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Sample records for factor blocks kainic

  1. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by kainic acid mediates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression through a NF-kappaB dependent mechanism in C6 glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hana; Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Jung Yeon; Choi, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ju Hie; Baik, Hyung Hwan; Kim, Sung Soo; Choe, Wonchae; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug

    2008-07-04

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Kainic acid (KA), a prototype excitotoxin is known to induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in brain. In this study, we examined the role of AMPK in KA-induced BDNF expression in C6 glioma cells. We showed that KA and KA receptor agonist induced activation of AMPK and KA-induced AMPK activation was blocked by inhibition of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) {beta}. We then showed that inhibition of AMPK by compound C, a selective inhibitor of AMPK, or small interfering RNA of AMPK{alpha}1 blocked KA-induced BDNF mRNA and protein expression. Inhibition of AMPK blocked KA-induced phosphorylation of CaMKII and I kappaB kinase (IKK) in C6 cells. Finally, we showed that inhibition of AMPK reduced DNA binding and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) in KA-treated cells. These results suggest that AMPK mediates KA-induced BDNF expression by regulating NF-{kappa}B activation.

  2. Propolis ameliorates tumor nerosis factor-α, nitric oxide levels, caspase-3 and nitric oxide synthase activities in kainic acid mediated excitotoxicity in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Mummedy; Suhaili, Dian; Sirajudeen, K N S; Mustapha, Zulkarnain; Govindasamy, Chandran

    2014-01-01

    Increased nitric oxide (NO), neuronal inflammation and apoptosis have been proposed to be involved in excitotoxicity plays a part in many neurodegenerative diseases. To understand the neuro-protective effects of propolis, activities of Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and caspase-3 along with NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were studied in cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB) and brain stem (BS) in rats supplemented with propolis prior to excitotoxic injury with kainic acid (KA). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=6 rats per group) as Control, KA, Propolis and KA+Propolis. The control group and KA group have received vehicle and saline. Propolis group and propolis + KA group were orally administered with propolis (150 mg/kg body weight), five times every 12 hours. KA group and propolis +KA group were injected subcutaneously with kainic acid (15 mg/kg body weight) and were sacrificed after 2 hrs. CC, CB and BS were separated, homogenized and used for estimation of NOS, caspase-3, NO and TNF-α by commercial kits. Results were analyzed by one way ANOVA, reported as mean + SD (n=6 rats), and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The concentration of NO, TNF-α, NOS and caspase-3 activity were increased significantly (p<0.001) in all the three brain regions tested in KA group compared to the control. Propolis supplementation significantly (p<0.001) prevented the increase in NOS, NO, TNF-α and caspase-3 due to KA. Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the propolis supplementation attenuated the NOS, caspase-3 activities, NO, and TNF-α concentration and in KA mediated excitotoxicity. Hence propolis can be a possible potential protective agent against excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Uncaria rhynchophylla and rhynchophylline improved kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures via IL-1β and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tin-Yun; Tang, Nou-Ying; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2014-05-15

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) has been used for the treatment of convulsions and epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. This study reported the major anti-convulsive signaling pathways and effective targets of UR and rhynchophylline (RP) using genomic and immunohistochemical studies. Epileptic seizure model was established by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA) in rats. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings indicated that UR and RP improved KA-induced epileptic seizures. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and neurotrophin signaling pathways were regulated by UR in both cortex and hippocampus of KA-treated rats. KA upregulated the expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF), which were involved in TLR and neurotrophin signaling pathways, respectively. However, UR and RP downregulated the KA-induced IL-1β and BDNF gene expressions. Our findings suggested that UR and RP exhibited anti-convulsive effects in KA-induced rats via the regulation of TLR and neurotrophin signaling pathways, and the subsequent inhibition of IL-1β and BDNF gene expressions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise, but not environmental enrichment, improves learning after kainic acid-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration in association with an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, O L; O'Mara, S M

    2005-04-15

    Previous studies have suggested that exercise in a running wheel can be neuroprotective, perhaps due to, among others, gene-expression changes after exercise, increases in trophic proteins and/or enhanced cardiovascular responsivity. Here we ask whether physical exercise or environmental enrichment provide protection after brain damage, especially in terms of recovery of cognitive function. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of these conditions, we used the kainic acid (KA) model of neuronal injury. Systemically-administered KA induces excitotoxicity by overstimulation of glutamate receptors, resulting in neuronal death by necrosis and apoptosis. Our results show that exercise, but not enriched environment, prior to KA-induced brain damage, improved behavioural performance in both Morris watermaze and object exploration tasks. However, prior exercise did not decrease to control levels the hyperactivity normally seen in KA-treated animals, as measured by ambulation in the open field. Furthermore, both exercise and enriched environment did not protect against neuron loss in CA1, CA2 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus, despite a substantial increase in brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) levels in dentate gyrus of the exercise and KA-treated animals.

  5. Pregnane X Receptor Not Nuclear Factor-kappa B Up-regulates P-glycoprotein Expression in the Brain of Chronic Epileptic Rats Induced by Kainic Acid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nian; Zhang, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Kang; Cheng, Yong-Fei; Ma, Hai-Yan; Di, Qing

    2017-03-16

    Drug-resistance epilepsy (DRE) is attributed to the brain P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression. We previously reported that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) played a critical role in regulating P-gp expression at the brain of the acute seizure rats. This study was extended further to investigate the interaction effect of NF-κB and pregnane X receptor (PXR) on P-gp expression at the brain of chronic epileptic rats treated with carbamazepine (CBZ). The chronic epileptic models were induced by the micro-injection of kainic acid (KA) into rats' hippocampus. Subsequently, the successful models were treated with different intervention agents of CBZ; PMA(a non-specific PXR activity inhibitor) or PDTC(a specific NF-κB activity inhibitor) respectively. The expression levels of P-gp and its encoded gene mdr1a/b were significantly up-regulated on the brain of KA-induced chronic epilepsy rats or the epilepsy rats treated with CBZ for 1 week, meanwhile with a high expression of PXR. The treatment of PMA dramatically reduced both PXR and P-gp expressions at the protein and mRNA levels in the chronic epilepsy brain. By compared to the epilepsy model group, the P-gp expression was not markedly attenuated by the inhibition of NF-κB activity with PDTC treatment, nevertheless with a decrease of NF-κB expression in this intervention group. Higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines(IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) were found both in the brain tissue and the serum in the epilepsy rats of each group. There was a declined trend of the pro-inflammatory cytokines expression of the PDTC treatment group but with no statistical significance. This study demonstrates for the first time that P-gp up-regulation is due to increase PXR expression in the chronic phase of epilepsy, differently from that NF-κB signaling may induce the P-gp expression in the acute seizure phase. Our results offer insights into the mechanism underlying the development of DRE using or not using CBZ treatment.

  6. Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activity Regulates Brain Expression of P-Glycoprotein in the Kainic Acid-Induced Seizure Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Nian; Di, Qing; Liu, Hao; Hu, Yong; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Yu-kui; Zhang, Yan-fang; Zhang, Ying-dong

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of NF-κB activity on the seizure susceptibility, brain damage, and P-gp expression in kainic acid- (KA-) induced seizure rats. Male SD rats were divided into saline control group (NS group), KA induced epilepsy group (EP group), and epilepsy group intervened with NF-κB inhibitor-pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate salt (PDTC group) or with dexamethasone (DEX group). No seizures were observed in the rats of NS group. Compared with NS group, increased P-gp expression and NF-κB activation in the rat brain of the EP group were observed after KA micro-injection. Both PDTC and DEX pre-treatment significantly increased the latency to grade III or V seizure onset compared to EP group but failed to show neuron-protective effect as the number of survival neurons didn't significantly differ from that in EP group. Furthermore, PDTC pre-treatment significantly decreased P-gp expression along with NF-κB activation in the hippocampus CA3 area and amygdala complex of rats compared with the EP group, implying that NF-κB activation involved in the seizure susceptibility and seizure induced brain P-gp over-expression. Additionally, DEX pre-treatment only decreased P-gp expression level without inhibition of NF-κB activation, suggesting NF-κB independent pathway may also participate in regulating seizure induced P-gp over-expression. PMID:21403895

  7. Nuclear factor-kappa B activity regulates brain expression of P-glycoprotein in the kainic acid-induced seizure rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nian; Di, Qing; Liu, Hao; Hu, Yong; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Yu-kui; Zhang, Yan-fang; Zhang, Ying-dong

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of NF-κB activity on the seizure susceptibility, brain damage, and P-gp expression in kainic acid- (KA-) induced seizure rats. Male SD rats were divided into saline control group (NS group), KA induced epilepsy group (EP group), and epilepsy group intervened with NF-κB inhibitor-pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate salt (PDTC group) or with dexamethasone (DEX group). No seizures were observed in the rats of NS group. Compared with NS group, increased P-gp expression and NF-κB activation in the rat brain of the EP group were observed after KA micro-injection. Both PDTC and DEX pre-treatment significantly increased the latency to grade III or V seizure onset compared to EP group but failed to show neuron-protective effect as the number of survival neurons didn't significantly differ from that in EP group. Furthermore, PDTC pre-treatment significantly decreased P-gp expression along with NF-κB activation in the hippocampus CA3 area and amygdala complex of rats compared with the EP group, implying that NF-κB activation involved in the seizure susceptibility and seizure induced brain P-gp over-expression. Additionally, DEX pre-treatment only decreased P-gp expression level without inhibition of NF-κB activation, suggesting NF-κB independent pathway may also participate in regulating seizure induced P-gp over-expression.

  8. A Single Oral Dose of Geranylgeranylacetone Upregulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Protects against Kainic Acid-Induced Neuronal Cell Death: Involvement of the Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase/Akt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Yukari; Fujiki, Minoru; Uchida, Susumu; Morishige, Masaki; Momii, Yasutomo; Ishii, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the cytoprotective effect of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a heat shock protein inducer, against ischemic insult or kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal cell death. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt is thought to be an important factor that mediates neuroprotection. However, the signaling pathways in the brain in vivo after oral GGA administration remain unclear. We measured and compared hippocampal neuron density to investigate the effect of GGA on KA-induced cell death in rats. We evaluated the effects of pretreatment with wortmannin (Wort), a specific PI3K inhibitor, on GGA-induced neuroprotection against KA-induced cell death. To clarify the relationship between PI3K/Akt activation and neuroprotection, we used immunoblot analysis to determine the amounts of p-Akt and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins present after GGA administration with or without Wort treatment. Neuroprotective effects of GGA (pretreatment with a single oral dose of GGA, 800 mg/kg, 48 h before KA injection) were prevented by Wort pretreatment, which indicates that the selective PI3K/Akt pathway may mediate the GGA-dependent protection. Oral GGA-induced p-Akt and VEGF, and GGA pretreatment enhanced KA-induced VEGF, both of which were prevented by Wort pretreatment. These results suggest that a single oral dose of GGA induces p-Akt and that GGA plays an important role in neuroprotection against KA-induced neuronal cell death through VEGF induction. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Protective effect of hispidulin on kainic acid-induced seizures and neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu Yu; Lu, Cheng Wei; Wang, Su Jane; Huang, Shu Kuei

    2015-05-15

    Hispidulin is a flavonoid compound which is an active ingredient in a number of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, and it has been reported to inhibit glutamate release. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hispidulin protects against seizures induced by kainic acid, a glutamate analog with excitotoxic properties. The results indicated that intraperitoneally administering hispidulin (10 or 50mg/kg) to rats 30 min before intraperitoneally injecting kainic acid (15 mg/kg) increased seizure latency and decreased seizure score. In addition, hispidulin substantially attenuated kainic acid-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death, and this protective effect was accompanied by the suppression of microglial activation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus. Moreover, hispidulin reduced kainic acid-induced c-Fos expression and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the hippocampus. These data suggest that hispidulin has considerable antiepileptic, neuroprotective, and antiinflammatory effects on kainic acid-induced seizures in rats.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in seizures during development.

    PubMed

    Tandon, P; Yang, Y; Das, K; Holmes, G L; Stafstrom, C E

    1999-01-01

    Although the immature brain is highly susceptible to seizures, it is more resistant to seizure-induced neuronal loss than the adult brain. The developing brain contains high levels of neurotrophins which are involved in growth, differentiation and survival of neurons. To test the hypothesis that neurotrophins may protect the developing brain from seizure-induced neuronal loss, brain-derived neurotrophic factor up-regulation was blocked by intracerebroventricular infusion of an 18mer antisense oligodeoxynucleotide sequence to brain-derived neurotrophic factor in 19-day-old rats using micro-osmotic pumps. Control rats were infused with sense or missense oligodeoxynucleotide. Status epilepticus was induced by intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid 24 h after the start of oligodeoxynucleotide infusion. Seizure duration was significantly increased in the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide plus kainic acid group compared to groups that received kainic acid alone or kainic acid plus sense or missense oligodeoxynucleotide. There was no difference between groups in the latency to forelimb clonus. A twofold increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels was observed in the hippocampus 20 h following kainic acid-induced seizures. This kainic acid-induced increase was absent in animals receiving infusion of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to brain-derived neurotrophic factor at time of seizure induction. Hippocampi of rats in this group (antisense oligodeoxynucleotide plus kainic acid) showed a loss of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and hilar interneurons. This neuronal loss was not dependent upon seizure duration since animals injected with diazepam to control seizure activity in the antisense plus kainic acid group also showed similar neuronal loss. Administration of kainic acid or infusion of antisense alone did not produce any cell loss in these regions. Induction of seizures at postnatal day 20, in the presence or absence of antisense oligonucleotide, did not produce

  11. Automatic Blocking Of QR and LU Factorizations for Locality

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Q; Kennedy, K; You, H; Seymour, K; Dongarra, J

    2004-03-26

    QR and LU factorizations for dense matrices are important linear algebra computations that are widely used in scientific applications. To efficiently perform these computations on modern computers, the factorization algorithms need to be blocked when operating on large matrices to effectively exploit the deep cache hierarchy prevalent in today's computer memory systems. Because both QR (based on Householder transformations) and LU factorization algorithms contain complex loop structures, few compilers can fully automate the blocking of these algorithms. Though linear algebra libraries such as LAPACK provides manually blocked implementations of these algorithms, by automatically generating blocked versions of the computations, more benefit can be gained such as automatic adaptation of different blocking strategies. This paper demonstrates how to apply an aggressive loop transformation technique, dependence hoisting, to produce efficient blockings for both QR and LU with partial pivoting. We present different blocking strategies that can be generated by our optimizer and compare the performance of auto-blocked versions with manually tuned versions in LAPACK, both using reference BLAS, ATLAS BLAS and native BLAS specially tuned for the underlying machine architectures.

  12. Computing eigenvectors of block tridiagonal matrices based on twisted block factorizations

    PubMed Central

    König, Gerhard; Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N.

    2012-01-01

    New methods for computing eigenvectors of symmetric block tridiagonal matrices based on twisted block factorizations are explored. The relation of the block where two twisted factorizations meet to an eigenvector of the block tridiagonal matrix is reviewed. Based on this, several new algorithmic strategies for computing the eigenvector efficiently are motivated and designed. The underlying idea is to determine a good starting vector for an inverse iteration process from the twisted block factorizations such that a good eigenvector approximation can be computed with a single step of inverse iteration. An implementation of the new algorithms is presented and experimental data for runtime behaviour and numerical accuracy based on a wide range of test cases are summarized. Compared with competing state-of-the-art tridiagonalization-based methods, the algorithms proposed here show strong reductions in runtime, especially for very large matrices and/or small bandwidths. The residuals of the computed eigenvectors are in general comparable with state-of-the-art methods. In some cases, especially for strongly clustered eigenvalues, a loss in orthogonality of some eigenvectors is observed. This is not surprising, and future work will focus on investigating ways for improving these cases. PMID:23471102

  13. Choriocarcinoma: blocking factor and monoclonal antibody iodine 131 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pattillo, R.A.; Khazaeli, M.B.; Ruckert, A.C.; Hussa, R.O.; Collier, B.D.; Beierwaltes, W.; Mattingly, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    Postoperative iodine 131 monoclonal antibody localization in metastatic choriocarcinoma was accomplished in this study. The monoclonal antibody was prepared to male choriocarcinoma which cross reacted with gestational choriocarcinoma. The antibody was raised against whole choriocarcinoma cells and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) cross reactivity was excluded. The purified antibody was iodinated with /sup 131/I and successfully imaged BeWo choriocarcinoma transplanted in nude mice; however, imaging of choriocarcinoma in a patient was verified only after resection. It is our belief that failure to sufficiently concentrate the antibody in the tumor before operation was due to blocking factor in the serum of the patient. Blocking factor and hCG dropped postoperatively. Blocking factor activity in 15 patients with metastatic trophoblastic disease was monitored and, like hCG, was found to be a sensitive indicator of the presence of disease. Its efficacy may be in the small number of patients without hCG but with persistent disease.

  14. Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Chun-Hua

    1996-12-31

    The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

  15. Geometrical factors in propagation block and spiral wave initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykov, Vladimir; Krekhov, Alexei; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2017-09-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies indicate that a propagation block represents an important factor in spiral wave initiation in excitable media. The analytical and numerical results we obtained for a generic two-component reaction-diffusion system demonstrate quantitative conditions for the propagation block in a one-dimensional and a two-dimensional medium due to a sharp spatial increase of the medium's excitability or the coupling strength above a certain critical value. Here, we prove that this critical value strongly depends on the medium parameters and the geometry of the inhomogeneity. For an exemplary two-dimensional medium, we show how the propagation block can be used to initiate spiral waves by a specific choice of the size and shape of the medium's inhomogeneity.

  16. Chronic activity wheel running reduces the severity of kainic acid-induced seizures in the rat: possible role of galanin.

    PubMed

    Reiss, J I; Dishman, R K; Boyd, H E; Robinson, J K; Holmes, P V

    2009-04-17

    Studies in both humans and rodents suggest that exercise can be neuroprotective, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are still poorly understood. Three weeks of voluntary, physical activity in rats upregulates prepro-galanin messenger RNA levels in the locus coeruleus. Galanin is a neuropeptide extensively coexisting with norepinephrine that decreases neuronal hyperexcitability both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, exercise may diminish neural hyperexcitability through a galaninergic mechanism. The current experiments tested whether voluntary activity wheel running would protect against kainic acid-evoked seizures and whether galaninergic signaling is a necessary factor in this protection. In experiment 1, rats were given access to running wheels or remained sedentary for three weeks. After this period, rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 0, 7, 10 or 14 mg/kg kainic acid. Exercise decreased the severity of or eliminated seizure behaviors and hippocampal c-fos expression induced by kainic acid. In experiment 2, exercising or sedentary rats were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with 0.2 or 0.4 microg of kainic acid following either an injection of M-40 (a galanin receptor antagonist) or saline. Exercise decreased kainic acid-induced seizures at the 0.2 microg dose, and M-40 (6 nmol) decreased this effect. In contrast, there were no detectable differences between exercising and sedentary rats in behavior at the 0.4 microg dose. The results suggest that the protective effects of exercise against seizures are at least partially mediated by regulation of neural excitability through a process involving galanin.

  17. Estimate Soil Erodibility Factors Distribution for Maioli Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wen-Ying

    2014-05-01

    The natural conditions in Taiwan are poor. Because of the steep slopes, rushing river and fragile geology, soil erosion turn into a serious problem. Not only undermine the sloping landscape, but also created sediment disaster like that reservoir sedimentation, river obstruction…etc. Therefore, predict and control the amount of soil erosion has become an important research topic. Soil erodibility factor (K) is a quantitative index of distinguish the ability of soil to resist the erosion separation and handling. Taiwan soil erodibility factors have been calculated 280 soil samples' erodibility factors by Wann and Huang (1989) use the Wischmeier and Smith nomorgraph. 221 samples were collected at the Maioli block in Miaoli. The coordinates of every sample point and the land use situations were recorded. The physical properties were analyzed for each sample. Three estimation methods, consist of Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Spline, were applied to estimate soil erodibility factors distribution for Maioli block by using 181 points data, and the remaining 40 points for the validation. Then, the SPSS regression analysis was used to comparison of the accuracy of the training data and validation data by three different methods. Then, the best method can be determined. In the future, we can used this method to predict the soil erodibility factors in other areas.

  18. Tiagabine treatment in kainic acid induced cerebellar lesion of dystonia rat model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tsui-chin; Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements. The exaggerated movements have been studied and have implicated basal ganglia as the point of origin. In more recent studies, the cerebellum has also been identified as the possible target of dystonia, in the search for alternative treatments. Tiagabine is a selective GABA transporter inhibitor, which blocks the reuptake and recycling of GABA. The study of GABAergic drugs as an alternative treatment for cerebellar induced dystonia has not been reported. In our study, tiagabine was i.p. injected into kainic acid induced, cerebellar dystonic adult rats, and the effects were compared with non-tiagabine injected and sham-operated groups. Beam walking apparatus, telemetric electromyography (EMG) recording, and histological verification were performed to confirm dystonic symptoms in the rats on post-surgery treatment. Involuntary dystonic spasm was observed with repetitive rigidity, and twisting movements in the rats were also confirmed by a high score on the dystonic scoring and a high amplitude on the EMG data. The rats with tiagabine treatment were scored based on motor amelioration assessed via beam walking. The result of this study suggests and confirms that low dose of kainic acid microinjection is sufficient to induce dystonia from the cerebellar vermis. In addition, from the results of the EMG recording and the behavioral assessment through beam walking, tiagabine is demonstrated as being effective in reducing dystonic spasm and may be a possible alternative therapeutic drug in the treatment of dystonia. PMID:28337103

  19. The kainic acid model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Maxime; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The kainic acid model of temporal lobe epilepsy has greatly contributed to the understanding of the molecular, cellular and pharmacological mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. This model presents with neuropathological and electroencephalographic features that are seen in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. It is also characterized by a latent period that follows the initial precipitating injury (i.e., status epilepticus) until the appearance of recurrent seizures, as observed in the human condition. Finally, the kainic acid model can be reproduced in a variety of species using either systemic, intrahippocampal or intra-amygdaloid administrations. In this review, we describe the various methodological procedures and evaluate their differences with respect to the behavioral, electroencephalographic and neuropathological correlates. In addition, we compare the kainic acid model with other animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy such as the pilocarpine and the kindling model. We conclude that the kainic acid model is a reliable tool for understanding temporal lobe epilepsy, provided that the differences existing between methodological procedures are taken into account. PMID:24184743

  20. Protective effect of glutathione on kainic acid-induced neuropathological changes in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Saija, A; Princi, P; Pisani, A; Lanza, M; Scalese, M; Aramnejad, E; Ceserani, R; Costa, G

    1994-01-01

    1. Glutathione (GSH), injected by slow intravenous (i.v.) infusion (7.9 microliters/min, for 4 hr; total dose: 1.5 g/kg), starting 10 min after i.v. injection of kainic acid (KA; 12 mg/kg) in the rat reduced the decrease in local cerebral glucose utilization observed 48 hr following the administration of the neurotoxin. 2. Furthermore, it blocked the neuronal loss in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, and prevented, in the hippocampus, the development of edema and the marked depletion in the endogenous brain GSH pool. 3. One can speculate that this protective effect of exogenous GSH is correlated to its capacity to scavenge free radicals, thus preventing the accumulation of oxidant chemical species and the consequent reduction of cellular antioxidant defense.

  1. Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen Giddings, Linda

    This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

  2. Acupuncture suppresses kainic acid-induced neuronal death and inflammatory events in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Tae; Doo, Ah-Reum; Kim, Seung-Nam; Kim, Song-Yi; Kim, Yoon Young; Kim, Jang-Hyun; Lee, Hyejung; Yin, Chang Shik; Park, Hi-Joon

    2012-09-01

    The administration of kainic acid (KA) causes seizures and produces neurodegeneration in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells. The present study investigated a possible role of acupuncture in reducing hippocampal cell death and inflammatory events, using a mouse model of kainic acid-induced epilepsy. Male C57BL/6 mice received acupuncture treatments at acupoint HT8 or in the tail area bilaterally once a day for 2 days and again immediately after an intraperitoneal injection of KA (30 mg/kg). HT8 is located on the palmar surface of the forelimbs, between the fourth and fifth metacarpal bones. Twenty-four hours after the KA injection, neuronal cell survival, the activations of microglia and astrocytes, and mRNA expression of two proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were measured in the hippocampus. Acupuncture stimulation at HT8, but not in the tail area, significantly reduced the KA-induced seizure, neuron death, microglial and astrocyte activations, and IL-1β mRNA expression in the hippocampus. The acupuncture stimulation also decreased the mRNA expression of TNF-α, but it was not significant. These results indicate that acupuncture at HT8 can inhibit hippocampal cell death and suppress KA-induced inflammatory events, suggesting a possible role for acupuncture in the treatment of epilepsy.

  3. Endogenous BDNF protein is increased in adult rat hippocampus after a kainic acid induced excitotoxic insult but exogenous BDNF is not neuroprotective.

    PubMed

    Rudge, J S; Mather, P E; Pasnikowski, E M; Cai, N; Corcoran, T; Acheson, A; Anderson, K; Lindsay, R M; Wiegand, S J

    1998-02-01

    Systemic administration of the excitotoxin kainic acid to adult rats results in a well defined pattern of loss of the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. Prior to this neuronal loss, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA is substantially increased. We show here that BDNF protein is increased after excitotoxic insult in specific areas of the hippocampus, reaching maximal levels 24 h after the insult. BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus increase in direct relation to the severity of seizure. Up to 7 days after injection of kainic acid, levels of full-length TrkB protein were unchanged, whereas levels of truncated TrkB protein were significantly increased by 12 h. To determine whether elevations in BDNF protein levels are potentially beneficial to hippocampal neurons exposed to an excitotoxic stress, we infused exogenous BDNF prior to and during the period of neuronal death caused by kainic acid. We find that administration of high levels of exogenous BDNF does not affect severity of seizure, but does in fact, exacerbate the injury caused by kainic acid, specifically to CA3 pyramidal neurons. Although there was a trend toward sparing of CA1 pyramidal neurons on the side infused with BDNF, this was not significant. In the same paradigm, infusion of exogenous NT-3 had no effect.

  4. Two classes of preconditioners computed using block matrix factorization techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, L.S.; Salane, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    Two methods for computing preconditioners for nonsymmetric block tridiagonal systems of linear equations are investigated. Adaptable general purpose implementations are given for both methods. 11 refs.

  5. FACTORS MODIFYING THE ACTION OF NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    neuromuscular blocking properties of another intravenous anaesthetic the eugenol derivative G.34075 and a recently synthesised relaxant diallyl-nortoxiferine were also investigated with this preparation. (Author)

  6. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of lidocaine in kainic acid-injected rats.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kuan Ming; Lu, Cheng Wei; Lee, Ming Yi; Wang, Ming Jiuh; Lin, Tzu Yu; Wang, Su Jane

    2016-05-04

    Lidocaine, the most commonly used local anesthetic, inhibits glutamate release from nerve terminals. Given the involvement of glutamate neurotoxicity in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, this study investigated the role of lidocaine in hippocampal neuronal death and inflammatory events induced by an i.p. injection of kainic acid (KA) (15 mg/kg), a glutamate analog. The results showed that KA significantly led to neuronal death in the CA3 pyramidal layers of the hippocampus and this effect was attenuated by the systemic administration of lidocaine (0.8 or 4 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before KA injection. Moreover, KA-induced microglia activation and gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, namely, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the hippocampus were reduced by the lidocaine pretreatment. Altogether, the results suggest that lidocaine can effectively treat glutamate excitotoxicity-related brain disorders.

  7. Leukemia inhibitory factor blocks expression of Crx and Nrl transcription factors to inhibit photoreceptor differentiation.

    PubMed

    Graham, Dianca R; Overbeek, Paul A; Ash, John D

    2005-07-01

    Activating ligands of gp130, including leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), can block differentiation and function of retinal neurons. This study focused on determining whether LIF inhibits differentiation of photoreceptors by altering cell fate or by blocking the expression of essential transcription factors in vivo. Transgenic mice were generated that had lens-specific expression of the secreted human LIF protein. Retinal differentiation was assessed by histology and by gene expression analysis, with in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and real-time qRT-PCR. Electroretinograms were used to assess retinal function. LIF did not prevent or alter the timing of outer and inner nuclear layer separation, but it inhibited phototransduction gene expression in both rods and cones, thereby blocking functional maturation of photoreceptors. LIF also reduced the expression of Crx, Nrl, and Nr2e3, and upregulated the expression of transcription inhibitors Baf and Fiz1. LIF expression did not appear to alter photoreceptor cell fate specification, but it inhibited subsequent differentiation. These results suggest that gp130 ligands can inhibit photoreceptor functional differentiation by reducing Crx- and Nrl-dependent transcription.

  8. On the factorization of block-tridiagonals without storage constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    In many programs solving difference equations, problem size is restricted by the number of available memory cells. A strategy has been developed to permit trade-offs between the number of floating point operations required and storage requirements for the solution of certain problems such as block tridiagonal systems of equations. This is done by recomputing some intermediate results instead of storing them. Reducing the storage to the square root of the current requirement will roughly double the number of computations. In theory, if m is the order of each sub-matrix in the block tridiagonal matrix, one can solve any linear system with only 5 sq m + 1 temporary storage cells. This method lends itself to efficient use on computers with parallel processing or vector processing architectures. On these computers the larger number of floating point operations is more than offset by the decrease in I/O and the increased percentage of vector operations made possible by this algorithm.

  9. Kainic acid lesions disrupt fear-mediated memory processing.

    PubMed

    Yin, Henry; Bardgett, Mark E; Csernansky, John G

    2002-05-01

    Previous research has shown that hippocampal lesions impair the expression of fear conditioning. This fear conditioning deficit may be due to memory impairment or a reduction in fear in lesioned animals. To address these possibilities, the authors examined unconditioned and conditioned fear in male Sprague-Dawley rats that had received intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions of kainic acid (KA) 30 days prior to testing. Animals that had received bilateral ICV infusions of KA (1.0 microl of 0.8 mg/ml solution per side) exhibited cell loss that was primarily confined to the CA3 region of the dorsal hippocampus. Kainic acid lesions impaired contextual and cued fear conditioning but did not affect unconditioned fear in a light:dark test of anxiety. Moreover, animals with KA lesions did not habituate to the light:dark apparatus when tested over a 3-day period. These data suggest that decreases in fear conditioning produced by hippocampal lesions reflect a memory deficit and not a lack of fear. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).

  10. Chronic exercise dampens hippocampal glutamate overflow induced by kainic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Philip V; Reiss, Jenny I; Murray, Patrick S; Dishman, Rod K; Spradley, Jessica M

    2015-05-01

    Our laboratory has previously reported that chronic, voluntary exercise diminishes seizure-related behaviors induced by convulsant doses of kainic acid. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that exercise exerts this protective effect through a mechanism involving suppression of glutamate release in the hippocampal formation. Following three weeks of voluntary wheel running or sedentary conditions, rats were injected with 10 mg/kg of kainic acid, and hippocampal glutamate was measured in real time using a telemetric, in vivo voltammetry system. A separate experiment measured electroencephalographic (EEG) activity following kainic acid treatment. Results of the voltammetry experiment revealed that the rise in hippocampal glutamate induced by kainic acid is attenuated in exercising rats compared to sedentary controls, indicating that the exercise-induced protection against seizures involves regulation of hippocampal glutamate release. The findings reveal the potential benefit of regular exercise in the treatment and prevention of seizure disorders and suggest a possible neurobiological mechanism underlying this effect.

  11. Behavioral Consequences of Kainic Acid Lesions and Fetal Transplants of the Striatum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-12

    experiment assessed the behavioral effects caused by kainic acid lesions of the striatum in male Wistar rats 2 weeks after surgery. Specifically...compared to controls. The neuronal cell loss caused by the lesion was partially reversed by the implants of fetal striatal tissue. In addition, two... caused by the kainic acid lesions. The research was composed of two experiments. The first experiment was a replication and extension of previous

  12. Popliteal blocks for foot and ankle surgery: success rate and contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Hegewald, Kenneth; McCann, Kevin; Elizaga, Andrew; Hutchinson, Byron L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the factors contributing to the success of popliteal nerve blocks performed by podiatric surgical residents in various stages of training. A retrospective review was conducted of 143 consecutively performed blocks during a 2-year period. A total of 29 blocks using a lateral approach and 114 blocks using a modified posterior approach were performed. The intrinsic and extrinsic variables contributing to block outcome were analyzed. A total of 109 successful blocks were performed, for an overall success rate of 76.2%. Significant differences (p < .002) were found between the success and failure groups with respect to the patients body mass index and age. No differences were observed between the success and failure groups with respect to the block approach or months of resident training. In conclusion, podiatric surgical residents in all stages of training can safely and effectively perform popliteal nerve blocks for peri- and postoperative analgesia. Surgeons should be aware of the potential influence of patients body mass index and age on the overall block success rates.

  13. Effect of different mild hypoxia manipulations on kainic acid-induced seizures in the hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Jianhua; Li, Li; Gao, Yusong; Chen, Jun; Fei, Zhou; Liu, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    The protective effect of the mild hypoxia to the epilepsy has been widely tested. Although it is found that the hypoxia protects the brain by up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, few focused on systematic comparisons between different mild hypoxia manipulations and their effects. The male Sprague-Dawley rats were observed following exposure to hypoxia before and after epilepsy for 3 days with 90 min per day. The effects of different mild hypoxia manipulations on kainic acid-induced epilepsy were compared from the perspective of morphology, molecular biology and behavioral test. Results showed that different mild hypoxia manipulations could inhibit the cell apoptosis of kainic acid-induced rat hippocampus and improve their physiological functions. The effect of preconditioning group was better than that of postconditioning group and that of preconditioning and postconditioning with mild hypoxia group was the best among all the groups. The result showed that the preconditioning and postconditioning of mild hypoxia was recommended pre- and post-epilepsy and exposure to mild hypoxia should be prolonged. These findings might provide new ideas and methods for the clinical treatment of epilepsy.

  14. Fibroblast growth factors, old kids on the new block.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Cong; Xiao, Jian; McKeehan, Wallace L; Wang, Fen

    2016-05-01

    The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of cell intrinsic regulatory peptides that control a broad spectrum of cellular activities. The family includes canonic FGFs that elicit their activities by activating the FGF receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase and non-canonic members that elicit their activities intracellularly and via FGFR-independent mechanisms. The FGF signaling axis is highly complex due to the existence of multiple isoforms of both ligands and receptors, as well as cofactors that include the chemically heterogeneous heparan sulfate (HS) cofactors, and in the case of endocrine FGFs, the Klotho coreceptors. Resident FGF signaling controls embryonic development, maintains tissue homeostasis, promotes wound healing and tissue regeneration, and regulates functions of multiple organs. However, ectopic or aberrant FGF signaling is a culprit for various diseases, including congenital birth defects, metabolic disorder, and cancer. The molecular mechanisms by which the specificity of FGF signaling is achieved remain incompletely understood. Since its application as a druggable target has been gradually recognized by pharmaceutical companies and translational researchers, understanding the determinants of FGF signaling specificity has become even more important in order to get into the position to selectively suppress a particular pathway without affecting others to minimize side effects.

  15. Kainic acid activates transient expression of tenascin-C in the adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nakic, M; Mitrovic, N; Sperk, G; Schachner, M

    1996-05-15

    Kainic acid-induced limbic seizures enhance expression of tenascin-C (TN) in the hippocampus of adult rats. TN mRNA was detectable by in situ hybridization in many granule cells in the dentate gyrus 4.5 hr after kainic acid injection but not in saline-injected animals (controls) or in animals killed 2 or 24 hr after injection. Thirty days after kainic acid injection, TN mRNA was detectable only in pyramidal cells of CA3 and CA1. At the protein level, TN was detectable by immunocytochemistry in control animals in the strata oriens and lacunosum moleculare of CA1, in the molecular layer, and within a narrow area at the inner surface of the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus. Twenty-four hours after kainic acid injection, TN immunoreactivity was enhanced in these areas and throughout the granule cell layer. Thirty days after kainic acid injection, TN immunoreactivity was downregulated in these areas, while it was prominent in the stratum oriens and in clusters of immunoreactivity in the stratum lucidum of CA3. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus showed a peak of TN expression 24 hr after kainic acid injection. These observations show that TN expression is upregulated in predominantly neuronal cells already by 4.5 hr after kainic acid injection, coincident with activation of granule cells and sprouting of axon terminals, whereas the remaining TN expression 30 days after injection relates to pyramidal cells in CA1 and CA3, coincident with an astroglial response, as marked by a strong expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein.

  16. Kainic acid on the rostral ventrolateral medulla inhibits phrenic output and CO2 sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Nattie, E E; Mills, J W; Ou, L C; St John, W M

    1988-10-01

    We used the neurotoxin, kainic acid, which is known to stimulate neuronal cell bodies as opposed to axons of passage by binding to specific amino acid receptors to determine whether cells with such receptors have access to the ventrolateral medullary surface and are involved in central ventilatory chemosensitivity. Pledgets with 4.7 mM kainic acid were placed bilaterally on the rostral, intermediate, or caudal ventilatory chemosensitive areas for 1-2 min in chloralose-urethan-anesthetized, paralyzed, vagotomized, glomectomized, and servo-ventilated cats. Application of kainic acid on the caudal or intermediate areas produced no consistent significant effects on eucapnic phrenic output or on the slope or maximum value of the phrenic nerve response to increased end-tidal PCO2. Rostral area kainic acid produced immediate augmentation and then diminution of blood pressure and phrenic output. Apnea developed in six of nine cats by 40 min. In all five cats in which it could be tested, the slope of the CO2 response was clearly decreased. Of [3H]kainic acid applied to the rostral area, 88.4% was shown to be within 2 mm of the ventral surface. Comparison of surface application sites of this and other studies suggests that an area overlapping the border of the original rostral and intermediate areas allows access to neurons involved in the chemoreception process, which may also provide tonic facilitatory input to cardiorespiratory systems.

  17. Task Parallel Incomplete Cholesky Factorization using 2D Partitioned-Block Layout

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyungjoo; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Stelle, George Widgery; Edwards, Harold C.; Olivier, Stephen Lecler

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a task-parallel algorithm for sparse incomplete Cholesky factorization that utilizes a 2D sparse partitioned-block layout of a matrix. Our factorization algorithm follows the idea of algorithms-by-blocks by using the block layout. The algorithm-byblocks approach induces a task graph for the factorization. These tasks are inter-related to each other through their data dependences in the factorization algorithm. To process the tasks on various manycore architectures in a portable manner, we also present a portable tasking API that incorporates different tasking backends and device-specific features using an open-source framework for manycore platforms i.e., Kokkos. A performance evaluation is presented on both Intel Sandybridge and Xeon Phi platforms for matrices from the University of Florida sparse matrix collection to illustrate merits of the proposed task-based factorization. Experimental results demonstrate that our task-parallel implementation delivers about 26.6x speedup (geometric mean) over single-threaded incomplete Choleskyby- blocks and 19.2x speedup over serial Cholesky performance which does not carry tasking overhead using 56 threads on the Intel Xeon Phi processor for sparse matrices arising from various application problems.

  18. Kainic Acid-Induced Neurotoxicity: Targeting Glial Responses and Glia-Derived Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing-Mei; Zhu, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate excitotoxicity contributes to a variety of disorders in the central nervous system, which is triggered primarily by excessive Ca2+ influx arising from overstimulation of glutamate receptors, followed by disintegration of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and ER stress, the generation and detoxification of reactive oxygen species as well as mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to neuronal apoptosis and necrosis. Kainic acid (KA), a potent agonist to the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate class of glutamate receptors, is 30-fold more potent in neuro-toxicity than glutamate. In rodents, KA injection resulted in recurrent seizures, behavioral changes and subsequent degeneration of selective populations of neurons in the brain, which has been widely used as a model to study the mechanisms of neurodegenerative pathways induced by excitatory neurotransmitter. Microglial activation and astrocytes proliferation are the other characteristics of KA-induced neurodegeneration. The cytokines and other inflammatory molecules secreted by activated glia cells can modify the outcome of disease progression. Thus, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory treatment could attenuate or prevent KA-induced neurodegeneration. In this review, we summarized updated experimental data with regard to the KA-induced neurotoxicity in the brain and emphasized glial responses and glia-oriented cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-12 and IL-18. PMID:22131947

  19. Regional block anesthesia in a patient with factor V Leiden mutation and axillary artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Erkalp, Kerem; Comlekci, Mevlut; Inan, Bekir; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozdemir, Haluk; Saidoglu, Leyla

    2011-01-01

    Anesthetic management of patients with coagulation disorders presents safety and technical challenges. This case describes a 58-year-old woman with factor V Leiden mutation who required distal saphenous vein harvest and axillo-brachial bypass to treat axillary artery occlusion. The patient underwent surgery with satisfactory anesthesia using infraclavicular brachial plexus block, thoracic paravertebral block, and unilateral subarachnoid block. These three regional anesthetic interventions were performed in lieu of general anesthesia to minimize risks of thrombotic events, pain, and to decrease recovery time. Despite higher failure rates of regional anesthesia, longer time required for procedures, and added discomforts during surgery, the benefits may outweigh risks for selected high-risk patients, including those with factor V Leiden mutations. PMID:22915885

  20. The Ketogenic Diet Suppresses the Cathepsin E Expression Induced by Kainic Acid in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Hojeong; Kim, Yoon-Kyoung; Park, Sang-Kyu; Kang, Dong-Won

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The ketogenic diet has long been used to treat epilepsy, but its mechanism is not yet clearly understood. To explore the potential mechanism, we analyzed the changes in gene expression induced by the ketogenic diet in the rat kainic acid (KA) epilepsy model. Materials and Methods KA-administered rats were fed the ketogenic diet or a normal diet for 4 weeks, and microarray analysis was performed with their brain tissues. The effects of the ketogenic diet on cathepsin E messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression were analyzed in KA-administered and normal saline-administered groups with semi-quantitative and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Brain tissues were dissected into 8 regions to compare differential effects of the ketogenic diet on cathepsin E mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry with an anti-cathepsin E antibody was performed on slides of hippocampus obtained from whole brain paraffin blocks. Results The microarray data and subsequent RT-PCR experiments showed that KA increased the mRNA expression of cathepsin E, known to be related to neuronal cell death, in most brain areas except the brain stem, and these increases of cathepsin E mRNA expression were suppressed by the ketogenic diet. The expression of cathepsin E mRNA in the control group, however, was not significantly affected by the ketogenic diet. The change in cathepsin E mRNA expression was greatest in the hippocampus. The protein level of cathepsin E in the hippocampus of KA-administered rat was elevated in immunohistochemistry and the ketogenic diet suppressed this increase. Conclusion Our results showed that KA administration increased cathepsin E expression in the rat brain and its increase was suppressed by the ketogenic diet. PMID:20635438

  1. A role for sodium and chloride in kainic acid-induced beading of inhibitory interneuron dendrites.

    PubMed

    Al-Noori, S; Swann, J W

    2000-01-01

    Excitotoxic injury of the dendrites of inhibitory interneurons could lead to decreases in their synaptic activation and explain subsequent local circuit hyperexcitability and epilepsy. A hallmark of dendrotoxicity, at least in principal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, is focal or varicose swellings of dendritic arbors. In experiments reported here, transient (1h) exposure of hippocampal explant cultures to kainic acid produced marked focal swellings of the dendrites of parvalbumin-immunoreactive pyramidal basket cells in a highly reproducible and dose-dependent manner. At 5mM kainic acid, more than half of the immunopositive apical dendrites in area CA(1) had a beaded appearance. However, the somal volumes of these cells were unaltered by the same treatment. The presence of focal swellings was reversible with kainate washout and was not accompanied by interneuronal cell death. In contrast, exposure to much higher concentrations (300mM) of kainic acid resulted in the total loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons from explants. Surprisingly, kainic acid-induced dendritic beading does not appear to be mediated by extracellular calcium. Beading was unaltered in the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, the L-type calcium channel antagonist, nimodipine, cadmium, or by removing extracellular calcium. However, blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels by either tetrodotoxin or lidocaine abolished dendritic beading, while the activation of existing voltage-gated sodium channels by veratridine mimicked the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading. Finally, the removal of extracellular chloride prevented the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading.Thus, we suggest that the movement of Na(+) and Cl(-), rather than Ca(2+), into cells underlies the focal swellings of interneuron dendrites in hippocampus.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of butterbur and rough aster against kainic Acid-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang Hee; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2005-01-01

    The separate and combined neuroprotective effects of rough aster (Aster scaber) and butterbur (Petasite japonicus) extracts against oxidative damage in the brain of mice challenged with kainic acid were examined by comparing behavioral changes and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Rough aster butanol extract (400 mg/kg) and/or butterbur butanol extract (150 or 400 mg/kg) were administered to male ICR mice, 6-8 weeks old, through a gavage for 4 days consecutively, and on day 4, kainic acid (50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally. Compared with the vehicle-treated control, no significant changes in body and brain weight were observed in mice administered rough aster or butterbur butanol extract. Administration of kainic acid only, causing a lethality of approximately 54%, resulted in a significant decrease of total glutathione level and increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value in brain tissue. The administration of butterbur or rough aster extract (400 mg/kg) decreased the lethality (50%) of kainic acid to 25%, alleviated the behavioral signs of neurotoxicity, restored the cytosolic glutathione level of brain homogenate to approximately 80% (P < .05), and reduced kainic acid-induced increases in TBARS values. In contrast to no significant neuroprotection by butterbur extract at a low dose (150 mg/kg), the combination of rough aster extract and butterbur extract reduced the lethality to 12.5%. Moreover, the combination delayed the onset time of behavioral signs by twofold, and significantly preserved the level of cytosolic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. However, the other biochemical parameters were not altered significantly by the combination. Thus, the combination of two vegetable extracts significantly increased the neuroprotective action against kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity. Based on these findings, the combination of butterbur extract and rough aster extract contains a functional agent or

  3. Phylogenetic distribution of [3H]kainic acid receptor binding sites in neuronal tissue.

    PubMed

    London, E D; Klemm, N; Coyle, J T

    1980-06-23

    The phylogenetic distribution of specific binding sites for kainic acid was determined in 14 species including invertebrates and vertebrates. The highest level of binding was observed in brains of the frog (Xenopus laevis), followed by the spiny dogfish (Heterodontus francisci), the goldfish (Carasius auratus) and the chick (Gallus domesticus). Although significant specific binding was noted in some of the lowest forms tested (e.g. Hydra littoralis), this was not a consistent observation in the invertebrates. In most cases, specific binding to both high and low affinity sites was detected; notable exceptions were the cockroach brain (Periplaneta americana), which had negligible high affinity binding, and the crayfish brain (Procambarus) which had negligible low affinity binding. In the spiny dogfish, the smooth dogfish and the chick, the highest level of binding occurred in cerebellum with less in the forebrain and the least in the medulla; in the mammalian species, the highest level of binding occurred in the forebrain structures with less in the cerebellum and least in the medulla. Eadie plots of the saturation isotherms for [3H]kainic acid revealed similar kinetics of binding for frog whole brain, rat forebrain and human parietal cortex with two apparent populations of binding sites: KD1 = 25--50 nM and KD2 = 3--14 nM. While binding in the spiny dogfish forebrain and human caudate nucleus occurred exclusively at a high affinity component, the cerebella of chick, rat and man exhibited only a low affinity binding site. In the 3 species studied most extensively, frog, rat and man, unlabeled kainic acid was the most potent inhibitor of the specific binding of [3H]-kainic acid. L-Glutamic acid was 20--20-fold less potent than kainic acid, and D-glutamic acid was 4--2500-fold less potent than its L-isomer. Reduction of the isopropylene side chain of kainic acid to form dihydrokainic acid decreased the affinity of the derivative 115--30,000-fold. Hill coefficients

  4. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine enhances kainic acid convulsive susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sónia; Junyent, Fèlix; Auladell, Carme; Pubill, David; Pallàs, Mercè; Camarasa, Jorge; Escubedo, Elena; Camins, Antonio

    2014-10-03

    Kainic acid (KA) causes seizures and neuronal loss in the hippocampus. The present study investigated whether a recreational schedule of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) favours the development of a seizure state in a model of KA-induced epilepsy and potentiates the toxicity profile of KA (20 or 30mg/kg). Adolescent male C57BL/6 mice received saline or MDMA t.i.d. (s.c. every 3h), on 1day a week, for 4 consecutive weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last MDMA exposure, the animals were injected with saline or KA (20 or 30mg/kg). After this injection, we evaluated seizures, hippocampal neuronal cell death, microgliosis, astrogliosis, and calcium binding proteins. MDMA pretreatment, by itself, did not induce neuronal damage but increased seizure susceptibility in all KA treatments and potentiated the presence of Fluoro-Jade-positive cells in CA1. Furthermore, MDMA, like KA, significantly decreased parvalbumin levels in CA1 and dentate gyrus, where it potentiated the effects of KA. The amphetamine derivative also promoted a transient decrease in calbindin and calretinin levels, indicative of an abnormal neuronal discharge. In addition, treatment of cortical neurons with MDMA (10-50μM) for 6 or 48h significantly increased basal Ca(2+), reduced basal Na(+) levels and potentiated kainate response. These results indicate that MDMA potentiates KA-induced neurodegeneration and also increases KA seizure susceptibility. The mechanism proposed includes changes in Calcium Binding Proteins expression, probably due to the disruption of intracellular ionic homeostasis, or/and an indirect effect through glutamate release.

  5. Active iris mechanics and pupillary block: steady-state analysis and comparison with anatomical risk factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eric C; Barocas, Victor H

    2004-09-01

    Primary angle-closure glaucoma arises when the iris physically obstructs outflow of aqueous humor, increasing the intraocular pressure and damaging the optic nerve. Pupillary block, the predominant mechanism for angle closure, is believed to be driven by mechanical interaction between the aqueous humor and the iris. We performed steady-state simulations of this coupled fluid-solid system, including an active sphincter to control pupil constriction. Model results compared favorably against Mapstone's pupil-blocking force analysis. We also evaluated anatomical risk factors and quantified their contributions to pupillary block and angle closure. The results showed that greater lens curvature and shorter iris-zonule distance contribute significantly to pupillary block and the associated narrowing of the angle. Surprisingly, the model predicted that maximum pupillary block and angle closure occur at the minimum pupil dilation, contradicting the clinical observation that angle closure is most severe in dark conditions. This discrepancy suggests the involvement of one or more phenomena not captured by our current model.

  6. High-pressure Diels-Alder approach to natural kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sushil K; Orellana, Arturo; Greene, Andrew E; Poisson, Jean-François

    2006-11-23

    The first Diels-Alder based synthesis of (-)-kainic acid is described. Danishefsky's diene and a vinylogous malonate derived from 4-hydroxyproline combine under high pressure to afford a key bicyclic intermediate with virtually no loss of enantiopurity. This adduct can be converted into the natural product with complete stereocontrol. [reaction: see text].

  7. Anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase in the nigrostriatal pathway after neostriatal kainic acid lesions.

    PubMed

    Walker, P D; McAllister, J P

    1986-08-01

    We used the anterograde transport of HRP to analyze the nigrostriatal pathway after intrastriatal injections of kainic acid. A total volume of 1 microliter kainic acid (3 nM) was injected unilaterally into the neostriatum of adult rats. After 5, 10, or 35 days, HRP was injected into the ipsilateral substantia nigra. Sections stained for Nissl substance revealed that kainic acid damaged as much as three-quarters of the neostriatum. Lesion sites were characterized by gliosis and the absence of neurons. Alternate sections processed for HRP histochemistry and analyzed with bright- and dark-field microscopy revealed labeled axons and terminals in the lesion site. These findings were consistent in all three time periods. Much of the labeling was similar to that seen in neostriatal of control animals. However, the normal homogeneous pattern of the nigrostriatal terminal field was disrupted in all experimental groups, illustrated by changes in some labeling characteristics in the lesion site. These findings provide morphologic evidence for the preservation of much of the nigrostriatal pathway but indicate that some axons and their terminals may be altered after kainic acid injection.

  8. Systemic Injection of Kainic Acid Differently Affects LTP Magnitude Depending on its Epileptogenic Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Luz M.; Cid, Elena; Gal, Beatriz; Inostroza, Marion; Brotons-Mas, Jorge R.; Gómez-Domínguez, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Seizures have profound impact on synaptic function and plasticity. While kainic acid is a popular method to induce seizures and to potentially affect synaptic plasticity, it can also produce physiological-like oscillations and trigger some forms of long-term potentiation (LTP). Here, we examine whether induction of LTP is altered in hippocampal slices prepared from rats with different sensitivity to develop status epilepticus (SE) by systemic injection of kainic acid. Rats were treated with multiple low doses of kainic acid (5 mg/kg; i.p.) to develop SE in a majority of animals (72–85% rats). A group of rats were resistant to develop SE (15–28%) after several accumulated doses. Animals were subsequently tested using chronic recordings and object recognition tasks before brain slices were prepared for histological studies and to examine basic features of hippocampal synaptic function and plasticity, including input/output curves, paired-pulse facilitation and theta-burst induced LTP. Consistent with previous reports in kindling and pilocapine models, LTP was reduced in rats that developed SE after kainic acid injection. These animals exhibited signs of hippocampal sclerosis and developed spontaneous seizures. In contrast, resistant rats did not become epileptic and had no signs of cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. In slices from resistant rats, theta-burst stimulation induced LTP of higher magnitude when compared with control and epileptic rats. Variations on LTP magnitude correlate with animals’ performance in a hippocampal-dependent spatial memory task. Our results suggest dissociable long-term effects of treatment with kainic acid on synaptic function and plasticity depending on its epileptogenic efficiency. PMID:23118939

  9. A peptide derived from neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) blocks neutrophil adherence to endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Madden, K; Janczak, J; McEnroe, G; Lim, D; Hartman, T; Liu, D; Stanton, L

    1997-06-01

    Peptides derived from neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF), a known antagonist of Mac-1, were evaluated as inhibitors of neutrophil adherence. In vitro assays of adherence employed: 1) human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), 2) human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and 3) CHO cells expressing ICAM-1 (CHO-ICAM cells). Cells, pretreated with NIF-derived peptides (0.1-100 microM) for 10 minutes, were permitted to adhere for 20 min in the continued presence of peptide. Cell-based assays: 1) PMN adherence to HUVEC, 2) PMN adhesion to immobilized human serum proteins, and 3) adherence of CHO-ICAM cells to immobilized Mac-1. A NIF-derived peptide of 29 amino acids blocked PMN adherence to HUVEC, but behaved somewhat differently than the parent NIF protein. NIF specifically antagonized Mac-1 dependent adherence, but the peptide blocked neutrophil adherence that was dependent upon both Mac-1 and LFA-1 integrins. CHO-ICAM adherence to Mac-1 was blocked by NIF, but not by the peptide. Binding studies with NIF and the peptide indicate that the molecules bind to different sites. A peptide derived from NIF blocks PMN adherence but, unlike NIF, the mechanism of action is not mediated by direct antagonism Mac-1.

  10. Expression and subcellular localization of thymosin beta15 following kainic acid treatment in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young Woong; Kim, Younghwa; Kim, Eun Hae; Koh, Doyle; Sun, Woong Kim, Hyun

    2008-07-11

    Thymosin {beta}15 (T{beta}15) is a pleiotropic factor which exerts multiple roles in the development of nervous system and brain diseases. In this study, we found that the expressions of T{beta}15 mRNA and protein were substantially increased in several brain regions including hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex, following kainic acid (KA)-evoked seizures in rat. Interestingly, a subset of cortex neurons exhibited nuclear T{beta}15 immunoreactivity upon KA treatment. Furthermore, translocation of T{beta}15 from cytosol to nuclei was observed in cultured neurons or HeLa cells during staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis, which was also verified by time-lapse imaging of YFP-tagged T{beta}15. It appeared that localization of T{beta}15 is restricted to the cytosol in normal condition by its G-actin-interacting domain, because site-directed mutagenesis of this region resulted in the nuclear localization of T{beta}15 in the absence of STS treatment. To explore the role of nuclear T{beta}15, we enforced T{beta}15 to localize in the nuclei by fusion of T{beta}15 with nuclear localization signal (NLS-T{beta}15). However, overexpression of NLS-T{beta}15 did not alter the viability of cells in response to STS treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that nuclear localization of T{beta}15 is a controlled process during KA or STS stimulation, although its functional significance is yet to be clarified.

  11. Oxidative stress effect on progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) binding to PIBF-receptor in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    de la Haba, Carlos; Palacio, José R; Palkovics, Tamas; Szekeres-Barthó, Júlia; Morros, Antoni; Martínez, Paz

    2014-01-01

    Receptor-ligand binding is an essential interaction for biological function. Oxidative stress can modify receptors and/or membrane lipid dynamics, thus altering cell physiological functions. The aim of this study is to analyze how oxidative stress may alter receptor-ligand binding and lipid domain distribution in the case of progesterone-induced blocking factor/progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor. For membrane fluidity regionalization analysis of MEC-1 lymphocytes, two-photon microscopy was used in individual living cells. Lymphocytes were also double stained with AlexaFluor647/progesterone-induced blocking factor and Laurdan to evaluate -induced blocking factor/progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor distribution in the different membrane domains, under oxidative stress. A new procedure has been developed which quantitatively analyzes the regionalization of a membrane receptor among the lipid domains of different fluidity in the plasma membrane. We have been able to establish a new tool which detects and evaluates lipid raft clustering from two-photon microscopy images of individual living cells. We show that binding of progesterone-induced blocking factor to progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor causes a rigidification of plasma membrane which is related to an increase of lipid raft clustering. However, this clustering is inhibited under oxidative stress conditions. In conclusion, oxidative stress decreases membrane fluidity, impairs receptor-ligand binding and reduces lipid raft clustering. © 2013.

  12. Vitamin C blocks inflammatory platelet-activating factor mimetics created by cigarette smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, H A; Weyrich, A S; Saetzler, R K; Jurek, A; Arfors, K E; Zimmerman, G A; Prescott, S M; McIntyre, T M

    1997-01-01

    Cigarette smoking within minutes induces leukocyte adhesion to the vascular wall and formation of intravascular leukocyte-platelet aggregates. We find this is inhibited by platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists, and correlates with the accumulation of PAF-like mediators in the blood of cigarette smoke-exposed hamsters. These mediators were PAF-like lipids, formed by nonenzymatic oxidative modification of existing phospholipids, that were distinct from biosynthetic PAF. These PAF-like lipids induced isolated human monocytes and platelets to aggregate, which greatly increased their secretion of IL-8 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha. Both events were blocked by a PAF receptor antagonist. Similarly, blocking the PAF receptor in vivo blocked smoke-induced leukocyte aggregation and pavementing along the vascular wall. Dietary supplementation with the antioxidant vitamin C prevented the accumulation of PAF-like lipids, and it prevented cigarette smoke-induced leukocyte adhesion to the vascular wall and formation of leukocyte-platelet aggregates. This is the first in vivo demonstration of inflammatory phospholipid oxidation products and it suggests a molecular mechanism coupling cigarette smoke with rapid inflammatory changes. Inhibition of PAF-like lipid formation and their intravascular sequela by vitamin C suggests a simple dietary means to reduce smoking-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:9153277

  13. Factors affecting magnitude and time course of neuromuscular block produced by suxamethonium.

    PubMed

    Vanlinthout, L E; van Egmond, J; de Boo, T; Lerou, J G; Wevers, R A; Booij, L H

    1992-07-01

    This study was designed to identify factors that significantly alter the magnitude and duration of suxamethonium-induced neuromuscular block in patients with an apparently normal genotype for pseudocholinesterase. One hundred and fifty-six adults (ages 18-65 yr) were allocated to 13 subgroups. Patients in each subgroup received suxamethonium 50-2000 micrograms kg-1. The mechanographic response of the adductor pollicis brevis muscle to ulnar nerve stimulation was recorded. The ED50 was found to be 167 micrograms kg-1, ED90 was 316 micrograms kg-1 and ED95 was 392 micrograms kg-1. The duration of action (delta t) was in agreement with earlier published results. The magnitude of block was dose-related and decreased with increasing onset time (ton) and pseudocholinesterase activity (PChA). Neither age nor gender affected the degree of suxamethonium-induced block. Delta t was dose-related, decreased with increasing PChA, and was shorter for women. Age and ton had no effect on delta t.

  14. Evaluation of emerging factors blocking filtration of high-adjunct-ratio wort.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting; Zhu, Linjiang; Zheng, Feiyun; Li, Yongxian; Li, Qi

    2014-08-20

    Corn starch has become a common adjunct for beer brewing in Chinese breweries. However, with increasing ratio of corn starch, problems like poor wort filtration performance arise, which will decrease production capacity of breweries. To solve this problem, factors affecting wort filtration were evaluated, such as the size of corn starch particle, special yellow floats formed during liquefaction of corn starch, and residual substance after liquefaction. The effects of different enzyme preparations including β-amylase and β-glucanase on filtration rate were also evaluated. The results indicate that the emerging yellow floats do not severely block filtration, while the fine and uniform-shape corn starch particle and its incompletely hydrolyzed residue after liquefaction are responsible for filtration blocking. Application of β-amylase preparation increased the filtration rate of liquefied corn starch. This study is useful for our insight into the filtration blocking problem arising in the process of high-adjunct-ratio beer brewing and also provides a feasible solution using enzyme preparations.

  15. Protein disulfide isomerase inhibition blocks thrombin generation in humans by interfering with platelet factor V activation

    PubMed Central

    Stopa, Jack D.; Neuberg, Donna; Puligandla, Maneka; Furie, Bruce; Zwicker, Jeffrey I.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is required for thrombus formation. We previously demonstrated that glycosylated quercetin flavonoids such as isoquercetin inhibit PDI activity and thrombus formation in animal models, but whether extracellular PDI represents a viable anticoagulant target in humans and how its inhibition affects blood coagulation remain unknown. METHODS: We evaluated effects of oral administration of isoquercetin on platelet-dependent thrombin generation in healthy subjects and patients with persistently elevated anti-phospholipid antibodies. RESULTS: Following oral administration of 1,000 mg isoquercetin to healthy adults, the measured peak plasma quercetin concentration (9.2 μM) exceeded its IC50 for inhibition of PDI by isoquercetin in vitro (2.5 ± 0.4 μM). Platelet-dependent thrombin generation decreased by 51% in the healthy volunteers compared with baseline (P = 0.0004) and by 64% in the anti-phospholipid antibody cohort (P = 0.015) following isoquercetin ingestion. To understand how PDI affects thrombin generation, we evaluated substrates of PDI identified using an unbiased mechanistic-based substrate trapping approach. These studies identified platelet factor V as a PDI substrate. Isoquercetin blocked both platelet factor Va and thrombin generation with an IC50 of ~5 μM. Inhibition of PDI by isoquercetin ingestion resulted in a 53% decrease in the generation of platelet factor Va (P = 0.001). Isoquercetin-mediated inhibition was reversed with addition of exogenous factor Va. CONCLUSION: These studies show that oral administration of isoquercetin inhibits PDI activity in plasma and diminishes platelet-dependent thrombin generation predominantly by blocking the generation of platelet factor Va. These pharmacodynamic and mechanistic observations represent an important step in the development of a novel class of antithrombotic agents targeting PDI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01722669) FUNDING: National Heart

  16. CA3 Synaptic Silencing Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Seizures and Hippocampal Network Oscillations123

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lily M. Y.; Wintzer, Marie E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epilepsy is a neurological disorder defined by the presence of seizure activity, manifest both behaviorally and as abnormal activity in neuronal networks. An established model to study the disorder in rodents is the systemic injection of kainic acid, an excitatory neurotoxin that at low doses quickly induces behavioral and electrophysiological seizures. Although the CA3 region of the hippocampus has been suggested to be crucial for kainic acid-induced seizure, because of its strong expression of kainate glutamate receptors and its high degree of recurrent connectivity, the precise role of excitatory transmission in CA3 in the generation of seizure and the accompanying increase in neuronal oscillations remains largely untested. Here we use transgenic mice in which CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic transmission can be inducibly silenced in the adult to demonstrate CA3 excitatory output is required for both the generation of epileptiform oscillatory activity and the progression of behavioral seizures. PMID:27022627

  17. CA3 Synaptic Silencing Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Seizures and Hippocampal Network Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lily M Y; Polygalov, Denis; Wintzer, Marie E; Chiang, Ming-Ching; McHugh, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder defined by the presence of seizure activity, manifest both behaviorally and as abnormal activity in neuronal networks. An established model to study the disorder in rodents is the systemic injection of kainic acid, an excitatory neurotoxin that at low doses quickly induces behavioral and electrophysiological seizures. Although the CA3 region of the hippocampus has been suggested to be crucial for kainic acid-induced seizure, because of its strong expression of kainate glutamate receptors and its high degree of recurrent connectivity, the precise role of excitatory transmission in CA3 in the generation of seizure and the accompanying increase in neuronal oscillations remains largely untested. Here we use transgenic mice in which CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic transmission can be inducibly silenced in the adult to demonstrate CA3 excitatory output is required for both the generation of epileptiform oscillatory activity and the progression of behavioral seizures.

