Mutation in Atp8b1 gene or inflammation of the lungs impairs the capacity of Atp8b1 to clear cardiolipin from lung fluid. However, the link between Atp8b1 mutation and age-related gene alteration is unknown. Therefore, we investigated how Atp8b1 mutation alters age-related genes. Methods We performed Affymetrix gene profiling of lungs isolated from young (7-9 wks, n=6) and aged (14 months, 14 M, n=6) C57BL/6 and Atp8b1 mutant mice. In addition, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed. Differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results Global transcriptome analysis revealed 532 differentially expressed genes in Atp8b1 lungs, 157 differentially expressed genes in C57BL/6 lungs, and 37 overlapping genes. IPA of age-related genes in Atp8b1 lungs showed enrichment of Xenobiotic metabolism and Nrf2-mediated signaling pathways. The increase in Adamts2 and Mmp13 transcripts in aged Atp8b1 lungs was validated by qRT-PCR. Similarly, the decrease in Col1a1 and increase in Cxcr6 transcripts was confirmed in both Atp8b1 mutant and C57BL/6 lungs. Conclusion Based on transcriptome profiling, our study indicates that Atp8b1 mutant mice may be susceptible to age-related lung diseases. PMID:27689529

  1. Knockdown of ATP8B1 expression leads to specific downregulation of the bile acid sensor FXR in HepG2 cells: effect of the FXR agonist GW4064.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, Pilar; Hierro, Loreto; Jara, Paloma; Alvarez, Luis

    2009-05-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid-sensing nuclear receptor that controls bile acid homeostasis. It has been suggested that downregulation of FXR contributes to the pathogenesis of an inherited disorder of bile secretion caused by mutations in ATP8B1. We have investigated the relationship between ATP8B1 knockdown and FXR downregulation in the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2. Transfection of HepG2 cells with ATP8B1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes led to a 60% reduction in the endogenous levels of ATP8B1 mRNA and protein and a concomitant decrease in FXR mRNA and protein content, as well as in FXR phosphorylation. This decrease was accompanied by a marked reduction in mRNA levels of a subset of FXR targets, such as bile salt export pump (ABCB11), small heterodimer partner, and uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase. ATP8B1 inhibition specifically targeted FXR since mRNA expression of other prominent nuclear receptors, such as pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, or liver-enriched transcription factors, such as hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha (HNF-1alpha) and HNF-4alpha, was not altered. The expression of other key genes involved in bile acid synthesis, detoxification, and transport also remained unchanged upon ATP8B1 knockdown. Supporting the specificity of the effect, siRNA-mediated silencing of ABCB11, whose defect is associated with another inherited disorder of bile secretion, did not affect FXR expression. Treatment with the synthetic FXR agonist GW4064 was able to partially neutralize ATP8B1 siRNA-mediated FXR downregulation and fully counteract inhibition of FXR target genes. Collectively these findings indicate that ATP8B1 knockdown specifically downregulates FXR, and this action can be circumvented by treatment with FXR agonists.

  2. Psychosocial factors as mediators of food insecurity and weight status among middle school students.

    PubMed

    Willis, Don E; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M

    2016-08-01

    Research regarding the association between food insecurity and weight status among youth has produced mixed results. However, few studies on this topic have utilized data that includes survey responses from children themselves regarding their experience with food insecurity. This study was undertaken to examine the association between food insecurity and weight status among youth, as well as the potential mediation by psychosocial factors. A survey of 5th-7th grade students was administered to gather information on food insecurity, social and psychological resources, and health. The primary analysis includes OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) regression conducted using SPSS software and Sobel's test for mediation. Results suggest a positive association between food insecurity and weight status even when controlling for key demographic variables. In addition, we find that this association is mediated by psychosocial factors-namely, perceived social status and depression. Insights from this work highlight the need to consider non-nutritional pathways through which food insecurity impacts health as well the need to continue surveying youth directly when examining their experiences with food insecurity.

  3. Cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate basal and tumour necrosis factor-α-induced regulation of myosin light chain kinase gene activity

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dongmei; Ma, Thomas Y

    2008-01-01

    The patients with Crohn's disease (CD) have a ‘leaky gut’ manifested by an increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) permeability. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a proto-typical pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in intestinal inflammation of CD. An important pro-inflammatory action of TNF-α is to cause a functional opening of intestinal TJ barrier. Previous studies have shown that TNF-α increase in TJ permeability was regulated by an increase in myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) gene activity and protein expression. The major aim of this study was to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate basal and TNF-α-induced increase in MLCK gene activity. By progressive 5′ deletion, minimal MLCK promoter was localized between −313 to +118 on MLCK promoter. A p53 binding site located within minimal promoter region was identified as an essential determinant for basal promoter activity. A 4 bp start site and a 5 bp downstream promoter element were required for MLCK gene activity. TNF-α-induced increase in MLCK promoter activity was mediated by NF-κB activation. There were eight κB binding sites on MLCK promoter. The NF-κB1 site at +48 to +57 mediated TNF-α-induced increase in MLCK promoter activity. The NF-κB2 site at −325 to −316 had a repressive role on promoter activity. The opposite effects on promoter activity were due to differences in the NF-κB dimer type binding to the κB sites. p50/p65 dimer preferentially binds to the NF-κB1 site and up-regulates promoter activity; while p50/p50 dimer preferentially binds to the NF-κB2 site and down-regulates promoter activity. In conclusion, we have identified the minimal MLCK promoter region, essential molecular determinants and molecular mechanisms that mediate basal and TNF-α-induced modulation of MLCK promoter activity in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. These studies provide novel insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate

  4. Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 Genes Mediating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal Degradation and Virulence Factor Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S.; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 is able to degrade the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecules PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal) [2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone] and HHQ [2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone] to anthranilic acid. Based on the hypothesis that degradation of HHQ might involve hydroxylation to PQS followed by dioxygenolytic cleavage of the heterocyclic ring and hydrolysis of the resulting N-octanoylanthranilate, the genome was searched for corresponding candidate genes. Two gene clusters, aqdA1B1C1 and aqdA2B2C2, each predicted to code for a hydrolase, a flavin monooxygenase, and a dioxygenase related to 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase, were identified on circular plasmid pRLCBG43 of strain BG43. Transcription of all genes was upregulated by PQS, suggesting that both gene clusters code for alkylquinolone-specific catabolic enzymes. An aqdR gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, which was also inducible by PQS, is located adjacent to the aqdA2B2C2 cluster. Expression of aqdA2B2C2 in Escherichia coli conferred the ability to degrade HHQ and PQS to anthranilic acid; however, for E. coli transformed with aqdA1B1C1, only PQS degradation was observed. Purification of the recombinant AqdC1 protein verified that it catalyzes the cleavage of PQS to form N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide and revealed apparent Km and kcat values for PQS of ∼27 μM and 21 s−1, respectively. Heterologous expression of the PQS dioxygenase gene aqdC1 or aqdC2 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 quenched the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and rhamnolipid and reduced the synthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine. Thus, the toolbox of quorum-quenching enzymes is expanded by new PQS dioxygenases. PMID:26319870

  5. Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 Genes Mediating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal Degradation and Virulence Factor Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Fetzner, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 is able to degrade the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecules PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal) [2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone] and HHQ [2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone] to anthranilic acid. Based on the hypothesis that degradation of HHQ might involve hydroxylation to PQS followed by dioxygenolytic cleavage of the heterocyclic ring and hydrolysis of the resulting N-octanoylanthranilate, the genome was searched for corresponding candidate genes. Two gene clusters, aqdA1B1C1 and aqdA2B2C2, each predicted to code for a hydrolase, a flavin monooxygenase, and a dioxygenase related to 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase, were identified on circular plasmid pRLCBG43 of strain BG43. Transcription of all genes was upregulated by PQS, suggesting that both gene clusters code for alkylquinolone-specific catabolic enzymes. An aqdR gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, which was also inducible by PQS, is located adjacent to the aqdA2B2C2 cluster. Expression of aqdA2B2C2 in Escherichia coli conferred the ability to degrade HHQ and PQS to anthranilic acid; however, for E. coli transformed with aqdA1B1C1, only PQS degradation was observed. Purification of the recombinant AqdC1 protein verified that it catalyzes the cleavage of PQS to form N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide and revealed apparent Km and kcat values for PQS of ∼27 μM and 21 s(-1), respectively. Heterologous expression of the PQS dioxygenase gene aqdC1 or aqdC2 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 quenched the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and rhamnolipid and reduced the synthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine. Thus, the toolbox of quorum-quenching enzymes is expanded by new PQS dioxygenases. PMID:26319870

  6. B-1 AFT Nacelle Flow Visualization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celniker, Robert

    1975-01-01

    A 2-month program was conducted to perform engineering evaluation and design tasks to prepare for visualization and photography of the airflow along the aft portion of the B-1 nacelles and nozzles during flight test. Several methods of visualizing the flow were investigated and compared with respect to cost, impact of the device on the flow patterns, suitability for use in the flight environment, and operability throughout the flight. Data were based on a literature search and discussions with the test personnel. Tufts were selected as the flow visualization device in preference to several other devices studied. A tuft installation pattern has been prepared for the right-hand aft nacelle area of B-1 air vehicle No.2. Flight research programs to develop flow visualization devices other than tufts for use in future testing are recommended. A design study was conducted to select a suitable motion picture camera, to select the camera location, and to prepare engineering drawings sufficient to permit installation of the camera. Ten locations on the air vehicle were evaluated before the selection of the location in the horizontal stabilizer actuator fairing. The considerations included cost, camera angle, available volume, environmental control, flutter impact, and interference with antennas or other instrumentation.

  7. A small CD11b+ human B1 cell subpopulation stimulates T cells and is expanded in lupus

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Daniel O.

    2011-01-01

    A primary function of B lymphocytes is immunoglobulin production; however, the therapeutic benefit of B cell depletion in autoimmune diseases previously thought to be T cell mediated suggests that some B cells fulfill other roles in autoimmunity. We examined the recently identified human B1 cell population for T cell stimulatory activity. We found two kinds of B1 cells that are distinguished by multiple surface markers and distinct transcriptomic profiles. In both umbilical cord and adult peripheral blood, a CD11b+ subset constitutes ∼1 out of every 8–10 B1 cells, whereas a CD11b− subset constitutes the remaining B1 cells. These B1 cell populations differ functionally. CD11b− B1 cells spontaneously secrete much more IgM than CD11b+ B1 cells. In contrast, CD11b+ B1 cells express more CD86, and more efficiently stimulate allogeneic CD4+ T cell expansion, than CD11b− B1 cells. The frequency of these CD11b+ B1 cells is markedly elevated in lupus patients. CD11b+ B1 cells in lupus patients express more CD86 and have increased T cell–stimulating activity in disease. This work distinguishes a novel, T cell–interacting B1 cell population whose abundance and activity may be a reflection of, and a therapeutic target in, autoimmune disease. PMID:22110167

  8. Epidermal growth factor-mediated effects on equine vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grosenbaugh, D.A.; Amoss, M.S.; Hood, D.M.; Morgan, S.J.; Williams, J.D. )

    1988-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding kinetics and EGF-mediated stimulation of DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation were studied in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the equine thoracic aorta. Binding studies, using murine {sup 125}I-labeled EGF, indicate the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites, with an estimated maximal binding capacity of 5,800 sites/cells. EGF stimulated ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake in confluent quiescent monolayers in a dose-dependent fashion, half-maximal stimulation occurring at 7.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} M. Likewise, EGF-mediated cellular proliferation was dose dependent under reduced serum concentrations. Equine VSMC contain specific receptors for EGF, and EGF can stimulate DNA synthesis and proliferation in these cultured cells, which suggests that EGF may participate in the proliferative changes observed in equine distal digital peripheral vascular disease.

  9. Transforming growth factor-beta1 mediates cellular response to DNA damage in situ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewan, Kenneth B.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Arteaga, Carlos; Warters, Ray; Akhurst, Rosemary J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2002-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is rapidly activated after ionizing radiation, but its specific role in cellular responses to DNA damage is not known. Here we use Tgfbeta1 knockout mice to show that radiation-induced apoptotic response is TGF-beta1 dependent in the mammary epithelium, and that both apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in response to DNA damage decrease as a function of TGF-beta1 gene dose in embryonic epithelial tissues. Because apoptosis in these tissues has been shown previously to be p53 dependent, we then examined p53 protein activation. TGF-beta1 depletion, by either gene knockout or by using TGF-beta neutralizing antibodies, resulted in decreased p53 Ser-18 phosphorylation in irradiated mammary gland. These data indicate that TGF-beta1 is essential for rapid p53-mediated cellular responses that mediate cell fate decisions in situ.

  10. Close proximity to Igh is a contributing factor to AID-mediated translocations.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Pedro P; Micsinai, Mariann; Kim, JungHyun Rachel; Hewitt, Susannah L; Souza, Patricia P; Trimarchi, Thomas; Strino, Francesco; Parisi, Fabio; Kluger, Yuval; Skok, Jane A

    2012-09-28

    Class switch recombination (CSR) has the potential to generate genomic instability in B cells as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which mediates this process, is known to target many sites outside Igh. Nonetheless we do not fully understand what factors influence AID targeting genome-wide. Given that errors in CSR can lead to dangerous, oncogenic chromosomal translocations it is important to identify the elements that determine which genes are at risk of being "hit" and could be involved in aberrant rearrangements. Here we have investigated the influence of nuclear organization in determining "off-target" activity and the choice of fusion partners. Our studies indicate that the vast majority of known AID-mediated Igh translocation partners are found in chromosomal domains that contact this locus during class switching. Further, these interaction domains can be used to identify other genes that are hit by AID.

  11. T-helper cell-mediated factors in drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinzhi; Zhang, Luyong; Jiang, Zhenzhou

    2015-07-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) leads to a large burden on the healthcare system due to its potential morbidity and mortality. The key for predicting and preventing DILI is to understand the underlying mechanisms. Hepatic inflammation is one of the most common features of DILI. The inflammation can be attributed to the innate immune response. The adaptive immune system is also affected by the innate immune response resulting in liver damage. T-helper cells are important regulators of acquired immunity. T-helper cell-mediated immune responses play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver disorders. This review summarizes recent advances in the T-helper cell-mediated factors in DILI and potential mechanisms, which may lead to a better understanding of DILI. PMID:25752261

  12. Protective effects of silymarin on fumonisin B1-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Devrim, Alparslan Kadir; Tunca, Recai; Bayezit, Murat; Dag, Serpil; Essiz, Dinc

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of silymarin on experimental liver toxication induced by Fumonisin B1 (FB1) in BALB/c mice. The mice were divided into six groups (n = 15). Group 1 served as the control. Group 2 was the silymarin control (100 mg/kg by gavage). Groups 3 and 4 were treated with FB1 (Group 3, 1.5 mg/kg FB1, intraperitoneally; and Group 4, 4.5 mg/kg FB1). Group 5 received FB1 (1.5 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg), and Group 6 was given a higher dose of FB1 (4.5 mg/kg FB1) with silymarin (100 mg/kg). Silymarin treatment significantly decreased (p < 0.0001) the apoptotic rate. FB1 administration significantly increased (p < 0.0001) proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 expression. Furthermore, FB1 elevated the levels of caspase-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediators while silymarin significantly reduced (p < 0.0001) the expression of these factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expressions were significantly elevated in Group 4 (p < 0.0001). Silymarin administration alleviated increased VEGF and FGF-2 expression levels (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, silymarin ameliorated toxic liver damage caused by FB1 in BALB/c mice. PMID:24136215

  13. SLCO1B1 Polymorphisms and Statin-Induced Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Statin drugs are highly effective in lowering blood concentrations of LDL-cholesterol, with concomitant reduction in risk of major cardiovascular events. Although statins are generally regarded as safe and well-tolerated, some users develop muscle symptoms that are mostly mild but in rare cases can lead to life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. The SEARCH genome-wide association study, which has been independently replicated, found a significant association between the rs4149056 (c.521T>C) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the SLCO1B1 gene, and myopathy in individuals taking 80 mg simvastatin per day, with an odds ratio of 4.5 per rs4149056 C allele. The purpose of this paper is to assemble evidence relating to the analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility of using SLCO1B1 rs4149056 genotyping to inform choice and dose of statin treatment, with the aim of minimising statin-induced myopathy and increasing adherence to therapy. Genotyping assays for the rs4149056 SNP appear to be robust and accurate, though direct evidence for the performance of array-based platforms in genotyping individual SNPs was not found. Using data from the SEARCH study, calculated values for the clinical sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values of a test for the C allele to predict definite or incipient myopathy during 5 years of 80 mg/day simvastatin use were 70.4%, 73.7%, 4.1% and 99.4% respectively. There is a need for studies comparing the clinical validity of SLCO1B1 rs4149056 genotyping with risk scores for myopathy based on other factors such as racial background, statin type and dose, gender, body mass index, co-medications and co-morbidities. No direct evidence was found for clinical utility of statin prescription guided by SLCO1B1 genotype. PMID:24459608

  14. Role of paracrine factors in stem and progenitor cell mediated cardiac repair and tissue fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Burchfield, Jana S; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2008-01-01

    A new era has begun in the treatment of ischemic disease and heart failure. With the discovery that stem cells from diverse organs and tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord blood, and vessel wall, have the potential to improve cardiac function beyond that of conventional pharmacological therapy comes a new field of research aiming at understanding the precise mechanisms of stem cell-mediated cardiac repair. Not only will it be important to determine the most efficacious cell population for cardiac repair, but also whether overlapping, common mechanisms exist. Increasing evidence suggests that one mechanism of action by which cells provide tissue protection and repair may involve paracrine factors, including cytokines and growth factors, released from transplanted stem cells into the surrounding tissue. These paracrine factors have the potential to directly modify the healing process in the heart, including neovascularization, cardiac myocyte apoptosis, inflammation, fibrosis, contractility, bioenergetics, and endogenous repair. PMID:19014650

  15. Inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α suppresses neuroprotective endogenous erythropoietin from astrocytes mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-2α.

    PubMed

    Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Tamura, Tetsuya; Kakita, Hiroki; Kato, Shin; Hida, Hideki; Saitoh, Shinji; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2014-12-01

    Interest in erythropoietin (EPO) as a neuroprotective mediator has grown since it was found that systemically administered EPO is protective in several animal models of disease. However, given that the blood-brain barrier limits EPO entry into the brain, alternative approaches that induce endogenous EPO production in the brain may be more effective clinically and associated with fewer untoward side-effects. Astrocytes are the main source of EPO in the central nervous system. In the present study we investigated the effect of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) on hypoxia-induced upregulation of EPO in rat brain. Hypoxia significantly increased EPO mRNA expression in the brain and kidney, and this increase was suppressed by TNFα in vivo. In cultured astrocytes exposed to hypoxic conditions for 6 and 12 h, TNFα suppressed the hypoxia-induced increase in EPO mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. TNFα inhibition of hypoxia-induced EPO expression was mediated primarily by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α rather than HIF-1α. The effects of TNFα in reducing hypoxia-induced upregulation of EPO mRNA expression probably involve destabilization of HIF-2α, which is regulated by the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. TNFα treatment attenuated the protective effects of astrocytes on neurons under hypoxic conditions via EPO signaling. The effective blockade of TNFα signaling may contribute to the maintenance of the neuroprotective effects of EPO even under hypoxic conditions with an inflammatory response. PMID:25283246

  16. Delta-short consensus repeat 4-decay accelerating factor (DAF: CD55) inhibits complement-mediated cytolysis but not NK cell-mediated cytolysis.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Shuji; Kubo, Tomoko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Kusama, Tamiko; Beppu, Keiko; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Moritan, Toshiyuki; Ahn, Curie; Kim, Jae Young; Fukuta, Daisuke; Shirakura, Ryota

    2004-09-15

    NK cells play a critical role in the rejection of xenografts. In this study, we report on an investigation of the effect of complement regulatory protein, a decay accelerating factor (DAF: CD55), in particular, on NK cell-mediated cytolysis. Amelioration of human NK cell-mediated pig endothelial cell (PEC) and pig fibroblast cell lyses by various deletion mutants and point substitutions of DAF was tested, and compared with their complement regulatory function. Although wild-type DAF and the delta-short consensus repeat (SCR) 1-DAF showed clear inhibition of both complement-mediated and NK-mediated PEC lyses, delta-SCR2-DAF and delta-SCR3-DAF failed to suppress either process. However, delta-SCR4-DAF showed a clear complement regulatory effect, but had no effect on NK cells. Conversely, the point substitution of DAF (L147 x F148 to SS and KKK(125-127) to TTT) was half down-regulated in complement inhibitory function, but the inhibition of NK-mediated PEC lysis remained unchanged. Other complement regulatory proteins, such as the cell membrane-bound form factor H, fH-PI, and C1-inactivator, C1-INH-PI, and CD59 were also assessed, but no suppressive effect on NK cell-mediated PEC lysis was found. These data suggest, for DAF to function on NK cells, SCR2-4 is required but no relation to its complement regulatory function exists.

  17. Characterization of ursodeoxycholic and norursodeoxycholic acid as substrates of the hepatic uptake transporters OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 and NTCP.

    PubMed

    König, Jörg; Klatt, Sabine; Dilger, Karin; Fromm, Martin F

    2012-08-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only approved treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis, and norursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA) is currently tested in clinical trials for future treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis because of beneficial effects in cholestatic Mdr2 knock-out mice. Uptake of UDCA and norUDCA into hepatocytes is believed to be a prerequisite for subsequent metabolism and therapeutic action. However, the molecular determinants of hepatocellular uptake of UDCA and norUDCA are poorly understood. We therefore investigated whether UDCA and norUDCA are substrates of the hepatic uptake transporters OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 and Na(+) -taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), which are localized in the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. Uptake of [(3) H]UDCA and [(14) C]norUDCA into Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells stably expressing OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 or NTCP was investigated and compared with uptake into vector control cells. Uptake ratios were calculated by dividing uptake into transporter-transfected cells by uptake into respective control cells. Uptake ratios of OATP1B1-, OATP1B3- and OATP2B1-mediated UDCA and norUDCA uptake were at maximum 1.23 and 1.49, respectively. Uptake of UDCA was significantly higher into HEK-NTCP cells only at the lowest tested concentration (1 μM, p < 0.001) compared with the control cells with an uptake ratio of 1.34-fold. NorUDCA was not significantly transported by NTCP. The low uptake rates suggest that OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 and NTCP are not relevant for hepatocellular uptake and effects of UDCA and norUDCA in human beings.

  18. Phylogeography of E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup and analysis of its subclades in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Reguig, Ahmed; Harich, Nourdin; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Rouba, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyzed 295 unrelated Berber-speaking men from northern, central, and southern Morocco to characterize frequency of the E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup and to refine the phylogeny of its subclades: E1b1b1b1-M107, E1b1b1b2-M183, and E1b1b1b2a-M165. For this purpose, we typed four biallelic polymorphisms: M81, M107, M183, and M165. A large majority of the Berber-speaking male lineages belonged to the Y-chromosomal E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup. The frequency ranged from 79.1% to 98.5% in all localities sampled. E1b1b1b2-M183 was the most dominant subclade in our samples, ranging from 65.1% to 83.1%. In contrast, the E1b1b1b1-M107 and E1b1b1b2a-M165 subclades were not found in our samples. Our results suggest a predominance of the E1b1b1b-M81 haplogroup among Moroccan Berber-speaking males with a decreasing gradient from south to north. The most prevalent subclade in this haplogroup was E1b1b1b2-M183, for which diffferences among these three groups were statistically significant between central and southern groups. PMID:25397701

  19. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Hanford 118-B-1 Burial Ground Treatability Study has been required by milestone change request {number_sign}M-15-93-04, dated September 30, 1993. The change request requires that a treatability test be conducted at the 100-B Area to obtain additional engineering information for remedial design of burial grounds receiving waste from 100 Area removal actions. This treatability study has two purposes: (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan (PP) and Record of Decision (ROD), which will identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test also will provide critical performance and cost information necessary for remedy evaluation in the detailed analysis of alternatives during preparation of the focused feasibility study (FFS). This treatability testing supports the following 100 Area alternatives: (1) excavation and disposal, and (2) excavation, sorting, (treatment), and disposal.

  20. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel.

  1. The Pho4 transcription factor mediates the response to arsenate and arsenite in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Urrialde, Verónica; Prieto, Daniel; Pla, Jesús; Alonso-Monge, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Arsenate (As (V)) is the dominant form of the toxic metalloid arsenic (As). Microorganisms have consequently developed mechanisms to detoxify and tolerate this kind of compounds. In the present work, we have explored the arsenate sensing and signaling mechanisms in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Although mutants impaired in the Hog1 or Mkc1-mediated pathways did not show significant sensitivity to this compound, both Hog1 and Mkc1 became phosphorylated upon addition of sodium arsenate to growing cells. Hog1 phosphorylation upon arsenate challenge was shown to be Ssk1-dependent. A screening designed for the identification of transcription factors involved in the arsenate response identified Pho4, a transcription factor of the myc-family, as pho4 mutants were susceptible to As (V). The expression of PHO4 was shortly induced in the presence of sodium arsenate in a Hog1-independent manner. Pho4 level affects Hog1 phosphorylation upon As (V) challenge, suggesting an indirect relationship between Pho4 activity and signaling in C. albicans. Pho4 also mediates the response to arsenite as revealed by the fact that pho4 defective mutants are sensitive to arsenite and Pho4 becomes phosphorylated upon sodium arsenite addition. Arsenite also triggers Hog1 phosphorylation by a process that is, in this case, independent of the Ssk1 kinase. These results indicate that the HOG pathway mediates the response to arsenate and arsenite in C. albicans and that the Pho4 transcription factor can differentiate among As (III), As (V) and Pi, triggering presumably specific responses. PMID:25717325

  2. The Pho4 transcription factor mediates the response to arsenate and arsenite in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Urrialde, Verónica; Prieto, Daniel; Pla, Jesús; Alonso-Monge, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Arsenate (As (V)) is the dominant form of the toxic metalloid arsenic (As). Microorganisms have consequently developed mechanisms to detoxify and tolerate this kind of compounds. In the present work, we have explored the arsenate sensing and signaling mechanisms in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Although mutants impaired in the Hog1 or Mkc1-mediated pathways did not show significant sensitivity to this compound, both Hog1 and Mkc1 became phosphorylated upon addition of sodium arsenate to growing cells. Hog1 phosphorylation upon arsenate challenge was shown to be Ssk1-dependent. A screening designed for the identification of transcription factors involved in the arsenate response identified Pho4, a transcription factor of the myc-family, as pho4 mutants were susceptible to As (V). The expression of PHO4 was shortly induced in the presence of sodium arsenate in a Hog1-independent manner. Pho4 level affects Hog1 phosphorylation upon As (V) challenge, suggesting an indirect relationship between Pho4 activity and signaling in C. albicans. Pho4 also mediates the response to arsenite as revealed by the fact that pho4 defective mutants are sensitive to arsenite and Pho4 becomes phosphorylated upon sodium arsenite addition. Arsenite also triggers Hog1 phosphorylation by a process that is, in this case, independent of the Ssk1 kinase. These results indicate that the HOG pathway mediates the response to arsenate and arsenite in C. albicans and that the Pho4 transcription factor can differentiate among As (III), As (V) and Pi, triggering presumably specific responses. PMID:25717325

  3. Apoptotic extinction of germ cells in testes of Cyp26b1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Glenn; Li, Hui; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Petkovich, Martin

    2007-10-01

    Cyp26b1 encodes a retinoic acid (RA) metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme that is expressed in embryonic tissues undergoing morphogenesis, including the testes. We have generated transgenic mice lacking Cyp26b1 and have observed increased RA levels in embryonic testes. Cyp26b1(-/-) germ cells prematurely enter meiosis at embryonic d 13.5 and appear to arrest at pachytene stage. Furthermore, after embryonic d 13.5, a rapid increase in apoptosis is observed in male germ cells derived from Cyp26b1(-/-) embryos; germ cells are essentially absent in mutant male neonates. In contrast, testicular somatic cells appear to develop normally in the absence of Cyp26b1. Moreover, ovarian germ and somatic cells appear unaffected by the lack of CYP26B1. We also show that the synthetic retinoid Am580, which is resistant to CYP26 metabolism, induces meiosis of male germ cells in cultured gonads, suggesting that abnormal development of germ cells in the Cyp26b1(-/-) testes results from excess RA rather than the absence of CYP26B1-generated metabolites of RA. These results provide evidence that CYP26B1 maintains low levels of RA in the developing testes that blocks entry into meiosis and acts as a survival factor to prevent apoptosis of male germ cells.

  4. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha) in leishmaniasis. I. TNF alpha mediates host protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Liew, F Y; Parkinson, C; Millott, S; Severn, A; Carrier, M

    1990-01-01

    Genetically resistant CBA mice developed significantly larger lesions to Leishmania major infection when they were injected with rabbit anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-specific antibodies compared to control mice injected with normal rabbit immunoglobulin. BALB/c mice recovered from a previous infection following prophylactic sublethal irradiation also developed exacerbated lesions when treated with the anti-TNF antibody. Injection of TNF into the lesion of infected CBA mice significantly reduced the lesion development. Furthermore, TNF activates macrophages to kill Leishmania in vitro. These data demonstrate that TNF plays an important role in mediating host-protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:2335376

  5. Cinnamtannin B-1 Promotes Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Accelerates Wound Healing in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kosuke; Kuge, Katsunori; Ozawa, Noriyasu; Sahara, Shunya; Zaiki, Kaori; Nakaoji, Koichi; Hamada, Kazuhiko; Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Maeda, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Substances that enhance the migration of mesenchymal stem cells to damaged sites have the potential to improve the effectiveness of tissue repair. We previously found that ethanol extracts of Mallotus philippinensis bark promoted migration of mesenchymal stem cells and improved wound healing in a mouse model. We also demonstrated that bark extracts contain cinnamtannin B-1, a flavonoid with in vitro migratory activity against mesenchymal stem cells. However, the in vivo effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells and underlying mechanism of this action remain unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on in vivo migration of mesenchymal stem cells and wound healing in mice. In addition, we characterized cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells pharmacologically and structurally. The mobilization of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells into the blood circulation was enhanced in cinnamtannin B-1-treated mice as shown by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cells. Whole animal imaging analysis using luciferase-expressing mesenchymal stem cells as a tracer revealed that cinnamtannin B-1 increased the homing of mesenchymal stem cells to wounds and accelerated healing in a diabetic mouse model. Additionally, the cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells was pharmacologically susceptible to inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, lipoxygenase, and purines. Furthermore, biflavonoids with similar structural features to cinnamtannin B-1 also augmented the migration of mesenchymal stem cells by similar pharmacological mechanisms. These results demonstrate that cinnamtannin B-1 promoted mesenchymal stem cell migration in vivo and improved wound healing in mice. Furthermore, the results reveal that cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells may be mediated by specific signaling pathways, and the flavonoid skeleton may be relevant to its effects on

  6. Cinnamtannin B-1 Promotes Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Accelerates Wound Healing in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kosuke; Kuge, Katsunori; Ozawa, Noriyasu; Sahara, Shunya; Zaiki, Kaori; Nakaoji, Koichi; Hamada, Kazuhiko; Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Maeda, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Substances that enhance the migration of mesenchymal stem cells to damaged sites have the potential to improve the effectiveness of tissue repair. We previously found that ethanol extracts of Mallotus philippinensis bark promoted migration of mesenchymal stem cells and improved wound healing in a mouse model. We also demonstrated that bark extracts contain cinnamtannin B-1, a flavonoid with in vitro migratory activity against mesenchymal stem cells. However, the in vivo effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells and underlying mechanism of this action remain unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on in vivo migration of mesenchymal stem cells and wound healing in mice. In addition, we characterized cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells pharmacologically and structurally. The mobilization of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells into the blood circulation was enhanced in cinnamtannin B-1-treated mice as shown by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cells. Whole animal imaging analysis using luciferase-expressing mesenchymal stem cells as a tracer revealed that cinnamtannin B-1 increased the homing of mesenchymal stem cells to wounds and accelerated healing in a diabetic mouse model. Additionally, the cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells was pharmacologically susceptible to inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, lipoxygenase, and purines. Furthermore, biflavonoids with similar structural features to cinnamtannin B-1 also augmented the migration of mesenchymal stem cells by similar pharmacological mechanisms. These results demonstrate that cinnamtannin B-1 promoted mesenchymal stem cell migration in vivo and improved wound healing in mice. Furthermore, the results reveal that cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells may be mediated by specific signaling pathways, and the flavonoid skeleton may be relevant to its effects on

  7. Role of transmembrane domain 10 for the function of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Chunshan; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The liver-specific organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 are highly homologous and share numerous substrates. However, at low concentrations OATP1B1 shows substrate selectivity for estrone-3-sulfate. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism for this substrate selectivity of OATP1B1 by constructing OATP1B1/1B3 chimeric transporters and by site-directed mutagenesis. Functional studies of chimeras showed that transmembrane domain 10 is critical for the function of OATP1B1. We further identified four amino acid residues, namely L545, F546, L550, and S554 in TM10, whose simultaneous mutation caused almost complete loss of OATP1B1-mediated estrone-3-sulfate transport. Comparison of the kinetics of estrone-3-sulfate transport confirmed a biphasic pattern for OATP1B1, but showed a monophasic pattern for the quadruple mutant L545S/F546L/L550T/S554T. This mutant also showed reduced transport for other OATP1B1 substrates such as bromosulfophthalein and [d-penicillamine2,5]enkephalin. Helical wheel analysis and molecular modeling suggest that L545 is facing the substrate translocation pathway, whereas F546, L550, and S554 are located inside the protein. These results indicate that L545 might contribute to OATP1B1 function by interacting with substrates, whereas F546, L550, and S554 seem important for protein structure. In conclusion, our results show that TM10 is critical for the function of OATP1B1. PMID:19760661

  8. Helix-loop-helix transcription factors mediate activation and repression of the p75LNGFR gene.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaramello, A; Neuman, K; Palm, K; Metsis, M; Neuman, T

    1995-01-01

    Sequence analysis of rat and human low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor p75LNGFR gene promoter regions revealed a single E-box cis-acting element, located upstream of the major transcription start sites. Deletion analysis of the E-box sequence demonstrated that it significantly contributes to p75LNGFR promoter activity. This E box has a dual function; it mediates either activation or repression of the p75LNGFR promoter activity, depending on the interacting transcription factors. We showed that the two isoforms of the class A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor ME1 (ME1a and ME1b), the murine homolog of the human HEB transcription factor, specifically repress p75LNGFR promoter activity. This repression can be released by coexpression of the HLH Id2 transcriptional regulator. In vitro analyses demonstrated that ME1a forms a stable complex with the p75LNGFR E box and likely competes with activating E-box-binding proteins. By using ME1a-overexpressing PC12 cells, we showed that the endogenous p75LNGFR gene is a target of ME1a repression. Together, these data demonstrate that the p75LNGFR E box and the interacting bHLH transcription factors are involved in the regulation of p75LNGFR gene expression. These results also show that class A bHLH transcription factors can repress and Id-like negative regulators can stimulate gene expression. PMID:7565756

  9. Advanced glycation end-products: modifiable environmental factors profoundly mediate insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ottum, Mona S.; Mistry, Anahita M.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products are toxic by-products of metabolism and are also acquired from high-temperature processed foods. They promote oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and nucleotides. Aging and chronic diseases are strongly associated with markers for oxidative stress, especially advanced glycation end-products, and resistance to peripheral insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Modifiable environmental factors including high levels of refined and simple carbohydrate diets, hypercaloric diets and sedentary lifestyles drive endogenous formation of advanced glycation end-products via accumulation of highly reactive glycolysis intermediates and activation of the polyol/aldose reductase pathway producing high intracellular fructose. High advanced glycation end-products overwhelm innate defenses of enzymes and receptor-mediated endocytosis and promote cell damage via the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Oxidative stress disturbs cell signal transduction, especially insulin-mediated metabolic responses. Here we review emerging evidence that restriction of dietary advanced glycation end-products significantly reduces total systemic load and insulin resistance in animals and humans in diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, healthy populations and dementia. Of clinical importance, this insulin sensitizing effect is independent of physical activity, caloric intake and adiposity level. PMID:26236094

  10. Potentiated endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated dilations in cerebral arteries following mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Golding, E M; You, J; Robertson, C S; Bryan, R M

    2001-07-01

    Evidence in the literature suggests that endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) may act in a compensatory manner such that during conditions of compromised nitric oxide (NO), EDHF serves as a back-up mechanism. Given that constitutive NO synthase is chronically downregulated after head trauma, we tested the hypothesis that EDHF is potentiated following injury. Male adult rats were subjected to either sham injury (n = 27) or mild controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury (n = 26). Branches of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) directly within the contusion site were harvested either 1 or 24 h later, pressurized to 60 mm Hg in a vessel chamber and allowed to develop spontaneous tone. Relaxation to luminal application of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was similar in all groups. Relaxation to ATP in the presence of L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) and indomethacin was similar in all groups except for vessels isolated at 24 h following mild CCI injury. In this case, L-NAME and indomethacin had no effect on the ATP-mediated dilation. The ATP-mediated dilation in L-NAME and indomethacin-treated MCA branches was inhibited by charybdotoxin, an inhibitor of large conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels. These findings suggest that there is a significant potentiation of the EDHF-mediated dilation to ATP in cerebral arteries isolated at 24 h following mild CCI injury.

