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  1. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  2. Eye Drop Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  3. Eye drop delivery of pigment epithelium-derived factor-34 promotes retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection and axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Esmaeili, Maryam; Deer, Louise; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Ahmed, Zubair

    2015-09-01

    Axotomised retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die rapidly by apoptosis and fail to regenerate because of the limited availability of neurotrophic factors and a lack of axogenic stimuli. However, we have recently showed that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) promotes RGC survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve crush injury. PEDF has multiple fragments of the native peptide that are neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory. Here we investigated the neuroprotective and axogenic properties of a fragment of PEDF, PEDF-34, in retinal neurons in vitro and when delivered by intravitreal injection and eye drops in vivo. We found that PEDF-34 was 43% more neuroprotective and 52% more neuritogenic than PEDF-44 in vitro. Moreover, in vivo, intravitreal delivery of 1.88nM PEDF-34 was 71% RGC neuroprotective at 21days after optic nerve crush compared to intact controls, whilst daily eye drops containing 1.88nM PEDF-34 promoted 87% RGC survival. After topical eye drop delivery, PEDF-34 was detected in the vitreous body within 30min and attained physiologically relevant concentrations in the retina by 4h peaking at 1.4±0.05nM by 14days. In eye drop- compared to intravitreal-treated PEDF-34 animals, 55% more RGC axons regenerated 250μm beyond the optic nerve lesion. We conclude that daily topical eye drop application of PEDF-34 is superior to weekly intravitreal injections in promoting RGC survival and axon regeneration through both direct effects on retinal neurons and indirect effects on other retinal cells.

  4. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops stimulates scarless regeneration compared to autologous serum in the ocular surface stromal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Anitua, E; de la Fuente, M; Muruzabal, F; Riestra, A; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2015-06-01

    Autologous serum (AS) eye drops was the first blood-derived product used for the treatment of corneal pathologies but nowadays PRGF arises as a novel interesting alternative to this type of diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological outcomes of autologous serum eye drops or Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops on corneal stromal keratocytes (HK) and conjunctival fibroblasts (HConF). To address this, blood from healthy donors was collected and processed to obtain autologous serum (AS) eye drops and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops. Blood-derivates were aliquoted and stored at -80°C until use. PDGF-AB, VEGF, EGF, FGFb and TGF-β1 were quantified. The potential of PRGF and AS in promoting wound healing was evaluated by means of proliferation and migration assays in HK and HConF. Fibroblast cells were induced to myofibroblast differentiation after treatment with 2.5ng/mL of TGF-β1. The capability of PRGF and AS to prevent and inhibit TGF-β1-induced differentiation was evaluated. Results showed significant higher levels of all growth factors analyzed in PRGF eye drops compared to AS. Moreover, PRGF eye drops enhanced significantly the biological outcomes of both HK and HConF, and reduced TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation in contrast to autologous serum eye drops (AS). In summary, these results suggest that PRGF exerts enhanced biological outcomes than AS. PRGF may improve the treatment of ocular surface wound healing minimizing the scar formation compared to AS. Results obtained herein suggest that PRGF protects and reverses the myofibroblast phenotype while promotes cell proliferation and migration.

  5. Growth suppression caused by corticosteroid eye drops.

    PubMed

    Wolthers, Ole D

    2011-01-01

    Scarce data on systemic activity of corticosteroid eye drops are available in children. Two weeks treatment with fluorometholone eye drops in a case series of five children caused growth suppression detected by knemometry. The suppression had no impact on height growth during the following year.

  6. Stability of cefepime in aqueous eye drops.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Pawłowska, M; Rumiński, J K; Bartosińska, A; Kieliba, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine HPLC the stability of cefepime in 1% and 5% buffered eye drops of developed formulary composition, which were stored for 30 days at the temperature of 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C, protected from light. Separation was performed on RP18 Gemini octadecylsilane column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5.0 microm) at a temperature of 25 degrees C. The mobile phase consisted of 0.015 M solution of sodium salt of pentane sulphonic acid brought to pH 4.0 with glacial acetic acid and 45% KOH solution and acetonitrile 94:6 w/w, with detection of 254 nm. The method was linear in the range of 12.6-125 microg/ml (R2 = 0.9996). The limit of detection (LOD) was 3 microg/ml and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10 microg/ml. 10% degradation of cefepime in 1% and 5% buffered eye drops stored at the temperature of 4 degrees C, depending on the composition of the eye drops, occurred after 21-27 days in 1% eye drops and 18-21 days in 5% eye drops. In the eye drops, which were stored at the temperature of 20 degrees C, 10% degradation of cefepime took place on the third day of storage regardless of formulary composition of 1% and 5% drops. Cefepime stability lasting a couple of weeks in 1% and 5% solution allows extemporaneous preparation of buffered eye drops containing cefepime.

  7. How to administer eye drops and eye ointment.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Mary

    2016-05-25

    Rationale and key points Eye drops and eye ointment are the mainstay of treatment of ocular conditions. Failure to prioritise administration of these medicines can prolong the condition and may present a risk to the patient's vision. ▶ Eye drops and eye ointments are used to treat acute and chronic conditions of the eye and surrounding structures. Eye drops must be instilled before applying eye ointment, since the ointment will affect the absorption of the eye drop. ▶ Nurses require knowledge of the technique, side effects and potential interactions associated with systemically or topically applied medicines to the eye to ensure patient safety and optimum outcomes. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article will change your practice. 2. How you intend to develop your knowledge and skills regarding treatment of ocular conditions. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio.

  8. [A correct understanding of preservatives in eye drops].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuguo; Huang, Caihong

    2015-09-01

    Eye drops are the most commonly used preparations in ophthalmology. Preservatives are usually added in order to protect eye drops against pathogenic organisms and increase the solubility of the drugs in multi-dose containers. Ophthalmologists have paid a lot of attention to the preservatives in eye drops because they remain one of the main reasons for ocular surface damage, and even may lead to serious visual impairment in patients with inappropriate use of eye drops. However, it should be noted that the dangers of preservatives become overstated nowadays. It is necessary to completely evaluate the effects of preservatives in ophthalmic preparations, so that ophthalmologists can guide patients to correctly select eye drops containing preservatives and avoid dangerous side effects, according to their eye disease situation, state of tear function and ocular surface changes, cultural background and financial income, cost and benefit and convenience of the use of drugs, and other factors. The direction of the future development in this field is to establish the clinical guideline for use of eye drops containing preservatives, carry out continuing education courses on preservatives and develop ideal preservatives.

  9. Protocol of Blood Serum Eye Drops.

    PubMed

    Katsakoulas, Ioannis; Lougovoi, Claudia; Paraskevopoulou, Penelope; Vougioukas, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is one of the most frequent diagnoses for seeking eye care. Accumulated evidence over the past three decades has revealed a significant contribution of several molecules contained in tears at the homeostasis of the epithelium of the ocular surface. Therefore, autologous blood serum in the form of eye drops can provide substantial help in the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Also making this a favorable treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the fact that this approach has become an insurance-covered benefit in some countries. This report demonstrates a formulation of blood serum eye drops with the purpose of providing an alternative to the marked absence of a universally established protocol. Exclusion criteria, equipment, preservation, dosage, duration, and guidelines for patients are described. Also included are details on the treatment of one representative embodiment. All (pre-/post-)analytical considerations and the total cost are addressed. Outcome measures such as Schirmer' s test, break up time, and Ocular Surface Disease Index score are recorded before treatment, at 1 and 2 months, ideally as monotherapy with 100% serum q.i.d. Blood serum isolated under aseptic conditions maintained throughout is delivered as a ready-to-use formulation to the patient. Serum eye drops should be included in the modern armamentarium against keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and, hopefully, their eventual widespread application will result in coverage by most if not all insurance funds. The implementation described contributes to the hopeful establishment of a standardized protocol and provides a potentially benefit of a low-cost, applicable treatment of the ocular epithelium without side effects.