  18. Factors Associated With Risk of Neurologic Complications After Peripheral Nerve Blocks: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Sondekoppam, Rakesh V; Tsui, Ban C H

    2017-02-01

    The onset of neurologic complications after regional anesthesia is a complex process and may result from an interaction of host, agent, and environmental risk factors. The purpose of this systematic review was examine the qualitative evidence relating to various risk factors implicated in neurologic dysfunction after peripheral nerve block (PNB). The MEDLINE, OVID, and EMBASE databases were primary sources for literature. Cochrane, LILACS, DARE, IndMed, ERIC, NHS, and HTA via Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD; York University) databases were searched for additional unique results. Randomized controlled studies, case-control studies, cohort studies, retrospective reviews, and case reports/case series reporting neurologic outcomes after PNB were included. Relevant, good-quality systematic reviews were also eligible. Human and animal studies evaluating factors important for neurologic outcomes were assessed separately. Information on study design, outcomes, and quality was extracted and reviewed independently by the 2 review authors. An overall rating of the quality of evidence was assigned using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) criteria. Relevant full-text articles were separated based on type (prospective, retrospective, and nonhuman studies). Strengths of association were defined as high, moderate, inconclusive, or inadequate based on study quality and direction of association. The evidence from 77 human studies was reviewed to assess various host, agent, and environmental factors that have been implicated as possible risks. Most of the available evidence regarding the injurious effects of the 3 cardinal agents of mechanical insult, pressure, and neurotoxicity was extracted from animal studies (42 studies). Among the risk factors investigated in humans, block type had a strong association with neurologic outcome. Intraneural injection, which seems to occur commonly with PNBs, showed an inconsistent direction of

  19. Differential effects of kainic acid lesions in medullary raphe on cough and sneeze in anesthetized rabbits.

    PubMed

    Simera, M; Poliacek, I; Veternik, M; Dobrolubov, B; Cibulka, M; Barani, H; Visnovcova, N; Jakus, J

    2013-01-01

    The effects of microinjections of the excitatory neurotoxin kainic acid (2 mg/ml; 49 ± 1 nl) on the mechanically induced tracheobronchial cough, sneeze, and solitary expulsions from the trachea were examined in 11 anesthetized rabbits. Kainic acid was injected into the medulla (1.6-2.8 mm rostral to the obex, 1.4-1.6 and 2.9-3.2 mm below the dorsal medullary surface). Blood pressure, esophageal pressure (EP), and electromyograms (EMGs) of the diaphragm (DIA) and abdominal muscles (ABD) were recorded. Kainic acid reduced the number of coughs (means ± SE) from 3.8 ± 2.0 to 0.9 ± 0.7 (p = 0.016), the amplitude of DIA cough from 90 ± 11 to 42 ± 13 % (p = 0.004), ABD EMG moving average from 103 ± 9 to 37 ± 15 % (p = 0.006), and inspiratory from 0.67 ± 0.13 to 0.36 ± 0.12 kPa (p = 0.013) and expiratory EP from 1.70 ± 0.54 to 0.89 ± 0.46 kPa (p = 0.008). Kainic acid had no effect on the number of sneeze reflexes nor did it affect solitary expulsions from the trachea. These effects were accompanied by significant increases in systemic blood pressure and respiratory rate. Spatiotemporal analysis of the cough and sneeze reflexes revealed increases in the duration of cough active expiratory phase, in the intervals between maxima of DIA and ABD EMG discharges, and in the active portion of total cough phase duration. Our findings suggest a diverse role of raphe neurons in the central control of motor airway responses such as coughing and sneezing. A complex function of raphe neurons in the generation of the cough motor pattern also is suggested.

  20. Blocking brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits injury-induced hyperexcitability of hippocampal CA3 neurons.

    PubMed

    Gill, Raminder; Chang, Philip K-Y; Prenosil, George A; Deane, Emily C; McKinney, Rebecca A

    2013-12-01

    Brain trauma can disrupt synaptic connections, and this in turn can prompt axons to sprout and form new connections. If these new axonal connections are aberrant, hyperexcitability can result. It has been shown that ablating tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), a receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), can reduce axonal sprouting after hippocampal injury. However, it is unknown whether inhibiting BDNF-mediated axonal sprouting will reduce hyperexcitability. Given this, our purpose here was to determine whether pharmacologically blocking BDNF inhibits hyperexcitability after injury-induced axonal sprouting in the hippocampus. To induce injury, we made Schaffer collateral lesions in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. As reported by others, we observed a 50% reduction in axonal sprouting in cultures treated with a BDNF blocker (TrkB-Fc) 14 days after injury. Furthermore, lesioned cultures treated with TrkB-Fc were less hyperexcitable than lesioned untreated cultures. Using electrophysiology, we observed a two-fold decrease in the number of CA3 neurons that showed bursting responses after lesion with TrkB-Fc treatment, whereas we found no change in intrinsic neuronal firing properties. Finally, evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potential recordings indicated an increase in network activity within area CA3 after lesion, which was prevented with chronic TrkB-Fc treatment. Taken together, our results demonstrate that blocking BDNF attenuates injury-induced hyperexcitability of hippocampal CA3 neurons. Axonal sprouting has been found in patients with post-traumatic epilepsy. Therefore, our data suggest that blocking the BDNF-TrkB signaling cascade shortly after injury may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of post-traumatic epilepsy.

  1. Salicylates Inhibit Flavivirus Replication Independently of Blocking Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ching-Len; Lin, Yi-Ling; Wu, Bi-Ching; Tsao, Chang-Huei; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Liu, Chiu-I; Huang, Yue-Ling; Chen, Jui-Hui; Wang, Jia-Pey; Chen, Li-Kuang

    2001-01-01

    Flaviviruses comprise a positive-sense RNA genome that replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Whether flaviviruses require an activated nuclear factor(s) to complete their life cycle and trigger apoptosis in infected cells remains elusive. Flavivirus infections quickly activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and salicylates have been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation. In this study, we investigated whether salicylates suppress flavivirus replication and virus-induced apoptosis in cultured cells. In a dose-dependent inhibition, we found salicylates within a range of 1 to 5 mM not only restricted flavivirus replication but also abrogated flavivirus-triggered apoptosis. However, flavivirus replication was not affected by a specific NF-κB peptide inhibitor, SN50, and a proteosome inhibitor, lactacystin. Flaviviruses also replicated and triggered apoptosis in cells stably expressing IκBα-ΔN, a dominant-negative mutant that antagonizes NF-κB activation, as readily as in wild-type BHK-21 cells, suggesting that NF-κB activation is not essential for either flavivirus replication or flavivirus-induced apoptosis. Salicylates still diminished flavivirus replication and blocked apoptosis in the same IκBα-ΔN cells. This inhibition of flaviviruses by salicylates could be partially reversed by a specific p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor, SB203580. Together, these results show that the mechanism by which salicylates suppress flavivirus infection may involve p38 MAP kinase activity but is independent of blocking the NF-κB pathway. PMID:11483726

  2. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha blocks differentiation of malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huimin; Li, Yan; Shu, Minfeng; Tang, Jianjun; Huang, Yijun; Zhou, Yuxi; Liang, Yingjie; Yan, Guangmei

    2009-12-01

    Aberrant differentiation is a characteristic feature of neoplastic transformation, while hypoxia in solid tumors is believed to be linked to aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. However, the possible relationship between hypoxia and differentiation in malignancies remains poorly defined. Here we show that rat C6 and primary human malignant glioma cells can be induced to differentiate into astrocytes by the well-known adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. However, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression stimulated by the hypoxia mimetics cobalt chloride or deferoxamine blocks this differentiation and this effectiveness is reversible upon withdrawal of the hypoxia mimetics. Importantly, knockdown of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha by RNA interference restores the differentiation capabilities of the cells, even in the presence of cobalt chloride, whereas stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through retarded ubiquitination by von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene silence abrogates the induced differentiation. Moreover, targeting of HIF-1 using chetomin, a disrupter of HIF-1 binding to its transcriptional co-activator CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300, abolishes the differentiation-inhibitory effect of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. Administration of chetomin in combination with forskolin significantly suppresses malignant glioma growth in an in vivo xenograft model. Analysis of 95 human glioma tissues revealed an increase of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein expression with progressing tumor grade. Taken together, these findings suggest a key signal transduction pathway involving hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha that contributes to a differentiation defect in malignant gliomas and sheds new light on the differentiation therapy of solid tumors by targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

  3. IXOLARIS, A TISSUE FACTOR INHIBITOR, BLOCKS PRIMARY TUMOR GROWTH AND ANGIOGENESIS IN A GLIOBLASTOMA MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro-Lobo, Tatiana C.; Konig, Sandra; Machado, Daniel E.; Nasciutti, Luiz E.; Forni, Maria Fernanda; Francischetti, Ivo M.B.; Sogayar, Mari C.; Monteiro, Robson Q.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background The expression levels of the clotting initiator protein Tissue Factor (TF) correlates with vessel density and the histological malignancy grade of glioma patients. Increased procoagulant tonus in high grade tumors (glioblastomas) also indicate a potential role for TF in progression of this disease, and suggest that anticoagulants could be used as adjuvants for its treatment. Objectives We hypothesized that blocking of TF activity with the tick anticoagulant Ixolaris might interfere with glioblastoma progression. Methods and results TF was identified in U87-MG cells by flow-cytometric and functional assays (extrinsic tenase). In addition, flow-cytometric analysis demonstrated the exposure of phosphatidylserine in the surface of U87-MG cells which supported the assembly of intrinsic tenase (FIXa/FVIIIa/FX) and prothrombinase (FVa/FXa/prothrombin) complexes, accounting for the production of FXa and thrombin, respectively. Ixolaris effectively blocked the in vitro TF-dependent procoagulant activity of U87-MG human glioblastoma cell line and attenuated multimolecular coagulation complexes assembly. Notably, Ixolaris inhibited in vivo tumorigenic potential of U87-MG cells in nude mice, without observable bleeding. This inhibitory effect of Ixolaris on tumor growth was associated with downregulation of VEGF and reduced tumor vascularization. Conclusion Our results suggest that Ixolaris might be a promising agent for anti-tumor therapy of human glioblastoma. PMID:19624457

  4. Proliferative and Invasive Effects of Progesterone-Induced Blocking Factor in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) is a progesterone (P4) regulated protein expressed in different types of high proliferative cells including astrocytomas, the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. It has been shown that PIBF increases the number of human astrocytoma cells. In this work, we evaluated PIBF regulation by P4 and the effects of PIBF on proliferation, migration, and invasion of U87 and U251 cells, both derived from human glioblastomas. PIBF mRNA expression was upregulated by P4 (10 nM) from 12 to 24 h. Glioblastoma cells expressed two PIBF isoforms, 90 and 57 kDa. The content of the shorter isoform was increased by P4 at 24 h, while progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 (10 μM) blocked this effect. PIBF (100 ng/mL) increased the number of U87 cells on days 4 and 5 of treatment and induced cell proliferation on day 4. Wound-healing assays showed that PIBF increased the migration of U87 (12–48 h) and U251 (24 and 48 h) cells. Transwell invasion assays showed that PIBF augmented the number of invasive cells in both cell lines at 24 h. These data suggest that PIBF promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of human glioblastoma cells. PMID:28168193

  5. Mifepristone causing complete remission of rapidly advancing leukemia with measurement of progesterone-induced blocking factor.

    PubMed

    Check, Jerome H; Check, Diane; Cohen, Rachael; Sarumi, Mojirayo

    2014-05-01

    Mifepristone has been demonstrated to cause palliation from murine and human cancer, even in cancers not known to be positive for expression of progesterone receptors. The aim of the present study was to determine if rapidly advancing chronic lymphocytic leukemia responds to mifepristone therapy, and if so, is this effect related to increased expression of the progesterone-induced blocking factor? An 81-year-old woman with chronic lymphocytic leukemia whose condition progressed to the acute rapidly progressing stage agreed to be exclusively treated orally with 200 mg mifepristone daily. The patient showed a dramatic improvement after a short exposure time to mifepristone. Complete remission has persisted so far for 12 months on exclusive mifepristone therapy. Her PIBF levels were normal before mifepristone therapy and did not change after treatment. Mifepristone can provide marked improvement of human leukemia even in the absence of increased serum PIBF levels.

  6. Human thoracic duct cannulation: manipulation of tumor-specific blocking factors in a patient with malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Isbister, W H; Noonan, F P; Halliday, W J; Clunie, G J

    1975-05-01

    Thoracic duct lymph was drained for 28 days from a patient with disseminated malignant melanoma. Lymphocytes were separated from the lymph by centrifugation, and returned to the patient daily. Biochemical and hematologic parameters were monitored in blood and lymph, and were maintained at satisfactory levels throughout the period. Cell-mediated immunity and specific blocking activity directed against melanoma antigens were examined by the leukocyte adherence inhibition test. Blocking factors in drained lymph fell to undetectable levels after 6 days' thoracic duct drainage, whereas it took 9 days for serum blocking factors to fall to similar levels. Peripheral blood leukocytes demonstrated cell-mediated immunity against melanoma antigens before and throughout the period of drainage, except for the immediate postoperative period. Within 24 hours of closure of the thoracic duct fistula, serum blocking activity had returned, and 17 days later the patient died.

  7. Repeated citalopram administration counteracts kainic acid-induced spreading of PSA-NCAM-immunoreactive cells and loss of reelin in the adult mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Jaako, Külli; Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Kalda, Anti; Anier, Kaili; Zharkovsky, Tamara; Shastin, Dmitri; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Systemic or intracerebral administration of kainic acid in rodents induces neuronal death followed by a cascade of neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. Kainic acid-induced neuroplasticity is evidenced by alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis, dispersion of the granule cell layer and re-organisation of mossy fibres. Similar abnormalities are observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and, therefore, kainic acid-induced hippocampal neuroplasticity might mimic pathological mechanisms leading to the formation of 'epileptic brain' in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Previous studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants might reduce the severity of seizures in epileptic patients and reduce neuronal death in laboratory animal models of kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated whether kainic acid-induced neuroplasticity in mice is modulated by the repeated administration of citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. We found that at the histopathological level, repeated citalopram treatment counteracted the kainic acid-induced neuronal loss and dispersion of young granule neurons expressing the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule within the granule cell layer of the hippocampus. Citalopram also counteracted the downregulation of reelin on both mRNA and protein levels induced by kainic acid administration. Our findings indicate that repeated administration of citalopram is able to prevent kainic acid-induced abnormal brain plasticity and thereby prevent the formation of an epileptic phenotype.

  8. RNA Polymerase Sigma Factor That Blocks Morphological Differentiation by Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Amy M.; Yoo, Narie J.; Losick, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor undergoes a complicated process of morphological differentiation that begins with the formation of an aerial mycelium and culminates in sporulation. Genes required for the initiation of aerial mycelium formation have been termed bld (bald), describing the smooth, undifferentiated colonies of mutant strains. By using an insertional mutagenesis protocol that relies on in vitro transposition, we have isolated a bld mutant harboring an insertion in a previously uncharacterized gene, SCE59.12c, renamed here rsuA. The insertion mutant exhibited no measurable growth defect but failed to produce an aerial mycelium and showed a significant delay in the production of the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin. The rsuA gene encodes an apparent anti-sigma factor and is located immediately downstream of SCE59.13c, renamed here sigU, whose product is inferred to be a member of the extracytoplasmic function subfamily of RNA polymerase sigma factors. The absence of rsuA in a strain that contained sigU caused a block in development, and the overexpression of sigU in an otherwise wild-type strain caused a delay in aerial mycelium formation. However, a strain in which both rsuA and sigU had been deleted was able to undergo morphological differentiation normally. We conclude that the rsuA-encoded anti-sigma factor is responsible for antagonizing the function of the sigma factor encoded by sigU. We also conclude that the sigU-encoded sigma factor is not normally required for development but that its uncontrolled activity obstructs morphological differentiation at an early stage. PMID:11566999

  9. Protective effects of bupivacaine against kainic acid-induced seizure and neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kuan Ming; Wu, Chia Chan; Wang, Ming Jiuh; Lee, Ming Yi; Wang, Su Jane

    2015-01-01

    The excessive release of glutamate is a critical element in the neuropathology of epilepsy, and bupivacaine, a local anesthetic agent, has been shown to inhibit the release of glutamate in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals. This study investigated whether bupivacaine produces antiseizure and antiexcitotoxic effects using a kainic acid (KA) rat model, an animal model used for temporal lobe epilepsy, and excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments. The results showed that administering bupivacaine (0.4 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to rats 30 min before intraperitoneal injection of KA (15 mg/kg) increased seizure latency and reduced the seizure score. In addition, bupivacaine attenuated KA-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death, and this protective effect was accompanied by the inhibition of microglial activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus. Moreover, bupivacaine shortened the latency of escaping onto the platform in the Morris water maze learning performance test. Collectively, these data suggest that bupivacaine has therapeutic potential for treating epilepsy.

  10. Naringenin ameliorates kainic acid-induced morphological alterations in the dentate gyrus in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungha; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Shin, Won-Ho; Bae, Young-Seuk; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2016-10-19

    Granule cell dispersion (GCD) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is a morphological alteration characteristic of temporal lobe epilepsy. Recently, we reported that treatment with naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and citrus fruits, reduced spontaneous recurrent seizures by inhibiting kainic acid (KA)-induced GCD and neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampus, suggesting that naringin might have beneficial effects for preventing epileptic events in the adult brain. However, it is still unclear whether the beneficial effects of naringin treatment are mediated by the metabolism of naringin into naringenin in the KA-treated hippocampus. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated whether intraperitoneal injections of naringenin could mimic naringin-induced effects against GCD caused by intrahippocampal KA injections in mice. Our results showed that treatment with naringenin delayed the onset of KA-induced seizures and attenuated KA-induced GCD by inhibiting activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in both neurons and reactive astrocytes in the DG. In addition, its administration attenuated the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from microglial activation in the DG following KA treatment. These results suggest that naringenin may be an active metabolite of naringin and help prevent the progression of epileptic insults in the hippocampus in vivo; therefore, naringenin may be a beneficial metabolite of naringin for the treatment of epilepsy.

  11. Peroxiredoxin 1 interacts with and blocks the redox factor APE1 from activating interleukin-8 expression

    PubMed Central

    Nassour, Hassan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Saad, Amine; Papaluca, Arturo; Brosseau, Nicolas; Affar, El Bachir; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A.; Ramotar, Dindial

    2016-01-01

    APE1 is an essential DNA repair protein that also possesses the ability to regulate transcription. It has a unique cysteine residue C65, which maintains the reduce state of several transcriptional activators such as NF-κB. How APE1 is being recruited to execute the various biological functions remains unknown. Herein, we show that APE1 interacts with a novel partner PRDX1, a peroxidase that can also prevent oxidative damage to proteins by serving as a chaperone. PRDX1 knockdown did not interfere with APE1 expression level or its DNA repair activities. However, PRDX1 knockdown greatly facilitates APE1 detection within the nucleus by indirect immunofluorescence analysis, even though APE1 level was unchanged. The loss of APE1 interaction with PRDX1 promotes APE1 redox function to activate binding of the transcription factor NF-κB onto the promoter of a target gene, the proinflammatory chemokine IL-8 involved in cancer invasion and metastasis, resulting in its upregulation. Depletion of APE1 blocked the upregulation of IL-8 in the PRDX1 knockdown cells. Our findings suggest that the interaction of PRDX1 with APE1 represents a novel anti-inflammatory function of PRDX1, whereby the association safeguards APE1 from reducing transcription factors and activating superfluous gene expression, which otherwise could trigger cancer invasion and metastasis. PMID:27388124

  12. Generalized block-lifting factorization of M-channel biorthogonal filter banks for lossy-to-lossless image coding.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Taizo; Ikehara, Masaaki; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2012-07-01

    Generalized block-lifting factorization of M-channel (M > 2) biorthogonal filter banks (BOFBs) for lossy-to-lossless image coding is presented in this paper. Since the proposed block-lifting structure is more general than the conventional lifting factorizations and does NOT require many restrictions such as paraunitary, number of channels, and McMillan degree in each building block unlike the conventional lifting factorizations, its coding gain is higher than that of the previous methods. Several proposed BOFBs are designed and applied to image coding. Comparing the results with conventional lossy-to-lossless image coding structures, including the 5/3- and 9/7-tap discrete wavelet transforms in JPEG 2000 and a 4 × 8 hierarchical lapped biorthogonal transform in JPEG XR, the proposed BOFBs achieve better result in both objective measure and perceptual visual quality for the images with a lot of high-frequency components.

  13. Alteration of kainic acid and quinolinic acid toxicity by neostriatal transplants in vitro.

    PubMed

    Whetsell, W O; Allen, G S; Tulipan, N B

    1989-01-02

    Mature (greater than 21 days in vitro) organotypic corticostriatal cultures prepared from newborn rat brain were incubated in either kainic acid (KA) 10(-3) M or quinolinic acid (QUIN) 10(-3) M for up to 48 h. Other identical cultures were similarly incubated immediately after they had received one or two additional explants of neonatal striatal tissue placed beside each corticostriatal culture. The cultures incubated with either KA or QUIN in the presence of the neonatal striatal tissue showed better preservation than cultures incubated with KA or QUIN alone. Results suggest that the neonatal striatal explants or 'transplants' afford some protective effect against the toxicity or either KA or QUIN.

  14. Neonatal striatal grafts prevent lethal syndrome produced by bilateral intrastriatal injection of kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, N; Huang, S; Whetsell, W O; Allen, G S

    1986-07-02

    It is reported that unilateral grafts of neonatal striatal tissue protect the recipient from the lethal aphagia and adipsia produced by bilateral intrastriatal injection of 10 nmol of kainic acid in rats. It is shown that neither adult striatum nor neonatal tissue from other sites have the same lifesaving effect and that the salutary effect of the graft is dependent upon graft survival. Grafts from a histoincompatible donor are apparently rejected, leading to the death of the recipient. Cyclosporine inhibits rejection thereby enabling recipient survival. It is postulated that the graft exerts a neurohumoral influence that protects the striatum from the toxic effect of kainate.

  15. Effect of nootropic Solcoseryl on kainic acid-induced excitotoxic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mintz, M; Knowlton, B; Myslobodsky, M S

    1993-05-01

    Solcoseryl (S) has been shown to provide significant cytoprotection in a variety of models of cerebral hypoxia. In the present study, we quantified the epileptiform effects caused by kainic acid administered into the pontine reticular formation of rats and their response to S pretreatment. Compared to saline, the agent appeared to significantly reduce the mortality of rats in the course of status epilepticus. However, S-pretreated rats manifested an increased incidence of behavioral seizures. This untoward effect is attributed to the fact that S improves the functional potential of injured tissue and retards the period of metabolic exhaustion at a time when neuronal activity should be minimized.

  16. Enteric pathogens deploy cell cycle inhibiting factors to block the bactericidal activity of Perforin-2

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Ryan M; Lyapichev, Kirill; Olsson, Melissa L; Podack, Eckhard R; Munson, George P

    2015-01-01

    Perforin-2 (MPEG1) is an effector of the innate immune system that limits the proliferation and spread of medically relevant Gram-negative, -positive, and acid fast bacteria. We show here that a cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complex containing cullin-1 and βTrCP monoubiquitylates Perforin-2 in response to pathogen associated molecular patterns such as LPS. Ubiquitylation triggers a rapid redistribution of Perforin-2 and is essential for its bactericidal activity. Enteric pathogens such as Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli disarm host cells by injecting cell cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) into mammalian cells to deamidate the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8. Because CRL activity is dependent upon NEDD8, Cif blocks ubiquitin dependent trafficking of Perforin-2 and thus, its bactericidal activity. Collectively, these studies further underscore the biological significance of Perforin-2 and elucidate critical molecular events that culminate in Perforin-2-dependent killing of both intracellular and extracellular, cell-adherent bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06505.001 PMID:26418746

  17. The factor XIIa blocking antibody 3F7: a safe anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory activities

    PubMed Central

    Worm, Marie; Köhler, Elodie C.; Panda, Rachita; Long, Andy; Butler, Lynn M.; Stavrou, Evi X.; Nickel, Katrin F.; Fuchs, Tobias A.

    2015-01-01

    The plasma protein factor XII (FXII) is the initiating protease of the procoagulant and proinflammatory contact system. FXII activates both the bradykinin (BK) producing kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. Contact with negatively charged surfaces induces auto-activation of zymogen FXII that results in activated FXII (FXIIa). Various in vivo activators of FXII have been identified including heparin, misfolded protein aggregates, nucleic acids and polyphosphate. Murine models have established a central role of FXII in arterial and venous thromboembolic diseases. Despite the central function of FXII in pathologic thrombosis, its deficiency does not impair hemostasis in animals or humans. The selective role of FXIIa in thrombosis, but not hemostasis, offers an exciting novel strategy for safe anticoagulation based on interference with FXIIa. We have generated the recombinant fully human FXIIa-blocking antibody 3F7, which abolished FXIIa enzymatic activity and prevented thrombosis in a cardiopulmonary bypass system in large animals, in the absence of increased therapy-associated bleeding. Furthermore, 3F7 also interfered with BK-driven edema in the severe swelling disorder hereditary angioedema (HAE) type III. Taken together, targeting FXIIa with 3F7 appears to be a promising approach to treat edema disorders and thrombosis. PMID:26605293

  18. Enteric pathogens deploy cell cycle inhibiting factors to block the bactericidal activity of Perforin-2.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Ryan M; Lyapichev, Kirill; Olsson, Melissa L; Podack, Eckhard R; Munson, George P

    2015-09-29

    Perforin-2 (MPEG1) is an effector of the innate immune system that limits the proliferation and spread of medically relevant Gram-negative, -positive, and acid fast bacteria. We show here that a cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complex containing cullin-1 and βTrCP monoubiquitylates Perforin-2 in response to pathogen associated molecular patterns such as LPS. Ubiquitylation triggers a rapid redistribution of Perforin-2 and is essential for its bactericidal activity. Enteric pathogens such as Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli disarm host cells by injecting cell cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) into mammalian cells to deamidate the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8. Because CRL activity is dependent upon NEDD8, Cif blocks ubiquitin dependent trafficking of Perforin-2 and thus, its bactericidal activity. Collectively, these studies further underscore the biological significance of Perforin-2 and elucidate critical molecular events that culminate in Perforin-2-dependent killing of both intracellular and extracellular, cell-adherent bacteria.

  19. Tolerance to seizure induced by kainic acid is produced in a specific period of zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Rico, Eduardo Pacheco; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2014-12-03

    During brain development, the electrical disturbance promoted by a seizure can have several consequences, because it can disturb a set of steps extremely regulated needed to the correct brain maturation. Animal modeling of seizure is invaluable to contribute to the mechanistic understanding of punctual seizure event, and those that triggered in an immature neural network could alter the mature brain physiology. In the present study we observed that the exposure to kainic acid diluted directly in water of zebrafish decreased the locomotor activity at 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) animals and increased at 15 dpf, despite the absence of more specific seizure features. Pre-exposure to kainic acid (500 μM) diluted in water at 7 dpf animals reduced the susceptibility to a second exposure 2 months later by intraperitoneal injection. The current data suggest that these different responses are associated with neuronal maturation process and open a question about the window of development that are crucial to long lasting effects related to seizure in this animal model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Striatal grafts provide sustained protection from kainic and quinolinic acid-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, N; Luo, S Q; Allen, G S; Whetsell, W O

    1988-12-01

    Grafts of neonatal striatal tissue were placed into the striata of adult rats. When challenged immediately with intrastriatal injections of either kainic or quinolinic acid, excitotoxic damage was prevented. Thirty days later these same graft recipients received another injection of excitotoxin. The intrastriatal grafts continued to mitigate toxin-induced damage. It is hypothesized that the grafted cells not only survive, but that they may continue to elaborate some substance or substances that prevent excitotoxin-induced injury for at least 30 days. Previous investigations indicated that grafts of neonatal striatal tissue can protect the recipient striatum from kainic acid toxicity. In the following study it is demonstrated that such grafts also protect the striatum from quinolinic acid, an endogenous excitotoxin which induces kainate-like neuronal degeneration and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. It is postulated that the salutary effect of striatal grafting may be sufficiently long lasting to mitigate a chronic toxic insult. Such grafting may therefore represent a therapy for Huntington's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders in which an endogenous or exogenous toxin has been implicated as the pathogenetic agent.

  1. Blocking of tumor necrosis factor activity promotes natural repair of osteochondral defects in rabbit knee

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Osteochondral defects have a limited capacity for repair. We therefore investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signal blockade by etanercept (human recombinant soluble TNF receptor) on the repair of osteochondral defects in rabbit knees. Material and methods Osteochondral defects (5 mm in diameter) were created in the femoral patellar groove in rabbits. Soon after the procedure, a first subcutaneous injection of etanercept was performed. This single injection or, alternatively, 4 injections in total (twice a week for 2 weeks) were given. Each of these 2 groups was divided further into 3 subgroups: a low-dose group (0.05 μg/kg), an intermediate-dose group (0.4 μ g/kg), and a high-dose group (1.6 μ g /kg) with 19 rabbits in each. As a control, 19 rabbits were injected with water alone. The rabbits in each subgroup were killed 4 weeks (6 rabbits), 8 weeks (6 rabbits), or 24 weeks (7 rabbits) after surgery and repair was assessed histologically. Results Histological examination revealed that the natural process of repair of the osteochondral defects was promoted by 4 subcutaneous injections of intermediate-dose etanercept and by 1 or 4 injections of high-dose etanercept at the various time points examined postoperatively (4, 8, and 24 weeks). Western blot showed that rabbit TNFα had a high affinity for etanercept. Interpretation Blocking of TNF by etanercept enabled repair of osteochondral defects in rabbit knee. Anti-TNF therapy could be a strategy for the use of tissue engineering for bone and cartilage repair. PMID:19916697

  2. Long-lasting modification of the synaptic properties of rat CA3 hippocampal neurones induced by kainic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ari, Y; Gho, M

    1988-01-01

    1. The action of a short bath application of kainic acid (KA, 200-250 nM, 3-5 min) on the CA3 region of rat hippocampal slices has been studied with intracellular and extracellular recording techniques. 2. KA evoked bursts which persisted for 10-15 min. In addition, after KA, electrical stimulation of various inputs to CA3 which elicited an EPSP-IPSP sequence in control conditions evoked an EPSP followed by a burst. This evoked response persisted for several hours after removal of KA suggesting the occurrence of a long-lasting modification of the synaptic properties of CA3 neurones. 3. Intracellular recordings showed the spontaneous and evoked bursts to consist of five to ten action potentials riding on a depolarizing shift 10-25 mV in amplitude and 40-100 ms in duration. Both spontaneous and evoked bursts were followed by a long-lasting hyperpolarization 15-25 mV in amplitude and 1-1.5 s in duration. 4. We propose that both spontaneous and evoked synchronized bursts are generated by a polysynaptic network since: (a) intracellularly recorded bursts were synchronized with the bursts in extracellular field recording; (b) bursts disappeared when synaptic transmission or Na+ action potential were blocked by cobalt (1 mM) or TTX (1 microM) respectively; (c) bursts were suppressed by elevated divalent cation concentration; (d) burst occurrence was independent of the membrane potential of the cell; (e) the depolarization shift that underlies the bursts was a linear function of the membrane potential and reversed in polarity at 0 mV. In addition, the evoked bursts were all-or-none events with a variable latency. 5. Laminar profile analysis of the spontaneous and evoked bursts suggests that they were generated by synapses located on the distal apical segments of the dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells. 7. The persistence of the evoked bursts was neither due to a persistent change in cell excitability nor to a long-lasting reduction in GABAergic synaptic inhibition. 8. Bath

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF A BLOCKING FACTOR IN THE PLASMA AND SPINAL FLUID OF PATIENTS WITH SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Aftab; Strong, Douglas M.; Sell, Kenneth W.; Thurman, Gary B.; Knudsen, Richard C.; Wistar, Richard; Grace, William R.

    1974-01-01

    Conflicting reports on the immune responsiveness of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) have been reported. This report shows that the leucocytes from four SSPE patients exhibited strong sensitivity to both measles and SSPE virus preparations as measured by the macrophage migration inhibition test, mixed lymphocyte virus infected cell culture test, and the lymphotoxin assay. Earlier suggestions that a factor may be operating to suppress cellular reactivity are confirmed by the demonstration that the response of lymphocytes from SSPE patients could be blocked by the addition of SSPE spinal fluid or plasma. It was determined that the blocking factor was stable at –20°C, heat labile at 56°C for 30 minutes, trypsin and neuraminadase sensitive, and had a mol wt greater than 150,000 as determined by Sephadex G-200 gel chromatography. The blocking factor appeared to be specific for SSPE virus and did not block the response of lymphocytes to nonspecific mitogenic agents and other viral and bacterial agents. PMID:4593239

  4. Enhanced seizures and hippocampal neurodegeneration following kainic acid-induced seizures in metallothionein-I + II-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, J; Penkowa, M; Hadberg, H; Molinero, A; Hidalgo, J

    2000-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are major zinc binding proteins in the CNS that could be involved in the control of zinc metabolism as well as in protection against oxidative stress. Mice lacking MT-I and MT-II (MT-I + II deficient) because of targeted gene inactivation were injected with kainic acid (KA), a potent convulsive agent, to examine the neurobiological importance of these MT isoforms. At 35 mg/kg KA, MT-I + II deficient male mice showed a higher number of convulsions and a longer convulsion time than control mice. Three days later, KA-injected mice showed gliosis and neuronal injury in the hippocampus. MT-I + II deficiency decreased both astrogliosis and microgliosis and potentiated neuronal injury and apoptosis as shown by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated in situ end labelling (TUNEL), detection of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and by increased interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE) and caspase-3 levels. Histochemically reactive zinc in the hippocampus was increased by KA to a greater extent in MT-I + II-deficient compared with control mice. KA-induced seizures also caused increased oxidative stress, as suggested by the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein tyrosine nitration (NITT) levels and by the expression of MT-I + II, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD). MT-I + II deficiency potentiated the oxidative stress caused by KA. Both KA and MT-I + II deficiency significantly affected the expression of MT-III, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and its receptor (GM-CSFr). The present results indicate MT-I + II as important for neuron survival during KA-induced seizures, and suggest that both impaired zinc regulation and compromised antioxidant activity contribute to the observed neuropathology of the MT-I + II-deficient mice.

  5. Attenuation of kainic acid-induced status epilepticus by inhibition of endocannabinoid transport and degradation in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shubina, Liubov; Aliev, Rubin; Kitchigina, Valentina

    2015-03-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency associated with a high rate of mortality if not treated promptly. Exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to possess anticonvulsant properties both in vivo and in vitro. Here we study the influence of endocannabinoid metabolism on the development of kainic acid-induced SE in guinea pigs. For this purpose, the inhibitors of endocannabinoid transport, AM404, and enzymatic (fatty acid amide hydrolase) degradation, URB597, were applied. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, AM251, was also tested. Animal behavior as well as local electric field potentials in four structures: medial septum, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and amygdala were analyzed when AM404 (120nmol), URB597 (4.8nmol) or AM251 (20nmol) were administrated alone or together with 0.4μg of kainic acid. All substances were injected i.c.v. AM404, URB597 or AM251 administered alone did not alter markedly local field potentials of all four studied structures in the long-term compared with their basal activity. AM404 and URB597 significantly alleviated kainic acid-induced SE, decreasing behavioral manifestations, duration of seizure events and SE in general without changing the amplitude of local field potentials. AM251 did not produce distinct effects on SE in terms of our experimental paradigm. There was no apparent change of the seizure initiation pattern when kainic acid was coadministrated with AM404, URB597 or AM251. The present study provides electrophysiologic and behavioral evidences that inhibition of endocannabinoid metabolism plays a protective role against kainic acid-induced SE and may be employed for therapeutic purposes. Further investigations of the influences of cannabinoid-related compounds on SE genesis and especially epileptogenesis are required.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of rough aster butanol fraction against oxidative stress in the brain of mice challenged with kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Sok, Dai-Eun; Oh, Sang Hee; Kim, Yun-Bae; Kim, Mee Ree

    2003-07-30

    The neuroprotective effect of the butanol fraction from the methanol extract of Aster scaber Thunb. (rough aster butanol fraction) on oxidative damage in the brain of mice challenged with kainic acid was examined using behavioral signs and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. The rough aster butanol fraction (0.4-1.0 g/kg) was administered to ICR male mice, 6-8 weeks, through a gavage for 4 days consecutively, and on the third day, kainic acid (50 mg/kg) was ip administered. When compared to the vehicle-treated control, no significant changes in body and brain weight were observed in mice administered the rough aster butanol fraction. Administration of kainic acid only, causing a lethality of approximately 54%, resulted in a significant decrease of total glutathione level and an increase of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value in brain tissue. When the rough aster butanol fraction was examined for neuroprotective action, the rough aster butanol fraction (0.4 g/kg) alleviated the lethality (25%) of kainic acid and the behavioral sign of its neurotoxicity. Moreover, administration of the rough aster butanol fraction at a dose of 0.4 g/kg restored the glutathione level in the cytosolic portion of brain homogenate to approximately 80% (p < 0.05). Also, the rough aster butanol fraction (0.4 g/kg) led to a significant reduction of kainic acid-induced increase of TBARS value. In addition, the glutathione peroxidase activity was restored significantly (p < 0.05) in the cytosolic portion of brain homogenate, whereas glutathione reductase activity was not. On the basis of these results, the rough aster butanol fraction is suggested to contain a functional agent to prevent oxidative stress in the brain of mice.

  7. Glia activation and cytokine increase in rat hippocampus by kainic acid-induced status epilepticus during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Massimo; Perego, Carlo; Aliprandi, Marisa; Richichi, Cristina; Ravizza, Teresa; Colella, Daniele; Velískŏvá, Jana; Moshé, Solomon L; De Simoni, M Grazia; Vezzani, Annamaria

    2003-12-01

    In adult rats, status epilepticus (SE) induces cytokine production by glia especially when seizures are associated with neuronal injury. This suggests that cytokines may play a role in seizure-induced neuronal damage. As SE-induced injury is age-specific, we used rats of different ages (with distinct susceptibilities to seizure-induced neuronal injury) to elucidate the role of cytokines in this process. Thus, we investigated the activation of microglia and astrocytes, induction of cytokines, and hippocampal neuronal injury 4 and 24 h following kainic acid-induced SE in postnatal day (PN) 9, 15, and 21 rats. At PN9, there was little activation of microglia and astrocytes at any time point studied. Interleukin-1beta (IL), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and IL-6 or the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra) mRNA expression did not increase. No evidence of cell injury has been detected. At PN15, immunostaining of microglia and astrocytes was enhanced, but only IL-1beta mRNA expression was increased. These changes were observed 4 h after SE. Scattered injured neurons in CA3 and subiculum, but not in any other region, were present 24 h following SE. At PN21, immunostaining of microglia and astrocytes and the mRNA expression of all cytokines studied was significantly increased already 4 h after SE. At 24 h, many injured neurons were present in CA1 and CA3 regions and in 40% of rats in other forebrain areas. These data show that (i) the pattern of glia activation and cytokine gene transcription induced by SE is age-dependent and (ii) neuronal injury in the hippocampus occurs only when cytokines are induced and their synthesis precedes the appearance of neuronal damage. Thus, cytokine expression in immature brain is associated specifically with cell injury rather than with seizures per se, suggesting that proinflammatory cytokines may contribute to the occurence of SE-induced hippocampal damage.

  8. Regulation of hippocampal Fas receptor and death-inducing signaling complex after kainic acid treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2015-12-03

    Kainic acid (KA)-induced brain neuronal cell death (especially in the hippocampus) was shown to be mainly mediated by the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway. This study investigated the regulation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway mediated by Fas ligand/Fas receptor and components of the indispensable death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) in the hippocampus (marked changes) and cerebral cortex (modest changes) of KA-treated mice. KA (45mg/kg) induced a severe behavioral syndrome with recurrent motor seizures (scores; maximal at 60-90min; minimal at 72h) with activation of hippocampal pro-apoptotic JNK (+2.5 fold) and increased GFAP (+57%) and nuclear PARP-1 fragmentation (+114%) 72h post-treatment (delayed neurotoxicity). In the extrinsic apoptotic pathway (hippocampus), KA (72h) reduced Fas ligand (-92%) and Fas receptor aggregates (-24%). KA (72h) also altered the contents of major DISC components: decreased FADD adaptor (-44%), reduced activation of initiator caspase-8 (-47%) and increased survival FLIP-S (+220%). Notably, KA (72h) upregulated the content of anti-apoptotic p-Ser191 FADD (+41%) and consequently the expression of p-FADD/FADD ratio (+1.9-fold), a neuroplastic index. Moreover, the p-FADD dependent transcription factor NF-κB was also increased (+61%) in the hippocampus after KA (72h). The convergent adaptation of the extrinsic apoptotic machinery 72h after KA in mice (with otherwise normal gross behavior) is a novel finding which suggests the induction of survival mechanisms to partly counteract the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A role for synaptic and network plasticity in controlling epileptiform activity in CA1 in the kainic acid-lesioned rat hippocampus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, C; Wheal, H V

    1996-01-01

    1. Stimulation of the surviving afferents in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 area in kainic acid-lesioned hippocampal slices produced graded epileptiform activity, part of which (> 20%) involved the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. There was also a failure of synaptic inhibition in this region. In this preparation, we have tested the effects of low-frequency stimulation (LFS; 1 Hz for 15 min) on synaptic responses and epileptiform activity. 2. LFS resulted in long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs), long-term decrease of population spike amplitudes (PSAs) and EPSP-spike (E-S) potentiation. Evoked epileptiform activity was reduced but neurons had a higher probability of discharge. LTD could be reversed by subsequent tetanic stimulation whereas E-S dissociation remained unchanged. Synaptic and network responses could be saturated towards either potentiation or depression. However, E-S potentiation was maximal following the first conditioning stimulus. 3. NMDA receptor-mediated responses were pharmacologically isolated. LFS resulted in LTD of synaptic responses, long-term decrease of PSAs and E-S depression. These depressions could not be reversed by subsequent tetanic stimulation. alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and NMDA receptor-mediated responses were then measured in isolation before and following conditioning stimuli. LFS was shown to simultaneously produce LTD of AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated responses. E-S potentiation of the AMPA component and E-S depression of the NMDA component occurred coincidentally. 4. LTD of AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated responses were shown to be NMDA dependent. In contrast, E-S potentiation and depression occurred even when NMDA receptors were pharmacologically blocked. 5. These findings indicate that synaptic responses could be modified bidirectionally in the CA1 area of kainic acid-lesioned rat hippocampus in an NMDA receptor-dependent manner. However

  10. Total synthesis of (-)-(α)-kainic acid via a diastereoselective intramolecular [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of an aryl cyclopropyl ketone with an alkyne.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi; Zhou, Bing; Li, Yuanchao

    2012-05-18

    An enantioselective synthesis of (-)-(α)-kainic acid in 15 steps with an overall yield of 24% is reported. The pyrrolidine kainoid precursor with the required C2/C3 trans stereochemistry was prepared with complete diastereoselectivity via an unprecedented SmI2-catalyzed intramolecular [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of an aryl cyclopropyl ketone and an alkyne. Double bond isomerization was then employed to set the remaining stereochemistry at the C4 position en route to (-)-(α)-kainic acid.

  11. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin against kainic acid-induced neuronal damage in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rimbau, V; Camins, A; Romay, C; González, R; Pallàs, M

    1999-12-03

    The neuroprotective role of C-phycocyanin was examined in kainate-injured brains of rats. The effect of three different treatments with C-phycocyanin was studied. The incidence of neurobehavioral changes was significantly lower in animals receiving C-phycocyanin. These animals also gained significantly more weight than the animals only receiving kainic acid, whereas their weight gain did not differed significantly from controls. Equivalent results were found when the neuronal damage in the hippocampus was evaluated through changes in peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (microglial marker) and heat shock protein 27 kD expression (astroglial marker). Our results are consistent with the oxygen radical scavenging properties of C-phycocyanin described elsewhere. Our findings and the virtual lack of toxicity of C-phycocyanin suggest this drug could be used to treat oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

  12. Factor levels for density comparisons in the split-block spacing design

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; Brian J. Stanton; Robbert H. Walkup

    1989-01-01

    The split-block spacing design is a compact test of the effects of within-row and between-row spacings. But the sometimes awkward analysis of density (i.e., trees/ha) effects may deter use of the design. The analysis is simpler if the row spacings are chosen to obtain a balanced set of equally spaced density and rectangularity treatments. A spacing study in poplar (...

  13. Hammerhead ribozyme targeting connective tissue growth factor mRNA blocks transforming growth factor-beta mediated cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Blalock, Timothy D; Yuan, Rong; Lewin, Alfred S; Schultz, Gregory S

    2004-06-01

    Excessive scarring following trauma or surgery of cornea, conjunctiva or retina can greatly impair visual outcome. At present, no agents are clinically available that selectively reduce activity of genes that regulate fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been linked to fibrosis in several tissues, including cornea and conjunctiva. In this study, hammerhead ribozymes targeting CTGF mRNA were synthesized, kinetic parameters were measured, and the effect on TGF-beta-mediated cell proliferation was measured in cultured human fibroblasts. The mRNA sequence of human CTGF was scanned for potential hammerhead ribozyme cleavage sites, and predicted secondary folding structures around the sites were calculated. Synthetic 12mer ribozymes and 33mer oligonucleotide mRNA targets corresponding to two sites were synthesized, and kinetic constants calculated from Hanes-Wolff plots of in vitro cleavage reactions. The ribozyme with higher percentage cleavage and kinetic rate was cloned into an expression plasmid (pTR-UF21) and stably transfected into cultured human fibroblasts. An inactive ribozyme plasmid served as a negative control. The effects of the ribozyme on expression of TGF-beta-induced CTGF mRNA and protein levels were measured using ELISA and real-time TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR. Finally, the effect of the CTGF ribozyme on TGF-beta-mediated proliferation of fibroblasts was measured using a non-radioactive cell proliferation microtiter assay. Of the eight potential hammerhead ribozyme cleavage sites in human CTGF mRNA, two sites (CHR 745, and CHR 859) were identified with optimal secondary folding. CHR 859 cleaved 94% of the target mRNA, compared to 46% cleavage for CHR 745 after 16 hr of reaction. CHR 859 had a K(m) of 1.56 microM and a K(cat) of 2.97 min(-1), while CHR 745 had a K(m) of 7.80 microM and a K(cat) of 5.7 min(-1). The turnover numbers (K(cat)/K(m)) of CHR 859 and CHR 745 were 1.9 x 10(6) M min(-1) and 7.4 x 10(5) M min(-1), respectively

  14. Two functional epitopes of pigment epithelial-derived factor block angiogenesis and induce differentiation in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Filleur, Stephanie; Volz, Karl; Nelius, Thomas; Mirochnik, Yelena; Huang, Hanhua; Zaichuk, Tetiana A; Aymerich, Maria S; Becerra, Sofia P; Yap, Ronald; Veliceasa, Dorina; Shroff, Emelyn H; Volpert, Olga V

    2005-06-15

    Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF), an angiogenesis inhibitor with neurotrophic properties, balances angiogenesis in the eye and blocks tumor progression. Its neurotrophic function and the ability to block vascular leakage is replicated by the PEDF 44-mer peptide (residues 58-101). We analyzed PEDFs' three-dimensional structure and identified a potential receptor-binding surface. Seeking PEDF-based antiangiogenic agents we generated and tested peptides representing the middle and lower regions of this surface. We identified previously unknown antiangiogenic epitopes consisting of the 34-mer (residues 24-57) and a shorter proximal peptide (TGA, residues 16-26) with the critical stretch L19VEEED24 and a fragment within the 44-mer (ERT, residues 78-94), which retained neurotrophic activity. The 34-mer and TGA, but not the 44-mer reproduced PEDF angioinhibitory signals hinged on c-jun-NH2-kinase-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cell deactivation and caused apoptosis. Conversely, the ERT, but not the 34-mer/TGA induced neuronal differentiation. For the 44-mer/ERT, we showed a novel ability to cause neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer cells. PEDF and the peptides bound endothelial and PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Bound peptides were displaced by PEDF, but not by each other, suggesting multiple receptors. PEDF and its active fragments blocked tumor formation when conditionally expressed by PC-3 cells. The 34- and 44-mer used distinct mechanisms: the 34-mer acted on endothelial cells, blocked angiogenesis, and induced apoptosis whereas 44-mer prompted neuroendocrine differentiation in cancer cells. Our results map active regions for the two PEDF functions, signaling via distinct receptors, identify candidate peptides, and provide their mechanism of action for future development of PEDF-based tumor therapies.

  15. Safety of tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-1 blocking agents in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Botsios, Costantino

    2005-03-01

    The three licensed TNF(alpha) blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab) and the recombinant form of human interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (anakinra) have all been shown to be effective in patients with chronic rheumatic autoimmune diseases; they have also been associated with certain types of serious adverse events. As expected, much of the information on serious events have accumulated during the post-marketing period. Certain serious, but uncommon, adverse events have been observed with all three TNF(alpha) blocking agents, including serious bacterial infections, tuberculosis (TB) and certain opportunistic infections, demyelinating syndromes, and lupus-like reactions. These data suggest that these adverse reactions may be related to blockade of TNF(alpha) and may therefore represent class effects of these agents. However, the severity and degree of risk may not be the same with all three agents. Blockade of interleukin-1 activity with anakinra appears, at present, to be relatively safe. The safety profile of these products will continue to be developed through the use of the registry, periodic safety updates from the passive surveillance program, and safety data from controlled trials of biological therapy for other diseases. Physicians should minimize risks by patient selection and screening for opportunistic infections. Moreover, the choice of the biological agent must be tailored to minimize risks and maximize benefits.

  16. Temporal and spatial distribution of activated caspase-3 after subdural kainic acid infusions in rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, Stephanie A; Springer, Joe E

    2003-09-29

    The molecular events initiating apoptosis following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) remain poorly understood. Soon after injury, the spinal cord is exposed to numerous secondary insults, including elevated levels of glutamate, that contribute to cell dysfunction and death. In the present study, we attempted to mimic the actions of glutamate by subdural infusion of the selective glutamate receptor agonist, kainic acid, into the uninjured rat spinal cord. Immunohistochemical colocalization studies revealed that activated caspase-3 was present in ventral horn motor neurons at 24 hours, but not 4 hours or 96 hours, following kainic acid treatment. However, at no time point examined was there evidence of significant neuronal loss. Kainic acid resulted in caspase-3 activation in several glial cell populations at all time points examined, with the most pronounced effect occurring at 24 hours following infusion. In particular, caspase-3 activation was observed in a significant number of oligodendroglia in the dorsal and ventral funiculi, and there was a pronounced loss of oligodendroglia at 96 hours following treatment. The results of these experiments indicate a role for glutamate as a mediator of oligodendroglial apoptosis in traumatic SCI. In addition, understanding the apoptotic signaling events activated by glutamate will be important for developing therapies targeting this cell death process.

  17. Inhibition of pyrimidine synthesis reverses viral virulence factor-mediated block of mRNA nuclear export

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Das, Priyabrata; Schmolke, Mirco; Manicassamy, Balaji; Wang, Yaming; Deng, Xiaoyi; Cai, Ling; Tu, Benjamin P.; Forst, Christian V.; Roth, Michael G.; Levy, David E.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; de Brabander, Jef; Phillips, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    The NS1 protein of influenza virus is a major virulence factor essential for virus replication, as it redirects the host cell to promote viral protein expression. NS1 inhibits cellular messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) processing and export, down-regulating host gene expression and enhancing viral gene expression. We report in this paper the identification of a nontoxic quinoline carboxylic acid that reverts the inhibition of mRNA nuclear export by NS1, in the absence or presence of the virus. This quinoline carboxylic acid directly inhibited dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a host enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, and partially reduced pyrimidine levels. This effect induced NXF1 expression, which promoted mRNA nuclear export in the presence of NS1. The release of NS1-mediated mRNA export block by DHODH inhibition also occurred in the presence of vesicular stomatitis virus M (matrix) protein, another viral inhibitor of mRNA export. This reversal of mRNA export block allowed expression of antiviral factors. Thus, pyrimidines play a necessary role in the inhibition of mRNA nuclear export by virulence factors. PMID:22312003

  18. Identifying factors affecting the safety of mid-block bicycle lanes considering mixed 2-wheeled traffic flow.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lu; Chan, Ching-Yao; Liu, Pan; Xu, Chengcheng

    2017-10-03

    Electric bikes (e-bikes) have been one of the fastest growing trip modes in Southeast Asia over the past 2 decades. The increasing popularity of e-bikes raised some safety concerns regarding urban transport systems. The primary objective of this study was to identify whether and how the generalized linear regression model (GLM) could be used to relate cyclists' safety with various contributing factors when riding in a mid-block bike lane. The types of 2-wheeled vehicles in the study included bicycle-style electric bicycles (BSEBs), scooter-style electric bicycles (SSEBs), and regular bicycles (RBs). Traffic conflict technology was applied as a surrogate measure to evaluate the safety of 2-wheeled vehicles. The safety performance model was developed by adopting a generalized linear regression model for relating the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and regular bikes to the operating speeds of BSEBs, SSEBs, and RBs in mid-block bike lanes. The frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes increased with an increase in the operating speeds of e-bikes and the volume of e-bikes and bikes and decreased with an increase in the width of bike lanes. The large speed difference between e-bikes and bikes increased the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes in mid-block bike lanes. A 1% increase in the average operating speed of e-bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes by 1.48%. A 1% increase in the speed difference between e-bikes and bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes/bikes by 0.16%. The conflict frequency in mid-block bike lanes can be modeled using generalized linear regression models. The factors that significantly affected the frequency of rear-end conflicts included the operating speeds of e-bikes, the speed difference between e-bikes and regular bikes, the volume of e-bikes, the volume of bikes, and the width of bike lanes. The

  19. Integrated assessment of behavioral and environmental risk factors for Lyme disease infection on Block Island, Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Finch, Casey; Al-Damluji, Mohammed Salim; Krause, Peter J; Niccolai, Linda; Steeves, Tanner; O'Keefe, Corrine Folsom; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    Peridomestic exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi-infected Ixodes scapularis nymphs is considered the dominant means of infection with black-legged tick-borne pathogens in the eastern United States. Population level studies have detected a positive association between the density of infected nymphs and Lyme disease incidence. At a finer spatial scale within endemic communities, studies have focused on individual level risk behaviors, without accounting for differences in peridomestic nymphal density. This study simultaneously assessed the influence of peridomestic tick exposure risk and human behavior risk factors for Lyme disease infection on Block Island, Rhode Island. Tick exposure risk on Block Island properties was estimated using remotely sensed landscape metrics that strongly correlated with tick density at the individual property level. Behavioral risk factors and Lyme disease serology were assessed using a longitudinal serosurvey study. Significant factors associated with Lyme disease positive serology included one or more self-reported previous Lyme disease episodes, wearing protective clothing during outdoor activities, the average number of hours spent daily in tick habitat, the subject's age and the density of shrub edges on the subject's property. The best fit multivariate model included previous Lyme diagnoses and age. The strength of this association with previous Lyme disease suggests that the same sector of the population tends to be repeatedly infected. The second best multivariate model included a combination of environmental and behavioral factors, namely hours spent in vegetation, subject's age, shrub edge density (increase risk) and wearing protective clothing (decrease risk). Our findings highlight the importance of concurrent evaluation of both environmental and behavioral factors to design interventions to reduce the risk of tick-borne infections.

  20. Anthrax lethal factor (LF) mediated block of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) ion channel: effect of ionic strength and voltage.

    PubMed

    Neumeyer, Tobias; Tonello, Fiorella; Dal Molin, Federica; Schiffler, Bettina; Orlik, Frank; Benz, Roland

    2006-03-07

    The anthrax toxin complex consists of three different molecules, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). The activated form of PA, PA(63), forms heptamers that insert at low pH in biological membranes forming ion channels and that are necessary to translocate EF and LF in the cell cytosol. LF and EF are intracellular active enzymes that inhibit the host immune system promoting bacterial outgrowth. Here, PA(63) was reconstituted into artificial lipid bilayer membranes and formed ion-permeable channels. The heptameric PA(63) channel contains a binding site for LF on the cis side of the channel. Full-size LF was found to block the PA(63) channel in a dose- and ionic-strength-dependent way with half-saturation constants in the nanomolar concentration range. The binding curves suggest a 1:1 relationship between (PA(63))(7) and bound LF that blocks the channel. The presence of a His(6) tag at the N-terminal end of LF strongly increases the affinity of LF toward the PA(63) channel, indicating that the interaction between LF and the PA(63) channel occurs at the N terminus of the enzyme. The LF-mediated block of the PA(63)-induced membrane conductance is highly asymmetric with respect to the sign of the applied transmembrane potential. The result suggested that the PA(63) heptamers contain a high-affinity binding site for LF inside domain 1 or the channel vestibule and that the binding is ionic-strength-dependent.

  1. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1 {yields} S transition

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Padmanabhan, Bhavna; Bhat, Abhay; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Sadhale, Parag P.; Nath, Utpal

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} TCP4 is a class II TCP transcription factor, that represses cell division in Arabidopsis. {yields} TCP4 expression in yeast retards cell division by blocking G1 {yields} S transition. {yields} Genome-wide expression studies and Western analysis reveals stabilization of cell cycle inhibitor Sic1, as possible mechanism. -- Abstract: The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, their exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1 {yields} S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1 {yields} S arrest is discussed.

  2. Evaluation of a new assay kit for intrinsic factor blocking antibody (type I) as an aid in the diagnosis of pernicious anemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, W L; Morishita, R; Eguchi, T; Kawai, T; Uchino, H

    1985-10-01

    Sera from 39 patients with pernicious anemia and 251 patients with various other diseases and 42 healthy normal subjects were tested for intrinsic factor blocking antibody by a Corning commercial kit. Twenty-five (64%) out of 39 pernicious anemia patients showed a positive reaction to the intrinsic factor blocking antibody. The positive incidence of intrinsic factor blocking antibody by this method agreed well with the results obtained in this laboratory over the past 10 years using the charcoal method. No sera from normal subjects tested were positive for the intrinsic factor blocking antibody. All 226 sera with vitamin B12 levels less than 3,500 pg/ml which came from patients without pernicious anemia, were negative for the intrinsic factor blocking antibody. In 15 sera with B12 levels greater than 3,500 pg/ml from patients who received recent B12 medications, 11 sera showed false positive results. On the other hand, no false positive results were obtained by this method in 10 sera with endogenous serum B12 levels greater than 3,500 pg/ml collected from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. It is reasonable to presume that this assay is clinically useful for detection of intrinsic factor blocking antibody in the diagnosis of pernicious anemia, if false positive results due to B12 medication are excluded.

  3. A Framework for Batched and GPU-Resident Factorization Algorithms Applied to Block Householder Transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Tingzing Tim; Tomov, Stanimire Z; Luszczek, Piotr R; Dongarra, Jack J

    2015-01-01

    As modern hardware keeps evolving, an increasingly effective approach to developing energy efficient and high-performance solvers is to design them to work on many small size and independent problems. Many applications already need this functionality, especially for GPUs, which are currently known to be about four to five times more energy efficient than multicore CPUs. We describe the development of one-sided factorizations that work for a set of small dense matrices in parallel, and we illustrate our techniques on the QR factorization based on Householder transformations. We refer to this mode of operation as a batched factorization. Our approach is based on representing the algorithms as a sequence of batched BLAS routines for GPU-only execution. This is in contrast to the hybrid CPU-GPU algorithms that rely heavily on using the multicore CPU for specific parts of the workload. But for a system to benefit fully from the GPU's significantly higher energy efficiency, avoiding the use of the multicore CPU must be a primary design goal, so the system can rely more heavily on the more efficient GPU. Additionally, this will result in the removal of the costly CPU-to-GPU communication. Furthermore, we do not use a single symmetric multiprocessor(on the GPU) to factorize a single problem at a time. We illustrate how our performance analysis, and the use of profiling and tracing tools, guided the development and optimization of our batched factorization to achieve up to a 2-fold speedup and a 3-fold energy efficiency improvement compared to our highly optimized batched CPU implementations based on the MKL library(when using two sockets of Intel Sandy Bridge CPUs). Compared to a batched QR factorization featured in the CUBLAS library for GPUs, we achieved up to 5x speedup on the K40 GPU.

  4. Blocking Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Inhibits Tumor Growth, Lymphangiogenesis, and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Larrieu-Lahargue, Frédéric; Welm, Alana L.; Bouchecareilh, Marion; Alitalo, Kari; Li, Dean Y.; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Auguste, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor receptor (FGFR) activity plays crucial roles in tumor growth and patient survival. However, FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factor) signaling as a target for cancer therapy has been under-investigated compared to other receptor tyrosine kinases. Here, we studied the effect of FGFR signaling inhibition on tumor growth, metastasis and lymphangiogenesis by expressing a dominant negative FGFR (FGFR-2DN) in an orthotopic mouse mammary 66c14 carcinoma model. We show that FGFR-2DN-expressing 66c14 cells proliferate in vitro slower than controls. 66c14 tumor outgrowth and lung metastatic foci are reduced in mice implanted with FGFR-2DN-expressing cells, which also exhibited better overall survival. We found 66c14 cells in the lumen of tumor lymphatic vessels and in lymph nodes. FGFR-2DN-expressing tumors exhibited a decrease in VEGFR-3 (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3) or podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels, an increase in isolated intratumoral lymphatic endothelial cells and a reduction in VEGF-C (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C) mRNA expression. FGFs may act in an autocrine manner as the inhibition of FGFR signaling in tumor cells suppresses VEGF-C expression in a COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) or HIF1-α (hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α) independent manner. FGFs may also act in a paracrine manner on tumor lymphatics by inducing expression of pro-lymphangiogenic molecules such as VEGFR-3, integrin α9, prox1 and netrin-1. Finally, in vitro lymphangiogenesis is impeded in the presence of FGFR-2DN 66c14 cells. These data confirm that both FGF and VEGF signaling are necessary for the maintenance of vascular morphogenesis and provide evidence that targeting FGFR signaling may be an interesting approach to inhibit tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastatic spread. PMID:22761819

  5. Myoinositol Attenuates the Cell Loss and Biochemical Changes Induced by Kainic Acid Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Kikvidze, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Identification of compounds preventing or modifying the biochemical changes that underlie the epileptogenesis process and understanding the mechanism of their action are of great importance. We have previously shown that myoinositol (MI) daily treatment for 28 days prevents certain biochemical changes that are triggered by kainic acid (KA) induced status epilepticus (SE). However in these studies we have not detected any effects of MI on the first day after SE. In the present study we broadened our research and focused on other molecular and morphological changes at the early stages of SE induced by KA and effects of MI treatment on these changes. The increase in the amount of voltage-dependent anionic channel-1 (VDAC-1), cofilin, and caspase-3 activity was observed in the hippocampus of KA treated rats. Administration of MI 4 hours later after KA treatment abolishes these changes, whereas diazepam treatment by the same time schedule has no significant influence. The number of neuronal cells in CA1 and CA3 subfields of hippocampus is decreased after KA induced SE and MI posttreatment significantly attenuates this reduction. No significant changes are observed in the neocortex. Obtained results indicate that MI posttreatment after KA induced SE could successfully target the biochemical processes involved in apoptosis, reduces cell loss, and can be successfully used in the future for translational research. PMID:27642592

  6. Protective effects of betaxolol in eyes with kainic acid-induced neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Eun Woo; Park, Chang Hwan; Kim, Yoon Sook; Cho, Chang Hyun; Chung, Young Chul; Kwon, Jong Gil; Yoo, Ji Myong; Choi, Wan Sung; Cho, Gyeong Jae

    2006-01-19

    In the present study, we investigated whether betaxolol, a selective beta1-adrenoceptor antagonist, has neuroprotective effect on kainic acid (KA)-induced retinal damage. Neurotoxicities were induced in adult male rats by intravitreal injection of KA (total amount, 6 nmol). To examine the neuroprotective effects of betaxolol, rats were pretreated with betaxolol topically 60 min before KA injection to the rat eyes and twice daily for 1, 3, and 7 days after KA injection. The neuroprotective effects of betaxolol were estimated by measuring the thickness of the various retinal layers, and by counting the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells in each retinal layer. The retina is highly vulnerable to KA-induced neuronal damage. Morphometric analysis of retinal damage in KA injected eyes, the thickness of the retinal layers decreased markedly after KA injection period of both 3 and 7 days. Furthermore, the numbers of ChAT- and TH-positive cells were significantly reduced by intravitreal injection of KA. However, when two drops of betaxolol, once before KA injection and twice daily for 7 days after KA injection, were continuously administered, the reductions in the retinal thickness and the retinal ChAT- and TH-positive cells were significantly attenuated. The present study suggests that topically applied betaxolol has neuroprotective effect on the retinal cell damage due to KA-induced neurotoxicity.