  11. Effect of vitamin B1 and mixtures of B1 with other vitamins on cytostatic efficiency of sanazole under irradiation. A study in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Edith; Getoff, Nikola

    2003-06-01

    Experiments in vitro, using bacteria Escherichia coli (AB 1157) as a biological model, showed that the cytostatic efficiency of sanazole (AK-2123, a nitrotriazole-type radiosensitizer) in radiation treatment can be strongly influenced by the presence of various vitamins. In airfree media the sanazole action is increased by a factor of 2.5 in the presence of vitamin (vit.) B1, vit. C E-acetate and β-carotene, whereas vit. B1 used individually possesses a 2.7-times higher cytostatic activity than sanazole itself. In media containing air the highest increase of sanazole action is observed in the presence of vit. B1 and C, whereas the individual use of vit. B1 shows a radiation protection effect. In media saturated with N 2O the addition of the vit. B1 and C causes a 1.8-times larger sanazole activity, but the application of vit. B1 alone brings about a very high radiation protection. From studies of vit. B1-radiolysis it can be concluded that OH radicals are the major primary transients leading to substrate degradation. The results are of interest for the radiation therapy of cancer.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor regulates NMDA receptor-mediated airway smooth muscle contractile function and airway responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Anaparti, Vidyanand; Pascoe, Christopher D; Jha, Aruni; Mahood, Thomas H; Ilarraza, Ramses; Unruh, Helmut; Moqbel, Redwan; Halayko, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    We have shown that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs) are receptor-operated calcium entry channels in human airway smooth muscle (HASM) during contraction. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) augments smooth muscle contractility by influencing pathways that regulate intracellular calcium flux and can alter NMDA-R expression and activity in cortical neurons and glial cells. We hypothesized that NMDA-R-mediated Ca(2+) and contractile responses of ASM can be altered by inflammatory mediators, including TNF. In cultured HASM cells, we assessed TNF (10 ng/ml, 48 h) effect on NMDA-R subunit abundance by quantitative PCR, confocal imaging, and immunoblotting. We observed dose- and time-dependent changes in NMDA-R composition: increased obligatory NR1 subunit expression and altered regulatory NR2 and inhibitory NR3 subunits. Measuring intracellular Ca(2+) flux in Fura-2-loaded HASM cultures, we observed that TNF exposure enhanced cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization and changed the temporal pattern of Ca(2+) flux in individual myocytes induced by NMDA, an NMDA-R selective analog of glutamate. We measured airway responses to NMDA in murine thin-cut lung slices (TCLS) from allergen-naive animals and observed significant airway contraction. However, NMDA acted as a bronchodilator in TCLS from house dust mice-challenged mice and in allergen-naive TCLS subjected to TNF exposure. All contractile or bronchodilator responses were blocked by a selective NMDA-R antagonist, (2R)-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate, and bronchodilator responses were prevented by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) or indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor). Collectively, we show that TNF augments NMDA-R-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization in HASM cells, whereas in multicellular TCLSs allergic inflammation and TNF exposure leads to NMDA-R-mediated bronchodilation. These findings reveal the unique contribution of ionotrophic NMDA-R to airway hyperreactivity.

  13. NFIB-Mediated Repression of the Epigenetic Factor Ezh2 Regulates Cortical Development

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Guy; Harvey, Tracey J.; McLeay, Robert; Smith, Aaron G.; Harris, Lachlan; Mason, Sharon; Stringer, Brett W.; Day, Bryan W.; Wray, Naomi R.; Gronostajski, Richard M.; Bailey, Timothy L.; Boyd, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are essential in regulating neural progenitor cell self-renewal, with the chromatin-modifying protein Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) emerging as a central player in promoting progenitor cell self-renewal during cortical development. Despite this, how Ezh2 is itself regulated remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor nuclear factor IB (NFIB) plays a key role in this process. Nfib−/− mice exhibit an increased number of proliferative ventricular zone cells that express progenitor cell markers and upregulation of EZH2 expression within the neocortex and hippocampus. NFIB binds to the Ezh2 promoter and overexpression of NFIB represses Ezh2 transcription. Finally, key downstream targets of EZH2-mediated epigenetic repression are misregulated in Nfib−/− mice. Collectively, these results suggest that the downregulation of Ezh2 transcription by NFIB is an important component of the process of neural progenitor cell differentiation during cortical development. PMID:24553933

  14. Social-cognitive factors mediating intervention effects on handwashing: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Contzen, Nadja; Inauen, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Handwashing with soap effectively prevents diarrhoea, a leading cause of death in infants. Theory-based interventions are expected to promote handwashing more successfully than standard approaches. The present article investigates the underlying change processes of theory-based handwashing interventions. A nonrandomised field study compared a standard approach to two theory-based interventions that were tailored to the target population, the inhabitants of four villages in southern Ethiopia (N = 408). Data were collected before and after interventions by structured interviews and analysed by mediation analysis. In comparison to the standard approach (i.e., education only), education with public commitment and reminder was slightly more effective in changing social-cognitive factors and handwashing. Education with an infrastructure promotion and reminder was most effective in promoting handwashing through enhancing social-cognitive factors. The results confirm the relevance of testing interventions' underlying change processes.

  15. P2y receptor-mediated angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Rumjahn, Sharif M; Baldwin, Karla A; Buxton, Iain L O

    2007-01-01

    Pathological as well as physiological angiogenesis is known to be regulated by such factors as nucleotides and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Activated P2Y nucleotide receptors have been observed to associate and transactivate VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2), suggesting a cooperation between nucleotide and VEGF signaling in angiogenesis. P2YR mediated VEGFR2 signaling therefore may be important in describing the angiogenic signaling of nucleotides such as ATP. Here, we provide evidence that supports the notion of P2YR-VEGFR2 signaling. The significant angiogenic effect of P2Y1/2 receptor agonists (100 microM ATP and 10 microM 2MS-ATP) on endothelial cell tubulogenesis was suppressed back to near control levels upon addition of 1 microM SU1498 (specific VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor). We believe that this P2YR-VEFGR2 signaling is an important component of pathological, as well as physiological angiogenesis.

  16. In vivo Metabolism of Hydrolyzed Fumonisin B1 and Fumonisin B1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most prevalent fumonisin mycotoxin found in corn and corn-based foods. It inhibits ceramide synthase, disrupts sphingolipid metabolism and function, is toxic to animals, causes cancer in rodents, and induces neural tube defects in some mouse strains. Its human health effect...

  17. Mediation of wound-related Rous sarcoma virus tumorigenesis by TFG (transforming growth factor)-. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Sieweke, M.H.; Bissell, M.J. ); Thompson, N.L.; Sporn, M.B. )

    1990-06-29

    In Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)-infected chickens, wounding leads to tumor formation with nearly 100% frequency in tissues that would otherwise remain tumor-free. Identifying molecular mediators of this phenomenon should yield important clues to the mechanisms involved in RSV tumorigenesis. Immunohistochemical staining showed that TGF-{beta} is present locally shortly after wounding, but not in unwounded controls. In addition, subcutaneous administration of recombinant transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) could substitute completely for wounding in tumor induction. A treatment protocol of four doses of 800 nanograms of TGF-{beta} resulted in v-src-expressing tumors with 100% frequency; four doses of only 10 nanograms still led to tumor formation in 80% of the animals. This effect was specific, as other growth factors with suggested roles in would healing did not elicit the same response. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) or TGF-{alpha} had no effect, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) yielded only occasional tumors after longer latency. TGF-{beta} release during the would-healing response may thus be a critical event that creates a conducive environment for RSV tumorigenesis and may act as a cofactor for transformation in this system. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Insulin-like 3-induced rat preantral follicular growth is mediated by growth differentiation factor 9.

    PubMed

    Xue, Kai; Kim, Ji Young; Liu, Jia-yin; Tsang, Benjamin K

    2014-01-01

    The communication of somatic cells and oocytes by intrafollicular paracrine factors is essential for follicular growth in the ovary. Insulin-like 3 (INSL3) is a theca cell-secreted paracrine factor. Androgens and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), an oocyte-derived growth factor, are essential for follicular development. Using a rat preantral follicle culture model, we examined in the present study the influence of INSL3 on preantral follicular growth and the molecular mechanisms involved. We have observed that the receptor for INSL3, relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), was exclusively expressed in oocytes. Recombinant INSL3 stimulated Gdf9 expression, preantral follicular growth, and testosterone synthesis in vitro. Inhibition of the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway (with cAMP antagonist, 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer) attenuated INSL3-induced Gdf9 expression and preantral follicular growth. Moreover, knocking down Gdf9 expression (with small interfering RNA) or inhibiting GDF9 signaling (with SB431542, an activin receptor-like kinase receptor 5 inhibitor, or specific inhibitor of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3) or androgen action (with flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist) suppressed INSL3-induced preantral follicular growth. In addition, LH and DHT regulated the expression of Insl3 mRNA in preantral follicles. These observations suggest that INSL3 is a key theca cell-derived growth factor for preantral follicle and that its action is mediated by GDF9.

  19. Inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export of transcription factors by leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Akiko; Sarma, Nayan J; Abdul-Nabi, Anmaar M; Yaseen, Nabeel R

    2010-05-21

    NUP98 is a nucleoporin that plays complex roles in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of macromolecules. Rearrangements of the NUP98 gene in human leukemia result in the expression of numerous fusion oncoproteins whose effect on nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins on CRM1-mediated nuclear export. NUP98-HOXA9, a prototypic NUP98 fusion, inhibited the nuclear export of two known CRM1 substrates: mutated cytoplasmic nucleophosmin and HIV-1 Rev. In vitro binding assays revealed that NUP98-HOXA9 binds CRM1 through the FG repeat motif in a Ran-GTP-dependent manner similar to but stronger than the interaction between CRM1 and its export substrates. Two NUP98 fusions, NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10, whose fusion partners are structurally and functionally unrelated, interacted with endogenous CRM1 in myeloid cells as shown by co-immunoprecipitation. These leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins interacted with CRM1, Ran, and the nucleoporin NUP214 in a manner fundamentally different from that of wild-type NUP98. NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10 formed characteristic aggregates within the nuclei of a myeloid cell line and primary human CD34+ cells and caused aberrant localization of CRM1 to these aggregates. These NUP98 fusions caused nuclear accumulation of two transcription factors, NFAT and NFkappaB, that are regulated by CRM1-mediated export. The nuclear entrapment of NFAT and NFkappaB correlated with enhanced transcription from promoters responsive to these transcription factors. Taken together, the results suggest a new mechanism by which NUP98 fusions dysregulate transcription and cause leukemia, namely, inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export with aberrant nuclear retention of transcriptional regulators.

  20. Stromal inhibition of prostatic epithelial cell proliferation not mediated by transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed Central

    Kooistra, A.; van den Eijnden-van Raaij, A. J.; Klaij, I. A.; Romijn, J. C.; Schröder, F. H.

    1995-01-01

    The paracrine influence of prostatic stroma on the proliferation of prostatic epithelial cells was investigated. Stromal cells from the human prostate have previously been shown to inhibit anchorage-dependent as well as anchorage-independent growth of the prostatic tumour epithelial cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. Antiproliferative activity, mediated by a diffusible factor in the stromal cell conditioned medium, was found to be produced specifically by prostatic stromal cells. In the present study the characteristics of this factor were examined. It is demonstrated that prostate stroma-derived inhibiting factor is an acid- and heat-labile, dithiothreitol-sensitive protein. Although some similarities with type beta transforming growth factor (TGF-beta)-like inhibitors are apparent, evidence is presented that the factor is not identical to TGF-beta or to the TGF-beta-like factors activin and inhibin. Absence of TGF-beta activity was shown by the lack of inhibitory response of the TGF-beta-sensitive mink lung cell line CCL-64 to prostate stromal cell conditioned medium and to concentrated, partially purified preparations of the inhibitor. Furthermore, neutralising antibodies against TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 2 did not cause a decline in the level of PC-3 growth inhibition caused by partially purified inhibitor. Using Northern blot analyses, we excluded the involvement of inhibin or activin. It is concluded that the prostate stroma-derived factor may be a novel growth inhibitor different from any of the currently described inhibiting factors. Images Figure 5 PMID:7543773

  1. The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor ARNO mediates the activation of ARF and phospholipase D by insulin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Sheng; Shome, Kuntala; Rojas, Raúl; Rizzo, Mark A; Vasudevan, Chandrasekaran; Fluharty, Eric; Santy, Lorraine C; Casanova, James E; Romero, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Background Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many signaling pathways. In most systems, the activity of PLD is primarily regulated by the members of the ADP-Ribosylation Factor (ARF) family of GTPases, but the mechanism of activation of PLD and ARF by extracellular signals has not been fully established. Here we tested the hypothesis that ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs) of the cytohesin/ARNO family mediate the activation of ARF and PLD by insulin. Results Wild type ARNO transiently transfected in HIRcB cells was translocated to the plasma membrane in an insulin-dependent manner and promoted the translocation of ARF to the membranes. ARNO mutants: ΔCC-ARNO and CC-ARNO were partially translocated to the membranes while ΔPH-ARNO and PH-ARNO could not be translocated to the membranes. Sec7 domain mutants of ARNO did not facilitate the ARF translocation. Overexpression of wild type ARNO significantly increased insulin-stimulated PLD activity, and mutations in the Sec7 and PH domains, or deletion of the PH or CC domains inhibited the effects of insulin. Conclusions Small ARF-GEFs of the cytohesin/ARNO family mediate the activation of ARF and PLD by the insulin receptor. PMID:12969509

  2. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  3. Epigenetic Aberrations Are Not Specific to Transcription Factor-Mediated Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Tiemann, Ulf; Wu, Guangming; Marthaler, Adele Gabriele; Schöler, Hans Robert; Tapia, Natalia

    2016-01-12

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency using different methods. In comparison with pluripotent cells obtained through somatic nuclear transfer, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) exhibit a higher number of epigenetic errors. Furthermore, most of these abnormalities have been described to be intrinsic to the iPSC technology. Here, we investigate whether the aberrant epigenetic patterns detected in iPSCs are specific to transcription factor-mediated reprogramming. We used germline stem cells (GSCs), which are the only adult cell type that can be converted into pluripotent cells (gPSCs) under defined culture conditions, and compared GSC-derived iPSCs and gPSCs at the transcriptional and epigenetic level. Our results show that both reprogramming methods generate indistinguishable states of pluripotency. GSC-derived iPSCs and gPSCs retained similar levels of donor cell-type memory and exhibited comparable numbers of reprogramming errors. Therefore, our study demonstrates that the epigenetic abnormalities detected in iPSCs are not specific to transcription factor-mediated reprogramming. PMID:26711876

  4. Expression levels of encystation mediating factors in fresh strain of Acanthamoeba castellanii cyst ESTs.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2011-04-01

    The life cycle of Acanthamoeba consists of two stages, trophozoite and cyst. The cyst form is resistant to almost all antibiotics. By long term cultivation, Acanthamoeba severely attenuated the encysting ability. To determine the changing of gene expression by the long term cultivation, especially focusing an encystation mediating factors, this study compared the ESTs of the fresh strain and the old strain, and trophozoite. Comparison of the KOG (euKaryotic Orthologous Groups) analysis relative to trophozoite revealed higher percentages of cyst ESTs related to G (Carbohydrate transport and metabolism), H (Coenzyme transport and metabolism), I (Lipid transport and metabolism), D (Cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning), T (signal transduction mechanisms), and O (Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones). In addition to this result, KOG analysis of fresh strain relative to old strain showed higher percentage of cyst ESTs related to metabolism category and T (signal transduction mechanisms) article. ESTs of the fresh strain revealed more various gene profiles compared to the old strain including encystation mediating factors like autophagy related proteins (Z article) and signal transduction proteins (T article). Twenty seven kinds of protein kinase C (PKC) like genes were detected in cyst or trophozoite ESTs and twenty one of them were highly expressed during encystation. The information of the expressed genes during encystation in only the fresh strain will provide new clues to understanding the encystation mechanism of encysting protozoa including Acanthamoeba. PMID:21276446

  5. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 as mediators of endotoxin-induced beneficial effects

    SciTech Connect

    Urbaschek, R.; Urbaschek, B.

    1987-09-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides or endotoxins are known to induce tumor necrosis; enhanced nonspecific resistance to bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections and to radiation sickness; and tolerance to lethal doses of endotoxin. These beneficial effects are achieved by pretreatment with minute amounts of endotoxin. Recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) are among the mediators capable of invoking radioprotection or resistance to the consequences of cecal ligation and puncture. Both cytokines are potent inducers of serum colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in C3H/HeJ mice (low responders to endotoxin). The number of splenic granulocyte-macrophage precursors was found to increase 5 days after injection of TNF in these mice. Although with IL-1 no increase in the number of granulocyte-macrophage colonies occurred in culture in the presence of serum CSF, a marked stimulation was observed when TNF was added. This stimulation of myelopoiesis observed in vivo and in vitro may be related to the radioprotective effect of TNF. The data presented suggest that TNF and IL-1 released after injection of endotoxin participate in the mediation of endotoxin-induced enhancement of nonspecific resistance and stimulation of hematopoiesis. 76 references.

  6. Vaccine-Mediated Immunotherapy Directed Against a Transcription Factor Driving the Metastatic Process

    PubMed Central

    Ardiani, Andressa; Gameiro, Sofia R.; Palena, Claudia; Hamilton, Duane; Kwilas, Anna; King, Thomas H.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Hodge, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous reports have now demonstrated that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process is involved in solid tumor progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. Several transcription factors have been implicated as drivers of EMT and metastatic progression, including Twist. Overexpression of Twist has been shown to be associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance for many carcinomas and other tumor types. The role of Twist in experimental cancer metastases has been principally studied in the 4T1 mammary tumor model, where silencing of Twist in vitro has been shown to greatly reduce in-vivo metastatic spread. Transcription factors such as Twist are generally believed to be “undruggable” due to their nuclear location and lack of a specific groove for tight binding of a small molecule inhibitor. An alternative approach to drug therapy targeting transcription factors driving the metastatic process is T-cell–mediated immunotherapy. A therapeutic vaccine platform that has been previously characterized consists of heat-killed recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) capable of expressing tumor-associated antigen protein. We report here the construction and characterization of a recombinant yeast expressing the entire Twist protein, which is capable of inducing both CD8+ and CD4+ Twist-specific T-cell responses in vivo. Vaccination of mice reduced the size of primary transplanted 4T1 tumors and had an even greater anti-tumor effect on lung metastases of the same mice, which was dependent on Twist-specific CD8+ T cells. These studies provide the rationale for vaccine-induced T-cell–mediated therapy of transcription factors involved in driving the metastatic process. PMID:24520078

  7. Tay-Sachs disease: B1 variant.

    PubMed

    Gordon, B A; Gordon, K E; Hinton, G G; Cadera, W; Feleki, V; Bayleran, J; Hechtman, P

    1988-01-01

    This first child of non-Jewish parents had nystagmus at 4 months of age, bilateral cherry-red macular spots at 7 months of age, and hyperacusis at 8 months of age; the patient has deteriorated progressively following a clinical course typical of Tay-Sachs disease B variant. Total beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase assayed with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-glucosamine (4 MU GlcNAc) as substrate was within the normal range in plasma and cultured dermal fibroblasts and 2/3 the normal mean in leukocytes. The hexosaminidase A activity, assayed with the same substrate in plasma and cultured fibroblasts, approximated Tay-Sachs disease heterozygote levels; however, the activity of hexosaminidase A assayed with 4 MU Glc NAc-6-sulfate in the plasma, leukocytes, and cultured fibroblasts was less than 8, 2, and 1%, respectively of the control mean. This female infant with the B1 variant of Tay-Sachs disease demonstrated an earlier onset and more rapidly progressive course than was observed in 4 of the 5 previously reported patients with this Tay-Sachs disease variant.

  8. DNA Damage Response Factors from Diverse Pathways, Including DNA Crosslink Repair, Mediate Alternative End Joining

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sean M.; Yanez, Diana A.; Stark, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative end joining (Alt-EJ) chromosomal break repair involves bypassing classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ), and such repair causes mutations often with microhomology at the repair junction. Since the mediators of Alt-EJ are not well understood, we have sought to identify DNA damage response (DDR) factors important for this repair event. Using chromosomal break reporter assays, we surveyed an RNAi library targeting known DDR factors for siRNAs that cause a specific decrease in Alt-EJ, relative to an EJ event that is a composite of Alt-EJ and c-NHEJ (Distal-EJ between two tandem breaks). From this analysis, we identified several DDR factors that are specifically important for Alt-EJ relative to Distal-EJ. While these factors are from diverse pathways, we also found that most of them also promote homologous recombination (HR), including factors important for DNA crosslink repair, such as the Fanconi Anemia factor, FANCA. Since bypass of c-NHEJ is likely important for both Alt-EJ and HR, we disrupted the c-NHEJ factor Ku70 in Fanca-deficient mouse cells and found that Ku70 loss significantly diminishes the influence of Fanca on Alt-EJ. In contrast, an inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) causes a decrease in Alt-EJ that is enhanced by Ku70 loss. Additionally, the helicase/nuclease DNA2 appears to have distinct effects from FANCA and PARP on both Alt-EJ, as well as end resection. Finally, we found that the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, a cancer therapeutic that has been shown to disrupt FANC signaling, causes a significant reduction in both Alt-EJ and HR, relative to Distal-EJ, as well as a substantial loss of end resection. We suggest that several distinct DDR functions are important for Alt-EJ, which include promoting bypass of c-NHEJ and end resection. PMID:25629353

  9. CYP1B1 mRNA inducibility due to benzo(a)pyrene is modified by the CYP1B1 L432V gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Simone; Wenzel, Sibylle; Maxeiner, Hagen; Schneider, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a primary component of tobacco smoke, is activated by cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1). Smokers homozygous for the C-allele (*1/*1) at the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism have shown increased CYP1B1 expression, compared to smokers homozygous for the G-allele *3/*3. Since no difference has been shown in CYP1B1 expression between both genotypes in non-smokers, we assumed that the genetic impact is produced in combination with an exogenous induction (e.g. BaP). To confirm this theory and to quantify the effect, we induced human leucocytes with increasing BaP concentrations and determined CYP1B1 mRNA expression with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We incubated human leucocytes from 27 healthy donors with BaP concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 250 µM. We identified the CYP1B1 genotypes by melting curve analysis and assessed relative CYP1B1 mRNA expression using real-time PCR. Expression was related to β-2-microglobulin with the 2(-ΔΔCT) method. Inducibility of CYP1B1 mRNA by BaP was higher in leucocytes carrying the CYP1B1*1/*1 genotype than in leucocytes carrying the CYP1B1*3/*3 genotype (P = 0.012). We revealed significant differences, with BaP concentrations of 2.5 µM (P = 0.0094), 5 µM (P = 0.027), 10 µM (P = 0.0006), 25 µM (P = 0.0007) and 50 µM (P = 0.017). Homozygous carriers of the C-allele (*1/*1) at the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism show a higher response to environmental factors, such as carcinogenic BaP, than homozygous carriers of the G-allele *3/*3.

  10. FOXA and master transcription factors recruit Mediator and Cohesin to the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Michèle; Bourriquen, Gaëlle; Lamaze, Fabien C.; Côté, Maxime C.; Fournier, Éric; Joly-Beauparlant, Charles; Caron, Vicky; Gobeil, Stéphane; Droit, Arnaud; Bilodeau, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the transcriptional program is essential to maintain the identity and the biological functions of a cell. The Mediator and Cohesin complexes have been established as central cofactors controlling the transcriptional program in normal cells. However, the distribution, recruitment and importance of these complexes in cancer cells have not been fully investigated. Here we show that FOXA and master transcription factors are part of the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells and are essential to recruit M ediator and Cohesin. Indeed, Mediator and Cohesin occupied the enhancer and promoter regions of actively transcribed genes and maintained the proliferation and colony forming potential. Through integration of publically available ChIP-Seq datasets, we predicted the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of each cancer cell. Unexpectedly, for all cells investigated, the pioneer transcription factors FOXA1 and/or FOXA2 were identified in addition to cell-specific master transcription factors. Loss of both types of transcription factors phenocopied the loss of Mediator and Cohesin. Lastly, the master and pioneer transcription factors were essential to recruit Mediator and Cohesin to regulatory regions of actively transcribed genes. Our study proposes that maintenance of the cancer cell state is dependent on recruitment of Mediator and Cohesin through FOXA and master transcription factors. PMID:27739523

  11. FOXA and master transcription factors recruit Mediator and Cohesin to the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Michèle; Bourriquen, Gaëlle; Lamaze, Fabien C.; Côté, Maxime C.; Fournier, Éric; Joly-Beauparlant, Charles; Caron, Vicky; Gobeil, Stéphane; Droit, Arnaud; Bilodeau, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Controlling the transcriptional program is essential to maintain the identity and the biological functions of a cell. The Mediator and Cohesin complexes have been established as central cofactors controlling the transcriptional program in normal cells. However, the distribution, recruitment and importance of these complexes in cancer cells have not been fully investigated. Here we show that FOXA and master transcription factors are part of the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of cancer cells and are essential to recruit M ediator and Cohesin. Indeed, Mediator and Cohesin occupied the enhancer and promoter regions of actively transcribed genes and maintained the proliferation and colony forming potential. Through integration of publically available ChIP-Seq datasets, we predicted the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of each cancer cell. Unexpectedly, for all cells investigated, the pioneer transcription factors FOXA1 and/or FOXA2 were identified in addition to cell-specific master transcription factors. Loss of both types of transcription factors phenocopied the loss of Mediator and Cohesin. Lastly, the master and pioneer transcription factors were essential to recruit Mediator and Cohesin to regulatory regions of actively transcribed genes. Our study proposes that maintenance of the cancer cell state is dependent on recruitment of Mediator and Cohesin through FOXA and master transcription factors.

  12. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) as a mediator of macrophage helminthotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    James, S L; Glaven, J; Goldenberg, S; Meltzer, M S; Pearce, E

    1990-01-01

    Lymphokine-activated macrophages are cytotoxic for larvae of the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. That soluble secreted factors may mediate this cytotoxicity was suggested by the observation that culture supernatant fluids from stimulated macrophages also exhibited larvacidal activity. These fluids contain the monokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Several observations indicated that TNF is directly toxic to schistosome larvae. Cytotoxic sera taken from BCG- or S. mansoni-immunized mice after endotoxin challenge killed schistosomula in vitro, and upon gel filtration the larvacidal factor(s) in the sera co-eluted with the tumoricidal activity defined as TNF. Recombinant-derived TNF exhibited direct toxicity to schistosomula at high concentrations, or at lower concentrations in the presence of IFN gamma. The larvacidal activity of macrophage supernatant fluids was abrogated by addition of either anti-TNF antisera or Zn+2, which has been shown to inhibit TNF-induced damage of tumour cells. Anti-TNF and Zn+2 likewise suppressed schistosomulum killing by lymphokine-activated peritoneal macrophages or the IC-21 macrophage line, indicating that TNF also plays a role in the effector mechanism of larval killing by whole cells. PMID:2314921

  13. DNA methylation-mediated transcription factors regulate Piwil1 expression during chicken spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    QIU, Lingling; XU, Lu; CHANG, Guobin; GUO, Qixin; LIU, Xiangping; BI, Yulin; ZHANG, Yu; WANG, Hongzhi; WANG, Kehua; LU, Wei; REN, Lichen; ZHU, Pengfei; WU, Yun; ZHANG, Yang; XU, Qi; CHEN, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    The P-element induced wimpy testis (Piwi) protein family is responsible for initiating spermatogenesis and maintaining the integrity of germ cells and stem cells, but little is known regarding its transcriptional regulation in poultry. Here, we characterized the methylation status of the Piwil1 promoter in five different spermatogenic cell lines using direct bisulfite pyrosequencing and determined that methylation correlates negatively with germ cell type-specific expression patterns of piwil1. We demonstrated that methylation of the −148 CpG site, which is the predicted binding site for the transcription factors TCF3 and NRF1, was differentially methylated in different spermatogenic cells. This site was completely methylated in PGCs (primordial germ cells), but was unmethylated in round spermatids. A similar result was obtained in the region from +121 to +139 CpG sites of the Piwil1 promoter CpG island, which was predicted to contain SOX2 binding sites. In addition, demethylation assays further demonstrated that DNA methylation indeed regulates Piwil1 expression during chicken spermatogenesis. Combined with transcription factor binding site prediction, we speculate that methylation influences the recruitment of corresponding transcription factors. Collectively, we show the negative correlation between promoter methylation and piwil1 expression and that the spatiotemporal expression of chicken Piwil1 from the PGC stage to the round spermatid stage is influenced by methylation-mediated transcription factor regulation. PMID:27108736

  14. The transcription factor MEF2C mediates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by IGF-1 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, Juan Pablo; Collao, Andres; Chiong, Mario; Maldonado, Carola; Adasme, Tatiana; Carrasco, Loreto; Ocaranza, Paula; Bravo, Roberto; Gonzalez, Leticia; Diaz-Araya, Guillermo; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Lavandero, Sergio

    2009-10-09

    Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) plays an important role in cardiovascular development and is a key transcription factor for cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we describe MEF2C regulation by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its role in IGF-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We found that IGF-1 addition to cultured rat cardiomyocytes activated MEF2C, as evidenced by its increased nuclear localization and DNA binding activity. IGF-1 stimulated MEF2 dependent-gene transcription in a time-dependent manner, as indicated by increased MEF2 promoter-driven reporter gene activity; IGF-1 also induced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, while an inhibitor of p38-MAPK decreased both effects. Additionally, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and calcineurin prevented IGF-1-induced MEF2 transcriptional activity. Via MEF2C-dependent signaling, IGF-1 also stimulated transcription of atrial natriuretic factor and skeletal {alpha}-actin but not of fos-lux reporter genes. These novel data suggest that MEF2C activation by IGF-1 mediates the pro-hypertrophic effects of IGF-1 on cardiac gene expression.