  10. Serum eye drop preparation in Australia: Current manufacturing practice.

    PubMed

    Marks, Denese C; Fisher, Jenny; Mondy, Phillip; Segatchian, Jerard; Dennington, Peta M

    2015-08-01

    Serum eye drops are used to treat diseases such as dry eye syndrome (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), a disease of the surface of the eye that results in an unstable tear film. Patients are referred to the Australian Red Cross Blood Service by ophthalmologists for autologous serum eye drops when other therapies such as artificial tears or topical immunosuppressive agents have failed. In order to manufacture autologous serum eye drops, whole blood is collected from the patients using standard blood collection procedures. The blood is then allowed to clot to produce serum and processed into 20% serum eye drops, which are then returned to the patient for their own use. The eye drops are packaged into a long length of tubing, which is then heat-sealed to produce single-use segments. The demand for serum eye drops in Australia is increasing every year, with a 30% increase in the past 12 months.

  11. Comparison of azelastine eye drops with levocabastine eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Giede, C; Metzenauer, P; Petzold, U; Ellers-Lenz, B

    2000-01-01

    A randomised, multicentre parallel group study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of 0.05% azelastine eye drops (101 patients) in an open manner with 0.05% levocabastine eye drops (103 patients) and in a double-blind manner with placebo (103 patients) during a 14-day treatment period involving patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. The three main eye symptoms, scored on a four-point scale, were itching, lacrimation and conjunctival redness; the primary efficacy variable was the responder rate on day 3. Responders were patients whose sum score of the three main eye symptoms decreased by at least three points from a baseline score of at least six points. In addition to these main symptoms, five other symptoms were recorded on days 0, 3, 7 and 14, and patients kept daily diaries of the three main eye symptoms and swollen eyelids. The responder rate after 3 days of treatment was 69% in patients treated with azelastine, 59% in patients treated with levocabastine and 51% in the placebo group. Only the difference in responder rates between azelastine and placebo eye drops was statistically significant (p = 0.02). The improvements in other ocular symptoms and entries in the patients' diaries closely reflected the changes reported by the investigators. No serious adverse events occurred throughout the study. Nine patients (three in the azelastine, five in the levocabastine and one in the placebo group) terminated the study prematurely due to poor tolerability. Adverse drug reactions, mainly a mild, transient irritation and a bitter or unpleasant taste, were reported in 37% of patients receiving azelastine eye drops, 31% of patients receiving levocabastine and 9% of placebo patients. Overall tolerability was assessed as very good or good in 86% of azelastine- and levocabastine-treated patients, and in 95% of the patients receiving placebo. The results of this study indicate that azelastine possesses a tolerability profile at least comparable to that

  12. Creation of nano eye-drops and effective drug delivery to the interior of the eye

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Yoshikazu; Aoyagi, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Yuji; Sato, Kota; Inada, Satoshi; Koseki, Yoshitaka; Onodera, Tsunenobu; Oikawa, Hidetoshi; Kasai, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Nano eye-drops are a new type of ophthalmic treatment with increased potency and reduced side effects. Compounds in conventional eye-drops barely penetrate into the eye because the cornea, located at the surface of eye, has a strong barrier function for preventing invasion of hydrophilic or large-sized materials from the outside. In this work, we describe the utility of nano eye-drops utilising brinzolamide, a commercially available glaucoma treatment drug, as a target compound. Fabrication of the nanoparticles of brinzolamide prodrug increases the eye penetration rate and results in high drug efficacy, compared with that of commercially available brinzolamide eye-drops formulated as micro-sized structures. In addition, the resulting nano eye-drops were not toxic to the corneal epithelium after repeated administration for 1 week. The nano eye-drops may have applications as a next-generation ophthalmic treatment. PMID:28290486

  13. Creation of nano eye-drops and effective drug delivery to the interior of the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, Yoshikazu; Aoyagi, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Yuji; Sato, Kota; Inada, Satoshi; Koseki, Yoshitaka; Onodera, Tsunenobu; Oikawa, Hidetoshi; Kasai, Hitoshi

    2017-03-01

    Nano eye-drops are a new type of ophthalmic treatment with increased potency and reduced side effects. Compounds in conventional eye-drops barely penetrate into the eye because the cornea, located at the surface of eye, has a strong barrier function for preventing invasion of hydrophilic or large-sized materials from the outside. In this work, we describe the utility of nano eye-drops utilising brinzolamide, a commercially available glaucoma treatment drug, as a target compound. Fabrication of the nanoparticles of brinzolamide prodrug increases the eye penetration rate and results in high drug efficacy, compared with that of commercially available brinzolamide eye-drops formulated as micro-sized structures. In addition, the resulting nano eye-drops were not toxic to the corneal epithelium after repeated administration for 1 week. The nano eye-drops may have applications as a next-generation ophthalmic treatment.

  14. Creation of nano eye-drops and effective drug delivery to the interior of the eye.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Yoshikazu; Aoyagi, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Yuji; Sato, Kota; Inada, Satoshi; Koseki, Yoshitaka; Onodera, Tsunenobu; Oikawa, Hidetoshi; Kasai, Hitoshi

    2017-03-14

    Nano eye-drops are a new type of ophthalmic treatment with increased potency and reduced side effects. Compounds in conventional eye-drops barely penetrate into the eye because the cornea, located at the surface of eye, has a strong barrier function for preventing invasion of hydrophilic or large-sized materials from the outside. In this work, we describe the utility of nano eye-drops utilising brinzolamide, a commercially available glaucoma treatment drug, as a target compound. Fabrication of the nanoparticles of brinzolamide prodrug increases the eye penetration rate and results in high drug efficacy, compared with that of commercially available brinzolamide eye-drops formulated as micro-sized structures. In addition, the resulting nano eye-drops were not toxic to the corneal epithelium after repeated administration for 1 week. The nano eye-drops may have applications as a next-generation ophthalmic treatment.

  15. [Simultaneous isotachophoresis determination of dioxopromethazine and phenylephrine in eye drops].

    PubMed

    Kubacák, P; Valásková, I; Havránek, E

    2004-03-01

    Dioxopromethazine and phenylephrine were determined simultaneously in eye drops using the method of capillary isotachophoresis. Two electrolyte systems with different compositions and pH were examined. Prior to analysis, the eye drops are diluted with water in a ratio 1:50. Precision, correctness, linearity, robustness, and selectivity of the ITP method were evaluated for both electrolyte systems.

  16. [The antiallergic eye drops "polynadyme": development, experimental and clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Maĭchuk, Iu F; Pozdniakov, V I; Pozdniakova, V V; Iakushina, L N

    2006-01-01

    The antiallergic eye drops "Polynadyme", proposed by the Helmgolz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, have been prepared by the "Sintez" PJSC (Kurgan). The drops exert a combination of antihistaminic and vasoconstrictive effects and, for better tolerability, contain a low-toxic preserving complex. The drops are polymer-based, which ensures a long action and an artificial tear effect. Preclinical rabbit trials have shown the safety of the "Polynadyme" eye drops, their specific activity in preventing an allergic reaction, and their antiallergic effect on a model of allergic conjunctivitis. Comparative clinical trials covering 150 patients have yielded excellent and good results in 93% of cases. In acute allergic reactions, hyperemia, itch, and burning diminished just 5 minutes after administration. The "Polynadyme" eye drops are effective in treating pollinous conjunctivitis, spring (vernal) keratoconjunctivitis, allergic reactions when wearing contact lenses, the dry eye syndrome, drug-induced and toxicoallergic conjunctivitis, and other ocular allergic reactions.