  7. Multi-omics profile of the mouse dentate gyrus after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Schouten, Marijn; Bielefeld, Pascal; Fratantoni, Silvina A.; Hubens, Chantal J.; Piersma, Sander R.; Pham, Thang V.; Voskuyl, Rob A.; Lucassen, Paul J.; Jimenez, Connie R.; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can develop from alterations in hippocampal structure and circuit characteristics, and can be modeled in mice by administration of kainic acid (KA). Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) contributes to hippocampal functions and has been reported to contribute to the development of TLE. Some of the phenotypical changes include neural stem and precursor cells (NPSC) apoptosis, shortly after their birth, before they produce hippocampal neurons. Here we explored these early phenotypical changes in the DG 3 days after a systemic injection of KA inducing status epilepticus (KA-SE), in mice. We performed a multi-omics experimental setup and analyzed DG tissue samples using proteomics, transcriptomics and microRNA profiling techniques, detecting the expression of 2327 proteins, 13401 mRNAs and 311 microRNAs. We here present a description of how these data were obtained and make them available for further analysis and validation. Our data may help to further identify and characterize molecular mechanisms involved in the alterations induced shortly after KA-SE in the mouse DG. PMID:27529540

  8. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Sairazi, Nur Shafika; Sirajudeen, K. N. S.; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Mummedy, Swamy; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2015-01-01

    Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS). In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA). KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration. PMID:26793262

  9. Three-dimensional optical tomographic brain imaging during kainic-acid-induced seizures in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluestone, Avraham Y.; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Hielscher, Andreas H.; Stewart, Mark

    2005-04-01

    In this study, we explored the potential of diffuse optical tomography for brain oximetry and describe our efforts towards imaging hemodynamic changes in rat brains during kainic-acid (KA) induced seizures. Using electrophysiological techniques we first showed that KA induces a pronounced transient hypotension in urethane anesthetized rats that is coincident with seizure activity beginning in ventral and spreading to dorsal hippocampus. We observed sustained increases in vagus and sympathetic activity during generalized limbic seizure activity, which alters blood pressure regulation and heart rhythms. Subsequently, we used optical tomographic methods to study KA induced seizures in anesthetized animals to better define the hemodynamic cerebral vascular response. We observed a lateralized increase in deoxyhemoglobin after KA injection at the time when the blood pressure (BP) was decreased. By contrast, injection of phenylephrine produced a symmetric global increase in total hemoglobin. These findings indicate that our instrument is sensitive to the local hemodynamics, both in response to a global increase in blood pressure (phenylephrine injection) and a lateralized decrease in oxyhemoglobin produced by an asymmetric response to KA; a response that may be critically important for severe autonomic nervous system alterations during seizures. The results of this study provide the impetus for combining complimentary modalities, imaging and electrophysiological, to ultimately gain a better understanding of the underlying physiology of seizure activity in the rat.

  10. Intracerebroventricular kainic acid administration to neonatal rats alters interneuron development in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongxin; Csernansky, Cynthia A; Chu, Yunxiang; Csernansky, John G

    2003-10-10

    The effects of neonatal exposure to excitotoxins on the development of interneurons have not been well characterized, but may be relevant to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, the excitotoxin, kainic acid (KA) was administered to rats at postnatal day 7 (P7) by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion. At P14, P25, P40 and P60, Nissl staining and immunohistochemical studies with the interneuron markers, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), calbindin-D28k (CB) and parvalbumin (PV) were performed in the hippocampus. In control animals, the total number of interneurons, as well as the number of interneurons stained with GAD-67, CB and PV, was nearly constant from P14 through P60. In KA-treated rats, Nissl staining, GAD-67 staining, and CB staining revealed a progressive decline in the overall number of interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields from P14 to P60. In contrast, PV staining in KA-treated rats showed initial decreases in the number of interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields at P14 followed by increases that approached control levels by P60. These results suggest that, in general, early exposure to the excitotoxin KA decreases the number of hippocampal interneurons, but has a more variable effect on the specific population of interneurons labeled by PV. The functional impact of these changes may be relevant to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.

  11. Role of JNK isoforms in the kainic acid experimental model of epilepsy and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Auladell, Carme; de Lemos, Luisa; Verdaguer, Ester; Ettcheto, Miren; Busquets, Oriol; Lazarowski, Alberto; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Olloquequi, Jordi; Folch, Jaume; Camins, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Chemoconvulsants that induce status epilepticus in rodents have been widely used over the past decades due to their capacity to reproduce with high similarity neuropathological and electroencephalographic features observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Kainic acid  is one of the most used chemoconvulsants in experimental models. KA administration mainly induces neuronal loss in the hippocampus. We focused the present review inthe c-Jun N-terminal kinase-signaling pathway (JNK), since it has been shown to play a key role in the process of neuronal death following KA activation. Among the three isoforms of JNK (JNK1, JNK2, JNK3), JNK3 is widely localized in the majority of areas of the hippocampus, whereas JNK1 levels are located exclusively in the CA3 and CA4 areas and in dentate gyrus. Disruption of the gene encoding JNK3 in mice renders neuroprotection to KA, since these animals showed a reduction in seizure activity and a diminution in hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. In light of this, JNK3 could be a promising subcellular target for future therapeutic interventions in epilepsy.

  12. Lack of kainic acid-induced gamma oscillations predicts subsequent CA1 excitotoxic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Jinde, Seiichiro; Belforte, Juan E.; Yamamoto, Jun; Wilson, Matthew A.; Tonegawa, Susumu; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2009-01-01

    Gamma oscillations are a prominent feature of hippocampal network activity, but their functional role remains debated, ranging from mere epiphenomenon to crucial for information processing. Similarly, persistent gamma oscillations sometimes appear prior to epileptic discharges in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. However, the significance of this activity in hippocampal excitotoxicity is unclear. We assessed the relationship between kainic acid (KA)-induced gamma oscillations and excitotoxicity in genetically-engineered mice in which N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor deletion was confined to CA3 pyramidal cells. Mutants showed reduced CA3 pyramidal cell firing and augmented sharp wave-ripple activity, resulting in higher susceptibility to KA-induced seizures, and leading to strikingly selective neurodegeneration in the CA1 subfield. Interestingly, the KA-induced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) level increases and persistent 30-50 Hz gamma oscillations observed in control mice prior to the first seizure discharge was abolished in the mutants. Consequently, on subsequent days, mutants manifested prolonged epileptiform activity and massive neurodegeneration of CA1 cells, including local GABAergic neurons. Remarkably, pretreatment with the potassium channel blocker α-dendrotoxin (DTX) increased GABA levels, restored gamma oscillations, and prevented CA1 degeneration in the mutants. These results demonstrate that emergence of low frequency gamma oscillations predicts increased resistance to KA-induced excitotoxicity, raising the possibility that gamma oscillations may have potential prognostic value for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:19735292

  13. Variable electrobehavioral patterns during focal nonconvulsive status epilepticus induced by unilateral intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Arcieri, Salvatore; Velotti, Rosa; Noè, Francesco; Carriero, Giovanni; Cattalini, Alessandro; Galbardi, Barbara; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; de Curtis, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (ncSE) is a severe condition that may result in neurologic sequelae and epilepsy resistant to pharmacologic treatment. We analyze here seizure and electroencephalography (EEG) patterns and their correlation to the development of a chronic epileptic condition in a guinea pig model of focal ncSE induced by intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid (KA). Electrobehavioral patterns during ncSE induced by unilateral injection of 1 μg of KA in the CA1 region of the hippocampus were characterized by continuous video-EEG monitoring in 13 guinea pigs bilaterally implanted with recording electrodes in the hippocampus and neocortex. Video-EEG analysis demonstrates a high variability of seizure type and duration during KA-induced ncSE. Seizures showed focal signs correlated with diverse epileptiform EEG discharge distributions, either diffuse or localized. Nonfocal (bilateral motor) signs during seizures most likely correlated with a diffuse EEG pattern. The evolution into a chronic epileptic condition correlated neither with the severity of seizure pattern nor with the diffusion of the EEG discharges observed during the ncSE. Video-EEG monitoring in a guinea pig model of ncSE induced by unilateral hippocampal injection of KA demonstrates a high variability of electrobehavioral patterns. We demonstrate that the seizure severity score during focal ncSE is not a predictor of the evolution into a chronic epileptic condition of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Suppression of Adult Neurogenesis Increases the Acute Effects of Kainic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Sloka S.; LaFrancois, John J.; Friedman, Daniel; Drew, Liam J.; Denny, Christine A.; Burghardt, Nesha S.; Wu, Melody V.; Hsieh, Jenny; Hen, René; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons in the adult brain, occurs in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the olfactory bulb (OB) of all mammals, but the functions of these new neurons are not entirely clear. Originally, adult-born neurons were considered to have excitatory effects on the DG network, but recent studies suggest a net inhibitory effect. Therefore, we hypothesized that selective removal of newborn neurons would lead to increased susceptibility to the effects of a convulsant. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating the response to the chemoconvulsant kainic acid (KA) in mice with reduced adult neurogenesis, produced either by focal X-irradiation of the DG, or by pharmacogenetic deletion of dividing radial glial precursors. In the first 4 hrs after KA administration, when mice have the most robust seizures, mice with reduced adult neurogenesis had more severe convulsive seizures, exhibited either as a decreased latency to the first convulsive seizure, greater number of convulsive seizures, or longer convulsive seizures. Nonconvulsive seizures did not appear to change or they decreased. Four-21 hrs after KA injection, mice with reduced adult neurogenesis showed more interictal spikes (IIS) and delayed seizures than controls. Effects were greater when the anticonvulsant ethosuximide was injected 30 min prior to KA administration; ethosuximide allows forebrain seizure activity to be more easily examined in mice by suppressing seizures dominated by the brainstem. These data support the hypothesis that reduction of adult-born neurons increases the susceptibility of the brain to effects of KA. PMID:25476494

  15. Alterations of taurine in the brain of chronic kainic acid epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Baran, H

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of taurine in the kainic acid (KA, 10 mg/kg, s.c.) chronic model of epilepsy, six months after KA application. The KA-rats used were divided into a group of animals showing weak behavioural response to KA (WDS, rare focal convulsion; rating scale <2 up to 3 h after KA injection) and a group of strong response to KA (WDS, seizures; rating >3 up to 3 h after KA injection). The brain regions investigated were caudate nucleus, substantia nigra, septum, hippocampus, amygdala/piriform cortex, and frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices. KA-rats with rating <2 developed spontaneous WDS which occurred chronically and six months after KA injection increased taurine levels were found in the hippocampus (125.4% of control). KA-rats with rating >3 developed spontaneous recurrent seizures and six months after injection increased taurine levels were found in the caudate nucleus (162.5% of control) and hippocampus (126.6% of control), while reduced taurine levels were seen in the septum (78.2% of control). In summary, increased taurine levels in the hippocampus may involve processes for membrane stabilisation, thus favouring recovery after neuronal hyperactivity. The increased taurine levels in the caudate nucleus could be involved in the modulation of spontaneous recurrent seizure activity.

  16. Fresh green tea and gallic acid ameliorate oxidative stress in kainic acid-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Jeng, Kee-Ching G; Yao, Pei-Wun; Chuang, Lu-Te; Kuo, Su-Ling; Hou, Chien-Wei

    2012-03-07

    Green tea is one of the most-consumed beverages due to its taste and antioxidative polyphenols. However, the protective effects of green tea and its constituent, gallic acid (GA), against kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure have not been studied. We investigated the effect of fresh green tea leaf (GTL) and GA on KA-induced neuronal injury in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that GTL and GA reduced the maximal seizure classes, predominant behavioral seizure patterns, and lipid peroxidation in male FVB mice with status epilepticus (SE). GTL extract and GA provided effective protection against KA-stressed PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In the protective mechanism study, GTL and GA decreased Ca(2+) release, ROS, and lipid peroxidation from KA-stressed PC12 cells. Western blot results revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), RhoA, and COX-2 expression were increased in PC12 cells under KA stress, and expression of COX-2 and p38 MAPK, but not RhoA, was significantly reduced by GTL and GA. Furthermore, GTL and GA were able to reduce PGE(2) production from KA-stressed PC12 cells. Taken together, the results showed that GTL and GA provided neuroprotective effects against excitotoxins and may have a clinical application in epilepsy.

  17. Cooperation of Cytokine Signaling with Chimeric Transcription Factors in Leukemogenesis: PML-Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha Blocks Growth Factor-Mediated Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Vernon T.; Shultz, David B.; Truong, Bao-Tran H.; Blake, Timothy J.; Brown, Anna L.; Gonda, Thomas J.; Beau, Michelle M. Le; Kogan, Scott C.

    2003-01-01

    We utilized a mouse model of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) to investigate how aberrant activation of cytokine signaling pathways interacts with chimeric transcription factors to generate acute myeloid leukemia. Expression in mice of the APL-associated fusion, PML-RARA, initially has only modest effects on myelopoiesis. Whereas treatment of control animals with interleukin-3 (IL-3) resulted in expanded myelopoiesis without a block in differentiation, PML-RARA abrogated differentiation that normally characterizes the response to IL-3. Retroviral transduction of bone marrow with an IL-3-expressing retrovirus revealed that IL-3 and promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARα) combined to generate a lethal leukemia-like syndrome in <21 days. We also observed that a constitutively activated mutant IL-3 receptor, βcV449E, cooperated with PML-RARα in leukemogenesis, whereas a different activated mutant, βcI374N, did not. Analysis of additional mutations introduced into βcV449E showed that, although tyrosine phosphorylation of βc is necessary for cooperation, the Src homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein binding site is dispensable. Our results indicate that chimeric transcription factors can block the differentiative effects of growth factors. This combination can be potently leukemogenic, but the particular manner in which these types of mutations interact determines the ability of such combinations to generate acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:12808098

  18. Harnessing High Density Lipoproteins to Block Transforming Growth Factor Beta and to Inhibit the Growth of Liver Tumor Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Echeverz, José; Fioravanti, Jessica; Díaz-Valdés, Nancy; Frank, Kathrin; Aranda, Fernando; Gomar, Celia; Ardaiz, Nuria; Dotor, Javier; Umansky, Viktor; Prieto, Jesús; Berraondo, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a powerful promoter of cancer progression and a key target for antitumor therapy. As cancer cells exhibit active cholesterol metabolism, high density lipoproteins (HDLs) appear as an attractive delivery system for anticancer TGFβ-inhibitory molecules. We constructed a plasmid encoding a potent TGF-β-blocking peptide (P144) linked to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) through a flexible linker (pApoLinkerP144). The ApoLinkerP144 sequence was then incorporated into a hepatotropic adeno-associated vector (AAVApoLinkerP144). The aim was to induce hepatocytes to produce HDLs containing a modified ApoA-I capable of blocking TGF-β. We observed that transduction of the murine liver with pApoLinkerP144 led to the appearance of a fraction of circulating HDL containing the fusion protein. These HDLs were able to attenuate TGF-β signaling in the liver and to enhance IL-12 -mediated IFN-γ production. Treatment of liver metastasis of MC38 colorectal cancer with AAVApoLinkerP144 resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth and enhanced expression of IFN-γ and GM-CSF in cancerous tissue. ApoLinkerP144 also delayed MC38 liver metastasis in Rag2−/−IL2rγ−/− immunodeficient mice. This effect was associated with downregulation of TGF-β target genes essential for metastatic niche conditioning. Finally, in a subset of ret transgenic mice, a model of aggressive spontaneous metastatic melanoma, AAVApoLinkerP144 delayed tumor growth in association with increased CD8+ T cell numbers in regional lymph nodes. In conclusion, modification of HDLs to transport TGF-β-blocking molecules is a novel and promising approach to inhibit the growth of liver metastases by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. PMID:24797128

  19. A Heparin-Mimicking Block Copolymer Both Stabilizes and Increases the Activity of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a protein involved in cellular functions in applications such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. Stabilization of this protein is important for its use as a therapeutic since the native protein is unstable during storage and delivery. Additionally, the ability to increase the activity of FGF2 is important for its application, particularly in chronic wound healing and the treatment of various ischemic conditions. Here we report a heparin mimicking block copolymer, poly(styrenesulfonate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)-b-vinyl sulfonate) (p(SS-co-PEGMA)-b-VS, that contains a segment that enhances the stability of FGF2 and one that binds to the FGF2 receptor. The FGF2 conjugate retained activity after exposure to refrigeration (4 °C) and room temperature (23 °C) for 7 days, while unmodified FGF2 was inactive after these standard storage conditions. A cell study performed with a cell line lacking native heparan sulfate proteoglycans indicated that the conjugated block copolymer facilitated binding of FGF2 to its receptor similar to the addition of heparin to FGF2. A receptor-based enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) confirmed the results. The conjugate also increased the migration of endothelial cells by 80% compared to FGF2 alone. Additionally, the FGF2-p(SS-co-PEGMA)-b-VS stimulated endothelial cell sprouting 250% better than FGF2 at low concentration. These data verify that this rationally designed protein-block copolymer conjugate enhances receptor binding, cellular processes such as migration and tube-like formation, and stability, and suggest that it may be useful for applications in biomaterials, tissue regeneration, and wound healing. PMID:27580376

  20. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs attenuate proliferation of colonic carcinoma cells by blocking epidermal growth factor-induced Ca++ mobilization.

    PubMed

    Kokoska, E R; Smith, G S; Miller, T A

    2000-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis. We have previously reported that NSAIDs, in human colonic carcinoma cells (Caco-2), attenuate epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cellular proliferation through a process independent of their inhibitory effects on prostaglandin synthesis. Furthermore, separate studies have also suggested that NSAIDs inhibit EGF-induced store-operated Ca++ influx. Thus we developed the hypothesis that NSAIDs may limit the activity of EGF by altering intracellular Ca++ ([Ca++]i) mobilization. Serum-deprived Caco-2 cells were employed for all experimentation. [Ca++]i was measured with Fluo-3 and extracellular Ca++ influx was monitored by quenching Fluo-3 fluorescence with Mn++. Proliferation was quantitated with two assays: cellular nucleic acid and total protein content. Caco-2 cells exposed to EGF demonstrated an initial increase in [Ca++]i which was blocked by neomycin, an inhibitor of IPsubscript 3 generation, and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 but not U73343 (inactive control). This was followed by sustained extracellular Ca++ influx, which was attenuated with calcium-free buffer (-Ca++), the store- operated Ca++ channel blocker lanthanum, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and aspirin. In subsequent studies, cells were treated with either serum-free media or EGF +/- the aforementioned inhibitors, and again serum starved. Cells exposed to EGF +/- the inactive phospholipase C inhibitor U73343 demonstrated a significant increase in nucleic acid and protein. However, proliferation induced by EGF was not observed when [Ca++]i elevation was prevented by blocking either internal Ca++ store release via phospholipase C/IPsubscript 3 or sustained Ca++ influx through store-operated Ca++ channels. Sustained [Ca++]i elevation, as induced by EGF, appears to be required for mitogenesis. These data support our premise that one mechanism whereby NSAIDs may attenuate colonic neoplasia is

  1. [Positive influence on cardiovascular risk factor by blocking the endocannabinoid system].

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, T; Ritz, A; Ince, H; Nienaber, Ch A; Rehders, T C

    2008-05-28

    Intra-abdominal fat mass, or central adiposity, and cardiovascular risk are strongly correlated. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that secretes hormones and cytokines influencing appetite, energy metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Rimonabant is the first selective blocker of the cannabinoid-1 receptor in development for the treatment of obesity, diabetes mellitus typ 2, and cardiometabolic risk factors. This article provides an review of efficacy of rimonabant the first selective blocker of the cannabinoid-1 receptor.

  2. Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein haplodeficiency attenuates seizure severity and NF-κB-mediated neuroinflammation in kainic acid-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    Shin, H J; Kim, H; Heo, R W; Kim, H J; Choi, W S; Kwon, H M; Roh, G S

    2014-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures followed by neuronal death are associated with neuroinflammation and blood–brain barrier (BBB) leakage. Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is known as a transcriptional factor activating osmoprotective genes, and in brain, it is expressed in neuronal nuclei. Thus dysregulation of TonEBP may be involved in the pathology of KA-induced seizures. Here we used TonEBP heterozygote (+/−) mice to study the roles of TonEBP. Electroencephalographic study showed that TonEBP (+/−) mice reduced seizure frequency and severity compared with wild type during KA-induced status epilepticus. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis showed that KA-induced neuroinflammation and BBB leakage were dramatically reduced in TonEBP (+/−) mice. Similarly, TonEBP-specific siRNA reduced glutamate-induced death in HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells. TonEBP haplodeficiency prevented KA-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and attenuated inflammation. Our findings identify TonEBP as a critical regulator of neuroinflammation and BBB leakage in KA-induced seizures, which suggests TonEBP as a good therapeutic target. PMID:24608792

  3. Spatiotemporal Characterization of mTOR Kinase Activity Following Kainic Acid Induced Status Epilepticus and Analysis of Rat Brain Response to Chronic Rapamycin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Matylda; Blazejczyk, Magdalena; Kazmierska, Paulina; Caban, Bartosz; Skalecka, Agnieszka; Tarkowski, Bartosz; Rodo, Anna; Konopacki, Jan; Jaworski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that senses nutrient availability, trophic factors support, cellular energy level, cellular stress, and neurotransmitters and adjusts cellular metabolism accordingly. Adequate mTOR activity is needed for development as well as proper physiology of mature neurons. Consequently, changes in mTOR activity are often observed in neuropathology. Recently, several groups reported that seizures increase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity, and such increased activity in genetic models can contribute to spontaneous seizures. However, the current knowledge about the spatiotemporal pattern of mTOR activation induced by proconvulsive agents is rather rudimentary. Also consequences of insufficient mTOR activity on a status epilepticus are poorly understood. Here, we systematically investigated these two issues. We showed that mTOR signaling was activated by kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus through several brain areas, including the hippocampus and cortex as well as revealed two waves of mTOR activation: an early wave (2 h) that occurs in neurons and a late wave that predominantly occurs in astrocytes. Unexpectedly, we found that pretreatment with rapamycin, a potent mTOR inhibitor, gradually (i) sensitized animals to KA treatment and (ii) induced gross anatomical changes in the brain. PMID:23724051

  4. Regionally specific induction of BDNF and truncated trkB.T1 receptors in the hippocampal formation after intraseptal injection of kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Venero, J L; Hefti, F

    1998-04-20

    The septo-hippocampal cholinergic and GABAergic systems were lesioned with single unilateral injections of kainic acid (KA) into the septum to further characterize the role of these afferents in the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Nearly all cells expressing choline acetyltransferase, trkA or glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA disappeared in the medial septum 7 days after the neurotoxin administration. The lesion resulted in a complete loss of CA3 pyramidal cells, and robust increases in BDNF mRNA levels in hippocampal granular dentate cells and in the amygdala. There were rapid transient increases of BDNF mRNA levels in the hippocampal formation and cortex. In addition, we found a strong induction of truncated trkB.T1 mRNA receptors in the stratum radiatum and stratum oriens of the CA3 subfield. The prolonged induction of BDNF mRNA levels suggests an important role of this neurotrophin, possibly mediated by truncated trkB receptors, in the regulation of hippocampal plasticity following injury.

  5. Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein haplodeficiency attenuates seizure severity and NF-κB-mediated neuroinflammation in kainic acid-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Shin, H J; Kim, H; Heo, R W; Kim, H J; Choi, W S; Kwon, H M; Roh, G S

    2014-07-01

    Kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures followed by neuronal death are associated with neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage. Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is known as a transcriptional factor activating osmoprotective genes, and in brain, it is expressed in neuronal nuclei. Thus dysregulation of TonEBP may be involved in the pathology of KA-induced seizures. Here we used TonEBP heterozygote (+/-) mice to study the roles of TonEBP. Electroencephalographic study showed that TonEBP (+/-) mice reduced seizure frequency and severity compared with wild type during KA-induced status epilepticus. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis showed that KA-induced neuroinflammation and BBB leakage were dramatically reduced in TonEBP (+/-) mice. Similarly, TonEBP-specific siRNA reduced glutamate-induced death in HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells. TonEBP haplodeficiency prevented KA-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and attenuated inflammation. Our findings identify TonEBP as a critical regulator of neuroinflammation and BBB leakage in KA-induced seizures, which suggests TonEBP as a good therapeutic target.

  6. Nimotuzumab, an antitumor antibody that targets the epidermal growth factor receptor, blocks ligand binding while permitting the active receptor conformation.

    PubMed

    Talavera, Ariel; Friemann, Rosmarie; Gómez-Puerta, Silvia; Martinez-Fleites, Carlos; Garrido, Greta; Rabasa, Ailem; López-Requena, Alejandro; Pupo, Amaury; Johansen, Rune F; Sánchez, Oliberto; Krengel, Ute; Moreno, Ernesto

    2009-07-15

    Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) in cancer cells correlates with tumor malignancy and poor prognosis for cancer patients. For this reason, the EGFR has become one of the main targets of anticancer therapies. Structural data obtained in the last few years have revealed the molecular mechanism for ligand-induced EGFR dimerization and subsequent signal transduction, and also how this signal is blocked by either monoclonal antibodies or small molecules. Nimotuzumab (also known as h-R3) is a humanized antibody that targets the EGFR and has been successful in the clinics. In this work, we report the crystal structure of the Fab fragment of Nimotuzumab, revealing some unique structural features in the heavy variable domain. Furthermore, competition assays show that Nimotuzumab binds to domain III of the extracellular region of the EGFR, within an area that overlaps with both the surface patch recognized by Cetuximab (another anti-EGFR antibody) and the binding site for EGF. A computer model of the Nimotuzumab-EGFR complex, constructed by docking and molecular dynamics simulations and supported by mutagenesis studies, unveils a novel mechanism of action, with Nimotuzumab blocking EGF binding while still allowing the receptor to adopt its active conformation, hence warranting a basal level of signaling.

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition delays wound healing and blocks latent transforming growth factor-β1 promoted myofibroblast formation and function

    PubMed Central

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Schnabel, Reinhild; Claes, Juliane; Schneider, Wolfgang; Ågren, Magnus S.; Haaksma, Carol; Tomasek, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to regulate wound contraction is critical for wound healing as well as for pathological contractures. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been demonstrated to be obligatory for normal wound healing. This study examined the effect the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor BB-94 has when applied topically to full-thickness skin excisional wounds in rats and its ability to inhibit the promotion of myofibroblast formation and function by latent transforming-growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). BB-94 delayed wound contraction, as well as all other associated aspects of wound healing examined, including myofibroblast formation, stromal cell proliferation, blood vessel formation, and epithelial wound coverage. Interestingly, BB-94 dramatically increased the level of latent and active MMP-9. The increased levels of active MMP-9 may eventually overcome the ability of BB-94 to inhibit this MMP and may explain why wound contraction and other associated events of wound healing were only delayed and not completely inhibited. BB-94 was also found to inhibit the ability of latent TGF-β1 to promote the formation and function of myofibroblasts. These results suggest that BB-94 could delay wound closure through a two-fold mechanism; by blocking keratinocyte migration and thereby blocking necessary keratinocyte-fibroblast interactions needed for myofibroblast formation and by inhibiting the activation of latent TGF-β1. PMID:20409148

  8. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor antagonist blocks the development of endometriosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Khoufache, Khaled; Bazin, Sylvie; Girard, Karine; Guillemette, Julie; Roy, Marie-Christine; Verreault, Jean-Pierre; Al-Abed, Yousef; Foster, Warren; Akoum, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis, a disease of reproductive age women, is a major cause of infertility, menstrual disorders and pelvic pain. Little is known about its etiopathology, but chronic pelvic inflammation is a common feature in affected women. Beside symptomatic treatment of endometriosis-associated pain, only two main suboptimal therapeutic approaches (hormonal and invasive surgery) are generally recommended to patients and no specific targeted treatment is available. Our studies led to the detection of a marked increase in the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the eutopic endometrium, the peripheral blood and the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis, and in early, vascularized and active endometriotic lesions. Herein, we developed a treatment model of endometriosis, where human endometrial tissue was first allowed to implant into the peritoneal cavity of nude mice, to assess in vivo the effect of a specific antagonist of MIF (ISO-1) on the progression of endometriosis and evaluate its efficacy as a potential therapeutic tool. Administration of ISO-1 led to a significant decline of the number, size and in situ dissemination of endometriotic lesions. We further showed that ISO-1 may act by significantly inhibiting cell adhesion, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and inflammation as well as by altering the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic factors. Actually, mice treatment with ISO-1 significantly reduced the expression of cell adhesion receptors αv and ß3 integrins (P<0.05), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 (P<0.05), vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) (P<0.01), interleukin 8 (IL8) (P<0.05), cyclooxygenease (COX)2 (P<0.001) and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 (P<0.01), but significantly induced the expression of Bax (P<0.05), a potent pro-apoptotic protein. These data provide evidence that specific inhibition of MIF alters endometriotic tissue growth and progression in vivo and may represent a promising potential

  9. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Antagonist Blocks the Development of Endometriosis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Khoufache, Khaled; Bazin, Sylvie; Girard, Karine; Guillemette, Julie; Roy, Marie-Christine; Verreault, Jean-Pierre; Al-Abed, Yousef; Foster, Warren; Akoum, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis, a disease of reproductive age women, is a major cause of infertility, menstrual disorders and pelvic pain. Little is known about its etiopathology, but chronic pelvic inflammation is a common feature in affected women. Beside symptomatic treatment of endometriosis-associated pain, only two main suboptimal therapeutic approaches (hormonal and invasive surgery) are generally recommended to patients and no specific targeted treatment is available. Our studies led to the detection of a marked increase in the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the eutopic endometrium, the peripheral blood and the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis, and in early, vascularized and active endometriotic lesions. Herein, we developed a treatment model of endometriosis, where human endometrial tissue was first allowed to implant into the peritoneal cavity of nude mice, to assess in vivo the effect of a specific antagonist of MIF (ISO-1) on the progression of endometriosis and evaluate its efficacy as a potential therapeutic tool. Administration of ISO-1 led to a significant decline of the number, size and in situ dissemination of endometriotic lesions. We further showed that ISO-1 may act by significantly inhibiting cell adhesion, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and inflammation as well as by altering the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic factors. Actually, mice treatment with ISO-1 significantly reduced the expression of cell adhesion receptors αv and ß3 integrins (P<0.05), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 (P<0.05), vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) (P<0.01), interleukin 8 (IL8) (P<0.05), cyclooxygenease (COX)2 (P<0.001) and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 (P<0.01), but significantly induced the expression of Bax (P<0.05), a potent pro-apoptotic protein. These data provide evidence that specific inhibition of MIF alters endometriotic tissue growth and progression in vivo and may represent a promising potential

  10. NMDA preconditioning and neuroprotection in vivo: delayed onset of kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration and c-Fos attenuation in CA3a neurons.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shirin; Pavlik, Alfred; Krajci, Dimitrolos; Al-Sarraf, Hameed

    2009-02-23

    Intraventricular (i.c.v.) kainic acid (KA) causes an acute excitotoxic lesion to the CA3 region of rodent hippocampus. Recent evidence implicated c-fos gene in regulating neuron survival and death following an excitotoxic insult. In this study we attempted to prevent KA-induced damage in CA3 neurons with NMDA preconditioning, which produced a marked expression of c-fos in the hippocampus. NMDA (0.6-6 microg, i.c.v.) was injected to anesthetized rats alone or 1 h before KA (0.15 microg, i.c.v.). Following KA injection, vibratome sections were processed for immunohistochemistry/electron microscopy. c-Fos and Nissl staining were used to estimate the extent of neuronal excitation and damage, respectively. Quantitative evaluation of c-Fos-labeled cells showed significantly less c-Fos in CA3a than in neighboring CA3b and CA2 from 1 to 4 h after KA alone. Attenuation of expressed c-Fos in CA3a was accompanied by damage of neurons with more apoptotic than necrotic signs. NMDA preconditioning elevated CA3a c-Fos expression and at 1 and 2 h exceeded markedly that after KA alone. However, at 4 h after KA, NMDA-preconditioned c-Fos induction in CA3a diminished to the same level as that seen after KA alone. The onset of neuronal degeneration was delayed in similar way. While NMDA-induced c-Fos expression in CA3a could be blocked by MK-801 completely, MK-801 and CNQX were both without significant effect on KA-induced c-Fos expression and neuronal damage. In conclusion, inhibition of c-Fos expression and onset of neuronal damage in CA3a following icv KA injection might be transiently delayed by i.c.v. NMDA preconditioning.

  11. Changes in /sup 3/H-substance P receptor binding in the rat brain after kainic acid lesion of the corpus striatum

    SciTech Connect

    Mantyh, P.W.; Hunt, S.P.

    1986-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the substantia nigra contains the highest concentration of substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) in the brain. Paradoxically, it also appears to contain one of the lowest concentrations of substance P receptors in the brain. One possibility is that the massive amount of SPLI blocks the binding of the radioligand to the substance P receptor and/or down-regulates the number of substance P receptors present in this structure. Since greater than 95% of the SPLI within the substantia nigra originates from the corpus striatum, we have lesioned this area and measured the changes in substance P receptor concentration in the substantia nigra and other corpus striatal projection areas. A semiquantitative autoradiographic technique for measuring the binding of /sup 3/H-substance P to substance P receptors was used in conjunction with tritium-sensitive film. 3H-substance P binding was measured in both the corpus striatum and its projection areas after kainic acid lesion of the corpus striatum. At either 4 or 21 d after the lesion there was approximately a 90% loss of substance P receptors in the rostral striatum, a 74% loss in the globus pallidus, a 57% increase in receptor number in lamina I and II of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex, and no apparent change in the number of receptors in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, superior colliculus, and central gray. These findings suggest that the low concentration of substance P receptors found within the substantia nigra is not due the massive SPLI innervation, since removal of greater than 95% of the SPLI had no measurable effect on the concentration of substance P receptors.

  12. Corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist blocks microwave-induced decreases in high-affinity choline uptake in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. )

    1990-10-01

    Acute (45-min) irradiation with pulsed low-level microwaves (2450-MHz, 2 microseconds pulses at 500 pps, average power density of 1 mW/cm2, whole-body average specific absorption rate of 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. These effects were blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with intracerebroventricular injection of the specific corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonist, alpha-helical-CRF9-41 (25 micrograms). Similar injection of the antagonist had no significant effect on HACU in the brain of the sham-exposed rats. These data suggest that low-level microwave irradiation activates CRF in the brain, which in turn causes the changes in central HACU.

  13. The progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone does not lower serum progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF) in the presence of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Check, J H; DiAntonio, G; DiAntonio, A; Duroseau, M

    2016-01-01

    To determine if mifepristone can lower serum levels of a progesterone (P) induced immunomodulatory protein believed to be needed for the fetus to escape immune surveillance. A female volunteer had her serum P induced blocking factor (PIBF) increased by ingestion of oral micronized P. While remaining on P mifepristone, 200 mg/day was given for six days when another serum PIBF level was obtained. The serum PIBF was 273 ng/ml after five days of oral micronized P. It increased further to 737 ng/ml despite taking six days of 200 mg mifepristone. The mechanism for inducing abortion by mifepristone does not seem to be related to decreasing serum levels of PIBF. This does not eliminate the possibility that the mechanism involves reducing the intracytoplasmic PIBF levels.

  14. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB suppresses peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer by blocking cancer cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Mino, Kazuhiro; Ozaki, Michitaka; Nakanishi, Kazuaki; Haga, Sanae; Sato, Masanori; Kina, Masaya; Takahashi, Masato; Takahashi, Norihiko; Kataoka, Akihiko; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Umezawa, Kazuo; Todo, Satoru

    2011-05-01

    Currently, patients with peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer must accept a poor prognosis because there is no standard effective therapy. To inhibit peritoneal dissemination it is important to inhibit interactions between extracellular matrices (ECM) and cell surface integrins, which are important for cancer cell adhesion. Although nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is involved in various processes in cancer progression, its involvement in the expression of integrins has not been elucidated. We used a novel NF-κB inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), to study whether NF-κB blocks cancer cell adhesion via integrins in a gastric cancer dissemination model in mice and found that DHMEQ is a potent suppressor of cancer cell dissemination. Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin suppressed the NF-κB activity of human gastric cancer cells NUGC-4 and 44As3Luc and blocked the adhesion of cancer cells to ECM when compared with the control. Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin also inhibited expression of integrin (α2, α3, β1) in in vitro studies. In the in vivo model, we injected 44As3Luc cells pretreated with DHMEQ into the peritoneal cavity of mice and performed peritoneal lavage after the injection of cancer cells. Viable cancer cells in the peritoneal cavities were evaluated sequentially by in vivo imaging. In mice injected with DHMEQ-pretreated cells and lavaged, live cancer cells in the peritoneum were significantly reduced compared with the control, and these mice survived longer. These results indicate that DHMEQ could inhibit cancer cell adhesion to the peritoneum possibly by suppressing integrin expression. Nuclear factor-kappa B inhibition may be a new therapeutic option for suppressing postoperative cancer dissemination.

  15. Functional Genomic Screen Identifies Klebsiella pneumoniae Factors Implicated in Blocking Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) Signaling.

    PubMed

    Tomás, Anna; Lery, Leticia; Regueiro, Verónica; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Martínez, Verónica; Moranta, David; Llobet, Enrique; González-Nicolau, Mar; Insua, Jose L; Tomas, Juan M; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Tournebize, Régis; Bengoechea, José A

    2015-07-03

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an etiologic agent of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. It has been shown that K. pneumoniae infections are characterized by reduced early inflammatory response. Recently our group has shown that K. pneumoniae dampens the activation of inflammatory responses by antagonizing the activation of the NF-κB canonical pathway. Our results revealed that K. pneumoniae capsule polysaccharide (CPS) was necessary but not sufficient to attenuate inflammation. To identify additional Klebsiella factors required to dampen inflammation, we standardized and applied a high-throughput gain-of-function screen to examine a Klebsiella transposon mutant library. We identified 114 mutants that triggered the activation of NF-κB. Two gene ontology categories accounted for half of the loci identified in the screening: metabolism and transport genes (32% of the mutants) and envelope-related genes (17%). Characterization of the mutants revealed that the lack of the enterobactin siderophore was linked to a reduced CPS expression, which in turn underlined the NF-κB activation induced by the mutant. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-polysaccharide and the pullulanase (PulA) type 2 secretion system (T2SS) are required for full effectiveness of the immune evasion. Importantly, these factors do not play a redundant role. The fact that LPS O-polysaccharide and T2SS mutant-induced responses were dependent on TLR2-TLR4-MyD88 activation suggested that LPS O-polysaccharide and PulA perturbed Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent recognition of K. pneumoniae. Finally, we demonstrate that LPS O-polysaccharide and pulA mutants are attenuated in the pneumonia mouse model. We propose that LPS O-polysaccharide and PulA T2SS could be new targets for the design of new antimicrobials. Increasing TLR-governed defense responses might provide also selective alternatives for the management of K. pneumoniae pneumonia.

  16. Functional Genomic Screen Identifies Klebsiella pneumoniae Factors Implicated in Blocking Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Anna; Lery, Leticia; Regueiro, Verónica; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Martínez, Verónica; Moranta, David; Llobet, Enrique; González-Nicolau, Mar; Insua, Jose L.; Tomas, Juan M.; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Tournebize, Régis; Bengoechea, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an etiologic agent of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. It has been shown that K. pneumoniae infections are characterized by reduced early inflammatory response. Recently our group has shown that K. pneumoniae dampens the activation of inflammatory responses by antagonizing the activation of the NF-κB canonical pathway. Our results revealed that K. pneumoniae capsule polysaccharide (CPS) was necessary but not sufficient to attenuate inflammation. To identify additional Klebsiella factors required to dampen inflammation, we standardized and applied a high-throughput gain-of-function screen to examine a Klebsiella transposon mutant library. We identified 114 mutants that triggered the activation of NF-κB. Two gene ontology categories accounted for half of the loci identified in the screening: metabolism and transport genes (32% of the mutants) and envelope-related genes (17%). Characterization of the mutants revealed that the lack of the enterobactin siderophore was linked to a reduced CPS expression, which in turn underlined the NF-κB activation induced by the mutant. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-polysaccharide and the pullulanase (PulA) type 2 secretion system (T2SS) are required for full effectiveness of the immune evasion. Importantly, these factors do not play a redundant role. The fact that LPS O-polysaccharide and T2SS mutant-induced responses were dependent on TLR2-TLR4-MyD88 activation suggested that LPS O-polysaccharide and PulA perturbed Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent recognition of K. pneumoniae. Finally, we demonstrate that LPS O-polysaccharide and pulA mutants are attenuated in the pneumonia mouse model. We propose that LPS O-polysaccharide and PulA T2SS could be new targets for the design of new antimicrobials. Increasing TLR-governed defense responses might provide also selective alternatives for the management of K. pneumoniae pneumonia. PMID:25971969

  17. Increased sensitivity of detection of the blocking (type I) anti-intrinsic factor antibody.

    PubMed

    Nimo, R E; Carmel, R

    1987-12-01

    Increasing the ratio of test serum to the intrinsic factor (IF) antigen should increase the sensitivity of anti-IF antibody assay, a useful, specific tool for diagnosing pernicious anemia. We therefore designed an assay in which this ratio was increased 25-fold over that of our current standard assay and 1,000-fold over that of most described methods. This assay was then compared with our standard assay, with one of the original assays, and with a commercial kit. Both of our assays, especially the newer sensitive method, detected antibody in much greater dilutions of positive serum than the other assays. The sensitive assay also detected antibody in 17% of pernicious anemia sera negative by our standard technique. We calculated that anti-IF antibody can be detected with the sensitive assay in 78% of our patients with pernicious anemia, compared with 73% by our standard assay, 65% by the commercial kit, and 61% by the original method of Gottlieb and colleagues. No antibody was detected in 35 control sera with the new assay, which suggests that the increased sensitivity did not come at the expense of diminished specificity. The increased sensitivity enhances the value of the anti-IF antibody as a major screening and diagnostic tool in pernicious anemia.

  18. Development of an Epidermal Growth Factor Derivative with EGFR Blocking Activity

    PubMed Central

    Panosa, Clara; Tebar, Francesc; Ferrer-Batallé, Montserrat; Fonge, Humphrey; Seno, Masaharu; Reilly, Raymond M.; Massaguer, Anna; De Llorens, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)/ErbB family are prime targets for cancer therapy. However, the therapeutic efficiency of the existing anti-ErbB agents is limited. Thus, identifying new molecules that inactivate the ErbB receptors through novel strategies is an important goal on cancer research. In this study we have developed a shorter form of human EGF (EGFt) with a truncated C-terminal as a novel EGFR inhibitor. EGFt was designed based on the superimposition of the three-dimensional structures of EGF and the Potato Carboxypeptidase Inhibitor (PCI), an EGFR blocker previously described by our group. The peptide was produced in E. coli with a high yield of the correctly folded peptide. EGFt showed specificity and high affinity for EGFR but induced poor EGFR homodimerization and phosphorylation. Interestingly, EGFt promoted EGFR internalization and translocation to the cell nucleus although it did not stimulate the cell growth. In addition, EGFt competed with EGFR native ligands, inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells. These data indicate that EGFt may be a potential EGFR blocker for cancer therapy. In addition, the lack of EGFR-mediated growth-stimulatory activity makes EGFt an excellent delivery agent to target toxins to tumours over-expressing EGFR. PMID:23935985

  19. Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 downregulation correlates with thalamic neuronal death following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in rat.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masashi; Kurokawa, Haruna; Shimada, Akinori; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Miyata, Hajime; Morita, Takehito

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent seizures without interictal resumption (status epilepticus) have been reported to induce neuronal death in the midline thalamic region that has functional roles in memory and decision-making; however, the pathogenesis underlying status epilepticus-induced thalamic neuronal death is yet to be determined. We performed histological and immunohistochemical studies as well as cerebral blood flow measurement using 4.7 tesla magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer on midline thalamic region in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 75, male, 7 weeks after birth, body weight 250-300 g) treated with intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (10 mg/kg) to induce status epilepticus (n = 55) or normal saline solution (n = 20). Histological study using paraffin-embedded specimens revealed neuronal death showing ischemic-like changes and Fluoro-Jade C positivity with calcium deposition in the midline thalamic region of epileptic rats. The distribution of neuronal death was associated with focal loss of immunoreactivity for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), stronger immunoreaction for glutamate and increase in number of Iba-1-positive microglial cells showing swollen cytoplasm and long processes. Double immunofluorescence study demonstrated co-expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) within microglial cells, and loss of EAAT2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes. These microglial alterations and astrocytic EAAT2 downregulation were also observed in tissue without obvious neuronal death in kainic acid-treated rats. These results suggest the possible role of glutamate excitotoxicity in neuronal death in the midline thalamic region following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus due to astrocytic EAAT2 downregulation following microglial activation showing upregulation of IL-1β and iNOS. © 2014 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  20. Galantamine potentiates the protective effect of rofecoxib and caffeic acid against intrahippocampal Kainic acid-induced cognitive dysfunction in rat.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Atish; Pahwa, Deeksha

    2011-05-30

    Role of neuroinflammatory mediators particularly cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), have been well suggested in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Rofecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase 2 enzymes belongs to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, commonly called as coxibs. Whereas, caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) is one of the natural phenolic compounds and reported to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity as one of mechanisms. Present study has been designed to investigate the effects of rofecoxib, caffeic acid and its potentiation by galantamine against intrahippocampal kainic acid-induced cognitive impairment, oxidative damage and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme alterations in rats. Kainic acid (KA) was administrated in the hippocampus region of rat brain. Various behavioral (locomotor activity and memory performances were assessed by using actophotometer and Morris water maze respectively) followed by oxidative stress, mitochondrial enzyme complex were assessed. Intrahippocampal administration of KA significantly impaired locomotor activity, memory performance, mitochondrial enzyme complexes and caused oxidative stress as compared to sham treatment. Rofecoxib (5 and 10mg/kg), caffeic acid (5 and 10mg/kg), Gal (2.5 and 5mg/kg) treatment for 14 days significantly improved locomotor activity, memory retention and oxidative defense (as evidenced by decrease lipid peroxidation, nitrite, increased superoxide dismutase activity and redox ratio) in hippocampus. Besides, alterations in the levels of mitochondrial enzymes and acetylcholine esterase enzyme were significantly restored by rofecoxib and caffeic acid as compared to control. Further, combination of rofecoxib (5mg/kg) with caffeic acid (5mg/kg) and lower dose of gal (2.5mg/kg) with rofecoxib (5mg/kg) treatments significantly potentiated their protective effect which was significant as compared to their effect per se. The results of the present study suggest that galantamine

  1. Cocaine- and alcohol-mediated expression of inducible transcription factors is blocked by pentobarbital anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ryabinin, A E; Wang, Y M; Bachtell, R K; Kinney, A E; Grubb, M C; Mark, G P

    2000-09-22

    Identifying the neurocircuitry involved in behavioral responses to drugs of abuse is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms of drug addiction. The present study sought to distinguish brain regions involved in pharmacological effects of cocaine and ethanol from secondary effects by administering these drugs in the presence or absence of pentobarbital anesthesia. Changes in neuronal activity were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of expression of an inducible transcription factor (ITF), c-Fos, in the brain of rats habituated to repeated pentobarbital anesthesia or saline administration. Cocaine administration (15 mg/kg, i.v.) in non-anesthetized animals produced a strong induction of c-Fos in the striatum and large number of other brain areas. Ethanol administration (2 g/kg, i.p.) induced c-Fos in a smaller number of characteristic brain areas, including the central nucleus of amygdala and paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus. However, neither of these drugs was able to induce c-Fos in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats (50 mg/kg, i.v.). The suppressive effects of pentobarbital were not specific to c-Fos, such that pentobarbital also suppressed expression of ITFs FosB and Egr1 in the striatum of cocaine-treated rats. On the other hand, pentobarbital by itself strongly induced c-Fos expression in the lateral habenula of saline-, cocaine-, and ethanol-injected rats. It is not clear whether the suppressive effects of anesthesia on ITF expression in other areas are mediated by activation of lateral habenula, or are independent of this event. Our data suggest that in the absence of conscious awareness of drug-associated cues, cocaine and alcohol activate only a fraction of the neural elements engaged in the unanesthetized state.

  2. Diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed ene-cycloisomerization reactions of alkenylidenecyclopropanes: total synthesis of (-)-α-kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Evans, P Andrew; Inglesby, Phillip A

    2012-02-29

    The rhodium-catalyzed ene-cycloisomerization of alkenylidenecyclopropanes provides an atom-economical approach to five-membered carbo- and heterocycles that contain two new stereogenic centers. A key and striking feature of this protocol is that the alkene geometry does not impact the efficiency and diastereocontrol, which provides excellent synthetic versatility. For instance, (E)- and (Z)-allylic alcohols furnish the corresponding aldehydes with similar efficiency and selectivity. This process facilitates the construction of a key intermediate in an eight-step total synthesis of (-)-α-kainic acid. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  3. Behavior-associated Neuronal Activation After Kainic Acid-induced Hippocampal Neurotoxicity is Modulated in Time.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Arredondo, Andrea; López-Hernández, Fernanda; García-Velázquez, Lizbeth; Arias, Clorinda; Zepeda, Angélica

    2017-02-01

    Kainic acid-induced (KA) hippocampal damage leads to neuronal death and further synaptic plasticity. Formation of aberrant as well as of functional connections after such procedure has been documented. However, the impact of such structural plasticity on cell activation along time after damage and in face of a behavioral demand has not been explored. We evaluated if the mRNA and protein levels of plasticity-related protein synaptophysin (Syp and SYP, respectively) and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein mRNA and protein levels (Arc and Arc, respectively) in the dentate gyrus were differentially modulated in time in response to a spatial-exploratory task after KA-induced hippocampal damage. In addition, we analyzed Arc+/NeuN+ immunopositive cells in the different experimental conditions. We infused KA intrahippocampally to young-adult rats and 10 or 30 days post-lesion (dpl) animals performed a hippocampus-activating spatial-exploratory task. Our results show that Syp mRNA levels significantly increase at 10dpl and return to control levels after 30dpl, whereas SYP protein levels are diminished at 10dpl, but significantly increase at 30dpl, as compared to 10dpl. Arc mRNA and protein levels are both increased at 30dpl as compared to sham. Also the number of NeuN+/Arc+ cells significantly increases at 30dpl in the group with a spatial-exploratory demand. These results provide information on the long-term modifications associated to structural plasticity and neuronal activation in the dentate gyrus after excitotoxic damage and in face of a spatial-exploratory behavior. Anat Rec, 300:425-432, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Direct Imaging of Hippocampal Epileptiform Calcium Motifs Following Kainic Acid Administration in Freely Behaving Mice

    PubMed Central

    Berdyyeva, Tamara K.; Frady, E. Paxon; Nassi, Jonathan J.; Aluisio, Leah; Cherkas, Yauheniya; Otte, Stephani; Wyatt, Ryan M.; Dugovic, Christine; Ghosh, Kunal K.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Lovenberg, Timothy; Bonaventure, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to abnormally high calcium concentrations is thought to be a core mechanism underlying hippocampal damage in epileptic patients; however, no prior study has characterized calcium activity during seizures in the live, intact hippocampus. We have directly investigated this possibility by combining whole-brain electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements with microendoscopic calcium imaging of pyramidal cells in the CA1 hippocampal region of freely behaving mice treated with the pro-convulsant kainic acid (KA). We observed that KA administration led to systematic patterns of epileptiform calcium activity: a series of large-scale, intensifying flashes of increased calcium fluorescence concurrent with a cluster of low-amplitude EEG waveforms. This was accompanied by a steady increase in cellular calcium levels (>5 fold increase relative to the baseline), followed by an intense spreading calcium wave characterized by a 218% increase in global mean intensity of calcium fluorescence (n = 8, range [114–349%], p < 10−4; t-test). The wave had no consistent EEG phenotype and occurred before the onset of motor convulsions. Similar changes in calcium activity were also observed in animals treated with 2 different proconvulsant agents, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), suggesting the measured changes in calcium dynamics are a signature of seizure activity rather than a KA-specific pathology. Additionally, despite reducing the behavioral severity of KA-induced seizures, the anticonvulsant drug valproate (VA, 300 mg/kg) did not modify the observed abnormalities in calcium dynamics. These results confirm the presence of pathological calcium activity preceding convulsive motor seizures and support calcium as a candidate signaling molecule in a pathway connecting seizures to subsequent cellular damage. Integrating in vivo calcium imaging with traditional assessment of seizures could potentially increase translatability of pharmacological

  5. Melatonin attenuates kainic acid-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration and oxidative stress through microglial inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung-Yun; Han, Seol-Heui

    2003-03-01

    The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin on kainic acid (KA)-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus were evaluated in vivo. It has been suggested that the pineal secretory product, melatonin, protects neurons in vitro from excitotoxicity mediated by kainate-sensitive glutamate receptors, and from oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. In this study, we injected 10 mg/kg kainate intraperitoneally (i.p.) into adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. This results in selective neuronal degeneration accompanied by intense microglial activation and triggers DNA damage in the hippocampus. We tested the in vivo efficacy of melatonin in preventing KA-induced neurodegeneration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus. Melatonin (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 20 min before, immediately after, and 1 and 2 hr after KA administration. Rats were killed 72 hr later and their hippocampi were examined for evidence of DNA damage (in situ dUTP end-labeling, i.e. TUNEL staining), cell viability (hematoxylin and eosin staining), and microglial (isolectin-B4 histochemistry) and astroglial responses (glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry), as well as lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal immunohistochemistry). A cumulative dose of 10 mg/kg melatonin attenuates KA-induced neuronal death, lipid peroxidation, and microglial activation, and reduces the number of DNA breaks. A possible mechanism for melatonin-mediated neuroprotection involves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. The present data suggest that melatonin is potentially useful in the treatment of acute brain pathologies associated with oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage such as epilepsy, stroke, and traumatic brain injury.

  6. Salidroside protects against kainic acid-induced status epilepticus via suppressing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Si, Pei-Pei; Zhen, Jun-Li; Cai, Yun-Lei; Wang, Wen-Jing; Wang, Wei-Ping

    2016-04-08

    There are numerous mechanisms by which the brain generates seizures. It is well known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in status epilepticus (SE). Salidroside (SDS) extracted from Rhodiola rosea L. shows multiple bioactive properties, such as neuroprotection and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. This study explored the role of SDS in kainic acid (KA)-induced SE and investigated the underlying mechanism. Latency to SE increased in the SDS-pretreated mice compared to the KA group, while the percentage of incidence of SE was significantly reduced. These results suggested that pretreatment with SDS not only delayed SE, but it also decreased the incidence of SE induced by KA. KA increased MDA level and reduced the production of SOD and GSH at multiple timepoints after KA administration. SDS inhibited the change of MDA, SOD and GSH induced by KA prior to SE onset, indicating that SDS protects against KA-induced SE via suppressing oxidative stress. Based on these results, we investigated the possible molecular mechanism of SDS. Pretreatment with SDS reversed the KA-induced decrease in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); increased the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity in KA-treated mice, which had no demonstrable effect on SIRT1 mRNA and protein; and suppressed the KA-induced increase in Ace-FoxO1. These results showed that AMPK/SIRT1/FoxO1 signaling is possibly the molecular mechanism of neuroprotection by SDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Histamine H3 receptor antagonism by ABT-239 attenuates kainic acid induced excitotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Malay; Saini, Neeru; Vohora, Divya

    2014-09-18

    The multifaceted pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) offers a number of adjunctive therapeutic prospects. One such therapeutic strategy could be targeting H3 receptor (H3R) by selective H3R antagonists which are perceived to have antiepileptic and neuroprotective potential. Kainic acid (KA) induced seizure, a reliable model of TLE, triggers epileptogenic events resulting from initial neuronal death and ensuing recurring seizures. The present study aimed to determine whether pre-treatment with ABT-239, a novel H3R antagonist, and its combinations with sodium valproate (SVP) and TDZD-8 (glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) inhibitor) can prevent the excitotoxic events in mice exposed to KA (10 mg/kg i.p.). ABT-239 (1 and 3 mg/kg i.p.) significantly attenuated KA-mediated behavioural and excitotoxic anomalies and restored altered expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-Akt (Ser473) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Surprisingly, restoration of Bcl2 and phospho-GSK3β (Ser9) by ABT-239 did not reach the level of statistical significance. Co-administration of ABT-239 (1 and 3 mg/kg) with a sub-effective dose of SVP (150 mg/kg i.p.) yielded improved efficacy than when given alone. Similarly, low and high dose combinations of ABT-239 (1 and 3 mg/kg) with TDZD-8 (5 and 10 mg/kg i.p.) produced greater neuroprotection than any other treatment group. Our findings suggests a neuroprotective potential of ABT-239 and its combinations with SVP and TDZD-8 against KA-induced neurotoxicity, possibly mediated through in part each by modulating Akt/GSK3β and CREB pathways. The use of H3R antagonists as adjuvant in the treatment of human TLE might find potential utility, and can be pursued further.

  8. In vivo glutamate decline associated with kainic-acid induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Fasano Crawford, Elena L.; Hsu, Oliver; Vinco, Shara; Mayer, Dirk; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    Neurophysiological, biochemical, and anatomical evidence implicates glutamatergic mechanisms in epileptic seizures. Until recently, however, longitudinal characterization of in vivo glutamate dynamics was not possible. Here, we present data using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) optimized for the detection of glutamate to identify changes that evolve following kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus. Wild-type male Wistar rats underwent whole brain MR imaging and single voxel MRS on a clinical 3T scanner equipped with a high-strength insert gradient coil. Scanning took place before and then 3 days, 28 – 32 days, and 42 – 50 days after induction of status epilepticus. Analyses compared 5 seizure (Sz), 5 no-seizure (NoSz; received KA but did not exhibit seizures), and 6 control (Con) animals. This longitudinal study demonstrated reduced glutamate levels in vivo in the dorsal hippocampus 3 days and 1 month following status epilepticus in Sz animals compared with Con animals. Additionally, previous results were replicated: in the Sz group, computed T2 was higher in the ventral hippocampus and limbic cortex 3 days after seizure activity compared with baseline but resolved in both regions at the 1 month scan, suggesting a transient edema. Three days following seizure activity, N-acetylaspartate (NAA) declined and lactate increased in the dorsal hippocampus of the Sz group compared with the Con and NoSz group; both metabolites approached baseline levels by the third scan. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that seizure activity following KA infusion causes loss of glutamatergic neurons. PMID:19715683

  9. Neuroprotective effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis against kainic acid-neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Juárez, Angélica; Chamorro, Germán; Alva-Sánchez, Claudia; Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Pacheco-Rosado, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    Context Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (SP) is a cyanobacterium which has attracted attention because of its nutritional value and pharmacological properties. It was previously reported that SP reduces oxidative stress in the hippocampus and protects against damaging neurobehavioural effects of systemic kainic acid (KA). It is widely known that the systemic administration of KA induces neuronal damage, specifically in the CA3 hippocampal region. Objective The present study determines if the SP sub-chronic treatment has neuroprotective properties against KA. Materials and methods Male SW mice were treated with SP during 24 d, at doses of 0, 200, and 800 mg/kg, once daily, and with KA (35 mg/kg, ip) as a single dose on day 14. After the treatment, a histological analysis was performed and the number of atrophic neuronal cells in CA3 hippocampal region was quantified. Results Pretreatment with SP does not protect against seizures induced by KA. However, mortality in the SP 200 and the SP 800 groups was of 20%, while for the KA group, it was of 60%. A single KA ip administration produced a considerable neuronal damage, whereas both doses of SP sub-chronic treatment reduced the number of atrophic neurons in CA3 hippocampal region with respect to the KA group. Discussion The SP neurobehaviour improvement after KA systemic administration correlates with the capacity of SP to reduce KA-neuronal death in CA3 hippocampal cells. This neuroprotection may be related to the antioxidant properties of SP. Conclusion SP reduces KA-neuronal death in CA3 hippocampal cells.

  10. Atenolol offers better protection than clonidine against cardiac injury in kainic acid-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Read, M I; Harrison, J C; Kerr, D S; Sammut, I A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Status epilepticus is increasingly associated with cardiac injury in both clinical and animal studies. The current study examined ECG activity for up to 48 h following kainic acid (KA) seizure induction and compared the potential of atenolol and clonidine to attenuate this cardiac pathology. Experimental Approach Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 300–350 g) were implanted with ECG and electrocorticogram electrodes to allow simultaneous telemetric recordings of cardiac and cortical responses during and after KA-induced seizures. Animals were randomized into saline controls, and saline vehicle-, clonidine- or atenolol-pretreated KA groups. Key Results KA administration in the saline-pretreated group produced an immediate bradycardic response (maximal decrease of 28 ± 6%), coinciding with low-level seizure activity. As high-level seizure behaviours and EEG spiking increased, tachycardia also developed, with a maximum heart rate increase of 38 ± 7% coinciding with QTc prolongation and T wave elevation. Both clonidine and atenolol pretreatment attenuated seizure activity and reduced KA-induced changes in heart rate, QTc interval and T wave amplitude observed during both bradycardic and tachycardic phases in saline-pretreated KA animals. Clonidine, however, failed to reduce the power of EEG frequencies. Atenolol and to a lesser extent clonidine attenuated the cardiac hypercontraction band necrosis, inflammatory infiltration, and oedema at 48 h after KA, relative to the saline-KA group. Conclusions and Implications Severe seizure activity in this model was clearly associated with altered ECG activity and cardiac pathology. We suggest that modulation of sympathetic activity by atenolol provides a promising cardioprotective approach in status epilepticus. PMID:25765931

  11. Behavioural effects of a subconvulsive dose of kainic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Mikulecká, A; Hlinák, Z; Mares, P

    1999-05-01

    Kainic acid can induce a continuum of non-convulsive seizures characterised by epileptic automatisms and convulsive motor seizures depending on the dose. There are scarce data on the behavioural effects of low doses of kainate inducing only non-convulsive seizures. Therefore, we studied spontaneous behaviour of adult male rats using a method of positive habituation based on a detailed analysis of patterns and attention of animals to a stimulus object. Twenty-three animals were individually tested in the experimental arena on two consecutive days. Comparing the data from the first two exposures, a conspicuous habituation in all animals was observed. On experimental day 3, 12 rats received kainate (6 mg/kg intraperitoneally) and the remaining 11 animals received a physiological saline. After 1 h, animals were put into the arena with an object localised in the centre. It was found that both kainate and saline treated animals exhibited a significant increase in the total number of central area visits, and both the total and mean time spent in the vicinity of the object. However, the mean time spent was significantly shorter in kainate treated rats. Furthermore. kainate rats exhibited a significant decrease in rearing as compared with the controls. In addition, an epileptic automatism (wet dog shakes) was observed in seven out of 12 animals given kainate. The comparison of transition matrices between consecutive behavioural categories showed significant differences between the kainate and control groups. Our results demonstrate that a non-convulsive dose of kainate induced changes in the structure of spontaneous behaviour and impaired the processes related to maintenance of attention.

  12. Ultrastructural features of sprouted mossy fiber synapses in kindled and kainic acid-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Cavazos, José E; Zhang, Peisu; Qazi, Romena; Sutula, Thomas P

    2003-04-07

    The mossy fiber pathway in the dentate gyrus undergoes sprouting and synaptic reorganization in response to seizures. The types of new synapses, their location and number, and the identity of their postsynaptic targets determine the functional properties of the reorganized circuitry. The goal of this study was to characterize the types and proportions of sprouted mossy fiber synapses in kindled and kainic acid-treated rats. In normal rats, synapses labeled by Timm histochemistry or dynorphin immunohistochemistry were rarely observed in the supragranular region of the inner molecular layer when examined by electron microscopy. In epileptic rats, sprouted mossy fiber synaptic terminals were frequently observed. The ultrastructural analysis of the types of sprouted synapses revealed that 1) in the supragranular region, labeled synaptic profiles were more frequently axospinous than axodendritic, and many axospinous synapses were perforated; 2) sprouted mossy fiber synaptic terminals formed exclusively asymmetric, putatively excitatory synapses with dendritic spines and shafts in the supragranular region and with the soma of granule cells in the granule cell layer; 3) in contrast to the large sprouted mossy fiber synapses in resected human epileptic hippocampus, the synapses formed by sprouted mossy fibers in rats were smaller; and 4) in several cases, the postsynaptic targets of sprouted synapses were identified as granule cells, but, in one case, a sprouted synaptic terminal formed a synapse with an inhibitory interneuron. The results demonstrate that axospinous asymmetric synapses are the most common type of synapse formed by sprouted mossy fiber terminals, supporting the viewpoint that most sprouted mossy fibers contribute to recurrent excitation in epilepsy.