  15. The transcription factor MEF2C mediates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by IGF-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Collao, Andres; Chiong, Mario; Maldonado, Carola; Adasme, Tatiana; Carrasco, Loreto; Ocaranza, Paula; Bravo, Roberto; Gonzalez, Leticia; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Lavandero, Sergio

    2009-10-01

    Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) plays an important role in cardiovascular development and is a key transcription factor for cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we describe MEF2C regulation by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its role in IGF-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We found that IGF-1 addition to cultured rat cardiomyocytes activated MEF2C, as evidenced by its increased nuclear localization and DNA binding activity. IGF-1 stimulated MEF2 dependent-gene transcription in a time-dependent manner, as indicated by increased MEF2 promoter-driven reporter gene activity; IGF-1 also induced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, while an inhibitor of p38-MAPK decreased both effects. Additionally, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and calcineurin prevented IGF-1-induced MEF2 transcriptional activity. Via MEF2C-dependent signaling, IGF-1 also stimulated transcription of atrial natriuretic factor and skeletal alpha-actin but not of fos-lux reporter genes. These novel data suggest that MEF2C activation by IGF-1 mediates the pro-hypertrophic effects of IGF-1 on cardiac gene expression. PMID:19654000

  16. Infection-induced type I interferons activate CD11b on B-1 cells for subsequent lymph node accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Waffarn, Elizabeth E.; Hastey, Christine J.; Dixit, Neha; Choi, Youn Soo; Cherry, Simon; Kalinke, Ulrich; Simon, Scott I.; Baumgarth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Innate-like B-1a lymphocytes rapidly redistribute to regional mediastinal lymph nodes (MedLN) during influenza infection to generate protective IgM. Here we demonstrate that influenza infection-induced type I interferons directly stimulate body cavity B-1 cells and are a necessary signal required for B-1 cell accumulation in MedLN. Vascular mimetic flow chamber studies show that type I interferons increase ligand-mediated B-1 cell adhesion under shear stress by inducing high-affinity conformation shifts of surface-expressed integrins. In vivo trafficking experiments identify CD11b as the non-redundant, interferon-activated integrin required for B-1 cell accumulation in MedLN. Thus CD11b on B-1 cells senses infection-induced innate signals and facilitates their rapid sequester into secondary lymphoid tissues, thereby regulating the accumulation of polyreactive IgM producers at sites of infection. PMID:26612263

  17. Coagulation-induced shedding of platelet glycoprotein VI mediated by factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Al-Tamimi, Mohammad; Grigoriadis, George; Tran, Huy; Paul, Eldho; Servadei, Patricia; Berndt, Michael C; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Andrews, Robert K

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated shedding of the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) in human plasma. Collagen or other ligands induce metalloproteinase-mediated GPVI ectodomain shedding, generating approximately 55-kDa soluble GPVI (sGPVI) and approximately 10-kDa platelet-associated fragments. In the absence of GPVI ligands, coagulation of platelet-rich plasma from healthy persons induced GPVI shedding, independent of added tissue factor, but inhibitable by metalloproteinase inhibitor, GM6001. Factor Xa (FXa) common to intrinsic and tissue factor-mediated coagulation pathways was critical for sGPVI release because (1) shedding was strongly blocked by the FXa-selective inhibitor rivaroxaban but not FIIa (thrombin) inhibitors dabigatran or hirudin; (2) Russell viper venom that directly activates FX generated sGPVI, with complete inhibition by enoxaparin (inhibits FXa and FIIa) but not hirudin; (3) impaired GPVI shedding during coagulation of washed platelets resuspended in FX-depleted plasma was restored by adding purified FX; and (4) purified FXa induced GM6001-inhibitable GPVI shedding from washed platelets. In 29 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation, mean plasma sGPVI was 53.9 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 39.9-72.8 ng/mL) compared with 12.5 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 9.0-17.3 ng/mL) in thrombocytopenic controls (n = 36, P < .0001), and 14.6 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 7.9-27.1 ng/mL) in healthy subjects (n = 25, P = .002). In conclusion, coagulation-induced GPVI shedding via FXa down-regulates GPVI under procoagulant conditions. FXa inhibitors have an unexpected role in preventing GPVI down-regulation.

  18. Physiological and Therapeutic Vascular Remodeling Mediated by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Kakali; Semenza, Gregg L.

    Angiogenesis along with arteriogenesis and vasculogenesis is a fundamental process in ischemic repair in adult animals including humans. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) plays a central role in mediating adaptive responses to hypoxia/ischemia by expressing angiogenic cytokines/growth factors and their cognate receptors. Angiogenic growth factors are the homing signal for circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), which are mobilized to peripheral blood from bone marrow, recruited to target tissues, and promote vascularization. Impairment of HIF-1-mediated gene transcription contributes to the impaired vascular responses in peripheral vascular disease that are associated with aging and diabetes. Promoting neovascularization in ischemic tissues is a promising strategy for the treatment of peripheral vascular disease when surgical or catheter-based revascularization is not possible. Intramuscular injection of an adenovirus encoding a constitutively active form of HIF-1α (AdCA5), into the ischemic limb of diabetic mice increases the recovery of limb perfusion and function, rescues the diabetes-associated impairment of CACs, and increases vascularization. Administration of AdCA5 overcomes the effect of aging on recovery of blood flow in middle-aged mice following femoral artery ligation in a mouse model of age-dependent critical limb ischemia. Intramuscular injection of AdCA5 along with intravenous injection of bone-marrow-derived angiogenic cells cultured in the presence of prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine, increases blood flow and limb salvage in old mice following femoral artery ligation. HIF-1α gene therapy increases homing of bone-marrow-derived cells, whereas induction of HIF-1 in these cells increases their retention in the ischemic tissue by increasing their adhesion to endothelium leading to synergistic effects of combined therapy on improving blood flow.

  19. Factors Mediating the Relationship Between Intimate Partner Violence and Cervical Cancer Among Thai Women.

    PubMed

    Thananowan, Nanthana; Vongsirimas, Nopporn

    2016-02-01

    Previous research suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV), particularly physical or sexual violence, was associated with cervical cancer. However, there is less work examining the mechanism of the relationship between IPV and cervical cancer. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine psychosocial factors (e.g., stress, social support, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms) as mediators of the relationship between IPV and cervical cancer among 532 Thai women with gynecological problems. About 21.1% of participants reported any type of IPV (e.g., physical, sexual, or emotional violence) in the past year and 22.2% had cervical cancer. IPV was significantly positively associated with stress, depressive symptoms, and cervical cancer but negatively correlated with social support and self-esteem. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that not only did IPV exhibit significantly direct effects on social support, stress, and depressive symptoms, and indirect effects on self-esteem, but it also had a significant, positive, total effect on cervical cancer. IPV exhibited the significant indirect effect on cervical cancer through social support, self-esteem, stress, and depressive symptoms. The model fitted very well to the empirical data and explained 9% of variance. The findings affirmed that those psychosocial factors were mediators of the relationship between IPV and cervical cancer. Health care protocols for abused women should include screening for and treatment of IPV-related psychosocial factors. Interventions that provide social support and protect self-esteem should reduce stress and depressive symptoms among abused women, thereby reducing the risk of cervical cancer.

  20. Coagulation-induced shedding of platelet glycoprotein VI mediated by factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Al-Tamimi, Mohammad; Grigoriadis, George; Tran, Huy; Paul, Eldho; Servadei, Patricia; Berndt, Michael C; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Andrews, Robert K

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated shedding of the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) in human plasma. Collagen or other ligands induce metalloproteinase-mediated GPVI ectodomain shedding, generating approximately 55-kDa soluble GPVI (sGPVI) and approximately 10-kDa platelet-associated fragments. In the absence of GPVI ligands, coagulation of platelet-rich plasma from healthy persons induced GPVI shedding, independent of added tissue factor, but inhibitable by metalloproteinase inhibitor, GM6001. Factor Xa (FXa) common to intrinsic and tissue factor-mediated coagulation pathways was critical for sGPVI release because (1) shedding was strongly blocked by the FXa-selective inhibitor rivaroxaban but not FIIa (thrombin) inhibitors dabigatran or hirudin; (2) Russell viper venom that directly activates FX generated sGPVI, with complete inhibition by enoxaparin (inhibits FXa and FIIa) but not hirudin; (3) impaired GPVI shedding during coagulation of washed platelets resuspended in FX-depleted plasma was restored by adding purified FX; and (4) purified FXa induced GM6001-inhibitable GPVI shedding from washed platelets. In 29 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation, mean plasma sGPVI was 53.9 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 39.9-72.8 ng/mL) compared with 12.5 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 9.0-17.3 ng/mL) in thrombocytopenic controls (n = 36, P < .0001), and 14.6 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 7.9-27.1 ng/mL) in healthy subjects (n = 25, P = .002). In conclusion, coagulation-induced GPVI shedding via FXa down-regulates GPVI under procoagulant conditions. FXa inhibitors have an unexpected role in preventing GPVI down-regulation. PMID:21252089

  1. The matricellular protein Cyr61 is a key mediator of platelet-derived growth factor-induced cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuqiang; Hao, Feng; An, Dong; Zeng, Linlin; Wang, Yi; Xu, Xuemin; Cui, Mei-Zhen

    2015-03-27

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a potent chemoattractant, induces cell migration via the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. However, the downstream mediators are still elusive. In particular, the role of extracellular mediators is largely unknown. In this study, we identified the matricellular protein Cyr61, which is de novo synthesized in response to PDGF stimulation, as the key downstream mediator of the ERK and JNK pathways, independent of the p38 MAPK and AKT pathways, and, thereby, it mediates PDGF-induced smooth muscle cell migration but not proliferation. Our results revealed that, when Cyr61 was newly synthesized by PDGF, it was promptly translocated to the extracellular matrix and physically interacted with the plasma membrane integrins α6β1 and αvβ3. We further demonstrate that Cyr61 and integrins are integral components of the PDGF signaling pathway via an "outside-in" signaling route to activate intracellular focal adhesion kinase (FAK), leading to cell migration. Therefore, this study provides the first evidence that the PDGF-induced endogenous extracellular matrix component Cyr61 is a key mediator in modulating cell migration by connecting intracellular PDGF-ERK and JNK signals with integrin/FAK signaling. Therefore, extracellular Cyr61 convergence with growth factor signaling and integrin/FAK signaling is a new concept of growth factor-induced cell migration. The discovered signaling pathway may represent an important therapeutic target in growth factor-mediated cell migration/invasion-related vascular diseases and tumorigenesis.

  2. Fumonisin B(1): a neurotoxic mycotoxin.

    PubMed

    Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2012-12-01

    Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. moulds that contaminate crop, predominantly maize, all around the world. More than 15 types of fumonisins have been indentified so far, but FB(1) is the most abundant and toxicologically the most significant one. FB(1) has a wide range of toxic effects, depending on animal species. In horses FB(1) causes equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM), in pigs pulmonary oedema and in experimental rodents nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. In humans exposure to FB(1) is linked with higher incidence of primary liver cancer and oesophageal cancer, which are frequent in certain regions of the world (such as Transkei region in South Africa) where maize is staple food. The occurrence of neural tube defect in children in some countries of Central America (such as Mexico and Honduras) is connected with the consumption of FB(1)-contaminated maize-based food. However, possible involvement of FB(1) in the development of human diseases is not clear. Nevertheless, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified FB(1) as a possible carcinogen to humans (group 2B). FB(1) is a causative agent of ELEM, a brain disorder in equines, indicating that brain is a target organ of FB(1) toxicity. Several studies on experimental animals or on cell cultures of neural origin have established that FB(1) has a neurodegenerative potential, although the mechanism of its neurotoxicity is still vague. The aim of this article is to give an overview of available literature on FB(1) neurotoxicity and involved mechanisms, and to offer a new perspective for future studies.

  3. Linking Social--Environmental Risk Factors with Aggression in Suburban Adolescents: The Role of Social--Cognitive Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Garbarino, James

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that social--cognitive factors mediate the association between social--environmental risk and aggression in high-risk samples, but less is known about the relation among these factors in suburban youth. The present study examined whether such an association occurred for suburban youth exposed to low levels of social…

  4. The Applicability of Cognitive Mediational and Moderational Models to Explain Children's Depression Inventory Factor Scores in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinemann, Dawn H. S.; Teeter Ellison, Phyllis A.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined whether cognition serves as a direct factor, mediates, or moderates the relationship between stressful life events and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs, 1992) factor scores in urban, ethnic minority youth. Ninety-eight middle school students completed measures of stressful life events, cognition (cognitive…

  5. Alkaline-stress response in Glycine soja leaf identifies specific transcription factors and ABA-mediated signaling factors.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ying; Li, Yong; Lv, De-Kang; Bai, Xi; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ao-Xue; Zhu, Yan-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Transcriptome of Glycine soja leaf tissue during a detailed time course formed a foundation for examining transcriptional processes during NaHCO(3) stress treatment. Of a total of 2,310 detected differentially expressed genes, 1,664 genes were upregulated and 1,704 genes were downregulated at various time points. The number of stress-regulated genes increased dramatically after a 6-h stress treatment. GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in cell structure, protein synthesis, energy, and secondary metabolism. Another enrichment test revealed that the response of G. soja to NaHCO(3) highlights specific transcription factors, such as the C2C2-CO-like, MYB-related, WRKY, GARP-G2-like, and ZIM families. Co-expressed genes were clustered into ten classes (P < 0.001). Intriguingly, one cluster of 188 genes displayed a unique expression pattern that increases at an early stage (0.5 and 3 h), followed by a decrease from 6 to 12 h. This group was enriched in regulation of transcription components, including AP2-EREBP, bHLH, MYB/MYB-related, C2C2-CO-like, C2C2-DOF, C2C2, C3H, and GARP-G2-like transcription factors. Analysis of the 1-kb upstream regions of transcripts displaying similar changes in abundance identified 19 conserved motifs, potential binding sites for transcription factors. The appearance of ABA-responsive elements in the upstream of co-expression genes reveals that ABA-mediated signaling participates in the signal transduction in alkaline response.

  6. Requirement of nucleotide exchange factor for Ypt1 GTPase mediated protein transport.

    PubMed

    Jones, S; Litt, R J; Richardson, C J; Segev, N

    1995-09-01

    Small GTPases of the rab family are involved in the regulation of vesicular transport. It is believed that cycling between the GTP- and GDP-bound forms, and accessory factors regulating this cycling are crucial for rab function. However, an essential role for rab nucleotide exchange factors has not yet been demonstrated. In this report we show the requirement of nucleotide exchange factor activity for Ypt1 GTPase mediated protein transport. The Ypt1 protein, a member of the rab family, plays a role in targeting vesicles to the acceptor compartment and is essential for the first two steps of the yeast secretory pathway. We use two YPT1 dominant mutations that contain alterations in a highly conserved GTP-binding domain, N121I and D124N. YPT1-D124N is a novel mutation that encodes a protein with nucleotide specificity modified from guanine to xanthine. This provides a tool for the study of an individual rab GTPase in crude extracts: a xanthosine triphosphate (XTP)-dependent conditional dominant mutation. Both mutations confer growth inhibition and a block in protein secretion when expressed in vivo. The purified mutant proteins do not bind either GDP or GTP. Moreover, they completely inhibit the ability of the exchange factor to stimulate nucleotide exchange for wild type Ypt1 protein, and are potent inhibitors of ER to Golgi transport in vitro at the vesicle targeting step. The inhibitory effects of the Ypt1-D124N mutant protein on both nucleotide exchange activity and protein transport in vitro can be relieved by XTP, indicating that it is the nucleotide-free form of the mutant protein that is inhibitory. These results suggest that the dominant mutant proteins inhibit protein transport by sequestering the exchange factor from the wild type Ypt1 protein, and that this factor has an essential role in vesicular transport.

  7. Saponins, Esculeosides B-1 and B-2, in Tomato Juice and Sapogenol, Esculeogenin B1.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Zhou, Jian-Rong; Urata, Jun; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; El-Aasr, Mona; Ono, Masateru

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that commercial tomato juice packaged in 900 g plastic bottles contains rare, naturally occurring steroidal solanocapsine-type tomato glycosides in which the saponins consist of esculeosides B-1 (2) and B-2 (3) in 0.041% as major components lacking esculeoside A. We suggest that these saponins are derived from esculeoside A (1) when the juice in plastic bottles is prepared by treatment with boiling water, similar to the process used in preparing canned tomatoes. Herein, the obtained tomato saponins (2) and (3) provided sapogenols esculeogenin B1 (4) and B2 (5), respectively, by acid hydrolysis. The former was identical to esculeogenin B previously reported, and the latter was a new sapogenol characterized to be (5α,22S,23S,25S)-22,26-epimino-16β,23-epoxy-3β,23,27-trihydroxycholestane. PMID:26423043

  8. 75 FR 69938 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... BILLING CODE 5001-06-C...

  9. Hammerhead Ribozyme-Mediated Knockdown of mRNA for Fibrotic Growth Factors: Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 and Connective Tissue Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Paulette M.; Blalock, Timothy D.; Yuan, Rong; Lewin, Alfred S.; Schultz, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive scarring (fibrosis) is a major cause of pathologies in multiple tissues, including lung, liver, kidney, heart, cornea, and skin. The transforming growth factor- β (TGF- β) system has been shown to play a key role in regulating the formation of scar tissue throughout the body. Furthermore, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been shown to mediate most of the fibrotic actions of TGF- β, including stimulation of synthesis of extracellular matrix and differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Currently, no approved drugs selectively and specifically regulate scar formation. Thus, there is a need for a drug that selectively targets the TGF- β cascade at the molecular level and has minimal off-target side effects. This chapter focuses on the design of hammerhead ribozymes, measurement of kinetic activity, and assessment of knockdown mRNAs of TGF- β and CTGF in cell cultures. PMID:22131029

  10. Establishment of Centromeric Chromatin by the CENP-A Assembly Factor CAL1 Requires FACT-Mediated Transcription.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Chi; Bowers, Sarion; Lipinszki, Zoltan; Palladino, Jason; Trusiak, Sarah; Bettini, Emily; Rosin, Leah; Przewloka, Marcin R; Glover, David M; O'Neill, Rachel J; Mellone, Barbara G

    2015-07-01

    Centromeres are essential chromosomal structures that mediate accurate chromosome segregation during cell division. Centromeres are specified epigenetically by the heritable incorporation of the centromeric histone H3 variant CENP-A. While many of the primary factors that mediate centromeric deposition of CENP-A are known, the chromatin and DNA requirements of this process have remained elusive. Here, we uncover a role for transcription in Drosophila CENP-A deposition. Using an inducible ectopic centromere system that uncouples CENP-A deposition from endogenous centromere function and cell-cycle progression, we demonstrate that CENP-A assembly by its loading factor, CAL1, requires RNAPII-mediated transcription of the underlying DNA. This transcription depends on the CAL1 binding partner FACT, but not on CENP-A incorporation. Our work establishes RNAPII passage as a key step in chaperone-mediated CENP-A chromatin establishment and propagation. PMID:26151904

  11. Regulation of Transcription Factor Yin Yang 1 by SET7/9-mediated Lysine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-juan; Wu, Xiao-nan; Shi, Tao-tao; Xu, Huan-teng; Yi, Jia; Shen, Hai-feng; Huang, Ming-feng; Shu, Xing-yi; Wang, Fei-fei; Peng, Bing-ling; Xiao, Rong-quan; Gao, Wei-wei; Ding, Jian-cheng; Liu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional transcription factor shown to be critical in a variety of biological processes. Although it is regulated by multiple types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), whether YY1 is methylated, which enzyme methylates YY1, and hence the functional significance of YY1 methylation remains completely unknown. Here we reported the first methyltransferase, SET7/9 (KMT7), capable of methylating YY1 at two highly conserved lysine (K) residues, K173 and K411, located in two distinct domains, one in the central glycine-rich region and the other in the very carboxyl-terminus. Functional studies revealed that SET7/9-mediated YY1 methylation regulated YY1 DNA-binding activity both in vitro and at specific genomic loci in cultured cells. Consistently, SET7/9-mediated YY1 methylation was shown to involve in YY1-regulated gene transcription and cell proliferation. Our findings revealed a novel regulatory strategy, methylation by lysine methyltransferase, imposed on YY1 protein, and linked YY1 methylation with its biological functions. PMID:26902152

  12. Capacity of tumor necrosis factor to augment lymphocyte-mediated tumor cell lysis of malignant mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, R.V.; Manning, L.S.; Davis, M.R.; Robinson, B.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rHuTNF) was evaluated both for direct anti-tumor action against human malignant mesothelioma and for its capacity to augment the generation and lytic phases of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against this tumor. rHuTNF was directly toxic by MTT assay to one of two mesothelioma cell lines evaluated, but had no effect on susceptibility to subsequent lymphocyte-mediated lysis of either line. TNF alone was incapable of generating anti-mesothelioma lymphokine-activated killer cell (LAK) activity. Furthermore, it did not augment the degree or LAK activity produced by submaximal interleukin-2 (IL-2) concentrations nor did it augment lysis of mesothelioma cells by natural killer (NK) or LAK effector cells during the 4-hr 51chromium release cytolytic reaction. The studies also suggest that mesothelioma targets are less responsive to TNF plus submaximal IL-2 concentrations than the standard LAK sensitive target Daudi, raising the possibility that intermediate LAK sensitive tumors such as mesothelioma may require separate and specific evaluation in immunomodulation studies. This in vitro study indicates that use of low-dose rHuTNF and IL-2 is unlikely to be an effective substitute for high-dose IL-2 in generation and maintenance of LAK activity in adoptive immunotherapy for mesothelioma.

  13. Neuropilin-1 mediates vascular permeability independently of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lise; Prahst, Claudia; Ruckdeschel, Tina; Savant, Soniya; Weström, Simone; Fantin, Alessandro; Riedel, Maria; Héroult, Mélanie; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2016-04-26

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) regulates developmental and pathological angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and vascular permeability, acting as a coreceptor for semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and the 165-amino acid isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A165). NRP1 is also the receptor for the CendR peptides, a class of cell- and tissue-penetrating peptides with a specific R-x-x-R carboxyl-terminal motif. Because the cytoplasmic domain of NRP1 lacks catalytic activity, NRP1 is mainly thought to act through the recruitment and binding to other receptors. We report here that the NRP1 intracellular domain mediates vascular permeability. Stimulation with VEGF-A165, a ligand-blocking antibody, and a CendR peptide led to NRP1 accumulation at cell-cell contacts in endothelial cell monolayers, increased cellular permeability in vitro and vascular leakage in vivo. Biochemical analyses, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) silencing, and the use of a specific VEGFR blocker established that the effects induced by the CendR peptide and the antibody were independent of VEGFR-2. Moreover, leakage assays in mice expressing a mutant NRP1 lacking the cytoplasmic domain revealed that this domain was required for NRP1-induced vascular permeability in vivo. Hence, these data define a vascular permeability pathway mediated by NRP1 but independent of VEGFR-2 activation.

  14. Trefoil Factor 3 Is Oncogenic and Mediates Anti-Estrogen Resistance in Human Mammary Carcinoma123

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Nagarajan; Kang, Jian; Kong, Xiangjun; Tang, Jianzhong; Perry, Jo K; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Miller, Lance D; Liu, Edison T; Mertani, Hichem C; Zhu, Tao; Grandison, Prudence M; Liu, Dong-Xu; Lobie, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    We report herein that trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is oncogenic and mediates anti-estrogen resistance in human mammary carcinoma. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells increased cell proliferation and survival, enhanced anchorage-independent growth, and promoted migration and invasion. Moreover, forced expression of TFF3 increased tumor size in xenograft models. Conversely, depletion of endogenous TFF3 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased the oncogenicity and invasiveness of mammary carcinoma cells. Neutralization of secreted TFF3 by antibody promoted apoptosis, decreased cell growth in vitro, and arrested mammary carcinoma xenograft growth. TFF3 expression was significantly correlated to decreased survival of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells increased ER transcriptional activity, promoted estrogen-independent growth, and produced resistance to tamoxifen and fulvestrant in vitro and to tamoxifen in xenograft models. siRNA-mediated depletion or antibody inhibition of TFF3 significantly enhanced the efficacy of antiestrogens. Increased TFF3 expression was observed in tamoxifen-resistant (TAMR) cells and antibody inhibition of TFF3 in TAMR cells improved tamoxifen sensitivity. Functional antagonism of TFF3 therefore warrants consideration as a novel therapeutic strategy for mammary carcinoma. PMID:21170268

  15. Trefoil factor 3 is oncogenic and mediates anti-estrogen resistance in human mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Nagarajan; Kang, Jian; Kong, Xiangjun; Tang, Jianzhong; Perry, Jo K; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Miller, Lance D; Liu, Edison T; Mertani, Hichem C; Zhu, Tao; Grandison, Prudence M; Liu, Dong-Xu; Lobie, Peter E

    2010-12-01

    We report herein that trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is oncogenic and mediates anti-estrogen resistance in human mammary carcinoma. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells increased cell proliferation and survival, enhanced anchorage-independent growth, and promoted migration and invasion. Moreover, forced expression of TFF3 increased tumor size in xenograft models. Conversely, depletion of endogenous TFF3 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased the oncogenicity and invasiveness of mammary carcinoma cells. Neutralization of secreted TFF3 by antibody promoted apoptosis, decreased cell growth in vitro, and arrested mammary carcinoma xenograft growth. TFF3 expression was significantly correlated to decreased survival of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. Forced expression of TFF3 in mammary carcinoma cells increased ER transcriptional activity, promoted estrogen-independent growth, and produced resistance to tamoxifen and fulvestrant in vitro and to tamoxifen in xenograft models. siRNA-mediated depletion or antibody inhibition of TFF3 significantly enhanced the efficacy of antiestrogens. Increased TFF3 expression was observed in tamoxifen-resistant (TAMR) cells and antibody inhibition of TFF3 in TAMR cells improved tamoxifen sensitivity. Functional antagonism of TFF3 therefore warrants consideration as a novel therapeutic strategy for mammary carcinoma.

  16. Corticotropin-releasing factor CRF1, but not CRF2, receptors mediate anxiogenic-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, S C; Lapsansky, J; Lovenberg, T W; De Souza, E B; Chalmers, D T

    1997-07-23

    The recent identification and differential localization in brain of three binding sites for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-like peptides (CRF1 and CRF2 receptors as well as CRF-binding protein) suggest the existence of functionally distinct neurobiological systems which mediate CRF activation. For instance, evidence from receptor knockdown and pharmacological studies suggest involvement of the CRF1 receptor in anxiogenic-like behavior and the CRF-binding protein in learning and memory processes. The present studies examined the potential functional significance of the CRF2 receptor in relation to the CRF1 receptor using two animal models of anxiety and endocrine reactivity to a stressor. CRF1 and CRF2 receptor knockdown was achieved and confirmed autoradiographically within brain regions relevant to behavioral reactivity to stressors by chronic, central administration of antisense oligonucleotides. CRF1 but not CRF2, know down produced a significant anxiolytic-like effect in the Defensive Withdrawal relative to vehicle-treated and two missense oligonucleotide negative control groups. In contrast, neither antisense treatment altered endocrine or behavioral reactivity to a swim stressor. Thus, the present data support the reported role of CRF1 receptors in the mediation of anxiogenic-like behavior and suggest a functionally distinct for role for CRF2 receptors in brain.

  17. Factors mediating the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sencar, Selen; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2004-08-01

    This study was designed to identify and analyze possible factors that mediate the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits. A Simple Electric Circuit Concept Test (SECCT), including items with both practical and theoretical contexts, and an Interest-Experience Questionnaire about Electricity (IEQ) were administered to 1,678 ninth-grade students (764 male, 914 female) after the completion of a unit on electricity to assess students' misconceptions and interests-experiences about electricity. Results of the concept test indicated that general performances of the students were relatively low and that many students had misconceptions in interpreting electric circuits. When the data were analyzed using MANOVA and follow-up ANOVAs, a gender difference for males was observed on the dependent variable of total scores on the 10 practical items; however, there was no significant gender difference on the dependent variable of total scores on the six theoretical items. Moreover, when the same data were analyzed using MANCOVA and follow-up ANCOVAs, controlling students' age and interest-experience related to electricity, the observed gender difference was mediated on the total scores on the practical items.

  18. CCCTC-binding Factor Mediates Effects of Glucose On Beta Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Shanli; Dai, Wei; Lu, Luo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Pancreatic islet β-cell survival is important in regulating insulin activities and maintaining glucose homeostasis. Recently, Pax6 has been shown to be essential for many vital functions in β-cells, though the molecular mechanisms of its regulation in β-cells remain unclear. The present study investigates the novel effects of glucose- and insulin-induced CTCF activity on Pax6 gene expression as well as the subsequent effects of insulin-activated signaling pathways on β-cell proliferation. Material and methods Pancreatic β-TC-1-6 cells were cultured in DMEM medium and stimulated with high concentrations of glucose (5 to 125 mM) and cell viability was assessed by MTT assays. The effect of CTCF on Pax6 was evaluated in high glucose-induced and CCCTC-binding Factor (CTCF)/Erk suppressed cells by promoter reporter and Western analyses. Results Increases in glucose and insulin concentrations up-regulated CTCF and consequently down-regulated Pax6 in β-cell survival and proliferation. Knocking-down CTCF directly affected Pax6 transcription through CTCF binding and blocked the response to glucose. Altered Erk activity mediated the effects of CTCF on controlling Pax6 expression, which partially regulates β-cell proliferation. Conclusions CTCF functions as a molecular mediator between insulin-induced upstream Erk signaling and Pax6 expression in pancreatic β-cells. This pathway may contribute to regulation of β-cell survival and proliferation. PMID:24354619

  19. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression. PMID:27120051

  20. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Song E.; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression. PMID:27120051

  1. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B...

  2. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B...

  3. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B...

  4. 26 CFR 1.672(b)-1 - Nonadverse party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonadverse party. 1.672(b)-1 Section 1.672(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.672(b)-1 Nonadverse party. A nonadverse party is any person who is not an adverse party....

  5. 26 CFR 1.672(b)-1 - Nonadverse party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonadverse party. 1.672(b)-1 Section 1.672(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.672(b)-1 Nonadverse party. A nonadverse party is any person who is not an adverse party....

  6. 12 CFR 261b.1 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis and scope. 261b.1 Section 261b.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 261b.1 Basis and scope. This part is issued by the Board...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-1 - Imposition of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition of tax. 48.4061(b)-1 Section 48.4061(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(b)-1 Imposition of tax. (a) In general. Section...

  8. 76 FR 40709 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Iraq...

  9. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent...

  10. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent...

  12. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent...

  13. Extracellular Vesicles from Trypanosoma brucei Mediate Virulence Factor Transfer and Cause Host Anemia.

    PubMed

    Szempruch, Anthony J; Sykes, Steven E; Kieft, Rudo; Dennison, Lauren; Becker, Allison C; Gartrell, Anzio; Martin, William J; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Hajduk, Stephen L; Harrington, John M

    2016-01-14

    Intercellular communication between parasites and with host cells provides mechanisms for parasite development, immune evasion, and disease pathology. Bloodstream African trypanosomes produce membranous nanotubes that originate from the flagellar membrane and disassociate into free extracellular vesicles (EVs). Trypanosome EVs contain several flagellar proteins that contribute to virulence, and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense EVs contain the serum resistance-associated protein (SRA) necessary for human infectivity. T. b. rhodesiense EVs transfer SRA to non-human infectious trypanosomes, allowing evasion of human innate immunity. Trypanosome EVs can also fuse with mammalian erythrocytes, resulting in rapid erythrocyte clearance and anemia. These data indicate that trypanosome EVs are organelles mediating non-hereditary virulence factor transfer and causing host erythrocyte remodeling, inducing anemia. PMID:26771494

  14. Dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome: are they tumour necrosis factor-mediated disorders?

    PubMed

    Yadav, M; Kamath, K R; Iyngkaran, N; Sinniah, M

    1991-12-01

    A consecutive series of 24 patients with clinical features of primary dengue infection and 22 controls (14 patients with viral fever of unknown origin and 8 healthy subjects) were assayed for serum levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF). The acute sera of the 24 patients with clinical dengue infection were positive for dengue virus-specific IgM antibody. Clinically, 8 had dengue fever (DF), 14 dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 2 dengue shock syndrome (DSS). All 16 patients with DHF/DSS had significantly elevated serum TNF levels but the 8 DF patients had TNF levels equivalent to that in the 22 controls. A case is made for augmented TNF production having a role for the pathophysiological changes observed in DHF/DSS and mediator modulation as a possible therapeutic approach to treatment.