  17. Comparison of novel lipid-based eye drops with aqueous eye drops for dry eye: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Peter A; Carlisle-Wilcox, Cindy; Vehige, Joseph G

    2015-01-01

    Background Dry eye may be caused or exacerbated by deficient lipid secretion. Recently, lipid-containing artificial tears have been developed to alleviate this deficiency. Our study compared the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of lipid-containing eye drops with that of aqueous eye drops. Methods A non-inferiority, randomized, parallel-group, investigator-masked multicenter trial was conducted. Subjects with signs and symptoms of dry eye were randomized to use one of two lipid-containing artificial tears, or one of two aqueous artificial tears. Subjects instilled assigned drops in each eye at least twice daily for 30 days. The primary efficacy analysis tested non-inferiority of a preservative-free lipid tear formulation (LT UD) to a preservative-free aqueous tear formulation (AqT UD) for change in Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score from baseline at day 30. Secondary measures included OSDI at day 7, tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal and conjunctival staining, Schirmer’s test, acceptability and usage questionnaires, and safety assessments. Results A total of 315 subjects were randomized and included in the analyses. Subjects reported instilling a median of three doses of study eye drops per day in all groups. At days 7 and 30, all groups showed statistically significant improvements from baseline in OSDI (P<0.001) and TBUT (P≤0.005). LT UD was non-inferior to AqT UD for mean change from baseline in OSDI score at day 30. No consistent or clinically relevant differences for the other efficacy variables were observed. Acceptability was generally similar across the groups and there was a low incidence of adverse events. Conclusion In this heterogeneous population of dry eye subjects, there were no clinically significant differences in safety, effectiveness, and acceptability between lipid-containing artificial tears and aqueous eye drops. The results suggest that lipid-containing artificial tears can be used to counteract lipid deficiency that is common in

  18. The Pain Response to Mydriatic Eye Drops in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Amy M.; Cook, Noah; Harris, Mary Catherine; Ying, Gui-shuang; Binenbaum, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate physiologic and behavioral pain responses of premature infants following instillation of mydriatic eye drops for ROP examinations. While burning and stinging occurs in older patients, the infant pain response is not well characterized. Study Design Vital sign and video monitor recorded infant responses before, during, and after mydriatic (tropicamide 1%, phenylephrine 2.5%) administration upon first ROP exam. Two masked observers graded Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores immediately prior and following eye drop administration. Scores <7 indicate no/minimal pain, 7-12 slight/moderate, >12 severe. Results Twenty infants had mean pre-mydriatic PIPP score 3.6 (SD 1.6), mean post-mydriatic score 5.7 (SD 3.4), mean change 2.1 (SD 3.4)(p=0.01). One (5%) had pre-mydriatic PIPP score ≥7, seven (35%) post scores ≥7 (p=0.07) with one >12. Conclusions Mydriatic drops cause a clinically significant pain response in one third of infants. Non-pharmacologic supportive measures are recommended for all infants until predictive factors are defined. PMID:23238569

  19. Technology of eye drops containing aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill.--Liliaceae) and eye drops containing both aloe and neomycin sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Marcinkowski, A; Kukuła, H

    2003-01-01

    Eye drops made of aloe are a sterile, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill., containing necessary additives and neomycin sulphate. The aim of the studies was to establish the technology of eye drops containing biologically active aloe substances and those containing both chemical constituents of aloe and neomycin sulphate. Within the studies, the formulary content and the way of preparing eye drops were determined, criteria were defined and methods of qualitative assessment of drops were proposed. On the basis of the proposed analytical methods, the physicochemical and microbiological stability of the eye drops stored at a temperature of 20-25 degrees C was studied. As the criteria of qualitative assessment of the eye drops, the following analyses were considered: sterility, appearance of the eye drops (clarity), pH, osmotic pressure, density, viscosity, TLC analysis, content of aloenin and aloin, studies of anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the drops, and preservative efficiency of thiomersal in the eye drops. The studies showed that the additives such as: sodium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate and digluconate, phenylmercuric borate and Nipagins M and P could not be used to prepare the eye drops because they were involved in pharmaceutical interactions with chemical constituents of aloe in the eye drops. The eye drops containing: aqueous extract of fresh leaves of aloe, boric acid, thiomersal, sodium pyrosulphite, disodium EDTA, beta-phenylethyl alcohol and neomycin sulphate, both freshly prepared and after two years of storage, met the requirements of the Polish Pharmacopoeia (PPh V) mentioned in the monograph Guttae ophthalmicae. They were sterile, clear, their osmotic pressure approximated the osmotic pressure of lacrimal fluid and they were characterized by appropriate pH. Aloenin in the drops was much more stable than aloin. Neomycin after two years of storage retained almost 98% of its starting antimicrobial

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis due to diclofenac sodium in eye drops.

    PubMed

    Miyazato, Hitona; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Taira, Kiyohito; Asato, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yu-Ichi; Hagiwara, Keisuke; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    Eyelid dermatitis and/or periocular dermatitis (ED/PD) is commonly seen in a variety of skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, but is most often associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Here, a case of ACD in an 82-year-old man is described; he used 0.1% diclofenac sodium eye drops and exhibited pruritic erythema on the eyelids. Patch test for diclofenac sodium eye drops was positive. Further patch tests revealed a positive reaction to diclofenac sodium (monosodium 2-[2, 6-dichlorophenylamino] phenylacetate), which was the main component in the eye drop medicine. Diclofenac sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and is frequently used in everyday oral medications, topical ointments, gel agents and eye drops. Case reports on ACD caused by diclofenac sodium eye drops are extremely rare. Nevertheless, it is necessary to consider ACD due to diclofenac sodium when a patient with ED/PD has a history of use of diclofenac sodium eye drops.

  1. How to Use Eye Drops Properly

    MedlinePlus

    ... doses Use the exact number of drops recommended Store medications out of reach of children Copyright 2013, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced, displayed, modified, or distributed ...

  2. Clinical utility of caspofungin eye drops in fungal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Neoh, Chin Fen; Daniell, Mark; Chen, Sharon C-A; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of fungal keratitis remains challenging. To date, only the polyenes and azoles are commonly used topically in the management of fungal keratitis. Natamycin, a polyene, is the only antifungal eye drop that is commercially available; the remainder are prepared in-house and are used in an 'off-label' manner. Failure of medical treatment for fungal keratitis is common, hence there is a need for more effective topical antifungal therapy. To increase the antifungal eye drop armamentarium, it is important to investigate the utility of other classes of antifungal agents for topical use. Caspofungin, an echinocandin antifungal agent, could potentially be used to address the existing shortcomings. However, little is known about the usefulness of topically administered caspofungin. This review will briefly explore the incidence, epidemiology and antifungal treatment of fungal keratitis. It will focus primarily on evidence related to the efficacy, safety and practicality of using caspofungin eye drops in fungal keratitis.

  3. Therapy of corneal erosions and 'dry eye' with Solcoseryl and Vitasic eye drops.

    PubMed

    Krannig, H M; Rohde-Germann, H; Straub, W

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study of Solcoseryl eye drops versus Vitasic eye drops has been carried out under controlled conditions (randomized and double-blind) on a total of 94 patients. 52 had corneal erosion, 30 had dry eye syndrome, 8 cases could not be evaluated. In addition, 2 eyes with photophthalmia were treated with Vitasic and 2 showing keratitis with Solcoseryl. There were no adverse reactions other than 2 instances of stinging with Solcoseryl and 1 case of severe irritation after Vitasic. The patients were examined on days 0, 1, 3 and 7. Results showed a consistent superiority of Solcoseryl eye drops in respect to speed of healing of corneal erosions and moistening of the cornea in the 'dry eye' syndrome which reached statistical significance in some parameters.