  13. Kainic acid dose affects delayed cell death mechanism after status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Tokuhara, Daisuke; Sakuma, Satoru; Hattori, Hideji; Matsuoka, Osamu; Yamano, Tsunekazu

    2007-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) produces hippocampal neuronal death, which varies from necrosis to apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD). We examined whether the type of neuronal death was dependent on KA dose. Adult rats were induced SE by intraperitoneal injection of KA at 9 mg/kg (K9) or 12 mg/kg (K12). Hippocampal neuronal death was assessed by TUNEL staining, electron microscopy, and Western blotting of caspase-3 on days 1, 3 and 7 after SE induction. K12 rats showed higher a mortality rate and shorter latency to the onset of SE when compared with K9 rats. In both groups, acidophilic and pyknotic neurons were evident in CA1 at 24h after SE and neuronal loss developed from day 3. The degenerated neurons became TUNEL-positive on days 3 and 7 in K9 rats but not in K12 rats. Caspase-3 activation was detected on days 3 and 7 in K9 rats but was undetectable in K12 rats. Ultrastructural study revealed shrunken neurons exhibiting pyknotic nuclei containing small and dispersed chromatin clumps 24h after SE in CA1. No cells exhibited apoptosis. On days 3 and 7, the degenerated neurons were necrotic with high electron density and small chromatin clumps. There were no ultrastructural differences between the K9 and K12 groups. These results revealed that differences in KA dose affected the delayed cell death (3 and 7 days after SE); however, no effect was seen on the early cell death (24h after SE). Moderate-dose KA induced necrosis, while low-dose KA induced PCD.

  14. Characterization of Inhibitory Anti-insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor Antibodies with Different Epitope Specificity and Ligand-blocking Properties

    PubMed Central

    Doern, Adam; Cao, Xianjun; Sereno, Arlene; Reyes, Christopher L.; Altshuler, Angelina; Huang, Flora; Hession, Cathy; Flavier, Albert; Favis, Michael; Tran, Hon; Ailor, Eric; Levesque, Melissa; Murphy, Tracey; Berquist, Lisa; Tamraz, Susan; Snipas, Tracey; Garber, Ellen; Shestowsky, William S.; Rennard, Rachel; Graff, Christilyn P.; Wu, Xiufeng; Snyder, William; Cole, Lindsay; Gregson, David; Shields, Michael; Ho, Steffan N.; Reff, Mitchell E.; Glaser, Scott M.; Dong, Jianying; Demarest, Stephen J.; Hariharan, Kandasamy

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies directed against the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) have recently gained significant momentum in the clinic because of preliminary data generated in human patients with cancer. These antibodies inhibit ligand-mediated activation of IGF-1R and the resulting down-stream signaling cascade. Here we generated a panel of antibodies against IGF-1R and screened them for their ability to block the binding of both IGF-1 and IGF-2 at escalating ligand concentrations (>1 μm) to investigate allosteric versus competitive blocking mechanisms. Four distinct inhibitory classes were found as follows: 1) allosteric IGF-1 blockers, 2) allosteric IGF-2 blockers, 3) allosteric IGF-1 and IGF-2 blockers, and 4) competitive IGF-1 and IGF-2 blockers. The epitopes of representative antibodies from each of these classes were mapped using a purified IGF-1R library containing 64 mutations. Most of these antibodies bound overlapping surfaces on the cysteine-rich repeat and L2 domains. One class of allosteric IGF-1 and IGF-2 blocker was identified that bound a separate epitope on the outer surface of the FnIII-1 domain. Using various biophysical techniques, we show that the dual IGF blockers inhibit ligand binding using a spectrum of mechanisms ranging from highly allosteric to purely competitive. Binding of IGF-1 or the inhibitory antibodies was associated with conformational changes in IGF-1R, linked to the ordering of dynamic or unstructured regions of the receptor. These results suggest IGF-1R uses disorder/order within its polypeptide sequence to regulate its activity. Interestingly, the activity of representative allosteric and competitive inhibitors on H322M tumor cell growth in vitro was reflective of their individual ligand-blocking properties. Many of the antibodies in the clinic likely adopt one of the inhibitory mechanisms described here, and the outcome of future clinical studies may reveal whether a particular inhibitory mechanism leads

  15. Seismic responses and controlling factors of Miocene deepwater gravity-flow deposits in Block A, Lower Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Wang, Zhenqi; Yu, Shui; Ngia, Ngong Roger

    2016-08-01

    The Miocene deepwater gravity-flow sedimentary system in Block A of the southwestern part of the Lower Congo Basin was identified and interpreted using high-resolution 3-D seismic, drilling and logging data to reveal development characteristics and main controlling factors. Five types of deepwater gravity-flow sedimentary units have been identified in the Miocene section of Block A, including mass transport, deepwater channel, levee, abandoned channel and sedimentary lobe deposits. Each type of sedimentary unit has distinct external features, internal structures and lateral characteristics in seismic profiles. Mass transport deposits (MTDs) in particular correspond to chaotic low-amplitude reflections in contact with mutants on both sides. The cross section of deepwater channel deposits in the seismic profile is in U- or V-shape. The channel deposits change in ascending order from low-amplitude, poor-continuity, chaotic filling reflections at the bottom, to high-amplitude, moderate to poor continuity, chaotic or sub-parallel reflections in the middle section and to moderate-weak amplitude, good continuity, parallel or sub-parallel reflections in the upper section. The sedimentary lobes are laterally lobate, which corresponds to high-amplitude, good-continuity, moundy reflection signatures in the seismic profile. Due to sediment flux, faults, and inherited terrain, few mass transport deposits occur in the northeastern part of the study area. The front of MTDs is mainly composed of channel-levee complex deposits, while abandoned-channel and lobe-deposits are usually developed in high-curvature channel sections and the channel terminals, respectively. The distribution of deepwater channel, levee, abandoned channel and sedimentary lobe deposits is predominantly controlled by relative sea level fluctuations and to a lesser extent by tectonism and inherited terrain.

  16. Generation of tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-specific affibody molecules capable of blocking receptor binding in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Andreas; Wållberg, Helena; Herne, Nina; Ståhl, Stefan; Frejd, Fredrik Y

    2009-08-17

    Affibody molecules specific for human TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) were selected by phage-display technology from a library based on the 58-residue Protein A-derived Z domain. TNF-alpha is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in several inflammatory diseases and, to this day, four TNF-alpha-blocking protein pharmaceuticals have been approved for clinical use. The phage selection generated 18 unique cysteine-free affibody sequences of which 12 were chosen, after sequence cluster analysis, for characterization as proteins. Biosensor binding studies of the 12 Escherichia coli-produced and IMAC (immobilized-metal-ion affinity chromatography)-purified affibody molecules revealed three variants that demonstrated the strongest binding to human TNF-alpha. These three affibody molecules were subjected to kinetic binding analysis and also tested for their binding to mouse, rat and pig TNF-alpha. For ZTNF-alpha:185, subnanomolar affinity (KD=0.1-0.5 nM) for human TNF-alpha was demonstrated, as well as significant binding to TNF-alpha from the other species. Furthermore, the binding site was found to overlap with the binding site for the TNF-alpha receptor, since this interaction could be efficiently blocked by the ZTNF-alpha:185 affibody. When investigating six dimeric affibody constructs with different linker lengths, and one trimeric construct, it was found that the inhibition of the TNF-alpha binding to its receptor could be further improved by using dimers with extended linkers and/or a trimeric affibody construct. The potential implication of the results for the future design of affibody-based reagents for the diagnosis of inflammation is discussed.

  17. Factors determining the magnitude of the pre-ejection leftward septal motion in left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Remme, Espen W; Niederer, Steven; Gjesdal, Ola; Russell, Kristoffer; Hyde, Eoin R; Smith, Nicolas; Smiseth, Otto A

    2016-12-01

    An abnormal large leftward septal motion prior to ejection is frequently observed in left bundle branch block (LBBB) patients. This motion has been proposed as a predictor of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Our goal was to investigate factors that influence its magnitude. Left (LVP) and right ventricular (RVP) pressures and left ventricular (LV) volume were measured in eight canines. After induction of LBBB, LVP and, hence, the transmural septal pressure (PLV-RV = LVP-RVP) increased more slowly (P < 0.01) during the phase when septum moved leftwards. A biventricular finite-element LBBB simulation model confirmed that the magnitude of septal leftward motion depended on reduced rise of PLV-RV. The model showed that leftward septal motion was decreased with shorter activation delay, reduced global or right ventricular (RV) contractility, septal infarction, or when the septum was already displaced into the LV at end diastole by RV volume overload. Both experiments and simulations showed that pre-ejection septal hypercontraction occurs, in part, because the septum performs more of the work pushing blood towards the mitral valve leaflets to close them as the normal lateral wall contribution to this push is lost. Left bundle branch block lowers afterload against pre-ejection septal contraction, expressed as slowed rise of PLV-RV, which is a main cause and determinant of the magnitude of leftward septal motion. The motion may be small or absent due to septal infarct, impaired global or RV contractility or RV volume overload, which should be kept in mind if this motion is to be used in evaluation of CRT response. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  18. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, E. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Computer program computes system reliability for very general class of reliability block diagrams. Four factors are considered in calculating probability of system success: active block redundancy, standby block redundancy, partial redundancy, and presence of equivalent blocks in the diagram.

  19. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Induced Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition is blocked by a chemical antagonist of translation factor eIF4E

    PubMed Central

    Smith, K. A.; Zhou, B.; Avdulov, S.; Benyumov, A.; Peterson, M.; Liu, Y.; Okon, A.; Hergert, P.; Braziunas, J.; Wagner, C. R.; Borok, Z.; Bitterman, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) imparts disease-defining properties to epithelial cells in cancer and organ fibrosis. Prior studies identify EMT control points at the level of transcription and translation, and indicate that activation of translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is involved in the mechanisms coordinating these two levels of control. Here we show that 4Ei-1, a specific chemical antagonist of the eIF4E-mRNA cap interaction, potently inhibits transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) mediated EMT in lung epithelial cells. Upon treatment with TGF-β1, we observed a rapid recruitment of Snail1 mRNA into the actively translated polysome pool accompanied by accumulation of the EMT transcription factor Snail1 in the nucleus. 4Ei-1 blocks ribosome recruitment to the Snail1 transcript thereby preventing accumulation of the Snail1 protein in the nucleus. Our findings establish an obligatory role for upstream translational control of downstream Snail1-mediated transcriptional events in TGF-β1 induced EMT, and provide proof of concept for efforts to pharmacologically modulate the eIF4E-cap interaction as a means to inhibit pathological EMT in the setting of cancer and organ fibrosis. PMID:26678431

  20. Vertical ridge augmentation using an equine block infused with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB: a histologic study in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Simion, Massimo; Nevins, Myron; Rocchietta, Isabella; Fontana, Filippo; Maschera, Emilio; Schupbach, Peter; Kim, David M

    2009-06-01

    This preclinical study evaluated the efficacy of purified recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB), combined with a novel equine hydroxyapatite and collagen (eHAC) bone block, in providing vertical bone regeneration in critical-size defects simulating localized mandibular alveolar bone atrophy. In addition, the impact of barrier membrane placement in growth factor-mediated bone regeneration was also studied. Bilateral posterior mandibular defects simulating severe localized bony atrophy were created in 12 adult foxhounds following removal of all four mandibular premolars. Three months later, the defects were grafted as follows: group A: eHAC block alone; group B: eHAC block + collagen membrane; group C: eHAC block + rhPDGF-BB; group D: eHAC block + rhPDGF-BB + membrane. The animals were sacrificed after 5 months and the grafted areas were examined histologically, radiographically, and clinically. Groups A and B (controls) exhibited little to no vertical bone regeneration. Group C demonstrated significant vertical bone regeneration, with dense, well-vascularized bone, high bone-to-implant contact, and accelerated replacement of graft particles with newly formed bone. In group D, with the imposition of a barrier membrane, robust bone regeneration was less evident when compared to group C. As in the first study in this series, the importance of the periosteum as a source of osteoprogenitor cells in growth factor-mediated regenerative procedures is examined.

  1. Amlexanox Blocks the Interaction between S100A4 and Epidermal Growth Factor and Inhibits Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ching Chang; Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Yu, Chin

    2016-01-01

    The human S100A4 protein binds calcium, resulting in a change in its conformation to promote the interaction with its target protein. Human epidermal growth factor (EGF) is the target protein of S100A4 and a critical ligand of the receptor EGFR. The EGF/EGFR system promotes cell survival, differentiation, and growth by activating several signaling pathways. Amlexanox is an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drug that is used to treat recurrent aphthous ulcers. In the present study, we determined that amlexanox interacts with S100A4 using heteronuclear single quantum correlation titration. We elucidated the interactions of S100A4 with EGF and amlexanox using fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We generated two binary models (for the S100A4-EGF and S100A4-amlexanox complexes) and observed that amlexanox and EGF share a similar binding region in mS100A4. We also used a WST-1 assay to investigate the bioactivity of S100A4, EGF, and amlexanox, and found that amlexanox blocks the binding between S100A4 and EGF, and is therefore useful for the development of new anti-proliferation drugs. PMID:27559743

  2. Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor (PEDF) Blocks Wnt3a Protein-induced Autophagy in Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jingjing; Belinsky, Glenn; Sagheer, Usman; Zhang, Xuchen; Grippo, Paul J; Chung, Chuhan

    2016-10-14

    An increase in autophagy characterizes pancreatic carcinogenesis, but the signals that regulate this process are incompletely understood. Because canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for the transition from early to advanced pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions, we assessed whether Wnt ligands and endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling modulate autophagy. In this study, canonical Wnt3a ligand induced autophagy markers and vacuoles in murine PanIN cells. Furthermore, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a secreted glycoprotein known for its anti-tumor properties, blocked Wnt3a-directed induction of autophagy proteins. Autophagy inhibition was complemented by reciprocal regulation of the oxidative stress enzymes, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase. Transcriptional control of Sod2 expression was mediated by PEDF-induced NFκB nuclear translocation. PEDF-dependent SOD2 expression in PanIN lesions was recapitulated in a murine model of PanIN formation where PEDF was deleted. In human PanIN lesions, co-expression of PEDF and SOD2 was observed in the majority of early PanIN lesions (47/50, 94%), whereas PEDF and SOD2 immunolocalization in high-grade human PanIN-2/3 was uncommon (7/50, 14%). These results indicate that PEDF regulates autophagy through coordinate Wnt signaling blockade and NFκB activation.

  3. Leukemia inhibitory factor is expressed by the preimplantation uterus and selectively blocks primitive ectoderm formation in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, M M; Leder, P

    1992-01-01

    Among its many activities, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) can maintain embryonic stem cell monolayers in a pluripotent undifferentiated state. Presuming that this might reflect its physiologic role during embryogenesis, we have examined LIF expression in the embryonic environment by RNase protection assays and have determined its in vitro effect on differentiating embryonic stem cell embryoid bodies. Of all adult tissues analyzed, LIF transcripts appear only in the uterus, where their level fluctuates with the estrous cycle, peaking after ovulation. LIF expression continues in the uteri of pregnant and pseudopregnant females, with a relative peak when blastocysts are normally present. As for its effects on in vitro differentiation, we have found that LIF blocks embryoid body differentiation only partially, yet in a precise manner. Using molecular markers to follow the differentiation of defined cell types, we demonstrate that LIF selectively inhibits the formation of primitive ectoderm, while permitting the differentiation of primitive endoderm. These results suggest a specific role for LIF in preimplantation mouse development. Images PMID:1518852

  4. Blocking Endogenous Leukemia Inhibitory Factor During Placental Development in Mice Leads to Abnormal Placentation and Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Winship, Amy; Correia, Jeanne; Krishnan, Tara; Menkhorst, Ellen; Cuman, Carly; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Nicola, Nicos A.; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    The placenta forms the interface between the maternal and fetal circulation and is critical for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. Specialized trophoblast cells derived from the embryonic trophectoderm play a pivotal role in the establishment of the placenta. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is one of the predominant cytokines present in the placenta during early pregnancy. LIF has been shown to regulate trophoblast adhesion and invasion in vitro, however its precise role in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that LIF would be required for normal placental development in mice. LIF and LIFRα were immunolocalized to placental trophoblasts and fetal vessels in mouse implantation sites during mid-gestation. Temporally blocking LIF action during specific periods of placental development via intraperitoneal administration of our specific LIFRα antagonist, PEGLA, resulted in abnormal placental trophoblast and vascular morphology and reduced activated STAT3 but not ERK. Numerous genes regulating angiogenesis and oxidative stress were altered in the placenta in response to LIF inhibition. Pregnancy viability was also significantly compromised in PEGLA treated mice. Our data suggest that LIF plays an important role in placentation in vivo and the maintenance of healthy pregnancy. PMID:26272398

  5. Creating functional sophistication from simple protein building blocks, exemplified by factor H and the regulators of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Makou, Elisavet; Herbert, Andrew P; Barlow, Paul N

    2015-10-01

    Complement control protein modules (CCPs) occur in numerous functionally diverse extracellular proteins. Also known as short consensus repeats (SCRs) or sushi domains each CCP contains approximately 60 amino acid residues, including four consensus cysteines participating in two disulfide bonds. Varying in length and sequence, CCPs adopt a β-sandwich type fold and have an overall prolate spheroidal shape with N- and C-termini lying close to opposite poles of the long axis. CCP-containing proteins are important as cytokine receptors and in neurotransmission, cell adhesion, blood clotting, extracellular matrix formation, haemoglobin metabolism and development, but CCPs are particularly well represented in the vertebrate complement system. For example, factor H (FH), a key soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation, is made up entirely from a chain of 20 CCPs joined by short linkers. Collectively, therefore, the 20 CCPs of FH must mediate all its functional capabilities. This is achieved via collaboration and division of labour among these modules. Structural studies have illuminated the dynamic architectures that allow FH and other CCP-rich proteins to perform their biological functions. These are largely the products of a highly varied set of intramolecular interactions between CCPs. The CCP can act as building block, spacer, highly versatile recognition site or dimerization mediator. Tandem CCPs may form composite binding sites or contribute to flexible, rigid or conformationally 'switchable' segments of the parent proteins.

  6. Loss of Ribosomal Protein L11 Blocks Stress Activation of the Bacillus subtilis Transcription Factor ςB

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyu; Scott, Janelle M.; Haldenwang, W. G.

    2001-01-01

    ςB, the general stress response sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis, is activated when the cell's energy levels decline or the bacterium is exposed to environmental stress (e.g., heat shock, ethanol). Physical stress activates ςB through a collection of regulatory kinases and phosphatases (the Rsb proteins) which catalyze the release of ςB from an anti-ςB factor inhibitor. The means by which diverse stresses communicate with the Rsb proteins is unknown; however, a role for the ribosome in this process was suggested when several of the upstream members of the ςB stress activation cascade (RsbR, -S, and -T) were found to cofractionate with ribosomes in crude B. subtilis extracts. We now present evidence for the involvement of a ribosome-mediated process in the stress activation of ςB. B. subtilis strains resistant to the antibiotic thiostrepton, due to the loss of ribosomal protein L11 (RplK), were found to be blocked in the stress activation of ςB. Neither the energy-responsive activation of ςB nor stress-dependent chaperone gene induction (a ςB-independent stress response) was inhibited by the loss of L11. The Rsb proteins required for stress activation of ςB are shown to be active in the RplK− strain but fail to be triggered by stress. The data demonstrate that the B. subtilis ribosomes provide an essential input for the stress activation of ςB and suggest that the ribosomes may themselves be the sensors for stress in this system. PMID:11244072

  7. Expression of non-angiotensin II -125I-CGP 42112 binding sites on activated microglia after kainic acid induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Jöhren, O; Viswanathan, M; Saavedra, J M

    1995-12-08

    [125I]CGP 42112, first developed to identify angiotensin II receptor subtype 2 (AT2), was recently shown to bind to a novel non-angiotensin binding site in injured rat brain tissue. We addressed the question whether non-angiotensin [125I]CGP 42112 binding appears after kainic acid induced hippocampal neurodegeneration, a process of neuronal cell death at a distance from the toxin injection site. After intraventricular kainic acid injection, we found non-angiotensin [125I]CGP 42112 binding in the hippocampal areas CA3 (4 and 14 days after injection), CA1 and CA4 and the subiculum (14 days after injection). In addition, 14 days after kainic acid injection, [125I]CGP 42112 binding was found in 50% of the animals, in the thalamus, amygdala and piriform cortex, areas receiving projections from the hippocampus and suffering kainic acid induced delayed neurodegeneration. The loss of neurons in these regions was accompanied by an accumulation of activated microglia as demonstrated by immunostaining with the specific antibodies OX-42 and ED1. The time course and regional pattern of OX-42/ED1 positive immunostaining was identical with the appearance and distribution of the non-angiotensin [125I]CGP 42112 binding site. The non-angiotensin [125I]CGP 42112 binding was not detected in brain regions unaffected by kainic acid injection. Our findings indicate the expression of a novel [125I]CGP 42112 binding site on activated microglia. This site appears at a distance from the lesion and may be of importance in the process of neuronal death and brain tissue repair.

  8. Blocking Infralimbic Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF or FGF2) Facilitates Extinction of Drug Seeking After Cocaine Self-Administration.

    PubMed

    Hafenbreidel, Madalyn; Twining, Robert C; Rafa Todd, Carolynn; Mueller, Devin

    2015-12-01

    Drug exposure results in structural and functional changes in brain regions that regulate reward and these changes may underlie the persistence of compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Neurotrophic factors, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF2), are necessary for neuronal survival, growth, and differentiation, and may contribute to these drug-induced changes. Following cocaine exposure, bFGF is increased in addiction-related brain regions, including the infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (IL-mPFC). The IL-mPFC is necessary for extinction, but whether drug-induced overexpression of bFGF in this region affects extinction of drug seeking is unknown. Thus, we determined whether blocking bFGF in IL-mPFC would facilitate extinction following cocaine self-administration. Rats were trained to lever press for intravenous infusions of cocaine before extinction. Blocking bFGF in IL-mPFC before four extinction sessions resulted in facilitated extinction. In contrast, blocking bFGF alone was not sufficient to facilitate extinction, as blocking bFGF and returning rats to their home cage had no effect on subsequent extinction. Furthermore, bFGF protein expression increased in IL-mPFC following cocaine self-administration, an effect reversed by extinction. These results suggest that cocaine-induced overexpression of bFGF inhibits extinction, as blocking bFGF during extinction permits rapid extinction. Therefore, targeted reductions in bFGF during therapeutic interventions could enhance treatment outcomes for addiction.

  9. Inhibiting HIF-1α Decreases Expression of TNF-α and Caspase-3 in Specific Brain Regions Exposed Kainic Acid-Induced Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jixue; He, Fang; Meng, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Wang, Weiwen; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    A recent study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs, i.e., IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in specific brain regions of rats play a role in regulating kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) via a GABAergic mechanism. The purposes of this report were to examine contributions of hypoxia inducible factor subtype 1α (HIF-1α) to expression of PICs in these specific brain regions in epileptic rats. Particularly, we investigated the parietal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. In addition, we further examined expression of Caspase-3 indicating cell apoptosis in those brain regions of epileptic rats after infusing 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MET, inhibitor of HIF-1α) and etanercept (TNF-α receptor antagonist). ELISA was used to determine the levels of HIF-1α and PICs and western blot analysis was used to examine Caspase-3 expression. Our data show that HIF-1α was significantly increased in the parietal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala 1, 3 and 7 days after induction of SE (P<0.05 vs. control rats). Our results also show that inhibiting HIF-1α by central infusion of 2-MET significantly decreased the amplified TNF-α expression in these brain regions evoked by SE (P<0.05 vs. vehicle control), but did not modify IL-1β and IL-6. Our results demonstrate that 2-MET and etanercept attenuated an increase in Caspase-3 evoked by SE. Overall, we suggest that HIF-1α activated by SE is likely to contribute to epileptic activity via a TNF-α pathway, which has pharmacological implications to target specific HIF-1α and TNF-α pathways for neuronal dysfunction and vulnerability related to epilepsy. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration and activation of inflammatory processes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures: treatment with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor does not prevent neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Järvelä, Juha T; Ruohonen, Saku; Kukko-Lukjanov, Tiina-Kaisa; Plysjuk, Anna; Lopez-Picon, Francisco R; Holopainen, Irma E

    2011-06-01

    In the postnatal rodent hippocampus status epilepticus (SE) leads to age- and region-specific excitotoxic neuronal damage, the precise mechanisms of which are still incompletely known. Recent studies suggest that the activation of inflammatory responses together with glial cell reactivity highly contribute to excitotoxic neuronal damage. However, pharmacological tools to attenuate their activation in the postnatal brain are still poorly elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of inflammatory mediators in kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal damage in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs). A specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor N-[2-(cyclohexyloxy)-4-nitrophenyl]-methanesulfonamide (NS-398) was used to study whether or not it could ameliorate neuronal death. Our results show that KA treatment (24 h) resulted in a dose-dependent degeneration of CA3a/b pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, COX-2 immunoreactivity was pronouncedly enhanced particularly in CA3c pyramidal neurons, microglial and astrocyte morphology changed from a resting to active appearance, the expression of the microglial specific protein, Iba1, increased, and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production increased. These indicated the activation of inflammatory processes. However, the expression of neither proinflammatory cytokines, i.e. tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), nor the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 mRNA was significantly altered by KA treatment as studied by real-time PCR. Despite activation of an array of inflammatory processes, neuronal damage could not be rescued either with the combined pre- and co-treatment with a specific COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398. Our results suggest that KA induces activation of a repertoire of inflammatory processes in immature OHCs, and that the timing of anti-inflammatory treatment to achieve neuroprotection is a challenge due to developmental properties and the complexity of inflammatory processes activated by

  11. CXCR4 Antagonist AMD3100 Suppresses the Long-Term Abnormal Structural Changes of Newborn Neurons in the Intraventricular Kainic Acid Model of Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Song, Chengguang; Xu, Wangshu; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Shang; Zhu, Gang; Xiao, Ting; Zhao, Mei; Zhao, Chuansheng

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal hippocampal neurogenesis is a prominent feature of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) models, which is thought to contribute to abnormal brain activity. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its specific receptor CXCR4 play important roles in adult neurogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 suppressed aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, as well as the long-term consequences in the intracerebroventricular kainic acid (ICVKA) model of epilepsy. Adult male rats were randomly assigned as control rats, rats subjected to status epilepticus (SE), and post-SE rats treated with AMD3100. Animals in each group were divided into two subgroups (acute stage and chronic stage). We used immunofluorescence staining of BrdU and DCX to analyze the hippocampal neurogenesis on post-SE days 10 or 74. Nissl staining and Timm staining were used to evaluate hippocampal damage and mossy fiber sprouting, respectively. On post-SE day 72, the frequency and mean duration of spontaneous seizures were measured by electroencephalography (EEG). Cognitive function was evaluated by Morris water maze testing on post-SE day 68. The ICVKA model of TLE resulted in aberrant neurogenesis such as altered proliferation, abnormal dendrite development of newborn neurons, as well as spontaneous seizures and spatial learning impairments. More importantly, AMD3100 treatment reversed the aberrant neurogenesis seen after TLE, which was accompanied by decreased long-term seizure activity, though improvement in spatial learning was not seen. AMD3100 could suppress long-term seizure activity and alter adult neurogenesis in the ICVKA model of TLE, which provided morphological evidences that AMD3100 might be beneficial for treating chronic epilepsy.

  12. Subventricular Zone-Derived Neural Stem Cell Grafts Protect Against Hippocampal Degeneration and Restore Cognitive Function in the Mouse Following Intrahippocampal Kainic Acid Administration

    PubMed Central

    Miltiadous, Panagiota; Kouroupi, Georgia; Stamatakis, Antonios; Koutsoudaki, Paraskevi N.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a major neurological disease, often associated with cognitive decline. Since approximately 30% of patients are resistant to antiepileptic drugs, TLE is being considered as a possible clinical target for alternative stem cell-based therapies. Given that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is neuroprotective following a number of experimental insults to the nervous system, we investigated the therapeutic potential of neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) transduced, or not, with a lentiviral vector for overexpression of IGF-I after transplantation in a mouse model of kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal degeneration, which represents an animal model of TLE. Exposure of mice to the Morris water maze task revealed that unilateral intrahippocampal NSC transplantation significantly prevented the KA-induced cognitive decline. Moreover, NSC grafting protected against neurodegeneration at the cellular level, reduced astrogliosis, and maintained endogenous granule cell proliferation at normal levels. In some cases, as in the reduction of hippocampal cell loss and the reversal of the characteristic KA-induced granule cell dispersal, the beneficial effects of transplanted NSCs were manifested earlier and were more pronounced when these were transduced to express IGF-I. However, differences became less pronounced by 2 months postgrafting, since similar amounts of IGF-I were detected in the hippocampi of both groups of mice that received cell transplants. Grafted NSCs survived, migrated, and differentiated into neurons—including glutamatergic cells—and not glia, in the host hippocampus. Our results demonstrate that transplantation of IGF-I producing NSCs is neuroprotective and restores cognitive function following KA-induced hippocampal degeneration. PMID:23417642

  13. Perceptual learning transfer: Salience of the common element as a factor contributing to the intermixed/blocked effect.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Antonio A; Prados, Jose

    2014-10-01

    Rats received intermixed or blocked preexposure to 2 similar flavor compounds, AX and BX. Following preexposure, conditioning trials took place in which a novel compound stimulus NX was paired with an illness-induced unconditioned stimulus. Animals that were given intermixed preexposure to AX and BX showed lower generalization of the aversive response conditioned to NX to a new compound, ZX, than animals that were given blocked preexposure. The results support the proposal that intermixed preexposure reduces the salience of the common element X to a greater extent than blocked preexposure. The way in which current theories of perceptual learning can predict a differential salience of X after intermixed and blocked preexposure is discussed.

  14. Differential effect of injections of kainic acid into the prepositus and the vestibular nuclei of the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Godaux, E; Mettens, P; Cheron, G

    1993-01-01

    1. In order adequately to control eye movements, oculomotoneurones have to be supplied with both an eye-velocity signal and an eye-position signal. However, all the command signals of the oculomotor system are velocity signals. Nowadays, there is general agreement about the existence of a brainstem network that would convert velocity command-signals into an eye-position signal. This circuit, because of its function, is called the oculomotor neural integrator. The most obvious symptom of its eventual failure is a gaze-holding deficit: in this case, saccades are followed by a centripetal post-saccadic drift. Although the oculomotor neural integrator is central in oculomotor theory, its precise location is still a matter for debate. 2. Previously, microinjections of kainic acid (KA) into the region of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH) and of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) were found to induce a horizontal gaze-holding failure both in the cat and in the monkey. However, the relatively large volumes (1-3 microliters) and concentrations (2-4 micrograms microliters-1) used in these injections made it difficult to know if the observed deficit was due to a disturbance of the NPH or of the nearby MVN. These considerations led us to inject very small amounts of kainic acid (50 nl, 0.1 microgram microliter-1) either into the rostral part of the MVN or into different sites along the NPH of the cat. 3. The search coil technique was used to record (1) spontaneous eye movements (2) the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) induced by a constant-velocity rotation (50 deg s-1 for 40 s) and the optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) elicited by rotating an optokinetic drum at 30 deg s-1 for 40 s. 4. In each injection experiment, the location of the abducens nucleus of the alert cat was mapped out by recording the antidromic field potentials evoked by the stimulation of the abducens nerve. Two micropipettes were then glued together in such a way that when the tip of the recording micropipette

  15. Effect of early pregnancy on the expression of progesterone receptor and progesterone-induced blocking factor in ovine lymph node.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Zang, Shengqin; Bai, Ying; Yao, Xiaolei; Zhang, Leying

    2017-04-15

    Lymph nodes are the sites where the immune reaction or suppression takes place. Progesterone (P4) exerts an essential effect of the immunomodulation on the maternal uterus during early pregnancy in ruminants. At present study, the inguinal lymph nodes were obtained at day 16 of non-pregnancy, days 13, 16 and 25 of pregnancy (n = 3 for each group) in ewes, and RT-PCR assay, western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to analyze to the effect of early pregnancy on the expression of P4 receptor (PGR) and progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) in the lymph nodes. Our results showed that the PGR and PIBF mRNA were up-regulated in the lymph nodes in pregnant ewes, and the PGR isoform (60 kDa) and the PIBF variant (75 kDa) were expressed constantly in the lymph nodes. However, there was no expression of the PGR isoform (40 kDa) and the PIBF variant (48 kDa) at day 16 of the estrous cycle. The immunohistochemistry results confirmed that the PGR and PIBF proteins were limited to the subcapsular sinus and trabeculae in the cortex, medullary sinuses, and were localized in the cytoplasm of the specific cells. This paper reports for the first time that early pregnancy exerts its effect on the specific cells in the lymph nodes through P4, which results in the up-regulated expression of the PGR mRNA and 40 kDa isoform, the PIBF mRNA and 48 kDa variant, and is involved in the immunoregulation of the lymph nodes through a cytosolic pathway in ewes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  17. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  18. Growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15 blocks norepinephrine-induced myocardial hypertrophy via a novel pathway involving inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-ye; Nie, Ying; Wang, Fang-fang; Bai, Yan; Lv, Zhi-zhen; Zhang, You-yi; Li, Zi-jian; Gao, Wei

    2014-04-04

    Accumulating evidence suggests that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is associated with the severity and prognosis of various cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of GDF-15 on the regulation of cardiac remodeling is still poorly understood. In this present study, we demonstrate that GDF-15 blocks norepinephrine (NE)-induced myocardial hypertrophy through a novel pathway involving inhibition of EGFR transactivation. Both in vivo and in vitro assay indicate that NE was able to stimulate the synthesis of GDF-15. The up-regulation of GDF-15 feedback inhibits NE-induced myocardial hypertrophy, including quantitation of [(3)H]leucine incorporation, protein/DNA ratio, cell surface area, and ANP mRNA level. Further research shows that GDF-15 could inhibit the phosphorylation of EGF receptor and downstream kinases (AKT and ERK1/2) induced by NE. Clinical research also shows that serum GDF-15 levels in hypertensive patients were significant higher than in healthy volunteers and were positively correlated with the thickness of the posterior wall of the left ventricle, interventricular septum, and left ventricular mass, as well as the serum level of norepinephrine. In conclusion, NE induces myocardial hypertrophy and up-regulates GDF-15, and this up-regulation of GDF-15 negatively regulates NE-induced myocardial hypertrophy by inhibiting EGF receptor transactivation following NE stimulation.

  19. Efficacy of continuous epidural block in acute herpes zoster: Incidence and predictive factors of postherpetic neuralgia, a retrospective single-center study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo Na; Kim, Dae Woo; Kim, Eung Don

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate efficacy of continuous epidural block for prevent postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) progression in cases of acute herpes zoster with severe pain and also to identify predictive factors for PHN in such conditions.We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients with herpes zoster who underwent continuous epidural block between March 2013 and October 2015. Time points were set as 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after zoster onset. PHN was defined as the presence of pain with NRS ≥3 at certain time points.The incidence of developing PHN was 38.1%, 27.0%, and 19.0% 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after zoster onset, respectively. Age and duration of catheterization were predictive factors for PHN at 1 month. Age, duration of catheterization, and NRS at first visit were identified as predictive factors for PHN at 3 months. Presence of diabetes, duration of catheterization, and NRS during catheterization were significant predictive factors for PHN at 6 months.The incidence of PHN is higher in zoster patients with severe pain that requires continuous epidural block compared to incidence in the general population. Advanced age and severe initial pain intensity were predictive factors of PHN development. Prolonged catheterization resulting from weak response to treatment strongly suggested progression to PHN.

  20. Peoniflorin suppresses tumor necrosis factor-α induced chemokine production in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells by blocking nuclear factor-κB and ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Guo, Zai-Pei; Jiao, Xiao-Yan; Jia, Rui-Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Hong; Li, Jing-Yi; Huang, Xu-Lei; Liu, Hong-Jie

    2011-07-01

    Peoniflorin (PF) extracted from the root of Paeonia lactiflora pall displays anti-inflammation and antioxidant properties in several animal models. Chemokines are vital for directing the movement of circulating leukocytes to the sites of inflammation and are involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases. Herein, we investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of PF on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced chemokine production in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) was treated by TNF-α with or without PF. PF markedly attenuated TNF-α-induced chemokines (including CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL8, CXCL16 and CX3CL1) mRNA expression in HMEC-1. PF also reduced the secretion of these chemokines in culture supernatants. In addition, endothelial activation in the presence of PF markedly blocked the chemotactic activities of TNF-α-stimulated HMEC-1 supernatant on promyelocytic leukemia cell line (HL-60) or the acute mature monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) cell migration. Furthermore, Western blot data revealed TNF-α upregulated phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB-α (IκBα) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, which was almost completely reversed by PF. Finally, PF inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation to the nucleus. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that PF has an anti-inflammatory ability against TNF-α-induced chemokine production and leukocyte migration, which may be at least partly related to the inhibition of NF-κB and ERK pathway. PF may be a candidate medicine for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  1. [Effects of kainic acid that damages the marginal division of rat striatum on hippocampal long-term potentiation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Shu, Si-Yun; Bao, Xin-Min; Li, Sheng-Xiu

    2002-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between the marginal division (MrD) of the striatum and other brain regions associated with learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced by high-frequency stimulation of the perforant path-dentate gyrus, and changes in hippocampal LTP after destruction of the marginal division with kainic acid were observed. High-frequency stimulation of the perforant path produced significant increases in the peak amplitudes of the population spike (PS) in normal rats and those receiving saline treatment. In rats with damaged MrD, the increase in PS and the excitatory postsynaptic potential were less obvious compared with normal or saline-treated rats, indicating that the LTP of the hippocampus was attenuated by damage of the MrD. Damage of the MrD impacts the LTP formation in the hippocampus.

  2. [Neurogenesis of dentate granule cells following kainic acid induced seizures in immature rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ling; Sun, Ruo-Peng; Lei, Ge-Fei; Wang, Ji-Wen; Guo, Shu-Hua

    2004-08-01

    Data accumulated over the past years have led to widespread recognition that neurogenesis, the emergence of new neurons, persists in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian brain, and can be increased by seizures in multiple models. Also, aberrant reorganization of dentate granule cell axons, the mossy fiber sprouting, occurs in human temporal lobe epilepsy and rodent epilepsy models. However a number of studies suggest that the immature brain is less vulnerable to the morphologic alteration of hippocampus after seizures. The goal of this study was to determine whether the seizures can induce dentate granule cell neurogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting in the immature rat. Seizures was elicited by unilateral microinfusion of kainic acid (KA, 1 micro g) into the amygdula at postnatal day 15 (P15). Rat pups were given bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) intraperitoneally on day 5 after KA administration and killed 7 d or 21 d later. The brains were processed for BrdU mitotic labeling combined with double-label immunohistochemistry using neuron-specific, early differentiation marker TuJ1 (betaIII tubulin) or granule-specific marker CaBP (calcium-binding protein calbindin D28k) as well as glia-specific marker GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein). Mossy fiber sprouting in intermolecular layer and CA3 subfield was assessed in Timm-stained sections both 1 month and 3 months after KA administration by using a rating scale and density measurement. The dentate BrdU-immunoreactive cells of the KA-treated rats increased significantly compared with those of control rats on day 7 and 21 after BrdU administration (7 d: 244 +/- 15 vs. 190 +/- 10; 21 d: 218 +/- 19 vs. 133 +/- 12, P < 0.05). Approximately 80.2% and 78.7% of BrdU-labeled cells coexpressed TuJ1 in KA-treated rats and control rats on day 7 after BrdU respectively (P > 0.05). On 21 d after BrdU, 60.2% and 58.2% of dentate BrdU-labeled cells coexpressed GaBP in KA-treated rats and control rats respectively (P > 0

  3. Total syntheses of (-)-alpha-kainic acid and (+)-alpha-allokainic acid via stereoselective C-H insertion and efficient 3,4-stereocontrol.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Chun; Yoon, Cheol Hwan; Turos, Edward; Yoo, Kyung Soo; Jung, Kyung Woon

    2007-12-21

    Reported herein is a novel approach to the total syntheses of (-)-alpha-kainic acid and (+)-alpha-allokainic acid, where the stereochemistries on C(2), C(3), and C(4) of the pyrrolidine core were introduced efficiently and selectively. A regio- and stereoselective C-H insertion reaction was utilized to prepare the gamma-lactam as an intermediate. A Michael-type cyclization of phenylsulfone with a conjugated acetylenic ketone was developed to prepare the tricyclic ketone as a key intermediate for (-)-alpha-kainic acid. Subsequently, a stereoselective dephenylsulfonylation was carried out successfully to secure the cis relationship at C(3) and C(4) centers. An unprecedented acetylation on the phenylsulfone, followed by a stereoselective dephenylsulfonylation, secured the trans relationship at C(3) and C(4) centers in (+)-alpha-allokainic acid.

  4. The levels of glutathione and nitrite-nitrate and the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA in ovariectomized rats treated by raloxifene against kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Armagan, Guliz; Kanit, Lutfiye; Terek, Cosan M; Sozmen, Eser Y; Yalcin, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are compounds that activate the estrogen receptors with different estrogenic and antiestrogenic tissue-specific effects. The similar effects of SERMs on estrogen encourage the efforts in the research of neuroprotective effects of SERMs. In our study, the potential neuroprotective effects of raloxifene were investigated on the brain cortex of ovariectomized rats after kainic acid-induced oxidative stress. To show the neuroprotective effect of raloxifene against a neurodegenerative agent, kainic acid, expression of Bcl-2, total glutathione (GSH), and nitrite-nitrate levels were investigated in the rat brain cortex. Our results demostrate that raloxifene treatment against oxidative stress significantly increases the expression of Bcl-2 and the level of GSH in the brain cortex.

  5. Retrospective analysis of risk factors and predictors of intraoperative complications in neuraxial blocks at Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu-UNESP.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ivan Dias Fernandes; Grando, Marcela Miguel; Vianna, Pedro Thadeu Galvão; Braz, José Reinaldo Cerqueira; Castiglia, Yara Marcondes Machado; Vane, Luís Antônio; Módolo, Norma Sueli Pinheiro; do Nascimento, Paulo; Amorim, Rosa Beatriz; Rodrigues, Geraldo Rolim; Braz, Leandro Gobbo; Ganem, Eliana Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular changes associated with neuraxial blocks are a cause of concern due to their frequency and because some of them can be considered physiological effects triggered by the sympathetic nervous system blockade. The objective of this study was to evaluate intraoperative cardiovascular complications and predictive factors associated with neuraxial blocks in patients ≥ 18 years of age undergoing non-obstetric procedures over an 18-year period in a tertiary university hospital--HCFMB-UNESP. A retrospective analysis of the following complications was undertaken: hypertension, hypotension, sinus bradycardia, and sinus tachycardia. These complications were correlated with anesthetic technique, physical status (ASA), age, gender, and preoperative co-morbidities. The Tukey test for comparisons among proportions and logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. 32,554 patients underwent neuraxial blocks. Intraoperative complications mentioned included hypotension (n=4,109), sinus bradycardia (n=1,107), sinus tachycardia (n=601), and hypertension (n=466). Hypotension was seen more often in patients undergoing continuous subarachnoid anesthesia (29.4%, OR=2.39), ≥ 61 years of age, and female (OR=1.27). Intraoperative hypotension and bradycardia were the complications observed more often. Hypotension was related to anesthetic technique (CSA), increased age, and female. Tachycardia and hypertension may not have been directly related to neuraxial blocks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Corsi's block-tapping task: standardization and location in factor space with the WAIS-R for two normal samples of older adults.

    PubMed

    Saggino, Aristide; Balsamo, Michela; Grieco, Anna; Cerbone, Maria Rosaria; Raviele, Nicla Nicolina

    2004-06-01

    Corsi's block-tapping task and WAIS-R were administered to two Italian samples of 200 normal older adults (aged 65-74 years and 75-100 years). Corsi's reliabilities and standardization data are shown. Additionally, Corsi's location in the factor space of cognitive abilities represented by the 11 WAIS-R subtests is presented. Corsi's test seems to be a reliable one for older Italians. It seems also to be a measure of general intelligence in those 65-74 years of age and a measure of the Freedom from Distractibility factor in subjects 75 years and older.

  7. Local anaesthetics and additives for spinal anaesthesia--characteristics and factors influencing the spread and duration of the block.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Mikko; Rosenberg, Per H

    2003-09-01

    Different characteristics of patients and local anaesthetic formulations will influence the spread of spinal anaesthesia. The predictability of the spread of spinal anaesthesia can be improved by altering both baricity of the solution, and the position of the patient during the intrathecal local anaesthetic injection. The role of adrenaline and clonidine in prolonging the block and associated side effects is discussed. The role of opioids added to local anaesthetic solutions is discussed from a cost/benefit point of view.

  8. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  9. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  10. Parathyroid hormone blocks the stimulatory effect of insulin-like growth factor-I on collagen synthesis in cultured 21-day fetal rat calvariae

    SciTech Connect

    Kream, B.E.; Petersen, D.N.; Raisz, L.G. )

    1990-01-01

    We examined the interaction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on collagen synthesis in 21-day fetal rat calvariae as assessed by measuring the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)proline into collagenase-digestible protein. After 96 hours of culture, 10 nM PTH antagonized the stimulation of collagen synthesis and partially blocked the increase in dry weight produced by 10 nM IGF-I. The effect of PTH to block IGF-I stimulated collagen synthesis was observed in the central bone of calvariae and was mimicked by forskolin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but not by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, transforming growth factor-alpha or dexamethasone. Our data are consistent with the concept that the direct effect of PTH is to inhibit basal CDP labeling and fully oppose IGF-I stimulated CDP labeling. The finding that this effect of PTH is mimicked by forskolin and PMA suggests that this block in IGF-I stimulation of CDP labeling involves both cAMP and protein kinase C mediated pathways.

  11. Lower extremity mechanics during landing after a volleyball block as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Zahradnik, David; Jandacka, Daniel; Uchytil, Jaroslav; Farana, Roman; Hamill, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    To compare lower extremity mechanics and energy absorption during two types of landing after a successful or unsuccessful block in volleyball and assess the risks of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Cohort study. Fourteen elite male volleyball players (aged 24.5 ± 4.6 years; height 1.94 ± 0.06 m; mass 86.6 ± 7.6 kg). Subjects were required to land on force platforms using stick landing or step-back landing (with the right lower extremity stepping back away from the net) techniques after performing a standing block jump movement. Vertical ground reaction force (body weight); knee flexion (degrees); knee moments (Nm/kg); and hip, knee and ankle energy absorption (J/kg). The right lower extremity showed a greater first peak of vertical ground reaction force, a greater valgus moment, lower energy absorption by the knee, and higher energy absorption by the hip and ankle joints during step-back landing. The lower extremity may be exposed to a greater risk of ACL injury when stepping back from the net during the initial impact phase after a step-back landing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laboratory investigation of the factors impact on bubble size, pore blocking and enhanced oil recovery with aqueous Colloidal Gas Aphron.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shenglong; Wang, Yefei; Li, Zhongpeng; Chen, Qingguo; Zhao, Zenghao

    Colloidal Gas Aphron as a mobility control in enhanced oil recovery is becoming attractive; it is also designed to block porous media with micro-bubbles. In this paper, the effects of surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, temperature and salinity on the bubble size of the Colloidal Gas Aphron were studied. Effects of injection rates, Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition, heterogeneity of reservoir on the resistance to the flow of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid through porous media were investigated. Effects of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition and temperature on residual oil recovery were also studied. The results showed that bubble growth rate decreased with increasing surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, and decreasing temperature, while it decreased and then increased slightly with increasing salinity. The obvious increase of injection pressure was observed as more Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was injected, indicating that Colloidal Gas Aphron could block the pore media effectively. The effectiveness of the best blend obtained through homogeneous sandpack flood tests was modestly improved in the heterogeneous sandpack. The tertiary oil recovery increased 26.8 % by Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid as compared to 20.3 % by XG solution when chemical solution of 1 PV was injected into the sandpack. The maximum injected pressure of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was about three times that of the XG solution. As the temperature increased, the Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid became less stable; the maximum injection pressure and tertiary oil recovery of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid decreased.

  13. Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides lipid A derivatives block in vitro induction of tumor necrosis factor and endotoxin tolerance by smooth lipopolysaccharide and monophosphoryl lipid A.

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, B E; Perera, P Y; Qureshi, N; Takayama, K; Vogel, S N

    1992-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas (Rhodobacter) sphaeroides diphosphoryl lipid A is a relatively inert species of lipid A but has been shown to antagonize the effects of toxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) both in vivo and in vitro. The antagonist and its monophosphoryl derivative were examined for the ability to block tumor necrosis factor synthesis and reverse tolerance induction in vitro in macrophage cultures stimulated with bioactive preparations of smooth LPS, rough LPS, diphosphoryl lipid A, and monophosphoryl lipid A. Inhibition of agonist activity and reversal of tolerance by these novel penta-acylated lipid A antagonists provides new insight into macrophage-LPS interactions. PMID:1398939

  14. Involvement of the neuronal phosphotyrosine signal adaptor N-Shc in kainic acid-induced epileptiform activity.

    PubMed

    Baba, Shiro; Onga, Kazuko; Kakizawa, Sho; Ohyama, Kyoji; Yasuda, Kunihiko; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Scott, Brian W; Burnham, W McIntyre; Matsuo, Takayuki; Nagata, Izumi; Mori, Nozomu

    2016-06-08

    BDNF-TrkB signaling is implicated in experimental seizures and epilepsy. However, the downstream signaling involved in the epileptiform activity caused by TrkB receptor activation is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether TrkB-mediated N-Shc signal transduction was involved in kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptiform activity. We investigated KA-induced behavioral seizures, epileptiform activities and neuronal cell loss in hippocampus between N-Shc deficient and control mice. There was a significant reduction in seizure severity and the frequency of epileptiform discharges in N-Shc deficient mice, as compared with wild-type and C57BL/6 mice. KA-induced neuronal cell loss in the CA3 of hippocampus was also inhibited in N-Shc deficient mice. This study demonstrates that the activation of N-Shc signaling pathway contributes to an acute KA-induced epileptiform activity and neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus. We propose that the N-Shc-mediated signaling pathway could provide a potential target for the novel therapeutic approaches of epilepsy.

  15. Involvement of the neuronal phosphotyrosine signal adaptor N-Shc in kainic acid-induced epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Shiro; Onga, Kazuko; Kakizawa, Sho; Ohyama, Kyoji; Yasuda, Kunihiko; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Scott, Brian W.; Burnham, W. McIntyre; Matsuo, Takayuki; Nagata, Izumi; Mori, Nozomu

    2016-01-01

    BDNF-TrkB signaling is implicated in experimental seizures and epilepsy. However, the downstream signaling involved in the epileptiform activity caused by TrkB receptor activation is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether TrkB-mediated N-Shc signal transduction was involved in kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptiform activity. We investigated KA-induced behavioral seizures, epileptiform activities and neuronal cell loss in hippocampus between N-Shc deficient and control mice. There was a significant reduction in seizure severity and the frequency of epileptiform discharges in N-Shc deficient mice, as compared with wild-type and C57BL/6 mice. KA-induced neuronal cell loss in the CA3 of hippocampus was also inhibited in N-Shc deficient mice. This study demonstrates that the activation of N-Shc signaling pathway contributes to an acute KA-induced epileptiform activity and neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus. We propose that the N-Shc-mediated signaling pathway could provide a potential target for the novel therapeutic approaches of epilepsy. PMID:27273072

  16. Exploratory Metabolomics Profiling in the Kainic Acid Rat Model Reveals Depletion of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 during Epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Heischmann, Svenja; Quinn, Kevin; Cruickshank-Quinn, Charmion; Liang, Li-Ping; Reisdorph, Rick; Reisdorph, Nichole; Patel, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Currently, no reliable markers are available to evaluate the epileptogenic potential of a brain injury. The electroencephalogram is the standard method of diagnosis of epilepsy; however, it is not used to predict the risk of developing epilepsy. Biomarkers that indicate an individual’s risk to develop epilepsy, especially those measurable in the periphery are urgently needed. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of acquired epilepsy, is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures following brain injury and a seizure-free “latent” period. Elucidation of mechanisms at play during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis) in animal models of TLE could enable the identification of predictive biomarkers. Our pilot study using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis revealed changes (p-value ≤ 0.05, ≥1.5-fold change) in lipid, purine, and sterol metabolism in rat plasma and hippocampus during epileptogenesis and chronic epilepsy in the kainic acid model of TLE. Notably, disease development was associated with dysregulation of vitamin D3 metabolism at all stages and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 depletion in the acute and latent phase of injury-induced epileptogenesis. These data suggest that plasma VD3 metabolites reflect the severity of an epileptogenic insult and that a panel of plasma VD3 metabolites may be able to serve as a marker of epileptogenesis. PMID:27526857

  17. Inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainic acid-induced neurotransmitter release by omega-conotoxin GVIA.

    PubMed Central

    Keith, R. A.; Mangano, T. J.; Salama, A. I.

    1989-01-01

    1. The role of voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)- and kainic acid (KA)-evoked neurotransmitter release from rat cortical and hippocampal brain slices was evaluated by determining the effects of omega-conotoxin GVIA, an inhibitor of neuronal L- and N-type VSCC, and PN 200-110, a selective inhibitor of L-type VSCC. 2. Selective antagonists of the NMDA receptor ionophore complex, Mg2+, CPP and MK-801, inhibited NMDA- but not KA-evoked release of [3H]-noradrenaline from hippocampal and cortical brain slices. This suggests that cortical and hippocampal receptors are similar and that NMDA and KA act at distinct excitatory amino acid receptor subtypes. 3. [3H]-noradrenaline release induced by both NMDA and KA was similarly inhibited (approximately 30%) by omega-conotoxin GVIA. In contrast, PN 200-110 had no significant effect, although there was a tendency towards inhibition. 4. The results suggest that although NMDA- and KA-receptors are pharmacologically distinct, the N-type, but not the L-type, VSCC plays a small but significant role in neurotransmitter release induced by both NMDA and KA. It remains to be determined whether the N-type VSCC are involved in the physiological and/or pathological manifestations of excitatory amino acid receptor stimulation. PMID:2574063

  18. Somatostatin and Neuropeptide Y Neurons Undergo Different Plasticity in Parahippocampal Regions in Kainic Acid–Induced Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Drexel, Meinrad; Kirchmair, Elke; Wieselthaler-Hölzl, Anna; Preidt, Adrian Patrick; Sperk, Günther

    2012-01-01

    Parahippocampal brain areas including the subiculum, presubiculum and parasubiculum, and entorhinal cortex give rise to major input and output neurons of the hippocampus and exert increased excitability in animal models and human temporal lobe epilepsy. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for somatostatin and neuropeptide Y, we investigated plastic morphologic and neurochemical changes in parahippocampal neurons in the kainic acid (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Although constitutively contained in similar subclasses of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons, both neuropeptide systems undergo distinctly different changes in their expression. Somatostatin messenger RNA (mRNA) is rapidly but transiently expressed de novo in pyramidal neurons of the subiculum and entorhinal cortex 24 hours after KA. Surviving somatostatin interneurons display increased mRNA levels at late intervals (3 months) after KA and increased labeling of their terminals in the outer molecular layer of the subiculum; the labeling correlates with the number of spontaneous seizures, suggesting that the seizures may trigger somatostatin expression. In contrast, neuropeptide Y mRNA is consistently expressed in principal neurons of the proximal subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex and labeling for the peptide persistently increased in virtually all major excitatory pathways of the hippocampal formation. The pronounced plastic changes differentially involving both neuropeptide systems indicate marked rearrangement of parahippocampal areas, presumably aiming at endogenous seizure protection. Their receptors may be targets for anticonvulsive drug therapy. PMID:22437342

  19. A Standardized Protocol for Stereotaxic Intrahippocampal Administration of Kainic Acid Combined with Electroencephalographic Seizure Monitoring in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bielefeld, Pascal; Sierra, Amanda; Encinas, Juan M.; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Anderson, Anne; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.

    2017-01-01

    Lack of scientific reproducibility is a growing concern and weak experimental practices may contribute to irreproducibility. Here, we describe an optimized and versatile protocol for stereotaxic intrahippocampal administration of Kainic Acid (KA) in mice with a C57Bl6 background. In this protocol, KA administration is combined with in vivo recording of neuronal activity with wired and wireless setups. Following our protocol, KA administration results in a robust dose-dependent induction of low-level epileptiform activity or Status Epilepticus (SE) and induces previously characterized hallmarks of seizure-associated pathology. The procedure consists of three main steps: Craniotomy, stereotaxic administration of KA, and placement of recording electrodes in intrahippocampal, and subdural locations. This protocol offers extended possibilities compared to the systemic administration of KA, as it allows the researcher to accurately regulate the local dose of KA and resulting seizure activity, and permits the use and study of convulsive and non-convulsive KA doses, resulting in higher reproducibility and lower inter-individual variability and mortality rates. Caution should be taken when translating this procedure to different strains of mice as inter-strain sensitivity to KA has been described before. The procedure can be performed in ~1 h by a trained researcher, while intrahippocampal administration of KA without placing recording electrodes can be done in 25 min, and can be easily adapted to the titrated intrahippocampal administration of other drugs. PMID:28405182

  20. Effect of oxcarbazepine pretreatment on convulsive activity and brain damage induced by kainic acid administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso; Mexicano, Graciela; Campos-Sepúlveda, Efraín; Romero, Rosa María; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; González-Maciel, Angélica

    2008-11-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is one of the most common types of epilepsy. Progress in the understanding and treatment of this type of epilepsy would be greatly facilitated by the availability of an animal model, which reproduced the behavioral and electrographic features of this condition. In this context, kainic acid (KA, 2-carboxy-3-carboxymethyl-4-isopropenylpyrrolidine) administration causes a syndrome characterized by an acute status epilepticus and subsequent brain damage similar to that in temporal lobe epilepsy of humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether oxcarbazepine (10,11-dihydro-10-oxo-5 H -dibenz(b,f)azepine-5-carboxamide), an antiepileptic drug, protects against both epileptic activity and brain damage induced by KA administration. Chronically implanted adult male Wistar rats were polygraphically recorded during 10 continuous hours under 4 different conditions: a) control, b) after KA administration alone, c) after KA administration in oxcarbazepine pretreated animals and d) after the administration of oxcarbazepine alone. Animals treated with KA alone presented behavioral and electrophysiological convulsive activity as well as brain damage. Latency of seizure installation was lengthened significantly and convulsive activity was slightly reduced, however, brain damage was still present in oxcarbazepine pretreated animals. Administration of oxcarbazepine alone induced a hypnotic behavior and brain damage was also present.

  1. Changes in the cannabinoid (CB1) receptor expression level and G-protein activation in kainic acid induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Bojnik, Engin; Turunç, Ezgi; Armağan, Güliz; Kanıt, Lütfiye; Benyhe, Sándor; Yalçın, Ayfer; Borsodi, Anna

    2012-03-01

    It has been known for centuries that exogenous cannabinoids, such as tetrahydrocannabinol have anticonvulsant activity. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the endogenous cannabinoid system and renewed the interest in cannabinoids as a potential treatment for epilepsy. The endogenous cannabinoid system is rapidly activated after seizure activity but still little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of the cannabinoid system in epilepsy. In this study epileptiform activity was induced by kainic acid (KA) and effects of the CB1 receptor agonists N-(2-Chloroethyl)-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenamide (ACEA) on G-protein signaling using the agonist-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding assay were evaluated. Control and KA treated rat hippocampus and cortex membranes were used. Our results showed that the ACEA displayed a high potency and efficacy in stimulating the G-proteins and when compared to the control animals, significant enhancements were observed in tissues from the KA treated animals. Potency and efficacy values were in particular increased in the hippocampus tissues. Furthermore, gene expression levels of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) receptor and cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1 (CRIP1) were measured by RT-PCR, where both CB1 and CRIP1 expressions were found to be elevated in the KA treated animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Melatonin Mediates Protective Effects against Kainic Acid-Induced Neuronal Death through Safeguarding ER Stress and Mitochondrial Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Feixiao; Shi, Cai; Chen, Qingjie; Hang, Weijian; Xia, Liangtao; Wu, Yue; Tao, Sophia Z.; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Anbing; Chen, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal death is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress. Melatonin is known to protect hippocampal neurons from KA-induced apoptosis, but the exact mechanisms underlying melatonin protective effects against neuronal mitochondria disorder and ER stress remain uncertain. In this study, we investigated the sheltering roles of melatonin during KA-induced apoptosis by focusing on mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress mediated signal pathways. KA causes mitochondrial dynamic disorder and dysfunction through calpain activation, leading to neuronal apoptosis. Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM and calpain inhibitor calpeptin can significantly restore mitochondrial morphology and function. ER stress can also be induced by KA treatment. ER stress inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuates ER stress-mediated apoptosis and mitochondrial disorder. It is worth noting that calpain activation was also inhibited under PBA administration. Thus, we concluded that melatonin effectively inhibits KA-induced calpain upregulation/activation and mitochondrial deterioration by alleviating Ca2+ overload and ER stress. PMID:28293167

  3. Altered expression of sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 in mouse hippocampus after kainic acid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Jeong, Eun Ae; Kim, Joon Soo; Cho, Yong Woon; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Roh, Gu Seob

    2010-03-12

    Kainic acid (KA) induces hippocampal cell death and astrocyte proliferation. There are reports that sphingosine kinase (SPHK)1 and sphingosine-1- phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P{sub 1}) signaling axis controls astrocyte proliferation. Here we examined the temporal changes of SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} in mouse hippocampus during KA-induced hippocampal cell death. Mice were killed at 2, 6, 24, or 48 h after KA (30 mg/kg) injection. There was an increase in Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the hippocampus of KA-treated mice with temporal changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. The lowest level of SPHK1 protein expression was found 2 h after KA treatment. Six hours after KA treatment, the expression of SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} proteins steadily increased in the hippocampus. In immunohistochemical analysis, SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} are more immunoreactive in astrocytes within the hippocampus of KA-treated mice than in hippocampus of control mice. These results indicate that SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} signaling axis may play an important role in astrocytes proliferation during KA-induced excitotoxicity.

  4. Changes of electroretinogram and neurochemical aspects of GABAergic neurons of retina after intraocular injection of kainic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Goto, M; Inomata, N; Ono, H; Saito, K I; Fukuda, H

    1981-05-04

    The effect of kainic acid (KA) on both electroretinogram (ERG) readings and neurochemical properties of the retina was investigated in rats with emphasis placed upon examination of the events that occur immediately following KA treatment. KA was injected into the eyes of rats with doses of 50 and 200 nmol. One hour after injection, histological alterations became evident. Swelling was observed in the inner and outer plexiform layers. Certain ganglion cells and cells of the inner nuclear layers exhibited pyknotic nuclei. Most of the ganglion cells appeared to have degenerated 48 h following injection, and the form of the outer plexiform layer was incomplete. The amplitude of the b-waves of the ERG decreased 2 h following injection and never recovered. The amplitude of the a-waves was unaffected by KA. The gamma-aminobutyric acid content in the eyecups began to decrease within 1 h and fell to approximately 20% of its original level 24 h following injection. The taurine content in the eyecups was unaffected by KA. The activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase remained unaffected for 2 h after injection, but was reduced to approximately 40% of its original activity by 24 h after injection. A possible explanation for the mechanism by which KA effects degenerative changes in the rat retina is that KA induces release of neurotransmitters through stimulation of neurons, and degeneration in the soma follows.