  15. DELLA-mediated gibberellin signalling regulates Nod factor signalling and rhizobial infection

    PubMed Central

    Fonouni-Farde, Camille; Tan, Sovanna; Baudin, Maël; Brault, Mathias; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Niebel, Andreas; Frugier, Florian; Diet, Anouck

    2016-01-01

    Legumes develop symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria to form nitrogen-fixing nodules. Bacterial Nod factors (NFs) and plant regulatory pathways modulating NF signalling control rhizobial infections and nodulation efficiency. Here we show that gibberellin (GA) signalling mediated by DELLA proteins inhibits rhizobial infections and controls the NF induction of the infection marker ENOD11 in Medicago truncatula. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active DELLA protein in the epidermis is sufficient to promote ENOD11 expression in the absence of symbiotic signals. We show using heterologous systems that DELLA proteins can interact with the nodulation signalling pathway 2 (NSP2) and nuclear factor-YA1 (NF-YA1) transcription factors that are essential for the activation of NF responses. Furthermore, MtDELLA1 can bind the ERN1 (ERF required for nodulation 1) promoter and positively transactivate its expression. Overall, we propose that GA-dependent action of DELLA proteins may directly regulate the NSP1/NSP2 and NF-YA1 activation of ERN1 transcription to regulate rhizobial infections. PMID:27586842

  16. The relationship between parenting factors and trait anxiety: mediating role of cognitive errors and metacognition.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Bridie; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam

    2008-05-01

    Research examining parenting factors in the development of anxiety has focused largely on the concepts of parental warmth and overcontrolling or intrusive parenting, This study investigated the relationship between these factors, and also parental discipline style and anxiety using self-report methodology with a sample of 16-18 year olds. In order to try to explain the relationship between parenting and anxiety, measures of cognition were also included. A multiple regression was conducted including all parenting factors as predictors of trait anxiety. The regression was a modest fit (R(2)=22%) and the model was significant (F(4, 141)=9.90, p<0.0001). Only the effect of Over-reactivity was significant, (t=3.72, p<0.0001). Furthermore, Over-reactive discipline was significantly associated with increased cognitive distortions (r=0.361 p<0.0001) and metacognition (r=0.396 p<0.0001). Both cognitive distortions and metacognition were found to partially mediate the relationship between discipline style and trait anxiety. The implications of these findings and areas for future research are discussed.

  17. DELLA-mediated gibberellin signalling regulates Nod factor signalling and rhizobial infection.

    PubMed

    Fonouni-Farde, Camille; Tan, Sovanna; Baudin, Maël; Brault, Mathias; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Niebel, Andreas; Frugier, Florian; Diet, Anouck

    2016-01-01

    Legumes develop symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria to form nitrogen-fixing nodules. Bacterial Nod factors (NFs) and plant regulatory pathways modulating NF signalling control rhizobial infections and nodulation efficiency. Here we show that gibberellin (GA) signalling mediated by DELLA proteins inhibits rhizobial infections and controls the NF induction of the infection marker ENOD11 in Medicago truncatula. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active DELLA protein in the epidermis is sufficient to promote ENOD11 expression in the absence of symbiotic signals. We show using heterologous systems that DELLA proteins can interact with the nodulation signalling pathway 2 (NSP2) and nuclear factor-YA1 (NF-YA1) transcription factors that are essential for the activation of NF responses. Furthermore, MtDELLA1 can bind the ERN1 (ERF required for nodulation 1) promoter and positively transactivate its expression. Overall, we propose that GA-dependent action of DELLA proteins may directly regulate the NSP1/NSP2 and NF-YA1 activation of ERN1 transcription to regulate rhizobial infections. PMID:27586842

  18. Factors mediating co-occurrence of an economically valuable introduced fish and its native frog prey.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rosemary; Pope, Karen; Lawler, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    Habitat characteristics mediate predator-prey coexistence in many ecological systems but are seldom considered in species introductions. When economically important introduced predators are stocked despite known negative impacts on native species, understanding the role of refuges, landscape configurations, and community interactions can inform habitat management plans. We measured these factors in basins with introduced trout (Salmonidae) and the Cascades frog (Rana cascadae) to determine, which are responsible for observed patterns of co-occurrence of this economically important predator and its native prey. Large, vegetated shallows were strongly correlated to co-occurrence, and R. cascadae larvae occur in shallower water when fish are present, presumably to escape predation. The number of nearby breeding sites of R. cascadae was also correlated to co-occurrence, but only when the western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) was present. Because A. boreas larvae are unpalatable to fish and resemble R. cascadae, they may provide protection from trout via Batesian mimicry. Although rescue-effect dispersal from nearby populations may maintain co-occurrence, within-lake factors proved more important for predicting co-occurrence. Learning which factors allow co-occurrence between economically important introduced species and their native prey enables managers to make better-informed stocking decisions. PMID:24372671

  19. Factors mediating co-occurrence of an economically valuable introduced fish and its native frog prey.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rosemary; Pope, Karen; Lawler, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    Habitat characteristics mediate predator-prey coexistence in many ecological systems but are seldom considered in species introductions. When economically important introduced predators are stocked despite known negative impacts on native species, understanding the role of refuges, landscape configurations, and community interactions can inform habitat management plans. We measured these factors in basins with introduced trout (Salmonidae) and the Cascades frog (Rana cascadae) to determine, which are responsible for observed patterns of co-occurrence of this economically important predator and its native prey. Large, vegetated shallows were strongly correlated to co-occurrence, and R. cascadae larvae occur in shallower water when fish are present, presumably to escape predation. The number of nearby breeding sites of R. cascadae was also correlated to co-occurrence, but only when the western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) was present. Because A. boreas larvae are unpalatable to fish and resemble R. cascadae, they may provide protection from trout via Batesian mimicry. Although rescue-effect dispersal from nearby populations may maintain co-occurrence, within-lake factors proved more important for predicting co-occurrence. Learning which factors allow co-occurrence between economically important introduced species and their native prey enables managers to make better-informed stocking decisions.

  20. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced muscle satellite cell activation.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yosuke; Ohashi, Kazuya; Wada, Eiji; Yuasa, Yuki; Shiozuka, Masataka; Nonomura, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle can regenerate repeatedly due to the presence of resident stem cells, called satellite cells. Because satellite cells are usually quiescent, they must be activated before participating in muscle regeneration in response to stimuli such as injury, overloading, and stretch. Although satellite cell activation is a crucial step in muscle regeneration, little is known of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Recent work showed that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays crucial roles in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells. We investigated the role of growth factors in S1P-mediated satellite cell activation. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) in combination with insulin induced proliferation of quiescent undifferentiated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, which are also known as reserve cells, in serum-free conditions. Sphingosine kinase activity increased when reserve cells were stimulated with EGF. Treatment of reserve cells with the D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine, Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, or siRNA duplexes specific for sphingosine kinase 1, suppressed EGF-induced C2C12 activation. We also present the evidence showing the S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. Moreover, we demonstrated a combination of insulin and EGF promoted activation of satellite cells on single myofibers in a manner dependent on SPHK and S1P2. Taken together, our observations show that EGF-induced satellite cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor.

  1. High glucose induced nuclear factor kappa B mediated inhibition of endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hamuro, Masao; Polan, Jodie; Natarajan, Mohan; Mohan, Sumathy

    2002-06-01

    Delayed wound healing and accelerated atherosclerosis are common vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Although elevated blood glucose level is the major contributing factor, mechanisms that mediate these complications are not clearly understood. In the present study, we have demonstrated that elevated glucose inhibits endothelial cell migration, thereby delaying wound healing. Our results clearly indicated that high glucose (10 or 30 mM) induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) inhibited endothelial cell migration (P<0.05). High glucose induced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity may mediate this inhibition of migration by regulating intracellular nitric oxide. In vitro wound healing model in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were used to evaluate cell migration under the influence of high glucose. The migration inhibited by high glucose was restored by NF-kappaB inhibitors (including E3-4-methylphenyl sulfonyl-2-propenenitrile, N-tosyl-Lys-chloromethylketone (TLCK), or over-expression of inhibitor subunit of kappaB) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (N-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA); and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)). Furthermore, NF-kappaB inhibitors attenuated high glucose induced eNOS expression and intracellular nitric oxide (NO) production. Cytoskeletal immunofluorescence staining confirmed differences in actin distribution in HAEC incubated in high glucose in the presence or absence of NF-kappaB and NO inhibitors, explaining the differences observed in migration. In summary, our results for the first time suggest therapeutic strategies involving inhibition of NF-kappaB activation induced by high glucose, which may improve wound healing and help avoid some of the vascular complications of diabetes.

  2. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced muscle satellite cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Yosuke Ohashi, Kazuya; Wada, Eiji; Yuasa, Yuki; Shiozuka, Masataka; Nonomura, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle can regenerate repeatedly due to the presence of resident stem cells, called satellite cells. Because satellite cells are usually quiescent, they must be activated before participating in muscle regeneration in response to stimuli such as injury, overloading, and stretch. Although satellite cell activation is a crucial step in muscle regeneration, little is known of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Recent work showed that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays crucial roles in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells. We investigated the role of growth factors in S1P-mediated satellite cell activation. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) in combination with insulin induced proliferation of quiescent undifferentiated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, which are also known as reserve cells, in serum-free conditions. Sphingosine kinase activity increased when reserve cells were stimulated with EGF. Treatment of reserve cells with the D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine, Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, or siRNA duplexes specific for sphingosine kinase 1, suppressed EGF-induced C2C12 activation. We also present the evidence showing the S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. Moreover, we demonstrated a combination of insulin and EGF promoted activation of satellite cells on single myofibers in a manner dependent on SPHK and S1P2. Taken together, our observations show that EGF-induced satellite cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor. - Highlights: • EGF in combination with insulin induces proliferation of quiescent C2C12 cells. • Sphingosine kinase activity increases when reserve cells are stimulated with EGF. • EGF-induced activation of reserve cells is dependent on sphingosine kinase and ERK. • The S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. • EGF-induced reserve cell activation is mediated by S1P and its

  3. Quantitative investigation of physical factors contributing to gold nanoparticle-mediated proton dose enhancement.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jongmin; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Manohar, Nivedh; Kerr, Matthew; Krishnan, Sunil; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2016-03-21

    Some investigators have shown tumor cell killing enhancement in vitro and tumor regression in mice associated with the loading of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) before proton treatments. Several Monte Carlo (MC) investigations have also demonstrated GNP-mediated proton dose enhancement. However, further studies need to be done to quantify the individual physical factors that contribute to the dose enhancement or cell-kill enhancement (or radiosensitization). Thus, the current study investigated the contributions of particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), Auger and secondary electrons, and activation products towards the total dose enhancement. Specifically, GNP-mediated dose enhancement was measured using strips of radiochromic film that were inserted into vials of cylindrical GNPs, i.e. gold nanorods (GNRs), dispersed in a saline solution (0.3 mg of GNRs/g or 0.03% of GNRs by weight), as well as vials containing water only, before proton irradiation. MC simulations were also performed with the tool for particle simulation code using the film measurement setup. Additionally, a high-purity germanium detector system was used to measure the photon spectrum originating from activation products created from the interaction of protons and spherical GNPs present in a saline solution (20 mg of GNPs/g or 2% of GNPs by weight). The dose enhancement due to PIXE/PIGE recorded on the films in the GNR-loaded saline solution was less than the experimental uncertainty of the film dosimetry (<2%). MC simulations showed highly localized dose enhancement (up to a factor 17) in the immediate vicinity (<100 nm) of GNRs, compared with hypothetical water nanorods (WNRs), mostly due to GNR-originated Auger/secondary electrons; however, the average dose enhancement over the entire GNR-loaded vial was found to be minimal (0.1%). The dose enhancement due to the activation products from GNPs was minimal (<0.1%) as well. In conclusion, under the currently

  4. [OATP1B1 in drug-drug interactions between traditional Chinese medicine Danshensu and rosuvastatin].

    PubMed

    Wen, Jin-hua; Wei, Xiao-hua; Cheng, Xiao-hua; Zuo, Rong; Peng, Hong-wei; Lü, Yan-ni; Zhou, Jian; Zheng, Xue-lian; Cai, Jun; Xiong, Yu-qing; Cao, Li

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to explore the drug-drug interactions mechanisms mediated by OATP1B1 between traditional Chinese medicine Danshensu and rosuvastatin. First, the changes of rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics were investigated in presence of Danshensu in rats. Then, the primary rat hepatocytes model was established to explore the effects of Danshensu on the uptake of rosuvastatin by hepatocytes. Finally, HEK293T cells with overexpression of OATP1B1*a and OATP1B1*5 were established using a lentiviral delivery system to explore the effects of Danshensu on the uptake of rosuvastatin. Rosuvastatin pharmacokinetic parameters of C(max0, AUCO(0-t), AUC(0-∞) were increased about 123%, 194% and 195%, by Danshensu in rats, while the CL z/F value was decreased by 60%. Uptake of rosuvastatin in the primary rat hepatocytes was decreased by 3.13%, 41.15% and 74.62%, respectively in the presence of 20, 40 and 80 μmol x L(-1) Danshensu. The IC50 parameters was (53.04 ± 2.43) μmol x L(-1). The inhibitory effect of Danshensu on OATP1B1 mediated transport of rosuvastatin was related to the OATP1B1 gene type. In OATP1B1*5-HEK293T mutant cells, transport of rosuvastatin were reduced by (39.11 ± 4.94)% and (63.61 ± 3.94)%, respectively, by Danshensu at 1 and 10 μmol x L(-1). While transport of rosuvastatin was reduced by (8.22 ± 2.40)% and (11.56 ± 3.04)% and in OATP1B1*1a cells, respectively. Danshensu significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in rats, which was related to competitive inhibition of transport by OATPJBI. Danshensu exhibited a significant activity in the inhibition of rosuvastatin transport by OATP1B1*5-HEK293T, but not by OATP1B1*1a, suggesting a dependence on OATP1B1 sequence. PMID:27405165

  5. Epidermal growth factor mediated healing in stem cell-derived vocal fold mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Palencia, Liliana; Das, Amritava; Palecek, Sean P; Thibeault, Susan; Leydon, Ciara

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of vocal fold wound healing is the reconstitution of functional tissue, including a structurally and functionally intact epithelium. Mechanisms underlying reepithelialization in vocal folds are not known, although it is suspected that healing involves the interplay between several growth factors. We used a three-dimensional human embryonic stem cell-derived model of vocal fold mucosa to examine the effects of one growth factor, exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF), on wound healing. Materials and methods A scratch wound was created in the in vitro model. Rate of wound healing, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, and cell proliferation post-injury were analyzed with and without application of both exogenous EGF and an EGFR inhibitor, Gefitinib. Results Wound repair after injury was significantly hastened by application of exogenous EGF (13.3 µm/hour, ±2.63) compared to absence of exogenous EGF (7.1 µm/hour ±2.84), but inhibited with concurrent addition of Gefitinib (5.2 µm/hour, ±2.23), indicating that EGF mediates wound healing in an EGFR-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry revealed that EGFR activation occurred only in the presence of exogenous EGF. While not statistically significant, increased density of Ki67 staining in epithelium adjacent to the scratch wound was observed following treatment with EGF, suggesting a tendency for exogenous EGF to increase epithelial cell proliferation. Conclusions Exogenous EGF increases the rate of wound healing in an EGFR-dependent manner in a three-dimensional stem cell-derived model of vocal fold mucosa. This model of wound healing can be used to gain insight into the mechanisms that regulate vocal fold epithelial repair following injury. PMID:25818979

  6. Platelet-derived growth factor CC-mediated neuroprotection against HIV Tat involves TRPC-mediated inactivation of GSK 3beta.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fuwang; Yao, Honghong; Akturk, Halis Kaan; Buch, Shilpa

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor-CC (PDGF-CC) is the third member of the PDGF family, and has been implicated both in embryogenesis and development of the CNS. The biological function of this isoform however, remains largely unexplored in the context of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). In the present study, we demonstrate that exposure of human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y to HIV transactivator protein Tat resulted in decreased intrinsic expression of PDGF-CC as evidenced by RT-PCR and western blot assays. Reciprocally, pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with PDGF-CC abrogated Tat-mediated neurotoxicity by mitigating apoptosis and neurite & MAP-2 loss. Using pharmacological and loss of function approaches we identified the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in PDGF-CC-mediated neuroprotection. We report herein a novel role about the involvement of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel 1 in modulation of calcium transients in PDGF-CC-mediated neuroprotection. Furthermore we also demonstrated PDGF-CC-mediated inactivation of the downstream mediator--glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) evidenced by its phosphorylation at Ser-9. This was further validated by gain and loss of function studies using cells transfected with either the wild type or mutant GSK3β constructs. Intriguingly, pretreatment of cells with either the PI3K inhibitor or TRPC blocker resulted in failure of PDGF-CC to inactivate GSK3β, thereby suggesting the intersection of PI3K and TRPC signaling at GSK3β. Taken together our findings lead to the suggestion that PDGF-CC could be developed as a therapeutic target to reverse Tat-mediated neurotoxicity with implications for HAD.

  7. Vaccinia virus B1 kinase: phenotypic analysis of temperature-sensitive mutants and enzymatic characterization of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, R E; Traktman, P

    1992-01-01

    The vaccinia virus B1 gene encodes a 34-kDa protein with homology to protein kinases. In L cells infected nonpermissively with mutants containing lesions in the B1 gene (ts2 and ts25), the infectious cycle arrests prior to DNA replication. In this report, we demonstrate that DNA synthesis ceases when cultures infected with these mutants at 32 degrees C are shifted to the nonpermissive temperature (39.5 degrees C) in the midst of DNA replication. We also show that B1 protein is synthesized transiently during the early phase of infection, even when the progression to later stages of gene expression is prevented. Although wild-type (wt) B1 is stable, the ts B1 proteins are markedly labile in both L and BSC40 cells at both permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. These results suggest that the ts phenotype of the mutants is complex and may in part reflect a temperature-dependent requirement for kinase activity, an induction of temperature sensitivity in B1 substrates under nonpermissive conditions, and/or ts complementation by host factors. To facilitate biochemical analyses, recombinant wt B1, ts2 B1, and ts25 B1 were produced in Escherichia coli. The wt protein was able to phosphorylate serine and threonine residues on several exogenous substrates in vitro. The activity of ts25 B1 was 3% that of the wt enzyme, and no detectable kinase activity was associated with ts2 B1. In light of the inactivity of the ts2 B1 protein in vitro and its extreme lability in vivo, we attempted to isolate a vaccinia virus B1 null mutant by targeted interruption of the B1 gene at 32 degrees C. No null mutants were isolated. These results indicate that the B1 protein kinase provides a vital function which cannot be supplied by the host or circumvented by incubation at 32 degrees C. Images PMID:1602551

  8. Search for B-meson decays to b1ρ and b1K*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wang, L.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Chavez, A.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, T. M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Volk, A.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Salvati, E.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Hartmann, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Esteve, L.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cenci, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perl, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; West, C. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yarritu, A. K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Zain, S. B.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Choi, H. H. F.; Hamano, K.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wu, S. L.

    2009-09-01

    We present a search for decays of B mesons to final states with a b1 meson and a ρ or K*(892) meson. The search is based on a data sample consisting of 465 million B Bmacr pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We do not observe any statistically significant signal. The upper limits we set on the branching fractions range from 1.4 to 8.0×10-6 at the 90% confidence level, including systematic uncertainties.

  9. A role for human homologous recombination factors in suppressing microhomology-mediated end joining

    PubMed Central

    Ahrabi, Sara; Sarkar, Sovan; Pfister, Sophia X.; Pirovano, Giacomo; Higgins, Geoff S.; Porter, Andrew C.G.; Humphrey, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are toxic lesions, which if improperly repaired can result in cell death or genomic instability. DSB repair is usually facilitated by the classical non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ), or homologous recombination (HR) pathways. However, a mutagenic alternative NHEJ pathway, microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ), can also be deployed. While MMEJ is suppressed by C-NHEJ, the relationship between HR and MMEJ is less clear. Here, we describe a role for HR genes in suppressing MMEJ in human cells. By monitoring DSB mis-repair using a sensitive HPRT assay, we found that depletion of HR proteins, including BRCA2, BRCA1 or RPA, resulted in a distinct mutational signature associated with significant increases in break-induced mutation frequencies, deletion lengths and the annealing of short regions of microhomology (2–6 bp) across the break-site. This signature was dependent on CtIP, MRE11, POLQ and PARP, and thus indicative of MMEJ. In contrast to CtIP or MRE11, depletion of BRCA1 resulted in increased partial resection and MMEJ, thus revealing a functional distinction between these early acting HR factors. Together these findings indicate that HR factors suppress mutagenic MMEJ following DSB resection. PMID:27131361

  10. The transcription factor FBI-1 inhibits SAM68-mediated BCL-X alternative splicing and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bielli, Pamela; Busà, Roberta; Di Stasi, Savino M; Munoz, Manuel J; Botti, Flavia; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Sette, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is tightly coupled to transcription for the majority of human genes. However, how these two processes are linked is not well understood. Here, we unveil a direct role for the transcription factor FBI-1 in the regulation of AS. FBI-1 interacts with the splicing factor SAM68 and reduces its binding to BCL-X mRNA. This, in turn, results in the selection of the proximal 5′ splice site in BCL-X exon 2, thereby favoring the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant and counteracting SAM68-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, depletion of FBI-1, or expression of a SAM68 mutant lacking the FBI-1 binding region, restores the ability of SAM68 to induce BCL-XS splicing and apoptosis. FBI-1's role in splicing requires the activity of histone deacetylases, whose pharmacological inhibition recapitulates the effects of FBI-1 knockdown. Our study reveals an unexpected function for FBI-1 in splicing modulation with a direct impact on cell survival. PMID:24514149

  11. The transcription factor FBI-1 inhibits SAM68-mediated BCL-X alternative splicing and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bielli, Pamela; Busà, Roberta; Di Stasi, Savino M; Munoz, Manuel J; Botti, Flavia; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Sette, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is tightly coupled to transcription for the majority of human genes. However, how these two processes are linked is not well understood. Here, we unveil a direct role for the transcription factor FBI-1 in the regulation of AS. FBI-1 interacts with the splicing factor SAM68 and reduces its binding to BCL-X mRNA. This, in turn, results in the selection of the proximal 5' splice site in BCL-X exon 2, thereby favoring the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant and counteracting SAM68-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, depletion of FBI-1, or expression of a SAM68 mutant lacking the FBI-1 binding region, restores the ability of SAM68 to induce BCL-XS splicing and apoptosis. FBI-1's role in splicing requires the activity of histone deacetylases, whose pharmacological inhibition recapitulates the effects of FBI-1 knockdown. Our study reveals an unexpected function for FBI-1 in splicing modulation with a direct impact on cell survival.

  12. Effects of Abiotic Factors on HIPV-Mediated Interactions between Plants and Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christine; Desneux, Nicolas; Monticelli, Lucie; Fernandez, Xavier; Michel, Thomas; Lavoir, Anne-Violette

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to constitutively emitted plant volatiles (PV), herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) are specifically emitted by plants when afflicted with herbivores. HIPV can be perceived by parasitoids and predators which parasitize or prey on the respective herbivores, including parasitic hymenoptera. HIPV act as signals and facilitate host/prey detection. They comprise a blend of compounds: main constituents are terpenoids and “green leaf volatiles.” Constitutive emission of PV is well known to be influenced by abiotic factors like temperature, light intensity, water, and nutrient availability. HIPV share biosynthetic pathways with constitutively emitted PV and might therefore likewise be affected by abiotic conditions. However, the effects of abiotic factors on HIPV-mediated biotic interactions have received only limited attention to date. HIPV being influenced by the plant's growing conditions could have major implications for pest management. Quantitative and qualitative changes in HIPV blends may improve or impair biocontrol. Enhanced emission of HIPV may attract a larger number of natural enemies. Reduced emission rates or altered compositions, however, may render blends imperceptible to parasitoides and predators. Predicting the outcome of these changes is highly important for food production and for ecosystems affected by global climate change. PMID:26788501

  13. Extrinsic factors can mediate resistance to BRAF inhibition in central nervous system melanoma metastases.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Heike; Hirata, Eishu; Gore, Martin; Khabra, Komel; Messiou, Christina; Larkin, James; Sahai, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Here, we retrospectively review imaging of 68 consecutive unselected patients with BRAF V600-mutant metastatic melanoma for organ-specific response and progression on vemurafenib. Complete or partial responses were less often seen in the central nervous system (CNS) (36%) and bone (16%) compared to lung (89%), subcutaneous (83%), spleen (71%), liver (85%) and lymph nodes/soft tissue (83%), P < 0.001. CNS was also the most common site of progression. Based on this, we tested in vitro the efficacy of the BRAF inhibitors PLX4720 and dabrafenib in the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Exogenous CSF dramatically reduced cell death in response to both BRAF inhibitors. Effective cell killing was restored by co-administration of a PI-3 kinase inhibitor. We conclude that the efficacy of vemurafenib is variable in different organs with CNS being particularly prone to resistance. Extrinsic factors, such as ERK- and PI3K-activating factors in CSF, may mediate BRAF inhibitor resistance in the CNS.

  14. Fetal gene defects precipitate platelet-mediated pregnancy failure in factor V Leiden mothers

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Rashmi; Zogg, Mark; Westrick, Randal J.; Guo, Yi-he; Kerschen, Edward J.; Girardi, Guillermina; Salmon, Jane E.; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Weiler, Hartmut

    2007-01-01

    We describe a mouse model of fetal loss in factor V Leiden (FvL) mothers in which fetal loss is triggered when the maternal prothrombotic state coincides with fetal gene defects that reduce activation of the protein C anticoagulant pathway within the placenta. Fetal loss is caused by disruption of placental morphogenesis at the stage of labyrinth layer formation and occurs in the absence of overt placental thrombosis, infarction, or perfusion defects. Platelet depletion or elimination of protease-activated receptor 4 (Par4) from the mother allows normal placentation and prevents fetal loss. These findings establish a cause–effect relationship for the observed epidemiologic association between maternal FvL status and fetal loss and identify fetal gene defects as risk modifiers of pregnancy failure in prothrombotic mothers. Pregnancy failure is mediated by Par4-dependent activation of maternal platelets at the fetomaternal interface and likely involves a pathogenic pathway independent of occlusive thrombosis. Our results further demonstrate that the interaction of two given thrombosis risk factors produces markedly disparate consequences on disease manifestation (i.e., thrombosis or pregnancy loss), depending on the vascular bed in which this interaction occurs. PMID:17438064

  15. Effects of Abiotic Factors on HIPV-Mediated Interactions between Plants and Parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Desneux, Nicolas; Monticelli, Lucie; Fernandez, Xavier; Michel, Thomas; Lavoir, Anne-Violette

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to constitutively emitted plant volatiles (PV), herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) are specifically emitted by plants when afflicted with herbivores. HIPV can be perceived by parasitoids and predators which parasitize or prey on the respective herbivores, including parasitic hymenoptera. HIPV act as signals and facilitate host/prey detection. They comprise a blend of compounds: main constituents are terpenoids and "green leaf volatiles." Constitutive emission of PV is well known to be influenced by abiotic factors like temperature, light intensity, water, and nutrient availability. HIPV share biosynthetic pathways with constitutively emitted PV and might therefore likewise be affected by abiotic conditions. However, the effects of abiotic factors on HIPV-mediated biotic interactions have received only limited attention to date. HIPV being influenced by the plant's growing conditions could have major implications for pest management. Quantitative and qualitative changes in HIPV blends may improve or impair biocontrol. Enhanced emission of HIPV may attract a larger number of natural enemies. Reduced emission rates or altered compositions, however, may render blends imperceptible to parasitoides and predators. Predicting the outcome of these changes is highly important for food production and for ecosystems affected by global climate change.

  16. P2y Receptor-Mediated Angiogenesis via Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rumjahn, Sharif M.; Baldwin, Karla A; Buxton, Iain L. O.

    2011-01-01

    Pathological as well as physiological angiogenesis is known to be regulated by such factors as nucleotides and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Activated P2Y nucleotide receptors have been observed to associate and transactivate VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2), suggesting a cooperation between nucleotide and VEGF signaling in angiogenesis. P2YR mediated VEGFR2 signaling therefore may be important in describing the angiogenic signaling of nucleotides such as ATP. Here, we provide evidence that supports the notion of P2YR-VEGFR2 signaling. The significant angiogenic effect of P2Y1/2 receptor agonists (100 μM ATP and 10 μM 2MS-ATP) on endothelial cell tubulogenesis was suppressed back to near control levels upon addition of 1 μM SU1498 (specific VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor). We believe that this P2YR-VEFGR2 signaling is an important component of pathological, as well as physiological angiogenesis. PMID:18605230

  17. Effects of Abiotic Factors on HIPV-Mediated Interactions between Plants and Parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christine; Desneux, Nicolas; Monticelli, Lucie; Fernandez, Xavier; Michel, Thomas; Lavoir, Anne-Violette

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to constitutively emitted plant volatiles (PV), herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) are specifically emitted by plants when afflicted with herbivores. HIPV can be perceived by parasitoids and predators which parasitize or prey on the respective herbivores, including parasitic hymenoptera. HIPV act as signals and facilitate host/prey detection. They comprise a blend of compounds: main constituents are terpenoids and "green leaf volatiles." Constitutive emission of PV is well known to be influenced by abiotic factors like temperature, light intensity, water, and nutrient availability. HIPV share biosynthetic pathways with constitutively emitted PV and might therefore likewise be affected by abiotic conditions. However, the effects of abiotic factors on HIPV-mediated biotic interactions have received only limited attention to date. HIPV being influenced by the plant's growing conditions could have major implications for pest management. Quantitative and qualitative changes in HIPV blends may improve or impair biocontrol. Enhanced emission of HIPV may attract a larger number of natural enemies. Reduced emission rates or altered compositions, however, may render blends imperceptible to parasitoides and predators. Predicting the outcome of these changes is highly important for food production and for ecosystems affected by global climate change. PMID:26788501

  18. Work-related factors of presenteeism: The mediating role of mental and physical health.

    PubMed

    Pohling, Rico; Buruck, Gabriele; Jungbauer, Kevin-Lim; Leiter, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Even though work-related factors have been found to play a crucial role in predicting presenteeism, studies investigating established theoretical frameworks of job design features and, in particular, underlying mechanisms are still very scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the areas of work life according to the Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS; Leiter & Maslach, 2004) on presenteeism. We examined mental and physical health as the underlying process of this relationship and assessed 2 presenteeism outcome measures and their relationship to each other-that is, the frequency of acts of presenteeism and work productivity. Using a cross-sectional design, the study was conducted in a sample of 885 employees from German public service. Results showed that the influence of some, but not all, areas of work life (workload, control, reward, and values) on both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity was mediated by health indicators (well-being and musculoskeletal complaints). Moreover, we found a relationship between health-related lost productivity and acts of presenteeism. The present research clarifies the importance of work-related factors as antecedents of sickness presenteeism. The findings of our study also emphasize the necessity to include both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity in presenteeism research and prevention. Presenteeism should be included as a measure in health prevention interventions because it reflects a crucial part of employee health that is not covered by other measures.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor amplifies measles virus-mediated Ia induction on astrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Massa, P T; Schimpl, A; Wecker, E; ter Meulen, V

    1987-01-01

    We describe the induction of Ia on cultured astrocytes by measles virus and the amplification of this induction by tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Measles virus induces Ia on rat astrocytes by direct interaction with these cells. TNF does not induce significant levels of Ia at any dose from 1 to 10,000 units/ml. As little as 10 units of TNF per ml, however, amplifies Ia-inducing signals generated by measles virus in astrocytes. In contrast, TNF and measles virus induce class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, when applied individually, and TNF amplification of measles virus class I MHC induction is not apparent. The induction of either Ia or class I MHC antigens on rat astrocytes by measles virus does not depend on glial-derived soluble factors generated during infection. Since brain cells are normally lacking MHC antigens upon which T cells depend for interaction with antigen presenting cells, these data indicate that the ability of measles virus to directly stimulate MHC antigen expression and the ability of TNF to amplify Ia expression locally in the brain may be important in initiating cell-mediated immune response to viral infection. PMID:3118363

  20. Tissue factor trafficking in fibroblasts: involvement of protease-activated receptor–mediated cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Samir K.; Pendurthi, Usha R.