  4. Systemic side effects of eye drops: a pharmacokinetic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Farkouh, Andre; Frigo, Peter; Czejka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    When administering eye drops, even when completely correctly applied, several routes of absorption are possible and excess amounts can sometimes cause an unwanted systemic bioavailability of the drops when not completely absorbed into the eye. Furthermore, the concentration of active ingredients in such medicinal preparations is usually very high, so that despite the correct application of the recommended dose, considerable amounts may be absorbed in an unwanted manner through various routes. Children are subject to a much higher risk of systemic side effects because ocular dosing is not weight adjusted and physiological development (eg, liver status) differs from that of adults. There is a lack of information about pediatric dosing in the current literature. This review summarizes the most important clinically relevant systemic side effects that may occur during ophthalmic eye treatments. In this review, we discuss general pharmacokinetic considerations as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and consequences of administering drugs from some important drug groups to the eye. PMID:27994437

  5. Fluorimetric quantification of brimonidine tartrate in eye drops.

    PubMed

    Sunitha, G; Bhagirath, R; Alapati, V R; Ramakrishna, K; Subrahmanyam, C V S; Anumolu, P D

    2013-11-01

    A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the estimation of brimonidine tartrate in pure and eye drops. Linearity was obeyed in the range of 0.2-3.0 ΅g/ml in dimethyl formamide as solvent at an emission wavelength (λem) of 530 nm after excitation wavelength (λex) of 389 nm with good correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for this method were 22.0 and 72.0 ng/ml, respectively. The developed method was statistically validated as per International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. The percentage relative standard deviation values were found to be less than 2 for accuracy and precision studies. The results obtained were in good agreement with the labelled amounts of the marketed formulations. The proposed method was effectively applied to routine quality control analysis of brimonidine tartrate in their eye drops.

  6. Prescription of atropine eye drops among children diagnosed with myopia in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007: a nationwide study

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Y-T; Chou, Y-J; Pu, C; Lin, P-J; Liu, T-L; Huang, N; Chou, P

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to examine the atropine eye drop prescription trend for children diagnosed with myopia, and to determine the factors associated with the prescription of atropine eye drops. Design This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Methods This study was conducted using a national representative sample from the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data. All school children between 4 and 18 years of age who had visited an ophthalmologist and were diagnosed with myopia between 2000 and 2007 were included herein. The main outcome measure was the proportion of subjects who were prescribed atropine eye drops in each year. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with atropine eye drops being prescribed. Results The prescription of atropine eye drops for children diagnosed with myopia increased significantly from the school years 2000 (36.9%) to 2007 (49.5%). There was also a shift from prescribing high concentrations (0.5 and 1%) of atropine eye drops to lower concentration ones (0.3, 0.25, and 0.1%) within this period. Atropine eye drops were more frequently prescribed to 9–12-year-old children (OR=1.26–1.42, compared with those 7–8 years old), and to children from families with a high socioeconomic status (OR=1.19–1.25); however, they were less prescribed to those living in mid to low urbanized areas (OR=0.65–0.84). Conclusions This study revealed an increasing trend of atropine eye drop prescription for children with myopia in Taiwan. Our study provides eye-care professionals worldwide a reference for the potential integration of atropine eye drops into their clinical practice toward children with myopia. PMID:23288141

  7. Azelastine eye drops in the treatment of perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Ozod; Petzold, Ursula; Haase, Hans; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Ellers-Lenz, Barbara; Hermann, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Azelastine (CAS 58581-89-8) is a selective H1-receptor antagonist that inhibits histamine release and interferes with activation of other mediators of allergic inflammation. The present double-blind study aimed to evaluate azelastine eye drops (Allergodil) in patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis compared to placebo. A total of 116 patients with an ocular symptoms score for itching and conjunctival redness > or = 3 (0-6 scale) were randomized to twice-daily 0.05% azelastine eye drops treatment (n = 58) or placebo. Patients maintained daily logs and were clinically evaluated after 7, 21 and 42 days of treatment. Azelastine significantly improved itching and conjunctival redness versus placebo (p < 0.001). Tolerability was rated good or better by 97% of patients with only bitter taste and application site reaction notable adverse experiences. On Day 7, ocular symptoms score improved by 1.5 +/- 0.9 (versus 0.5 +/- 0.8 placebo) with score improvement > or = 2 in 55% with azelastine (versus 14% placebo). Itching and redness further improved at Day 42 (score improvement > or = 2 in 95% with azelastine versus 33% placebo) and completely resolved for 47% azelastine patients (versus 10% placebo). Daily patient logs confirmed the clinically assessed scores. Topical azelastine progressively improved itching and conjunctival redness in patients with moderate to severe perennial allergic conjunctivitis. Continued improvement with prolonged use is consistent with mechanisms other than H1-receptor blockade, such as possible down regulation of adhesion molecule receptors.

  8. Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis with olopatadine hydrochloride eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Uchio, Eiichi

    2008-01-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions such as histamine H1 receptor antagonist action, chemical mediator suppressive action, and eosinophil infiltration suppressive action. Olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution (Patanol®) was introduced to the market in Japan in October 2006. In a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution significantly suppressed ocular itching and hyperemia compared with levocabastine hydrochloride 0.05% ophthalmic solution, and the number of patients who complained of ocular discomfort was lower in the olopatadine group than in the levocabastine group. Conjunctival cell membrane disruption was observed in vitro in the ketotifen fumarate group, epinastine hydrochloride group, and azelastine hydrochloride group, but not in the olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution group, which may potentially explain the lower discomfort felt by patients on instillation. Many other studies in humans have revealed the superiority of olopatadine 0.1% hydrochloride eye drops to several other anti-allergic eye drops. Overseas, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% ophthalmic solution for a once-daily regimen has been marketed under the brand name of Pataday®. It is expected that olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions may be used in patients with a more severe spectrum of allergic conjunctival diseases, such as vernal keratoconjunctivitis or atopic keratoconjunctivitis, in the near future. PMID:19668750

  9. The Role of Atropine Eye Drops in Myopia Control.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Armesto, Alejandro; Szwajkowska, Maria; Iribarren, Guillermo; Iribarren, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    High myopia is a major cause of uncorrectable visual impairment. It imposes major challenges and costs for refractive correction, and for the treatment of associated pathological complications. In the last 60 years, there has been a marked increase in the prevalence of high myopia in younger generations in developed countries in East and Southeast Asia, and there are signs of similar, but less pronounced increases in North America and Europe. In some parts of the world, 70-90% of children completing high schools are now myopic, and as many as 20% may be highly myopic. It is now clear that myopia results from excessive axial elongation of the eye, and this greater rate of axial elongation appears to be environmentally driven. Experimental studies have examined the biochemical mechanisms involved in regulation of axial elongation; and, from these studies, some options have emerged for preventing the development of myopia or slowing myopia progression. Atropine eye drops have been quite extensively used in clinical practice in Asian countries. This long-lasting treatment could be beneficial, but has clear limitations and complications. Recent reports suggest that a low concentration of atropine, which has less severe side-effects, is also effective. But, a decision to use an invasive treatment such as atropine drops, even at low doses, requires careful consideration of the risk of myopia progression. A decision to use atropine in pre-myopic patients would require even more careful consideration of the risks. Here, we review the current literature relevant to the prevention of myopia progression with atropine drops.