  5. An Evaluation of the Possible Protective Effects of Neonatal Striatal Transplants Against Kainic Acid-Induced Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nash, David R.; Kaplan, Stanley M.; Norman, Andrew B.; Sanberg, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the recent report that transplantation of neonatal striatal tissue into kainic acid (KA) lesioned striatum protected the contralateral striatum from a subsequent KA lesion. We did not find a significant difference in the survival rate of animals that received neonatal striatal transplants into a KA lesioned striatum followed by a subsequent lesion of the contralateral striatum compared to those animals that received bilateral KA-induced striatal lesions alone. The tissue transplants did not protect against the degeneration of striatal neurons induced by KA. Indeed, the survival rate was very low (25%) in the transplant groups. A second experiment was also performed to examine whether a neonatal striatal transplant might reduce the severe syndrome of aphagia and adipsia associated with KA lesions of the striatum. Animals that received the neonatal striatal transplants showed increased aphagia and adipsia compared to animals only receiving the KA lesion. Again, the transplant group had a very low survival rate (10%). The present study was unable to confirm that neonatal striatal transplants protect against KA lesions either by themselves or in conjunction with a recent KA lesion. PMID:1831050

  6. Differential role of gonadal hormones on kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration in medial amygdaloid nucleus of female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Pereno, G L; Beltramino, C A

    2009-10-20

    Sex hormones contribute to modulating brain functions throughout the life span. It has been suggested that estrogen prevents neuronal loss in different areas of the CNS such as the hippocampus. However there are less consistent data on its effects on the amygdala. Kainic acid (KA) is used to produce seizures that mimic those of temporal lobe epilepsy in humans. At high doses in animal models, KA induces neurotoxicity, particularly in the medial amygdaloid nuclei (MeA). It is uncertain whether the gonadal hormones are protective or not against this neurotoxicity in the MeA. Here we show that a single dose of KA induces neurodegeneration in the subnuclei of the MeA of rats with different degrees of intensity in males and females. A differential neuroprotective effect of the gonadal hormones was also observed. In diestrous rats, massive neuronal death similar to that in the ovariectomized females was detected. MeA neurons of proestrous rats, like the ovariectomized treated with estrogen, were significantly less affected by the KA. Testosterone produced a mild neuroprotective action, but dihydrotestosterone did not protect. A similar pattern was observed in all male groups. Together, the results indicate that estrogen protects MeA neurons from KA neurotoxicity. Androgens are only partially neuroprotective, with this effect being found only in testosterone, probably through its conversion to estrogen by aromatase.

  7. Neuromuscular block.

    PubMed

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them specially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are specially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of special interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors.

  8. Cucurbitacin I blocks cerebrospinal fluid and platelet derived growth factor-BB stimulation of leptomeningeal and meningioma DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, there are no consistently effective chemotherapies for recurrent and inoperable meningiomas. Recently, cucurbitacin I (JSI-124), a naturally occurring tetracyclic triterpenoid compound used as folk medicines has been found to have cytoxic and anti-proliferative properties in several malignancies thru inhibition of activator of transcription (STAT3) activation. Previously, we have found STAT3 to be activated in meningiomas, particularly higher grade tumors. Methods Primary leptomeningeal cultures were established from 17, 20 and 22 week human fetuses and meningioma cell cultures were established from 6 World Health Organization (WHO) grade I or II meningiomas. Cells were treated with cerebrospinal fluid from patients without neurologic disease. The effects of cucurbitacin I on cerebrospinal fluid stimulation of meningioma cell DNA synthesis phosphorylation/activation of JAK1, STAT3, pMEK1/2, p44/42MAPK, Akt, mTOR, Rb and caspase 3 activation were analyzed in human leptomeningeal and meningioma cells. Results Cerebrospinal fluid significantly stimulated DNA synthesis in leptomeningeal cells. Co-administration of cucurbitacin I (250 nM) produces a significant blockade of this effect. Cucurbitacin I alone also produced a significant reduction in basal DNA synthesis. In grade I and II meningiomas, cerebrospinal fluid also significantly stimulated DNA synthesis. Co-administration of cucurbitacin I (250 nM) blocked this effect. In the leptomeningeal cultures, cerebrospinal fluid stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation but not p44/42MAPK, Akt or mTOR. Cucurbitacin I had no effect on basal STAT3 phosphorylation but co-administration with cerebrospinal fluid blocked cerebrospinal fluid stimulation of STAT3 phosphorylation in each. In the grade I meningiomas, cerebrospinal fluid stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3 and decreased MEK1/2 and cucurbitacin I had no effect on basal STAT3, p44/42MAPK, Akt, JAK1, mTOR, or Rb phosphorylation. In the grade II

  9. Curcumin Suppresses T Cell Activation by Blocking Ca2+ Mobilization and Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells (NFAT) Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kliem, Christian; Merling, Anette; Giaisi, Marco; Köhler, Rebecca; Krammer, Peter H.; Li-Weber, Min

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin is the active ingredient of the spice turmeric and has been shown to have a number of pharmacologic and therapeutic activities including antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. The anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin have primarily been attributed to its inhibitory effect on NF-κB activity due to redox regulation. In this study, we show that curcumin is an immunosuppressive phytochemical that blocks T cell-activation-induced Ca2+ mobilization with IC50 = ∼12.5 μm and thereby prevents NFAT activation and NFAT-regulated cytokine expression. This finding provides a new mechanism for curcumin-mediated anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive function. We also show that curcumin can synergize with CsA to enhance immunosuppressive activity because of different inhibitory mechanisms. Furthermore, because Ca2+ is also the secondary messenger crucial for the TCR-induced NF-κB signaling pathway, our finding also provides another mechanism by which curcumin suppresses NF-κB activation. PMID:22303019

  10. Block People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an activity in which students in an after-school art class drew one another on pieces of 2-by-4 scrap lumber in order to create a class portrait in three dimensions. Stresses that the portraits on the wood blocks were done in-the-round, or each side was covered. (CMK)

  11. Block Busters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblitt, Bill

    1994-01-01

    A number of college publications editors and designers share their secrets for coping with writer's block and other forms of creative anxiety. Suggested techniques include a change of scenery, guarding one's time, sharing ideas with others, thorough research, and organization. (MSE)

  12. Neuraxial blocks and spinal haematoma: Review of 166 case reports published 1994-2015. Part 1: Demographics and risk-factors.

    PubMed

    Lagerkranser, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Bleeding into the vertebral canal causing a spinal haematoma (SH) is a rare but serious complication to central neuraxial blocks (CNB). Of all serious complications to CNBs such as meningitis, abscess, cardiovascular collapse, and nerve injury, neurological injury associated with SH has the worst prognosis for permanent harm. Around the turn of the millennium, the first guidelines were published that aimed to reduce the risk of this complication. These guidelines are based on known risk factors for SH, rather than evidence from randomised, controlled trials (RCTs). RCTs, and therefore meta-analysis of RCTs, are not appropriate for identifying rare events. Analysing published case reports of rare complications may at least reveal risk factors and can thereby improve management of CNBs. The aims of the present review were to analyse case reports of SH after CNBs published between 1994 and 2015, and compare these with previous reviews of case reports. MEDLINE and EMBASE were used for identifying case reports published in English, German, or Scandinavian languages, using appropriate search terms. Reference lists were also scrutinised for case reports. Twenty different variables from each case were specifically searched for and filled out on an Excel spreadsheet, and incidences were calculated using the number of informative reports as denominator for each variable. Altogether 166 case reports on spinal haematoma after CNB published during the years between 1994 and 2015 were collected. The annual number of case reports published during this period almost trebled compared with the two preceding decades. This trend continued even after the first guidelines on safe practice of CNBs appeared around year 2000, although more cases complied with such guidelines during the second half of the observation period (2005-2015) than during the first half. Three types of risk factors dominated: (1) Patient-related risk factors such as haemostatic and spinal disorders, (2) CNB

  13. Antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity is a risk factor for positive allergy skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents.

    PubMed

    Hagau, Natalia; Gherman, Nadia; Cocis, Mihaela; Petrisor, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are not currently recommended for the general population undergoing general anaesthesia. In a previous study we have reported a high incidence of positive allergy tests for NMBAs in patients with a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy, a larger prospective study being needed to confirm those preliminary results. The objective of this study was to compare the skin tests results for patients with a positive history of antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity reactions to those of controls without drug allergies. Ninety eight patients with previous antibiotic hypersensitivity and 72 controls were prospectively included. Skin tests were performed for atracurium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and suxamethonium. We found 65 positive skin tests from the 392 tests performed in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity (1 6.58%) and 23 positive skin tests from the 288 performed in controls (7.98%), the two incidences showing significant statistical difference (p = 0.0011). The relative risk for having a positive skin test for NMBAs for patients versus controls was 1.77 (1.15-2.76). For atracurium, skin tests were more often positive in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity versus controls (p = 0.02). For pancuronium, rocuronium and suxamethonium the statistical difference was not attained (p-values 0.08 for pancuronium, 0.23 for rocuronium, and 0.26 for suxamethonium). Patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity seem to have a higher incidence of positive skin tests for NMBAs. They might represent a group at higher risk for developing intraoperative anaphylaxis compared to the general population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist blocks lipopolysaccharide-induced colony-stimulating factor production and early endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, B E; Neta, R; Vogel, S N

    1991-01-01

    In this report, administration of a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein to mice was found to inhibit induction of colony-stimulating factor as well as induction of early endotoxin tolerance by lipopolysaccharide. These findings provide direct evidence that interleukin-1 is an intermediate in these two lipopolysaccharide-induced phenomena. PMID:1825485

  15. Distinct behavioral and epileptic phenotype differences in 129/P mice compared to C57BL/6 mice subject to intraamygdala kainic acid-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Almeida Silva, Luiz Fernando; Engel, Tobias; Reschke, Cristina R; Conroy, Ronan M; Langa, Elena; Henshall, David C

    2016-11-01

    Animal models of status epilepticus are important tools to understand the pathogenesis of epileptic brain injury and evaluate potential seizure-suppressive, neuroprotective, and antiepileptogenic treatments. Focal elicitation of status epilepticus by intraamygdala kainic acid in mice produces unilateral hippocampal damage and the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures after a short latent period. The model has been characterized in C57BL/6, BALB/c, and SJL mice where strain-specific differences were found in the extent of hippocampal damage. 129/P mice are a common background strain for genetic models and may display unique characteristics in this model. We therefore compared responses to intraamygdala kainic acid between 129/P and C57BL/6 mice. Racine scale-scored convulsive behavior during status epilepticus was substantially lower in 129/P mice compared with that in C57BL/6 mice. Analysis of surface-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) showed differences between strains in several frequency bands; EEG total power was greater during ictal episodes while duration of seizures was slightly shorter in 129/P mice. Histological analysis revealed similar hippocampal injury between strains, with neuronal death mainly confined to the ipsilateral CA3 subfield. Expression of genes associated with gliosis and neuroinflammatory responses was also similar between strains after seizures. Video-EEG telemetry recordings showed that 129/P mice first display spontaneous seizures within a few days of status epilepticus similar to C57BL/6 mice. However, high mortality in 129/P mice prevented a quantitative comparison of the epileptic seizure phenotypes between strains. This study defined behavioral, EEG, and histopathologic features of this mouse strain in a model increasingly useful for the study of the genetic contribution to acquired epilepsy. Intraamygdala kainic acid in 129/P mice could serve as a model of nonconvulsive status epilepticus, but long-term assessments will

  16. Neuroprotective Effects of the Absence of JNK1 or JNK3 Isoforms on Kainic Acid-Induced Temporal Lobe Epilepsy-Like Symptoms.

    PubMed

    de Lemos, Luisa; Junyent, Felix; Camins, Antoni; Castro-Torres, Rubén Darío; Folch, Jaume; Olloquequi, Jordi; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Verdaguer, Ester; Auladell, Carme

    2017-06-29

    The activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) pathway has been largely associated with the pathogenesis and the neuronal death that occur in neurodegenerative diseases. Altogether, this justifies why JNKs have become a focus of screens for new therapeutic strategies. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of the different JNK isoforms (JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3) in apoptosis and inflammation after induction of brain damage. To address this aim, we induced excitotoxicity in wild-type and JNK knockout mice (jnk1 (-/-) , jnk2 (-/-) , and jnk3 (-/-) ) via an intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid, an agonist of glutamic-kainate-receptors, that induce status epilepticus.Each group of animals was divided into two treatments: a single intraperitoneal dose of saline solution, used as a control, and a single intraperitoneal dose (30 mg/kg) of kainic acid. Our results reported a significant decrease in neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus of jnk1 (-/-) and jnk3 (-/-) mice after kainic acid treatment, together with reduced or unaltered expression of several apoptotic genes compared to WT treated mice. In addition, both jnk1 (-/-) and jnk3 (-/-) mice exhibited a reduction in glial reactivity, as shown by the lower expression of inflammatory genes and a reduction of JNK phosphorylation. In addition, in jnk3 (-/-) mice, the c-Jun phosphorylation was also diminished.Collectively, these findings provide compelling evidence that the absence of JNK1 or JNK3 isoforms confers neuroprotection against neuronal damage induced by KA and evidence, for the first time, the implication of JNK1 in excitotoxicity. Accordingly, JNK1 and/or JNK3 are promising targets for the prevention of cell death and inflammation during epileptogenesis.

  17. Characterization of inhibitory anti-insulin-like growth factor receptor antibodies with different epitope specificity and ligand-blocking properties: implications for mechanism of action in vivo.

    PubMed

    Doern, Adam; Cao, Xianjun; Sereno, Arlene; Reyes, Christopher L; Altshuler, Angelina; Huang, Flora; Hession, Cathy; Flavier, Albert; Favis, Michael; Tran, Hon; Ailor, Eric; Levesque, Melissa; Murphy, Tracey; Berquist, Lisa; Tamraz, Susan; Snipas, Tracey; Garber, Ellen; Shestowsky, William S; Rennard, Rachel; Graff, Christilyn P; Wu, Xiufeng; Snyder, William; Cole, Lindsay; Gregson, David; Shields, Michael; Ho, Steffan N; Reff, Mitchell E; Glaser, Scott M; Dong, Jianying; Demarest, Stephen J; Hariharan, Kandasamy

    2009-04-10

    Therapeutic antibodies directed against the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) have recently gained significant momentum in the clinic because of preliminary data generated in human patients with cancer. These antibodies inhibit ligand-mediated activation of IGF-1R and the resulting down-stream signaling cascade. Here we generated a panel of antibodies against IGF-1R and screened them for their ability to block the binding of both IGF-1 and IGF-2 at escalating ligand concentrations (>1 microm) to investigate allosteric versus competitive blocking mechanisms. Four distinct inhibitory classes were found as follows: 1) allosteric IGF-1 blockers, 2) allosteric IGF-2 blockers, 3) allosteric IGF-1 and IGF-2 blockers, and 4) competitive IGF-1 and IGF-2 blockers. The epitopes of representative antibodies from each of these classes were mapped using a purified IGF-1R library containing 64 mutations. Most of these antibodies bound overlapping surfaces on the cysteine-rich repeat and L2 domains. One class of allosteric IGF-1 and IGF-2 blocker was identified that bound a separate epitope on the outer surface of the FnIII-1 domain. Using various biophysical techniques, we show that the dual IGF blockers inhibit ligand binding using a spectrum of mechanisms ranging from highly allosteric to purely competitive. Binding of IGF-1 or the inhibitory antibodies was associated with conformational changes in IGF-1R, linked to the ordering of dynamic or unstructured regions of the receptor. These results suggest IGF-1R uses disorder/order within its polypeptide sequence to regulate its activity. Interestingly, the activity of representative allosteric and competitive inhibitors on H322M tumor cell growth in vitro was reflective of their individual ligand-blocking properties. Many of the antibodies in the clinic likely adopt one of the inhibitory mechanisms described here, and the outcome of future clinical studies may reveal whether a particular inhibitory mechanism

  18. Immunotherapy of human tumour xenografts overexpressing the EGF receptor with rat antibodies that block growth factor-receptor interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Modjtahedi, H.; Eccles, S.; Box, G.; Styles, J.; Dean, C.

    1993-01-01

    Athymic mice bearing xenografts of human tumours that overexpress the receptor (EGFR) for EGF and TGF alpha have been used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of three new rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against two distinct epitopes on the extracellular domain of the human EGFR. The antibodies, ICR16 (IgG2a), ICR62 (IgG2b) and ICR64 (IgG1), have been shown (Modjtahedi et al., 1993) to be potent inhibitors of the growth in vitro of a number of human squamous cell carcinomas because they block receptor-ligand interaction. When given i.p. at 200 micrograms dose, the three antibodies were found to induce complete regression of xenografts of the HN5 tumour if treatment with antibody commenced at the time of tumour implantation (total doses: ICR16, 3.0 mg; ICR62, 1.2 mg; ICR64, 2.2 mg). More importantly when treatment was delayed until the tumours were established (mean diam. 0.5 cm) both ICR16 and ICR62 induced complete or almost complete regression of the tumours. Furthermore, treatment with a total dose of only 0.44 mg of ICR62 was found to induce complete remission of xenografts of the breast carcinoma MDA-MB 468, but ICR16 was less effective at this dose of antibody and only 4/8 tumours regressed completely. ICR16 and ICR62 were poor inhibitors of the growth in vitro of the vulval carcinoma A431, but both induced a substantial delay in the growth of xenografts of this tumour and 4/8 tumours regressed completely in the mice treated with ICR62 (total dose 2.2 mg). Although ICR16 and ICR64 were more effective than ICR62 as growth inhibitors in vitro, ICR62 was found to be substantially better at inducing regression of the tumour xenografts due perhaps to additional activation of host immune effector functions by the IgG2b antibody. We conclude that these antibodies may be useful therapeutic agents that can be used alone without conjugation to other cytotoxic moieties. PMID:7679281

  19. Superoxide dismutase abolishes the platelet-derived growth factor-induced release of prostaglandin E2 by blocking induction of nitric oxide synthase: role of superoxide.

    PubMed

    Kelner, M J; Uglik, S F

    1995-09-10

    The ability of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to induce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release in fibroblasts is abolished when copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity is increased by transfection of an expression vector. The effect is specific to copper-zinc superoxide dismutase as glutathione peroxidase-overexpressing NIH3T3 cells, again produced by transfection of an expression vector, retain the ability to release PGE2 in response to growth factor stimulation. The defect in PDGF-induced PGE2 release occurs prior to action of prostaglandin H synthase/cyclooxygenase as release of arachadonic acid (in response to PDGF) does not occur in the superoxide dismutase-overexpressing clones. The defect in PDGF-induced release of PGE2 in superoxide dismutase-overexpressing clones differs from the defect found in pEJ-ras-transformed clones. The parent cells, the glutathione peroxidase-expressing cells, and the superoxide dismutase-overexpressing cells all release PGE2 in response to exogenous nitric oxide, whereas the pEJ-ras-transformed cells do not. The glutathione peroxidase-expressing cells also retained the ability to release nitrite in response to PDGF, whereas the superoxide dismutase-expressing clones do not. PDGF stimulates nitric oxide synthase activity in NIH3T3 cells, but not in the superoxide dismutase-expressing clones. These results indicate that superoxide dismutase overexpression blocks the PDGF-induced release of PGE2 by blocking induction of nitric oxide synthase. This indicates that the increase of nitric oxide synthase induced by PDGF is mediated in part by production of superoxide. These findings link cellular oxygen radical homeostasis to three different classes of messenger molecules (growth factors, nitric oxide, and prostaglandins).

  20. Transforming Growth Factor β Blocks Tec Kinase Phosphorylation, Ca2+ Influx, and NFATc Translocation Causing Inhibition of T Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hung; Seguin-Devaux, Carole; Burke, Nancy A.; Oriss, Timothy B.; Watkins, Simon C.; Clipstone, Neil; Ray, Anuradha

    2003-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibits T cell proliferation and differentiation. TGF-β has been shown to inhibit the expression of transcription factors such as GATA-3 and T-bet that play important roles in T cell differentiation. Here we show that TGF-β inhibits T cell differentiation at a more proximal step. An early event during T cell activation is increased intracellular calcium levels. Calcium influx in activated T cells and the subsequent activation of transcription factors such as NFATc, events essential for T cell differentiation, are modulated by the Tec kinases that are downstream of the T cell receptor and CD28. We show that in stimulated CD4+ T cells, TGF-β inhibits phosphorylation and activation of the Tec kinase Itk, increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels, NFATc translocation, and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK that together regulate T cell differentiation. Our studies suggest that by inhibiting Itk, and consequently Ca2+ influx, TGF-β limits T cell differentiation along both the Th1 and Th2 lineages. PMID:12810687

  1. Endocannabinoid-dependent protection against kainic acid-induced long-term alteration of brain oscillations in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shubina, Liubov; Aliev, Rubin; Kitchigina, Valentina

    2017-04-15

    Changes in rhythmic activity can serve as early biomarkers of pathological alterations, but it remains unclear how different types of rhythmic activity are altered during neurodegenerative processes. Glutamatergic neurotoxicity, evoked by kainic acid (KA), causes hyperexcitation and acute seizures that result in delayed brain damage. We employed wide frequency range (0.1-300Hz) local field potential recordings in guinea pigs to study the oscillatory activity of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, medial septum, and amygdala in healthy animals for three months after KA introduction. To clarify whether the activation of endocannabinoid (eCB) system can influence toxic KA action, AM404, an eCB reuptake inhibitor, and URB597, an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase, were applied. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 was also tested. Coadministration of AM404 or URB597 with KA reduced acute behavioral seizures, but electrographic seizures were still registered. During the three months following KA injection, various trends in the oscillatory activities were observed, including an increase in activity power at all frequency bands in the hippocampus and a progressive long-term decrease in the medial septum. In the KA- and KA/AM251-treated animals, disturbances of the oscillatory activities were accompanied by cell loss in the dorsal hippocampus and mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus. Injections of AM404 or URB597 softened alterations in electrical activity of the brain and prevented hippocampal neuron loss and synaptic reorganization. Our results demonstrate the protective potential of the eCB system during excitotoxic influences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Early induction of secretoneurin expression following kainic acid administration at convulsant doses in the rat and gerbil hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Marti, E; Blasi, J; Ferrer, I

    2002-01-01

    The expression of secretogranin-II and its major proteolytic product secretoneurin (SN) is under the control of neuronal excitation, as demonstrated by treating rats with the excitotoxic kainic acid (KA). Differences in the structure and function of the hippocampus in rats and gerbils have been described; these suggest possible differential reactive responses to KA. In the present study, the SN immunostaining pattern in relation with cell damage is analyzed from 6 h to 4 days following KA administration in rats and gerbils. Dramatic differences in the expression of SN were found in the hippocampal complex following KA administration in gerbils and rats. A robust increase in SN immunoreactivity was detected in the pyramidal cell layer of the rat hippocampus, especially in the CA1 area. In the gerbil, however, a strong increase in SN immunostaining was detected in interneurons of the hippocampal formation, as shown by double-labeling immunohistochemistry to SN and the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin. In addition, no damage (in the hippocampal formation) or moderate damage (in the entorhinal cortex) was observed in the gerbil, in contrast to the rat. The administration of KA and the GABA-B receptor inhibitors (CGP56999A or CGP36742) to the gerbil resulted in a strong rise in SN immunoreactitivty in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus, as in the rat. However, no increased cell damage was observed under these conditions. The present data provide evidence of a species-differential reactive response to KA that might be based, in part, on distinct inhibitory intrahippocampal circuitry.

  3. Decreased expression of the glial water channel aquaporin-4 in the intrahippocampal kainic acid model of epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Darrin J.; Hsu, Mike S.; Seldin, Marcus M.; Arellano, Janetta L.; Binder, Devin K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that astrocytes may be a potential new target for the treatment of epilepsy. The glial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed in astrocytes, and along with the inwardly-rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 is thought to underlie the reuptake of H2O and K+ into glial cells during neural activity. Previous studies have demonstrated increased seizure duration and slowed potassium kinetics in AQP4−/− mice, and redistribution of AQP4 in hippocampal specimens from patients with chronic epilepsy. However, the regulation and role of AQP4 during epileptogenesis remain to be defined. In this study, we examined the expression of AQP4 and other glial molecules (GFAP, Kir4.1, glutamine synthetase) in the intrahippocampal kainic acid (KA) model of epilepsy and compared behavioral and histologic outcomes in wild-type mice vs. AQP4−/− mice. Marked and prolonged reduction in AQP4 immunoreactivity on both astrocytic fine processes and endfeet was observed following KA status epilepticus in multiple hippocampal layers. In addition, AQP4−/− mice had more spontaneous recurrent seizures than wild-type mice during the first week after KA SE as assessed by chronic video-EEG monitoring and blinded EEG analysis. While both genotypes exhibited similar reactive astrocytic changes, granule cell dispersion and CA1 pyramidal neuron loss, there were an increased number of fluorojade-positive cells early after KA SE in AQP4−/− mice. These results indicate a marked reduction of AQP4 following KA SE and suggest that dysregulation of water and potassium homeostasis occurs during early epileptogenesis. Restoration of astrocytic water and ion homeostasis may represent a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:22361023

  4. Protective effect of propofol against kainic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse brain homogenates: comparison with trolox and melatonin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung; Jang, Young-Ho; Lee, Seong-Ryong

    2005-07-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of propofol with that of trolox and melatonin for reduction of lipid peroxidation in vitro. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of kainic acid (KA; 10 mM), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 10 mM), or ferrous ammonium sulfate (5 microM) to mouse brain homogenate, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) were used as a marker of lipid peroxidation. Propofol, trolox, and melatonin reduced KA-, H2O2-, and ferrous ammonium sulfate-induced lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. In reducing KA-induced lipid peroxidation, 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of antioxidants were as follows: propofol (11.33 mM), trolox (4.00 mM), and melatonin (9.72 mM). In reducing H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation, IC50 values of antioxidants were as follows: propofol (56.86 mM), trolox (33.34 mM), and melatonin (26.63 mM). In reducing ferrous ion-induced lipid peroxidation, IC50 values of antioxidants were as follows: propofol (49.57 mM), trolox (60.35 mM), and melatonin (22.02 mM). Under the in vitro conditions of this experiment, propofol was an excellent and a very potent antioxidant in inhibiting KA-, H2O2-, and ferrous ion-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse brain homogenates. We conclude that the antioxidant properties of propofol at clinically relevant anesthetic concentrations may have a neuroprotective effect.

  5. Effects of genistein on cognitive dysfunction and hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairment in an ovariectomized rat kainic acid model of seizure.

    PubMed

    Khodamoradi, Mehdi; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Esmaeilpour, Khadije; Sheibani, Vahid

    2016-09-05

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the probable effects of genistein (one of the most important soy phytoestrogens-SPEs) on seizure-induced cognitive dysfunction, hippocampal early long-term potentiation (E-LTP) impairment and morphological damage to CA1 neurons in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Three weeks after ovariectomy, cannulae were implanted over the left lateral ventricle. After a 7-day recovery period, animals were injected by genistein (0.5 or 5mg/kg) or vehicle during four consecutive days, each 24h. One h after the last treatment, kainic acid (KA) or vehicle was perfused into the left lateral ventricle to induce generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Finally, 7 days later, spatial learning and memory of animals were examined using the Morris water maze (MWM) task, hippocampal E-LTP was assessed using in-vivo field potential recordings and the morphology of hippocampal CA1 area was examined using Fluoro-Jade C staining. KA-induced generalized seizures resulted in spatial learning and memory impairment, E-LTP deficit and CA1 cell injury. Seizure-induced abnormalities improved partially only by the lower dose of genistein (0.5mg/kg). However, genistein at the higher dose (5mg/kg) did not have any beneficial effects. Also, genistein did not affect seizure activity. It is concluded that genistein may have partially preventive effects against seizure-induced cognitive impairment in OVX rats. Also, it seems that such effects of genistein are correlated with its beneficial effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and morphology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibitory effects of imidazoline receptor ligands on basal and kainic acid-induced neurotoxic signalling in mice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2016-09-01

    This in vivo study assessed the potential of the imidazoline receptor (IR) ligands moxonidine (selective I1-IR), BU224 (selective I2-IR) and LSL61122 (mixed I1/I2-IR) to dampen excitotoxic signalling induced by kainic acid (KA; 45 mg/kg) in the mouse brain (hippocampus and cerebral cortex). KA triggered a strong behavioural syndrome (seizures; maximal at 60-90 minutes) and sustained stimulation (at 72 hours with otherwise normal mouse behaviour) of pro-apoptotic c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) and calpain with increased cleavage of p35 into neurotoxic p25 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5 [Cdk5] activators) in mouse hippocampus. Pretreatment (five days) with LSL61122 (10 mg/kg), but not moxonidine (1 mg/kg) or BU224 (20 mg/kg), attenuated the KA-induced behavioural syndrome, and all three IR ligands inhibited JNK and calpain activation, as well as p35/p25 cleavage after KA in the hippocampus (effects also observed after acute IR drug treatments). Efaroxan (I1-IR, 10 mg/kg) and idazoxan (I2-IR, 10 mg/kg), postulated IR antagonists, did not antagonise the effects of moxonidine and LSL61122 on KA targets (these IR ligands showed agonistic properties inhibiting pro-apoptotic JNK). Brain subcellular preparations revealed reduced synaptosomal postsynaptic density-95 protein contents (a mediator of JNK activation) and indicated increased p35/Cdk5 complexes (with pro-survival functions) after treatment with moxonidine, BU224 and LSL61122. These results showed that I1- and I2-IR ligands (moxonidine and BU224), and especially the mixed I1/I2-IR ligand LSL61122, are partly neuroprotective against KA-induced excitotoxic signalling. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of IR drugs in disorders associated with glutamate-mediated neurodegeneration. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Kainic acid-induced early genes activation and neuronal death in the medial extended amygdala of rats.

    PubMed

    Pereno, Germán L; Balaszczuk, Verónica; Beltramino, Carlos A

    2011-03-01

    The medial extended amygdala modulates pheromonal perception, influencing emotional and social behavior. As the amygdala is part of neuronal circuits that are very sensitive to excitability, its neurons are targets of seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy. It has been suggested that the hippocampus is strongly involved this pathology. There is less consistent information, however, on the effects of this disease in the amygdala. The effects of status epilepticus on the medial extended amygdala were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for neural stress and by the amino-cupric-silver technique for neuronal death in rats after kainic acid (KA) administration. Sixty adult Wistar male rats were used. Thirty animals received an injection of KA, and 30 were injected with saline. After 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h survival the brains were stained for Fos and FosB and for neuronal death. In the present study we show that KA induces Fos and FosB expression in neurons of the medial extended amygdala after 2, 4-48 h, with time courses that are different between them and from control animals. While Fos-IR peaks at 2-4 h post KA and then decreases, FosB-IR increases in the same period reaching its highest expression at 24-48 h. Moreover, KA injection produced massive neuronal death with a peak at 24 h. This neurodegeneration paralleled FosB-IR protein expression. These findings show that KA produces neuronal stress and activation of early genes and neuronal death in the medial extended amygdala, demonstrating the vulnerability of its neurons to the epileptogenic effects of KA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Transforming Growth Factor-β Regulation of Epithelial Tight Junction Proteins Enhances Barrier Function and Blocks Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7-Induced Increased Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Kathryn L.; Reardon, Colin; Wang, Arthur; Nazli, Aisha; McKay, Derek M.

    2005-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is an enteric pathogen that causes potentially fatal symptoms after intimate adhesion, modulation of intestinal epithelial signal transduction, and alteration of epithelial function (eg, barrier disruption). Although the epithelial barrier is critical to gut homeostasis, only a few agents, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, can enhance or protect epithelial barrier function. Our aims were to delineate the mechanism(s) behind TGF-β-induced barrier enhancement and to determine whether TGF-β could prevent EHEC-induced barrier disruption. Using monolayers of the human T84 colonic epithelial cell line, we found that TGF-β induced a significant increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (a measure of paracellular permeability) through activation of ERK MAPK and SMAD signaling pathways and up-regulation of the tight junction protein claudin-1. Additionally, TGF-β pretreatment of epithelia blocked the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and the increase in transepithelial passage of [3H]-mannitol caused by EHEC infection. EHEC infection was associated with reduced expression of zonula occludens-1, occludin, and claudin-2 (but not claudin-1 or claudin-4); TGF-β pretreatment prevented these changes. These studies provide insight into EHEC pathogenesis by illustrating the mechanisms underlying TGF-β-induced epithelial barrier enhancement and identifying TGF-β as an agent capable of blocking EHEC-induced increases in epithelial permeability via maintenance of claudin-2, occludin, and zonula occludens-1 levels. PMID:16314472

  9. Lentiviral Delivery of Small Hairpin RNA Targeting Connective Tissue Growth Factor Blocks Profibrotic Signaling in Tenon's Capsule Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lei, Dawei; Dong, Changgui; Wu, William Ka Kei; Dong, Aimeng; Li, Tingting; Chan, Matthew T V; Zhou, Xinrong; Yuan, Huiping

    2016-10-01

    Trabeculectomy is a surgical procedure for lowering intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients, in which excessive scarring leading to failure of the filtering bleb adversely affects the surgical outcome. Heightened Tenon's capsule fibroblast (TCF) proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition are implicated in this process but endogenous factors that regulate TCF functions remain largely elusive. This study sought to elucidate the role of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the regulation of TCF phenotypes and signaling. Expression of CTGF in scarring and nonscarring Tenon's capsules was measured by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. Knockdown of CTGC was achieved by lentivirus delivery of small-hairpin RNA. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK8, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis by flow cytometry, adhesion, migration, and invasion of TCF by functional assays in vitro. Proteins and cytokines related to fibrosis were measured by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Expression of CTGF was significantly upregulated in scarring Tenon's capsules and their isolated fibroblasts when compared with the nonfibrotic counterparts. Functionally, targeting CTGF with lentivirus-delivered small-hairpin RNA inhibited the proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion of TCFs, accompanied by downregulation of p38 and nuclear factor-κB as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2, cyclin D1, and collagen I. In addition, lentiviral targeting of CTGF reduced the release of fibrosis-related cytokines from TCFs and inhibited TCF-conditioned, medium-induced macrophage chemotaxis. Our study supports a crucial role of CTGF in the regulation of TCF proliferation and ECM deposition. Targeting CTGF using lentiviral vector may be a promising approach for preventing excessive scarring after trabeculectomy.

  10. Organ fibrosis inhibited by blocking transforming growth factor-β signaling via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yi-Lei; Xiong, Xian-Ze; Cheng, Nan-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Organ fibrosis has been viewed as one of the major medical problems, which can lead to progressive dysfunction of the liver, lung, kidney, skin, heart, and eventually death of patients. Fibrosis is initiated by a variety of pathological, physiological, biochemical, and physical factors. Regardless of their different etiologies, they all share a common pathogenetic process: excessive activation of the key profibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a ligand-activated transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily, has received particular attention in recent years, because the activation of PPARgamma by both natural and synthetic agonists could effectively inhibit TGF-beta-induced profibrotic effects in many organs. The English-language medical databases, PubMed, Elsevier and SpringerLink were searched for articles on PPARgamma, TGF-beta, and fibrosis, and related topics. TGF-beta is recognized as a key profibrotic cytokine. Excessive activation of TGF-beta increases synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins and decreases their degradation, associated with a gradual destruction of normal tissue architecture and function, whereas PPARgamma agonists inhibit TGF-beta signal transduction and are effective antifibrogenic agents in many organs including the liver, lung, kidney, skin and heart. The main antifibrotic activity of PPARgamma agonists is to suppress the TGF-beta signaling pathway by so-called PPARgamma-dependent effect. In addition, PPARgamma agonists, especially 15d-PGJ2, also exert potentially antifibrotic activity independent of PPARgamma activation. TGF-beta1/Smads signaling not only plays many essential roles in multiple developmental processes, but also forms cross-talk networks with other signal pathways, and their inhibition by PPARgamma agonists certainly affects the cytokine networks and causes non-suspected side-effects. Anti-TGF-beta therapies with

  11. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Knockdown Blocks the Angiogenic and Protective Effects of Angiotensin Modulation After Experimental Stroke.

    PubMed

    Fouda, Abdelrahman Y; Alhusban, Ahmed; Ishrat, Tauheed; Pillai, Bindu; Eldahshan, Wael; Waller, Jennifer L; Ergul, Adviye; Fagan, Susan C

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to be neuroprotective and neurorestorative in experimental stroke. The mechanisms proposed include anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic effects, as well as stimulation of endogenous trophic factors leading to angiogenesis and neuroplasticity. We aimed to investigate the involvement of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in ARB-mediated functional recovery after stroke. To achieve this aim, Wistar rats received bilateral intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral particles or nontargeting control (NTC) vector, to knock down BDNF in both hemispheres. After 14 days, rats were subjected to 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and received the ARB, candesartan, 1 mg/kg, or saline IV at reperfusion (one dose), then followed for another 14 days using a battery of behavioral tests. BDNF protein expression was successfully reduced by about 70 % in both hemispheres at 14 days after bilateral shRNA lentiviral particle injection. The NTC group that received candesartan showed better functional outcome as well as increased vascular density and synaptogenesis as compared to saline treatment. BDNF knockdown abrogated the beneficial effects of candesartan on neurobehavioral outcome, vascular density, and synaptogenesis. In conclusion, BDNF is directly involved in candesartan-mediated functional recovery, angiogenesis, and synaptogenesis.

  12. Spontaneous In Vivo Chondrogenesis of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells by Blocking Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Marsano, Anna; Medeiros da Cunha, Carolina M; Ghanaati, Shahram; Gueven, Sinan; Centola, Matteo; Tsaryk, Roman; Barbeck, Mike; Stuedle, Chiara; Barbero, Andrea; Helmrich, Uta; Schaeren, Stefan; Kirkpatrick, James C; Banfi, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    : Chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) can be induced by presenting morphogenetic factors or soluble signals but typically suffers from limited efficiency, reproducibility across primary batches, and maintenance of phenotypic stability. Considering the avascular and hypoxic milieu of articular cartilage, we hypothesized that sole inhibition of angiogenesis can provide physiological cues to direct in vivo differentiation of uncommitted MSCs to stable cartilage formation. Human MSCs were retrovirally transduced to express a decoy soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (sFlk1), which efficiently sequesters endogenous VEGF in vivo, seeded on collagen sponges and immediately implanted ectopically in nude mice. Although naïve cells formed vascularized fibrous tissue, sFlk1-MSCs abolished vascular ingrowth into engineered constructs, which efficiently and reproducibly developed into hyaline cartilage. The generated cartilage was phenotypically stable and showed no sign of hypertrophic evolution up to 12 weeks. In vitro analyses indicated that spontaneous chondrogenic differentiation by blockade of angiogenesis was related to the generation of a hypoxic environment, in turn activating the transforming growth factor-β pathway. These findings suggest that VEGF blockade is a robust strategy to enhance cartilage repair by endogenous or grafted mesenchymal progenitors. This article outlines the general paradigm of controlling the fate of implanted stem/progenitor cells by engineering their ability to establish specific microenvironmental conditions rather than directly providing individual morphogenic cues. Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) is typically targeted by morphogen delivery, which is often associated with limited efficiency, stability, and robustness. This article proposes a strategy to engineer MSCs with the capacity to establish specific

  13. Heartland virus NSs protein disrupts host defenses by blocking the TBK1 kinase-IRF3 transcription factor interaction and signaling required for interferon induction.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yun-Jia; Feng, Kuan; Min, Yuan-Qin; Deng, Fei; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin

    2017-10-06

    Heartland virus (HRTV) is a pathogenic phlebovirus related to the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), another phlebovirus causing life-threatening disease in humans. Previous findings have suggested that SFTSV can antagonize the host interferon (IFN) system via viral nonstructural protein (NSs)-mediated sequestration of antiviral signaling proteins into NSs-induced inclusion bodies. However, whether and how HRTV counteracts the host innate immunity is unknown. Here, we report that HRTV NSs (HNSs) also antagonizes IFN and cytokine induction and bolsters viral replication, although no noticeable inclusion body formation was observed in HNSs-expressing cells. Furthermore, HNSs inhibited the virus-triggered activation of IFN-β promoter by specifically targeting the IFN-stimulated response element but not the NF-κB response element. Consistently, HNSs blocked the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3, an IFN-stimulated response element-activating transcription factor). Reporter gene assays next showed that HNSs blockades the antiviral signaling mediated by RIG-I-like receptors likely at the level of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Indeed, HNSs strongly interacts with TBK1 as indicated by confocal microscopy and pulldown analyses, and we also noted that the scaffold dimerization domain of TBK1 is required for the TBK1-HNSs interaction. Finally, pulldown assays demonstrated that HNSs expression dose-dependently diminishes a TBK1-IRF3 interaction, further explaining the mechanism for HNSs function. Collectively, these data suggest that HNSs, an antagonist of host innate immunity, interacts with TBK1 and thereby hinders the association of TBK1 with its substrate IRF3, thus blocking IRF3 activation and transcriptional induction of the cellular antiviral responses. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Optimization of Blocked Designs in fMRI Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maus, Barbel; van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Goebel, Rainer; Berger, Martijn P. F.

    2010-01-01

    Blocked designs in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are useful to localize functional brain areas. A blocked design consists of different blocks of trials of the same stimulus type and is characterized by three factors: the length of blocks, i.e., number of trials per blocks, the ordering of task and rest blocks, and the time between…

  15. Optimization of Blocked Designs in fMRI Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maus, Barbel; van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Goebel, Rainer; Berger, Martijn P. F.

    2010-01-01

    Blocked designs in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are useful to localize functional brain areas. A blocked design consists of different blocks of trials of the same stimulus type and is characterized by three factors: the length of blocks, i.e., number of trials per blocks, the ordering of task and rest blocks, and the time between…

  16. A Staphylococcus aureus TIR domain protein virulence factor blocks TLR2-mediated NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Askarian, Fatemeh; van Sorge, Nina M; Sangvik, Maria; Beasley, Federico C; Henriksen, Jørn R; Sollid, Johanna U E; van Strijp, Jos A G; Nizet, Victor; Johannessen, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), crucial molecules in the induction of host defense responses, requires adaptor proteins that contain a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces several innate immune-evasion molecules that interfere with the host's innate immune response. A database search analysis suggested the presence of a gene encoding a homologue of the human TIR domain in S. aureus MSSA476 which was named staphylococcal TIR domain protein (TirS). Ectopic expression of TirS in human embryonic kidney, macrophage and keratinocyte cell lines interfered with signaling through TLR2, including MyD88 and TIRAP, NF-κB and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Moreover, the presence of TirS reduced the levels of cytokines MCP-1 and G-CSF secreted in response to S. aureus. The effects on NF-κB pathway were confirmed using S. aureus MSSA476 wild type, an isogenic mutant MSSA476ΔtirS, and complemented MSSA476ΔtirS +pTirS in a Transwell system where bacteria and host cells were physically separated. Finally, in a systematic mouse infection model, TirS promoted bacterial accumulation in several organs 4 days postinfection. The results of this study reveal a new S. aureus virulence factor that can interfere with PAMP-induced innate immune signaling in vitro and bacterial survival in vivo.

  17. Pertussis toxin treatment does not block inhibition by atrial natriuretic factor of aldosterone secretion in cultured bovine zona glomerulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    De Lean, A.; Cantin, M.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) potently inhibits PGE or forskolin-stimulation aldosterone secretion in bovine zona glomerulosa (ZG) by acting through specific high affinity receptors. In order to evaluate the functional role of the regulatory protein N/sub i/ and the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in ZG, the authors have studied the effect of treatment with PT on inhibition by ANF of aldosterone production. Primary cultures of ZG were treated for 18 hours in serum-free F12 medium with (0-100 ng/ml PT). No effect of PT pretreatment was observed either on basal, PGE-stimulated or ANF-inhibited levels of steroidogenesis. When membranes prepared from control ZG were ADP-ribosylated with (/sup 32/P) NAD in the presence of PT, two toxin-specific bands with 39 Kd and 41 Kd were documented on SDS gel. Cell pretreatment with as low as 1 ng/ml drastically reduced further labelling of these two bands while higher doses completely abolished them. Since PT treatment covalently modifies completely the toxin substrate without altering ANF inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis, the authors conclude that N/sub i/ is not involved in the mode of action of ANF on aldosterone production.

  18. S. aureus blocks efferocytosis of neutrophils by macrophages through the activity of its virulence factor alpha toxin

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Taylor S.; Jones-Nelson, Omari; Hotz, Meghan; Cheng, Lily; Miller, Lloyd S.; Suzich, JoAnn; Stover, C. Kendall; Sellman, Bret R.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia, such as those caused by Staphylococcus aureus, is associated with an influx of inflammatory neutrophils into the lung tissue and airways. Regulation and clearance of recruited neutrophils is essential for preventing tissue damage by “friendly fire”, a responsibility of macrophages in a process called efferocytosis. We hypothesized that S. aureus impairs efferocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AMs) through the activity of the secreted virulence factor alpha toxin (AT), which has been implicated in altering the antimicrobial function of AMs. Infection of mice lacking AMs resulted in significantly increased numbers of neutrophils in the lung, while clearance of neutrophils delivered intranasally into uninfected mice was reduced in AM depleted animals. In vitro, sublytic levels of AT impaired uptake of apoptotic neutrophils by purified AMs. In vivo, the presence of AT reduced uptake of neutrophils by AMs. Differential uptake of neutrophils was not due to changes in either the CD47/CD172 axis or CD36 levels. AT significantly reduced lung expression of CCN1 and altered AM surface localization of DD1α, two proteins known to influence efferocytosis. We conclude that AT may contribute to tissue damage during S. aureus pneumonia by inhibiting the ability of AM to clear neutrophils at the site of infection. PMID:27739519

  19. Renal fibrosis is not reduced by blocking transforming growth factor-β signaling in matrix-producing interstitial cells.

    PubMed

    Neelisetty, Surekha; Alford, Catherine; Reynolds, Karen; Woodbury, Luke; Nlandu-Khodo, Stellor; Yang, Haichun; Fogo, Agnes B; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Harris, Raymond C; Zent, Roy; Gewin, Leslie

    2015-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) strongly promotes renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, but the cellular target that mediates its profibrotic actions has not been clearly identified. While in vitro data suggest that TGF-β-induced matrix production is mediated by renal fibroblasts, the role of these cells in TGF-β-dependent tubulointerstitial fibrosis following renal injury is not well defined. To address this, we deleted the TGF-β type II receptor in matrix-producing interstitial cells using two different inducible Cre models: COL1A2-Cre with a mesenchymal enhancer element and tenascin-Cre that targets medullary interstitial cells, and either the mouse unilateral ureteral obstruction or the aristolochic acid renal injury model. Renal interstitial cells lacking the TGF-β receptor had significantly impaired collagen I production, but, unexpectedly, overall tissue fibrosis was unchanged in the conditional knockouts after renal injury. Thus, abrogating TGF-β signaling in matrix-producing interstitial cells is not sufficient to reduce fibrosis after renal injury.

  20. Renal fibrosis is not reduced by blocking transforming growth factor-β signaling in matrix-producing interstitial cells

    PubMed Central

    Neelisetty, Surekha; Alford, Catherine; Reynolds, Karen; Woodbury, Luke; Nlandu-khodo, Stellor; Yang, Haichun; Fogo, Agnes B.; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Harris, Raymond C.; Zent, Roy; Gewin, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) strongly promotes renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, but the cellular target that mediates its profibrotic actions has not been clearly identified. While in vitro data suggest that TGF-β-induced matrix production is mediated by renal fibroblasts, the role of these cells in TGF-β-dependent tubulointerstitial fibrosis following renal injury is not well defined. To address this, we deleted the TGF-β type II receptor in matrix-producing interstitial cells using two different inducible Cre models: COL1A2-Cre with a mesenchymal enhancer element and tenascin-Cre which targets medullary interstitial cells and either the mouse unilateral ureteral obstruction or aristolochic acid renal injury model. Renal interstitial cells lacking the TGF-β receptor had significantly impaired collagen I production, but unexpectedly, overall tissue fibrosis was unchanged in the conditional knockouts after renal injury. Thus, abrogating TGF-β signaling in matrix-producing interstitial cells is not sufficient to reduce fibrosis after renal injury. PMID:25760325

  1. The effect of melatonin on lipid peroxidation and nitrite/nitrate levels, and on superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in kainic acid-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Yasemin Delen; Yalcin, Ayfer; Sozmen, Eser Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) initiates neuronal injury and death by inducing oxidative stress and nitric oxide release from various regions of the brain. It was recently shown that melatonin has free radical-scavenging action and may protect against kainate-induced toxicity. In order to assess the possible supportive effect of melatonin treatment in KA-induced injury in the rat brain cortex, we determined malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as an index of lipid peroxidation, and assessed the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of nitrite/nitrate 35 male rats were divided into five groups, each receiving a different intraperitoneal treatment: saline solution (0.2 ml), kainic acid (15 mg/kg), melatonin (20 mg/kg), KA then melatonin (each as above, 15 min apart), or melatonin then KA (each as above, 30 min apart). Administration of KA caused an about five-fold increase in the catalase activity and an increase in the SOD activity in the cortex relative to the activities for the controls. Treatment with melatonin 15 min after KA injection kept malondialdehyde levels and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities at the normal levels, and led to an increase in the levels of nitrite/nitrate. Our data suggests that melatonin treatment following KA administration has a protective effect on antioxidant enzyme activities and thus supports the role of melatonin and oxidative stress in the regulation of antioxidative enzyme activity.

  2. Small-molecule factor D inhibitors selectively block the alternative pathway of complement in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xuan; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Thanassi, Jane A; Yang, Guangwei; Baines, Andrea C; Podos, Steven D; Huang, Yongqing; Huang, Mingjun; Brodsky, Robert A

    2017-03-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome are diseases of excess activation of the alternative pathway of complement that are treated with eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the terminal complement component C5. Eculizumab must be administered intravenously, and moreover some patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria on eculizumab have symptomatic extravascular hemolysis, indicating an unmet need for additional therapeutic approaches. We report the activity of two novel small-molecule inhibitors of the alternative pathway component Factor D using in vitro correlates of both paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Both compounds bind human Factor D with high affinity and effectively inhibit its proteolytic activity against purified Factor B in complex with C3b. When tested using the traditional Ham test with cells from paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria patients, the Factor D inhibitors significantly reduced complement-mediated hemolysis at concentrations as low as 0.01 μM. Additionally the compound ACH-4471 significantly decreased C3 fragment deposition on paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria erythrocytes, indicating a reduced potential relative to eculizumab for extravascular hemolysis. Using the recently described modified Ham test with serum from patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, the compounds reduced the alternative pathway-mediated killing of PIGA-null reagent cells, thus establishing their potential utility for this disease of alternative pathway of complement dysregulation and validating the modified Ham test as a system for pre-clinical drug development for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Finally, ACH-4471 blocked alternative pathway activity when administered orally to cynomolgus monkeys. In conclusion, the small-molecule Factor D inhibitors show potential as oral therapeutics for human diseases driven by the alternative pathway of complement

  3. Rectal Delivery of a DNAzyme That Specifically Blocks the Transcription Factor GATA3 and Reduces Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Popp, Vanessa; Gerlach, Katharina; Mott, Stefanie; Turowska, Agnieszka; Garn, Holger; Atreya, Raja; Lehr, Hans-Anton; Ho, I-Cheng; Renz, Harald; Weigmann, Benno; Neurath, Markus F

    2017-01-01

    GATA3 is a transcription factor that regulates T-cell production of cytokines. We investigated the role of GATA3 in development of colitis in mice. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence analyses of colon tissues from patients with Crohn's disease (n = 61) or ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 74) or from patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (n = 22), to measure levels of GATA3. Colitis was induced by administration of oxazolone or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid to control mice, mice with T-cell-specific deletion of GATA3, and mice with deletion of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 1 and TNFR2 (TNFR double knockouts); some mice were given a GATA3-specific DNAzyme (hgd40) or a control DNAzyme via intrarectal administration, or systemic injections of an antibody to TNF before or during sensitization and challenge phase of colitis induction. Colon tissues were collected and immunofluorescence and histochemical analyses were performed. Lamina propria mononuclear cells and T cells were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry or cytokine assays. Colonic distribution of labeled DNAzyme and inflammation were monitored by in vivo imaging (endoscopy) of mice. Levels of GATA3 messenger RNA were higher in colon tissues from patients with UC, but not ileal Crohn's disease, than control tissues; levels of GATA3 correlated with levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL] 9, IL17A, IL6, IL5, IL4, IL13, and TNF). We observed increased expression of GATA3 by lamina propria T cells from mice with colitis compared with controls. Mice with T-cell-specific deletion of GATA3 did not develop colitis and their colonic tissues did not produce inflammatory cytokines (IL6, IL9, or IL13). The DNAzyme hgd40 inhibited expression of GATA3 messenger RNA by unstimulated and stimulated T cells, and distributed throughout the inflamed colons of mice with colitis. Colon tissues from mice given hgd40 had reduced expression of GATA3 messenger RNA

  4. Antiviral activity of the "Virus Blocking Factor" (VBF) derived i.a. from Pelargonium extract and Sambucus juice against different human-pathogenic cold viruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fal, Andrzej M; Conrad, Frank; Schönknecht, Karina; Sievers, Hartwig; Pawińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The in-vitro antiviral activity of the "Virus Blocking Factor" (VBF), a combination of Pelargonium extract and Sambucus juice with addition of Betaglucan 1,3 / 1,6, Zincum gluconium, Acidum ascorbicum, was studied against human pathogenic viruses: Influenza A H1N1 (FluA H1N1), Rhinovirus B subtype 14 (HRV14), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Parainfluenzavirus subtype 3 (Para 3), and Adenovirus C subtype 5 (Adeno 5). Antiviral activity was assessed using plaque-reduction assays after adding the test substance post infection of the MDCK, HeLa and HEp-2 cells with the viruses. Ribavirin Virazol and - in case of Adenovirus an internal laboratory standard - were used as positive controls. Cytotoxic effects of VBF and VBF Control onto the virus permissive MDCK, HeLa and HEp-2 cells were examined. Non-toxic concentrations of VBF were determined by the Methylthiazoletetrazolium test (MTT-Test). In all antiviral studies VBF showed (2.1%) a dose-dependent antiviral activity against FluA H1N1 and HRV14 at non-toxic concentrations. A very strong effect was demonstrated in concentrations of 2.5% and 1.25% where replication of H1N1 and HRV14 was nearly completely blocked. Dose-dependent antiviral activity was detectable against RSV in a concentration range of 1.25% to 0.63% of the test item. Due to toxic side effects of a 2.5% concentration at least a "minor effect" of about 30% (1.25% solution) against Para 3 infected HEp-2 cells could be determined. Concerning Adeno 5 not any antiviral activity could be demonstrated in all studies with all tested substance concentrations of VBF. VBF Control did not show any cytotoxicity and antiviral effects. Further research is needed to elucidate clinical effect of VBF.

  5. Antiviral activity of the "Virus Blocking Factor" (VBF) derived i.a. from Pelargonium extract and Sambucus juice against different human-pathogenic cold viruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fal, Andrzej M; Conrad, Frank; Schönknecht, Karina; Sievers, Hartwig; Pawińska, Anna

    The in-vitro antiviral activity of the "Virus Blocking Factor" (VBF), a combination of Pelargonium extract and Sambucus juice with addition of Betaglucan 1,3 / 1,6, Zincum gluconium, Acidum ascorbicum, was studied against human pathogenic viruses: Influenza A H1N1 (FluA H1N1), Rhinovirus B subtype 14 (HRV14), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Parainfluenzavirus subtype 3 (Para 3), and Adenovirus C subtype 5 (Adeno 5). Antiviral activity was assessed using plaque-reduction assays after adding the test substance post infection of the MDCK, HeLa and HEp-2 cells with the viruses. Ribavirin Virazol and - in case of Adenovirus an internal laboratory standard - were used as positive controls. Cytotoxic effects of VBF and VBF Control onto the virus permissive MDCK, HeLa and HEp-2 cells were examined. Non-toxic concentrations of VBF were determined by the Methylthiazoletetrazolium test (MTT-Test). In all antiviral studies VBF showed (2.1%) a dose-dependent antiviral activity against FluA H1N1 and HRV14 at non-toxic concentrations. A very strong effect was demonstrated in concentrations of 2.5% and 1.25% where replication of H1N1 and HRV14 was nearly completely blocked. Dose-dependent antiviral activity was detectable against RSV in a concentration range of 1.25% to 0.63% of the test item. Due to toxic side effects of a 2.5% concentration at least a "minor effect" of about 30% (1.25% solution) against Para 3 infected HEp-2 cells could be determined. Concerning Adeno 5 not any antiviral activity could be demonstrated in all studies with all tested substance concentrations of VBF. VBF Control did not show any cytotoxicity and antiviral effects. Further research is needed to elucidate clinical effect of VBF.

  6. Overexpression of actin-depolymerizing factor blocks oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Sun, Lu; Si, Yan-Fang; Li, Bao-Min

    2012-12-01

    The aim of present work was to elucidate the role of actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), an important regulator of actin cytoskeleton, in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (MBMECs) were exposed to ox-LDL. Treatment with LDL served as control. It was found that ADF mRNA level and protein expression were decreased when exposed to ox-LDL in MBMECs. Then, we investigated the influence of ADF overexpression on ox-LDL-treated MBMECs. Structurally, overexpression of ADF inhibited ox-LDL-induced F-actin formation. Functionally, overexpression of ADF attenuated ox-LDL-induced disruption of endothelial barrier marked by restoration of transendothelial electrical resistance, permeability of Evans Blue and expression of tight junction-associated proteins including ZO-1 and occludin, and blocked ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress marked by inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and activity of NADPH oxidase and Nox2 expression. However, overexpression of ADF in control cells had no significant effect on endothelial permeability and ROS formation. In conclusion, overexpression of ADF blocks ox-LDL-induced disruption of endothelial barrier. In addition, siRNA-mediated downregulation of ADF expression aggravated ox-LDL-induced disruption of endothelial barrier and ROS formation. These findings identify ADF as a key signaling molecule in the regulation of BBB integrity and suggest that ADF might be used as a target to modulate diseases accompanied by ox-LDL-induced BBB compromise.

  7. Mechanisms of Heart Block after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement – Cardiac Anatomy, Clinical Predictors and Mechanical Factors that Contribute to Permanent Pacemaker Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Young Lee, Mark; Chilakamarri Yeshwant, Srinath; Chava, Sreedivya; Lawrence Lustgarten, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as a valuable, minimally invasive treatment option in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis at prohibitive or increased risk for conventional surgical replacement. Consequently, patients undergoing TAVR are prone to peri-procedural complications including cardiac conduction disturbances, which is the focus of this review. Atrioventricular conduction disturbances and arrhythmias before, during or after TAVR remain a matter of concern for this high-risk group of patients, as they have important consequences on hospital duration, short- and long-term medical management and finally on decisions of device-based treatment strategies (pacemaker or defibrillator implantation). We discuss the mechanisms of atrioventricular disturbances and characterise predisposing factors. Using validated clinical predictors, we discuss strategies to minimise the likelihood of creating permanent high-grade heart block, and identify factors to expedite the decision to implant a permanent pacemaker when the latter is unavoidable. We also discuss optimal pacing strategies to mitigate the possibility of pacing-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:26835105

  8. Selective inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 blocks nerve growth factor to brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling and suppresses the development of and reverses already established pain behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Y; Yang, J

    2012-03-29

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the development of pathological pain. Although it is known that nerve growth factor (NGF) induces BDNF mRNA through extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), whether ERK1/2 or ERK5, two closely related members of the ERK family, mediate this signal is still unclear because classical MEK inhibitors block both pathways. We studied the involvement of ERK-signaling in NGF induction of BDNF in PC12 cells, cultured dorsal root ganglia neurons, and in rats subjected to neuropathic pain models using ERK1/2- and ERK5-specific tools. Selective activation of ERK1/2 upregulated BDNF mRNA in PC12 cells, whereas selective ERK5 activation did not. AZD6244, a potent selective inhibitor of ERK1/2 activation, blocked NGF induction of BDNF mRNA in vitro suggesting that NGF induction of BDNF is mediated by ERK1/2. siRNA experiments indicated that both ERK1 or ERK2 can signal suggesting that both pathways must be blocked to prevent NGF-induced increase in BDNF mRNA. I.p. injection of AZD6244 prevented the development of pain in rats subjected to the chronic constriction injury and reversed already established pain in the spared nerve injury model. Immunohistochemical studies showed decreased phospho-ERK1/2-immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia and BDNF immunoreactivity in ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn in the drug-treated rats. Our results suggest the possible use of AZD6244, already in human clinical trials as an anticancer agent, for the treatment of pathological pain.

  9. A Shifted Block Lanczos Algorithm 1: The Block Recurrence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, Roger G.; Lewis, John G.; Simon, Horst D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we describe a block Lanczos algorithm that is used as the key building block of a software package for the extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large sparse symmetric generalized eigenproblems. The software package comprises: a version of the block Lanczos algorithm specialized for spectrally transformed eigenproblems; an adaptive strategy for choosing shifts, and efficient codes for factoring large sparse symmetric indefinite matrices. This paper describes the algorithmic details of our block Lanczos recurrence. This uses a novel combination of block generalizations of several features that have only been investigated independently in the past. In particular new forms of partial reorthogonalization, selective reorthogonalization and local reorthogonalization are used, as is a new algorithm for obtaining the M-orthogonal factorization of a matrix. The heuristic shifting strategy, the integration with sparse linear equation solvers and numerical experience with the code are described in a companion paper.

  10. A Shifted Block Lanczos Algorithm 1: The Block Recurrence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, Roger G.; Lewis, John G.; Simon, Horst D.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we describe a block Lanczos algorithm that is used as the key building block of a software package for the extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large sparse symmetric generalized eigenproblems. The software package comprises: a version of the block Lanczos algorithm specialized for spectrally transformed eigenproblems; an adaptive strategy for choosing shifts, and efficient codes for factoring large sparse symmetric indefinite matrices. This paper describes the algorithmic details of our block Lanczos recurrence. This uses a novel combination of block generalizations of several features that have only been investigated independently in the past. In particular new forms of partial reorthogonalization, selective reorthogonalization and local reorthogonalization are used, as is a new algorithm for obtaining the M-orthogonal factorization of a matrix. The heuristic shifting strategy, the integration with sparse linear equation solvers and numerical experience with the code are described in a companion paper.

  11. Hyperexcitability in combined entorhinal/hippocampal slices of adult rat after exposure to brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, H E

    1997-08-01

    Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in area CA3, the dentate gyrus, and medial entorhinal cortex were examined electrophysiologically by bath application of BDNF in slices containing the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Bath application of 25-100 ng/ml BDNF for 30-90 min increased responses to single afferent stimuli in selective pathways in the majority of slices. In area CA3, responses to mossy fiber stimulation increased in 73% of slices and entorhinal cortex responses to white matter stimulation increased in 64% of slices. After exposure to BDNF, these areas also demonstrated evidence of hyperexcitability, because responses to repetitive stimulation (1-Hz paired pulses for several s) produced multiple population spikes in response to mossy fiber stimulation in CA3 or multiple field potentials in response to white matter stimulation in the entorhinal cortex. Repetitive field potentials persisted after repetitive stimulation ended and usually were followed by spreading depression. Enhancement of responses to single stimuli and hyperexcitability were never evoked in untreated slices or after bath application of boiled BDNF or cytochrome C. The tyrosine kinase antagonist K252a (2 microM) blocked the effects of BDNF. In area CA3, both the potentiation of responses to single stimuli and hyperexcitability showed afferent specificity, because responses to mossy fiber stimulation were affected but responses to fimbria or Schaffer collateral stimulation were not. In addition, regional specificity was demonstrated in that the dentate gyrus was much less affected. The effects of BDNF in area CA3 were similar to those produced by bath application of low doses of kainic acid, which is thought to modulate glutamate release from mossy fiber terminals by a presynaptic action. These results suggest that BDNF has acute effects on excitability in different areas of the hippocampal-entorhinal circuit. These effects appear to be greatest in areas that are highly

  12. Single-domain antibodies that compete with the natural ligand fibroblast growth factor block the internalization of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

    SciTech Connect

    Veggiani, Gianluca; Ossolengo, Giuseppe; Aliprandi, Marisa; Cavallaro, Ugo; Marco, Ario de

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} Recombinant antibodies for FGFR1 were isolated from a llama naive library in VHH format. {yields} These antibodies compete with the natural ligand FGF-2 for the same epitope on FGFR1. {yields} The antibody competition inhibits the FGF-2-dependent internalization of FGFR1. -- Abstract: Single-domain antibodies in VHH format specific for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) were isolated from a phage-display llama naive library. In particular, phage elution in the presence of the natural receptor ligand fibroblast growth factor (FGF) allowed for the identification of recombinant antibodies that compete with FGF for the same region on the receptor surface. These antibodies posses a relatively low affinity for FGFR1 and were never identified when unspecific elution conditions favoring highly affine binders were applied to panning procedures. Two populations of competitive antibodies were identified that labeled specifically the receptor-expressing cells in immunofluorescence and recognize distinct epitopes. Antibodies from both populations effectively prevented FGF-dependent internalization and nuclear accumulation of the receptor in cultured cells. This achievement indicates that these antibodies have a capacity to modulate the receptor physiology and, therefore, constitute powerful reagents for basic research and a potential lead for therapeutic applications.

  13. Vertical ridge augmentation using an equine bone and collagen block infused with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB: a randomized single-masked histologic study in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Myron; Al Hezaimi, Khalid; Schupbach, Peter; Karimbux, Nadeem; Kim, David M

    2012-07-01

    This study tests the effectiveness of hydroxyapatite and collagen bone blocks of equine origin (eHAC), infused with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB), to augment localized posterior mandibular defects in non-human primates (Papio hamadryas). Bilateral critical-sized defects simulating severe atrophy were created at the time of the posterior teeth extraction. Test and control blocks (without growth factor) were randomly grafted into the respective sites in each non-human primate. All sites exhibited vertical ridge augmentation, with physiologic hard- and soft-tissue integration of the blocks when clinical and histologic examinations were done at 4 months after the vertical ridge augmentation procedure. There was a clear, although non-significant, tendency to increased regeneration in the test sites. As in the first two preclinical studies in this series using canines, experimental eHAC blocks infused with rhPDGF-BB proved to be a predictable and technically viable method to predictably regenerate bone and soft tissue in critical-sized defects. This investigation supplies additional evidence that eHAC blocks infused with rhPDGF-BB growth factor is a predictable and technically feasible option for vertical augmentation of severely resorbed ridges.