    2007-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is the cellular receptor for clotting factor VIIa (FVIIa), and the formation of TF-FVIIa complexes on cell surfaces triggers the activation of the coagulation cascade and the cell signaling. Our recent studies have shown that a majority of TF resides in various intracellular compartments, predominantly in the Golgi, and that FVIIa binding to cell surface TF induces TF endocytosis and mobilizes the Golgi TF pool to translocate it to the cell surface. This present study is aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in TF endocytosis and its mobilization from the Golgi. Activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and PAR2 by specific peptide agonists and proteases, independent of FVIIa, mobilized TF from the Golgi store and increased the cell surface expression of TF. Blocking PAR2 activation, but not PAR1, with neutralizing antibodies fully attenuated the FVIIa-induced TF mobilization. Consistent with these data, silencing the PAR2 receptor, and not PAR1, abrogated the FVIIa-mediated TF mobilization. In contrast to their effect on TF mobilization, PAR1 and PAR2 activation, in the absence of FVIIa, had no effect on TF endocytosis. However, PAR2 activation is found to be critical for the FVIIa-induced TF endocytosis. Overall the data herein provide novel insights into the role of PARs in regulating cell surface TF expression. PMID:17384202

  1. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1–mediated characteristic features of cancer cells for tumor radioresistance

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been attracting increasing attention in the fields of radiation biology and oncology since Thomlinson and Gray detected hypoxic cells in malignant solid tumors and showed that they exert a negative impact on the outcome of radiation therapy. This unfavorable influence has, at least partly, been attributed to cancer cells acquiring a radioresistant phenotype through the activation of the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). On the other hand, accumulating evidence has recently revealed that, even though HIF-1 is recognized as an important regulator of cellular adaptive responses to hypoxia, it may not become active and induce tumor radioresistance under hypoxic conditions only. The mechanisms by which HIF-1 is activated in cancer cells not only under hypoxic conditions, but also under normoxic conditions, through cancer-specific genetic alterations and the resultant imbalance in intermediate metabolites have been summarized herein. The relevance of the HIF-1–mediated characteristic features of cancer cells, such as the production of antioxidants through reprogramming of the glucose metabolic pathway and cell cycle regulation, for tumor radioresistance has also been reviewed. PMID:26983985

  2. Aflatoxin B1 in poultry: toxicology, metabolism and prevention.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Sumit; Kim, Ji Eun; Coulombe, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous in corn-based animal feed and causes hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic effects. The most important AF in terms of toxic potency and occurrence is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Poultry, especially turkeys, are extremely sensitive to the toxic and carcinogenic action of AFB1, resulting in millions of dollars in annual losses to producers due to reduced growth rate, increased susceptibility to disease, reduced egg production and other adverse effects. The extreme sensitivity of turkeys and other poultry to AFB1 is associated with efficient hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation and deficient detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GST). Discerning the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of this extreme sensitivity of poultry to AFB1, will contribute in the development of novel strategies to increase aflatoxin resistance. Since AFB1 is an unavoidable contaminant of corn-based poultry feed, chemoprevention strategies aimed at reducing AFB1 toxicity in poultry and in other animals have been the subject of numerous studies. This brief review summarizes many of the key recent findings regarding the action of aflatoxins in poultry.

  3. Host kinin B1 receptor plays a protective role against melanoma progression.

    PubMed

    Maria, Andrea G; Dillenburg-Pilla, Patrícia; Reis, Rosana I; Floriano, Elaine M; Tefé-Silva, Cristiane; Ramos, Simone G; Pesquero, João B; Nahmias, Clara; Costa-Neto, Claudio M

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a very aggressive tumor that arises from melanocytes. Late stage and widely spread diseases do not respond to standard therapeutic approaches. The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) participates in biological processes such as vasodilatation, pain and inflammatory response. However, the role of KKS in tumor formation and progression is not completely understood. The role of the host kinin B1 receptor in melanoma development was evaluated using a syngeneic melanoma model. Primary tumors and metastasis were respectively induced by injecting B16F10 melanoma cells, which are derived from C57BL/6 mice, subcutaneously or in the tail vein in wild type C57BL/6 and B1 receptor knockout mice (B1(-/-)). Tumors developed in B1(-/-) mice presented unfavorable prognostic factors such as increased incidence of ulceration, higher levels of IL-10, higher activation of proliferative pathways such as ERK1/2 and Akt, and increased mitotic index. Furthermore, in the metastasis model, B1(-/-) mice developed larger metastatic colonies in the lung and lower CD8(+)immune effector cells when compared with WT animals. Altogether, our results provide evidences that B1(-/-) animals developed primary tumors with multiple features associated with poor prognosis and unfavorable metastatic onset, indicating that the B1 receptor may contribute to improve the host response against melanoma progression. PMID:26898917

  4. Host kinin B1 receptor plays a protective role against melanoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Andrea G.; Dillenburg-Pilla, Patrícia; Reis, Rosana I.; Floriano, Elaine M.; Tefé-Silva, Cristiane; Ramos, Simone G.; Pesquero, João B.; Nahmias, Clara; Costa-Neto, Claudio M.

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a very aggressive tumor that arises from melanocytes. Late stage and widely spread diseases do not respond to standard therapeutic approaches. The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) participates in biological processes such as vasodilatation, pain and inflammatory response. However, the role of KKS in tumor formation and progression is not completely understood. The role of the host kinin B1 receptor in melanoma development was evaluated using a syngeneic melanoma model. Primary tumors and metastasis were respectively induced by injecting B16F10 melanoma cells, which are derived from C57BL/6 mice, subcutaneously or in the tail vein in wild type C57BL/6 and B1 receptor knockout mice (B1−/−). Tumors developed in B1−/− mice presented unfavorable prognostic factors such as increased incidence of ulceration, higher levels of IL-10, higher activation of proliferative pathways such as ERK1/2 and Akt, and increased mitotic index. Furthermore, in the metastasis model, B1−/− mice developed larger metastatic colonies in the lung and lower CD8+immune effector cells when compared with WT animals. Altogether, our results provide evidences that B1−/− animals developed primary tumors with multiple features associated with poor prognosis and unfavorable metastatic onset, indicating that the B1 receptor may contribute to improve the host response against melanoma progression. PMID:26898917

  5. Exosite-mediated substrate recognition of factor IX by factor XIa. The factor XIa heavy chain is required for initial recognition of factor IX.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Taketoshi; Verhamme, Ingrid M; Sun, Mao-Fu; Bock, Paul E; Gailani, David

    2005-06-24

    Studies of the mechanisms of blood coagulation zymogen activation demonstrate that exosites (sites on the activating complex distinct from the protease active site) play key roles in macromolecular substrate recognition. We investigated the importance of exosite interactions in recognition of factor IX by the protease factor XIa. Factor XIa cleavage of the tripeptide substrate S2366 was inhibited by the active site inhibitors p-aminobenzamidine (Ki 28 +/- 2 microM) and aprotinin (Ki 1.13 +/- 0.07 microM) in a classical competitive manner, indicating that substrate and inhibitor binding to the active site was mutually exclusive. In contrast, inhibition of factor XIa cleavage of S2366 by factor IX (Ki 224 +/- 32 nM) was characterized by hyperbolic mixed-type inhibition, indicating that factor IX binds to free and S2366-bound factor XIa at exosites. Consistent with this premise, inhibition of factor XIa activation of factor IX by aprotinin (Ki 0.89 +/- 0.52 microM) was non-competitive, whereas inhibition by active site-inhibited factor IXa beta was competitive (Ki 0.33 +/- 0.05 microM). S2366 cleavage by isolated factor XIa catalytic domain was competitively inhibited by p-aminobenzamidine (Ki 38 +/- 14 microM) but was not inhibited by factor IX, consistent with loss of factor IX-binding exosites on the non-catalytic factor XI heavy chain. The results support a model in which factor IX binds initially to exosites on the factor XIa heavy chain, followed by interaction at the active site with subsequent bond cleavage, and support a growing body of evidence that exosite interactions are critical determinants of substrate affinity and specificity in blood coagulation reactions. PMID:15829482

  6. Force-Sensitive Autoinhibition of the von Willebrand Factor Is Mediated by Interdomain Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aponte-Santamaría, Camilo; Huck, Volker; Posch, Sandra; Bronowska, Agnieszka K.; Grässle, Sandra; Brehm, Maria A.; Obser, Tobias; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Schneider, Stefan W.; Baldauf, Carsten; Gräter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) plays a central role in hemostasis. Triggered by shear-stress, it adheres to platelets at sites of vascular injury. Inactivation of VWF has been associated to the shielding of its adhesion sites and proteolytic cleavage. However, the molecular nature of this shielding and its coupling to cleavage under shear-forces in flowing blood remain unknown. In this study, we describe, to our knowledge, a new force-sensory mechanism for VWF-platelet binding, which addresses these questions, based on a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and microfluidic experiments. Our MD simulations demonstrate that the VWF A2 domain targets a specific region at the VWF A1 domain, corresponding to the binding site of the platelet glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) receptor, thereby causing its blockage. This implies autoinhibition of the VWF for the binding of platelets mediated by the A1-A2 protein-protein interaction. During force-probe MD simulations, a stretching force dissociated the A1A2 complex, thereby unblocking the GPIbα binding site. Dissociation was found to be coupled to the unfolding of the A2 domain, with dissociation predominantly occurring before exposure of the cleavage site in A2, an observation that is supported by our AFM experiments. This suggests that the A2 domain prevents platelet binding in a force-dependent manner, ensuring that VWF initiates hemostasis before inactivation by proteolytic cleavage. Microfluidic experiments with an A2-deletion VWF mutant resulted in increased platelet binding, corroborating the key autoinhibitory role of the A2 domain within VWF multimers. Overall, autoinhibition of VWF mediated by force-dependent interdomain interactions offers the molecular basis for the shear-sensitive growth of VWF-platelet aggregates, and might be similarly involved in shear-induced VWF self-aggregation and other force-sensing functions in hemostasis. PMID:25954888

  7. Phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced penile erection.

    PubMed

    Musicki, Biljana; Palese, Michael A; Crone, Julie K; Burnett, Arthur L

    2004-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced penile erection is mediated by activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through its phosphorylation. We assessed the role of constitutively activated eNOS in VEGF-induced penile erection using wild-type (WT) and eNOS-knockout (eNOS(-/-)) mice with and without vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. Adult WT and eNOS(-/-) mice were subjected to sham operation or bilateral castration to induce vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. At the time of surgery, animals were injected intracavernosally with a replication-deficient adenovirus expressing human VEGF145 (10(9) particle units) or with empty virus (Ad.Null). After 7 days, erectile function was assessed in response to cavernous nerve electrical stimulation. Total and phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) as well as total and phosphorylated eNOS were quantitatively assessed in mice penes using Western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. In intact WT mice, VEGF145 significantly increased erectile responses, and in WT mice after castration, it completely recovered penile erection. However, VEGF145 failed to increase erectile responses in intact eNOS(-/-) mice and only partially recovered erectile function in castrated eNOS(-/-) mice. In addition, VEGF145 significantly increased phosphorylation of eNOS at Serine 1177 by approximately 2-fold in penes of both intact and castrated WT mice. The data provide a molecular explanation for VEGF stimulatory effect on penile erection, which involves phosphorylated eNOS (Serine 1177) mediation. PMID:14522830

  8. Redox-mediated activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Dix, T. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta) is a multifunctional cytokine that orchestrates response to injury via ubiquitous cell surface receptors. The biological activity of TGF beta is restrained by its secretion as a latent complex (LTGF beta) such that activation determines the extent of TGF beta activity during physiological and pathological events. TGF beta action has been implicated in a variety of reactive oxygen-mediated tissue processes, particularly inflammation, and in pathologies such as reperfusion injury, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. It was recently shown to be rapidly activated after in vivo radiation exposure, which also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present studies, the potential for redox-mediated LTGF beta activation was investigated using a cell-free system in which ROS were generated in solution by ionizing radiation or metal ion-catalyzed ascorbate reaction. Irradiation (100 Gray) of recombinant human LTGF beta in solution induced 26% activation compared with that elicited by standard thermal activation. Metal-catalyzed ascorbate oxidation elicited extremely efficient recombinant LTGF beta activation that matched or exceeded thermal activation. The efficiency of ascorbate activation depended on ascorbate concentrations and the presence of transition metal ions. We postulate that oxidation of specific amino acids in the latency-conferring peptide leads to a conformation change in the latent complex that allows release of TGF beta. Oxidative activation offers a novel route for the involvement of TGF beta in tissue processes in which ROS are implicated and endows LTGF beta with the ability to act as a sensor of oxidative stress and, by releasing TGF beta, to function as a signal for orchestrating the response of multiple cell types. LTGF beta redox sensitivity is presumably directed toward recovery of homeostasis; however, oxidation may also be a mechanism of LTGF beta activation that can be deleterious during

  9. Platelet-activating factor: a mediator of pancreatic inflammation during cerulein hyperstimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, W.; Levine, B. A.; Olson, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Hyperstimulation of the exocrine pancreas with cerulein causes acute pancreatitis, characterized by intensive interstitial edema, acinar vacuolization, leukocytic infiltration, and hyperamylasemia. Whereas the pathogenesis of cerulein-induced pancreatitis is not well-defined, a local inflammatory response may contribute to the full expression of acute pancreatitis. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) seems to be an important mediator of the inflammatory response. The present evidence includes: 1) pancreatic PAF levels increased in rats in which cerulein-induced pancreatitis was initiated, concomitant with an increase in calcium concentrations in the pancreatic tissue; 2) treatment of rats exposed to cerulein with WEB2170, a PAF receptor antagonist, was shown to reduce inflammatory injury, as demonstrated by decreases in pancreatic weight, Evan's blue extravasation, and myeloperoxidase activity and an improvement in pancreatic histology. In an idealized in vitro experiment mimicking cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, in which pancreatic acini were employed, cerulein induced amylase release, an increase in [Ca2+]i, and an increase in PAF synthesis. Whereas amylase release was induced by low concentrations of cerulein (10(-11) mol/L), relatively high concentrations of cerulein (10(-9) mol/L) were required for the observed increases in PAF synthesis and the [Ca2+]i, indicating that these two responses may not occur under physiological conditions. The present study suggests that the pancreatic accumulation of PAF coupled with Ca2+ overload are important biochemical components of the pathophysiology of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. In fact, PAF production may serve as a primary mediator of inflammation observed during pancreatic hyperstimulation. This is an important observation that will allow a more detailed characterization of the molecular basis of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Images Figure 1 PMID:8494049

  10. Phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced penile erection.

    PubMed

    Musicki, Biljana; Palese, Michael A; Crone, Julie K; Burnett, Arthur L

    2004-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced penile erection is mediated by activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through its phosphorylation. We assessed the role of constitutively activated eNOS in VEGF-induced penile erection using wild-type (WT) and eNOS-knockout (eNOS(-/-)) mice with and without vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. Adult WT and eNOS(-/-) mice were subjected to sham operation or bilateral castration to induce vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. At the time of surgery, animals were injected intracavernosally with a replication-deficient adenovirus expressing human VEGF145 (10(9) particle units) or with empty virus (Ad.Null). After 7 days, erectile function was assessed in response to cavernous nerve electrical stimulation. Total and phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) as well as total and phosphorylated eNOS were quantitatively assessed in mice penes using Western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. In intact WT mice, VEGF145 significantly increased erectile responses, and in WT mice after castration, it completely recovered penile erection. However, VEGF145 failed to increase erectile responses in intact eNOS(-/-) mice and only partially recovered erectile function in castrated eNOS(-/-) mice. In addition, VEGF145 significantly increased phosphorylation of eNOS at Serine 1177 by approximately 2-fold in penes of both intact and castrated WT mice. The data provide a molecular explanation for VEGF stimulatory effect on penile erection, which involves phosphorylated eNOS (Serine 1177) mediation.

  11. The effect of a brief sprint interval exercise on growth factors and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon; Seraev, Mariana; Zaldivar, Frank; Cooper, Dan M; Sagiv, Michael; Nemet, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Exercise training efficiency depends on the intensity, volume, duration, and frequency of training, as well as on the athlete's ability to tolerate it. Recent efforts to quantify the effects of aerobic exercise training on hormonal response have suggested that exercise leads to simultaneous changes of antagonistic mediators. The effects of anaerobic exercise on these mediators are not known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a brief sprint interval session on the balance between anabolic (growth hormone [GH]--> insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-I axis) and catabolic hormones (cortisol), and circulating inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6. Twelve healthy elite junior handball players (17-20 years) participated in the study. Exercise consisted of a 4 x 250-m run on a treadmill, at a constant intensity of 80% of the personal maximal speed. Each run was separated by 3 minutes of rest. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after each 250-m run, and 1 hour after the last run. Exercise led to significant increases in GH (0.3 +/- 0.2 to 5.1 +/- 2.2 ngxml, p < 0.05), IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 (4191 +/- 2.48 to 4875 +/- 301 ngxml, p < 0.05), IL-6 (1.3 +/- 0.2 to 2.1 +/- 0.3 pgxml, p < 0.002), testosterone, and testosterone/cortisol ratio, and to a significant decrease in IGFBP-1 levels. Levels of IL-6 remained elevated 1 hour after the end of exercise. Exercise had no significant effects on IGF-I and cortisol levels. Changes in the GH-IGF-I axis and testosterone/cortisol ratio after the brief sprint interval exercise suggested exercise-related anabolic adaptations. The increase in IL-6 may indicate its important role in muscle tissue repair after anaerobic exercise. Changes in the anabolic-catabolic hormonal balance and in inflammatory mediators can be used as an objective tool to gauge the training intensity of different types of anaerobic exercises and training periods.

  12. Activation of Archaeal Transcription Mediated by Recruitment of Transcription Factor B*

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Simon M.; Thumann, Sybille; Richau, Renate; Weirauch, Matt T.; Lowe, Todd M.; Thomm, Michael; Hausner, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    Archaeal promoters consist of a TATA box and a purine-rich adjacent upstream sequence (transcription factor B (TFB)-responsive element (BRE)), which are bound by the transcription factors TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and TFB. Currently, only a few activators of archaeal transcription have been experimentally characterized. The best studied activator, Ptr2, mediates activation by recruitment of TBP. Here, we present a detailed biochemical analysis of an archaeal transcriptional activator, PF1088, which was identified in Pyrococcus furiosus by a bioinformatic approach. Operon predictions suggested that an upstream gene, pf1089, is polycistronically transcribed with pf1088. We demonstrate that PF1088 stimulates in vitro transcription by up to 7-fold when the pf1089 promoter is used as a template. By DNase I and hydroxyl radical footprinting experiments, we show that the binding site of PF1088 is located directly upstream of the BRE of pf1089. Mutational analysis indicated that activation requires the presence of the binding site for PF1088. Furthermore, we show that activation of transcription by PF1088 is dependent upon the presence of an imperfect BRE and is abolished when the pf1089 BRE is replaced with a BRE from a strong archaeal promoter. Gel shift experiments showed that TFB recruitment to the pf1089 operon is stimulated by PF1088, and TFB seems to stabilize PF1088 operator binding even in the absence of TBP. Taken together, these results represent the first biochemical evidence for a transcriptional activator working as a TFB recruitment factor in Archaea, for which the designation TFB-RF1 is suggested. PMID:22496454

  13. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Melissa S.; Cardona, Carol J.; Coulombe, Roger A.; Reed, Kent M.

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris) are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg) or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24) and wild turkey (n = 15) produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance. PMID:26751476

  14. Ligand-dependent EphB1 signaling suppresses glioma invasion and correlates with patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Lei; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Furuyama, Natsuki; Sabit, Hemragul; Furuta, Takuya; Hayashi, Yutaka; Takino, Takahisa; Dong, Yu; Sato, Hiroshi; Sai, Yoshimichi; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Berens, Michael E.; Zhao, Shi-Guang; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Background Extensive evidence implicates the Eph receptor family of tyrosine kinases and its ligand, ephrin, in glioma invasion, but it remains incompletely understood how these receptors affect chemotactic behavior of glioma. We sought to identify the Eph family members that correlate with patients' survival and to reveal the function of Eph in glioma invasion. Methods Clinical relevance of EphB genes was confirmed in a clinically annotated expression data set of 195 brain biopsy specimens. The function of EphB was analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Results Levels of mRNA of certain EphB members were significantly different in histological grades of glioma. According to Kaplan–Meier analysis, only the EphB1 level among 5 members of EphB emerged to be a powerful predictor of favorable survival in malignant glioma (n = 97, P = .0048), although the levels of EphB1 expression did not vary across the tumor grades. Immunoprecipitation showed that tyrosine phosphorylated EphB1 was not detected in all glioma cells tested. Forced overexpression and autophosphorylation of EphB1 in low expressor cell lines (U251, U87) did not affect cell migration or invasion in vitro, whereas EphB1 phosphorylation induced by ephrin-B2/Fc significantly decreased migration and invasion. Cells expressing ephrin-B2 showed noteworthy morphological changes consistent with migration induction; this alteration was negated by EphB1 overexpression. Concomitantly, overexpression of EphB1 abrogated the increased migration and invasion induced by ephrin-B2 in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions These data suggest that ligand-dependent EphB1 signaling negatively regulates glioma cell invasion, identifying EphB1 as a favorable prognostic factor in malignant glioma. PMID:24121831

  15. SH2B1 regulation of energy balance, body weight, and glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The Src homology 2B (SH2B) family members (SH2B1, SH2B2 and SH2B3) are adaptor signaling proteins containing characteristic SH2 and PH domains. SH2B1 (also called SH2-B and PSM) and SH2B2 (also called APS) are able to form homo- or hetero-dimers via their N-terminal dimerization domains. Their C-terminal SH2 domains bind to tyrosyl phosphorylated proteins, including Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), TrkA, insulin receptors, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), and IRS2. SH2B1 enhances leptin signaling by both stimulating JAK2 activity and assembling a JAK2/IRS1/2 signaling complex. SH2B1 promotes insulin signaling by both enhancing insulin receptor catalytic activity and protecting against dephosphorylation of IRS proteins. Accordingly, genetic deletion of SH2B1 results in severe leptin resistance, insulin resistance, hyperphagia, obesity, and type 2 diabetes in mice. Neuron-specific overexpression of SH2B1β transgenes protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. SH2B1 in pancreatic β cells promotes β cell expansion and insulin secretion to counteract insulin resistance in obesity. Moreover, numerous SH2B1 mutations are genetically linked to leptin resistance, insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes in humans. Unlike SH2B1, SH2B2 and SH2B3 are not required for the maintenance of normal energy and glucose homeostasis. The metabolic function of the SH2B family is conserved from insects to humans. PMID:25126397

  16. SF3B1 haploinsufficiency leads to formation of ring sideroblasts in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Visconte, Valeria; Rogers, Heesun J; Singh, Jarnail; Barnard, John; Bupathi, Manoj; Traina, Fabiola; McMahon, James; Makishima, Hideki; Szpurka, Hadrian; Jankowska, Anna; Jerez, Andres; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Advani, Anjali S; Copelan, Edward; Koseki, Haruhiko; Isono, Kyoichi; Padgett, Richard A; Osman, Sami; Koide, Kazunori; O'Keefe, Christine; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Tiu, Ramon V

    2012-10-18

    Whole exome/genome sequencing has been fundamental in the identification of somatic mutations in the spliceosome machinery in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and other hematologic disorders. SF3B1, splicing factor 3b subunit 1 is mutated in 60%-80% of refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) and RARS associated with thrombocytosis (RARS-T), 2 distinct subtypes of MDS and MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDSs/MPNs). An idiosyncratic feature of RARS/RARS-T is the presence of abnormal sideroblasts characterized by iron overload in the mitochondria, called RS. Based on the high frequency of mutations of SF3B1 in RARS/RARS-T, we investigated the consequences of SF3B1 alterations. Ultrastructurally, SF3B1 mutants showed altered iron distribution characterized by coarse iron deposits compared with wild-type RARS patients by transmission electron microscopy. SF3B1 knockdown experiments in K562 cells resulted in down-regulation of U2-type intron-splicing by RT-PCR. RNA-sequencing analysis of SF3B1 mutants showed differentially used genes relevant in MDS pathogenesis, such as ASXL1, CBL, EZH, and RUNX families. A SF3B pharmacologic inhibitor, meayamycin, induced the formation of RS in healthy BM cells. Further, BM aspirates of Sf3b1 heterozygous knockout mice showed RS by Prussian blue. In conclusion, we report the first experimental evidence of the association between SF3B1 and RS phenotype. Our data suggest that SF3B1 haploinsufficiency leads to RS formation.

  17. The sushi domains of secreted GABA(B1) isoforms selectively impair GABA(B) heteroreceptor function.

    PubMed

    Tiao, Jim Y; Bradaia, Amyaouch; Biermann, Barbara; Kaupmann, Klemens; Metz, Michaela; Haller, Corinne; Rolink, Antonius G; Pless, Elin; Barlow, Paul N; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard

    2008-11-01

    GABA(B) receptors are the G-protein-coupled receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABA(B) receptors are promising drug targets for a wide spectrum of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Receptor subtypes exhibit no pharmacological differences and are based on the subunit isoforms GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b). GABA(B1a) differs from GABA(B1b) in its ectodomain by the presence of a pair of conserved protein binding motifs, the sushi domains (SDs). Previous work showed that selectively GABA(B1a) contributes to heteroreceptors at glutamatergic terminals, whereas both GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b) contribute to autoreceptors at GABAergic terminals or to postsynaptic receptors. Here, we describe GABA(B1j), a secreted GABA(B1) isoform comprising the two SDs. We show that the two SDs, when expressed as a soluble protein, bind to neuronal membranes with low nanomolar affinity. Soluble SD protein, when added at nanomolar concentrations to dissociated hippocampal neurons or to acute hippocampal slices, impairs the inhibitory effect of GABA(B) heteroreceptors on evoked and spontaneous glutamate release. In contrast, soluble SD protein neither impairs the activity of GABA(B) autoreceptors nor impairs the activity of postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors. We propose that soluble SD protein scavenges an extracellular binding partner that retains GABA(B1a)-containing heteroreceptors in proximity of the presynaptic release machinery. Soluble GABA(B1) isoforms like GABA(B1j) may therefore act as dominant-negative inhibitors of heteroreceptors and control the level of GABA(B)-mediated inhibition at glutamatergic terminals. Of importance for drug discovery, our data also demonstrate that it is possible to selectively impair GABA(B) heteroreceptors by targeting their SDs.

  18. The Mediator Complex MED15 Subunit Mediates Activation of Downstream Lipid-Related Genes by the WRINKLED1 Transcription Factor1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Jung

    2016-01-01

    The Mediator complex is known to be a master coordinator of transcription by RNA polymerase II, and this complex is recruited by transcription factors (TFs) to target promoters for gene activation or repression. The plant-specific TF WRINKLED1 (WRI1) activates glycolysis-related and fatty acid biosynthetic genes during embryogenesis. However, no Mediator subunit has yet been identified that mediates WRI1 transcriptional activity. Promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion experiments showed that MEDIATOR15 (MED15) is expressed in the same cells in the embryo as WRI1. We found that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MED15 subunit of the Mediator complex interacts directly with WRI1 in the nucleus. Overexpression of MED15 or WRI1 increased transcript levels of WRI1 target genes involved in glycolysis and fatty acid biosynthesis; these genes were down-regulated in wild-type or WRI1-overexpressing plants by silencing of MED15. However, overexpression of MED15 in the wri1 mutant also increased transcript levels of WRI1 target genes, suggesting that MED15 also may act with other TFs to activate downstream lipid-related genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the association of MED15 with six WRI1 target gene promoters. Additionally, silencing of MED15 resulted in reduced fatty acid content in seedlings and mature seeds, whereas MED15 overexpression increased fatty acid content in both developmental stages. Similar results were found in wri1 mutant and WRI1 overexpression lines. Together, our results indicate that the WRI1/MED15 complex transcriptionally regulates glycolysis-related and fatty acid biosynthetic genes during embryogenesis. PMID:27246098

  19. Gendered Pathways? Gender, Mediating Factors, and the Gap in Boys' and Girls' Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Rachel Bridges; Hayes-Smith, Justin; Hayes-Smith, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A gender gap in alcohol and drug use exists but is somewhat smaller than the gender gap in other forms of delinquency. This article extends studies that examine the gender-delinquency relationship to substance use in particular and estimate the extent to which major risk and protective factors mediate the association between gender and alcohol and…

  20. HEAT SHOCK FACTOR 1-MEDIATED THERMOTOLERANCE PREVENTS CELL DEATH AND RESULTS IN G2/M CELL CYCLE ARREST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammalian cells respond to stress by activating heat shock transcription factors (e.g., HSF1) that regulate increased synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs mediate protection from deleterious effects of stress by preventing permanent disruption of normal cellular mitosis...

  1. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-1 - Other transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... transaction described in § 1.367(b)-5(c) or 1.367(b)-5(d) and that is either— (A) A section 1248 shareholder... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other transfers. 1.367(b)-1 Section 1.367(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.367(b)-1 Other transfers. (a) Scope. The...

  2. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-1 - Other transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... transaction described in § 1.367(b)-5(c) or 1.367(b)-5(d) and that is either— (A) A section 1248 shareholder... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other transfers. 1.367(b)-1 Section 1.367(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Corporation § 1.367(b)-1 Other transfers. (a) Scope. The...

  3. Construction of HEK293 cells stably expressing wild-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1*1a) and variant OATP1B1*1b and OATP1B1*15.

    PubMed

    Chen, M; Qu, B X; Chen, X L; Hu, H H; Jiang, H D; Yu, L S; Zhou, Q; Zeng, S

    2016-06-01

    A transgenic cell line stably expressing the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1) was established. Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cell line stably expressing OATP1B1*1a sequence was amplified through PCR with the extracted total RNA as templates from human liver, then subcloned into the plasmid pMD19-T and verified by sequencing. OATP1B1*1b/OATP1B1*15 mutant sequences were obtained by site-directed mutation PCR with pMD19-T/ OATP1B1*1a as templates. The plasmids pcDNA3.1(+)/OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 were constructed and transfected into HEK293 cell line using Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. Several stable transfected clones were obtained after selection with G418. Using rosuvastatin as a probe substrate of OATP1B1, the intracellular rosuvastatin accumulation in HEK293 and HEK-OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 monoclone cells were validated by a ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OATP1B1 mRNA and protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results from RT-PCR, rosuvastatin uptake and Western blot assay indicated that human OATP1B1 was highly expressed in transfected cells compared with controls. The HEK-293 cell lines stably expressing human OATP1B1-wild and variant (HEK-OATP1B1, *1b and *15) are potential models to study drug transport in vitro. PMID:27455553

  4. Construction of HEK293 cells stably expressing wild-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1*1a) and variant OATP1B1*1b and OATP1B1*15.

    PubMed

    Chen, M; Qu, B X; Chen, X L; Hu, H H; Jiang, H D; Yu, L S; Zhou, Q; Zeng, S

    2016-06-01

    A transgenic cell line stably expressing the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1) was established. Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cell line stably expressing OATP1B1*1a sequence was amplified through PCR with the extracted total RNA as templates from human liver, then subcloned into the plasmid pMD19-T and verified by sequencing. OATP1B1*1b/OATP1B1*15 mutant sequences were obtained by site-directed mutation PCR with pMD19-T/ OATP1B1*1a as templates. The plasmids pcDNA3.1(+)/OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 were constructed and transfected into HEK293 cell line using Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. Several stable transfected clones were obtained after selection with G418. Using rosuvastatin as a probe substrate of OATP1B1, the intracellular rosuvastatin accumulation in HEK293 and HEK-OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 monoclone cells were validated by a ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OATP1B1 mRNA and protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results from RT-PCR, rosuvastatin uptake and Western blot assay indicated that human OATP1B1 was highly expressed in transfected cells compared with controls. The HEK-293 cell lines stably expressing human OATP1B1-wild and variant (HEK-OATP1B1, *1b and *15) are potential models to study drug transport in vitro.

  5. Aging Converts Innate B1a Cells into Potent CD8+ T Cell Inducers.

    PubMed

    Lee-Chang, Catalina; Bodogai, Monica; Moritoh, Kanako; Chen, Xin; Wersto, Robert; Sen, Ranjan; Young, Howard A; Croft, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Biragyn, Arya

    2016-04-15

    B cell dysregulation in aging is thought to mostly occur in conventional B2 cells without affecting innate B1 cells. Elderly humans and mice also accumulate 4-1BBL(+)MHC class-I(Hi)CD86(Hi)B cells of unknown origin. In this article, we report that these cells, termed 4BL cells, are activated murine and possibly human B1a cells. The activation is mediated by aging human monocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages. They induce expression and activation of 4-1BBL and IFN-γR1 on B1a cells to subsequently upregulate membrane TNF-α and CD86. As a result, activated B1a/4BL cells induce expression of granzyme B in CD8(+)T cells by targeting TNFR2 via membrane TNF-α and providing costimulation with CD86. Thus, for the first time, to our knowledge, these results indicate that aging affects the function of B1a cells. Upon aging, these cells lose their tumor-supporting activity and become inducers of potentially antitumor and autoimmune CD8(+)T cells.