  10. Tamoxifen-Containing Eye Drops Successfully Trigger Cre-Mediated Recombination in the Entire Eye.

    PubMed

    Schlecht, Anja; Leimbeck, Sarah V; Tamm, Ernst R; Braunger, Barbara M

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic lethality in mice with targeted gene deletion is a major issue that can be circumvented by using Cre-loxP-based animal models. Various inducible Cre systems are available, e.g. such that are activated following tamoxifen treatment, and allow deletion of a specific target gene at any desired time point during the life span of the animal. In this study, we describe the efficiency of topical tamoxifen administration by eye drops using a Cre- reporter mouse strain (R26R). We report that tamoxifen-responsive CAGGCre-ER (TM) mice show a robust Cre- mediated recombination throughout the entire eye.

  11. [Eye-drops from olden times to the XIXth century].

    PubMed

    Esteva de Sagrera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish word "colirio" comes from the Latin collyrium, which in turn came from the Greek kollirion. Initially, the Romans use this word in a general way, but due to their use mainly in ophthalmology, the use of the term became restricted to those topical medications destined for the care and prevention of ocular diseases, from solutions and suspensions to poultices, salves and ointments. During the Middle Ages "colirio" included not only substances used to dilate ladies' pupils for aesthetic reasons but also medications for ocular hygiene and treatment. The Industrial Revolution of the XIXth century barely modified ophthalmic pharmaceutical technology. It is only since the World War II that the preparation of eye-drops has undergone a rapid development and improvement, adopting the concept of sterility as a necessary condition for all ophthalmic solutions and taking very precise rules for their elaboration and conditioning from different pharmacopeia.

  12. [Allergodil eye drops in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Haicl, P; Cerná, H

    2002-07-01

    The authors describe a group of 20 patients with symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis where for a period of 2-6 weeks twice a day into the conjunctival sac of both eyes Allergidol gtt, ophth., ASTA Medica AG FRG was administered. As to subjective sensations the authors evaluated itching, burning, the sensation of a foreign body and lacrimation, as to objective signs oedema of the eyelids, hyperaemia of the conjunctiva and papillary hypertrophy. The authors evaluated also the rate of onset of the effect, its duration and tolerance of the preparation. Subjective symptoms disappeared in 90% patients, hyperaemia of the conjunctivae and papillary hypertrophy receded in 12 patients (60%), in 8 (40%) they disappeared. Regression of subjective complaints occurred in all patients within 20 minutes, the duration of the effect was within the range of 11-13 hours in 18 patients (90%), 6-8 hours in two patients (10%). As to undesirable effects one female patient reported after administration of the eye drops a bitter sensation in the mouth, another one a burning sensation. Evidence was provided that the local H1 antihistaminic Allergodil gtt is effective in monotherapy in mild forms of allergic conjunctivitis.

  13. Targeting growth factor supply in keratopathy treatment: comparison between maternal peripheral blood and cord blood as sources for the preparation of topical eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Versura, Piera; Buzzi, Marina; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Terzi, Adriana; Fresina, Michela; Velati, Claudio; Campos, Emilio C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epitheliotrophic growth factors (GF) can be supplied topically to patients with severe keratopathy through a variety of blood-derived products. We compared GF content in adult peripheral blood serum (PB-S) and cord blood serum (CB-S) as potential sources of GF. To limit inter-individual variability the assessment was performed in maternal-child pairs at the time of delivery. Material and methods The amounts of epidermal GF (EGF), insulin-like GF (IGF), transforming GF-beta (TGF-β), vascular endothelial GF (VEGF) in CB units collected from the umbilical vein and PB from mothers (each group n=30) were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Obstetric characteristics and haematological data were recorded from the archives of the Emilia Romagna Cord Blood Bank. Statistical evaluations were performed by Wilcoxon’s test and correlations between variables were determined using Spearman’s (ρ) coefficient; p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results EGF, TGF-β and VEGF levels were significantly higher in CB-S than in PB-S (median 1,254.4 vs 646.0 pg/mL, 51.3 vs 38.4 μg/mL and 686.8 vs 30 pg/mL, respectively; all p<0.0001) whereas IGF content was significantly higher in PB-S than in CB-S (159.9 vs 53.5 pg/mL, respectively; p<0.0001). In CB-S, the CD34+ cell concentration appeared to be related to EGF, IGF and TGF-β levels whereas white blood cell count appeared to be related to EGF and TGF-β levels. VEGF levels showed no relation to the haematological parameters considered. Platelet counts were not related to GF level in either CB or PB. Discussion The GF content in the two blood sources was different, with CB containing larger amounts. Each GF selectively regulates cellular processes involved in corneal healing, so the use of PB or CB should be targeted to supply specific GF on the basis of the type and severity of the keratopathy. PMID:26192781

  14. Double-blind group comparative study of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops with 2% sodium cromoglycate and placebo eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Leino, M; Ennevaara, K; Latvala, A L; Nordgren, P; Posti, A M; Suves, R; Takalo, E

    1992-10-01

    A 4 week, multicentre, double-blind, double dummy, placebo controlled group comparative study was carried out during the birch pollen season to compare the efficacy and tolerability of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops (twice daily) and 2% sodium cromoglycate eye drops (four times daily). Participants with a history of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) were randomized to receive nedocromil sodium (60), sodium cromoglycate (61) or placebo (64). Clinical assessment of SAC showed improvement with both active treatments compared to placebo but symptomatology was low and only changes in photophobia and grittiness reached significance (P < 0.05). Patient diaries showed significant control of itching by both active treatments, compared to placebo, with no differences between the active preparations. Patients' opinions indicated a marked placebo effect: 73% of this group reported full or moderate control of symptoms, compared with 75% in sodium cromoglycate and 80% in the nedocromil sodium group. Unusual symptoms were most common (27 patients) with nedocromil sodium eye drops: P < 0.05 vs. placebo (15 patients). There were no serious adverse events. Nedocromil sodium eye drops (b.d.) and sodium cromoglycate eye drops (q.i.d.) were both considered clinically more effective than placebo in controlling symptoms of SAC due to birch pollen.

  15. A Case-Control Study on the Oxidative Balance of 50% Autologous Serum Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Diane; Zelanis, Samira; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Locatelli, Claudete; Nicola, Felipe; Kunzler, Ana Laura; Fernandes, Tania Regina Gatelli; Carraro, Cristina Campos; Barbosa, Luciene

    2016-01-01

    Importance. Autologous serum (AS) eye drops are recommended for severe dry eye in patients with ocular surface disease. No description of the antioxidant balance of AS eye drops has been reported in the literature. Objective. This study sought to evaluate the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in samples of 50% AS eye drops and their correlations with the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of patients with ocular surface disease and healthy controls. Design. This was a case-control study with a 3-month follow-up period. Participants. 16 patients with severe dry eye disease of different etiologies and 17 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and race were included. Results. TRAP and ROS were detected at all evaluated times. There were no differences in the mean ROS (p = 0.429) or TRAP (p = 0.475) levels between cases and controls. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of ROS or TRAPs were found at 0, 15, or 30 days (p for ROS = 0.087 and p for TRAP = 0.93). Neither the demographic characteristics nor the lifestyle habits were correlated with the oxidative balance of the 50% AS eye drops. Conclusions and Relevance. Both fresh and frozen 50% AS eye drops present antioxidant capacities and ROS in an apparently stable balance. Moreover, patients with ocular surface disease and normal controls produce equivalent AS eye drops in terms of oxidative properties. PMID:27635188

  16. Quality standards, safety and efficacy of blood-derived serum eye drops: A review.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F; Seghatchian, Jerard; Marks, Denese C