  14. Administration of Simvastatin after Kainic Acid-Induced Status Epilepticus Restrains Chronic Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Weidong; Lu, Dunyue; Wei, Lanlan; Na, Meng; Song, Yuanyuan; Hou, Xiaohua; Lin, Zhiguo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of chronic administration of simvastatin immediately after status epilepticus (SE) on rat brain with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). First, we evaluated cytokines expression at 3 days post KA-lesion in hippocampus and found that simvastatin-treatment suppressed lesion-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Further, we quantified reactive astrocytosis using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining and neuron loss using Nissl staining in hippocampus at 4–6 months after KA-lesion. We found that simvastatin suppressed reactive astrocytosis demonstrated by a significant decrease in GFAP-positive cells, and attenuated loss of pyramidal neurons in CA3 and interneurons in dentate hilar (DH). We next assessed aberrant mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) that is known to contribute to recurrence of spontaneous seizure in epileptic brain. In contrast to the robust MFS observed in saline-treated animals, the extent of MFS was restrained by simvastatin in epileptic rats. Attenuated MFS was related to decreased neuronal loss in CA3 and DH, which is possibly a mechanism underlying decreased hippocampal susceptibility in animal treated with simvastatin. Electronic encephalography (EEG) was recorded during 4 to 6 months after KA-lesion. The frequency of abnormal spikes in rats with simvastatin-treatment decreased significantly compared to the saline group. In summary, simvastatin treatment suppressed cytokines expression and reactive astrocytosis and decreased the frequency of discharges of epileptic brain, which might be due to the inhibition of MFS in DH. Our study suggests that simvastatin administration might be a possible intervention and promising strategy for preventing SE exacerbating to chronic epilepsy. PMID:21949812

  15. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  16. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-03-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  17. AKT2 Blocks Nucleus Translocation of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor (AIF) and Endonuclease G (EndoG) While Promoting Caspase Activation during Cardiac Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuai; Zhao, Xinmei; Xu, Hui; Chen, Fan; Xu, Yitao; Li, Zhe; Sanchis, Daniel; Jin, Liang; Zhang, Yubin; Ye, Junmei

    2017-01-01

    The AKT (protein kinase B, PKB) family has been shown to participate in diverse cellular processes, including apoptosis. Previous studies demonstrated that protein kinase B2 (AKT2−/−) mice heart was sensitized to apoptosis in response to ischemic injury. However, little is known about the mechanism and apoptotic signaling pathway. Here, we show that AKT2 inhibition does not affect the development of cardiomyocytes but increases cell death during cardiomyocyte ischemia. Caspase-dependent apoptosis of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway was inactivated in cardiomyocytes with AKT2 inhibition during ischemia, while significant mitochondrial disruption was observed as well as intracytosolic translocation of cytochrome C (Cyto C) together with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (EndoG), both of which are proven to conduct DNA degradation in a range of cell death stimuli. Therefore, mitochondria-dependent cell death was investigated and the results suggested that AIF and EndoG nucleus translocation causes cardiomyocyte DNA degradation during ischemia when AKT2 is blocked. These data are the first to show a previous unrecognized function and mechanism of AKT2 in regulating cardiomyocyte survival during ischemia by inducing a unique mitochondrial-dependent DNA degradation pathway when it is inhibited. PMID:28272306

  18. Dasatinib blocks cetuximab- and radiation-induced nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunrong; Iida, Mari; Dunn, Emily F.; Wheeler, Deric L.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aberrant expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been linked to the etiology of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The first major phase III trial combining cetuximab with radiation confirmed a strong survival advantage. However, both cetuximab and radiation can promote EGFR translocation to the nucleus where it enhances resistance to both of these modalities. In this report we sought to determine how to block cetuximab and radiation–induced translocation of EGFR to the nucleus in HNSCC cell lines. Material and Methods We utilized three established HNSCC cell lines, SCC1, SCC6 and SCC1483 and measured nuclear translocation of EGFR after treatment with cetuximab or radiation. We then utilized dasatinib (BMS-354825), a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of several tyrosine kinases, including the Src Family Kinases, to determine if SFKs blockade could abrogate cetuximab and radiation-induced nuclear EGFR translocation. Results Cetuximab and radiation treatment of all three HNSCC lines lead to translocation of the EGFR to the nucleus. Blockade of SFKs abrogated cetuximab and radiation-induced EGFR translocation to the nucleus. Conclusions The data presented in this report suggests that both cetuximab and radiation can promote EGFR translocation to the nucleus and dasatinib can inhibit this process. Collectively these findings may suggest that dasatinib can limit EGFR translocation to the nucleus and may enhance radiotherapy plus cetuximab in HNSCC. PMID:20667610

  19. SIRT1 Protein, by Blocking the Activities of Transcription Factors FoxO1 and FoxO3, Inhibits Muscle Atrophy and Promotes Muscle Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghoon; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2013-01-01

    In several cell types, the protein deacetylase SIRT1 regulates the activities of FoxO transcription factors whose activation is critical in muscle atrophy. However, the possible effects of SIRT1 on the activity of FoxOs in skeletal muscle and on the regulation of muscle size have not been investigated. Here, we show that after food deprivation, SIRT1 levels fall dramatically in type II skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior), which show marked atrophy, unlike in the liver (where SIRT1 rises) or heart or the soleus, a type I muscle (where SIRT1 is unchanged). Maintenance of high SIRT1 levels by electroporation in mouse muscle inhibits markedly the muscle wasting induced by fasting as well as by denervation, and these protective effects require its deacetylase activity. SIRT1 overexpression reduces muscle wasting by blocking the activation of FoxO1 and 3. It thus prevents the induction of key atrogenes, including the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, atrogin1 and MuRF1, and multiple autophagy (Atg) genes and the increase in overall proteolysis. In normal muscle, SIRT1 overexpression by electroporation causes rapid fiber hypertrophy without, surprisingly, activation of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. Thus, SIRT1 activation favors postnatal muscle growth, and its fall appears to be critical for atrophy during fasting. Consequently, SIRT1 activation represents an attractive possible pharmacological approach to prevent muscle wasting and cachexia. PMID:24003218

  20. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2-Mediated Translational Control of IAPs Blocks Mitochondrial Release of Smac/DIABLO and Apoptosis in Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Olivier E.; Lesay, Adeline; Arcaro, Alexandre; Lopes, Rita; Ng, Bee Ling; Warne, Patricia H.; McNeish, Iain A.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Lemoine, Nicholas R.; Mehmet, Huseyin; Seckl, Michael J.; Downward, Julian

    2003-01-01

    The mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO has been implicated in the activation of apoptosis in response to cell stress. Smac promotes cytochrome c-induced activation of caspases by sequestering the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family of potent caspase suppressors. Differential release from mitochondria of cytochrome c and Smac can occur, but the underlying mechanism and physiological significance of this are unclear. Here we show that the mechanism by which fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) protects small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells from etoposide-induced cell death involves inhibition of Smac release but not of cytochrome c release. This process is MEK dependent and correlates with an increased expression of XIAP and cellular IAP-1, mediated principally through translational regulation. Exogenous expression of XIAP is sufficient to inhibit caspase 9 activation, Smac release, and cell death induced by etoposide. Prevention of the FGF-2-promoted increase in levels of functional IAPs by RNA interference or the cell-permeant Smac amino-terminal peptide blocked FGF-2-induced protection. FGF-2 can thus protect SCLC cells from chemotherapeutic drugs by modulating IAP levels via posttranscriptional regulation, providing a mechanism for postmitochondrial survival signaling by the MEK/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. PMID:14560006

  1. Evidence that exposure to progesterone alone is a sufficient stimulus to cause a precipitous rise in the immunomodulatory protein the progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Rachael A; Check, Jerome H; Dougherty, Michael P

    2016-02-01

    To determine if exposure to progesterone alone is sufficient to increase the production of the immunomodulatory protein known as the progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF). Also to determine what method of progesterone delivery or form of P best stimulates PIBF secretion. Serum samples from patients with infertility and paid volunteers were evaluated for both PIBF and progesterone at various times during the follicular phase and the luteal phase in both natural cycles and cycles involving embryo transfer after endogenous and exogenous progesterone exposure and after various synthetic progestins. PIBF was measured by a non-commercial research ELISA assay. Comparisons were made of serum PIBF before and after exposure to progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and oral contraceptives. PIBF was also measured before and after transfer of embryos. Progesterone alone without exposure to the fetal allogeneic stimulus was able to produce a marked increase in serum PIBF. Neither a synthetic progestin (19-nortestosterone derivative) nor 17-hydroxyprogesterone caused an increase in PIBF. Some PIBF is generally detected even in the follicular phase. A previous concept considered that an allogeneic stimulus, e.g., from the fetal semi-allograft, was necessary to induce de novo progesterone receptors in gamma delta T cells, which, in turn, when exposed to a high concentration of progesterone, would secrete high levels of PIBF. These data show that exposure to an allogeneic stimulus is not needed to cause a marked rise in PIBF, merely progesterone alone is sufficient.

  2. Synergistic Actions of Blocking Angiopoietin-2 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Suppressing Remodeling of Blood Vessels and Lymphatics in Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Le, Catherine T.K.; Laidlaw, Grace; Morehouse, Christopher A.; Naiman, Brian; Brohawn, Philip; Mustelin, Tomas; Connor, Jane R.; McDonald, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics are prominent features of sustained inflammation. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2)/Tie2 receptor signaling and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)/TNF receptor signaling are known to contribute to these changes in airway inflammation after Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in mice. We determined whether Ang2 and TNF are both essential for the remodeling on blood vessels and lymphatics, and thereby influence the actions of one another. Their respective contributions to the initial stage of vascular remodeling and sprouting lymphangiogenesis were examined by comparing the effects of function-blocking antibodies to Ang2 or TNF, given individually or together during the first week after infection. As indices of efficacy, vascular enlargement, endothelial leakiness, venular marker expression, pericyte changes, and lymphatic vessel sprouting were assessed. Inhibition of Ang2 or TNF alone reduced the remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics, but inhibition of both together completely prevented these changes. Genome-wide analysis of changes in gene expression revealed synergistic actions of the antibody combination over a broad range of genes and signaling pathways involved in inflammatory responses. These findings demonstrate that Ang2 and TNF are essential and synergistic drivers of remodeling of blood vessels and lymphatics during the initial stage of inflammation after infection. Inhibition of Ang2 and TNF together results in widespread suppression of the inflammatory response. PMID:26348576

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acids block platelet-activating factor-induced phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt-mediated apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Caplan, Michael S; Li, Dan; Jilling, Tamas

    2008-05-01

    We have shown earlier that platelet-activating factor (PAF) causes apoptosis in enterocytes via a mechanism that involves Bax translocation to mitochondria, followed by caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. Herein we report that, in rat small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6), these downstream apoptotic effects are mediated by a PAF-induced inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. Treatment with PAF results in rapid dephosphorylation of Akt, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, and the YXXM p85 binding motif of several proteins and redistribution of Akt-pleckstrin homology domain-green fluorescent protein, i.e., an in vivo phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate sensor, from membrane to cytosol. The proapoptotic effects of PAF were inhibited by both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids but not by a saturated fatty acid palmitate. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, did not influence the baseline or PAF-induced apoptosis, but 2-bromopalmitate, an inhibitor of protein palmitoylation, inhibited all of the proapoptotic effects of PAF. Our data strongly suggest that an inhibition of the PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway is the main mechanism of PAF-induced apoptosis in enterocytes and that polyunsaturated fatty acids block this mechanism very early in the signaling cascade independently of any effect on prostaglandin synthesis, and probably directly via an effect on protein palmitoylation.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids block platelet-activating factor-induced phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt-mediated apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Caplan, Michael S.; Li, Dan; Jilling, Tamas

    2009-01-01

    We have shown earlier that platelet-activating factor (PAF) causes apoptosis in enterocytes via a mechanism that involves Bax translocation to mitochondria, followed by caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. Herein we report that, in rat small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6), these downstream apoptotic effects are mediated by a PAF-induced inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. Treatment with PAF results in rapid dephosphorylation of Akt, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, and the YXXM p85 binding motif of several proteins and redistribution of Akt-pleckstrin homology domain-green fluorescent protein, i.e., an in vivo phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate sensor, from membrane to cytosol. The proapoptotic effects of PAF were inhibited by both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids but not by a saturated fatty acid palmitate. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, did not influence the baseline or PAF-induced apoptosis, but 2-bromopalmitate, an inhibitor of protein palmitoylation, inhibited all of the proapoptotic effects of PAF. Our data strongly suggest that an inhibition of the PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway is the main mechanism of PAF-induced apoptosis in enterocytes and that polyunsaturated fatty acids block this mechanism very early in the signaling cascade independently of any effect on prostaglandin synthesis, and probably directly via an effect on protein palmitoylation. PMID:18356536

  5. Heparins that block VEGF-A-mediated von Willebrand factor fiber generation are potent inhibitors of hematogenous but not lymphatic metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Desch, Anna; Mayer, Frank Thomas; Koett, Julian; Nowak, Kai; Karampinis, Ioannis; Bohlmann, Michael K.; Umansky, Viktor; Bauer, Alexander Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) serves as a nidus for platelet aggregation and thrombosis. We hypothesize that VWF fibers contribute to the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and to metastasis formation. Here, we show that vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells (ECs) express VWF in vitro and release VWF fibers after activation by tumor cell supernatants. In contrast, an ex vivo analysis of primary mouse tumors revealed the presence of VWF fibers in the blood microvasculature but not in lymphatic vessels. Unlike the anticoagulant Fondaparinux, an inhibitor of thrombin generation, the low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) Tinzaparin inhibited VWF fiber formation and vessel occlusion in tumor vessels by blocking thrombin-induced EC activation and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A)-mediated VWF release. Intradermal tumor cell inoculation in VWF- and ADAMTS13-deficient mice did not alter lymph node metastases compared with wild type animals. Interestingly, multiple tumor-free distal organs exhibited hallmarks of malignancy-related VTE, including luminal VWF fibers, platelet-rich thrombi and vessel occlusions. Furthermore, ADAMTS13 deficiency, characterized by prolonged intraluminal VWF network lifetimes, resulted in a severely increased number of metastatic foci in an experimental model of hematogenous lung seeding. Treatment with Tinzaparin inhibited tumor-induced release of VWF multimers, impeded platelet aggregation and decreased lung metastasis. Thus, our data strongly suggest a critical role of luminal VWF fibers in determining the occurrence of thrombosis and cancer metastasis. Moreover, the findings highlight LMWHs as therapeutic strategy to treat thrombotic complications while executing anti-metastatic activities. PMID:27602496

  6. A human monoclonal antibody targeting the stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) blocks tumor cell signaling and inhibits tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Lebron, Maria B; Brennan, Laura; Damoci, Christopher B; Prewett, Marie C; O'Mahony, Marguerita; Duignan, Inga J; Credille, Kelly M; DeLigio, James T; Starodubtseva, Marina; Amatulli, Michael; Zhang, Yiwei; Schwartz, Kaben D; Burtrum, Douglas; Balderes, Paul; Persaud, Kris; Surguladze, David; Loizos, Nick; Paz, Keren; Kotanides, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) exerts multiple biological effects on target cells upon binding its ligand stem cell factor (SCF). Aberrant activation of c-Kit results in dysregulated signaling and is implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers. The development of more specific and effective c-Kit therapies is warranted given its essential role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we describe the biological properties of CK6, a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the extracellular region of human c-Kit. CK6 specifically binds c-Kit receptor with high affinity (EC 50 = 0.06 nM) and strongly blocks its interaction with SCF (IC 50 = 0.41 nM) in solid phase assays. Flow cytometry shows CK6 binding to c-Kit on the cell surface of human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), melanoma, and leukemia tumor cell lines. Furthermore, exposure to CK6 inhibits SCF stimulation of c-Kit tyrosine kinase activity and downstream signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (AKT), in addition to reducing tumor cell line growth in vitro. CK6 treatment significantly decreases human xenograft tumor growth in NCI-H526 SCLC (T/C% = 57) and Malme-3M melanoma (T/C% = 58) models in vivo. The combination of CK6 with standard of care chemotherapy agents, cisplatin and etoposide for SCLC or dacarbazine for melanoma, more potently reduces tumor growth (SCLC T/C% = 24, melanoma T/C% = 38) compared with CK6 or chemotherapy alone. In summary, our results demonstrate that CK6 is a c-Kit antagonist antibody with tumor growth neutralizing properties and are highly suggestive of potential therapeutic application in treating human malignancies harboring c-Kit receptor.

  7. A human monoclonal antibody targeting the stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) blocks tumor cell signaling and inhibits tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Lebron, Maria B; Brennan, Laura; Damoci, Christopher B; Prewett, Marie C; O’Mahony, Marguerita; Duignan, Inga J; Credille, Kelly M; DeLigio, James T; Starodubtseva, Marina; Amatulli, Michael; Zhang, Yiwei; Schwartz, Kaben D; Burtrum, Douglas; Balderes, Paul; Persaud, Kris; Surguladze, David; Loizos, Nick; Paz, Keren; Kotanides, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) exerts multiple biological effects on target cells upon binding its ligand stem cell factor (SCF). Aberrant activation of c-Kit results in dysregulated signaling and is implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers. The development of more specific and effective c-Kit therapies is warranted given its essential role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we describe the biological properties of CK6, a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the extracellular region of human c-Kit. CK6 specifically binds c-Kit receptor with high affinity (EC50 = 0.06 nM) and strongly blocks its interaction with SCF (IC50 = 0.41 nM) in solid phase assays. Flow cytometry shows CK6 binding to c-Kit on the cell surface of human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), melanoma, and leukemia tumor cell lines. Furthermore, exposure to CK6 inhibits SCF stimulation of c-Kit tyrosine kinase activity and downstream signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (AKT), in addition to reducing tumor cell line growth in vitro. CK6 treatment significantly decreases human xenograft tumor growth in NCI-H526 SCLC (T/C% = 57) and Malme-3M melanoma (T/C% = 58) models in vivo. The combination of CK6 with standard of care chemotherapy agents, cisplatin and etoposide for SCLC or dacarbazine for melanoma, more potently reduces tumor growth (SCLC T/C% = 24, melanoma T/C% = 38) compared with CK6 or chemotherapy alone. In summary, our results demonstrate that CK6 is a c-Kit antagonist antibody with tumor growth neutralizing properties and are highly suggestive of potential therapeutic application in treating human malignancies harboring c-Kit receptor. PMID:24921944

  8. Mononuclear phagocyte system depletion blocks interstitial tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C expression and induces salt-sensitive hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Machnik, Agnes; Dahlmann, Anke; Kopp, Christoph; Goss, Jennifer; Wagner, Hubertus; van Rooijen, Nico; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Müller, Dominik N; Park, Joon-Keun; Luft, Friedrich C; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Titze, Jens

    2010-03-01

    We showed recently that mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells provide a buffering mechanism for salt-sensitive hypertension by driving interstitial lymphangiogenesis, modulating interstitial Na(+) clearance, and increasing endothelial NO synthase protein expression in response to very high dietary salt via a tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C regulatory mechanism. We now tested whether isotonic saline and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt treatment leads to a similar regulatory response in Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were fed a low-salt diet and received tap water (low-salt diet LSD), 1.0% saline (high-salt diet HSD), or DOCA+1.0% saline (DOCA-HSD). To test the regulatory role of interstitial MPS cells, we further depleted MPS cells with clodronate liposomes. HSD and DOCA-HSD led to Na(+) accumulation in the skin, MPS-driven tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C-mediated hyperplasia of interstitial lymph capillaries, and increased endothelial NO synthase protein expression in skin interstitium. Clodronate liposome MPS cell depletion blocked MPS infiltration in the skin interstitium, resulting in unchanged tonicity-responsive enhance binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C levels and absent hyperplasia of the lymph capillary network. Moreover, no increased skin endothelial NO synthase protein expression occurred in either clodronate liposome-treated HSD or DOCA-salt rats. Thus, absence of the MPS-cell regulatory response converted a salt-resistant blood-pressure state to a salt-sensitive state in HSD rats. Furthermore, salt-sensitive hypertension in DOCA-salt rats was aggravated. We conclude that MPS cells act as onsite controllers of interstitial volume and blood pressure homeostasis, providing a local regulatory salt-sensitive tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C-mediated mechanism in the skin to maintain

  9. The Effects of Kainic Acid-Induced Seizure on Gene Expression of Brain Neurotransmitter Receptors in Mice Using RT2 PCR Array

    PubMed Central

    Naserpour Farivar, Taghi; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Johari, Pouran; Najafipour, Reza; Hajiali, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Kainic acid (KA) induces neuropathological changes in specific regions of the mouse hippocampus comparable to changes seen in patients with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). According to different studies, the expression of a number of genes are altered in the adult rat hippocampus after status epilepticus (SE) induced by KA. This study aimed to quantitatively evaluate changes in the gene expression of brain neurotransmitter receptors one week after administration of kainic acid in the mouse hippocampus. Methods: We used 12 BALB/c mice in this study and randomly divided them into 2 groups. To both groups, saline (IP) was administered for 7 days, and on the last day, KA (10 mg/kg, IP) was injected 30 minutes after administration of saline. Subsequently, behavioural changes were observed in mice. Then, in one group (1 day group), 2 hours and in another group (7 days group), 7 days after KA administration, the hippocampus tissue of mice was removed and used for gene expression analyses. Total brain RNA was isolated and reversely transcribed. We performed qPCR using RT2 Profiler TMPCR Array Mouse Neurotransmitter Receptors and Regulators (QIAGEN) containing primers for 84 genes. In this regard, we selected 50 related genes for KA model. Results: Our results showed significant changes in the gene expression of GABAA subunits receptors, including α1-α3, α5, α6, β2, β3, γ1, ρ, and rho1-2 on day 7 compared with the day 1. Conclusion: Expression of both inhibitory and excitatory receptors changed after one week. Further studies are needed to find more molecular changes in the gene expression of brain neurotransmitter receptors and regulators over longer periods of time in KA models using RT2 PCR array. PMID:27872690

  10. S-adenosylmethionine blocks collagen I production by preventing transforming growth factor-beta induction of the COL1A2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Natalia; Cederbaum, Arthur I

    2005-09-02

    To study the anti-fibrogenic mechanisms of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), transgenic mice harboring the -17 kb to +54 bp of the collagen alpha2 (I) promoter (COL1A2) cloned upstream from the beta-gal reporter gene were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce fibrosis and coadministered either AdoMet or saline. Control groups received AdoMet or mineral oil. AdoMet lowered the pathology in CCl4-treated mice as shown by transaminase levels, hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome staining, and collagen I expression. beta-Galactosidase activity indicated activation of the COL1A2 promoter in stellate cells from CCl4-treated mice and repression of such activation by AdoMet. Lipid peroxidation, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) expression, and decreases in glutathione levels were prevented by AdoMet. Incubation of primary stellate cells with AdoMet down-regulated basal and TGFbeta-induced collagen I and alpha-smooth muscle actin proteins. AdoMet metabolites down-regulated collagen I protein and mRNA levels. AdoMet repressed basal and TGFbeta-induced reporter activity in stellate cells transfected with COL1A2 promoter deletion constructs. AdoMet blocked TGFbeta induction of the -378 bp region of the COL1A2 promoter and prevented the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and the binding of Sp1 to the TGFbeta-responsive element. These observations unveil a novel mechanism by which AdoMet could ameliorate liver fibrosis.

  11. Lufaxin, a Novel Factor Xa Inhibitor from the Salivary Gland of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, Blocks PAR2 Activation and Inhibits Inflammation and Thrombosis in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Nicolas; Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Gilmore, Dana; Dutra-Oliveira, Angélica; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Teixeira, Clarissa; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Blood-sucking arthropods salivary glands (SGs) contain a remarkable diversity of antihemostatics. The aim of this study was to identify the unique salivary anticoagulant of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, which remained elusive for decades. Methods and Results Several L. longipalpis salivary proteins were expressed in HEK293 cells and screened for inhibition of blood coagulation. A novel 32.4-kDa molecule, named Lufaxin, was identified as a slow, tight, non-competitive, and reversible inhibitor of Factor Xa (FXa). Notably, Lufaxin primary sequence does not share similarity to any physiological or salivary inhibitors of coagulation reported to date. Lufaxin is specific for FXa and does not interact with FX, DEGR- FXa, or 15 other enzymes. In addition, Lufaxin blocks prothrombinase and increases both PT and aPTT. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that FXa binds Lufaxin with a KD ~3 nM, and isothermal titration calorimetry determined a stoichiometry of 1:1. Lufaxin also prevents PAR2 activation by FXa in the MDA-MB-231 cell line and abrogates edema formation triggered by injection of FXa in the paw of mice. Moreover, Lufaxin prevents FeCl3-induced carotid artery thrombus formation and prolongs aPTT ex vivo, implying that it works as an anticoagulant in vivo. Finally, SG of sandflies was found to inhibit FXa and to interact with the enzyme. Conclusion Lufaxin belongs to a novel family of slow-tight FXa inhibitors, which display antithrombotic and antiinflamatory activities. It is a useful tool to understand FXa structural features and its role in pro-hemostatic and pro-inflammatory events. PMID:22796577

  12. Groundwater arsenic contamination in one of the 107 arsenic-affected blocks in West Bengal, India: Status, distribution, health effects and factors responsible for arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Tarit

    2010-11-01

    A somewhat detailed study was carried out in Gaighata, one of the 107 arsenic-affected blocks in West Bengal, India, to determine the degree of groundwater contamination with arsenic, its depth wise distribution, correlation with iron, arsenical health effects to the inhabitants and the factors responsible for arsenic poisoning. Groundwater in all the 107 mouzas over 13 gram-panchayets in Gaighata block contains arsenic above 0.01mgl(-1) and in 91 mouzas, arsenic concentration has been found above 0.05mgl(-1). About 59.2 and 40.3% of the tubewell water samples contain arsenic above 0.01 and 0.05mgl(-1), respectively. The approximate population drinking arsenic-contaminated water above 0.01 and 0.05mgl(-1) are 106,560 and 72,540, respectively. The tubewells that were installed within the depth range of 15.4-30.3m are mostly arsenic-contaminated. Even the shallow groundwater level (7.87-15.1m) is arsenic-contaminated. Both arsenic and iron concentrations in groundwater gradually increase from lower depth to higher depth up to 39.4m, and then decrease with increasing depth. About 58% of the deep tubewell water samples (depth range 122-182m, n=31) contain arsenic ≥0.05mgl(-1). About 72% of the arsenic-contaminated deep tubewells (n=18) were safe when surveyed first time. But within a span of 2-5 years, they became contaminated with arsenic. The linear regression shows direct correlation between arsenic and iron concentrations in groundwater (r(2)=0.8114, p<0.0001, n=912). Intakes of inorganic arsenic from water by an adult male and female in the surveyed areas are 11.7 and 13.1μg/kg body wt./day, respectively and these values are higher than the WHO recommended PTDI value of inorganic arsenic (2.1μg/kg body wt./day). Mean arsenic concentrations in urine, hair and nail samples, collected from the inhabitants of Gutri mouza are higher than their normal level and the values are 292μgl(-1) (range: 8.35-1024μg l(-1), n=193), 2.50mgkg(-1) (range: 0.17-5.99mgkg(-1), n

  13. Novel role of Engrailed 1 as a prosurvival transcription factor in basal-like breast cancer and engineering of interference peptides block its oncogenic function

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, A S; Graves, L M; Blancafort, P

    2014-01-01

    Basal-like breast tumors are aggressive cancers associated with high proliferation and metastasis. Chemotherapy is currently the only treatment option; however, resistance often occurs resulting in recurrence and patient death. Some extremely aggressive cancers are also associated with hypoxia, inflammation and high leukocyte infiltration. Herein, we discovered that the neural-specific transcription factor, Engrailed 1 (EN1), is exclusively overexpressed in these tumors. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of EN1 triggered potent and selective cell death. In contrast, ectopic overexpression of EN1 in normal cells activated survival pathways and conferred resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Exogenous expression of EN1 cDNA reprogrammed the breast epithelial cells toward a long-lived, neural-like phenotype displaying dopaminergic markers. Gene expression microarrays demonstrated that the EN1 cDNA altered transcription of a high number of inflammatory molecules, notably chemokines and chemokine receptors, which could mediate prosurvival pathways. To block EN1 function, we engineered synthetic interference peptides (iPeps) comprising the EN1-specific sequences that mediate essential protein-protein interactions necessary for EN1 function and an N-terminal cell-penetrating peptide/nuclear localization sequence. These EN1-iPeps rapidly mediated a strong apoptotic response in tumor cells overexpressing EN1, with no toxicity to normal or non EN1-expressing cells. Delivery of EN1-iPeps into basal-like cancer cells significantly decreased the fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of chemotherapeutic drugs routinely used to treat breast cancer. Lastly, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that EN1-iPeps captured targets involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Importantly, the EN1-iPeps bound the glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase (EPRS) target, which

  14. Nimotuzumab enhances radiation sensitivity of NSCLC H292 cells in vitro by blocking epidermal growth factor receptor nuclear translocation and inhibiting radiation-induced DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Kai; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Xiaoyan; Ding, Yihui; Gong, Rui; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway plays a significant role in radiation resistance. There is evidence that EGFR nuclear translocation is associated with DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) repair. Nimotuzumab has shown the effect of radiosensitization in various cancer cells, but little is known about the relationship between nimotuzumab and EGFR nuclear translocation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. In this study, we selected two NSCLC cell lines, namely, H292 (with high EGFR expression) and H1975 (with low EGFR expression) and explored the mechanisms underlying radiation sensitivity. Methods MTT assay, clonogenic survival assay, and flow cytometry were performed separately to test cell viability, radiation sensitivity, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis. Protein γ-H2AX, DNA-PK/p-DNA-PK, and EGFR/p-EGFR expression were further compared both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus with the western blot. Results Nimotuzumab reduced the viability of H292 cells and sensitized H292 cells to ionizing radiation. The radiation sensitivity enhancement ratio (SER) was 1.304 and 1.092 for H292 and H1975 cells, respectively. H292 cells after nimotuzumab administration were arrested at the G0/G1 phase in response to radiation. Apoptosis was without statistical significance in both cell lines. γ-H2AX formation in the combination group (nimotuzumab and radiation) increased both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus along with the decreased expression of nuclear EGFR/p-EGFR and p-DNA-PK in H292 cells (P<0.05) that was more significant than that in H1975 cells. Conclusion Our research revealed a possible mechanism to explain the radiosensitivity in H292 cells. Nimotuzumab decreased the radiation-induced activation of DNA-PK by blocking EGFR nuclear translocation and impairing DNA DSB repair, thus enhancing radiosensitivity in H292 cells. Because these results represent early research, the matters of how γ-H2AX and DNA-PK dynamically

  15. Nimotuzumab enhances radiation sensitivity of NSCLC H292 cells in vitro by blocking epidermal growth factor receptor nuclear translocation and inhibiting radiation-induced DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Teng, Kai; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Xiaoyan; Ding, Yihui; Gong, Rui; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway plays a significant role in radiation resistance. There is evidence that EGFR nuclear translocation is associated with DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) repair. Nimotuzumab has shown the effect of radiosensitization in various cancer cells, but little is known about the relationship between nimotuzumab and EGFR nuclear translocation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. In this study, we selected two NSCLC cell lines, namely, H292 (with high EGFR expression) and H1975 (with low EGFR expression) and explored the mechanisms underlying radiation sensitivity. MTT assay, clonogenic survival assay, and flow cytometry were performed separately to test cell viability, radiation sensitivity, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis. Protein γ-H2AX, DNA-PK/p-DNA-PK, and EGFR/p-EGFR expression were further compared both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus with the western blot. Nimotuzumab reduced the viability of H292 cells and sensitized H292 cells to ionizing radiation. The radiation sensitivity enhancement ratio (SER) was 1.304 and 1.092 for H292 and H1975 cells, respectively. H292 cells after nimotuzumab administration were arrested at the G0/G1 phase in response to radiation. Apoptosis was without statistical significance in both cell lines. γ-H2AX formation in the combination group (nimotuzumab and radiation) increased both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus along with the decreased expression of nuclear EGFR/p-EGFR and p-DNA-PK in H292 cells (P<0.05) that was more significant than that in H1975 cells. Our research revealed a possible mechanism to explain the radiosensitivity in H292 cells. Nimotuzumab decreased the radiation-induced activation of DNA-PK by blocking EGFR nuclear translocation and impairing DNA DSB repair, thus enhancing radiosensitivity in H292 cells. Because these results represent early research, the matters of how γ-H2AX and DNA-PK dynamically change simultaneously with nuclear EGFR

  16. Novel role of Engrailed 1 as a prosurvival transcription factor in basal-like breast cancer and engineering of interference peptides block its oncogenic function.

    PubMed

    Beltran, A S; Graves, L M; Blancafort, P

    2014-09-25

    Basal-like breast tumors are aggressive cancers associated with high proliferation and metastasis. Chemotherapy is currently the only treatment option; however, resistance often occurs resulting in recurrence and patient death. Some extremely aggressive cancers are also associated with hypoxia, inflammation and high leukocyte infiltration. Herein, we discovered that the neural-specific transcription factor, Engrailed 1 (EN1), is exclusively overexpressed in these tumors. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of EN1 triggered potent and selective cell death. In contrast, ectopic overexpression of EN1 in normal cells activated survival pathways and conferred resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Exogenous expression of EN1 cDNA reprogrammed the breast epithelial cells toward a long-lived, neural-like phenotype displaying dopaminergic markers. Gene expression microarrays demonstrated that the EN1 cDNA altered transcription of a high number of inflammatory molecules, notably chemokines and chemokine receptors, which could mediate prosurvival pathways. To block EN1 function, we engineered synthetic interference peptides (iPeps) comprising the EN1-specific sequences that mediate essential protein-protein interactions necessary for EN1 function and an N-terminal cell-penetrating peptide/nuclear localization sequence. These EN1-iPeps rapidly mediated a strong apoptotic response in tumor cells overexpressing EN1, with no toxicity to normal or non EN1-expressing cells. Delivery of EN1-iPeps into basal-like cancer cells significantly decreased the fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of chemotherapeutic drugs routinely used to treat breast cancer. Lastly, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that EN1-iPeps captured targets involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Importantly, the EN1-iPeps bound the glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase (EPRS) target, which

  17. Dasatinib, a multi-kinase inhibitor increased radiation sensitivity by interfering with nuclear localization of epidermal growth factor receptor and by blocking DNA repair pathways.

    PubMed

    Raju, Uma; Riesterer, Oliver; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Molkentine, David P; Molkentine, Jessica M; Johnson, Faye M; Glisson, Bonnie; Milas, Luka; Ang, K Kian

    2012-11-01

    Although inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling during radiation led to improvement of tumor control and survival, novel strategies are needed to further improve the outcome of patients with locally advanced head and neck carcinoma. Because EGFR is known to interact with c-Src kinases, the present study investigated dasatinib (BMS-354825), an inhibitor of c-Src kinases, for its efficacy in enhancing radiosensitivity of human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in vitro and examined the underlying mechanisms for this effect. Six HNSCC lines were exposed to dasatinib, radiation, or both, and assessed for c-Src and EGFR expression, cell survival and colony forming ability. Among these cell lines, HN-5 and FaDu lines were analyzed for induction of apoptosis, cell cycle re-distribution and for nuclear localization of EGFR, γ-H2AX and 53BP1 proteins. Immuno-precipitation and Western blots were performed to analyze the levels and binding of proteins involved in cell survival, apoptosis and DNA repair pathways. Suppression of c-Src by siRNA and subsequent clonogenic assay was performed in HN-5 cells. All six HNSCC lines that were examined expressed high levels of c-Src. Two (HN-5 and MDA-183) expressed higher levels of EGFR than other lines. Dasatinib suppressed cell survival of all cell lines tested independent of c-Src or EGFR levels but enhanced the radiosensitivity of HN-5 and MDA-183. HN-5 and FaDu were analyzed further. Dasatinib suppressed phosphorylation of c-Src in both cell lines, but decreased repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in HN-5 cells only as evidenced by suppression of c-Abl and Nbs-1 activity, inhibition of the association between c-Src and EGFR or Her-2, prolongation of nuclear γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci and inhibition of EGFR nuclear localization and its association with DNA-PKcs. Finally, partial suppression of c-Src resulted in a small increase in HN-5 cell radiosensitivity. Our data demonstrate that dasatinib

  18. Adult Life-Span Patterns in WAIS-R Block Design Performance: Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Age Gradients and Relations to Demographic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

    2006-01-01

    Aging patterns in WAIS-R Block Design Test (BDT) were examined cross-sectionally and longitudinally. One sample (35-80 years, n=1000) was assessed in 1988-1990 and five years later (836 returned). An independent cohort-matched sample (n=974) was assessed at Time 2 to control for practice effects. Relations between BDT, gender, and education were…

  19. THE FIRST GRADE CLINIC--A MEDIUM FOR EARLY IDENTIFICATION OF PHYSICAL, SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL, AND MENTAL DEVELOPMENT FACTOR THAT MAY TEND TO BLOCK OR IMPEDE SCHOOL PROGRESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGAHAN, F.E.

    DURING A 5-YEAR PERIOD, A FIRST GRADE CLINIC IDENTIFIED, AT THE START OF EACH SCHOOL YEAR, CHILDREN WITH DEVIATIONS IN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL ADJUSTMENT, AND MENTAL MATURATION THAT MIGHT BLOCK OR RETARD SUCCESS IN SCHOOL. THESE CHILDREN WERE REFERRED FOR FURTHER DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATIONS. THE PROGRAM WAS FIRST TRIED IN ONE CLASSROOM. A 3-YEAR…

  20. THE FIRST GRADE CLINIC--A MEDIUM FOR EARLY IDENTIFICATION OF PHYSICAL, SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL, AND MENTAL DEVELOPMENT FACTOR THAT MAY TEND TO BLOCK OR IMPEDE SCHOOL PROGRESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGAHAN, F.E.

    DURING A 5-YEAR PERIOD, A FIRST GRADE CLINIC IDENTIFIED, AT THE START OF EACH SCHOOL YEAR, CHILDREN WITH DEVIATIONS IN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL ADJUSTMENT, AND MENTAL MATURATION THAT MIGHT BLOCK OR RETARD SUCCESS IN SCHOOL. THESE CHILDREN WERE REFERRED FOR FURTHER DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATIONS. THE PROGRAM WAS FIRST TRIED IN ONE CLASSROOM. A 3-YEAR…

  1. Parvalbumin interneurons and calretinin fibers arising from the thalamic nucleus reuniens degenerate in the subiculum after kainic acid-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Drexel, M; Preidt, A P; Kirchmair, E; Sperk, G

    2011-08-25

    The subiculum is the major output area of the hippocampus. It is closely interconnected with the entorhinal cortex and other parahippocampal areas. In animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in TLE patients it exerts increased network excitability and may crucially contribute to the propagation of limbic seizures. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ-hybridization we now investigated neuropathological changes affecting parvalbumin and calretinin containing neurons in the subiculum and other parahippocampal areas after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. We observed prominent losses in parvalbumin containing interneurons in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex, and in the principal cell layers of the pre- and parasubiculum. Degeneration of parvalbumin-positive neurons was associated with significant precipitation of parvalbumin-immunoreactive debris 24 h after kainic acid injection. In the subiculum the superficial portion of the pyramidal cell layer was more severely affected than its deep part. In the entorhinal cortex, the deep layers were more severely affected than the superficial ones. The decrease in number of parvalbumin-positive neurons in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex correlated with the number of spontaneous seizures subsequently experienced by the rats. The loss of parvalbumin neurons thus may contribute to the development of spontaneous seizures. On the other hand, surviving parvalbumin neurons revealed markedly increased expression of parvalbumin mRNA notably in the pyramidal cell layer of the subiculum and in all layers of the entorhinal cortex. This indicates increased activity of these neurons aiming to compensate for the partial loss of this functionally important neuron population. Furthermore, calretinin-positive fibers terminating in the molecular layer of the subiculum, in sector CA1 of the hippocampus proper and in the entorhinal cortex degenerated together with their presumed perikarya in the thalamic nucleus reuniens. In

  2. [Effects of blocking two sites of transforming growth factor-β/Smads signaling on the formation of scar-related proteins in human skin fibroblasts].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Liangping; Lei, Rui; Shen, Yichen; Shen, Hui; Wu, Zhinan; Xu, Jinghong

    2015-10-01

    To explore the effects of blocking two sites of TGF-β/Smads signaling on the formation of scar-related proteins in human skin fibroblasts. Two lentivirus vectors encoding soluble TGF-β receptor II (sTβRII) and mutant Smad 4-Smad 4ΔM4 were respectively transfected into human skin fibroblast cell line human foreskin fibroblast 1 (HFF-1) cells with the optimum multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 50. The protein expressions of sTβRII and Smad 4ΔM4 of the two types of transfected cells were determined by Western blotting so as to compare with those of the untransfected cells. The HFF-1 cells were divided into 6 groups as named below according to the random number table, with 6 dishes in each group, 1×10(4) cells per dish. Co-transfection group, transfected with the two previous lentivirus vectors, mixed with the ratio of 1:1 and MOI of 50, and then stimulated with 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 for 72 h; sTβRII group, transfected with lenti-sTβRII with MOI of 50, with the other treatment as above; Smad 4ΔM4 group, transfected with lenti-Smad 4ΔM4 with MOI of 50, with the other treatment as above; negative virus group, transfected with empty lentivirus vector, with the other treatment as above; positive control group, stimulated with 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 for 72 h; and blank control group, conventionally cultured without any other treatment. After stimulation, Western blotting and real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR were respectively used to determine the protein and mRNA expressions of fibronectin in cells of each group. ELISA and Sircol collagen assay were respectively used to determine the protein expressions of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and total collagen in the cell culture supernate of each group. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and SNK-(q test). (1) HFF-1 cells transfected with lenti-sTβRII and HFF-1 cells transfected with lenti-Smad 4ΔM4 respectively expressed higher levels of sTβRII protein and Smad 4ΔM4 protein compared with

  3. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  4. Targeted inhibition of p57 and p15 blocks transforming growth factor β-inhibited proliferation of primary cultured human limbal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, De-quan; Tong, Louis; Stewart, Paul; Chu, Claire; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p57 and p15 in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 or TGF-β2 inhibited proliferation of primary cultured human limbal epithelial cells using short interfering RNA (siRNA). Methods Primary cultured human limbal epithelial cells were treated with TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 for 6 and 24 h, and total RNA extracted for RT-PCR and real-time PCR using primers for p21, p27, and p57 (CipP/Kip family) and p15 and p19 (INK4 family). Proteins were extracted for western blot analysis of p57 and p15. For RNA interference, primary cultured human limbal epithelial cells were transfected with annealed double-stranded siRNA (67 nM) specific for p57, p15, or siRNA-Fluorescein (siRNA-F; as a negative control) followed by treatment with TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 at 1 ng/ml. P57 and p15 were quantitatively detected by real-time PCR and western blot; and immunolocalized by immunofluorescent staining. The effects of TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 on cell proliferation were evaluated by BrdU incorporation and MTT assay. Results TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 significantly inhibited primary cultured human limbal epithelial cell proliferation measured by BrdU incorporation and MTT assay. TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 upregulated the expression of p57 and p15 mRNA and protein, but did not effect the expression of p19, p21, or p27. The siRNA transfection efficiency of these cells was 75% and no cellular toxicity was observed by 24 h. The TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 stimulated expression of p57 and p15 mRNA were markedly blocked by siRNA-p57 or siRNA-p15, respectively, but not by siRNA-F. The TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 suppression of epithelial proliferation measured by BrdU incorporation and MTT generation was increased to near normal levels by siRNA-p57 or siRNA-p15. Western blot and immunofluorescent staining showed that levels of p57 and p15 proteins were equally reduced in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that TGF-β1 and/or TGF-β2 inhibit proliferation

  5. Updated consensus statement on tumour necrosis factor blocking agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases (April 2001).

    PubMed

    Furst, D E; Keystone, E C; Breedveld, F C; Kalden, J R; Smolen, J S; Antoni, C E; Burmester, G R; Crofford, L J; Kavanaugh, A

    2001-11-01

    TNF blocking agents have proved to be effective DMARDs and they have been a major advance in the treatment of RA. Their use is expanding to other rheumatic diseases. However, rare to uncommon and unexpected toxicities have been found and others may yet be found during their use. Studies in selected areas of efficacy, toxicity, and general use of TNF blocking agents are needed to help further define the most appropriate use of these agents. Use of these drugs will require doctors experienced in the diagnosis, treatment, and assessment of RA and other rheumatic diseases. These doctors will need to make long term observations of efficacy and toxicity. Further considerations which must be made when using TNF blocking agents in this disease include the cost and a recognition that data in subgroups are still being acquired. It is hoped that this statement, which is based upon the best evidence available at the time of its creation, and modified by expert opinion, will facilitate the optimal use of these agents for our patients with RA and other rheumatic diseases.

  6. Mitogenesis of vascular smooth muscle cell stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor-bb is inhibited by blocking of intracellular signaling by epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Koo, Min-Ah; You, Kyung Eun; Park, Jong-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is known to exhibit antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antithrombogenic effects and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Key events in the development of cardiovascular disease are hypertrophy and hyperplasia according to vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated whether EGCG can interfere with PDGF-bb stimulated proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and the gelatinolytic activity of MMP and signal transduction pathways on RAOSMC when it was treated in two different ways-cotreatment with PDGF-bb and pretreatment of EGCG before addition of PDGF-bb. Both cotreated and pretreated EGCG significantly inhibited PDGF-bb induced proliferation, cell cycle progression of the G0/G1 phase, and the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2/9 on RAOSMC. Also, EGCG blocked PDGF receptor-β (PDGFR-β) phosphorylation on PDGF-bb stimulated RAOSMC under pretreatment with cells as well as cotreatment with PDGF-bb. The downstream signal transduction pathways of PDGFR-β, including p42/44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation, were also inhibited by EGCG in a pattern similar to PDGFR-β phosphorylation. These findings suggest that EGCG can inhibit PDGF-bb stimulated mitogenesis by indirectly and directly interrupting PDGF-bb signals and blocking the signaling pathway via PDGFR-β phosphorylation. Furthermore, EGCG may be used for treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease through blocking of PDGF-bb signaling.

  7. Kainic Acid-Induced Golgi Complex Fragmentation/Dispersal Shifts the Proteolysis of Reelin in Primary Rat Neuronal Cells: An In Vitro Model of Early Stage Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yuji; Sullivan, Robert; Dailey, Travis; Vale, Fernando L; Tajiri, Naoki; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2016-04-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-lysosome-Golgi network plays an important role in Reelin glycosylation and its proteolytic processing. Golgi complex fragmentation is associated with the separation of Reelin from this network. Kainic acid (KA) is an excitotoxic agent commonly used to induce epilepsy in rodents. The relationship between KA-induced neuronal damage and Golgi complex fragmentation has not been investigated, leaving a major gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the development of pathophysiology in epilepsy. We cultured primary rat cortical neurons eitherin ambient condition (control) or treated with a range of KA doses to reveal whether Golgi complex fragmentation impaired neuronal function. The half-life maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of KA was detected to be approximately 5 μM, whereby at these concentrations, KA impaired neuronal viability, which was closely associated with initial Golgi complex fragmentation and subsequent reduction in both the expression and glycosylation patterns of Reelin. These findings implicate that Golgi complex fragmentation and Reelin dysfunction are key contributors to neuronal cell death in the early stage of epilepsy pathophysiology, thereby representing as novel disease biomarkers, as well as potent therapeutic targets for epilepsy.

  8. The effects of quercetin on the gene expression of the GABAA receptor α5 subunit gene in a mouse model of kainic acid-induced seizure.

    PubMed

    Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Alizadeh, Safar; Mohammadi, Ghazaleh; Khodabandehloo, Fatemeh; Rashvand, Zahra; Najafipour, Reza; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan

    2017-03-01

    The flavonoid quercetin has recently been reported to have neuroprotective effects, and the role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A alpha 5 subunit (GABAA α5) receptor has been determined in some nervous system disorders. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanism of the effect of quercetin administered at anticonvulsive doses on the expression of the GABAA α5 receptor gene in kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures in mice. The experimental animals were divided into four groups: control, KA, and KA + quercetin at 50 or 100 mg/kg, respectively. The results showed a dose-dependent reduction in the behavioral seizure score with quercetin pre-treatment in the KA mouse model. Two hours after the end of the 7-day treatment regimen, expression of the GABAA α5 receptor gene in the hippocampus was found to be increased in the KA group, but this increase was reduced in the KA + quercetin 50 or 100 mg/kg treatment groups. These results suggest that expression of the GABAA α5 receptor could be a mechanism for reducing seizure severity or may be a marker of seizure severity. Further studies are necessary to clarify quercetin's mechanism of action and the relation of GABAA α5 receptor gene expression to seizure severity.

  9. Increase in α-tubulin modifications in the neuronal processes of hippocampal neurons in both kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Hang Thi; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Hashizume, Yoshio; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Ikegami, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegeneration includes acute changes and slow-developing alterations, both of which partly involve common cellular machinery. During neurodegeneration, neuronal processes are impaired along with dysregulated post-translational modifications (PTMs) of cytoskeletal proteins. In neuronal processes, tubulin undergoes unique PTMs including a branched form of modification called glutamylation and loss of the C-terminal tyrosine residue and the penultimate glutamic acid residue forming Δ2-tubulin. Here, we investigated the state of two PTMs, glutamylation and Δ2 form, in both acute and slow-developing neurodegenerations, using a newly generated monoclonal antibody, DTE41, which had 2-fold higher affinity to glutamylated Δ2-tubulin, than to unmodified Δ2-tubulin. DTE41 recognised glutamylated Δ2-tubulin preferentially in immunostaining than in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting. In normal mouse brain, DTE41 stained molecular layer of the cerebellum as well as synapse-rich regions in pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex. In kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure, DTE41-labelled signals were increased in the hippocampal CA3 region, especially in the stratum lucidum. In the hippocampi of post-mortem patients with Alzheimer’s disease, intensities of DTE41 staining were increased in mossy fibres in the CA3 region as well as in apical dendrites of the pyramidal neurons. Our findings indicate that glutamylation on Δ2-tubulin is increased in both acute and slow-developing neurodegeneration. PMID:28067280

  10. Long-Term Intake of Uncaria rhynchophylla Reduces S100B and RAGE Protein Levels in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Ho, Tin-Yun; Chen, Chao-Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    Epileptic seizures are crucial clinical manifestations of recurrent neuronal discharges in the brain. An imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neuronal discharges causes brain damage and cell loss. Herbal medicines offer alternative treatment options for epilepsy because of their low cost and few side effects. We established a rat epilepsy model by injecting kainic acid (KA, 12 mg/kg, i.p.) and subsequently investigated the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its underlying mechanisms. Electroencephalogram and epileptic behaviors revealed that the KA injection induced epileptic seizures. Following KA injection, S100B levels increased in the hippocampus. This phenomenon was attenuated by the oral administration of UR and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg). Both drugs significantly reversed receptor potentiation for advanced glycation end product proteins. Rats with KA-induced epilepsy exhibited no increase in the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and chemokine receptor type 2, which play a role in inflammation. Our results provide novel and detailed mechanisms, explaining the role of UR in KA-induced epileptic seizures in hippocampal CA1 neurons. PMID:28386293

  11. Acute reduction of neuronal RNA binding Elavl2 protein and Gap43 mRNA in mouse hippocampus after kainic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Takafumi; Yano, Masato; Okano, Hideyuki

    2015-10-09

    Activity-dependent gene regulation in neurons has been hypothesized to be under transcriptional control and to include dramatic increases in immediate early genes (IEGs) after neuronal activity. In addition, several reports have focused on post-transcriptional regulation, which could be mediated by neuronal post-transcriptional regulators, including RNA binding proteins (RNABPs). One such protein family is the neuronal Elavls (nElavls; Elavl2, Elavl3, and Elavl4), whose members are widely expressed in peripheral and central nervous system. Previous reports showed that Elavl3 and 4 are up-regulated following repeated stimulation such as during cocaine administration, a seizure, or a spatial discrimination task. In this study, we focused on Elavl2, a candidate gene for schizophrenia and studied its role in neuronal activity. First we found that Elavl2 has a cell-type specific expression pattern that is highly expressed in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and hilar interneurons using Elavl2 specific antibody. Second, unexpectedly, we discovered that the Elavl2 protein level in the hippocampus was acutely down-regulated for 3 h after a kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure in the hippocampal CA3 region. In addition, level of Gap43 mRNA, a target mRNA of Elavl2 is decreased 12 h after KA treatment, thus suggesting the involvement of Elavl2 in activity-dependent RNA regulation.

  12. In situ demonstration of Fluoro-Turquoise conjugated gelatin for visualizing brain vasculature and endothelial cells and their characterization in normal and kainic acid exposed animals.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sumit; Raymick, James; Paule, Merle G; Schmued, Larry

    2013-10-15

    The present study describes a new method for the visualization of the vasculature lumen and endothelial cells and characterizes their morphology in the brains of normal and kainic acid (KA) treated rats. Herein, labeling was accomplished using Fluoro-Turquoise (FT), a novel reactive blue fluorochrome conjugated to gelatin. Strong blue fluorescence was observed throughout the brain vasculature following intra-cardiac perfusion with FT-gel in normal animals. However, in the brains of KA treated rats (hippocampus, midline and ventral thalamus, piriform cortex), the vascular lumen was typically constricted, sclerotic and only faintly stained. The advantages of FT-gel over other markers can be attributed to its unique chemical and spectral properties. Specifically, Fluoro-Turquoise is a very bright blue UV excitable dye that does not bleed through when visualized using other filters, making it ideal for multiple immunofluorescent labeling studies. Its brightness at low magnification also makes it ideal for low magnification whole brain imaging. Compared to alternative techniques for visualizing blood vessels, such as India ink, fluorescent dye-conjugated dextran, the corrosion technique, endothelial cell markers and lectins, the present method results in excellent visualization of blood vessels.

  13. Effect of sex differences and gonadal hormones on kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of the rat.

    PubMed

    Pereno, German Leandro; Balaszczuk, Verónica; Beltramino, Carlos Alberto

    2012-05-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that medial nucleus of the amygdala, which is part of medial extended amygdala, is damaged by status epilepticus induced by kainic acid (KA) and this neurodegeneration was prevents by estrogen replacement. The medial bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BSTM) also belong to medial extended amygdala and it is uncertain whether the gonadal hormones are protective or not against this neurotoxicity in the BSTM. Here we show that a single i.p. injection of KA (9 mg/kg) induces neurodegeneration in the subnuclei of the BSTM of rats with different degrees of intensity in males and females. A differential neuroprotective effect of the gonadal hormones was also observed. In diestrous rats, massive neuronal death similar to that in the ovariectomized females was detected. BSTM neurons of proestrous rats, like the ovariectomized treated with estrogen, were significantly less affected by the KA. Testosterone produced a mild neuroprotective action, but dihydrotestosterone did not protect. A similar pattern was observed in all male groups. This results show that estrogen protects BSTM neurons from KA neurotoxicity and androgens are partially neuroprotective; and probably this effect of androgens is due to conversion to estrogen. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Learning with Large Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Sally

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how large hollow blocks can meet many preschool children's learning needs through creative dramatic play, and also gives some guidelines on how these blocks can be constructed by parents and teachers. (BB)

  15. Block That Pain!

    MedlinePlus

    ... 314. This combination produces a unique effect, blocking pain-sensing neurons without impairing signals from other cells. In contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in ...

  16. Living with Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Block First-degree heart block may ... whether you need ongoing care for your condition. Living With a Pacemaker People who have third-degree ...

  17. [Superior gluteal nerve: a new block on the block?

    PubMed

    Sá, Miguel; Graça, Rita; Reis, Hugo; Cardoso, José Miguel; Sampaio, José; Pinheiro, Célia; Machado, Duarte

    2017-05-24

    The superior gluteal nerve is responsible for innervating the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and tensor fascia latae muscles, all of which can be injured during surgical procedures. We describe an ultrasound-guided approach to block the superior gluteal nerve which allowed us to provide efficient analgesia and anesthesia for two orthopedic procedures, in a patient who had significant risk factors for neuraxial techniques and deep peripheral nerve blocks. An 84-year-old female whose regular use of clopidogrel contraindicated neuraxial techniques or deep peripheral nerve blocks presented for urgent bipolar hemiarthroplasty in our hospital. Taking into consideration the surgical approach chosen by the orthopedic team, we set to use a combination of general anesthesia and superficial peripheral nerve blocks (femoral, lateral cutaneous of thigh and superior gluteal nerve) for the procedure. A month and a half post-discharge the patient was re-admitted for debriding and correction of suture dehiscence; we performed the same blocks and light sedation. She remained comfortable in both cases, and reported no pain in the post-operative period. Deep understanding of anatomy and innervation empowers anesthesiologists to solve potentially complex cases with safer, albeit creative, approaches. The relevance of this block in this case arises from its innervation of the gluteus medius muscle and posterolateral portion of the hip joint. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ultrasound-guided superior gluteal nerve block with an analgesic and anesthetic goal, which was successfully achieved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of N-benzyl-N-[11C]methyl-2- (7-methyl-8-oxo-2-phenyl-7,8-dihydro-9H-purin-9-yl)acetamide ([11C]DAC) as a novel translocator protein (18 kDa) radioligand in kainic acid-lesioned rat.

    PubMed

    Yanamoto, Kazuhiko; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Kumata, Katsushi; Yui, Joji; Odawara, Chika; Kawamura, Kazunori; Hatori, Akiko; Inoue, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate N-benzyl-N-[11C]methyl-2-(7-methyl-8-oxo-2-phenyl-7,8-dihydro-9H-purin-9-yl)acetamide ([11C]DAC) as a new translocator protein (18 kDa) [TSPO, formerly known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR)] positron emission tomography (PET) ligand in normal mice and unilateral kainic acid (KA)-lesioned rats. DAC is a derivative of AC-5216, which is a potent and selective PET ligand for the clinical investigation of TSPO. The binding affinity and selectivity of DAC for TSPO were similar to those of AC-5216, and DAC was less lipophilic than AC-5216. The distribution pattern of [11C]DAC was in agreement with TSPO distribution in rodents. No radioactive metabolite of [11C]DAC was found in the mouse brain, although it was metabolized rapidly in mouse plasma. Using small-animal PET, we examined the in vivo binding of [11C]DAC for TSPO in KA-lesioned rats. [11C]DAC and [11C]AC-5216 exhibited similar brain uptake in the lesioned and nonlesioned striatum, respectively. The binding of [11C]DAC to TSPO was increased significantly in the lesioned striatum, and [(11)C]DAC showed good contrast between the lesioned and nonlesioned striatum (the maximum ratio was about threefold). In displacement experiments, the uptake of [11C]DAC in the lesioned striatum was eventually blocked using an excess of either unlabeled DAC or PK11195 injected. [11C]DAC had high in vivo specific binding to TSPO in the injured rat brain. Therefore, [11C]DAC is a useful PET ligand for TSPO imaging, and its specific binding to TSPO is suitable as a new biomarker for brain injury.

  19. Arrange Time into Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Sally J.

    1999-01-01

    Block scheduling can help high school principals become staff-development leaders. It gives teachers more time to help individual students and contributes to improved achievement, attendance, and graduation rates. This paper describes the results of research on block scheduling in urban high schools and concludes that block scheduling can support…

  20. Blocked Tear Duct

    MedlinePlus

    Blocked tear duct Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff When you have a blocked tear duct, your tears can't drain normally, leaving you ... in the tear drainage system. A blocked tear duct is common in newborns. The condition usually gets ...

  1. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB. PMID:27366387

  2. The Space Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Ciba-Geigy Corporation's "Space Block," technically known as TDT-177-51 Ren Shape epoxy model block, is a two-foot by two-foot by five- inch plastic block from which master models of the Space Shuttle protective tiles are cut by NC machines. Space Block is made of epoxy resin with low viscosity and slow curing time, enabling the large block to cure uniformly without cracking. Rockwell International uses master models of Shuttle tiles to check accuracy of NC machines accurately by comparing model dimensions with specifications. New epoxy resins are attracting broad interest as a replacement for traditional materials used in modeling auto, aerospace or other parts.

  3. Congenital complete heart block.

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, B.; Sheikh, Z.; Cibils, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Congenital complete heart block in utero has become diagnosed more frequently with the clinical use of fetal echocardiography. The fetus with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic or may develop congestive heart failure. Congenital complete heart block is more frequently seen in infants of mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus, both clinically manifested and subclinical systemic lupus erythematosus with positive antibodies (SS-A and SS-B antibodies). At birth, the neonate with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic and may not require a pacemaker to increase the heart rate. The indications for a pacemaker in neonates with complete heart block have been discussed. Both in-utero and neonatal management of congenital complete heart block are discussed to manage congestive heart failure in a fetus. Four patients with congenital complete heart block are presented covering a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management both in the fetal and neonatal period. Images Figure 1 PMID:8961692

  4. Asymmetric aza-[2,3]-Wittig sigmatropic rearrangements: chiral auxiliary control and formal asymmetric synthesis of (2S, 3R, 4R)-4-hydroxy-3-methylproline and (-)-kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James C; O'Loughlin, Julian M A; Tornos, James A

    2005-08-07

    A survey of 16 different chiral auxiliaries and a variety of strategies found that an (-)-8-phenylmenthol ester of a glycine derived migrating group can control the absolute stereochemistry of aza-[2,3]-Wittig sigmatropic rearrangements with diastereoselectivities of ca. 3 : 1 with respect to the auxiliary. In two specific examples, ca. 50% yields of enantiomerically pure products were obtained after chromatographic purification. These were synthetically manipulated with no erosion of stereochemistry into intermediates that completed formal asymmetric syntheses of (+)-HyMePro and (-)-kainic acid.

  5. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    PubMed

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  6. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes. PMID:21318011

  7. Comparison of short-term effects of midazolam and lorazepam in the intra-amygdala kainic acid model of status epilepticus in mice.

    PubMed

    Diviney, Mairead; Reynolds, James P; Henshall, David C

    2015-10-01

    Benzodiazepines remain as the first-line treatment for status epilepticus (SE), but debate continues as to the choice and delivery route of pharmacotherapy. Lorazepam is currently the preferred anticonvulsant for clinical use, but midazolam has become a popular alternative, particularly as it can be given by nonintravenous routes. Anticonvulsants are also commonly used to terminate SE in animal models. Here, we aimed to compare the efficacy of midazolam with that of lorazepam in an experimental model of focal-onset SE. Status epilepticus was induced by intra-amygdala microinjection of kainic acid in 8week old C57Bl/6 mice. Forty minutes later, mice were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of either lorazepam or midazolam (8mg/kg). Electroencephalogram (EEG) activity, histology, and behavioral tests assessing recovery of function were evaluated and compared between groups. Intraperitoneal injection of either lorazepam or midazolam resulted in similar patterns of reduced EEG epileptiform activity during 1-hour recordings. Damage to the hippocampus and presentation of postinsult anxiety-related behavior did not significantly differ between treatment groups at 72h. However, return of normal behaviors such as grooming, levels of activity, and the evaluation of overall recovery of SE mice were all superior at 24h in animals given midazolam compared with lorazepam. Our results indicate that midazolam is as effective as lorazepam as an anticonvulsant in this model while also providing improved animal recovery after SE. These data suggest that midazolam might be considered by researchers as an anticonvulsant in animal models of SE, particularly as it appears to satisfy the requirements of refining procedures involving experimental animals at early time-points after SE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Systemic injection of kainic acid: Gliosis in olfactory and limbic brain regions quantified with ( sup 3 H)PK 11195 binding autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Altar, C.A.; Baudry, M. )

    1990-09-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases may result from excessive stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptors by endogenous ligands. Because neuronal degeneration is associated with glial proliferation and hypertrophy, the degenerative changes throughout rat brain following the systemic administration of kainic acid (12 mg/kg) were mapped with quantitative autoradiography of (3H)PK 11195. This radioligand binds to a mitochondrial benzodiazepine binding site (MBBS) on microglia and astrocytes. Analysis of eight horizontal and four coronal brain levels revealed up to 16-fold increases in (3H)PK 11195 binding from 1 to 5 weeks but not 1 day after kainate injection. Increases in (3H)PK 11195 binding were predominantly in ventral limbic brain regions and olfactory projections to neocortical areas, with the olfactory cortex greater than subiculum/CA1 greater than anterior olfactory nucleus, medial thalamic nucleus, and piriform cortex greater than cingulate cortex and rostral hippocampus greater than dentate gyrus, septum, and amygdala greater than entorhinal cortex and temporal cortex. Little or no enhancement of (3H)PK 11195 binding was observed in numerous regions including the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, cerebellum, thalamic nuclei, choroid plexus, medulla, parietal or occipital cortex, or pons. A 2-fold greater extent of neurodegeneration was obtained in ventral portions of the olfactory bulb, entorhinal cortex, temporal cortex, and dentate gyrus compared with the dorsal portions of these structures. The pattern of increase in (3H)PK 11195 binding closely matched the patterns of neuronal degeneration reported following parenteral kainate injection. These findings strengthen the notion that quantitative autoradiography of (3H)PK 11195 is a valuable tool to quantify the extent of neuronal degeneration.