  6. Cancer Activation and Polymorphisms of Human Cytochrome P450 1B1

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Young-Jin; Kim, Donghak

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s, CYPs) are major oxidative catalysts that metabolize various xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. Many carcinogens induce cancer only after metabolic activation and P450 enzymes play an important role in this phenomenon. P450 1B1 mediates bioactivation of many procarcinogenic chemicals and carcinogenic estrogen. It catalyzes the oxidation reaction of polycyclic aromatic carbons, heterocyclic and aromatic amines, and the 4-hydroxylation reaction of 17β-estradiol. Enhanced expression of P450 1B1 promotes cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. There are at least 25 polymorphic variants of P450 1B1 and some of these have been reported to be associated with eye diseases. In addition, P450 1B1 polymorphisms can greatly affect the metabolic activation of many procarcinogenic compounds. It is necessary to understand the relationship between metabolic activation of such substances and P450 1B1 polymorphisms in order to develop rational strategies for the prevention of its toxic effect on human health. PMID:27123158

  7. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi is a B1b antigen

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A.; Hitchcock, Jessica R.; Ross, Ewan A.; Lopez-Macias, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B.; Toellner, Kai-Michael; MacLennan, Calman A.; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R.; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi antigen from Salmonella Typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. Here, we have characterised the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with Typhim Vi rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone (MZ) B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the detection of splenic Vi-specific antibody secreting cells and protective antibody and Rag1-deficient B1b cell chimeras generated by adoptive transfer induced specific antibody after Vi immunization. Furthermore, antibody derived from peritoneal B cells is sufficient to confer protection against Salmonella that express Vi antigen. Expression of Vi by Salmonella during infection did not inhibit the development of early antibody responses to non-Vi antigens. Despite this, the protection conferred by immunization of mice with porin proteins from Salmonella, which induce antibody-mediated protection, was reduced after infection with Vi-expressing Salmonella, although protection was not totally abrogated. This work therefore suggests that in mice, B1b cells contribute to the protection induced by Vi antigen and targeting non-Vi antigens as sub-unit vaccines may offer an attractive strategy to augment current Vi-based vaccine strategies. PMID:23162127

  8. The capsular polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella typhi is a B1b antigen.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jennifer L; Flores-Langarica, Adriana; Kingsley, Robert A; Hitchcock, Jessica R; Ross, Ewan A; López-Macías, Constantino; Lakey, Jeremy; Martin, Laura B; Toellner, Kai-Michael; MacLennan, Calman A; MacLennan, Ian C; Henderson, Ian R; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F

    2012-12-15

    Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi Ag from Salmonella typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. In this study, we have characterized the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the detection of splenic Vi-specific Ab-secreting cells and protective Ab in Rag1-deficient B1b cell chimeras generated by adoptive transfer-induced specific Ab after Vi immunization. Furthermore, Ab derived from peritoneal B cells is sufficient to confer protection against Salmonella that express Vi Ag. Expression of Vi by Salmonella during infection did not inhibit the development of early Ab responses to non-Vi Ags. Despite this, the protection conferred by immunization of mice with porin proteins from Salmonella, which induce Ab-mediated protection, was reduced postinfection with Vi-expressing Salmonella, although protection was not totally abrogated. This work therefore suggests that, in mice, B1b cells contribute to the protection induced by Vi Ag, and targeting non-Vi Ags as subunit vaccines may offer an attractive strategy to augment current Vi-based vaccine strategies.

  9. Vitamin B1 as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species photogenerated by vitamin B2.

    PubMed

    Natera, José; Massad, Walter A; García, Norman A

    2011-01-01

    Kinetics and mechanism of photoprocesses generated by visible light-irradiation of the system riboflavin (Rf, vitamin B2) plus Thiamine (Th) and Thiamine pyrophosphate (ThDP), representing vitamin B1, was studied in pH 7 water. A weak dark complex vitamin B2-vitamin B1, with a mean value of 4 ± 0.4 M(-1) is formed. An intricate mechanism of competitive reactions operates upon photoirradiation, being the light only absorbed by Rf. Th and ThDP quench excited singlet and triplet states of Rf, with rate constants in the order of 10(9) and 10(6 ) M(-1 ) s(-1), respectively. With Vitamin B1 in a concentration similar to that of dissolved molecular oxygen in water, the quenching of triplet excited Rf by the latter is highly predominant, resulting in the generation of O(2)((1)Δ(g)). Superoxide radical anion was not detected under work conditions. A relatively slow O(2)((1)Δ(g))-mediated photodegradation of Th and ThDP was observed. Nevertheless, Th and especially ThDP behave as efficient physical deactivators of O(2)((1)Δ(g)). The thiazol structure in vitamin B1 appears as a good scavenger of this reactive oxygen species. This characteristic, that presents at vitamin B1 as a potential photoprotector of biological entities against O(2)((1)Δ(g)) attack, was been experimentally confirmed employing the protein lisozime as a photo-oxidizable target.

  10. Cancer Activation and Polymorphisms of Human Cytochrome P450 1B1.

    PubMed

    Chun, Young-Jin; Kim, Donghak

    2016-04-01

    Human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s, CYPs) are major oxidative catalysts that metabolize various xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. Many carcinogens induce cancer only after metabolic activation and P450 enzymes play an important role in this phenomenon. P450 1B1 mediates bioactivation of many procarcinogenic chemicals and carcinogenic estrogen. It catalyzes the oxidation reaction of polycyclic aromatic carbons, heterocyclic and aromatic amines, and the 4-hydroxylation reaction of 17β-estradiol. Enhanced expression of P450 1B1 promotes cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. There are at least 25 polymorphic variants of P450 1B1 and some of these have been reported to be associated with eye diseases. In addition, P450 1B1 polymorphisms can greatly affect the metabolic activation of many procarcinogenic compounds. It is necessary to understand the relationship between metabolic activation of such substances and P450 1B1 polymorphisms in order to develop rational strategies for the prevention of its toxic effect on human health. PMID:27123158

  11. Profiles of 5-HT 1B/1D agonists in acute migraine with special reference to second generation agents.

    PubMed

    Deleu, D; Hanssens, Y

    1999-06-01

    The efficacy of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D (5-HT 1B/1D) agonists is related to their inhibitory effects on neurogenic inflammation, mediated through serotoninergic control mechanisms. Recently, a series of oral second generation 5-HT 1B/1D agonists (eletriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan and zolmitriptan) have been developed and are reviewed in this paper. Their in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy, drug interactions, and adverse effects are evaluated and compared to the gold standard in the treatment of acute migraine, sumatriptan. PMID:10427351

  12. Peripheral Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Precursor Regulates Pain as an Inflammatory Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Cong; Zhong, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Fiona H.; Li, Jia-yi; Zhou, Pei; Xu, Jun-Mei; Song, Bo; Li, Chang-Qi; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Dai, Ru-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF), the unprocessed BDNF gene product, binds to its receptors and exerts the opposing biologic functions of mature BDNF. proBDNF is expressed in the peripheral tissues but the functions of peripheral proBDNF remain elusive. Here we showed that proBDNF and its predominant receptor, p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor were upregulated in the nerve fibers and inflammatory cells in the local tissue in inflammatory pain. Neutralization of proBDNF by polyclonal antibody attenuated pain in different models of inflammatory pain. Unilateral intra-plantar supplementation of proBDNF by injecting exogenous proBDNF or ectopic overexpression resulted in pain hypersensitivity and induced spinal phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Exogenous proBDNF injection induced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the activation of proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that inflammatory reaction contributed to the pro-algesic effect of proBDNF. Finally, we generated monoclonal anti-proBDNF antibody that could biologically block proBDNF. Administration of monoclonal Ab-proBDNF attenuated various types of inflammatory pain and surgical pain. Thus, peripheral proBDNF is a potential pain mediator and anti-proBDNF pretreatment may alleviate the development of inflammatory pain. PMID:27251195

  13. Factors mediating changes in sexual HIV risk behaviors among gay and bisexual male adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, M J; Reid, H; Rosario, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Factors mediating changes in sexual behaviors that increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were monitored in a group of gay and bisexual male adolescents. METHODS. One hundred thirty-six males aged 14 to 19 years (Hispanic, 51%; African-American, 31%) were recruited from one gay-identified agency, were assessed at four points over a 1-year period, and participated in HIV preventive intervention sessions. RESULTS. Significant reductions occurred in the number of unprotected same-sex anal and oral acts. Those with less risk in their previous sexual history, those who did not engage in commercial sex, and those who attended more HIV intervention sessions were more likely to reduce their sexual risk. The impact of sessions varied significantly by race/ethnicity: African-American youths reduced their risk acts most dramatically. Abstinence was consistently and significantly more likely among younger youths and those who had been abstinent before enrollment. The youths significantly reduced the number of sexual partners following the intervention; this reduction in partners was maintained through the 12-month follow-up and was greatest among youths with no involvement in commercial sexual activity (prostitution). CONCLUSIONS. The efficacy of HIV prevention programs must be empirically evaluated. PMID:7998634

  14. Efficient sweet pepper transformation mediated by the BABY BOOM transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Heidmann, Iris; de Lange, Brenda; Lambalk, Joep; Angenent, Gerco C; Boutilier, Kim

    2011-06-01

    Pepper (Capsicum L.) is a nutritionally and economically important crop that is cultivated throughout the world as a vegetable, condiment, and food additive. Genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agrobacterium) is a powerful biotechnology tool that could be used in pepper to develop community-based functional genomics resources and to introduce important agronomic traits. However, pepper is considered to be highly recalcitrant for agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and current transformation protocols are either inefficient, cumbersome or highly genotype dependent. The main bottleneck in pepper transformation is the inability to generate cells that are competent for both regeneration and transformation. Here, we report that ectopic expression of the Brassica napus BABY BOOM AP2/ERF transcription factor overcomes this bottleneck and can be used to efficiently regenerate transgenic plants from otherwise recalcitrant sweet pepper (C. annuum) varieties. Transient activation of BABY BOOM in the progeny plants induced prolific cell regeneration and was used to produce a large number of somatic embryos that could be converted readily to seedlings. The data highlight the utility of combining biotechnology and classical plant tissue culture approaches to develop an efficient transformation and regeneration system for a highly recalcitrant vegetable crop. PMID:21305301

  15. Serum opacity factor enhances HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux, esterification and anti inflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Tchoua, Urbain; Rosales, Corina; Tang, Daming; Gillard, Baiba K; Vaughan, Ashley; Lin, Hu Yu; Courtney, Harry S; Pownall, Henry J

    2010-12-01

    Serum opacity factor (SOF) is a streptococcal protein that disrupts the structure of human high density lipoproteins (HDL) releasing lipid-free apo A-I while forming a large cholesteryl ester-rich particle and a small neo HDL. Given its low cholesterol and high phospholipid contents, we tested the hypotheses that neo HDL is a better substrate for cholesterol esterification via lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), better than HDL as an acceptor of THP-1 macrophage cholesterol efflux, and improves reduction of oxidized LDL-induced production of inflammatory markers. We observed that both cholesterol efflux and esterification were improved by recombinant (r)SOF treatment of whole plasma and that the underlying cause of the improved cholesterol esterification in plasma and macrophage cholesterol efflux to rSOF-treated plasma was due to the rSOF-mediated conversion of HDL to neo HDL. Moreover, the reduction of secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 by THP-1 cells by neo HDL was twice that of HDL. Studies in BHK cells overexpressing cholesterol transporters showed that efflux to neo HDL occurred primarily via ABCA1 not ABCG1. Thus, rSOF improves two steps in reverse cholesterol transport with a concomitant reduction in the release of macrophage markers of inflammation. We conclude that rSOF catalyzes a novel reaction that might be developed as a new therapy that prevents or reverses atherosclerosis via improved reverse cholesterol transport.

  16. Tissue kallikrein mediates neurite outgrowth through epidermal growth factor receptor and flotillin-2 pathway in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhengyu; Cui, Mei; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Tao; Shen, Yan; Dong, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Tissue kallikrein (TK) was previously shown to take most of its biological effects through bradykinin receptors. In this study, we assumed that TK mediated neurite outgrowth was independent of bradykinin receptors. To test the hypothesis, we investigated TK-induced neurite outgrowth and its signaling mechanisms in cultured primary neurons and human SH-SY5Y cells. We found that TK stimulation could increase the number of processes and mean process length of primary neurons, which were blocked by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor or down-regulation, small interfering RNA for flotillin-2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 inhibitor. Moreover, TK-induced neurite outgrowth was associated with EGFR and ERK1/2 activation, which were inhibited by EGFR antagonist or RNA interference and flotillin-2 knockdown. Interestingly, inhibition of bradykinin receptors had no significant effects on EGFR and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In the present research, our data also suggested that EGFR and flotillin-2 formed constitutive complex that translocated to around the nuclei in the TK stimulation. In sum, our findings provided evidence that TK could promote neurite outgrowth via EGFR, flotillin-2 and ERK1/2 signaling pathway in vitro. PMID:24211626

  17. Exchange factors directly activated by cAMP mediate melanocortin 4 receptor-induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Evi; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Gs protein-coupled receptors regulate many vital body functions by activation of cAMP response elements (CRE) via cAMP-dependent kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB). Melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are prototypical Gs-coupled receptors that orchestrate the hypothalamic control of food-intake and metabolism. Remarkably, the significance of PKA for MC4R-induced CRE-dependent transcription in hypothalamic cells has not been rigorously interrogated yet. In two hypothalamic cell lines, we observed that blocking PKA activity had only weak or no effects on reporter gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of exchange factors directly activated by cAMP-1/2 (EPAC-1/2) mitigated MC4R-induced CRE reporter activation and mRNA induction of the CREB-dependent genes c-fos and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Furthermore, we provide first evidence that extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2) activated by EPACs and not PKA are the elusive CREB kinases responsible for MC4R-induced CREB/CRE activation in hypothalamic cells. Overall, these data emphasize the pivotal role of EPACs rather than PKA in hypothalamic gene expression elicited by a prototypical Gs-coupled receptor. PMID:27612207

  18. Targeted intracellular accumulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the reperfused heart mediates cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Julia; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B; Rammos, Christos; Luedike, Peter; Mull, Elena; Stoppe, Christian; Jülicher, Karen; Lue, Hongqi; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Rassaf, Tienush

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to be cytoprotective in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Since the exact mechanism of action is unknown, we here characterise the cardioprotective effects of targeted intracellular accumulation of MIF in myocardial I/R injury. We used different in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro models of myocardial I/R and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury to determine MIF levels by immunoblots and ELISA in different phases of reperfusion and reoxygenation, respectively. We discovered a rapid decrease of cardiac MIF that was specific to the early phase of reperfusion. Posttranslational modification of MIF via S-nitrosation--proofed by a modified version of the Biotin Switch Assay--prevented this rapid decrease, leading to a targeted intracellular accumulation of MIF in the early phase of reperfusion. Intracellular MIF accumulation preserved the intracellular ability of MIF to reduce oxidative stress as shown by hydrogen peroxide and aconitase activity measurements. Infarct size measurements by TTC staining showed an overall enhanced cardioprotective effect of this protein by reduction of reperfusion injury. In summary, we have unravelled a novel mechanism of MIF-mediated cardioprotection. Targeted intracellular accumulation of MIF by S-nitrosation may offer a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of myocardial I/R-injury.

  19. System theoretical investigation of human epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yi; Shankaran, Harish; Opresko, Lee; Resat, Haluk

    2008-09-01

    The partitioning of biological networks into coupled functional modules is gaining increasing attention in the biological sciences. This approach has the advantage that predicting a system level response does not require a mechanistic description of the internal dynamics of each module. Identification of the input-output characteristics of the network modules and the connectivity between the modules provide the necessary quantitative representation of system dynamics. However, determination of the input-output relationships of the modules is not trivial; it requires the controlled perturbation of module inputs and systematic analysis of experimental data. In this report, we apply a system theoretical analysis approach to derive the causal input-output relationships of the functional module for the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) mediated Erk and Akt signaling pathways. Using a library of cell lines expressing varying levels of EGFR and HER2, we show that a transfer function-based representation can be successfully applied to quantitatively characterize information transfer in this system.

  20. Inhibitory effect of melatonin on testosterone synthesis is mediated via GATA-4/SF-1 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fenju; Zhang, Jie; Zan, Linsen; Guo, Weiqiang; Wang, Jin; Chen, Lili; Cao, Yi; Shen, Ouxi; Tong, Jian

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether the GATA-4/SF-1 signalling pathway is involved in the inhibitory effects of melatonin on testosterone production in both the TM3 Leydig cell line and in C57BL/6J mice. In-vitro experiments demonstrated that melatonin treatment significantly reduced testosterone levels in cell culture medium (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); and decreased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophospha accumulation (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) and mRNA/protein expression of GATA-4, SF-1 (NR5A1), StAR, P450SCC (CYP11A1) and 3β-HSD (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). These effects were blocked by N-acetyl-2-benzyltryptamin, a melatonin receptor antagonist. Similar effects of melatonin on testosterone production (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) and down-regulation of transcription factors GATA-4 and SF-1 (P < 0.01) were also observed in mice treated with intratesticular injections of melatonin. Overall, the data suggest that the inhibitory effects of melatonin on testosterone production are mediated via down-regulation of GATA-4 and SF-1 expression.

  1. Matricellular Protein Periostin Mediates Intestinal Inflammation through the Activation of Nuclear Factor κB Signaling.

    PubMed

    Koh, Seong-Joon; Choi, Younjeong; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Dae Woo; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Periostin is a matricellular protein that interacts with various integrin molecules on the cell surface. Although periostin is expressed in inflamed colonic mucosa, its role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation remains unclear. We investigated the role of periostin in intestinal inflammation using Postn-deficient (Postn-/-) mice. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were transfected by Postn small interfering RNAs. Periostin expression was determined in colon tissue samples from ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or rectal administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, induced severe colitis in wild-type mice, but not in Postn-/- mice. Administration of recombinant periostin induced colitis in Postn-/- mice. The periostin neutralizing-antibody ameliorated the severity of colitis in DSS-treated wild-type mice. Silencing of Postn inhibited inteleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expression and NF-κB DNA-binding activity in IECs. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α upregulated mRNA expression of Postn in IECs, and recombinant periostin strongly enhanced IL-8 expression in combination with TNF-α, which was suppressed by an antibody against integrin αv (CD51). Periostin and CD51 were expressed at significantly higher levels in UC patients than in controls. Periostin mediates intestinal inflammation through the activation of NF-κB signaling, which suggests that periostin is a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. Exchange factors directly activated by cAMP mediate melanocortin 4 receptor-induced gene expression.

    PubMed

    Glas, Evi; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Gs protein-coupled receptors regulate many vital body functions by activation of cAMP response elements (CRE) via cAMP-dependent kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB). Melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are prototypical Gs-coupled receptors that orchestrate the hypothalamic control of food-intake and metabolism. Remarkably, the significance of PKA for MC4R-induced CRE-dependent transcription in hypothalamic cells has not been rigorously interrogated yet. In two hypothalamic cell lines, we observed that blocking PKA activity had only weak or no effects on reporter gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of exchange factors directly activated by cAMP-1/2 (EPAC-1/2) mitigated MC4R-induced CRE reporter activation and mRNA induction of the CREB-dependent genes c-fos and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Furthermore, we provide first evidence that extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2) activated by EPACs and not PKA are the elusive CREB kinases responsible for MC4R-induced CREB/CRE activation in hypothalamic cells. Overall, these data emphasize the pivotal role of EPACs rather than PKA in hypothalamic gene expression elicited by a prototypical Gs-coupled receptor. PMID:27612207

  3. Epoxide-Mediated Differential Packaging of Cif and Other Virulence Factors into Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Ballok, Alicia E.; Filkins, Laura M.; Bomberger, Jennifer M.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain a number of secreted bacterial proteins, including phospholipases, alkaline phosphatase, and the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Previously, Cif, an epoxide hydrolase, was shown to be regulated at the transcriptional level by epoxides, which serve as ligands of the repressor, CifR. Here, we tested whether epoxides have an effect on Cif levels in OMVs. We showed that growth of P. aeruginosa in the presence of specific epoxides but not a hydrolysis product increased Cif packaging into OMVs in a CifR-independent fashion. The outer membrane protein, OprF, was also increased under these conditions, but alkaline phosphatase activity was not significantly altered. Additionally, we demonstrated that OMV shape and density were affected by epoxide treatment, with two distinct vesicle fractions present when cells were treated with epibromohydrin (EBH), a model epoxide. Vesicles isolated from the two density fractions exhibited different protein profiles in Western blotting and silver staining. We have shown that a variety of clinically or host-relevant treatments, including antibiotics, also alter the proteins packaged in OMVs. Proteomic analysis of purified OMVs followed by an analysis of transposon mutant OMVs yielded mutants with altered vesicle packaging. Finally, epithelial cell cytotoxicity was reduced in the vesicles formed in the presence of EBH, suggesting that this epoxide alters the function of the OMVs. Our data support a model whereby clinically or host-relevant signals mediate differential packaging of virulence factors in OMVs, which results in functional consequences for host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25112474

  4. Disturbance of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Mediated Beta Interferon Signaling in Cervical Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anastasia; Hanke, Brigitte; Zawatzky, Rainer; Soto, Ubaldo; van Riggelen, Jan; zur Hausen, Harald; Rösl, Frank

    2002-01-01

    In the present study we show that malignant human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cells lost their ability to synthesize endogenous beta interferon (IFN-β) upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) treatment. IFN-β transcription, however, was reinducible in nonmalignant HPV-positive cells, which was confirmed in functional protection assays against encephalomyocarditis virus or vesicular stomatitis virus infections. Addition of neutralizing antibodies against IFN-β blocked the antiviral effect, excluding the possibility that other IFN types were involved. Conversely, both malignant and immortalized cells could be protected against viral cytolysis when either IFN-β, IFN-α, or IFN-γ was added exogenously. This indicates that only the cross talk between TNF-α and the IFN-β pathways, and not IFN-α/β and IFN-γ signaling in general, is perturbed in cervical carcinoma cells. Notably, full virus protection was restricted exclusively to nonmalignant cells, indicating that the antiviral effect correlates with the growth-inhibitory and virus-suppressive properties of TNF-α. The IFN-regulatory factors IRF-1 and p48 (ISGF3γ) emerged as key regulatory molecules in the differential IFN-β response, since their transcription was either absent or only inefficiently enhanced in tumorigenic cells upon treatment with TNF-α. Inducibility of both genes, however, became reestablished in cervical carcinoma cells, which were complemented to nontumorigenicity after somatic cell hybridization. Complementation was paralleled by the entire reconstitution of cytokine-mediated IFN-β expression and the ability of TNF-α to exert an antiviral state. In contrast, under conditions where tumor suppression was not accomplished upon somatic cell hybridization, neither expression of IRF-1, p48, and IFN-β nor antiviral activity could be restored. PMID:11739693

  5. Transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B) mediates noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Fakhera; Ackermann, Sandra; Kahlert, Yvonne; Volland, Ruth; Roels, Frederik; Engesser, Anne; Hertwig, Falk; Kocak, Hayriye; Hero, Barbara; Dreidax, Daniel; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Berthold, Frank; Nürnberg, Peter; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal pediatric tumor that originates from the developing sympathetic nervous system and shows a broad range of clinical behavior, ranging from fatal progression to differentiation into benign ganglioneuroma. In experimental neuroblastoma systems, retinoic acid (RA) effectively induces neuronal differentiation, and RA treatment has been therefore integrated in current therapies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation are still poorly understood. We here investigated the role of transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B), a key factor in sympathetic nervous system development, in neuroblastoma pathogenesis and differentiation. Microarray analyses of primary neuroblastomas (n = 649) demonstrated that low TFAP2B expression was significantly associated with unfavorable prognostic markers as well as adverse patient outcome. We also found that low TFAP2B expression was strongly associated with CpG methylation of the TFAP2B locus in primary neuroblastomas (n = 105) and demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in induction of TFAP2B expression in vitro, suggesting that TFAP2B is silenced by genomic methylation. Tetracycline inducible re-expression of TFAP2B in IMR-32 and SH-EP neuroblastoma cells significantly impaired proliferation and cell cycle progression. In IMR-32 cells, TFAP2B induced neuronal differentiation, which was accompanied by up-regulation of the catecholamine biosynthesizing enzyme genes DBH and TH, and down-regulation of MYCN and REST, a master repressor of neuronal genes. By contrast, knockdown of TFAP2B by lentiviral transduction of shRNAs abrogated RA-induced neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)c neuroblastoma cells almost completely. Taken together, our results suggest that TFAP2B is playing a vital role in retaining RA responsiveness and mediating noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma. PMID:26598443

  6. Novel genes that mediate nuclear respiratory factor 1-regualted neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chih-Wei; Wang, Jen-Ling; Jiang, Mei-Sian; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Chang, Wen-Teng; Huang, A-Min

    2013-02-15

    Nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) is a transcription factor that functions in neurite outgrowth; however, the genes downstream from NRF-1 that mediate this function remain largely unknown. This study employs a genome-wide analysis approach to identify NRF-1-targeted genes in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. A total of 916 human genes containing the putative NRF-1 response element (NRE) in their promoter regions were identified using a cutoff score determined by results from electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Seventy-four NRF-1 target genes were listed according to the typical locations and high conservation of NREs. Fifteen genes, MAPRE3, NPDC1, RAB3IP, TRAPPC3, SMAD5, PIP5K1A, USP10, SPRY4, GTF2F2, NR1D1, SUV39H2, SKA3, RHOA, RAPGEF6, and SMAP1 were selected for biological confirmation. EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that all NREs of these fifteen genes are critical for NRF-1 binding. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA levels of 12 of these genes are regulated by NRF-1. Overexpression or knockdown of candidate genes demonstrated that MAPRE3, NPDC1, SMAD5, USP10, SPRY4, GTF2F2, SKA3, SMAP1 positively regulated, and RHOA and RAPGEF6 negatively regulated neurite outgrowth. Overall, our data showed that the combination of genome-wide bioinformatic analysis and biological experiments helps to identify the novel NRF-1-regulated genes, which play roles in differentiation of neuroblastoma cells.

  7. Curcumin alleviates immune-complex-mediated glomerulonephritis in factor-H-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Alexander; Chaves, Lee; Eadon, Michael T; Chang, Anthony; Quigg, Richard J; Alexander, Jessy J

    2013-01-01

    Complement factor H (Cfh) is a key regulator of the complement cascade and protects C57BL/6 mice from immune complex-mediated complement-dependent glomerulonephritis. In chronic serum sickness (CSS) there are increased deposits of immune complexes in the glomeruli with inflammation and a scarring phenotype. As cucurmin is an effective anti-inflammatory agent and reduces complement activation, we hypothesized that it should alleviate renal disease in this setting. To determine the effectiveness of curcumin, an apoferritin-induced CSS model in Cfh-deficient (Cfh−/−) mice was used. Curcumin treatment (30 mg/kg) given every day in parallel with apoferritin reduced glomerulonephritis and enhanced kidney function (blood urea nitrogen, 45·4 ± 7·5 versus 35·6 ± 5·1; albuminuria, 50·1 ± 7·1 versus 15·7 ± 7·1; glomerulonephritis, 2·62 + 0·25 versus 2 + 0·3, P < 0·05). In line with reduced IgG deposits in mice with CSS given curcumin, C9 deposits were reduced indicating reduced complement activation. Mice treated with curcumin had a significant reduction in the number of splenic CD19+ B cells and the ratio of CD19 : CD3 cells (P < 0·05) with no change in the T-cell population. Myeloperoxidase assay showed reduced macrophages in the kidney. However, a significant reduction in the M2 subset of splenic macrophages by apoferritin was prevented by curcumin, suggesting a protective function. Curcumin treatment reduced mRNA expression of inflammatory proteins monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and transforming growth factor-β and matrix proteins, fibronectin, laminin and collagen. Our results clearly illustrate that curcumin reduces glomerulosclerosis, improves kidney function and could serve as a therapeutic agent during serum sickness. PMID:23347386

  8. Neuroprotection by glial metabotropic glutamate receptors is mediated by transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Bruno, V; Battaglia, G; Casabona, G; Copani, A; Caciagli, F; Nicoletti, F

    1998-12-01

    The medium collected from cultured astrocytes transiently exposed to the group-II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor agonists (2S,1'R, 2'R,3'R)-2-(2,3-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) or (S)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine (4C3HPG) is neuroprotective when transferred to mixed cortical cultures challenged with NMDA (). The following data indicate that this particular form of neuroprotection is mediated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta). (1) TGFbeta1 and -beta2 were highly neuroprotective against NMDA toxicity, and their action was less than additive with that produced by the medium collected from astrocytes treated with DCG-IV or 4C3HPG (GM/DCG-IV or GM/4C3HPG); (2) antibodies that specifically neutralized the actions of TGFbeta1 or -beta2 prevented the neuroprotective activity of DCG-IV or 4C3HPG, as well as the activity of GM/DCG-IV or GM/4C3HPG; and (3) a transient exposure of cultured astrocytes to either DCG-IV or 4C3HPG led to a delayed increase in both intracellular and extracellular levels of TGFbeta. We therefore conclude that a transient activation of group-II mGlu receptors (presumably mGlu3 receptors) in astrocytes leads to an increased formation and release of TGFbeta, which in turn protects neighbor neurons against excitotoxic death. These results offer a new strategy for increasing the local production of neuroprotective factors in the CNS. PMID:9822720

  9. The Mediator Kinase Module Restrains Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling and Represses Vulval Cell Fate Specification in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Grants, Jennifer M; Ying, Lisa T L; Yoda, Akinori; You, Charlotte C; Okano, Hideyuki; Sawa, Hitoshi; Taubert, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Cell signaling pathways that control proliferation and determine cell fates are tightly regulated to prevent developmental anomalies and cancer. Transcription factors and coregulators are important effectors of signaling pathway output, as they regulate downstream gene programs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, several subunits of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex promote or inhibit vulva development, but pertinent mechanisms are poorly defined. Here, we show that Mediator's dissociable cyclin dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) module (CKM), consisting of cdk-8, cic-1/Cyclin C, mdt-12/dpy-22, and mdt-13/let-19, is required to inhibit ectopic vulval cell fates downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. cdk-8 inhibits ectopic vulva formation by acting downstream of mpk-1/ERK, cell autonomously in vulval cells, and in a kinase-dependent manner. We also provide evidence that the CKM acts as a corepressor for the Ets-family transcription factor LIN-1, as cdk-8 promotes transcriptional repression by LIN-1. In addition, we find that CKM mutation alters Mediator subunit requirements in vulva development: the mdt-23/sur-2 subunit, which is required for vulva development in wild-type worms, is dispensable for ectopic vulva formation in CKM mutants, which instead display hallmarks of unrestrained Mediator tail module activity. We propose a model whereby the CKM controls EGFR-Ras-ERK transcriptional output by corepressing LIN-1 and by fine tuning Mediator specificity, thus balancing transcriptional repression vs. activation in a critical developmental signaling pathway. Collectively, these data offer an explanation for CKM repression of EGFR signaling output and ectopic vulva formation and provide the first evidence of Mediator CKM-tail module subunit crosstalk in animals. PMID:26715664

  10. Nuclear Import of Transcription Factor BR-C Is Mediated by Its Interaction with RACK1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonghu; Meng, Meng; Wei, Ling; Li, Zhiqing; Kang, Lixia; Peng, Jian; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Broad Complex (BR-C) is an early ecdysone response gene in insects and contains two types of domains: two zinc finger domains for the activation of gene transcription and a Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB) domain for protein-protein interaction. Although the mechanism of zinc finger-mediated gene transcription is well studied, the partners interacting with the BTB domain of BR-C has not been elucidated until now. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the BTB domain of silkworm BR-C as bait and identified the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1), a scaffolding/anchoring protein, as the novel partner capable of interacting with BR-C. The interaction between BR-C and RACK1 was further confirmed by far-western blotting and pull-down assays. Importantly, the disruption of this interaction, via RNAi against the endogenous RACK1 gene or deletion of the BTB domain, abolished the nuclear import of BR-C in BmN4 cells. In addition, RNAi against the endogenous PKC gene as well as phosphorylation-deficient mutation of the predicted PKC phosphorylation sites at either Ser373 or Thr406 in BR-C phenocopied RACK1 RNAi and altered the nuclear localization of BR-C. However, when BTB domain was deleted, phosphorylation mimics of either Ser373 or Thr406 had no effect on the nuclear import of BR-C. Moreover, mutating the PKC phosphorylation sites at Ser373 and Thr406 or deleting the BTB domain significantly decreased the transcriptional activation of a BR-C target gene. Given that RACK1 is necessary for recruiting PKC to close and phosphorylate target proteins, we suggest that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear import of BR-C is determined by its interaction with RACK1. This novel finding will be helpful for further deciphering the mechanism underlying the role of BR-C proteins during insect development. PMID:25280016

  11. Nanocarrier-mediated inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor attenuates secondary injury after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Tarun; Loomis, Kristin H; Pai, S Balakrishna; Karumbaiah, Lohitash; Gaupp, Eric; Patil, Ketki; Patkar, Radhika; Bellamkonda, Ravi V

    2015-02-24

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to permanent motor and sensory deficits. Following the initial traumatic insult, secondary injury mechanisms characterized by persistent heightened inflammation are initiated and lead to continued and pervasive cell death and tissue damage. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as methylprednisolone (MP) used clinically have ambiguous benefits with debilitating side effects. Typically, these drugs are administered systemically at high doses, resulting in toxicity and paradoxically increased inflammation. Furthermore, these drugs have a small time window postinjury (few hours) during which they need to be infused to be effective. As an alternative to MP, we investigated the effect of a small molecule inhibitor (Chicago sky blue, CSB) of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) for treating SCI. The pleiotropic cytokine MIF is known to contribute to upregulation of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in various disease and injury states. In vitro, CSB administration alleviated endotoxin-mediated inflammation in primary microglia and macrophages. Nanocarriers such as liposomes can potentially alleviate systemic side effects of high-dose therapy by enabling site-specific drug delivery to the spinal cord. However, the therapeutic window of 100 nm scale nanoparticle localization to the spinal cord after contusion injury is not fully known. Thus, we first investigated the ability of nanocarriers of different sizes to localize to the injured spinal cord up to 2 weeks postinjury. Results from the study showed that nanocarriers as large as 200 nm in diameter could extravasate into the injured spinal cord up to 96 h postinjury. We then formulated nanocarriers (liposomes) encapsulating CSB and administered them intravenously 48 h postinjury, within the previously determined 96 h therapeutic window. In vivo, in this clinically relevant contusion injury model in rats, CSB administration led to preservation of vascular and white matter integrity

  12. Mitogenic insulin receptor-A is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma due to EGFR-mediated dysregulation of RNA splicing factors.