    2016-02-01

    Serum eye drops (SEDs) are being used increasingly to treat dry eye syndrome and persistent corneal epithelial defects, and are usually prescribed when conventional treatments fail. SEDs are commonly sourced from the patient's own blood via an autologous collection. Although SEDs are clearly beneficial, they are not available for those patients that cannot donate sufficient blood, and some centres are moving to allogeneic SEDs. Many studies have reported that both allogeneic and autologous SEDs are effective. However, few large randomised controlled trials have been conducted to date, and clinical evidence is therefore limited to smaller studies. Alternatives to serum are also being explored, such as platelet lysate and products made from platelet rich plasma, as they are a rich source of growth factors. This article reviews how some centres are approaching allogeneic collections for SEDs, and alternatives to serum that are currently being explored.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and Antihistaminic Study of a Unani Eye Drop Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Abdul, Latif; Abdul, Razique; Sukul, R.R.; Nazish, Siddiqui

    2010-01-01

    The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities. PMID:23861612

  18. Changes of Corneal Wavefront Aberrations in Dry Eye Patients after Treatment with Artificial Lubricant Drops.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ning; Lin, Fangyu; Huang, Zhu; He, Qin; Han, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the corneal aberration changes in dry eye patients after treatment with artificial eye drops. Methods. Thirty mild to moderate dry eye patients treated with artificial eye drops and twenty comparable dry eye patients were recruited as controls. Anterior corneal aberrations over 3 mm and 5 mm analytical zones including total, 3rd to 5th high order aberrations (HOAs), spherical aberration (SA), and vertical (V-coma) and horizontal coma (H-coma) obtained from corneal topography data at baseline and 2 weeks after treatment were evaluated. Results. For 3 mm zone, trefoils, V-coma, H-coma terms, and 3rd and 5th HOAs were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the treatment group. For 5 mm zone, instillation of eye drops reduced H-coma, SA terms, 3rd to 5th orders, and total HOAs all showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05). The root mean square analysis of the Zernike terms also showed similar statistical results. For control group, all individual terms and total HOAs did not have significant changes over 3 mm and 5 mm zones (p > 0.05). Conclusions. Treatment with artificial eye drops can effectively improve the corneal optical quality of dry eye patients by ameliorating the HOAs of anterior corneal surface.

  19. [Keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated with the combination povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole].

    PubMed

    Diongue, K; Sow, A S; Nguer, M; Seck, M C; Ndiaye, M; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, J M; Ndoye, N W; Diallo, M A; Diop, A; Ndiaye, Y D; Dieye, B; Déme, A; Ndiaye, I M; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-12-01

    In developing countries where systemic antifungal are often unavailable, treatment of filamentous fungi infection as Fusarium is sometimes very difficult to treat. We report the case of a keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated by povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole. The diagnosis of abscess in the cornea was retained after ophthalmological examination for a 28-year-old man with no previous ophthalmological disease, addressed to the Ophthalmological clinic at the University Hospital Le Dantec in Dakar for a left painful red eye with decreased visual acuity lasting for 15 days. The patient did not receive any foreign body into the eye. Samples by corneal scraping were made for microbiological analysis and the patient was hospitalized and treated with a reinforced eye drops based treatment (ceftriaxone+gentamicin). The mycological diagnosis revealed the presence of a mold: F. oxysporum, which motivated the replacement of the initial treatment by eye drops containing iodized povidone solution at 1% because of the amphotericin B unavailability. Due to the threat of visual loss, oral fluconazole was added to the local treatment with eye drops povidone iodine. The outcome was favorable with a healing abscess and visual acuity amounted to 1/200th. Furthermore, we noted sequels such as pannus and pillowcase. The vulgarization of efficient topical antifungal in developing countries would be necessary to optimize fungal infection treatment.

  20. Tear lipid layer thickness with eye drops in meibomian gland dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Fogt, Jennifer S; Kowalski, Matthew J; King-Smith, P Ewen; Epitropolous, Alice T; Hendershot, Andrew J; Lembach, Carrie; Maszczak, John Paul; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A; Barr, Joseph T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a lipid containing emollient eye drop, Soothe XP, which was reformulated in 2014 with a more stable preservative and buffer system, compared to a control, non-emollient, eye drop (Systane Ultra) in improving lipid layer thickness (LLT) in subjects with dry eye due to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Patients and methods This prospective single-center, open-label, cross-over, examiner masked-study enrolled subjects aged 30–75 years with lipid-deficient dry eye and a clinical diagnosis of MGD as determined by a slit lamp examination, an evaluation of meibomian gland drop out with meibography, and a standard patient evaluation of eye dryness questionnaire of >5. Eligibility was then determined by a LLT of <75 nm at baseline and the inability to increase LLT ≥15 nm with three blinks, as determined by interferometric methods. Subjects were randomized to receive a single emollient or non-emollient eye drop at Visit 1 and were crossed over for the alternate treatment at Visit 2. At each visit, LLT was measured prior to and 15 minutes following the instillation of the assigned eye drop. The primary endpoint was the change in LLT from baseline. Results Subjects (n=40) were enrolled and 35 completed the two study arms. Mean (±SD) patient age was 55.7 years (10.9) and 69% were female. Mean (±SD) LLT at baseline was 49.5 nm (9.2). Instillation of Soothe XP resulted in an increase in LLT to 77.5 nm (29.3) 15 minutes following drop instillation, which is an increase of 28.0 nm (27.4) (P<0.001). In contrast, LLT 15 minutes after the instillation of Systane Ultra was 50.8 nm (14.1), which was not statistically significant when compared to the baseline LLT. Conclusion In this study of subjects with MGD, the emollient, or lipid containing eye drop, increased the LLT of tears when measured 15 minutes after instilling a single eye drop. PMID:27853352

  1. Azelastine eye drops reduce conjunctival hyperresponsiveness to hyperosmolar glucose challenge in children with asymptomatic mite conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; Catrullo, A; Tosca, M; Cerqueti, P; Mondino, C; Passalacqua, G; Canonica, G W

    1999-01-01

    Mite allergy is characterized by a continuous allergen exposure. Persistent inflammation is therefore always detectable; and during symptomless periods as well. It has been reported that mite allergic patients also present a nonspecific hyperreactivity to different stimuli, including hyperosmolar solution. Since azelastine was previously demonstrated to be able to reduce allergic inflammation, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the drug on nonspecific conjunctival hyperreactivity in mite-allergic patients. Twenty children with mite allergy were studied. A hyperosmolar conjunctival challenge was performed before and after azelastine eye drops or placebo treatment for a period of 2 weeks. It was found that patients treated with azelastine eye drops showed a significant reduction in nonspecific conjunctival hyperreactivity compared to the placebo group (p = 0.018). It was concluded that azelastine eye drops are able to reduce the nonspecific hyperreactivity present in subjects with mite allergy.

  2. Tear film deficiencies pharmacology of eye drops and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kaszli, F A; Krieglstein, G K

    1996-08-01

    Our knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of multifactorially induced dry eye has increased dramatically during the past few years. Major progress has taken place in the development of objective methods of evaluating and differentiating disturbances of the ocular lubrication. Various in vivo techniques for the diagnosis of tear film and corneal pathologies, including fluorophotometric tear flow, scanning confocal microscopy, infrared thermography, and fluorogenic substrate techniques, can be used quantitatively and qualitatively in clinical research. Eyedrop side effects such as epithelial cell toxicity and, especially, changes in epithelial membrane permeability after the administration of locally applied ophthalmic preparations are now detectable under in vivo conditions.