  9. Anterior thalamic nuclei deep brain stimulation reduces disruption of the blood-brain barrier, albumin extravasation, inflammation and apoptosis in kainic acid-induced epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chuan; Zhu, Guan-Yu; Wang, Xiu; Shi, Lin; Du, Ting-Ting; Liu, De-Feng; Liu, Yu-Ye; Jiang, Yin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2017-09-18

    Objective The therapeutic efficacy of anterior thalamic nuclei deep brain stimulation (ATN-DBS) against seizures has been largely accepted; however, the effects of ATN-DBS on disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), albumin extravasation, inflammation and apoptosis still remain unclear. Methods Rats were distributed into four treatment groups: physiological saline (PS, N = 12), kainic acid (KA, N = 12), KA-sham-DBS (N = 12) and KA-DBS (N = 12). Seizures were monitored using video-electroencephalogram (EEG). One day after surgery, all rats were sacrificed. Then, samples were prepared for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), western blot, immunofluorescence (IF) staining, and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate the disruption of the BBB, albumin extravasation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Result Because of the KA injection, the disruption of the BBB, albumin extravasation, inflammation and apoptosis were more severe in the KA and the KA-sham-DBS groups compared to the PS group (all Ps < 0.05 or < 0.01). The ideal outcomes were observed in the KA-DBS group. ATN-DBS produced a 46.3% reduction in seizure frequency and alleviated the disruption of the BBB, albumin extravasation, inflammatory reaction and apoptosis in comparison to the KA-sham-DBS group (all Ps < 0.05 or < 0.01). Conclusion (1) Seizures can be reduced using ATN-DBS in the epileptogenic stage. (2) ATN-DBS can reduce the disruption of the BBB and albumin extravasation. (3) ATN-DBS has an anti-inflammatory effect in epileptic models.

  10. Sesamin ameliorates oxidative stress and mortality in kainic acid-induced status epilepticus by inhibition of MAPK and COX-2 activation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) was involved with release of free radicals. Sesamin is a well-known antioxidant from sesame seeds and it scavenges free radicals in several brain injury models. However the neuroprotective mechanism of sesamin to KA-induced seizure has not been studied. Methods Rodents (male FVB mice and Sprague-Dawley rats) were fed with sesamin extract (90% of sesamin and 10% sesamolin), 15 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg, for 3 days before KA subcutaneous injection. The effect of sesamin on KA-induced cell injury was also investigated on several cellular pathways including neuronal plasticity (RhoA), neurodegeneration (Caspase-3), and inflammation (COX-2) in PC12 cells and microglial BV-2 cells. Results Treatment with sesamin extract (30 mg/kg) significantly increased plasma α-tocopherol level 50% and 55.8% from rats without and with KA treatment, respectively. It also decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) from 145% to 117% (p = 0.017) and preserved superoxide dismutase from 55% of the vehicle control mice to 81% of sesamin-treated mice, respectively to the normal levels (p = 0.013). The treatment significantly decreased the mortality from 22% to 0% in rats. Sesamin was effective to protect PC12 cells and BV-2 cells from KA-injury in a dose-dependent manner. It decreased the release of Ca2+, reactive oxygen species, and MDA from PC12 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that sesamin significantly reduced ERK1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, Caspase-3, and COX-2 expression in both cells and RhoA expression in BV-2 cells. Furthermore, Sesamin was able to reduce PGE2 production from both cells under KA-stimulation. Conclusions Taken together, it suggests that sesamin could protect KA-induced brain injury through anti-inflammatory and partially antioxidative mechanisms. PMID:21609430

  11. Glutamic acid decarboxylase-67-positive hippocampal interneurons undergo a permanent reduction in number following kainic acid-induced degeneration of ca3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Shetty, A K; Turner, D A

    2001-06-01

    Kainic acid (KA)-induced degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons leads to synaptic reorganization and hyperexcitability in both dentate gyrus and CA1 region of the hippocampus. We hypothesize that the substrate for hippocampal inhibitory circuitry incurs significant and permanent alterations following degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons. We quantified changes in interneuron density (N(v)) in all strata of the dentate gyrus and the CA1 and CA3 subfields of adult rats at 1, 4, and 6 months following intracerebroventricular (icv) KA administration, using glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD-67) immunocytochemistry. At 1 month postlesion, GAD-67-positive interneuron density was significantly reduced in all strata of every hippocampal region except stratum pyramidale of CA1. The reduction in GAD-67-positive interneuron density either persisted or exacerbated at 4 and 6 months postlesion in every stratum of all hippocampal regions. Further, the soma of remaining GAD-67-positive interneurons in dentate gyrus and CA3 subfield showed significant hypertrophy. Thus, both permanent reductions in the density of GAD-67-positive interneurons in all hippocampal regions and somatic hypertrophy of remaining GAD-67-positive interneurons in dentate gyrus and CA3 subfield occur following icv KA. In contrast, the density of interneurons visualized with Nissl in CA1 and CA3 regions was nearly equivalent to that in the intact hippocampus at all postlesion time points. Collectively, these results suggest that persistent reductions in GAD-67-positive interneuron density observed throughout the hippocampus following CA3 lesion are largely due to a permanent loss of GAD-67 expression in a significant fraction of interneurons, rather than widespread degeneration of interneurons. Nevertheless, a persistent decrease in interneuron activity, as evidenced by permanent down-regulation of GAD-67 in a major fraction of interneurons, would likely enhance the degree of hyperexcitability in the CA3

  12. Neuronal Deletion of Caspase 8 Protects against Brain Injury in Mouse Models of Controlled Cortical Impact and Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Krajewska, Maryla; You, Zerong; Rong, Juan; Kress, Christina; Huang, Xianshu; Yang, Jinsheng; Kyoda, Tiffany; Leyva, Ricardo; Banares, Steven; Hu, Yue; Sze, Chia-Hung; Whalen, Michael J.; Salmena, Leonardo; Hakem, Razqallah; Head, Brian P.; Reed, John C.; Krajewski, Stan

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute brain injury is an important health problem. Given the critical position of caspase 8 at the crossroads of cell death pathways, we generated a new viable mouse line (Ncasp8−/−), in which the gene encoding caspase 8 was selectively deleted in neurons by cre-lox system. Methodology/Principal Findings Caspase 8 deletion reduced rates of neuronal cell death in primary neuronal cultures and in whole brain organotypic coronal slice cultures prepared from 4 and 8 month old mice and cultivated up to 14 days in vitro. Treatments of cultures with recombinant murine TNFα (100 ng/ml) or TRAIL (250 ng/mL) plus cyclohexamide significantly protected neurons against cell death induced by these apoptosis-inducing ligands. A protective role of caspase 8 deletion in vivo was also demonstrated using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and seizure-induced brain injury caused by kainic acid (KA). Morphometric analyses were performed using digital imaging in conjunction with image analysis algorithms. By employing virtual images of hundreds of brain sections, we were able to perform quantitative morphometry of histological and immunohistochemical staining data in an unbiased manner. In the TBI model, homozygous deletion of caspase 8 resulted in reduced lesion volumes, improved post-injury motor performance, superior learning and memory retention, decreased apoptosis, diminished proteolytic processing of caspases and caspase substrates, and less neuronal degeneration, compared to wild type, homozygous cre, and caspase 8-floxed control mice. In the KA model, Ncasp8−/− mice demonstrated superior survival, reduced seizure severity, less apoptosis, and reduced caspase 3 processing. Uninjured aged knockout mice showed improved learning and memory, implicating a possible role for caspase 8 in cognitive decline with aging. Conclusions Neuron-specific deletion of caspase 8 reduces brain damage and improves post-traumatic functional

  13. The time-dependent effect of lipopolysaccharide on kainic acid-induced neuronal death in hippocampal CA3 region: possible involvement of cytokines via glucocorticoid.

    PubMed

    Kwon, M-S; Seo, Y-J; Choi, S-M; Won, M-H; Lee, J-K; Park, S-H; Jung, J-S; Sim, Y-B; Suh, H-W

    2010-02-17

    It has been reported that glucocorticoid (Gc) can induce neuronal cell toxicity in the hippocampus. In addition, we examined that serum Gc increased by restraint stress aggravated kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal death in hippocampal CA3 region. However, the effect of other stressful stimulus like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increasing serum Gc on KA-induced neuronal death was not elucidated until now. Thus, we examined the time course effect of LPS on KA-induced neuronal death in the hippocampal CA3 region of mice, especially to address the role of Gc and inflammatory mediators. In the present study, we found that an aggravating effect of LPS on KA-induced neuronal death was correlated with an alteration of hippocampal IL-1beta mRNA level at all time points, and the serum Gc and hippocampal IL-1beta mRNA level was peak at 90 min after LPS treatment (LPS 90 min) when the aggravating effect of LPS on KA-induced neuronal death was maximum. In addition, RU38486 (glucocorticoid receptor antagonist) decreased the hippocampal IL-1beta mRNA level and abolished the aggravating effect of LPS on KA-induced neuronal death at LPS 90 min and 24 h. In the immunohistochemical study, we found activated and ramified microglia (OX-42) and astrocyte (GFAP) at 24 h after LPS treatment (LPS 24 h) in the hippocampus. These results suggest that Gc itself, cytokines triggered by Gc, or both appears to be involved in the LPS effect depending on LPS pretreatment time.

  14. Changes in brain glucose use and extracellular ions associated with kainic acid-induced seizures: (/sup 14/C)-2-deoxyglucose and intracranial

    SciTech Connect

    Chastain, J.E Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of kainic acid (KA) on brain glucose use with coadministration of diazepam, and the effect of KA on brain extracellular (K/sup +/), Ca/sup 2 +/), and (Na/sup +/) was investigated in rats by means of (/sup 14/C)-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) and intracranial microdialysis, respectively. Also, the impact of intracranial microdialysis on brain regional metabolic function was studied. Co-treatment with KA and diazepam attenuated KA-induced 3 hr increases and prevented 48 hr decreases in glucose use within all structures measured, particularly the piriform cortex and amygdala. Hippocampal CA/sub 3/, CA/sub 4/, and CA/sub 1/-ventral were least affected by diazepam. The results suggest that diazepam suppresses KA seizure spread from its focus, proposed to be CA/sub 3/. KA-induced ions changes were studied by intracranial microdialysis. Dialysis fibers were implanted within the hippocampus or piriform cortex and perfused 24 hr later. Samples, collected before and after KA, were analyzed for (K/sup +/), (Ca/sup 2 +/), and (Na/sup +/). KA caused an early and prolonged increase in extracellular (K/sup +/) and a negligible decrease in (Ca/sup 2 +/) within the hippocampus. In the piriform cortex, both (K/sup +/) and (Na/sup +/) increase during a period of early seizure signs. The results indicate that ion homostatic control of ion levels is better maintained during parenteral KA-induced seizures than when the brain is activated locally or during ischemia/hypoxia. The effect of intracranial microdialysis was studied by means of 2-DG in control state and KA-induced seizure state. The results indicate that intracranial microdialysis alters brain metabolic function during KA-induced seizures, but not in the control state. At 3 hr post KA, seizure metabolic activity was enhanced within the piriform cortex, and attenuated within the hippocampus.

  15. Herpes simplex virus 1-encoded tegument protein VP16 abrogates the production of beta interferon (IFN) by inhibiting NF-κB activation and blocking IFN regulatory factor 3 to recruit its coactivator CBP.

    PubMed

    Xing, Junji; Ni, Liwen; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Kezhen; Lin, Rongtuan; Zheng, Chunfu

    2013-09-01

    Host cells activate innate immune signaling pathways to defend against invading pathogens. To survive within an infected host, viruses have evolved intricate strategies to counteract host immune responses. Herpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), have large genomes and therefore have the capacity to encode numerous proteins that modulate host innate immune responses. Here we define the contribution of HSV-1 tegument protein VP16 in the inhibition of beta interferon (IFN-β) production. VP16 was demonstrated to significantly inhibit Sendai virus (SeV)-induced IFN-β production, and its transcriptional activation domain was not responsible for this inhibition activity. Additionally, VP16 blocked the activation of the NF-κB promoter induced by SeV or tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment and expression of NF-κB-dependent genes through interaction with p65. Coexpression analysis revealed that VP16 selectively blocked IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)-mediated but not IRF-7-mediated transactivation. VP16 was able to bind to IRF-3 but not IRF-7 in vivo, based on coimmunoprecipitation analysis, but it did not affect IRF-3 dimerization, nuclear translocation, or DNA binding activity. Rather, VP16 interacted with the CREB binding protein (CBP) coactivator and efficiently inhibited the formation of the transcriptional complexes IRF-3-CBP in the context of HSV-1 infection. These results illustrate that VP16 is able to block the production of IFN-β by inhibiting NF-κB activation and interfering with IRF-3 to recruit its coactivator CBP, which may be important to the early events leading to HSV-1 infection.

  16. SET7/9 methylation of the pluripotency factor LIN28A is a nucleolar localization mechanism that blocks let-7 biogenesis in human ESCs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyoon; Lee, Hosuk; Han, Kyumin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Choi, Yoonjung; Park, Sang-Wook; Bak, Geunu; Lee, Younghoon; Choi, Jung Kyoon; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Yong-Mahn; Lee, Daeyoup

    2014-12-04

    LIN28-mediated processing of the microRNA (miRNA) let-7 has emerged as a multilevel program that controls self-renewal in embryonic stem cells. LIN28A is believed to act primarily in the cytoplasm together with TUT4/7 to prevent final maturation of let-7 by Dicer, whereas LIN28B has been suggested to preferentially act on nuclear processing of let-7. Here, we find that SET7/9 monomethylation in a putative nucleolar localization region of LIN28A increases its nuclear retention and protein stability. In the nucleoli of human embryonic stem cells, methylated LIN28A sequesters pri-let-7 and blocks its processing independently of TUT4/7. The nuclear form of LIN28A regulates transcriptional changes in MYC-pathway targets, thereby maintaining stemness programs and inhibiting expression of early lineage-specific markers. These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the posttranslational methylation of nuclear LIN28A and its ability to modulate pluripotency by repressing let-7 miRNA expression in human embryonic stem cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SET7/9 methylation of the pluripotency factor LIN28A is a nucleolar localization mechanism that blocks let-7 biogenesis in human ESCs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Kyoon; Lee, Hosuk; Han, Kyumin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Choi, Yoonjung; Park, Sang-Wook; Bak, Geunu; Lee, Younghoon; Choi, Jung Kyoon; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Yong-Mahn; Lee, Daeyoup

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY LIN28 mediated processing of the miRNA let-7 has emerged as a multi-level program that control self-renewal in embryonic stem cells. LIN28A is believed to primarily act in the cytoplasm together with TUT4/7 to prevent final maturation of let-7 by Dicer, whereas LIN28B has been suggested to preferentially act on nuclear processing of let-7. Here, we find that SET7/9 mono-methylation in a putative nucleolar localization region of LIN28A increases its nuclear retention and protein stability. In the nucleoli of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), methylated LIN28A sequesters pri-let-7 and blocks its’ processing independently of TUT4/7. The nuclear form of LIN28A regulates transcriptional changes in MYC-pathway targets, thereby maintaining stemness programs and inhibiting expression of early lineage-specific markers. These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the post-translational methylation of nuclear LIN28A and its ability to modulate pluripotency by repressing let-7 miRNA expression in human ESCs. PMID:25479749

  18. Blocking Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in HTR-8/SVneo First Trimester Trophoblast Cells Results in Dephosphorylation of PKBα/AKT and Induces Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bolnick, J.; Albitar, L.; Laidler, L. L.; Abdullah, R.; Leslie, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    We identified a major peptide signaling target of EGF/EGFR pathway and explored the consequences of blocking or activating this pathway in the first trimester extravillous trophoblast cells, HTR-8/SVneo. A global analysis of protein phosphorylation was undertaken using novel technology (Kinexus Kinetworks) that utilizes SDS-polyacrylamide minigel electrophoresis and multi-lane immunoblotting to permit specific and semiquantitative detection of multiple phosphoproteins. Forty-seven protein phosphorylation sites were queried, and the results reported based on relative phosphorylation at each site. EGF- and Iressa-(gefitinib, ZD1839, an inhibitor of EGFR) treated HTR-8/SVneo cells were subjected to immunoblotting and flow cytometry to confirm the phosphoprotein screen and to assess the effects of EGF versus Iressa on cell cycle and apoptosis. EGFR mediates the phosphorylation of important signaling proteins, including PKBα/AKT. This pathway is likely to be central to EGFR-mediated trophoblast survival. Furthermore, EGF treatment induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, while Iressa induces apoptosis. PMID:21876698

  19. Blocking Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in HTR-8/SVneo First Trimester Trophoblast Cells Results in Dephosphorylation of PKBα/AKT and Induces Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bolnick, J; Albitar, L; Laidler, L L; Abdullah, R; Leslie, K K

    2011-01-01

    We identified a major peptide signaling target of EGF/EGFR pathway and explored the consequences of blocking or activating this pathway in the first trimester extravillous trophoblast cells, HTR-8/SVneo. A global analysis of protein phosphorylation was undertaken using novel technology (Kinexus Kinetworks) that utilizes SDS-polyacrylamide minigel electrophoresis and multi-lane immunoblotting to permit specific and semiquantitative detection of multiple phosphoproteins. Forty-seven protein phosphorylation sites were queried, and the results reported based on relative phosphorylation at each site. EGF- and Iressa-(gefitinib, ZD1839, an inhibitor of EGFR) treated HTR-8/SVneo cells were subjected to immunoblotting and flow cytometry to confirm the phosphoprotein screen and to assess the effects of EGF versus Iressa on cell cycle and apoptosis. EGFR mediates the phosphorylation of important signaling proteins, including PKBα/AKT. This pathway is likely to be central to EGFR-mediated trophoblast survival. Furthermore, EGF treatment induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, while Iressa induces apoptosis.

  20. Concrete Block Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Calif. 42 1 •1 90 NEW LEGEND 80 A VIBORG, DENMARK, BLOCKS A VIBORG, DENMARK, ASPHALTIC CONCRETE AFTER 00 MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA, BLOCKS VIBRATION MEAN ...the load-distributing characteristics of the Mlock pavements. *. 45 -, , - t 171 LEGENDT 0 CONCRETE BASE, MEAN OF 8 TESTS,9 KNAPTON (1978) I RANGE OF...45 to 60 min. 90. Table 11 summarizes the results of these tests. The mean penetration of water through the block pavements with a slope of I per

  1. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  2. An electron spin resonance study for real-time detection of ascorbyl free radicals after addition of dimethyl sulfoxide in murine hippocampus or plasma during kainic acid-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Shigekiyo; Shingu, Chihiro; Koga, Hironori; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Hideo; Noguchi, Takayuki; Yokoi, Isao

    2010-07-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR)-silent ascorbate solutions generate a detectable, likely concentration-dependent signal of ascorbyl free radicals (AFR) immediately upon addition of a molar excess of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We aimed to perform quantitative ESR analysis of AFR in real time after addition of DMSO (AFR/DMSO) to evaluate ascorbate concentrations in fresh hippocampus or plasma following systemic administration of kainate in mice. Use of a special tissue-type quartz cell allowed immediate detection of AFR/DMSO ESR spectra in fresh tissues from mice. AFR/DMSO content was increased significantly in fresh hippocampus or plasma obtained during kainate-induced seizures of mice, reaching maximum levels at 90 min after intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg kainic acid. This suggests that oxidative injury of the hippocampus resulted from the accumulation of large amounts of ascorbic acid in the brain after kainic acid administration. AFR/DMSO content measured on an ESR spectrometer can be used for real-time evaluation of ascorbate content in fresh tissue. Due to the simplicity, good performance, low cost and real-time monitoring of ascorbate, this method may be applied to clinical research and treatment in the future.

  3. Direct synaptic connections between superior colliculus afferents and thalamo-insular projection neurons in the feline suprageniculate nucleus: a double-labeling study with WGA-HRP and kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Kaeko; Horie, Masao; Nagy, Attila; Berényi, Antal; Benedek, György; Norita, Masao

    2010-01-01

    The suprageniculate nucleus (Sg) of the feline thalamus, which subserves largely unimodal sensory and orientation behavior, receives input from the deep layers of the superior colliculus (SC), and projects to the suprasylvian cortical areas, such as the anterior ectosylvian visual area and the insular visual area (IVA), which contain visually responsive neurons. Through a double tract-tracing procedure involving the injection of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into the IVA and the injection of kainic acid into the SC, this study sought to determine the nature of the synaptic relationship between the SC afferents and the thalamo-cortical projection neurons. WGA-HRP injections labeled numerous neurons in the Sg, while kainic acid injections destroyed many tectothalamic terminals in the Sg. The distributions of the WGA-HRP-labeled neurons and the degenerated axon terminals overlapped in the dorsal part of the Sg. Electron microscopic observations demonstrated that the degenerated axon terminals made synaptic contacts with the dendrites of the WGA-HRP-labeled neurons in this overlapping region of the Sg. These results provide the first anatomical evidence that the Sg may play a role in the key relay of visual information from the SC to the IVA, within an identified extrageniculo-cortical pathway.

  4. Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate isolated from kaempferia galanga inhibits inflammation by suppressing interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and angiogenesis by blocking endothelial functions

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Muhammad Ihtisham; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sadikun, Amirin; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul; Al-Suede, Fouad Saleih R.; Hassan, Loiy Elsir Ahmed; Altaf, Rabia; Ahamed, Mohamed B. Khadeer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate isolated from Kaempferia galanga. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate were assessed using the cotton pellet granuloma assay in rats, whereby the levels of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured in the animals' blood. In addition, the levels of interleukin, tumor necrosis factor, and nitric oxide were measured in vitro using the human macrophage cell line (U937). The analgesic effects of ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate were assessed by the tail flick assay in rats. The anti-angiogenic effects were evaluated first by the rat aortic ring assay and, subsequently, by assessing the inhibitory effects of ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate on vascular endothelial growth factor, proliferation, migration, and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. RESULTS: Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate strongly inhibited granuloma tissue formation in rats. It prolonged the tail flick time in rats by more than two-fold compared with the control animals. The inhibition of interleukin and tumor necrosis factor by ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate was significant in both in vivo and in vitro models; however, only a moderate inhibition of nitric oxide was observed in macrophages. Furthermore, ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate considerably inhibited microvessel sprouting from the rat aorta. These mechanistic studies showed that ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate strongly inhibited the differentiation and migration of endothelial cells, which was further confirmed by the reduced level of vascular endothelial growth factor. CONCLUSION: Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate exhibits significant anti-inflammatory potential by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenesis, thus inhibiting the main functions of endothelial cells. Thus, ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate could be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory and

  5. Bundle Branch Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... your heart to pump blood efficiently through your circulatory system. There's no specific treatment for bundle branch block itself. However, any underlying health condition that caused bundle branch block, such as heart disease, will need to be treated. In most people, ...

  6. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  7. The contact system contributes to hypotension but not disseminated intravascular coagulation in lethal bacteremia. In vivo use of a monoclonal anti-factor XII antibody to block contact activation in baboons.

    PubMed Central

    Pixley, R A; De La Cadena, R; Page, J D; Kaufman, N; Wyshock, E G; Chang, A; Taylor, F B; Colman, R W

    1993-01-01

    The hypotension and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in bacteremia is thought to be mediated by the combined actions of cytokines, prostaglandins, and complement. The contact system, via the release of bradykinin and the activation of Factor XI, has been postulated to be contributing to the observed hypotension and DIC. Using a mAb to Factor XII (C6B7), we blocked the activation of the contact system in an established experimental baboon model in which Escherichia coli was infused to produce lethal bacteremia with hypotension. The untreated group (n = 5) displayed contact activation, manifested by a significant decrease in high molecular weight kininogen (HK) and a significant increase in alpha 2 macroglobulin-kallikrein complexes (alpha 2M-Kal). The C6B7-treated group (n = 5) showed an inactivation of Factor XII and the changes in HK and alpha 2M-Kal complexes were prevented. Both groups developed DIC manifested by a decrease in platelet, fibrinogen, and Factor V levels. The untreated group developed irreversible hypotension. The treated group experienced an initial hypotension that was reversed and extended the life of the animals. This study suggests that irreversible hypotension correlates with prolonged activation of the contact system, and specific antibody therapy can modulate both the pathophysiological and biochemical changes. Images PMID:7678610

  8. 2-Methyl-pyran-4-one-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside isolated from leaves of Punica granatum inhibits the TNFα-induced cell adhesion molecules expression by blocking nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB).

    PubMed

    Balwani, Sakshi; Nandi, Debkumar; Jaisankar, Parasuraman; Ghosh, Balaram

    2011-05-01

    Here, we report bioactivity-guided isolation, purification and characterization of a novel compound, 2-methyl-pyran-4-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (MPG) from the leaves of Punica granatum. The structure of MPG was established on the basis of its detailed spectral analyses. We demonstrated that MPG not only inhibited the expression of cell adhesion molecules but also significantly blocked its functional consequence, that is, the adhesion of neutrophils on human endothelial cells monolayer. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of action of MPG, we showed that MPG decreased the transcript levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin genes. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and western blot analyses, we demonstrated that MPG significantly blocked both the TNFα-induced translocation and activation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB). Thus, MPG could be useful as a novel lead molecule for developing future anti-inflammatory agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Taurine and niacin block lung injury and fibrosis by down-regulating bleomycin-induced activation of transcription nuclear factor-kappaB in mice.

    PubMed

    Gurujeyalakshmi, G; Wang, Y; Giri, S N

    2000-04-01

    The effects of taurine (T) and niacin (N) on bleomycin (BL)-induced increased production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and increased collagen content and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in the lungs were investigated in mice. The mice were intratracheally instilled with saline (SA) or BL (0.1 U/mouse/50 microliter) under ketamine and xylazine anesthesia. They had ad libitum access to diet containing 2.5% niacin (w/w) or the same control diet (CD) and water with and without taurine (1%) 3 days before intratracheal instillation and throughout the study. The mice were sacrificed at different times for collecting BALF and lungs, which were appropriately processed for various measurements. Treatment with taurine and niacin attenuated the BL-induced increases in proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1alpha, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and TGF-beta in BALF and lung hydroxyproline content of the mice in BL + TN groups. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of total RNA from whole lung was performed to assess the induction of TNF-alpha and IL-1 mRNAs as markers of NF-kappaB activation. The NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity in whole-lung extract was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. This revealed a progressive increase in NF-kappaB activation and IkBalpha depletion in lungs from mice in BL + CD groups from day 1 through day 21 compared with the corresponding SA + CD control groups. Treatment with taurine and niacin generally inhibited the BL-induced increases in the nuclear localization of NF-kappaB and preserved IkappaBalpha protein in BL + TN groups. This may be one of the mechanisms for the antifibrotic effect of taurine and niacin.

  10. Expression of sodium channel α subunits 1.1, 1.2 and 1.6 in rat hippocampus after kainic acid-induced epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xin; Werkman, Taco R; Gorter, Jan A; Wadman, Wytse J; van Vliet, Erwin A

    2013-09-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels control neuronal excitability and are the primary target for the majority of anti-epileptic drugs. This study investigates the (sub)cellular expression patterns of three important brain-associated Na(+) channel α subunits: NaV1.1, NaV1.2 and NaV1.6 during epileptogenesis (induced by kainic acid) using time points that cover the period from induction to the chronic phase of epilepsy. NaV1.1 immunoreactivity was persistently reduced at 1 day, 3 weeks and 2 months after SE in CA1 and CA3. About 50% of the NaV1.1-positive interneurons was lost at one day after SE in all regions investigated. In the hilus a similar reduction in NeuN-positive neurons was found, while in the CA1 and CA3 region the loss in NeuN-positive neurons only reached 15% in the chronic phase of epilepsy. This implies a stronger shift in the balance between excitation and inhibition toward excitation in the CA1 and CA3 region than in the hilus. NaV1.2 immunoreactivity in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus was lower than control at 1 day after SE. It increased at 3 weeks and 2 months after SE in the inner molecular layer and overlapped with sprouted mossy fibers. NaV1.6 immunoreactivity in the dendritic region of CA1 and CA3 was persistently reduced at all time-points during epileptogenesis. Some astrocytes expressed NaV1.1 and NaV1.6 at 3 weeks after SE. Expression data alone are not sufficient to explain changes in network stability, or infer causality in epileptogenesis. These results demonstrate that hippocampal sub-regional expression of NaV1.1, NaV1.2 and NaV1.6 Na(+) channel α subunits is altered during epileptogenesis in a time and location specific way. This implies that understanding epileptogenesis has to take into account several distinct and type-specific changes in sodium channel expression.

  11. Sequel of spontaneous seizures after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus and associated neuropathological changes in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Drexel, Meinrad; Preidt, Adrian Patrick; Sperk, Günther

    2012-01-01

    Injection of the seaweed toxin kainic acid (KA) in rats induces a severe status epilepticus initiating complex neuropathological changes in limbic brain areas and subsequently spontaneous recurrent seizures. Although neuropathological changes have been intensively investigated in the hippocampus proper and the dentate gyrus in various seizure models, much less is known about changes in parahippocampal areas. We now established telemetric EEG recordings combined with continuous video monitoring to characterize the development of spontaneous seizures after KA-induced status epilepticus, and investigated associated neurodegenerative changes, astrocyte and microglia proliferation in the subiculum and other parahippocampal brain areas. The onset of spontaneous seizures was heterogeneous, with an average latency of 15 ± 1.4 days (range 3–36 days) to the initial status epilepticus. The frequency of late spontaneous seizures was higher in rats in which the initial status epilepticus was recurrent after its interruption with diazepam compared to rats in which this treatment was more efficient. Seizure-induced neuropathological changes were assessed in the subiculum by losses in NeuN-positive neurons and by Fluoro-Jade C staining of degenerating neurons. Neuronal loss was already prominent 24 h after KA injection and only modestly progressed at the later intervals. It was most severe in the proximal subiculum and in layer III of the medial entorhinal cortex and distinct Fluoro-Jade C labeling was observed there in 75% of rats even after 3 months. Glutamatergic neurons, labeled by in situ hybridization for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 followed a similar pattern of cell losses, except for the medial entorhinal cortex and the proximal subiculum that appeared more vulnerable. Glutamate decarboxylase65 (GAD65) mRNA expressing neurons were generally less vulnerable than glutamate neurons. Reactive astrocytes and microglia were present after 24 h, however, became

  12. The nuclear localization of the Arabidopsis transcription factor TIP is blocked by its interaction with the coat protein of Turnip crinkle virus

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Tao; Qu Feng; Morris, T. Jack . E-mail: jmorris@unlnotes.unl.edu

    2005-01-20

    We have previously reported that TIP, an Arabidopsis protein, interacts with the coat protein (CP) of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) in yeast cells and that this interaction correlated with the resistance response in the TCV-resistant Arabidopsis ecotype Dijon-17. TIP was also able to activate transcription of reporter genes in yeast cells, suggesting that it is likely a transcription factor. We have now verified the physical interaction between TIP and TCV CP in vitro and showed that CP mutants unable to interact with TIP in yeast cells bind TIP with much lower affinity in vitro. Secondly, we have performed gel shift experiments demonstrating that TIP does not bind to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. The subcellular localization of TIP was also investigated by transiently expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged TIP in Nicotiana benthamiana plant cells, which showed that GFP-tagged TIP localizes primarily to nuclei. Significantly, co-expression of TCVCP and GFP-TIP prevented the nuclear localization of TIP. Together, these results suggest that TIP might be a transcription factor involved in regulating the defense response of Arabidopsis to TCV and that its normal role is compromised by interaction with the invading viral CP.

  13. Beautiful Blocks of Bedrock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-01

    This image captured by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft targets a 3-kilometer diameter crater that occurs within the ejecta blanket of the much older Bakhuysen Crater, a 150-kilometer diameter impact crater in Noachis Terra. Impact craters are interesting because they provide a mechanism to uplift and expose underlying bedrock, allowing for the study of the subsurface and the geologic past. An enhanced color image shows the wall of the crater, which exposes layering as well as blocks of rock. There is a distinctive large block in the upper left of the crater wall, generally referred to as a "mega-block." It is an angular, light-toned, highly fragmented block, about 100 meters across. Several smaller light-toned blocks are also in the crater wall, possibly of the same rock type as the "mega-block." Ejecta blocks are thrown outward during the initial excavation of a crater, or are deposited as part of the ground-hugging flows of which the majority of the ejecta blanket is comprised. Through images like these, we are able to study the deeper subsurface of Mars that is not otherwise exposed. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20728

  14. Gauge Blocks - A Zombie Technology.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Gauge blocks have been the primary method for disseminating length traceability for over 100 years. Their longevity was based on two things: the relatively low cost of delivering very high accuracy to users, and the technical limitation that the range of high precision gauging systems was very small. While the first reason is still true, the second factor is being displaced by changes in measurement technology since the 1980s. New long range sensors do not require master gauges that are nearly the same length as the part being inspected, and thus one of the primary attributes of gauge blocks, wringing stacks to match the part, is no longer needed. Relaxing the requirement that gauges wring presents an opportunity to develop new types of end standards that would increase the accuracy and usefulness of gauging systems.

  15. Snail-Modulated MicroRNA 493 Forms a Negative Feedback Loop with the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Pathway and Blocks Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arathy S; Jagadeeshan, Sankar; Pitani, Ravi Shankar; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Venkitasamy, Kesavan; Venkatraman, Ganesh; Rayala, Suresh K

    2017-03-15

    In this study, we have identified one microRNA, microRNA 493 (miR-493), which could simultaneously and directly regulate multiple genes downstream of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) pathway, including IGF1R, by binding with complementary sequences in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs of IGF1R, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), thereby potentiating their inhibitory function at multiple levels in development and progression of cancers. This binding was further confirmed by pulldown of miR with AGO-2 antibody. Further, results from head and neck samples showed that miR-493 levels were significantly downregulated in tumors, with a concomitant increase in the expression of IGF1R and key downstream effectors. Functional studies from miR-493 overexpression cells and nude-mouse models revealed the tumor suppressor functions of miR-493. Regulation studies revealed that Snail binds to the miR-493 promoter and represses it. We found the existence of a dynamic negative feedback loop in the regulation of IGF1R and miR-493 mediated via Snail. Our study showed that nicotine treatment significantly decreases the levels of miR-493-with a concomitant increase in the levels of Snail-an indication of progression of cells toward tumorigenesis, reestablishing the role of tobacco as a major risk factor for head and neck cancers and elucidating the mechanism behind nicotine-mediated tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Snail-Modulated MicroRNA 493 Forms a Negative Feedback Loop with the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Pathway and Blocks Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arathy S.; Jagadeeshan, Sankar; Pitani, Ravi Shankar; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Venkitasamy, Kesavan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we have identified one microRNA, microRNA 493 (miR-493), which could simultaneously and directly regulate multiple genes downstream of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) pathway, including IGF1R, by binding with complementary sequences in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs of IGF1R, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), thereby potentiating their inhibitory function at multiple levels in development and progression of cancers. This binding was further confirmed by pulldown of miR with AGO-2 antibody. Further, results from head and neck samples showed that miR-493 levels were significantly downregulated in tumors, with a concomitant increase in the expression of IGF1R and key downstream effectors. Functional studies from miR-493 overexpression cells and nude-mouse models revealed the tumor suppressor functions of miR-493. Regulation studies revealed that Snail binds to the miR-493 promoter and represses it. We found the existence of a dynamic negative feedback loop in the regulation of IGF1R and miR-493 mediated via Snail. Our study showed that nicotine treatment significantly decreases the levels of miR-493—with a concomitant increase in the levels of Snail—an indication of progression of cells toward tumorigenesis, reestablishing the role of tobacco as a major risk factor for head and neck cancers and elucidating the mechanism behind nicotine-mediated tumorigenesis. PMID:27956702

  17. The antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits rat hepatic stellate cell proliferation in vitro by blocking the tyrosine phosphorylation and reducing the gene expression of platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Anping; Zhang, Li

    2003-06-27

    During hepatic fibrogenesis, quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSC) become active and trans-differentiate into myofibroblast-like cells. This process coincides with an increase in cell proliferation, loss of stored vitamin A droplets, and excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix components. HSC activation is coupled with the sequential expression of cytokine receptors, including platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor (PDGF-betaR). Although the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood, it is widely accepted that oxidative stress plays critical roles in activation of HSC during hepatic fibrogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that the antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component in green tea extracts, significantly inhibited the proliferation of passaged HSC. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Since PDGF is a potent mitogen for HSC and mediates the early proliferative response, it was hypothesized that EGCG might inhibit HSC proliferation by interfering with the PDGF signal transduction. In this report, we demonstrated that EGCG, in two steps, significantly and effectively inhibited the proliferation of primary and passaged HSC. The polyphenolic compound initiated its inhibitory action by rapidly blocking the phosphorylation of tyrosines in PDGF-betaR elicited by PDGF in serum. This action was short lived, persisting for a few hours. In addition, this antioxidant inhibited the gene expression of PDGF-betaR by blocking the activation of transcription factors activator protein-1 and NF-kappaB, which were required for the gene transcription. The latter action remained effective for no less than 48 hours. These results provided a novel insight into the mechanisms by which EGCG inhibits HSC growth. The inhibitory effect of the natural antioxidant, its long history of beverage consumption without adverse health effects, and higher potent antioxidant capability make it a good

  18. The inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 in the rat skeletal muscle cell line L6 is blocked by wortmannin, but not by rapamycin: evidence that wortmannin blocks activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in L6 cells between Ras and Raf.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, D A; Alessi, D R; Vandenheede, J R; McDowell, H E; Hundal, H S; Cohen, P

    1994-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is inactivated in vitro by p70 S6 kinase or MAP kinase-activated protein kinase-1 beta (MAPKAP kinase-1 beta; also known as Rsk-2). Here we show that GSK3 isoforms are inhibited by 40% within minutes after stimulation of the rat skeletal-muscle cell line L6 with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or insulin. GSK3 was similarly inhibited in rabbit skeletal muscle after an intravenous injection of insulin. Inhibition resulted from increased phosphorylation of GSK3, probably at a serine/threonine residue(s), because it was reversed by incubation with protein phosphatase-2A. Rapamycin blocked the activation of p70 S6 kinase by IGF-1 in L6 cells, but had no effect on the inhibition of GSK3 or the activation of MAPKAP kinase-1 beta. In contrast, wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of PtdIns 3-kinase, prevented the inactivation of GSK3 and the activation of MAPKAP kinase-1 beta and p70 S6 kinase by IGF-1 or insulin. Wortmannin also blocked the activation of p74raf-1. MAP kinase kinase and p42 MAP kinase, but not the formation of GTP-Ras by IGF-1. The results suggest that the stimulation of glycogen synthase by insulin/IGF-1 in skeletal muscle involves the MAP-KAP kinase-1-catalysed inhibition of GSK3, as well as the previously described activation of the glycogen-associated form of protein phosphatase-1. Images Figure 1 PMID:7945242

  19. Nanostructured particles from multi scale building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampsey, J. Eric

    Nanotechnology has emerged as one of the most exciting new and developing fields in science today. New nanoscale materials and devices such as nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanowires, and nanosensors could revolutionize the 21st century in the same way that the transistor and Internet led to the information age. One key component in developing these new technologies is to assemble individual atomic and molecular building blocks into larger structures with fundamentally new properties and functions. Nature is very efficient at assembling multi scale building blocks such as proteins, lipids, and minerals into nanostructured materials such as bone, teeth, diatoms, eggshells, seashells, cell membranes, and DNA. Surfactant and colloidal building block can also be assembled into different nanoscale materials and devices by utilizing hydrophobic/hydrophilic and other surface interactions. Using these concepts, this dissertation focuses on the syntheses and applications of nanostructured particles assembled from multi scale building blocks. Important factors in the synthesis of the particles include particle size, particle morphology, pore size and pore structure. Five different types of nanostructured particles assembled from different multi scale building blocks are demonstrated in this work: (1) Spherical metal/silica mesoporous particles with high surface areas and controllable pore sizes, pore structures, and metal content are synthesized from surfactant, silicate, and metal building blocks for catalytic applications; (2) Mesoporous hollow spheres with controllable pore sizes and pore structures are synthesized from surfactant, silica, and polystyrene building blocks; (3) Spherical mesoporous carbon particles with controllable pore sizes and pore structures are templated from silica particles assembled from silica and surfactant building blocks; (4) Spherical mesoporous, microporous, and bimodal carbon particles are synthesized from sucrose and silica building blocks

  20. The effect of insulin-loaded linear poly(ethylene glycol)-brush-like poly(l-lysine) block copolymer on renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury through downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fei; Tang, Xiangyuan; Li, Xin; Xia, Wenquan; Liu, Daojun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the therapeutic effect of insulin-loaded linear poly(ethylene glycol)-brush-like poly(l-lysine) block copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-(poly(ethylenediamine l-glutamate)-g-poly(l-lysine)) (PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) on renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury through downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) as compared to free insulin. Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 30 U/kg insulin or insulin/PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) complex, and then subjected to 45 minutes of ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion. The blood and lungs were collected, the level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were measured, and the dry/wet lung ratios, the activity of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase, the content of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the expression of HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in pulmonary tissues. Both insulin and insulin/PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) preconditioning improved the recovery of renal function, reduced pulmonary oxidative stress injury, restrained inflammatory damage, and downregulated the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF as compared to ischemia/reperfusion group, while insulin/PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) significantly improved this effect.

  1. Development of a human epidermal growth factor derivative with EGFR-blocking and depleted biological activities: A comparative in vitro study using EGFR-positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Masomeh; Mansouri, Kamran; Soleymani, Bijan; Hoseinkhani, Zohreh; Shahlaie, Mohsen; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2017-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a local growth factor that stimulates cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation by binding to its receptor EGFR. EGF and EGFR are involved in many aspects of the development of carcinomas. Because EGFR has been found to be over-expressed in many tumors of epithelial origin, it is a potential target for antitumor therapy. In this study we designed a mutated form of hEGF (mEGF) with a deletion of four amino acids residues (Gln(43), Tyr(44), Arg(45) and Asp(46)) in order to show importance of Leu spatial location for EGFR binding/activation. Expression vector pET32a(+) and E. Coli, strain Rosetta-gami B (DE3) were used to enhance solubility of the recombinant protein with yielding approximately 10mg/l of cell culture. The purified cleaved hEGF as well as non-cleaved fusion protein were biologically active, which was confirmed by their equal ability to stimulate proliferation of MCF7 cells. The mEGF showed specificity and high affinity for EGFR binding, however binding affinity of mEGF for EGFR was reduced about 11.5 fold compared with that of hEGF. The mEGF effect on the MCF7 cell proliferation had a relatively different outcome; mEGF simulated differential cell growth in a dose dependent manner. On the other hand, in MDA-MB468 cells, hEGF and mEGF induced growth inhibition, which was much more severe for hEGF than that of mEGF. Also, hEGF strongly induced the phosphorylation of EGF receptor in MDA-MB468 cells while mEGF induced poor EGFR phosphorylation. The same observations were also made for migration of cancer cells, especially induction of MDA-MB468 migration by mEGF was significantly lower than that of hEGF, suggesting a connection between tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR and cell migration. Docking analysis revealed that the binding affinity and the buried surface area of mEGF to EGFR complex are lower than those of hEGF/EGFR. Although theoretical studies confirmed reduction in mEGF-EGFR binding affinity, the data of the

  2. Light extraction block with curved surface

    DOEpatents

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  3. Resolving writer's block.

    PubMed Central

    Huston, P.

    1998-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Writer's block, or a distinctly uncomfortable inability to write, can interfere with professional productivity. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To identify writer's block and to outline suggestions for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Once the diagnosis has been established, a stepwise approach to care is recommended. Mild blockage can be resolved by evaluating and revising expectations, conducting a task analysis, and giving oneself positive feedback. Moderate blockage can be addressed by creative exercises, such as brainstorming and role-playing. Recalcitrant blockage can be resolved with therapy. Writer's block can be prevented by taking opportunities to write at the beginning of projects, working with a supportive group of people, and cultivating an ongoing interest in writing. CONCLUSIONS: Writer's block is a highly treatable condition. A systematic approach can help to alleviate anxiety, build confidence, and give people the information they need to work productively. PMID:9481467

  4. What Causes Heart Block?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... acquired heart block. Coronary heart disease , also called coronary artery disease. Myocarditis (MI-o-kar-DI-tis), or inflammation ...

  5. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOEpatents

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  6. Mid-Career Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Considers typical reactions of midcareer employees to blocked opportunity; reasons for correcting these attitudes; ways of motivating these employees; methods of rekindling midcareer employees' interest in their jobs; encouraging competition; job switching; self-development programs; and supervisory attitudes. (CT)

  7. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

  8. Using the Stern Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    Extracts from "Experimenting with Numbers" by Margaret Stern demonstrate the use of Stern Blocks to develop the conceptual base on which learning disabled students can build further mathematical skills. (DB)

  9. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  10. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby may have an eye infection called conjunctivitis . ... increase the chance of other infections, such as conjunctivitis. ... be prevented. Proper treatment of nasal infections and conjunctivitis may reduce the risk of having a blocked ...

  11. Mid-Career Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Considers typical reactions of midcareer employees to blocked opportunity; reasons for correcting these attitudes; ways of motivating these employees; methods of rekindling midcareer employees' interest in their jobs; encouraging competition; job switching; self-development programs; and supervisory attitudes. (CT)

  12. Recipient block TMA technique.

    PubMed

    Mirlacher, Martina; Simon, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    New high-throughput screening technologies have led to the identification of hundreds of genes with a potential role in cancer or other diseases. One way to prioritize the leads obtained in such studies is to analyze a large number of tissues for candidate gene expression. The TMA methodology is now an established and frequently used tool for high-throughput tissue analysis. The recipient block technology is the "classical" method of TMA making. In this method, minute cylindrical tissue punches typically measuring 0.6 mm in diameter are removed from donor tissue blocks and are transferred into empty "recipient" paraffin blocks. Up to 1,000 different tissues can be analyzed in one TMA block. The equipment is affordable and easy to use in places where basic skills in histology are available.

  13. Asiatic acid inhibits cardiac hypertrophy by blocking interleukin-1β-activated nuclear factor-κB signaling in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohan; Si, Linjie; Xu, Jing; Yi, Chenlong; Wang, Fang; Gu, Weijuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Activated interleukin (IL)-1β signaling pathway is closely associated with pathological cardiac hypertrophy. This study investigated whether asiatic acid (AA) could inhibit IL-1β-related hypertrophic signaling, and thus suppressing the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Methods Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) induced cardiac hypertrophy in C57BL/6 mice and cultured neonatal cardiac myocytes stimulated with IL-1β were used to evaluate the role of AA in cardiac hypertrophy. The expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB binding activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Results AA pretreatment significantly attenuated the IL-1β-induced hypertrophic response of cardiomyocytes as reflected by reduction in the cardiomyocyte surface area and the inhibition of ANP mRNA expression. The protective effect of AA on IL-1β-stimulated cardiomyocytes was associated with the reduction of NF-κB binding activity. In addition, AA prevented TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo. It was found that AA markedly reduced the excessive expression of IL-1β and ANP, and inhibited the activation of NF-κB in the hypertrophic myocardium. Conclusions Our data suggest that AA may be a novel therapeutic agent for cardiac hypertrophy. The inhibition of IL-1β-activated NF-κB signaling may be the mechanism through which AA prevents cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26623102

  14. HIV-1 Vpu Blocks Recycling and Biosynthetic Transport of the Intrinsic Immunity Factor CD317/Tetherin To Overcome the Virion Release Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sarah; Fritz, Joëlle V.; Bitzegeio, Julia; Fackler, Oliver T.; Keppler, Oliver T.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intrinsic immunity factor CD317 (BST-2/HM1.24/tetherin) imposes a barrier to HIV-1 release at the cell surface that can be overcome by the viral protein Vpu. Expression of Vpu results in a reduction of CD317 surface levels; however, the mechanism of this Vpu activity and its contribution to the virological antagonism are incompletely understood. Here, we characterized the influence of Vpu on major CD317 trafficking pathways using quantitative antibody-based endocytosis and recycling assays as well as a microinjection/microscopy-based kinetic de novo expression approach. We report that HIV-1 Vpu inhibited both the anterograde transport of newly synthesized CD317 and the recycling of CD317 to the cell surface, while the kinetics of CD317 endocytosis remained unaffected. Vpu trapped trafficking CD317 molecules at the trans-Golgi network, where the two molecules colocalized. The subversion of both CD317 transport pathways was dependent on the highly conserved diserine S52/S56 motif of Vpu; however, it did not require recruitment of the diserine motif interactor and substrate adaptor of the SCF-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, β-TrCP. Treatment of cells with the malaria drug primaquine resulted in a CD317 trafficking defect that mirrored that induced by Vpu. Importantly, primaquine could functionally replace Vpu as a CD317 antagonist and rescue HIV-1 particle release. PMID:21610122

  15. Chronic pain and impaired glial glutamate transporter function in lupus-prone mice are ameliorated by blocking macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xisheng; Maixner, Dylan W; Li, Fen; Weng, Han-Rong

    2017-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ disease of unknown etiology in which the normal immune responses are directed against the body's own healthy tissues. Patients with SLE often suffer from chronic pain. Currently, no animal studies have been reported about the mechanisms underlying pain in SLE. In this study, the development of chronic pain in MRL lupus-prone (MRL/lpr) mice, a well-established lupus mouse model, was characterized for the first time. We found that female MRL/lpr mice developed thermal hyperalgesia at the age of 13 weeks, and mechanical allodynia at the age of 16 weeks. MRL/lpr mice with chronic pain had activation of microglia and astrocytes, over-expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), as well as suppression of glial glutamate transport function in the spinal cord. Intrathecal injection of either the CSF-1 blocker or IL-1 inhibitor attenuated thermal hyperalgesia in MRL/lpr mice. We provide evidence that the suppressed activity of glial glutamate transporters in the spinal dorsal horn in MRL/lpr mice is caused by activation of the CSF-1 and IL-1β signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that targeting the CSF-1 and IL-1β signaling pathways or the glial glutamate transporter in the spinal cord is an effective approach for the management of chronic pain caused by SLE.

  16. Dietary fish oil inhibits mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in diabetic rats by blocking nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Ying; Wang, Ya-Yun; Cao, Rui; Hou, Xiang-Hong; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Rui-Hua; Wang, Feng

    2015-11-01

    One of the most common complications of early-onset diabetes mellitus is peripheral diabetic neuropathy, which is manifested either by loss of nociception or by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease in human beings with characteristic symptoms of hyperglycemia, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Dietary fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown anti-inflammatory role in various experimental conditions. The present study investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation on the inflammation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rats. The effects of diabetes and fish oil treatment on the allodynia and hyperalgesia were also evaluated. Dietary fish oil effectively attenuated both allodynia and hyperalgesia induce by STZ injection. Along with the behavioral findings, DRG from fish oil-treated diabetic rats displayed a decrease in inflammatory cytokines and the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) compared with untreated diabetic rats. Fish oil supplementation also increased the phosphorylation of AKT in DRG of diabetic rats. These results suggested that dietary fish oil-inhibited allodynia and hyperalgesia in diabetic rats may stem from its anti-inflammatory potential by regulating NF-κB and AKT. Fish oil might be useful as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bryostatin-5 blocks stromal cell-derived factor-1 induced chemotaxis via desensitization and down-regulation of cell surface CXCR4 receptors.

    PubMed

    He, Xing; Fang, Liyan; Wang, Jue; Yi, Yanghua; Zhang, Shuyu; Xie, Xin

    2008-11-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), play important roles in hematopoiesis regulation, lymphocyte activation, and trafficking, as well as in developmental processes, including organogenesis, vascularization, and embryogenesis. The receptor is also involved in HIV infection and tumor growth and metastasis. Antagonists of CXCR4 have been widely evaluated for drugs against HIV and tumors. In an effort to identify novel CXCR4 antagonists, we screened a small library of compounds derived from marine organisms and found bryostatin-5, which potently inhibits chemotaxis induced by SDF-1 in Jurkat cells. Bryostatin-5 is a member of the macrolactones, and its analogue bryostatin-1 is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for its chemotherapeutic potential. The involvement of bryostatins in the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling process has never been reported. In this study, we found that bryostatin-5 potently inhibits SDF-1-induced chemotaxis but does not affect serum-induced chemotaxis. Further studies indicate that this inhibitory effect is not due to receptor antagonism but rather to bryostatin-5-induced receptor desensitization and down-regulation of cell surface CXCR4. We also show that these effects are mediated by the activation of conventional protein kinase C.

  18. Fish oil improves learning impairments of diabetic rats by blocking PI3K/AKT/nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Jia, D; Heng, L-J; Yang, R-H; Gao, G-D

    2014-01-31

    Previous research has demonstrated that diabetes induces learning and memory deficits. However, the mechanism of memory impairment induced by diabetes is poorly understood. Dietary fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to enhance learning and memory and prevent memory deficits in various experimental conditions. The present study investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation on the lipid peroxidation, inflammation and neuron apoptosis in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rats. The effects of diabetes and fish oil treatment on the spatial learning and memory were also evaluated using the Morris Water Maze. STZ-induced diabetes impaired spatial learning and memory of rats, which was associated with the inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Fish oil administration ameliorated cognitive deficit, reduced oxidative stress and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), protected the hippocampal neurons by increasing Protein Kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation and decreasing caspase-9 expression. These results suggested that the principle mechanisms involved in the antidiabetic and neuroprotective effect of fish oil were its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis potential, supporting a potential role for fish oil as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications.

  19. View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

  2. Solar Ultraviolet Irradiation Reduces Collagen in Photoaged Human Skin by Blocking Transforming Growth Factor-β Type II Receptor/Smad Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Taihao; He, Tianyuan; Kang, Sewon; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from the sun reduces production of type I procollagen (COLI), the major structural protein in human skin. This reduction is a key feature of the pathophysiology of premature skin aging (photoaging). Photoaging is the most common form of skin damage and is associated with skin carcinoma. TGF-β/Smad pathway is the major regulator of type I procollagen synthesis in human skin. We have previously reported that UV irradiation impairs transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling in mink lung epithelial cells. We have investigated the mechanism of UV irradiation impairment of the TGF-β/Smad pathway and the impact of this impairment on type I procollagen production in human skin fibroblasts, the major collagen-producing cells in skin. We report here that UV irradiation impairs TGF-β/Smad pathway in human skin by down-regulation of TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII). This loss of TβRII occurs within 8 hours after UV irradiation and precedes down-regulation of type I procollagen expression in human skin in vivo. In human skin fibroblasts, UV-induced TβRII down-regulation is mediated by transcriptional repression and results in 90% reduction of specific, cell-surface binding of TGF-β. This loss of TβRII prevents downstream activation of Smad2/3 by TGF-β, thereby reducing expression of type I procollagen. Preventing loss of TβRII by overexpression protects against UV inhibition of type I procollagen gene expression in human skin fibroblasts. UV-induced down-regulation of TβRII, with attendant reduction of type I procollagen production, is a critical molecular mechanism in the pathophysiology of photoaging. PMID:15331399

  3. Chemoprevention of Head and Neck Cancer by Simultaneous Blocking of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Cyclooxygenase-2 Signaling Pathways: Preclinical and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong M.; Zhang, Hongzheng; Saba, Nabil; Chen, Amy; Nannapaneni, Sreenivas; Amin, A.R.M. Ruhul; Müller, Susan; Lewis, Melinda; Sica, Gabriel; Kono, Scott; Brandes, Johann C.; Grist, William; Moreno-Williams, Rachel; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Thomas, Sufi M.; Chen, Zhengjia; Shin, Hyung Ju C.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Chen, Zhuo Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the efficacy and underlying molecular mechanism of a novel chemopreventive strategy combining epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (COX-2I). Experimental Design We examined the inhibition of tumor cell growth by combined EGFR-TKI (erlotinib) and COX-2I (celecoxib) treatment using head and neck cancer (HNC) cell lines and a preventive xenograft model. We studied the antiangiogenic activity of these agents and examined the affected signaling pathways by immunoblotting analysis in tumor cell lysates and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analyses on the mouse xenograft tissues and blood, respectively. Biomarkers in these signaling pathways were studied by IHC, EIA, and an antibody array analysis in samples collected from participants in a phase I chemoprevention trial of erlotinib and celecoxib. Results The combined treatment inhibited HNC cell growth significantly more potently than either single agent alone in cell line and xenograft models, and resulted in greater inhibition of cell cycle progression at G1 phase than either single drug. The combined treatment modulated the EGFR and mTOR signaling pathways. A phase I chemoprevention trial of combined erlotinib and celecoxib revealed an overall pathologic response rate of 71% at time of data analysis. Analysis of tissue samples from participants consistently showed downregulation of EGFR, pERK and pS6 levels after treatment, which correlated with clinical response. Conclusion Treatment with erlotinib combined with celecoxib offers an effective chemopreventive approach through inhibition of EGFR and mTOR pathways, which may serve as potential biomarkers to monitor the intervention of this combination in the clinic. PMID:23422093

  4. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and release from hippocampal neurons is mediated by non-NMDA type glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, C; Olson, L; Bean, A J

    1994-03-01

    We have examined the influence of glutamate on cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Kainic acid (KA) produced an upregulation of hippocampal and neocortical BDNF mRNA as well as BDNF protein that was blocked by a non-NMDA antagonist, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), but was not affected by the NMDA antagonist 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7). Basal levels of BDNF mRNA were not affected by NMDA, DNQX, or AP7 treatment. BDNF protein was also increased after kainate exposure with a spatial and temporal course distinct from that seen for the expression of BDNF mRNA. A dramatic shift in BDNF immunoreactivity (-IR) was observed from intracellular compartments to the neuropil surrounding CA3 pyramidal cells 2-3 hr after KA exposure. This shift in localization of BDNF-IR suggests a constitutive release of BDNF at the level of the cell body and dendrites. Moreover, we have localized mRNAs for full-length and truncated trkB, to a co-incident population of neurons and glia. These data suggest the neurons that produce BDNF also express components necessary for a biological response to the same neurotrophic factor. The present study also demonstrates increased BDNF-IR in the mossy fiber terminal zone of hippocampus after exposure to KA, as well as an increase in trkB mRNA, and provides evidence of local release of this neurotrophin into the surrounding neuropil where it would be available for local utilization. The synthesis and putative release of BDNF from somatic and/or dendritic sites within the hippocampus provide evidence of a potential autocrine or paracrine role for BDNF, and establish a local source of trophic support for the maintenance of synaptic plasticity and anatomic reorganization in the mature nervous system.

  5. Honokiol improved chondrogenesis and suppressed inflammation in human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells via blocking nuclear factor-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Yin, Zhanhai; Wang, Ling; Li, Feng; Qiu, Yusheng

    2017-08-29

    Cartilage degradation is the significant pathological process in osteoarthritis (OA). Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activate various downstream mediators contributing to OA pathology. Recently, stem cell-based cartilage repair emerges as a potential therapeutic strategy that being widely studied, whereas, the outcome is still far from clinical application. In this study, we focused on an anti-inflammatory agent, honokiol, which is isolated from an herb, investigated the potential effects on human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in IL-1β stimulation. Second passage hUC-MSCs were cultured for multi-differentiation. Flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, von Kossa stain, alcian blue stain and oil red O stain were used for characterization and multi-differentiation determination. Honokiol (5, 10, 25, 50 μM) and IL-1β (10 ng/ml) were applied in hUC-MSCs during chondrogenesis. Analysis was performed by MTT, cell apoptosis evaluation, ELISA assay, qRT-PCR and western blot. hUC-MSC was positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105, but lack of CD34 and CD45. Remarkable osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and adipogenesis were detected in hUC-MSCs. IL-1β enhanced cell apoptosis and necrosis and activated the expression of caspase-3, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -9, 13 in hUC-MSCs. Moreover, the expression of SRY-related high-mobility group box 9 (SOX-9), aggrecan and col2α1 was suppressed. Honokiol relieved these negative impacts induced by IL-1β and suppressed Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway by downregulating expression of p-IKKα/β, p-IκBα and p-p65 in dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Honokiol improved cell survival and chondrogenesis of hUC-MSCs and inhibited IL-1β-induced inflammatory response, which suggested that combination of anti-inflammation and stem cell can be a novel strategy for better cartilage repair.

  6. Factors affecting treatment-seeking for febrile illness in a malaria endemic block in Boudh district, Orissa, India: policy implications for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Orissa state in eastern India accounts for the highest malaria burden to the nation. However, evidences are limited on its treatment-seeking behaviour in the state. We assessed the treatment-seeking behaviour towards febrile illness in a malaria endemic district in Orissa. Methods A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out during the high malaria transmission season of 2006 in Boudh district. Respondents (n = 300) who had fever with chills within two weeks prior to the day of data collection were selected through a multi-stage sampling and interviewed with a pre-tested and structured interview schedule. Malaria treatment providers (n = 23) were interviewed in the district to gather their insights on factors associated with prompt and effective treatment through a semi-structured and open-ended interview guideline. Results Majority of respondents (n = 281) sought some sort of treatment e.g. government health facility (35.7%), less qualified providers (31.3%), and community level health workers and volunteers (24.3%). The single most common reason (66.9%) for choosing a provider was proximity. Over a half (55.7%) sought treatment from appropriate providers within 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Respondents under five years (OR 2.00, 95% CI 0.84-4.80, P = 0.012), belonging to scheduled tribe community (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.11-4.07, P = 0.022) and visiting a provider more than five kilometers (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.09-3.83, P = 0.026) were more likely to have delayed or inappropriate treatment. Interviews with the providers indicated that patients' lack of trust in community volunteers providing treatment led to inappropriate treatment-seeking from the less qualified providers. The reasons for the lack of trust included drug side effects, suspicions about drug quality, stock-outs of drugs and inappropriate attitude of the provider. Conclusion Large-scale involvement of less qualified providers is suggested in the malaria control programme as volunteers

  7. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Blocking Agents as Treatment for Ulcerative Colitis Intolerant or Refractory to Conventional Medical Therapy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiyong; Wang, Yinjun; Dai, Shixue; Liu, Qiang; Zheng, Xuebao

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficacy of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) blockers for treatment of ulcerative colitis that is unresponsive to conventional therapy is unclear due to recent studies yielding conflicting results. Aim To assess the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF-α agents for treatment of ulcerative colitis patients who were intolerant or refractory to conventional medical therapy. Methods Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane database were searched. Analysis was performed on randomized controlled trials that assessed anti-TNF-α therapy on ulcerative colitis patients that had previously failed therapy with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants. The primary outcome focused on was the frequency of patients that achieved clinical remission. Further trial outcomes of interest included rates of remission without patient use of corticosteroids during the trial, extent of mucosal healing, and the number of cases that resulted in colectomy and serious side effects. Results Eight trials from seven studies (n = 2122) met the inclusion criteria and were thus included during analysis. TNF-α blockers demonstrated clinical benefit as compared to placebo control as evidenced by an increased frequency of clinical remission (p<0.00001), steroid-free remission (p = 0.01), endoscopic remission (p<0.00001) and a decrease in frequency of colectomy (p = 0.03). No difference was found concerning serious side effects (p = 0.05). Three small trials (n = 57) comparing infliximab to corticosteroid treatment, showed no difference in frequency of clinical remission (p = 0.93), mucosal healing (p = 0.80), and requirement for a colectomy (p = 0.49). One trial compared infliximab to cyclosporine (n = 115), wherein no difference was found in terms of mucosal healing (p = 0.85), colectomy frequency (p = 0.60) and serious side effects (p = 0.23). Conclusion TNF-α blockers are effective and safe therapies for the induction and maintenance of long

  8. Adenovirus-mediated tissue factor pathway inhibitor gene transfer induces apoptosis by blocking the phosphorylation of JAK-2/STAT-3 pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Yejing; Chi, Jinyu; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yin, Xinhua

    2012-10-01

    In our previous study, we have demonstrated that tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) gene could induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis. This study was conducted to investigate whether the overexpression of the TFPI gene can induce VSMC apoptosis by inhibiting JAK-2/STAT-3 pathway phosphorylation and thereby inhibiting the expression of such downstream targets as the apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and cell cycle protein cyclin D1. The effect of TFPI on the expression of survivin, a central molecule in cell survival, was also investigated. Rat VSMCs were infected with recombinant adenovirus containing either the TFPI (Ad-TFPI) or LacZ (Ad-LacZ) gene or DMEM in vitro. TFPI expression was detected by ELISA. TUNEL staining and electron microscope were carried out to determine the apoptosis of VSMCs. The expression levels of JAK-2, p-JAK-2, STAT-3, p-STAT-3, cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and survivin were examined by western blot analysis. TFPI protein was detected in the TFPI group after gene transfer and the peak expression was at the 3rd day. At the 3rd, 5th and 7th days after gene transfer, the apoptotic rates by TUNEL assay in the TFPI group were 10.91 ± 1.66%, 13.46 ± 1.28% and 17.04 ± 1.95%, respectively, whereas those in the LacZ group were 3.28 ± 0.89%, 4.01 ± 0.72% and 4.89 ± 1.17%, respectively. We observed cell contraction, slight mitochondrial swelling, nuclear pyknosis and apoptotic body formation in TFPI-treated VSMCs using electron microscopy. JAK-2, p-JAK-2, STAT-3, p-STAT-3, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2, which are all involved in the JAK-2/STAT-3 pathway, were detected in the VSMCs on the 3rd, 5th and 7th days after gene transfer, which is consistent with previously demonstrated time points when VSMCs apoptosis occurred. The expression levels of p-JAK-2, p-STAT-3, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 were significantly decreased over time in the TFPI group (each P<0.05) but not in the Ad-LacZ and DMEM groups. However, this attenuation of expression was not observed for JAK-2

  9. Down-titration and discontinuation strategies of tumor necrosis factor-blocking agents for rheumatoid arthritis in patients with low disease activity.