    PubMed

    Chettouh, Hamza; Fartoux, Laetitia; Aoudjehane, Lynda; Wendum, Dominique; Clapéron, Audrey; Chrétien, Yves; Rey, Colette; Scatton, Olivier; Soubrane, Olivier; Conti, Filomena; Praz, Françoise; Housset, Chantal; Rosmorduc, Olivier; Desbois-Mouthon, Christèle

    2013-07-01

    Insulin receptor (IR) exists as two isoforms resulting from the alternative splicing of IR pre-mRNA. IR-B promotes the metabolic effects of insulin, whereas IR-A rather signals proliferative effects. IR-B is predominantly expressed in the adult liver. Here, we show that the alternative splicing of IR pre-mRNA is dysregulated in a panel of 85 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while being normal in adjacent nontumor liver tissue. An IR-B to IR-A switch is frequently observed in HCC tumors regardless of tumor etiology. Using pharmacologic and siRNA approaches, we show that the autocrine or paracrine activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR)/mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway increases the IR-A:IR-B ratio in HCC cell lines, but not in normal hepatocytes, by upregulating the expression of the splicing factors CUGBP1, hnRNPH, hnRNPA1, hnRNPA2B1, and SF2/ASF. In HCC tumors, there is a significant correlation between the expression of IR-A and that of splicing factors. Dysregulation of IR pre-mRNA splicing was confirmed in a chemically induced model of HCC in rat but not in regenerating livers after partial hepatectomy. This study identifies a mechanism responsible for the generation of mitogenic IR-A and provides a novel interplay between IR and EGFR pathways in HCC. Increased expression of IR-A during neoplastic transformation of hepatocytes could mediate some of the adverse effects of hyperinsulinemia on HCC.

  13. Platelet-Activating Factor Receptors Mediate Excitatory Postsynaptic Hippocampal Injury in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Geathers, Jasmine S.; Allan, Kevin C.; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2016-01-01

    Gray matter degeneration contributes to progressive disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and can occur out of proportion to measures of white matter disease. Although white matter pathology, including demyelination and axon injury, can lead to secondary gray matter changes, we hypothesized that neurons can undergo direct excitatory injury within the gray matter independent of these. We tested this using a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with hippocampal degeneration in C57BL/6 mice, in which immunofluorescent staining showed a 28% loss of PSD95-positive excitatory postsynaptic puncta in hippocampal area CA1 compared with sham-immunized controls, despite preservation of myelin and VGLUT1-positive excitatory axon terminals. Loss of postsynaptic structures was accompanied by appearance of PSD95-positive debris that colocalized with the processes of activated microglia at 25 d after immunization, and clearance of debris was followed by persistently reduced synaptic density at 55 d. In vitro, addition of activated BV2 microglial cells to hippocampal cultures increased neuronal vulnerability to excitotoxic dendritic damage following a burst of synaptic activity in a manner dependent on platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) signaling. In vivo treatment with PAFR antagonist BN52021 prevented PSD95-positive synapse loss in hippocampi of mice with EAE but did not affect development of EAE or local microglial activation. These results demonstrate that postsynaptic structures can be a primary target of injury within the gray matter in autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease, and suggest that this may occur via PAFR-mediated modulation of activity-dependent synaptic physiology downstream of microglial activation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Unraveling gray matter degeneration is critical for developing treatments for progressive disability and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). In a mouse model of MS, we show that neurons can undergo injury

  14. Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1b1 (PR1b1) Is a Major Tomato Fruit Protein Responsive to Chilling Temperature and Upregulated in High Polyamine Transgenic Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Tahira; Topuz, Muhamet; Bernadec, Anne; Sicher, Richard; Handa, Avtar K.; Mattoo, Autar K.

    2016-01-01

    of ethylene and methyl jasmonate signaling but may be linked to salicylic acid. We propose that polyamine-mediated sustained accumulation of PR1b1 protein in post-warmed chilled tomato fruit is a pre-emptive cold stress response and possibly a defense response mechanism related to Cold Stress-Induced Disease Resistance (SIDR) phenomenon. PMID:27446131

  15. Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1b1 (PR1b1) Is a Major Tomato Fruit Protein Responsive to Chilling Temperature and Upregulated in High Polyamine Transgenic Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravinder K; Fatima, Tahira; Topuz, Muhamet; Bernadec, Anne; Sicher, Richard; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2016-01-01

    ethylene and methyl jasmonate signaling but may be linked to salicylic acid. We propose that polyamine-mediated sustained accumulation of PR1b1 protein in post-warmed chilled tomato fruit is a pre-emptive cold stress response and possibly a defense response mechanism related to Cold Stress-Induced Disease Resistance (SIDR) phenomenon. PMID:27446131

  16. Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1b1 (PR1b1) Is a Major Tomato Fruit Protein Responsive to Chilling Temperature and Upregulated in High Polyamine Transgenic Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravinder K; Fatima, Tahira; Topuz, Muhamet; Bernadec, Anne; Sicher, Richard; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2016-01-01

    ethylene and methyl jasmonate signaling but may be linked to salicylic acid. We propose that polyamine-mediated sustained accumulation of PR1b1 protein in post-warmed chilled tomato fruit is a pre-emptive cold stress response and possibly a defense response mechanism related to Cold Stress-Induced Disease Resistance (SIDR) phenomenon.

  17. Factors Influencing Teaching Choice, Professional Plans about Teaching, and Future Time Perspective: A Mediational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay; Tezel, Kadir Vefa

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the mediating role of prospective English teachers' future time perspectives in relation to their motivations for teaching, beliefs about the profession, career choice satisfaction, and professional plans. A total of 423 prospective English teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The mediating role of the future…

  18. Toxicity of aflatoxin B1 towards the vitamin D receptor (VDR).

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Paola; Santini, Antonello; Fattore, Luigi; Novellino, Ettore; Ritieni, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    This research describes an unexpected toxicity of the aflatoxin B1 towards the vitamin D receptors. Rickets is a childhood disease, and calcium deficiency is the aetiological cause in Africa, being primarily associated with nutritional problems; in this research the contribution of aflatoxin B1 exposure during the early months of life is an interesting factor to deepen in order to prevent liver damages or the development of rickets. The results show that the expression of vitamin D receptor in osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 is significantly down-modulated by exposure to aflatoxin B1. This seems to suggest that Aflatoxin B1, toxic towards the vitamin D receptor, interferes with the actions of the vitamin D on calcium binding gene expression in the kidney and intestine. Experimental data indicate a 58% and 86% decrease if the cells are exposed to 5 ng/mL and 50 ng/mL of aflatoxin B1, respectively. These results seem to indicate that natural occurrence of the aflatoxin B1 and allelic variant of vitamin D receptor on (F allele) increase the risk of developing rickets of African children.

  19. Characterization and expression of a maternal axolotl cyclin B1 during oogenesis and early development.

    PubMed

    Pelczar, Hélène; Caulet, Stéphane; Thibier, Catherine; Aubet, Geneviève; Poulhe, Robert; Vallianou, Ioanna; Yamashita, Masakane; Andéol, Yannick

    2007-06-01

    The M phase promoting factor (MPF) is a dimer composed of a catalytic Cdk1 subunit and a Cyclin B regulatory subunit. We have characterized a cDNA containing the entire coding sequence of an axolotl Cyclin B1 protein that is able to promote MPF activity when added to a fraction from prophase I oocytes that contains monomeric Cdk1. The axolotl cyclin B1 gene is expressed as a maternal mRNA in oocytes and early embryos. Its poly(A) tail length increases in metaphase II oocytes and then decreases regularly during the first embryonic cell cycles. Endogenous Cyclin B1 protein is first expressed during oocyte meiotic maturation. Its level oscillates after fertilization and is coordinated to the phosphorylation level of tyrosine 15 residue of Cdk1 (pTyr15), with both maxima preceding each cell division. As expected, when translated into microinjected oocytes, axolotl Cyclin B1 induces the resumption of meiosis. In electrically activated unfertilized eggs (UFE), Cyclin B1 and pTyr15 cyclic accumulations are observed with kinetics different from those of the early embryonic cycles. The axolotl embryo and UFE provide interesting in vivo comparative models for studying events controlling Cyclin B1 regulation during development. PMID:17428262

  20. 26 CFR 1.669(b)-1 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information requirements. 1.669(b)-1 Section 1... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(b)-1 Information requirements. The election of a beneficiary who is... following information with respect to the operation and accounts of the foreign trust created by a...

  1. 26 CFR 1.280B-1 - Demolition of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Demolition of structures. 1.280B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.280B-1 Demolition of structures. (a) In general. Section 280B provides that, in the case of the demolition of any structure, no deduction...

  2. 26 CFR 1.280B-1 - Demolition of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Demolition of structures. 1.280B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.280B-1 Demolition of structures. (a) In general. Section 280B provides that, in the case of the demolition of any structure, no deduction...

  3. 26 CFR 1.280B-1 - Demolition of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Demolition of structures. 1.280B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.280B-1 Demolition of structures. (a) In general. Section 280B provides that, in the case of the demolition of any structure, no deduction...

  4. 17 CFR 260.10b-1 - Calculation of percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of percentages. 260.10b-1 Section 260.10b-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Calculation of percentages. The percentages of voting securities and other securities specified in section...

  5. 26 CFR 1.652(b)-1 - Character of amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Character of amounts. 1.652(b)-1 Section 1.652(b... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Trusts Which Distribute Current Income Only § 1.652(b)-1 Character of amounts. In determining the gross income of a beneficiary, the amounts includible under § 1.652(a)-1 have the...

  6. 75 FR 69971 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  7. 75 FR 69953 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

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  8. 75 FR 69960 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

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  9. 75 FR 69922 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

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  10. 75 FR 69926 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... ] TN16NO10.038 ] TN16NO10.039 ] TN16NO10.040 BILLING CODE 5001-06-C...

  11. 75 FR 69957 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... ] TN16NO10.034 BILLING CODE 5001-06-C...

  12. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for...

  13. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for...

  14. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for...

  15. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for...

  16. 26 CFR 1.643(b)-1 - Definition of income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of income. 1.643(b)-1 Section 1.643(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... of subparts A through D, part I, subchapter J, chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code, “income,”...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-1 - Imposition of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Imposition of tax. 48.4061(b)-1 Section 48.4061... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(b)-1 Imposition of tax. (a) In general. Section...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-1 - Imposition of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imposition of tax. 48.4061(b)-1 Section 48.4061... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(b)-1 Imposition of tax. (a) In general. Section...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-1 - Imposition of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Imposition of tax. 48.4061(b)-1 Section 48.4061... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(b)-1 Imposition of tax. (a) In general. Section...

  20. 26 CFR 1.280B-1 - Demolition of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., the term structure means a building, as defined in § 1.48-1(e)(1), including the structural components... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Demolition of structures. 1.280B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.280B-1 Demolition of structures. (a) In...

  1. 75 FR 74011 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  2. 75 FR 60424 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law...

  3. 77 FR 46423 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... support. (iv) Military Department: Army (WBL) (v) Prior Related Cases, if any: None (vi) Sales...

  4. 75 FR 81993 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  5. 76 FR 29212 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements...

  6. 76 FR 28956 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  7. 76 FR 26707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements...

  8. 76 FR 37078 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  9. 75 FR 20571 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law...

  10. 76 FR 38371 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  11. 76 FR 37075 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  12. 76 FR 37071 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  13. 75 FR 74014 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  14. 75 FR 48646 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD... 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law...

  15. 77 FR 68738 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English,...

  16. 77 FR 53182 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B....

  17. 77 FR 49432 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English,...

  18. 76 FR 30676 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B....

  19. 76 FR 107 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B....

  20. 76 FR 35188 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B....

  1. 75 FR 107 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703)...

  2. 77 FR 65185 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English,...

  3. 75 FR 114 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703)...

  4. 77 FR 49434 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English,...

  5. 76 FR 66044 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English,...

  6. 76 FR 40703 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  7. 75 FR 47275 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164, dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703)...

  8. 75 FR 5971 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703)...

  9. 76 FR 72182 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English,...

  10. 76 FR 30667 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English,...

  11. 77 FR 68740 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B....

  12. 77 FR 52698 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B....

  13. 76 FR 55651 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English,...

  14. 75 FR 42708 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD... 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164, dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703)...

  15. 77 FR 74832 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B....

  16. 76 FR 30670 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B....

  17. 76 FR 32958 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B....

  18. 77 FR 49436 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English,...

  19. 76 FR 103 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B....

  20. Genome Sequences of Five B1 Subcluster Mycobacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Barrus, E. Zane; Benedict, Alex B.; Brighton, Alicia K.; Fisher, Joshua N. B.; Gardner, Adam V.; Kartchner, Brittany J.; Ladle, Kara C.; Lunt, Bryce L.; Merrill, Bryan D.; Morrell, John D.; Burnett, Sandra H.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacteriophages infect members of the Mycobacterium genus in the phylum Actinobacteria and exhibit remarkable diversity. Genome analysis groups the thousands of known mycobacteriophages into clusters, of which the B1 subcluster is currently the third most populous. We report the complete genome sequences of five additional members of the B1 subcluster. PMID:24285667

  1. Genome sequences of five b1 subcluster mycobacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Donald P; Barrus, E Zane; Benedict, Alex B; Brighton, Alicia K; Fisher, Joshua N B; Gardner, Adam V; Kartchner, Brittany J; Ladle, Kara C; Lunt, Bryce L; Merrill, Bryan D; Morrell, John D; Burnett, Sandra H; Grose, Julianne H

    2013-11-27

    Mycobacteriophages infect members of the Mycobacterium genus in the phylum Actinobacteria and exhibit remarkable diversity. Genome analysis groups the thousands of known mycobacteriophages into clusters, of which the B1 subcluster is currently the third most populous. We report the complete genome sequences of five additional members of the B1 subcluster.

  2. 26 CFR 11.410(b)-1 - Minimum coverage requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum coverage requirements. 11.410(b)-1 Section 11.410(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY...

  3. Interaction of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid toxicities.

    PubMed

    Yates, I E; Cole, R J; Giles, J L; Dorner, J W

    1987-01-01

    Toxic properties of the mycotoxins cyclopiazonic acid and aflatoxin B1 have been analyzed separately and in combination by monitoring their effects on luminescence in the marine bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum, Strain NCMB 844. Genotoxicity was analyzed with a dark mutant of this organism whose reversion to the bioluminescent condition is stimulated by compounds attacking guanine sites in deoxyribonucleic acids. In this assay, cyclopiazonic acid, unlike aflatoxin B1, is not enhanced by cyclopiazonic acid when the two mycotoxins are assayed in combination. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the diminution of bioluminescence in a separate assay system with strain NRRLB-1177 of P. phosphoreum. Cyclopiazonic acid is more cytotoxic than aflatoxin B1, and concentrations of cyclopiazonic acid required for cytotoxicity decreases with time, whereas aflatoxin B1 cytotoxic expression does not change significantly with time under most assay conditions. Aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid assayed as a dose pair indicate that these mycotoxins elicit their effects by independent modes of action.

  4. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  5. The relationships of child and parent factors with children's anxiety symptoms: parental anxious rearing as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Waters, Allison M; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Farrell, Lara J

    2012-10-01

    A considerable body of research has identified various child and parent factors that contribute to and maintain anxiety symptoms in children. Yet relatively few studies have examined child factors (including threat-based cognitive bias, neuroticism, gender, puberty and age) as well as parent factors (including maternal anxiety and child-rearing style) in association with child anxiety symptoms, and the extent to which these factors serve as unique predictors of child anxiety. Moreover, research is lacking on whether parent factors such as child-rearing style, which is often targeted in early intervention and treatment programs, might mediate the association between child factors such as neuroticism, and child anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 85 children between 7 and 12 years of age with varying levels of anxiety, including those with diagnosed anxiety disorders, results showed that children were more anxious when they were reported to be more advanced in pubertal status by their parents, when they had a tendency to interpret more threat in ambiguous situations, and when they self-reported more neuroticism. Regarding parent factors, maternal self-reported trait anxiety and children's perceptions of their mother as having an anxious child-rearing style were associated with higher levels of child anxiety. Moreover, when these correlates of child anxiety were examined in a multivariate model to identify those that had direct as well as indirect associations via maternal anxious child-rearing style, child neuroticism remained as a significant and unique predictor of child anxiety that was also mediated by maternal anxious-rearing. Child neuroticism also mediated the relationship between child pubertal stage and anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of relevant theory and empirical evidence regarding the roles of both child and parent factors in the development of child anxiety.

  6. Transportable, Chemical Genetic Methodology for the Small Molecule-Mediated Inhibition of Heat Shock Factor 1.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher L; Dewal, Mahender B; Nekongo, Emmanuel E; Santiago, Sebasthian; Lu, Nancy B; Levine, Stuart S; Shoulders, Matthew D

    2016-01-15

    Proteostasis in the cytosol is governed by the heat shock response. The master regulator of the heat shock response, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and key chaperones whose levels are HSF1-regulated have emerged as high-profile targets for therapeutic applications ranging from protein misfolding-related disorders to cancer. Nonetheless, a generally applicable methodology to selectively and potently inhibit endogenous HSF1 in a small molecule-dependent manner in disease model systems remains elusive. Also problematic, the administration of even highly selective chaperone inhibitors often has the side effect of activating HSF1 and thereby inducing a compensatory heat shock response. Herein, we report a ligand-regulatable, dominant negative version of HSF1 that addresses these issues. Our approach, which required engineering a new dominant negative HSF1 variant, permits dosable inhibition of endogenous HSF1 with a selective small molecule in cell-based model systems of interest. The methodology allows us to uncouple the pleiotropic effects of chaperone inhibitors and environmental toxins from the concomitantly induced compensatory heat shock response. Integration of our method with techniques to activate HSF1 enables the creation of cell lines in which the cytosolic proteostasis network can be up- or down-regulated by orthogonal small molecules. Selective, small molecule-mediated inhibition of HSF1 has distinctive implications for the proteostasis of both chaperone-dependent globular proteins and aggregation-prone intrinsically disordered proteins. Altogether, this work provides critical methods for continued exploration of the biological roles of HSF1 and the therapeutic potential of heat shock response modulation.

  7. Data integration for identification of important transcription factors of STAT6-mediated cell fate decisions.

    PubMed

    Jargosch, M; Kröger, S; Gralinska, E; Klotz, U; Fang, Z; Chen, W; Leser, U; Selbig, J; Groth, D; Baumgrass, R

    2016-06-24

    Data integration has become a useful strategy for uncovering new insights into complex biological networks. We studied whether this approach can help to delineate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6)-mediated transcriptional network driving T helper (Th) 2 cell fate decisions. To this end, we performed an integrative analysis of publicly available RNA-seq data of Stat6-knockout mouse studies together with STAT6 ChIP-seq data and our own gene expression time series data during Th2 cell differentiation. We focused on transcription factors (TFs), cytokines, and cytokine receptors and delineated 59 positively and 41 negatively STAT6-regulated genes, which were used to construct a transcriptional network around STAT6. The network illustrates that important and well-known TFs for Th2 cell differentiation are positively regulated by STAT6 and act either as activators for Th2 cells (e.g., Gata3, Atf3, Satb1, Nfil3, Maf, and Pparg) or as suppressors for other Th cell subpopulations such as Th1 (e.g., Ar), Th17 (e.g., Etv6), or iTreg (e.g., Stat3 and Hif1a) cells. Moreover, our approach reveals 11 TFs (e.g., Atf5, Creb3l2, and Asb2) with unknown functions in Th cell differentiation. This fact together with the observed enrichment of asthma risk genes among those regulated by STAT6 underlines the potential value of the data integration strategy used here. Thus, our results clearly support the opinion that data integration is a useful tool to delineate complex physiological processes.

  8. Data integration for identification of important transcription factors of STAT6-mediated cell fate decisions.

    PubMed

    Jargosch, M; Kröger, S; Gralinska, E; Klotz, U; Fang, Z; Chen, W; Leser, U; Selbig, J; Groth, D; Baumgrass, R

    2016-01-01

    Data integration has become a useful strategy for uncovering new insights into complex biological networks. We studied whether this approach can help to delineate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6)-mediated transcriptional network driving T helper (Th) 2 cell fate decisions. To this end, we performed an integrative analysis of publicly available RNA-seq data of Stat6-knockout mouse studies together with STAT6 ChIP-seq data and our own gene expression time series data during Th2 cell differentiation. We focused on transcription factors (TFs), cytokines, and cytokine receptors and delineated 59 positively and 41 negatively STAT6-regulated genes, which were used to construct a transcriptional network around STAT6. The network illustrates that important and well-known TFs for Th2 cell differentiation are positively regulated by STAT6 and act either as activators for Th2 cells (e.g., Gata3, Atf3, Satb1, Nfil3, Maf, and Pparg) or as suppressors for other Th cell subpopulations such as Th1 (e.g., Ar), Th17 (e.g., Etv6), or iTreg (e.g., Stat3 and Hif1a) cells. Moreover, our approach reveals 11 TFs (e.g., Atf5, Creb3l2, and Asb2) with unknown functions in Th cell differentiation. This fact together with the observed enrichment of asthma risk genes among those regulated by STAT6 underlines the potential value of the data integration strategy used here. Thus, our results clearly support the opinion that data integration is a useful tool to delineate complex physiological processes. PMID:27420972

  9. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1-mediated Hyperthermia Involves Anterior Hypothalamic Insulin Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Osborn, Olivia; Tabarean, Iustin V.; Holmberg, Kristina H.; Eberwine, James; Kahn, C. Ronald; Bartfai, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the regulation of core body temperature. Sequencing cDNA libraries from individual warm-sensitive neurons from the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus, a region involved in the central control of thermoregulation, identified neurons that express both IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor transcripts. The effects of administration of IGF-1 into the POA was measured by radiotelemetry monitoring of core temperature, brown adipose tissue (BAT) temperature, metabolic assessment, and imaging of BAT by positron emission tomography of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake combined with computed tomography. IGF-1 injection into the POA caused dose-dependent hyperthermia that could be blocked by pretreatment with the IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PQ401. The IGF-1-evoked hyperthermia involved activation of brown adipose tissue and was accompanied by a switch from glycolysis to fatty acid oxidation as a source of energy as shown by lowered respiratory exchange ratio. Transgenic mice that lack neuronal insulin receptor expression in the brain (NIRKO mice) were unable to mount the full hyperthermic response to IGF-1, suggesting that the IGF-1 mediated hyperthermia is partly dependent on expression of functional neuronal insulin receptors. These data indicate a novel thermoregulatory role for both IGF-1R and neuronal insulin receptors in IGF-1 activation of BAT and hyperthermia. These central effects of IGF-1 signaling may play a role in regulation of metabolic rate, aging, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. PMID:21330367

  10. Frs2α enhances fibroblast growth factor-mediated survival and differentiation in lens development

    PubMed Central

    Madakashira, Bhavani P.; Kobrinski, Daniel A.; Hancher, Andrew D.; Arneman, Elizabeth C.; Wagner, Brad D.; Wang, Fen; Shin, Hailey; Lovicu, Frank J.; Reneker, Lixing W.; Robinson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Most growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) signal through similar intracellular pathways, but they often have divergent biological effects. Therefore, elucidating the mechanism of channeling the intracellular effect of RTK stimulation to facilitate specific biological responses represents a fundamental biological challenge. Lens epithelial cells express numerous RTKs with the ability to initiate the phosphorylation (activation) of Erk1/2 and PI3-K/Akt signaling. However, only Fgfr stimulation leads to lens fiber cell differentiation in the developing mammalian embryo. Additionally, within the lens, only Fgfrs activate the signal transduction molecule Frs2α. Loss of Frs2α in the lens significantly increases apoptosis and decreases phosphorylation of both Erk1/2 and Akt. Also, Frs2α deficiency decreases the expression of several proteins characteristic of lens fiber cell differentiation, including Prox1, p57KIP2, aquaporin 0 and β-crystallins. Although not normally expressed in the lens, the RTK TrkC phosphorylates Frs2α in response to binding the ligand NT3. Transgenic lens epithelial cells expressing both TrkC and NT3 exhibit several features characteristic of lens fiber cells. These include elongation, increased Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation, and the expression of β-crystallins. All these characteristics of NT3-TrkC transgenic lens epithelial cells depend on Frs2α. Therefore, tyrosine phosphorylation of Frs2α mediates Fgfr-dependent lens cell survival and provides a mechanistic basis for the unique fiber-differentiating capacity of Fgfs on mammalian lens epithelial cells. PMID:23136392

  11. Psychosocial Factors of Antenatal Anxiety and Depression in Pakistan: Is Social Support a Mediator?

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Ahmed; Raza, Nahal; Lodhi, Haneen Wajid; Muhammad, Zerwah; Jamal, Mehak; Rehman, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy is generally viewed as a time of fulfillment and joy; however, for many women it can be a stressful event. In South Asia it is associated with cultural stigmas revolving around gender discrimination, abnormal births and genetic abnormalities. Methodology This cross-sectional study was done at four teaching hospitals in Lahore from February, 2014 to June, 2014. A total of 500 pregnant women seen at hospital obstetrics and gynecology departments were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of three sections: demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS). Pearson’s chi-squared test, bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression were used to analyze associations between the independent variables and scores on the HADS and SPS. Results Mean age among the 500 respondents was 27.41 years (5.65). Anxiety levels in participants were categorized as normal (145 women, 29%), borderline (110, 22%) or anxious (245, 49%). Depression levels were categorized as normal (218 women, 43.6%), borderline (123, 24.6%) or depressed (159, 31.8%). Inferential analysis revealed that higher HADS scores were significantly associated with lower scores on the SPS, rural background, history of harassment, abortion, cesarean delivery and unplanned pregnancies (P < .05). Social support (SPS score) mediated the relationship between the total number of children, gender of previous children and HADS score. Women with more daughters were significantly more likely to score higher on the HADS and lower on the SPS, whereas higher numbers of sons were associated with the opposite trends in the scores (P < .05). Conclusion Because of the predominantly patriarchal sociocultural context in Pakistan, the predictors of antenatal anxiety and depression may differ from those in developed countries. We therefore suggest that interventions designed and implemented to reduce antenatal anxiety and depression should take into

  12. Novel role of lactosylceramide in vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Mohanraj; Kolmakova, Antonina; Chatterjee, Subroto

    2005-10-14

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in angiogenesis associated with coronary heart disease, vascular complications in diabetes, inflammatory vascular diseases, and tumor metastasis. The mechanism of VEGF-driven angiogenesis involving glycosphingolipids such as lactosylceramide (LacCer), however, is not known. To demonstrate the involvement of LacCer in VEGF-induced angiogenesis, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of LacCer synthase expression (GalT-V) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. This gene silencing markedly inhibited VEGF-induced platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) expression and angiogenesis. Second, we used D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (D-PDMP), an inhibitor of LacCer synthase and glucosylceramide synthase, that significantly mitigated VEGF-induced PECAM-1 expression and angiogenesis. Interestingly, these phenotypic changes were reversed by LacCer but not by structurally related compounds such as glucosylceramide, digalactosylceramide, and ceramide. In a human mesothelioma cell line (REN) that lacks the endogenous expression of PECAM-1, VEGF/LacCer failed to stimulate PECAM-1 expression and tube formation/angiogenesis. In REN cells expressing human PECAM-1 gene/protein, however, both VEGF and LacCer-induced PECAM-1 protein expression and tube formation/angiogenesis. In fact, VEGF-induced but not LacCer-induced angiogenesis was mitigated by SU-1498, a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also, VEGF/LacCer-induced PECAM-1 expression and angiogenesis was mitigated by protein kinase C and phospholipase A2 inhibitors. These results indicate that LacCer generated in VEGF-treated endothelial cells may serve as an important signaling molecule for PECAM-1 expression and in angiogenesis. This finding and the reagents developed in our report may be useful as anti-angiogenic drugs for further studies in vitro and in vivo. PMID:16151023

  13. Staphylococcus aureus clumping factor B mediates biofilm formation in the absence of calcium

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Nabil M.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of nosocomial infections and a major cause of community-acquired infections. Biofilm formation is a key virulence determinant in certain types of S. aureus infection, especially those involving inserted medical devices. We found in a previous study that the calcium chelators sodium citrate and EGTA inhibit biofilm formation in certain strains of S. aureus but actually augment biofilm formation in other strains. Even two closely related strains, Newman and 10833, exhibited strikingly different biofilm phenotypes in the presence of calcium chelators, in that biofilm formation was inhibited in Newman but augmented in 10833. We also found that the surface protein clumping factor B (ClfB) plays a role in this phenomenon. In this study, we confirm that ClfB is required for biofilm formation under calcium-depleted conditions. We investigated the post-translational regulation of ClfB-mediated biofilm formation and found evidence that both calcium and the protease aureolysin disrupt established ClfB-dependent biofilms. Finally, we investigated the genetic basis for the biofilm-negative phenotype in strain Newman versus the biofilm-positive phenotype in strain 10833 under calcium-depleted conditions and found that strain 10833 contains a deletion that results in a stop codon within the aureolysin gene (aur). When 10833 expressed Newman aur, surface-associated ClfB and the ability to form a biofilm in chelating conditions was lost. Thus, the positive effect of chelating agents on biofilm formation in certain strains can be explained by increased ClfB activity in the absence of calcium and the discrepancy in the response of strains 10833 and Newman can be explained by point mutations in aur. This study reveals a previously unknown, to our knowledge, role for ClfB in biofilm formation and underscores the potential for striking phenotypic variability resulting from minor differences in strain background. PMID:22442307

  14. Phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor mediates epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype conversions in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi; Hogan, Victor; Raz, Avraham

    2009-07-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor (PGI/AMF) is a housekeeping gene product/cytokine that catalyzes a step in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, and acts as a multifunctional cytokine associated with aggressive tumors. PGI/AMF has been correlated significantly with breast cancer progression and poor prognosis in breast cancer. We show here that ectopic expression of PGI/AMF induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MCF10A normal human breast epithelial cells, and inhibition of PGI/AMF expression triggered mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in aggressive mesenchymal-type human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. EMT in MCF10A cells was shown by morphologic changes and loss of E-cadherin/beta-catenin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, which is concomitant with the induction of the E-cadherin transcriptional repressor Snail and proteosome-dependent degradation of beta-catenin protein. Molecular analysis showed that PGI/AMF suppressed epithelial marker expressions and enhanced mesenchymal marker expressions. Silencing of PGI/AMF expression by RNA interference in MDA-MB-231 cells induced the reverse processes of EMT including altered cell shape, gain of epithelial marker, and reduction of mesenchymal marker, e.g., MET. Taken together, the results show the involvement of PGI/AMF in both EMT and MET: overexpression of PGI/AMF induces EMT in normal breast epithelial cells and reduction of PGI/AMF expression led to MET in aggressive breast cancer cells. These results suggest for the first time that PGI/AMF is a key gene to both EMT in the initiating step of cancer metastasis and MET in the later stage of metastasis during breast cancer progression.