  3. Sodium hyaluronate eye drops of different osmolarity for the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Aragona, P; Di Stefano, G; Ferreri, F; Spinella, R; Stilo, A

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients with hypotonic or isotonic hyaluronate eye drops. Methods: 40 Sjögren's syndrome patients were divided in two groups and treated as follows: group 1 with hypotonic (150 mOsm/l) 0.4% hyaluronate eye drops; group 2 with isotonic 0.4% hyaluronate eye drops. The eye drops were instilled six times a day for 90 days. Grading of subjective symptoms, break up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining, conjunctival rose bengal staining, Schirmer's I test, and conjunctival impression cytology were carried out at 0 and 15, 30, 90 days from the beginning of the study. Patients were examined in a blind fashion. For the statistical analysis the Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ2 test were performed. Results: Symptoms were statistically significantly improved at day 15 in both groups but group 1 patients had a global score statistically significantly better group 2 (p=0.02). At day 15 group 1 patients had an improvement from baseline values of BUT (p=0.003), fluorescein, and rose bengal score (p=0.000001 and p=0.0004 respectively). Group 2 patients had, at day 15, an improvement of BUT and fluorescein score compared to baseline values (p=0.05 and p=0.0001 respectively). A comparison between the two groups showed better results for group 1 patients at day 15 for rose bengal stain (p=0.01) and for BUT (p=0.05) and fluorescein score (p=0.0003) at day 90. The conjunctival impression cytology showed that group 1 had a statistically significant better total score than group 2 starting from day 15 and lasting throughout the study (p<0.02). Also group 2 patients showed an improvement from baseline values starting from day 30 (p=0.000005). Conclusion: Hyaluronate eye drops are useful for treating severe dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients. The use of a formulation with pronounced hypotonicity showed better effects on corneoconjunctival epithelium than the isotonic solution. PMID:12140209

  4. Azelastine eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis in young children.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, A; Marzetto, M

    1998-01-01

    In a randomised, multicentre study, the effect of azelastine eye drops (n = 51 patients) was compared in a double-blind manner with placebo eye drops (n = 30 patients) and in an open manner with levocabastine eye drops (n = 32 patients) during a 14-day treatment period involving 113 children (aged 4 to 12 years) suffering from seasonal allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis. The primary variable was the response rate defined as the number of patients showing an improvement after three days of treatment of at least three score points, from a minimum baseline score of six, in the main ocular symptoms of itching, conjunctival redness and lacrimation (each assessed on a four-point scale). Patients discontinuing due to inefficacy were regarded as non-responders. The mean response rate in the azelastine eye drops group (74%) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that in the placebo group (39%) and comparable with that in the levocabastine group. The response rates assessed by the patients in their diaries were very similar. Significant differences (p < 0.01) for azelastine compared with placebo were observed on days 3 and 14 in the mean sum scores for the three main symptoms and for a total of eight eye symptoms. The overall assessment of efficacy confirmed the superiority of both active treatments compared with placebo. Adverse drug reactions were reported in 23% of placebo-, 35% of azelastine- and 38% of levocabastine-treated patients. These were mainly local irritant effects. Overall tolerability was assessed as very good or good in 80%, 84% and 91% of placebo-, azelastine- and levocabastine-treated patients, respectively. Azelastine eye drops are effective and well-tolerated in children with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  5. Topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop for refractory vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Kheirkhah, A; Zavareh, M K; Farzbod, F; Mahbod, M; Behrouz, M J

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop for treatment of refractory vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Methods This prospective study included 20 eyes of 10 patients with refractory VKC, who had active symptomatic disease despite conventional medications including topical steroids. After discontinuing all other medications, patients were treated with topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop four times a day. Changes in subjective symptoms and objective signs after treatment were evaluated, and development of possible complications was assessed. Results Mean age of patients was 21.3±7.4 years and mean duration of VKC was 12.1±5.8 years. After starting tacrolimus eye drop, patients were followed for a mean duration of 10.7±3.7 months (range, 6–15 months). All symptoms including itching, redness, photosensitivity, foreign body sensation, and mucus discharge improved after the treatment; itching was the first symptom to show dramatic relief. In addition, there was improvement in objective signs including conjunctival hyperaemia, conjunctival papillary hypertrophy, giant papillae, limbal hypertrophy, corneal punctate epithelial erosions, and corneal pannus; conjunctival hyperaemia was the first sign to show improvement. No patient required addition of other medications including steroids for further relief. Any attempt to discontinue tacrolimus eye drop was associated with recurrence of patients' symptoms and signs, necessitating continued use of the medication during the entire follow-up time. No ocular complication related to tacrolimus was noted. Conclusion Topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop seemed to be a safe and effective treatment for steroid-resistant refractory VKC; however, long-term use was needed to control the disease. PMID:21475312

  6. Undiluted Serum Eye Drops for the Treatment of Persistent Corneal Epitheilal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Jongkhajornpong, Passara; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat; Chuckpaiwong, Varintorn

    2016-01-01

    Several studies found that 50–100% serum eye drops provided greater benefits without inducing detrimental effects on the corneal epithelial healing. This study assessed the efficacy of undiluted serum eye drops for the treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defects (PED). A total of 109 eyes received 100% serum eye drops for PED were recruited into this study. The data were compared with an historical control group of 79 eyes with PED who received conventional treatments from 2006–2011 at the same institution. Main outcome measures were complete healing of PED and incidence of adverse events. No significant difference in demographics between the 2 groups was noted. The success rate of the treatment and control groups were 87.16% (95% CI 0.79–0.93) and 69.62% (95% CI 0.59–0.80) (P = 0.001), respectively. The median time to complete epithelialization was 14 days (95% CI 12–21) in the treatment group and 28 days (95% CI 21–59) in the control group (P = 0.001). Serum treatment, primary diagnosis of non-limbal stem cell deficiency etiology, and prior contact lens wear significantly correlated with the corneal re-epithelialization. There were no serious side effects encountered during the study period. In conclusion, undiluted serum therapy is effective and safe for treating PED. PMID:27909310

  7. Synergistic effect of regenerating agent plus cord blood serum eye drops for the treatment of resistant neurotrophic keratitis: a case report and a hypothesis for pathophysiologic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Fresina, Michela; Vagge, Aldo; Versura, Piera

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a case of a 72-year-old Caucasian woman presenting with a large neurotrophic keratitis with a large persistent epithelial defect, with a longest linear diameter of 7 mm and greatest perpendicular width of 5 mm, affecting epithelium, Bowman membrane, and anterior stroma. Corneal disease was resistant to conventional treatment and classified as stage 2 according to Mackie classification. Patient was instructed to instill regenerating agent (RGTA) eye drops in the morning, as the first eye drop, once every 5 days in combination with daily cord blood serum (CBS) eye drops 6 times/day. The patient was asked to visit after 1 week (V1), 2 weeks (V2), 3 weeks (V3), and 4 weeks (V4) of study treatment. In V4 treatment, corneal sensitivity improved, and keratitis healed with resolution of stromal inflammation. Global treatment tolerance was very satisfactory. Patient continued the therapy for a further month after complete healing. Currently, the patient has been followed up for 3 months without any sign of keratitis recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this case report describes for the first time the successful combined use of RGTA and CBS eye drops for the treatment of neurotrophic keratitis resistant to conventional treatment. We hypothesize that RGTA eye drops could provide an optimal migration substrate and that growth factors supplied by CBS eye drops could strengthen the repair process by promoting cell growth over the matrix. Combined RGTA and CBS eye drop therapy could be a new potential option for the successful treatment of resistant neurotrophic keratitis, particularly when each drug alone is not effective.