    PubMed

    van Herwaarden, Noortje; den Broeder, Alfons A; Jacobs, Wilco; van der Maas, Aatke; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; van den Bemt, Bart J F

    2014-09-29

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are effective in treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but they are associated with (dose-dependent) adverse effects and high costs. To prevent overtreatment, several trials have assessed the effectiveness of down-titration compared with continuation of the standard dose. To evaluate the benefits and harms of down-titration (dose reduction, discontinuation or disease activity guided dose tapering) of anti-TNF agents (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab) on disease activity, functioning, costs, safety and radiographic damage compared with usual care in patients with RA and low disease activity. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 8, 2013; Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to 8 September 2013); EMBASE (1947 to 8 September 2013); Science Citation Index (Web of Science); and conference proceedings of the American College of Rheumatology (2005 to 2012) and European League against Rheumatism (2005 to 2013). We contacted authors of the seven included studies to ask for additional information on their study; five responded. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing down-titration (dose reduction, discontinuation, disease activity-guided dose tapering) of anti-TNF agents (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab) to usual care/no down-titration in patients with RA and a low disease activity state. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Six RCTs and one CCT (total 1203 participants), reporting anti-TNF down-titration, were included. Three studies (559 participants) reported anti-TNF dose reduction compared with anti-TNF continuation. Five studies (732 participants) reported anti-TNF discontinuation compared with anti-TNF continuation (two studies assessed both anti-TNF discontinuation and dose reduction), and one study assessed disease activity

  10. Mobilization with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor blocks medullar erythropoiesis by depleting F4/80(+)VCAM1(+)CD169(+)ER-HR3(+)Ly6G(+) erythroid island macrophages in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Rebecca N; Forristal, Catherine E; Raggatt, Liza J; Nowlan, Bianca; Barbier, Valerie; Kaur, Simranpreet; van Rooijen, Nico; Winkler, Ingrid G; Pettit, Allison R; Levesque, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Similarly to other tissues, the bone marrow contains subsets of resident tissue macrophages, which are essential to maintain bone formation, functional hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niches, and erythropoiesis. Pharmacologic doses of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilize HSC in part by interfering with the HSC niche-supportive function of BM resident macrophages. Because bone marrow macrophages are key to both maintenance of HSC within their niche and erythropoiesis, we investigated the effect of mobilizing doses of G-CSF on erythropoiesis in mice. We now report that G-CSF blocks medullar erythropoiesis by depleting the erythroid island macrophages we identified as co-expressing F4/80, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, CD169, Ly-6G, and the ER-HR3 erythroid island macrophage antigen. Both broad macrophage depletion, achieved by injecting clodronate-loaded liposomes, and selective depletion of CD169(+) macrophages, also concomitantly depleted F4/80(+)VCAM-1(+)CD169(+)ER-HR3(+)Ly-6G(+) erythroid island macrophages and blocked erythropoiesis. This more precise phenotypic definition of erythroid island macrophages will enable studies on their biology and function in normal settings and on diseases associated with anemia. Finally, this study further illustrates that macrophages are a potent relay of innate immunity and inflammation on bone, hematopoietic, and erythropoietic maintenance. Agents that affect these macrophages, such as G-CSF, are likely to affect these three processes concomitantly. Copyright © 2014 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Block of AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cell growth, angiogenesis, and lesion formation in nude mice by antisense oligonucleotide targeting basic fibroblast growth factor. A novel strategy for the therapy of KS.

    PubMed Central

    Ensoli, B; Markham, P; Kao, V; Barillari, G; Fiorelli, V; Gendelman, R; Raffeld, M; Zon, G; Gallo, R C

    1994-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent tumor of HIV-1-infected individuals (AIDS-KS). Typical features of KS are proliferating spindle-shaped cells, considered to be the tumor cells of KS, and endothelial cells forming blood vessels. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent angiogenic factor, is highly expressed by KS spindle cells in vivo and after injection in nude mice it induces vascular lesions closely resembling early KS in humans. Similar lesions are induced by inoculating nude mice with cultured spindle cells from AIDS-KS lesions (AIDS-KS cells) which produce and release bFGF. Here we show that phosphorothioate antisense (AS) oligonucleotides directed against bFGF mRNA (ASbFGF) inhibit both the growth of AIDS-KS cells derived from different patients and the angiogenic activity associated with these cells, including the induction of KS-like lesions in nude mice. These effects are due to the block of the production of bFGF which is required by AIDS-KS cells to enter the cell cycle and which, after release, mediates angiogenesis. The effects of ASbFGF are specific, dose dependent, achieved at low (0.1-1 microM), nontoxic, oligomer concentrations, and are reversed by the addition of bFGF to the cells, suggesting that ASbFGF oligomers are promising drug candidates for KS therapy. Images PMID:7525646

  12. Characterization of binding mode of action of a blocking anti-platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B monoclonal antibody, MOR8457, reveals conformational flexibility and avidity needed for PDGF-BB to bind PDGF receptor-β.

    PubMed

    Kuai, Jun; Mosyak, Lidia; Brooks, Jon; Cain, Michael; Carven, Gregory J; Ogawa, Shinji; Ishino, Tetsuya; Tam, May; Lavallie, Edward R; Yang, Zhiyong; Ponsel, Dirk; Rauchenberger, Robert; Arch, Robert; Pullen, Nick

    2015-03-17

    Platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is an important mitogen and cell survival factor during development. PDGF-BB binds PDGF receptor-β (PDGFRβ) to trigger receptor dimerization and tyrosine kinase activation. We present the pharmacological and biophysical characterization of a blocking PDGF-BB monoclonal antibody, MOR8457, and contrast this to PDGFRβ. MOR8457 binds to PDGF-BB with high affinity and selectivity, and prevents PDGF-BB induced cell proliferation competitively and with high potency. The structural characterization of the MOR8457-PDGF-BB complex indicates that MOR8457 binds with a 2:1 stoichiometry, but that binding of a single MOR8457 moiety is sufficient to prevent binding to PDGFRβ. Comparison of the MOR8457-PDGF-BB structure with that of the PDGFRβ-PDGF-BB complex suggested the potential reason for this was a substantial bending and twisting of PDGF-BB in the MOR8457 structure, relative to the structures of PDGF-BB alone, bound to a PDGF-BB aptamer or PDGFRβ, which makes it nonpermissive for PDGFRβ binding. These biochemical and structural data offer insights into the permissive structure of PDGF-BB needed for agonism as well as strategies for developing specific PDGF ligand antagonists.

  13. A Comparison of Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood and Asymptotically Distribution-Free Dynamic Factor Analysis Parameter Estimation in Fitting Covariance-Structure Models to Block-Toeplitz Matrices Representing Single-Subject Multivariate Time-Series.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, P C; Nesselroade, J R

    1998-07-01

    The study of intraindividual variability pervades empirical inquiry in virtually all subdisciplines of psychology. The statistical analysis of multivariate time-series data - a central product of intraindividual investigations -requires special modeling techniques. The dynamic factor model (DFM), which is a generalization of the traditional common factor model, has been proposed by Molenaar (1985) for systematically extracting information from multivariate time- series via latent variable modeling. Implementation of the DFM model has taken several forms, one of which involves specifying it as a covariance-structure model and estimating its parameters from a block-Toeplitz matrix derived from the multivariate time-ser~es. We compare two methods for estimating DFM parameters within a covariance-structure framework - pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (p-ML) and Asymptotically Distribution Free (ADF) estimation - by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. Both methods appear to give consistent model parameter estimates of comparable precision, but only the ADF method gives standard errors and chi-square statistics that appear to be consistent. The relative ordering of the values of all estimates appears to be very similar across methods. When the manifest time-series is relatively short, the two methods appear to perform about equally well.

  14. Impression block with orientator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-02-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

  15. 31 CFR 547.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 547.302 Section 547.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.302 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked property shall mean any account or property subject to the prohibitions in § 547.201...

  16. HUman MicroNucleus project: international database comparison for results with the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes: I. Effect of laboratory protocol, scoring criteria, and host factors on the frequency of micronuclei.

    PubMed

    Bonassi, S; Fenech, M; Lando, C; Lin, Y P; Ceppi, M; Chang, W P; Holland, N; Kirsch-Volders, M; Zeiger, E; Ban, S; Barale, R; Bigatti, M P; Bolognesi, C; Jia, C; Di Giorgio, M; Ferguson, L R; Fucic, A; Lima, O G; Hrelia, P; Krishnaja, A P; Lee, T K; Migliore, L; Mikhalevich, L; Mirkova, E; Mosesso, P; Müller, W U; Odagiri, Y; Scarffi, M R; Szabova, E; Vorobtsova, I; Vral, A; Zijno, A

    2001-01-01

    Micronucleus (MN) expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes is well established as a standard method for monitoring chromosome damage in human populations. The first results of an analysis of pooled data from laboratories using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and participating in the HUMN (HUman MicroNucleus project) international collaborative study are presented. The effects of laboratory protocol, scoring criteria, and host factors on baseline micronucleated binucleate cell (MNC) frequency are evaluated, and a reference range of "normal" values against which future studies may be compared is provided. Primary data from historical records were submitted by 25 laboratories distributed in 16 countries. This resulted in a database of nearly 7000 subjects. Potentially significant differences were present in the methods used by participating laboratories, such as in the type of culture medium, the concentration of cytochalasin-B, the percentage of fetal calf serum, and in the culture method. Differences in criteria for scoring micronuclei were also evident. The overall median MNC frequency in nonexposed (i.e., normal) subjects was 6.5 per thousand and the interquartile range was between 3 and 12 per thousand. An increase in MNC frequency with age was evident in all but two laboratories. The effect of gender, although not so evident in all databases, was also present, with females having a 19% higher level of MNC frequency (95% confidence interval: 14-24%). Statistical analyses were performed using random-effects models for correlated data. Our best model, which included exposure to genotoxic factors, host factors, methods, and scoring criteria, explained 75% of the total variance, with the largest contribution attributable to laboratory methods.

  17. An inhibitor of the EGF receptor family blocks myeloma cell growth factor activity of HB-EGF and potentiates dexamethasone or anti-IL-6 antibody-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mahtouk, Karène; Jourdan, Michel; De Vos, John; Hertogh, Catherine; Fiol, Geneviève; Jourdan, Eric; Rossi, Jean-François; Klein, Bernard

    2004-03-01

    We previously found that some myeloma cell lines express the heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) gene. As the proteoglycan syndecan-1 is an HB-EGF coreceptor as well as a hallmark of plasma cell differentiation and a marker of myeloma cells, we studied the role of HB-EGF on myeloma cell growth. The HB-EGF gene was expressed by bone marrow mononuclear cells in 8 of 8 patients with myeloma, particularly by monocytes and stromal cells, but not by purified primary myeloma cells. Six of 9 myeloma cell lines and 9 of 9 purified primary myeloma cells expressed ErbB1 or ErbB4 genes coding for HB-EGF receptor. In the presence of a low interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration, HB-EGF stimulated the proliferation of the 6 ErbB1+ or ErbB4+ cell lines, through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (PI-3K/AKT) pathway. A pan-ErbB inhibitor blocked the myeloma cell growth factor activity and the signaling induced by HB-EGF. This inhibitor induced apoptosis of patients'myeloma cells cultured with their tumor environment. It also increased patients' myeloma cell apoptosis induced by an anti-IL-6 antibody or dexamethasone. The ErbB inhibitor had no effect on the interaction between multiple myeloma cells and stromal cells. It was not toxic for nonmyeloma cells present in patients' bone marrow cultures or for the growth of hematopoietic progenitors. Altogether, these data identify ErbB receptors as putative therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma.

  18. A Place for Block Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other…

  19. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  20. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  1. Hawaii Census 2000 Blocks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include total population counts, racial/ethnic, and poverty/income information. Racial/ethnic classifications are represented in units of blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Poverty and income data are represented in units of blockgroups and tracts. Percentages of each racial/ethnic group have been calculated from the population counts. Total Minority counts and percentages were compiled from each racial/ethnic non-white category. Categories compiled to create the Total Minority count includes the following: African American, Asian, American Indian, Pacific Islander, White Hispanic, Other and all mixed race categories. The percentage poverty attribute represents the percent of the population living at or below poverty level. The per capita income attribute represents the sum of all income within the geographic entity, divided by the total population of that entity. Special fields designed to be used for EJ analysis have been derived from the PL data and include the following: Percentage difference of block, blockgroup and total minority from the state and county averages, percentile rank for each percent total minority within state and county entitie

  2. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  3. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  4. Flattening basic blocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2006-01-01

    The application of cross country elimination strategies requires access to the computational graph or at least subgraphs for certain scopes, e.g. a basic block. Under the presence of aliased variables the construction of these (sub)graphs encounters ambiguities. We propose an algorithm to construct ambiguity free subgraphs.

  5. Paravertebral Block Plus Thoracic Wall Block versus Paravertebral Block Alone for Analgesia of Modified Radical Mastectomy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nai-Liang; Yu, Ben-Long; Hung, Chen-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Paravertebral block placement was the main anesthetic technique for modified radical mastectomy in our hospital until February 2014, when its combination with blocks targeting the pectoral musculature was initiated. We compared the analgesic effects of paravertebral blocks with or without blocks targeting the pectoral musculature for modified radical mastectomy. Methods We retrospectively collected data from a single surgeon and anesthesiologist from June 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015. Intraoperative sedatives and analgesic requirements, time to the first analgesic request, postoperative analgesic doses, patient satisfaction, and complications were compared. Results Fifty-four patients received a paravertebral block alone (PECS 0), and 46 received a paravertebral block combined with blocks targeting the pectoral musculature (PECS 1). The highest intraoperative effect–site concentration of propofol was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group than in the PECS 0 group [2.3 (1.5, 2.8) vs 2.5 (1.5, 4) μg/mL, p = 0.0014]. The intraoperative rescue analgesic dose was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group [0 (0, 25) vs 0 (0, 75) mg of ketamine, p = 0.0384]. Furthermore, the PECS 1 group had a significantly longer time to the first analgesic request [636.5 (15, 720) vs 182.5 (14, 720) min, p = 0.0001]. After further adjustment for age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification, chronic pain history, incidence of a superficial cervical plexus block placement, and operation duration, blocks targeting the pectoral musculature were determined to be the only significant factor (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.23–0.58; p < 0.0001). Very few patients used potent analgesics including morphine and ketorolac; the cumulative use of morphine or ketorolac was similar in the study groups. However, the incidence of all analgesic use, namely morphine, ketorolac, acetaminophen, and celecoxib, was

  6. Pharmacologic inhibition of reactive gliosis blocks TNF-α-mediated neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Livne-Bar, Izhar; Lam, Susy; Chan, Darren; Guo, Xiaoxin; Askar, Idil; Nahirnyj, Adrian; Flanagan, John G; Sivak, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    Reactive gliosis is an early pathological feature common to most neurodegenerative diseases, yet its regulation and impact remain poorly understood. Normally astrocytes maintain a critical homeostatic balance. After stress or injury they undergo rapid parainflammatory activation, characterized by hypertrophy, and increased polymerization of type III intermediate filaments (IFs), particularly glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin. However, the consequences of IF dynamics in the adult CNS remains unclear, and no pharmacologic tools have been available to target this mechanism in vivo. The mammalian retina is an accessible model to study the regulation of astrocyte stress responses, and their influence on retinal neuronal homeostasis. In particular, our work and others have implicated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling as a key regulator of glutamate recycling, antioxidant activity and cytokine secretion by astrocytes and related Müller glia, with potent influences on neighboring neurons. Here we report experiments with the small molecule inhibitor, withaferin A (WFA), to specifically block type III IF dynamics in vivo. WFA was administered in a model of metabolic retinal injury induced by kainic acid, and in combination with a recent model of debridement-induced astrocyte reactivity. We show that WFA specifically targets IFs and reduces astrocyte and Müller glial reactivity in vivo. Inhibition of glial IF polymerization blocked p38 MAPK-dependent secretion of TNF-α, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal apoptosis. To our knowledge this is the first study to demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of IF dynamics in reactive glia protects neurons in vivo. PMID:27685630

  7. The Treponema denticola FhbB Protein Is a Dominant Early Antigen That Elicits FhbB Variant-Specific Antibodies That Block Factor H Binding and Cleavage by Dentilisin.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel P; Oliver, Lee D; Tegels, Brittney K; Reed, Lucas A; O'Bier, Nathaniel S; Kurniyati, Kurni; Faust, Lindsay A; Lawson, Christine K; Allard, Anna M; Caimano, Melissa J; Marconi, Richard T

    2016-07-01

    The Treponema denticola FhbB protein contributes to immune evasion by binding factor H (FH). Cleavage of FH by the T. denticola protease, dentilisin, may contribute to the local immune dysregulation that is characteristic of periodontal disease (PD). Although three FhbB phyletic types have been defined (FhbB1, FhbB2, and FhbB3), the in vivo expression patterns and antigenic heterogeneity of FhbB have not been assessed. Here, we demonstrate that FhbB is a dominant early antigen that elicits FhbB type-specific antibody (Ab) responses. Using the murine skin abscess model, we demonstrate that the presence or absence of FhbB or dentilisin significantly influences Ab responses to infection and skin abscess formation. Competitive binding analyses revealed that α-FhbB Ab can compete with FH for binding to T. denticola and block dentilisin-mediated FH cleavage. Lastly, we demonstrate that dentilisin cleavage sites reside within critical functional domains of FH, including the complement regulatory domain formed by CCPs 1 to 4. Analysis of the FH cleavage products revealed that they lack cofactor activity. The data presented here provide insight into the in vivo significance of dentilisin, FhbB and its antigenic diversity, and the potential impact of FH cleavage on the regulation of complement activation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. The Treponema denticola FhbB Protein Is a Dominant Early Antigen That Elicits FhbB Variant-Specific Antibodies That Block Factor H Binding and Cleavage by Dentilisin

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Daniel P.; Oliver, Lee D.; Tegels, Brittney K.; Reed, Lucas A.; O'Bier, Nathaniel S.; Kurniyati, Kurni; Faust, Lindsay A.; Lawson, Christine K.; Allard, Anna M.; Caimano, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    The Treponema denticola FhbB protein contributes to immune evasion by binding factor H (FH). Cleavage of FH by the T. denticola protease, dentilisin, may contribute to the local immune dysregulation that is characteristic of periodontal disease (PD). Although three FhbB phyletic types have been defined (FhbB1, FhbB2, and FhbB3), the in vivo expression patterns and antigenic heterogeneity of FhbB have not been assessed. Here, we demonstrate that FhbB is a dominant early antigen that elicits FhbB type-specific antibody (Ab) responses. Using the murine skin abscess model, we demonstrate that the presence or absence of FhbB or dentilisin significantly influences Ab responses to infection and skin abscess formation. Competitive binding analyses revealed that α-FhbB Ab can compete with FH for binding to T. denticola and block dentilisin-mediated FH cleavage. Lastly, we demonstrate that dentilisin cleavage sites reside within critical functional domains of FH, including the complement regulatory domain formed by CCPs 1 to 4. Analysis of the FH cleavage products revealed that they lack cofactor activity. The data presented here provide insight into the in vivo significance of dentilisin, FhbB and its antigenic diversity, and the potential impact of FH cleavage on the regulation of complement activation. PMID:27113359

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) blocks the effects of asthma by negatively regulating NF-κB signaling through IGFBP-3R-mediated activation of caspases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Chul; Jogie-Brahim, Sherryline; Lee, Dae-Yeol; Han, Jinfeng; Harada, Aki; Murphy, Liam J; Oh, Youngman

    2011-05-20

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is a multifunctional protein known for modulating mitogenic and metabolic actions of IGFs as well as exerting a variety of biological actions not involving IGFs. Here, we show that IGFBP-3 blocks specific physiological consequences of asthma in an IGF-independent manner in vitro and in vivo. IGFBP-3 treatment effectively reduced all physiological manifestations of asthma examined in vivo (airway hyper-responsiveness, cellular and pathological changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue, and expression of numerous proinflammatory molecules). These unique IGFBP-3 effects were further confirmed in IGFBP-3-transgenic mice, thus strengthening the notion of IGFBP-3 actions within the respiratory system. Using human epithelial cells, we demonstrated the following: 1) IGFBP-3 blocks TNF-α-induced expression of proinflammatory molecules; 2) IGFBP-3 attenuates the TNF-α-induced migratory response of eosinophils; and 3) IGFBP-3 negatively regulates TNF-α-induced expression of the key NF-κB regulatory molecules IκBα and p65-NF-κB at the post-translational level. We identified that IGFBP-3 degrades IκBα and p65-NF-κB proteins through IGFBP-3 receptor (IGFBP-3R)-mediated activation of caspases thereby inhibiting TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB signaling cascades. This unique IGFBP-3/IGFBP-3R action was further confirmed by demonstrating complete inhibition of IGFBP-3 action in the presence of caspase inhibitors as well as IGFBP-3R siRNAs. Non-IGF-binding IGFBP-3 mutants further proved the IGF-independent action of IGFBP-3. Our findings indicate that IGFBP-3 inhibits airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness via an IGF-independent mechanism that involves activation of IGFBP-3R signaling and cross-talk with NF-κB signaling. The IGFBP-3/IGFBP-3R system therefore plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of asthma and can serve as a newly identified potential therapeutic target for this debilitating

  10. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  11. Thermal blocking of preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, Rose; Tranberg, Anders E-mail: anders.tranberg@uis.no

    2015-04-01

    The parametric resonance responsible for preheating after inflation will end when self-interactions of the resonating field and interactions of this field with secondary degrees of freedom become important. In many cases, the effect may be quantified in terms of an effective mass and the resulting shifting out of the spectrum of the strongest resonance band. In certain curvaton models, such thermal blocking can even occur before preheating has begun, delaying or even preventing the decay of the curvaton. We investigate numerically to what extent this thermal blocking is realised in a specific scenario, and whether the effective mass is well approximated by the perturbative leading order thermal mass. We find that the qualitative behaviour is well reproduced in this approximation, and that the end of preheating can be confidently estimated.

  12. Feature-accelerated block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Bo; Orchard, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    We study the relationship between local features and block matching in this paper. We show that the use of many features can greatly improve the block matching results by introducing several fast block matching algorithms. The first algorithm is pixel decimation-based. We show that pixels with larger gradient magnitude have larger motion compensation error. Therefore for pixel decimation-based fast block matching, it benefits to subsample the block by selecting pixels with the largest gradient magnitude. Such a gradient-assisted adaptive pixel selection strategy greatly outperforms two other subsampling procedures proposed in previous literature. Fast block matching can achieve the optimal performance obtained using full search. We present a family of such fast block matching algorithm using various local features, such as block mean and variance. Our algorithm reduces more than 80 percent computation, while achieving the same performance as the full search. This present a brand new approach toward fast block matching algorithm design.

  13. Recovery from blocking between outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2005-10-01

    Contemporary associative learning research largely focuses on cue competition phenomena that occur when 2 cues are paired with a common outcome. Little research has been conducted to investigate similar phenomena occurring when a single cue is trained with 2 outcomes. Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats assessed whether treatments known to alleviate blocking between cues would also attenuate blocking between outcomes. In Experiment 1, conditioned responding recovered from blocking between outcomes when a long retention interval was interposed between training and testing. Experiment 2 obtained recovery from blocking between outcomes when the blocking outcome was extinguished after the blocking treatment. In Experiment 3, a recovery from blocking between outcomes occurred when a reminder stimulus was presented in a novel context prior to testing. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that blocking of outcomes, like blocking of cues, appears to be caused by a deficit in the expression of an acquired association.

  14. Liquid blocking check valve

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, John T.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  15. Intraocular radiation blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, P.T.; Ho, T.K.; Fastenberg, D.M.; Hyman, R.A.; Stroh, E.M.; Packer, S.; Perry, H.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application.

  16. View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are used to support ship when it is repositioned to paint inaccessible areas masked by original support blocks. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Carpentry Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. MISR Center Block Time Tool

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

      MISR Center Block Time Tool The misr_time tool calculates the block center times for ... in Exelis Visual Information Solutions IDL programming language. It can be run either with a licensed version of the IDL package or by ...

  18. How Is Heart Block Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... second-degree heart block, you may need a pacemaker . A pacemaker is a small device that's placed under the ... third-degree heart block, you will need a pacemaker. In an emergency, a temporary pacemaker might be ...

  19. Heart block following propofol in a child.

    PubMed

    Sochala, C; Deenen, D; Ville, A; Govaerts, M J

    1999-01-01

    We present the case of a nine-year-old boy afflicted with Ondine's curse, who developed complete atrioventricular heart block after a single bolus of propofol for induction of anaesthesia for strabismus surgery. Ondine's curse, the other name for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, is characterized by a generalized disorder of autonomic function. Propofol has no effect on the normal atrioventricular conduction system in humans but it reduces sympathetic activity and can highly potentiate other vagal stimulation factors. Heart block has been documented after propofol bolus use in adults but, to our knowledge, not in children. It would appear that propofol is not a good choice for anaesthesia in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

  20. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  1. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermionfermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. In addition, conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  2. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermionfermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. In addition, conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  3. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  4. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  5. How Artists Overcome Creative Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    Six practicing artists were interviewed about how they overcome creative blocks. Their responses indicated that feelings of self-doubt, fear, and depression accompany blocks but that relaxing and working on new directions and playing ideas off a supportive person helped to overcome such blocks. (DB)

  6. Solving DAEs using block method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abasi, Naghmeh; Suleiman, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zarina Bibi

    2013-04-01

    This paper is on solving semi-explicit index-one Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs). The block method suggested computes the solutions of the DAE at 2-point simultaneously. The numerical results obtained are compared with non-block backward differentiation method (BDF). The comparison of the numerical results confirms that the block method developed is more efficient and accurate.

  7. On Post-Hoc Blocking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    1982-01-01

    Post-hoc blocking and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) both employ a concomitant variable to increase statistical power relative to the completely randomized design. It is argued that the advantages attributed to the block design are not always valid and that there are circumstances when the ANCOVA would be preferred to post-hoc blocking.…

  8. Property Blocks: Games and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

    This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

  9. Intermittent Vagal Nerve Block for Improvements in Obesity, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 2-Year Results of the VBLOC DM2 Study.

    PubMed

    Shikora, Scott A; Toouli, James; Herrera, Miguel F; Kulseng, Bård; Brancatisano, Roy; Kow, Lilian; Pantoja, Juan P; Johnsen, Gjermund; Brancatisano, Anthony; Tweden, Katherine S; Knudson, Mark B; Billington, Charles J; Billingto, Charles J

    2016-05-01

    One-year results of the VBLOC DM2 study found that intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC therapy) was safe among subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and led to significant weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. Longer-term data are needed to determine whether the results are sustained. VBLOC DM2 is a prospective, observational study of 28 subjects with T2DM and body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m(2) to assess mid-term safety and weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters, and other cardiovascular risk factors with VBLOC therapy. Continuous outcome variables are reported using mixed models. At 24 months, the mean percentage of excess weight loss was 22% (95% CI, 15 to 28, p < 0.0001) or 7.0% total body weight loss (95% CI, 5.0 to 9.0, p < 0.0001). Hemoglobin A1c decreased by 0.6 percentage points (95% CI, 0.2 to 1.0, p = 0.0026) on average from 7.8% at baseline. Fasting plasma glucose declined by 15 mg/dL (95% CI, 0 to 29, p = 0.0564) on average from 151 mg/dL at baseline. Among subjects who were hypertensive at baseline, systolic blood pressure declined 10 mmHg (95% CI, 2 to 19, p = 0.02), diastolic blood pressure declined by 6 mmHg (95% CI, 0 to 12, p = 0.0423), and mean arterial pressure declined 7 mmHg (95% CI, 2 to 13, p = 0.014). Waist circumference was significantly reduced by 7 cm (95% CI, 4 to 10, p < 0.0001) from a baseline of 120 cm. The most common adverse events were mild or moderate heartburn, implant site pain, and constipation. Improvements in obesity and glycemic control were largely sustained after 2 years of treatment with VBLOC therapy with a well-tolerated risk profile.

  10. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; ...

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  11. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  12. Solar power building block

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, W.T.

    1982-04-20

    A building unit for exterior walls and the like comprising a molded block of glass having a recess in the side face which is to face the exterior, the recess having a side wall and an open outer end on which a fresnel lens is disposed, the inner end of the recess having a solar cell disposed therein so that sunlight passing through the fresnel lens impinges on the solar cell for the generation of electric power together with a battery disposed within a cavity molded in the block connected by a circuit to the solar cell for storing the generated electric power for subsequent use as needed in a residence or the like. A further embodiment has attached to the interior wall a black painted duct containing vertical radiant fins. This unit contains a ''window'' through which the concentrated radiation is directed by the lens arrangement of the side walls and front lens to create a highly energetic radiant impingement upon the black duct heating it. Air flowing vertically in the duct is used for heating of interior air or removal of superheated interior air by using the force of the rising air for an '' air cooling'' effect.

  13. The neuroprotective efficacy of cell-penetrating peptides TAT, penetratin, Arg-9, and Pep-1 in glutamic acid, kainic acid, and in vitro ischemia injury models using primary cortical neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Bruno P; Craig, Amanda J; Milech, Nadia; Hopkins, Richard M; Watt, Paul M; Knuckey, Neville W

    2014-03-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small peptides (typically 5-25 amino acids), which are used to facilitate the delivery of normally non-permeable cargos such as other peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, or drugs into cells. However, several recent studies have demonstrated that the TAT CPP has neuroprotective properties. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the TAT and three other CPPs (penetratin, Arg-9, Pep-1) for their neuroprotective properties in cortical neuronal cultures following exposure to glutamic acid, kainic acid, or in vitro ischemia (oxygen-glucose deprivation). Arg-9, penetratin, and TAT-D displayed consistent and high level neuroprotective activity in both the glutamic acid (IC50: 0.78, 3.4, 13.9 μM) and kainic acid (IC50: 0.81, 2.0, 6.2 μM) injury models, while Pep-1 was ineffective. The TAT-D isoform displayed similar efficacy to the TAT-L isoform in the glutamic acid model. Interestingly, Arg-9 was the only CPP that displayed efficacy when washed-out prior to glutamic acid exposure. Neuroprotection following in vitro ischemia was more variable with all peptides providing some level of neuroprotection (IC50; Arg-9: 6.0 μM, TAT-D: 7.1 μM, penetratin/Pep-1: >10 μM). The positive control peptides JNKI-1D-TAT (JNK inhibitory peptide) and/or PYC36L-TAT (AP-1 inhibitory peptide) were neuroprotective in all models. Finally, in a post-glutamic acid treatment experiment, Arg-9 was highly effective when added immediately after, and mildly effective when added 15 min post-insult, while the JNKI-1D-TAT control peptide was ineffective when added post-insult. These findings demonstrate that different CPPs have the ability to inhibit neurodamaging events/pathways associated with excitotoxic and ischemic injuries. More importantly, they highlight the need to interpret neuroprotection studies when using CPPs as delivery agents with caution. On a positive note, the cytoprotective properties of CPPs suggests they are ideal carrier molecules to

  14. Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Hirofumi; Koike, Minoru; Takeuchi, Seiichi; Douhara, Noriyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (robot block system) and the rational formula of robots were proposed. ROBO-BLOCK is composed of servo motors, the parts for servomotor rotor, the brackets for servomotor fixation, the board parts and the controllers. A robot can be assembled easily by ROBO-BLOCK. Meanwhile, it is convenient when the structure of the robot can be described easily as a character. The whole structure of the robot is expressed as rational formula of the robot to show molecule structure in chemistry. ROBO-BLOCK can be useful for not only the research but also the education. Creative student experiment was done in the college of industrial technology.

  15. Nerve blocks for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Salim M; Shah, Atit

    2014-10-01

    Nerve blocks are often performed as therapeutic or palliative interventions for pain relief. However, they are often performed for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. When considering nerve blocks for chronic pain, clinicians must always consider the indications, risks, benefits, and proper technique. Nerve blocks encompass a wide variety of interventional procedures. The most common nerve blocks for chronic pain and that may be applicable to the neurosurgical patient population are reviewed in this article. This article is an introduction and brief synopsis of the different available blocks that can be offered to a patient.

  16. Block loss for ATM video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sze K.; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1993-10-01

    In BISDN, the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) requires all information to be represented as a sequence of standard data units called cells. Cell los is inherent in ATM networks due to the cell header corruption and buffer overflow in the network. Several studies have shown that cell losses are bursty for an ATM network. In this work, we encoded real video sequences with a variable bit-rate (VBR) version of the H.261 video encoder in order for us to determine the relationship between blocks in a video frame and the number of ATM cells generated. We then considered the impact of bursty cell losses on image block loss probability. Block loss distributions are given at different codec and channel parameters. We also obtained block loss results using a cell loss correction scheme. Three sequences were analyzed to obtain the cumulative block loss probability distribution. Similar maximum and minimum block loss probability values were obtained for each sequence. The block loss probability distribution varies according to the amount and type of motion present in each sequence. We show that the block loss is confined to one group of blocks (GOB). The maximum block loss probability can be two orders of magnitude larger than the channel cell loss probability. By using the cell loss correction scheme, block loss was reduced to a level equivalent to reducing cell loss probability by five orders of magnitude.

  17. Block copolymer investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yufa, Nataliya A.

    The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time of World War II, copolymers have been used for decades due to their macroscopic properties, such as their ability to be molded without vulcanization, and the fact that, unlike rubber, they can be recycled. In recent years, block copolymers (BCPs) have been used for lithography, as scaffolds for nano-objects, to create a magnetic hard drive, as well as in photonic and other applications. In this work we used primarily atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), described in Chapter II, to conduct our studies. In Chapter III we demonstrate a new and general method for positioning nanoparticles within nanoscale grooves. This technique is suitable for nanodots, nanocrystals, as well as DNA. We use AFM and TEM to demonstrate selective decoration. In Chapters IV and V we use AFM and TEM to study the structure of polymer surfaces coated with metals and self-assembled monolayers. We describe how the surfaces were created, exhibit their structure on the nanoscale, and prove that their macroscopic wetting properties have been altered compared to the original polymer structures. Finally, Chapters VI and VII report out in-situ AFM studies of BCP at high temperatures, made possible only recently with the invention of air-tight high-temperature AFM imaging cells. We locate the transition between disordered films and cylinders during initial ordering. Fluctuations of existing domains leading to domain coarsening are also described, and are shown to be consistent with reptation and curvature minimization. Chapter VII deals with the healing of PS-b-PMMA following AFM-tip lithography or

  18. Atomic Basic Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  19. Radiation Blocking Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Biomedical Optical Company of America's Eagle 475 lens absorbs 100 percent of all photowavelengths considered hazardous to eye tissue, including ultraviolet and blue light, which are considered contributors to cataract and age-related macular degeneration. The lens absorbs hazardous wavelengths, but allows a higher percentage of visually useful areas of the spectrum to pass through. Polarization blocks out irritating glint and glare and heightens visual acuity. The Eagle 475 sunglasses are the latest in a series of spinoffs that originated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where two scientists developed a protective, welding curtain that filtered out harmful irradiance. The result was a commercial curtain that absorbs filters and scatters light, providing protection for personnel in welding areas. Further research focused on protective industrial glasses and later on consumer products.

  20. Rotating ice blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorbolo, Stephane; Adami, Nicolas; Grasp Team

    2014-11-01

    The motion of ice discs released at the surface of a thermalized bath was investigated. As observed in some rare events in the Nature, the discs start spinning spontaneously. The motor of this motion is the cooling of the water close to the ice disc. As the density of water is maximum at 4°C, a downwards flow is generated from the surface of the ice block to the bottom. This flow generates the rotation of the disc. The speed of rotation depends on the mass of the ice disc and on the temperature of the bath. A model has been constructed to study the influence of the temperature of the bath. Finally, ice discs were put on a metallic plate. Again, a spontaneous rotation was observed. FNRS is thanked for financial support.

  1. Baroplastic Block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewlett, Sheldon A.

    2005-03-01

    Block copolymers with rubbery and glassy components have been observed to have pressure induced miscibility. These microphase-separated materials, termed baroplastics, were able to flow and be processed at temperatures below the Tg of the glassy component by simple compression molding and extrusion. Diblock and triblock copolymers of polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate) or poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and processed at room temperature into well defined transparent objects. SAXS and SANS measurements demonstrated partial mixing between components as a result of pressure during processing. DSC results also show the presence of distinct domains even after several processing cycles. Their mechanical properties after processing were tested and compared with commercial thermoplastic elastomers.

  2. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autzen, Martin; Kouvaris, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Some severe constraints on asymmetric dark matter are based on the scenario that certain types of weakly interacting massive particles can form mini-black holes inside neutron stars that can lead to their destruction. A crucial element for the realization of this scenario is that the black hole grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star.

  3. Genetic inhibition of phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α does not block Aβ-dependent elevation of BACE1 and APP levels or reduce amyloid pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sadleir, Katherine R; Eimer, William A; Kaufman, Randal J; Osten, Pavel; Vassar, Robert

    2014-01-01

    β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) initiates the production of β-amyloid (Aβ), the major constituent of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). BACE1 is elevated ∼2-3 fold in AD brain and is concentrated in dystrophic neurites near plaques, suggesting BACE1 elevation is Aβ-dependent. Previously, we showed that phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α de-represses translation of BACE1 mRNA following stress such as energy deprivation. We hypothesized that stress induced by Aβ might increase BACE1 levels by the same translational mechanism involving eIF2α phosphorylation. To test this hypothesis, we used three different genetic strategies to determine the effects of reducing eIF2α phosphorylation on Aβ-dependent BACE1 elevation in vitro and in vivo: 1) a two-vector adeno-associated virus (AAV) system to express constitutively active GADD34, the regulatory subunit of PP1c eIF2α phosphatase; 2) a non-phosphorylatable eIF2α S51A knockin mutation; 3) a BACE1-YFP transgene lacking the BACE1 mRNA 5' untranslated region (UTR) required for eIF2α translational regulation. The first two strategies were used in primary neurons and 5XFAD transgenic mice, while the third strategy was employed only in 5XFAD mice. Despite very effective reduction of eIF2α phosphorylation in both primary neurons and 5XFAD brains, or elimination of eIF2α-mediated regulation of BACE1-YFP mRNA translation in 5XFAD brains, Aβ-dependent BACE1 elevation was not decreased. Additionally, robust inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation did not block Aβ-dependent APP elevation in primary neurons, nor did it reduce amyloid pathology in 5XFAD mice. We conclude that amyloid-associated BACE1 elevation is not caused by translational de-repression via eIF2α phosphorylation, but instead appears to involve a post-translational mechanism. These definitive genetic results exclude a role for eIF2α phosphorylation in Aβ-dependent BACE1 and APP elevation

  4. Organic photovoltaic cell incorporating electron conducting exciton blocking layers

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.

    2014-08-26

    The present disclosure relates to photosensitive optoelectronic devices including a compound blocking layer located between an acceptor material and a cathode, the compound blocking layer including: at least one electron conducting material, and at least one wide-gap electron conducting exciton blocking layer. For example, 3,4,9,10 perylenetetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (PTCBI) and 1,4,5,8-napthalene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (NTCDA) function as electron conducting and exciton blocking layers when interposed between the acceptor layer and cathode. Both materials serve as efficient electron conductors, leading to a fill factor as high as 0.70. By using an NTCDA/PTCBI compound blocking layer structure increased power conversion efficiency is achieved, compared to an analogous device using a conventional blocking layers shown to conduct electrons via damage-induced midgap states.

  5. Differential epidural block predicts the success of visceral block in patients with chronic visceral abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Maged K; Tolba, Reda; Kapural, Leonardo; Mitchell, Justin; Lopez, Rocio; Mahboobi, Ramatia; Vrooman, Bruce; Mekhail, Nagy

    2012-11-01

    Differential thoracic epidural regional block, also known as a differential neural block (DNB), involves the placement of an epidural catheter placed in the thoracic epidural space to achieve appropriate anesthesia in a dermatomal distribution. This is a retrospective case series evaluating how well a DNB may predict success of subsequent visceral blockade in patients with chronic abdominal pain of visceral origin. Of 402 patients who had a DNB performed for unexplained abdominal pain from January 2000 to January 2009, 81 patients were found to have results consistent with visceral pain and thus underwent subsequent visceral blockade. Basic demographic data, years of chronic pain, history of psychosocial issues, initial visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, pain location, and medication usage were documented in our electronic medical record database. Parameters regarding DNB and visceral blocks also were documented. Descriptive statistics were computed for all variables. The positive predictive value (PPV) for DNB for whom visceral block was successful (at least a 50% reduction in VAS) was calculated. Additionally, subjects with successful visceral blocks were compared to those with unsuccessful visceral blocks. All patients with chronic abdominal pain with normal gastrointestinal studies who underwent DNB. Tertiary Outpatient Pain Management Clinic.   Retrospective Cohort Study. Mean age of patients was 46 (± 15) years, 73% were female, and median duration of pain was 5 years. 67% of subjects were taking opioid analgesics. PPV of DNB was 70.4%. Only factor found to be statistically significant with visceral block success was baseline VAS with higher scores associated with DNB predictive success (6.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.5, 1.8; P = 0.004). Use of membrane stabilizing medications was significantly more common in subjects for whom visceral block was not successful (46% vs. 25%; P = 0.058). Area underneath curve (AUC) for VAS was found to be 0.70 (95% CI: 0.57, 0

  6. Long-term electrical stimulation at ear and electro-acupuncture at ST36-ST37 attenuated COX-2 in the CA1 of hippocampus in kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, En-Tzu; Tang, Nou-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Liang Hsieh, Ching

    2017-03-28

    Seizures produce brain inflammation, which in turn enhances neuronal excitability. Therefore, anti-inflammation has become a therapeutic strategy for antiepileptic treatment. Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a critical role in postseizure brain inflammation and neuronal hyperexcitability. Our previous studies have shown that both electrical stimulation (ES) at the ear and electro-acupuncture (EA) at the Zusanli and Shangjuxu acupoints (ST36-ST37) for 6 weeks can reduce mossy fiber sprouting, spike population, and high-frequency hippocampal oscillations in kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic seizure rats. This study further investigated the effect of long-term ear ES and EA at ST36-ST37 on the inflammatory response in KA-induced epileptic seizure rats. Both the COX-2 levels in the hippocampus and the number of COX-2 immunoreactive cells in the hippocampal CA1 region were increased after KA-induced epileptic seizures, and these were reduced through the 6-week application of ear ES or EA at ST36-ST37. Thus, long-term ear ES or long-term EA at ST36-ST37 have an anti-inflammatory effect, suggesting that they are beneficial for the treatment of epileptic seizures.

  7. Large Block Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  8. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

  9. Paracervical Block Anesthesia in Labour

    PubMed Central

    Van Praagh, Ian G. L.; Povey, W. G.

    1966-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of paracervical block anesthesia were studied in 153 patients in the first stage of labour. Transient decrease in uterine activity was noted in 77 patients. There was no acceleration in cervical dilatation following the block. The duration of action of the block in 80 primiparas was 31 to 120 minutes in 69, and over 120 minutes in five. In the 73 multiparas, 53 of the blocks lasted 31 to 90 minutes, eight from 90 to 120 minutes, and two over 120 minutes. The results were good in 66 primiparas and 54 multiparas. The blocks failed in four primiparas and six multiparas. Twenty-six infants had low Apgar scores, but in none could this be related to the paracervical block. There were no significant fetal or maternal complications. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5903165

  10. 31 CFR 593.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 593.301 Section 593.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR...

  11. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 542.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 542.301 Section 542.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. Block 3. Central view of Block 3 observed from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 3. Central view of Block 3 observed from the west to the east. This photograph reveals the alignment of trees within the central path of the park. In addition, this photograph exposes broken bricks aligning tree beds - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  17. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  18. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  19. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 548.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 548.301 Section 548.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 586.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 586.301 Section 586.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF...

  3. 31 CFR 587.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 587.301 Section 587.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF...

  4. 31 CFR 549.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 549.301 Section 549.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  5. 31 CFR 543.302 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 543.302 Section 543.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS...

  6. 31 CFR 558.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 558.301 Section 558.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 594.301 Section 594.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 594.301 Section 594.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  9. 31 CFR 552.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 552.301 Section 552.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  10. 31 CFR 552.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 552.301 Section 552.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  11. 31 CFR 545.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 545.301 Section 545.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN)...

  12. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562.301 Section 562.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  13. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562.301 Section 562.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  14. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562.301 Section 562.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  15. 31 CFR 562.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 562.301 Section 562.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES...

  16. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  17. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  18. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  19. 31 CFR 510.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 510.301 Section 510.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  20. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS...

  1. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  4. 31 CFR 551.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blocked account; blocked property. 551.301 Section 551.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  5. Characterizing the inverses of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffi, Nicholas M.; Hill, Judith C.; Reuter, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the inversion of block tridiagonal, block Toeplitz matrices and comment on the behaviour of these inverses as one moves away from the diagonal. Using matrix Möbius transformations, we first present an O(1) representation (with respect to the number of block rows and block columns) for the inverse matrix and subsequently use this representation to characterize the inverse matrix. There are four symmetry-distinct cases where the blocks of the inverse matrix (i) decay to zero on both sides of the diagonal, (ii) oscillate on both sides, (iii) decay on one side and oscillate on the other and (iv) decay on one side and grow on the other. This characterization exposes the necessary conditions for the inverse matrix to be numerically banded and may also aid in the design of preconditioners and fast algorithms. Finally, we present numerical examples of these matrix types.

  6. Masquerading bundle branch block: a variety of right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block.

    PubMed

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Baranchuk, Adrian; Chiale, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    The so-called 'masquerading' type of right bundle branch block is caused by the simultaneous presence of a high-degree left anterior fascicular block often accompanied with severe left ventricular enlargement and/or fibrotic block in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. These conditions tend to reorient the terminal electrical forces of the QRS complex towards the left and upwards, in such a way that the characteristic slurred S wave in lead I becomes smaller or even disappears. In many cases of standard masquerading right bundle branch block, a small Q wave in lead I is present due to the initial forces of the left anterior fascicular block, which are oriented rightwards and inferiorly. However, in some cases, the Q wave in lead I also vanishes, and the mimicking of a left bundle branch block becomes perfect in standard leads. This is commonly associated with an inferior myocardial infarction or severe inferior fibrosis in cardiomyopathies. The typical QRS changes of right bundle branch block may eventually be concealed even in the right precordial leads; under such circumstances, the ECG diagnosis may be mistaken and the right bundle branch block totally missed. The masquerading right bundle branch block carries a poor prognosis, since it always implies the presence of a severe underlying heart disease.

  7. Region 9 Census Block 2010

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Geography:The TIGER Line Files are feature classes and related database files (.) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) Database (MTDB). The MTDB represents a seamless national file with no overlaps or gaps between parts, however, each TIGER Line File is designed to stand alone as an independent data set, or they can be combined to cover the entire nation. Census Blocks are statistical areas bounded on all sides by visible features, such as streets, roads, streams, and railroad tracks, and/or by non visible boundaries such as city, town, township, and county limits, and short line-of-sight extensions of streets and roads. Census blocks are relatively small in area; for example, a block in a city bounded by streets. However, census blocks in remote areas are often large and irregular and may even be many square miles in area. A common misunderstanding is that data users think census blocks are used geographically to build all other census geographic areas, rather all other census geographic areas are updated and then used as the primary constraints, along with roads and water features, to delineate the tabulation blocks. As a result, all 2010 Census blocks nest within every other 2010 Census geographic area, so that Census Bureau statistical data can be tabulated at the block level and aggregated up t

  8. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  9. Writing Blocks and Tacit Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature on writing block looks at two kinds: inability to write in a timely, fluent fashion, and reluctance by academicians to assist others in writing. Obstacles to fluent writing are outlined, four historical trends in treating blocks are discussed, and implications are examined. (MSE)

  10. The Effectiveness of Block Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamean, Sharon Lightle; Horvath, Robert Jeffery

    This report describes a program for the exploration of block scheduling. The targeted population consists of high school students in a growing, middle-class community, located in a suburban setting of a large mid-western city. The historical background of block scheduling is documented through data gathered using attendance reports, student…

  11. Foreign Language on the Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    The guide is designed to address concerns of North Carolina second/foreign language teachers and school administrators as they plan and implement block class scheduling. The first section outlines the rationale and special considerations for block scheduling, and offers some typical schedule options. North Carolina's instructional time…

  12. Building Minds by Block Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montopoli, Linda

    Noting that the process of playing with blocks supports the groundwork for learning in every area of a child's growth, this paper discusses specific uses of building blocks in the early childhood curriculum to develop a child's physical, social, emotional, artistic, language, scientific and mathematics growth. The paper outlines the contributions…

  13. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

  14. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

  15. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

  16. Block Curricula: A Guide to Teaching with Unit Blocks and Hollow Blocks in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Phyllis; Tiedemann, Nancy

    This curriculum guide for preschool teachers was designed for use with wooden unit and hollow blocks to foster a variety of math, science, language, and social skills. Following an introduction to the curriculum and a discussion of cooperative learning and stages of block building, the guide is divided into three parts. Part 1 of the guide,…

  17. Snell's Law with Large Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, John J.

    2007-03-01

    The introductory physics lab curriculum usually has one experiment devoted to the study of the refraction of light. The most obvious way to study the refraction of light is to lay a transparent block down on the lab bench and aim a laser beam horizontally at the block so that it refracts twice—inward upon entering the block and outward upon exiting. The vendors that provide us with lab equipment (Sargent-Welch, PASCO, Fisher Scientific, and Frey Scientific to name a few) sell acrylic blocks for this very purpose, but these are either too small or they are too expensive. If students are going to measure angles of incidence and refraction, the blocks should be larger than the typical student protractor, which has a radius of 3 in (≈ 7½ cm). These blocks are just not large enough. They are generally not thick enough either so that the beam from a typical laser passes over them and not through them. The vendors mentioned above do sell blackboard optics kits that contain, among other parts, three blocks that are large enough—on the order of 10 to 20 cm. Unfortunately, these kits cost more than 1000.

  18. 31 CFR 560.322 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... name of the Government of Iran, any Iranian financial institution, or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 560.211, or in which the Government of Iran, an...

  19. 31 CFR 560.322 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... name of the Government of Iran, any Iranian financial institution, or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 560.211, or in which the Government of Iran, an...

  20. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 570.201, or in which the Government of Libya or such person has an interest, and with respect to which...

  1. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 570.201, or in which the Government of Libya or such person has an interest, and with respect to which...

  2. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 570.201, or in which the Government of Libya or such person has an interest, and with respect to which...

  3. 31 CFR 570.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Government of Libya or any other person whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to § 570.201, or in which the Government of Libya or such person has an interest, and with respect to which...

  4. 1-2-3 Blocks: Beginning Block Activities for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Evelyn

    This book discusses ways that blocks can be used with young children to help them develop different intellectual, motor, and social skills. The book is divided into four sections organized by block type: (1) unit blocks; (2) hollow blocks; (3) table blocks; and (4) homemade blocks. Each section describes the block type, gives reasons for using the…

  5. Contrasting features of ERK1/2 activity and synapsin I phosphorylation at the ERK1/2-dependent site in the rat brain in status epilepticus induced by kainic acid in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Yoko; Nairn, Angus C.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) plays diverse roles in the central nervous system. Activation of ERK1/2 has been observed in various types of neuronal excitation, including seizure activity in vivo and in vitro. However, studies examining ERK1/2 activity and its substrate phosphorylation in parallel are scarce especially in seizure models. We have been studying the phosphorylation state of the presynaptic protein, synapsin I at ERK1/2-dependent and -independent sites in various types of seizure models and showed that ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of synapsin I was indeed under control of ERK1/2 activity in vivo. To further expand our study, here we examined the effects of prolonged seizure activity on ERK1/2 activity and synapsin I phosphorylation by using status epilepticus induced by kainic acid (KA-SE) in rats in vivo. In KA-SE, robust ERK1/2 activation was observed in the hippocampus, a representative limbic structure, with lesser activation in the parietal cortex, a representative non-limbic structure. In contrast, the phosphorylation level of synapsin I at ERK1/2-dependent phospho-site 4/5 was profoundly decreased, the extent of which was much larger in the hippocampus than in the parietal cortex. In addition, phosphorylation at other ERK1/2-independent phospho-sites in synapsin I also showed an even larger decrease. All these changes disappeared after recovery from KA-SE. These results indicate that the phosphorylation state of synapsin I is dynamically regulated by the balance between kinase and phosphatase activities. The contrasting features of robust ERK1/2 activation yet synapsin I dephosphorylation may be indicative of an irreversible pathological outcome of the epileptic state in vivo. PMID:26320550

  6. Clozapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole but not haloperidol protect against kainic acid-induced lesion of the striatum in mice, in vivo: role of 5-HT1A receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Cosi, Cristina; Waget, Aurelie; Rollet, Karin; Tesori, Valentina; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2005-05-10

    Excessive activation of non-NMDA receptors, AMPA and kainate, contributes to neuronal degeneration in acute and progressive pathologies, possibly including schizophrenia. Because 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists have neuroprotective properties (e.g., against NMDA-induced neurotoxicity), we compared the effects of the antipsychotics, clozapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole, that are partial agonists at 5-HT(1A) receptor, with those of haloperidol, which is devoid of 5-HT(1A) agonist properties, on kainic acid (KA)-induced striatal lesion volumes, in C57Bl/6N mice. The involvement of 5-HT(1A) receptors was determined by antagonist studies with WAY100635, and data were compared with those obtained using the potent and high efficacy 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, F13714. Intra-striatal KA lesioning and measurement of lesion volumes using cresyl violet staining were carried out at 48 h after surgery. F13714, antipsychotics or vehicle were administered ip twice, 30 min before and 3 1/2 h after KA injection. WAY100635 (0.63 mg/kg) or vehicle were given sc 30 min before each drug injection. Clozapine (2 x 10 mg/kg), ziprasidone (2 x 20 mg/kg) and aripiprazole (2 x 10 mg/kg) decreased lesion volume by 61%, 59% and 73%, respectively. WAY100635 antagonized the effect of ziprasidone and of aripiprazole but only slightly attenuated that of clozapine. In contrast, haloperidol (2 x 0.16 mg/kg) did not affect KA-induced lesion volume. F13714 dose-dependently decreased lesion volume. The 61% decrease of lesion volume obtained with F13714 (2 x 0.63 mg/kg) was antagonized by WAY100635. WAY100635 alone did not affect lesion volume. These results show that 5-HT(1A) receptor activation protects against KA-induced striatal lesions and indicate that some atypical antipsychotic agents with 5-HT(1A) agonist properties may protect against excitotoxic injury, in vivo.

  7. Gauge Blocks – A Zombie Technology

    PubMed Central

    Doiron, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Gauge blocks have been the primary method for disseminating length traceability for over 100 years. Their longevity was based on two things: the relatively low cost of delivering very high accuracy to users, and the technical limitation that the range of high precision gauging systems was very small. While the first reason is still true, the second factor is being displaced by changes in measurement technology since the 1980s. New long range sensors do not require master gauges that are nearly the same length as the part being inspected, and thus one of the primary attributes of gauge blocks, wringing stacks to match the part, is no longer needed. Relaxing the requirement that gauges wring presents an opportunity to develop new types of end standards that would increase the accuracy and usefulness of gauging systems. PMID:27096119

  8. Aplidine, a new anticancer agent of marine origin, inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and blocks VEGF-VEGFR-1 (flt-1) autocrine loop in human leukemia cells MOLT-4.

    PubMed

    Broggini, M; Marchini, S V; Galliera, E; Borsotti, P; Taraboletti, G; Erba, E; Sironi, M; Jimeno, J; Faircloth, G T; Giavazzi, R; D'Incalci, M

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism by which aplidine, a marine natural product in early clinical development as an anticancer agent, induces cell growth inhibition and apoptosis has been investigated in the human leukemia cell line MOLT-4. This cell line is characterized not only by the ability to secrete VEGF, but also for the presence on its surface of the VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1). Previous studies from our laboratory concerned with evaluating early changes in gene expression induced by aplidine in MOLT-4 cells have shown that the drug decreases the expression of VEGFR-1 (Marchini et al. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 2000; 41: 833). Here, we report the ability of aplidine to block the VEGF/VEGFR-1 loop. We found that aplidine blocked VEGF secretion that was temporally followed by a decrease in both VEGF and VEGFR-1 production. Aplidine did not directly affect either VEGF transcription or stabilization of its mRNA. Transfection of MOLT-4 cells with an antisense VEGF cDNA construct, resulted in inhibition of colony formations. One clone, transfected with sense VEGF cDNA, secreting 8-10 times more VEGF than parental cells, was less sensitive to aplidine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis than control cells. Moreover, addition of VEGF in the medium decreased the activity of aplidine in MOLT-4 cells. These data demonstrate that aplidine inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells through the inhibition of VEGF secretion which blocks the VEGF/VEGFR-1 autocrine loop necessary for the growth of these cells.

  9. Robust changes in expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein across the brain do not translate to detectable changes in BDNF levels in CSF or plasma.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Thomas A; Bove, Susan E; Pilsmaker, Catherine D; Mariga, Abigail; Drummond, Elena M; Cadelina, Gregory W; Adamowicz, Wendy O; Swetter, Brentt J; Carmel, Sharon; Dumin, Jo Ann; Kleiman, Robin J

    2012-09-01

    Adult rats were treated acutely with peripheral kainic acid (KA), and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein were tracked over time across multiple brain regions. Despite robust elevation in both mRNA and protein in multiple brain regions, plasma BDNF was unchanged and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) BDNF levels remained undetectable. Primary neurons were then treated with KA. BDNF was similarly elevated within neurons, but was undetectable in neuronal media. Thus, while deficits in BDNF signaling have been implicated in a number of diseases, these data suggest that extracellular concentrations of BDNF may not be a facile biomarker for changes in neurons.

  10. Atrioventricular block during fetal life

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lindsey E.; Simpson, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital complete atrioventricular (AV) block occurs in approximately 1 in 20,000 live births and is known to result in significant mortality and morbidity both during fetal life and postnatally. Complete AV block can occur as a result of an immune or a non-immune mediated process. Immune mediated AV block is a multifactorial disease, but is associated with the trans-placental passage of maternal autoantibodies (anti-Ro/SSA and/or anti-La/SSB). These autoantibodies attach to and subsequently damage the cardiomyocytes and conduction tissue in susceptible fetuses. In this report, we examine the evidence in reference to means of assessment, pathophysiology, and potential prenatal therapy of atrioventricular block. PMID:26136631

  11. The Building Blocks of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Betty O.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses teaching techniques for teaching about rocks, minerals, and the differences between them. Presents a model-building activity that uses plastic building blocks to build crystal and rock models. (YDS)

  12. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... to the eardrum) and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  13. Carbon-carbon cylinder block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials, such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  14. The Building Blocks of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Betty O.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses teaching techniques for teaching about rocks, minerals, and the differences between them. Presents a model-building activity that uses plastic building blocks to build crystal and rock models. (YDS)

  15. Ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block vs continuous fascia iliaca compartment block for hip replacement in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bin; He, Miao; Cai, Guang-Yu; Zou, Tian-Xiao; Zhang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Continuous femoral nerve block and fascia iliaca compartment block are 2 traditional anesthesia methods in orthopedic surgeries, but it is controversial which method is better. The objective of this study was to compare the practicality, efficacy, and complications of the 2 modalities in hip replacement surgery in the elderly and to assess the utility of a novel cannula-over-needle set. Methods: In this prospective, randomized controlled clinical investigation, 60 elderly patients undergoing hip replacement were randomly assigned to receive either continuous femoral nerve block or continuous fascia iliaca compartment block. After ultrasound-guided nerve block, all patients received general anesthesia for surgery and postoperative analgesia through an indwelling cannula. Single-factor analysis of variance was used to compare the outcome variables between the 2 groups. Results: There was a significant difference between the 2 groups in the mean visual analog scale scores (at rest) at 6 hours after surgery: 1.0 ± 1.3 in the femoral nerve block group vs 0.5 ± 0.8 in the fascia iliaca compartment block group (P < 0.05). The femoral nerve block group had better postoperative analgesia on the medial aspect of the thigh, whereas the fascia iliaca compartment block group had better analgesia on the lateral aspect of the thigh. There were no other significant differences between the groups. Conclusions: Both ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block and fascia iliaca compartment block with the novel cannula-over-needle provide effective anesthesia and postoperative analgesia for elderly hip replacement patients. PMID:27759633

  16. Morphologies of block copolymers composed of charged and neutral blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Goswami, Monojoy; Mays, Jimmy; Sumpter, Bobby G; Wang, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews current experimental observations and theoretical calculations devoted towards understanding micro-phase separation in charged block copolymer systems. We discuss bulk morphologies in melt and in solution, as well as some of the new emerging research directions. Overall, a comprehensive picture is beginning to emerge on the fundamental role of electrostatics in the microphase separation of charged block copolymers. This understanding provides exciting new insight that may be used to direct targeted structures that endow the materials with desired properties that can have tremendous potential in technological applications.

  17. Various semiclassical limits of torus conformal blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalaev, Konstantin; Geiko, Roman; Rappoport, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    We study four types of one-point torus blocks arising in the large central charge regime. There are the global block, the light block, the heavy-light block, and the linearized classical block, according to different regimes of conformal dimensions. It is shown that the blocks are not independent being connected to each other by various links. We find that the global, light, and heavy-light blocks correspond to three different contractions of the Virasoro algebra. Also, we formulate the c-recursive representation of the one-point torus blocks which is relevant in the semiclassical approximation.

  18. Block Matching for Object Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S

    2003-10-13

    Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.

  19. Automatic blocking of nested loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Robert; Dongarra, Jack J.

    1990-01-01

    Blocked algorithms have much better properties of data locality and therefore can be much more efficient than ordinary algorithms when a memory hierarchy is involved. On the other hand, they are very difficult to write and to tune for particular machines. The reorganization is considered of nested loops through the use of known program transformations in order to create blocked algorithms automatically. The program transformations used are strip mining, loop interchange, and a variant of loop skewing in which invertible linear transformations (with integer coordinates) of the loop indices are allowed. Some problems are solved concerning the optimal application of these transformations. It is shown, in a very general setting, how to choose a nearly optimal set of transformed indices. It is then shown, in one particular but rather frequently occurring situation, how to choose an optimal set of block sizes.

  20. Toy Blocks and Rotational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varieschi, Gabriele U.; Jully, Isabel R.

    2005-09-01

    Have you ever observed a child playing with toy blocks? A favorite game is to build towers and then make them topple like falling trees. To the eye of a trained physicist this should immediately look like an example of the physics of "falling chimneys," when tall structures bend and break in mid-air while falling to the ground. The game played with toy blocks can actually reproduce well what is usually seen in photographs of falling towers, such as the one that appeared on the cover of the September 1976 issue of The Physics Teacher. In this paper we describe how we performed and analyzed these simple but interesting experiments with toy blocks.