  15. Optimising plasticity: environmental and training associated factors in transplant-mediated brain repair.

    PubMed

    Döbrössy, Màtè Daniel; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2005-01-01

    With progressively ageing populations, degeneration of nerve cells of the brain, due to accident or disease, represents one of the major problems for health and welfare in the developed world. The molecular environment in the adult brain promotes stability limiting its ability to regenerate or to repair itself following injury. Cell transplantation aims to repair the nervous system by introducing new cells that can replace the function of the compromised or lost cells. Alternatives to primary embryonic tissue are actively being sought but this is at present the only source that has been shown reliably to survive grafting into the adult brain and spinal cord, connect with the host nervous system, and influence behaviour. Based on animal studies, several clinical trials have now shown that embryonic tissue grafts can partially alleviate symptoms in Parkinson's disease, and related strategies are under evaluation for Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke and other CNS disorders. The adult brain is at its most plastic in the period following injury, offering a window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Enriched environment, behavioural experience and grafting can each separately influence neuronal plasticity and recovery of function after brain damage, but the extent to which these factors interact is at present unknown. To improve the outcome following brain damage, transplantation must make use of the endogenous potential for plasticity of both the host and the graft and optimise the external circumstances associated with graft-mediated recovery. Our understanding of mechanisms of brain plasticity subsequent to brain damage needs to be associated with what we know about enhancing intrinsic recovery processes in order to improve neurobiological and surgical strategies for repair at the clinical level. With the proof of principle beginning to emerge from clinical trials, a rich area for innovative research with profound therapeutic application, even

  16. Developmental conditioning of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated vasorelaxation

    PubMed Central

    Stead, Rebecca; Musa, Moji G.; Bryant, Claire L.; Lanham, Stuart A.; Johnston, David A.; Reynolds, Richard; Torrens, Christopher; Fraser, Paul A.; Clough, Geraldine F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The endothelium maintains vascular homeostasis through the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRF) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH). The balance in EDH : EDRF is disturbed in cardiovascular disease and may also be susceptible to developmental conditioning through exposure to an adverse uterine environment to predispose to later risk of hypertension and vascular disease. Methods: Developmentally conditioned changes in EDH : EDRF signalling pathways were investigated in cremaster arterioles (18–32 μm diameter) and third-order mesenteric arteries of adult male mice offspring of dams fed either a fat-rich (high fat, HF, 45% energy from fat) or control (C, 10% energy from fat) diet. After weaning, offspring either continued on high fat or were placed on control diets to give four dietary groups (C/C, HF/C, C/HF, and HF/HF) and studied at 15 weeks of age. Results: EDH via intermediate (IKCa) and small (SKca) conductance calcium-activated potassium channels contributed less than 10% to arteriolar acetylcholine-induced relaxation in in-situ conditioned HF/C offspring compared with ∼60% in C/C (P < 0.01). The conditioned reduction in EDH signalling in HF/C offspring was reversed in offspring exposed to a high-fat diet both before and after weaning (HF/HF, 55%, P < 0.01 vs. HF/C). EDH signalling was unaffected in arterioles from C/HF offspring. The changes in EDH : EDRF were associated with altered endothelial cell expression and localization of IKCa channels. Conclusion: This is the first evidence that EDH-mediated microvascular relaxation is susceptible to an adverse developmental environment through down-regulation of the IKCa signalling pathway. Conditioned offspring exposed to a ‘second hit’ (HF/HF) exhibit adaptive vascular mechanisms to preserve dilator function. PMID:26682783

  17. Rapidly activated epidermal growth factor receptor mediates lipopolysaccharide-triggered migration of microglia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Jun-Li; Li, Chun-Yu; Li, Xiao; Xie, Min-Jie; Wang, Wei; Tian, Dai-Shi

    2015-11-01

    Previous reports have suggested that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in microglia activation characterized by cell morphology changes, cytokine production and cell migration; and the biochemical regulation of the microglia migration is a potential therapeutic target following CNS inflammatory damages. However, the role of EGFR in microglia motility after inflammatory stimulation remains unknown. In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found to trigger rapid EGFR phosphorylation within 10 min, which was sustained during long-term stimulation in both primary microglial cells and the cultured BV2 microglial cells, furthermore, blocking EGFR phosphorylation by AG1478 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced chemotactic and chemokinetic migration of microglia. In addition, LPS could initiate calcium oscillation in microglia during live-cell recording, however, an intracellular calcium chelator and a selective inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, but not an extracellular calcium chelator, remarkably suppressed the LPS-induced EGFR phosphorylation in BV2 microglia cells. As EGFR is not a traditional receptor for LPS, these findings suggest that the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR is attributed to the LPS-triggered intracellular calcium mobilization. By examining the downstream signals of EGFR, we further proved that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is essential for EGFR-mediated microglia migration, because ERK inhibition attenuated the chemotactic and chemokinetic migration of microglia that had been induced by either LPS or EGF. Collectively, these results suggest that LPS could trigger the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR and subsequent ERK activation through mobilizing calcium activity, which underlies the microglia migration in an inflammatory condition.

  18. The Arabidopsis Glucosyltransferase UGT76B1 Conjugates Isoleucic Acid and Modulates Plant Defense and Senescence[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    von Saint Paul, Veronica; Zhang, Wei; Kanawati, Basem; Geist, Birgit; Faus-Keßler, Theresa; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schäffner, Anton R.

    2011-01-01

    Plants coordinate and tightly regulate pathogen defense by the mostly antagonistic salicylate (SA)- and jasmonate (JA)-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we show that the previously uncharacterized glucosyltransferase UGT76B1 is a novel player in this SA-JA signaling crosstalk. UGT76B1 was selected as the top stress-induced isoform among all 122 members of the Arabidopsis thaliana UGT family. Loss of UGT76B1 function leads to enhanced resistance to the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and accelerated senescence but increased susceptibility toward necrotrophic Alternaria brassicicola. This is accompanied by constitutively elevated SA levels and SA-related marker gene expression, whereas JA-dependent markers are repressed. Conversely, UGT76B1 overexpression has the opposite effect. Thus, UGT76B1 attenuates SA-dependent plant defense in the absence of infection, promotes the JA response, and delays senescence. The ugt76b1 phenotypes were SA dependent, whereas UGT76B1 overexpression indicated that this gene possibly also has a direct effect on the JA pathway. Nontargeted metabolomic analysis of UGT76B1 knockout and overexpression lines using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry and activity assays with the recombinant enzyme led to the ab initio identification of isoleucic acid (2-hydroxy-3-methyl-pentanoic acid) as a substrate of UGT76B1. Exogenously applied isoleucic acid increased resistance against P. syringae infection. These findings indicate a novel link between amino acid–related molecules and plant defense that is mediated by small-molecule glucosylation. PMID:22080599

  19. Insulin-like growth factor factor binding protein-2 is a novel mediator of p53 inhibition of insulin-like growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, Adda; Coleman, Carrie M; Shi, Zonggao; Burns, Timothy F; MacLachlan, Timothy K; Wang, Wenge; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2006-10-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor induces cellular growth arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage by transcriptionally activating or repressing target genes and also through protein-protein interactions and direct mitochondrial activities. In 1995, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 was identified as one of the genes transcriptionally activated by p53. IGFBP-3 is one of six closely related IGFBP's, with additional IGFBP-related proteins belonging to the IGFBP superfamily. Here we show that IGFBP-2 is also a p53 target. Like IGFBP-3, IGFBP-2 secretion is reduced when p53+/+ lung cancer cells are transfected with human papillomavirus E6, which targets p53 for degradation. IGFBP-2 mRNA is induced by irradiation in vivo in a p53-dependent manner. p53 protein binds IGFBP-2 intronic sequences in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and activates transcription in a luciferase assay. Loss of IGFBP-2 inhibits the ability of p53 to inhibit the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1 by IGF-I. Thus, p53 effects on the IGF axis are more complex than previously appreciated, and overall transform the axis from IGF-mediated mitogenesis to growth inhibition and apoptosis. This has significant implications for how growth hormone and IGF-I can induce growth without also inducing cancer.

  20. Transcription factor ART1 mediates starch hydrolysis and mycotoxin production in Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Oh, Mira; Son, Hokyoung; Choi, Gyung Ja; Lee, Chanhui; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Hun; Lee, Yin-Won

    2016-06-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the responses to environmental factors, such as nitrogen, carbon and pH, involve components that regulate the production of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins. In this study, we identified and characterized a gene in the FGSG_02083 locus, designated as FgArt1, which was predicted to encode a Zn(II)2 Cys6 zinc finger transcription factor. An FgArt1 deletion mutant of Fusarium graminearum exhibited impaired starch hydrolysis as a result of significantly reduced α-amylase gene expression. The deletion strain was unable to produce trichothecenes and exhibited low Tri5 and Tri6 expression levels, whereas the complemented strain showed a similar ability to produce trichothecenes as the wild-type strain. In addition, FgArt1 deletion resulted in impairment of germination in starch liquid medium and reduced pathogenicity on flowering wheat heads. To investigate the roles of the FgArt1 homologue in F. verticillioides, we deleted the FVEG_02083 gene, and the resulting strain showed defects in starch hydrolysis, similar to the FgArt1 deletion strain, and produced no detectable level of fumonisin B1 . Fum1 and Fum12 expression levels were undetectable in the deletion strain. However, when the FvArt1-deleted F. verticillioides strain was complemented with FgArt1, the resulting strain was unable to recover the production of fumonisin B1 , although FgArt1 expression and starch hydrolysis were induced. Thus, our results suggest that there are different regulatory pathways governed by each ART1 transcription factor in trichothecene and fumonisin biosynthesis. Taken together, we suggest that ART1 plays an important role in both trichothecene and fumonisin biosynthesis by the regulation of genes involved in starch hydrolysis.

  1. Role of RNA splicing in mediating lineage-specific expression of the von Willebrand factor gene in the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lei; Janes, Lauren; Beeler, David; Spokes, Katherine C; Smith, Joshua; Li, Dan; Jaminet, Shou-Ching; Oettgen, Peter; Aird, William C

    2013-05-23

    We previously demonstrated that the first intron of the human von Willebrand factor (vWF) is required for gene expression in the endothelium of transgenic mice. Based on this finding, we hypothesized that RNA splicing plays a role in mediating vWF expression in the vasculature. To address this question, we used transient transfection assays in human endothelial cells and megakaryocytes with intron-containing and intronless human vWF promoter-luciferase constructs. Next, we generated knockin mice in which LacZ was targeted to the endogenous mouse vWF locus in the absence or presence of the native first intron or heterologous introns from the human β-globin, mouse Down syndrome critical region 1, or hagfish coagulation factor X genes. In both the in vitro assays and the knockin mice, the loss of the first intron of vWF resulted in a significant reduction of reporter gene expression in endothelial cells but not megakaryocytes. This effect was rescued to varying degrees by the introduction of a heterologous intron. Intron-mediated enhancement of expression was mediated at a posttranscriptional level. Together, these findings implicate a role for intronic splicing in mediating lineage-specific expression of vWF in the endothelium.

  2. Psychological distress as a mediator in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students. PMID:22885453

  3. Psychological distress as a mediator in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

  4. Constructing the Suicide Risk Index (SRI): does it work in predicting suicidal behavior in young adults mediated by proximal factors?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Maebh; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a key concern among young adults. The aim of the study was to (1) construct a suicide risk index (SRI) based on demographic, situational, and behavioral factors known to be linked to suicidal behavior and (2) investigate whether the association between the SRI and suicidal behavior was mediated by proximal processes (personal factors, coping strategies, and emotional states). Participants consisted of 7,558 individuals aged 17-25 years (M = 20.35, SD = 1.91). Nearly 22% (n = 1,542) reported self-harm and 7% (n = 499) had attempted suicide. Mediation analysis revealed both a direct effect (ß = .299, 95% CI = [.281, .317], p < .001), and a mediated effect (ß = .204, 95% CI = [.186, .222], p < .001), between the risk index and suicidal behavior. The strongest mediators were levels of self-esteem, depression, and avoidant coping. Interventions to increase self-esteem, reduce depression, and encourage adaptive coping strategies may prevent suicidal behavior in young people. PMID:25058873

  5. Maternal Factors as Moderators or Mediators of PTSD Symptoms in Very Young Children: A Two-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Scheeringa, Michael S.; Myers, Leann; Putnam, Frank W.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Research has suggested that parenting behaviors and other parental factors impact the long-term outcome of children’s posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. In a sample of 62 children between the ages of one and six who experienced life-threatening traumas, PTSD was measured prospectively two years apart. Seven maternal factors were measured in a multi-method, multi-informant design. Both moderation and mediation models, with different theoretical and mechanism implications, were tested. Moderation models were not significant. Mediation models were significant when the mediator variable was maternal symptoms of PTSD or depression (measured at Time 1), self-report of maternal escape/avoidance coping (measured at Time 2), or self-report emotional sensitivity (measured at Time 2). Greater maternal emotional sensitivity was associated with greater Time 2 PTSD symptoms among children. Observational measures of emotional sensitivity as the mediator were not supported. Correlation of parents’ and children’s symptoms is a robust finding, however caution is warranted in attributing children’s PTSD symptoms to insensitive parenting. PMID:26120248

  6. Constructing the Suicide Risk Index (SRI): does it work in predicting suicidal behavior in young adults mediated by proximal factors?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Maebh; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a key concern among young adults. The aim of the study was to (1) construct a suicide risk index (SRI) based on demographic, situational, and behavioral factors known to be linked to suicidal behavior and (2) investigate whether the association between the SRI and suicidal behavior was mediated by proximal processes (personal factors, coping strategies, and emotional states). Participants consisted of 7,558 individuals aged 17-25 years (M = 20.35, SD = 1.91). Nearly 22% (n = 1,542) reported self-harm and 7% (n = 499) had attempted suicide. Mediation analysis revealed both a direct effect (ß = .299, 95% CI = [.281, .317], p < .001), and a mediated effect (ß = .204, 95% CI = [.186, .222], p < .001), between the risk index and suicidal behavior. The strongest mediators were levels of self-esteem, depression, and avoidant coping. Interventions to increase self-esteem, reduce depression, and encourage adaptive coping strategies may prevent suicidal behavior in young people.

  7. Dual effects of phloretin on aflatoxin B1 metabolism: activation and detoxification of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang Shang; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zhu, Ri Zhe; Choi, Byung-Min; Kim, Sun Jun; Kim, Bok-Ryang

    2012-01-01

    Typically, chemopreventive agents involve either induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes and/or inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) that are required for the activation of procarcinogens. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of phloretin against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) activation to the ultimate carcinogenic intermediate, AFB(1)-8, 9-epoxide (AFBO), and its subsequent detoxification. Phloretin markedly inhibited formation of the epoxide with human liver microsomes in a dose-dependent manner. Phloretin also inhibited the activities of nifedipine oxidation and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in human liver microsomes. These data show that phloretin strongly inhibits CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activities, which are involved in the activation of AFB1. Phloretin increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of alpha mouse liver 12 (AML 12) cells in a dose-dependent manner. GST activity toward AFBO in cell lysates treated with 20 μM phloretin was 23-fold that of untreated control cell lysates. The expression of GSTA3, GSTA4, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 was induced by phloretin in a dose-dependent manner in AML 12 cells. GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 were able to significantly increase the conjugation of AFBO with glutathione. Concurrently, induction of the GST isozyme genes was partially associated with the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Taken together, the results demonstrate that phloretin has a strong chemopreventive effect against AFB1 through its inhibitory effect on CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and its inductive effect on GST activity. PMID:22253071

  8. Aflatoxin B1 transfer and metabolism in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Heidi A; El-Nezami, Hani S; Leppänen, Jukka M; Myllynen, Päivi K; Woodhouse, Heather J; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a common dietary contaminant, is a major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early onset of HCC in some countries in Africa and South-East Asia indicates the importance of early life exposure. Placenta is the primary route for various compounds, both nutrients and toxins, from the mother to the fetal circulation. Furthermore, placenta contains enzymes for xenobiotic metabolism. AFB1, AFB1-metabolites, and AFB1-albumin adducts have been detected in cord blood of babies after maternal exposure during pregnancy. However, the role that the placenta plays in the transfer and metabolism of AFB1 is not clear. In this study, placental transfer and metabolism of AFB1 were investigated in human placental perfusions and in in vitro studies. Eight human placentas were perfused with 0.5 or 5microM AFB1 for 2-4 h. In vitro incubations with placental microsomal and cytosolic proteins from eight additional placentas were also conducted. Our results from placental perfusions provide the first direct evidence of the actual transfer of AFB1 and its metabolism to aflatoxicol (AFL) by human placenta. In vitro incubations with placental cytosolic fraction confirmed the capacity of human placenta to form AFL. AFL was the only metabolite detected in both perfusions and in vitro incubations. Since AFL is less mutagenic, but putatively as carcinogenic as AFB1, the formation of AFL may not protect the fetus from the toxicity of AFB1.

  9. Insulin-like growth factor I interfaces with brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated synaptic plasticity to modulate aspects of exercise-induced cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Ding, Q; Vaynman, S; Akhavan, M; Ying, Z; Gomez-Pinilla, F

    2006-07-01

    The ability of exercise to benefit neuronal and cognitive plasticity is well recognized. This study reveals that the effects of exercise on brain neuronal and cognitive plasticity are in part modulated by a central source of insulin-like growth factor-I. Exercise selectively increased insulin-like growth factor-I expression without affecting insulin-like growth factor-II expression in the rat hippocampus. To determine the role that insulin-like growth factor-I holds in mediating exercise-induced neuronal and cognitive enhancement, a specific antibody against the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor was used to block the action of insulin-like growth factor-I in the hippocampus during a 5-day voluntary exercise period. A two-trial-per-day Morris water maze was performed for five consecutive days, succeeded by a probe trial 2 days later. Blocking hippocampal insulin-like growth factor-I receptors did not significantly attenuate the ability of exercise to enhance learning acquisition, but abolished the effect of exercise on augmenting recall. Blocking the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor significantly reversed the exercise-induced increase in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein and pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein, suggesting that the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I may be partially accomplished by modulating the precursor to the mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor. A molecular analysis revealed that exercise significantly elevated proteins downstream to brain-derived neurotrophic factor activation important for synaptic function, i.e. synapsin I, and signal transduction cascades associated with memory processes, i.e. phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II and phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase II. Blocking the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor abolished these exercise-induced increases. Our results illustrate a possible mechanism by which insulin-like growth factor-I interfaces

  10. Mediated effects of physical risk factors, leader-member exchange and empowerment in predicting perceived injury risk.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Jeffery; Matthews, Russell A; Foley, Caroline

    2012-04-01

    In the context of conservation of resources theory, we examine the indirect (mediated) effects of physical risk factors, leader-member exchange (LMX) and empowerment on perceived injury risk in a heterogeneous sample (N = 226) of individuals employed in occupations related to production, construction and installation/maintenance. Positioning work role stressors and upward safety communications as two important mediating variables, as predicted, LMX and empowerment demonstrated significant indirect effects on perceived injury risk. Results from our model also provide preliminary evidence that an asymmetrical dualistic process exists in terms of the effect physical risk factors have on perceived injury risk via depletion of both psychological (i.e. role stressors) and physical resources (i.e. physical symptoms). Theoretical and practical implications based on the results of our model are also discussed.

  11. Associations between the prenatal environment and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls: Internalizing and externalizing behavior symptoms as mediators

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Sarah J.; Hillman, Jennifer; Dorn, Lorah D.; Out, Dorothée; Pabst, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines links among adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms, the prenatal environment (e.g., nicotine exposure) and pre/perinatal maternal health, and cardiovascular risk factors. Girls (N=262) ages 11–17 reported internalizing and externalizing behaviors and mothers reported about the prenatal environment and maternal health during and 3 months post-pregnancy. Adolescent cardiovascular risk included adiposity, smoking, blood pressure, and salivary C-reactive protein. Internalizing symptoms mediated relations between prenatal exposures/maternal health and adiposity; externalizing symptoms mediated relations between prenatal exposures and adolescent smoking. Healthcare providers who attend to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in girls may ultimately influence cardiovascular health, especially among those with pre/perinatal risk factors. PMID:25750471

  12. Interactions between Twist and other core epithelial–mesenchymal transition factors are controlled by GSK3-mediated phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Lander, Rachel; Nasr, Talia; Ochoa, Stacy D.; Nordin, Kara; Prasad, Maneeshi S.; LaBonne, Carole

    2014-01-01

    A subset of transcription factors classified as neural crest ‘specifiers’ are also core epithelial–mesenchymal transition regulatory factors, both in the neural crest and in tumour progression. The bHLH factor Twist is among the least well studied of these factors. Here we demonstrate that Twist is required for cranial neural crest formation and fate determination in Xenopus. We further show that Twist function in the neural crest is dependent upon its carboxy-terminal WR domain. The WR domain mediates physical interactions between Twist and other core epithelial–mesenchymal transition factors, including Snail1 and Snail2, which are essential for proper function. Interaction with Snail1/2, and Twist function more generally, is regulated by GSK-3-β-mediated phosphorylation of conserved sites in the WR domain. Together, these findings elucidate a mechanism for coordinated control of a group of structurally diverse factors that function as a regulatory unit in both developmental and pathological epithelial–mesenchymal transitions. PMID:23443570

  13. A Novel Subpopulation of B-1 Cells Is Enriched With Autoreactivity in Normal and Lupus-Prone Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xuemei; Lau, Stanley; Bai, Chunyan; Degauque, Nicolas; Holodick, Nichol E.; Steven, Scott J.; Tumang, Joseph; Gao, Wenda; Rothstein, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective B-1 cells have long been suggested to play an important role in lupus. However, reports to date have been controversial regarding their pathogenic or protective roles in different animal models. We undertook this study to investigate a novel subpopulation of B-1 cells and its roles in murine lupus. Methods Lymphocyte phenotypes were assessed by flow cytometry. Autoantibody secretion was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, autoantigen proteome array, and antinuclear antibody assay. Cell proliferation was measured by thymidine incorporation and 5,6-carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dilution. B cell Ig isotype switching was measured by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Results Anti–double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) autoantibodies were preferentially secreted by a subpopulation of CD5+ B-1 cells that expressed programmed death ligand 2 (termed L2pB1 cells). A substantial proportion of hybridoma clones generated from L2pB1 cells reacted to dsDNA. Moreover, these clones were highly cross-reactive with other lupus-related autoantigens. L2pB1 cells were potent antigen-presenting cells and promoted Th17 cell differentiation in vitro. A dramatic increase of circulating L2pB1 cells in lupus-prone BXSB mice was correlated with elevated serum titers of anti-dsDNA antibodies. A significant number of L2pB1 cells preferentially switched to IgG1 and IgG2b when stimulated with interleukin-21. Conclusion Our findings identify a novel subpopulation of B-1 cells that is enriched for autoreactive specificities, undergoes isotype switch, manifests enhanced antigen presentation, promotes Th17 cell differentiation, and is preferentially associated with the development of lupus in a murine model. Together, these findings suggest that L2pB1 cells have the potential to initiate autoimmunity through serologic and T cell–mediated mechanisms. PMID:19950285

  14. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor- and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Mediated Matrix Metalloproteinase Production by Human Osteoblasts and Monocytes after Infection with Brucella abortus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Scian, Romina; Barrionuevo, Paula; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Baldi, Pablo C.; Delpino, M. Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarticular complications are common in human brucellosis, but the pathogenic mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in joint and bone damage in inflammatory and infectious diseases, we investigated the production of MMPs by human osteoblasts and monocytes, either upon Brucella abortus infection or upon reciprocal stimulation with factors produced by each infected cell type. B. abortus infection of the normal human osteoblastic cell line hFOB 1.19 triggered a significant release of MMP-2, which was mediated in part by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) acting on these same cells. Supernatants from infected osteoblasts exhibited increased levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cell line). Infection with B. abortus induced a high MMP-9 secretion in monocytes, which was also induced by heat-killed B. abortus and by the Omp19 lipoprotein from B. abortus. These effects were mediated by Toll-like receptor 2 and by the action of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) produced by these same cells. Supernatants from B. abortus-infected monocytes induced MMP-2 secretion in uninfected osteoblasts, and this effect was mediated by TNF-α. Similarly, supernatants from infected osteoblasts induced MMP-9 secretion in uninfected monocytes. This effect was mediated by GM-CSF, which induced TNF-α production by monocytes, which in turn induced MMP-9 in these cells. These results suggest that MMPs could be potentially involved in the tissue damage observed in osteoarticular brucellosis. PMID:20956574

  15. Formation of B-1 B Cells from Neonatal B-1 Transitional Cells Exhibits NF-κB Redundancy

    PubMed Central

    Montecino-Rodriguez, Encarnacion; Dorshkind, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The stages of development leading up to the formation of mature B-1 cells have not been identified. As a result, there is no basis for understanding why various genetic defects, and those in the classical or alternative NF-κB pathways in particular, differentially affect the B-1 and B-2 B cell lineages. Here, we demonstrate that B-1 B cells are generated from transitional cell intermediates that emerge in a distinct neonatal wave of development that is sustained for approximately two weeks after birth and then declines as B-2 transitional cells predominate. We further show that, in contrast to the dependence of B-2 transitional cells on the alternative pathway, the survival of neonatal B-1 transitional cells and their maturation into B-1 B cells occurs as long as either alternative or classical NF-κB signaling is intact. Based on these results, we have generated a model of B-1 development that allows the defects in B-1 and B-2 cell production observed in various NF-κB deficient strains of mice to be placed into a coherent cellular context. PMID:22031760

  16. Differentiation inducing factor 3 mediates its anti-leukemic effect through ROS-dependent DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fission and induction of caspase-independent cell death

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Alix; Ginet, Clemence; Furstoss, Nathan; Belaid, Amine; Hamouda, Mohamed Amine; El Manaa, Wedjene; Cluzeau, Thomas; Marchetti, Sandrine; Ricci, Jean Ehrland; Jacquel, Arnaud; Luciano, Frederic; Driowya, Mohsine; Benhida, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor (DIF) defines a group of chlorinated hexaphenones that orchestrate stalk-cell differentiation in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum (DD). DIF-1 and 3 have also been reported to have tumor inhibiting properties; however, the mechanisms that underlie the effects of these compounds remain poorly defined. Herein, we show that DIF-3 rapidly triggers Ca2+ release and a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in the absence of cytochrome c and Smac release and without caspase activation. Consistently with these findings, we also detected no evidence of apoptosis in cells treated with DIF-3 but instead found that this compound induced autophagy. In addition, DIF-3 promoted mitochondrial fission in K562 and HeLa cells, as assessed by electron and confocal microscopy analysis. Importantly, DIF-3 mediated the phosphorylation and redistribution of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) from the cytoplasmic to the microsomal fraction of K562 cells. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA silencing of DRP1 not only inhibited mitochondrial fission but also protected K562 cells from DIF-3-mediated cell death. Furthermore, DIF-3 potently inhibited the growth of imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant K562 cells. It also inhibited tumor formation in athymic mice engrafted with an imatinib-resistant CML cell line. Finally, DIF-3 exhibited a clear selectivity toward CD34+ leukemic cells from CML patients, compared with CD34− cells. In conclusion, we show that the potent anti-leukemic effect of DIF-3 is mediated through the induction of mitochondrial fission and caspase-independent cell death. Our findings may have important therapeutic implications, especially in the treatment of tumors that exhibit defects in apoptosis regulation. PMID:27027430

  17. Differentiation inducing factor 3 mediates its anti-leukemic effect through ROS-dependent DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fission and induction of caspase-independent cell death.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Alix; Ginet, Clemence; Furstoss, Nathan; Belaid, Amine; Hamouda, Mohamed Amine; El Manaa, Wedjene; Cluzeau, Thomas; Marchetti, Sandrine; Ricci, Jean Ehrland; Jacquel, Arnaud; Luciano, Frederic; Driowya, Mohsine; Benhida, Rachid; Auberger, Patrick; Robert, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor (DIF) defines a group of chlorinated hexaphenones that orchestrate stalk-cell differentiation in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum (DD). DIF-1 and 3 have also been reported to have tumor inhibiting properties; however, the mechanisms that underlie the effects of these compounds remain poorly defined. Herein, we show that DIF-3 rapidly triggers Ca2+ release and a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in the absence of cytochrome c and Smac release and without caspase activation. Consistently with these findings, we also detected no evidence of apoptosis in cells treated with DIF-3 but instead found that this compound induced autophagy. In addition, DIF-3 promoted mitochondrial fission in K562 and HeLa cells, as assessed by electron and confocal microscopy analysis. Importantly, DIF-3 mediated the phosphorylation and redistribution of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) from the cytoplasmic to the microsomal fraction of K562 cells. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA silencing of DRP1 not only inhibited mitochondrial fission but also protected K562 cells from DIF-3-mediated cell death. Furthermore, DIF-3 potently inhibited the growth of imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant K562 cells. It also inhibited tumor formation in athymic mice engrafted with an imatinib-resistant CML cell line. Finally, DIF-3 exhibited a clear selectivity toward CD34+ leukemic cells from CML patients, compared with CD34- cells. In conclusion, we show that the potent anti-leukemic effect of DIF-3 is mediated through the induction of mitochondrial fission and caspase-independent cell death. Our findings may have important therapeutic implications, especially in the treatment of tumors that exhibit defects in apoptosis regulation.

  18. Differentiation inducing factor 3 mediates its anti-leukemic effect through ROS-dependent DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fission and induction of caspase-independent cell death.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Alix; Ginet, Clemence; Furstoss, Nathan; Belaid, Amine; Hamouda, Mohamed Amine; El Manaa, Wedjene; Cluzeau, Thomas; Marchetti, Sandrine; Ricci, Jean Ehrland; Jacquel, Arnaud; Luciano, Frederic; Driowya, Mohsine; Benhida, Rachid; Auberger, Patrick; Robert, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    Differentiation-inducing factor (DIF) defines a group of chlorinated hexaphenones that orchestrate stalk-cell differentiation in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum (DD). DIF-1 and 3 have also been reported to have tumor inhibiting properties; however, the mechanisms that underlie the effects of these compounds remain poorly defined. Herein, we show that DIF-3 rapidly triggers Ca2+ release and a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in the absence of cytochrome c and Smac release and without caspase activation. Consistently with these findings, we also detected no evidence of apoptosis in cells treated with DIF-3 but instead found that this compound induced autophagy. In addition, DIF-3 promoted mitochondrial fission in K562 and HeLa cells, as assessed by electron and confocal microscopy analysis. Importantly, DIF-3 mediated the phosphorylation and redistribution of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) from the cytoplasmic to the microsomal fraction of K562 cells. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA silencing of DRP1 not only inhibited mitochondrial fission but also protected K562 cells from DIF-3-mediated cell death. Furthermore, DIF-3 potently inhibited the growth of imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant K562 cells. It also inhibited tumor formation in athymic mice engrafted with an imatinib-resistant CML cell line. Finally, DIF-3 exhibited a clear selectivity toward CD34+ leukemic cells from CML patients, compared with CD34- cells. In conclusion, we show that the potent anti-leukemic effect of DIF-3 is mediated through the induction of mitochondrial fission and caspase-independent cell death. Our findings may have important therapeutic implications, especially in the treatment of tumors that exhibit defects in apoptosis regulation. PMID:27027430

  19. Uncovering MicroRNA and Transcription Factor Mediated Regulatory Networks in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchun; Gong, Xue; Purow, Benjamin; Zhao, Zhongming

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal brain tumor in humans. Recent studies revealed that patterns of microRNA (miRNA) expression in GBM tissue samples are different from those in normal brain tissues, suggesting that a number of miRNAs play critical roles in the pathogenesis of GBM. However, little is yet known about which miRNAs play central roles in the pathology of GBM and their regulatory mechanisms of action. To address this issue, in this study, we systematically explored the main regulation format (feed-forward loops, FFLs) consisting of miRNAs, transcription factors (TFs) and their impacting GBM-related genes, and developed a computational approach to construct a miRNA-TF regulatory network. First, we compiled GBM-related miRNAs, GBM-related genes, and known human TFs. We then identified 1,128 3-node FFLs and 805 4-node FFLs with statistical significance. By merging these FFLs together, we constructed a comprehensive GBM-specific miRNA-TF mediated regulatory network. Then, from the network, we extracted a composite GBM-specific regulatory network. To illustrate the GBM-specific regulatory network is promising for identification of critical miRNA components, we specifically examined a Notch signaling pathway subnetwork. Our follow up topological and functional analyses of the subnetwork revealed that six miRNAs (miR-124, miR-137, miR-219-5p, miR-34a, miR-9, and miR-92b) might play important roles in GBM, including some results that are supported by previous studies. In this study, we have developed a computational framework to construct a miRNA-TF regulatory network and generated the first miRNA-TF regulatory network for GBM, providing a valuable resource for further understanding the complex regulatory mechanisms in GBM. The observation of critical miRNAs in the Notch signaling pathway, with partial verification from previous studies, demonstrates that our network-based approach is promising for the identification of new and important

  20. Properties of L=1 B(1) and B(2)* mesons.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, C; Clément, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Martins, C De Oliveira; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutierrez, P; Gutierrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Y Garzón, G J Otero; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; da Silva, W L Prado; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; 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Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-10-26

    This Letter presents the first strong evidence for the resolution of the excited B mesons B(1) and B(2)* as two separate states in fully reconstructed decays to B(+)(*)pi(-). The mass of B(1) is measured to be 5720.6+/-2.4+/-1.4 MeV/c(2) and the mass difference DeltaM between B(2)* and B(1) is 26.2+/-3.1+/-0.9 MeV/c;{2}, giving the mass of the B(2)* as 5746.8+/-2.4+/-1.7 MeV/c(2). The production rate for B(1) and B(2)* mesons is determined to be a fraction (13.9+/-1.9+/-3.2)% of the production rate of the B+ meson. PMID:17995320

  1. B-1 cells as a source of IgA.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Almut

    2015-12-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundantly produced immunoglobulin found primarily on mucosal surfaces. The generation of IgA and its involvement in mucosal immune responses have been intensely studied over the past years. IgA can be generated in T cell-dependent and T cell-independent pathways, and it has an important impact on maintaining homeostasis within the mucosal immune system. There is good evidence that B-1 cells contribute substantially to the production of mucosal IgA and thus play an important role in regulating commensal microbiota. However, whether B-1