  8. [Ketotifen fumarate (Zaditen) eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Haicl, P; Cerná, H

    2004-09-01

    A group of 25 patients with signs of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis treated during the period of 2 to 6 month with ketotifen fumarate 0.05% eye drops 2-3 times daily (Zaditen eye drops, Novartis Ophthalmic, AG, Switzerland) is described here. As subjective symptoms of itching, stinging, tearing, and mucous discharge were observed and evaluated, as well as objective signs of hyperemia of the conjunctiva and hypertrophy of the tarsal papillae. Similarly the onset of action, duration time, and toleration of the drug were assessed. Subjective symptoms disappeared after 10 days of treatment duration in 60% to 80% patients, after two months of treatment were present in the range 0% to 20%. Objective signs diminished after 10 days of treatment in 60%-72% patients, and after 2 months in 72% to 96% of patients. Hypertrophy of papillae of the tarsal conjunctiva did not totally disappear even after 6 month of treatment with ketotifen fumarate eye drops. Onset of action in all patients was 20 minutes or less, the duration of action was in the range of 8-13 hours. The drug was found as a good tolerable by all patients. Sixteen per cent of patients felt some burning following the instillation. The study states that ketotifen fumarate 0.05% eye drops are effective in a monotherapy of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Due to its multiple action, the drug prevents the allergic reaction as well. Subjective symptoms are influenced faster and more effective than the objective signs. The treatment of objective signs needs prolonged use of these drops.

  9. Decrease in corneal damage due to benzalkonium chloride by the addition of sericin into timolol maleate eye drops.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of sericin on corneal damage due to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into the rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constants (kH) as well as cell viability were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.1% sericin than in the case of treatment with BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without sericin. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.1% sericin was significantly higher than that of eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without sericin, and the addition of sericin did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of commercially available timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and sericin may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term anti-glaucoma agents.

  10. Decrease in Corneal Damage due to Benzalkonium Chloride by the Addition of Mannitol into Timolol Maleate Eye Drops.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yoshioka, Chiaki; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of mannitol on corneal damage caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops, using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constant (kH), as well as cell viability, were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.5% mannitol than in the case BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without mannitol. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.5% mannitol was significantly higher than that for eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without mannitol, and the addition of mannitol did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of the timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and mannitol may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term treatment with anti-glaucoma agents.

  11. [Validation of the HPLC method in the determination of dioxopromethazine and phenylephrine in eye drops].

    PubMed

    Hudecová, T; Hatrík, S; Zimová, N; Havránek, E

    2002-03-01

    The present paper introduces a rapid HPLC method for the determination of dioxopromethazine and phenylephrine in eye drops. The method uses a modified C18 stationary phase optimized for the separation of basic compounds and a methanol/1.5 mM phosphoric acid (60/40 v/v, pH 3.02) mobile phase. The flow rate is set to 2 ml/min, sample volume 20 microliters, and compounds are detected at 275 nm. Prior to analysis, the eye drops are diluted with water in a ratio of 1:50. The elaborated HPLC method and the chromatographic system were validated according to the procedure for the validation of chromatographic systems and methods.

  12. Evaluation of the in vitro ocular toxicity of the fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; González-Barcia, Miguel; Gil-Martínez, María; Santiago Varela, María; Pardo, María; Blanco-Méndez, José; Piñeiro-Ces, Antonio; Lamas Díaz, María Jesús; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    The use of parenteral antibiotic eye drop formulations with non-marketed compositions or concentrations, commonly called fortified antibiotic eye drops, is a common practice in Ophthalmology in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ocular toxicity of the main fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared in the Hospital Pharmacy Departments. We have conducted an in vitro experimental study in order to test the toxicity of gentamicin, amikacin, cefazolin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, colistimethate sodium and imipenem-cilastatin eye drops; their cytotoxicity and acute tissue irritation have been evaluated. Cell-based assays were performed on human stromal keratocytes, using a cell-based impedance biosensor system [xCELLigence Real-Time System Cell Analyzer (RTCA)], and the Hen's Egg Test for the ocular irritation tests. All the eye drops, except for vancomycin and imipenem, have shown a cytotoxic effect dependent on concentration and time; higher concentrations and longer exposure times will cause a steeper decline in the population of stromal keratocytes. Vancomycin showed a major initial cytotoxic effect, which was reverted over time; and imipenem appeared as a non-toxic compound for stromal cells. The eye drops with the highest irritating effect on the ocular surface were gentamicin and vancomycin. Those antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments included in this study were considered as compounds potentially cytotoxic for the ocular surface; this toxicity was dependent on the concentration used.

  13. Influence of local application of glaucoma medications-travoprost eye drops on patients' tear film function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengpu

    2015-03-01

    This study discussed about the influence of local application of glaucoma medications -- travoprost eye drops to patients' tear film function. We selected 24 patients, 45 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma or intraocular hypertension. All of the patients topically used the travoprost eye drops for one time every night. After and before the pharmacy, we proceeded 1, 2, 3 mo lines symptom score and Schirmer's test (St), corneal fluorescein staining (FL), breakup time of tear film (BUT). Average value of symptom score and FL of all the patients before pharmacy were 1.32 ± 1. 55, 0.42 ± 0.68, and 1, 2, 3mo after pharmacy were respectively 2.68 ± 1.59, 0.96 ± 0.81; 4.97 ± 1.62, 1.46 ± 0.62; 6.21 ± 1.33, 1.88 ± 0.44. Symptom score and FL of 1, 2, 3 mo patients after pharmacy were all prominent higher than it before pharmacy (P=0.00), and it gradually increased. The average value of patients symptom BUT and St before pharmacy were (7.71 ± 0.87s), (8.32 ± 2.63mm /5min) and 1, 2, 3 mo after pharmacy were respectively (6.93 ± 1.17s), (7.69 ± 3. 33mm /5min); (5.48 ± 1.29s), (6.79 ± 2.94mm /5min); (4.33 ± 1.83s), (5.98 ± 3.11mm/5min). BUT and St value after pharmacy were prominent all lower than the level before pharmacy (P=0.00). And it gradually reduced. Short-term use of travoprost eye drops would aggravate the corneal irritation of patients, and decrease the tear film stability and tear secretion.

  14. In vivo challenging of polymyxins and levofloxacin eye drop against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Kazuki; Miyake, Taku; Koike, Naohito; Hattori, Takaaki; Kumakura, Shigeto; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koji; Kuroda, Masahiko; Ito, Norihiko; Goto, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish a rabbit multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) keratitis model, and test the efficacy of levofloxacin, colistin methanesulfate (CL-M), colistin sulfate (CL-S) and polymyxin B (PL-B) against MDRP infection. In a rabbit eye, making a 2-mm circular corneal excision, and MDRP strain #601 or representative P. aeruginosa strain IID1210 were instilled into the corneal concavity. IID1210 was used to confirm this model developed P. aeruginosa keratitis. After MDRP keratitis developed, we treated the eyes with levofloxacin, CL-M, CL-S or PL-B eye drops. The infected eyes were evaluated by clinical score, histopathological examination and viable bacterial count (CFU). Rabbits developed MDRP keratitis reproducibly after instilled the bacteria into the corneal lesion. MDRP produced severe keratitis similarly with IID1210, as shown by slit lamp examination and clinical score. In MDRP keratitis models, clinical scores and viable bacterial counts were significantly lower in levofloxacin- and CL-M-treated groups compared with PBS-treated group, but the magnitudes of reduction were not remarkable. However, clinical scores were dramatically lowered in CL-S- and PL-B-treated groups compared with PBS-treated group. CL-S- and PL-B-treated group were kept corneal translucency and little influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in histopathological examination. In addition, both CL-S- and PL-B-treated groups were not detected viable bacteria in infected cornea. Using our MDRP keratitis model, we showed that topical levofloxacin and CL-M are not adequately effective, while CL-S and PL-B are efficacious in controlling MDRP keratitis. Especially, PL-B, which is commercially available eye drop, might be most effective against MDRP.

  15. A clinical study on “Computer vision syndrome” and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha

    PubMed Central

    Gangamma, M. P.; Poonam; Rajagopala, Manjusha

    2010-01-01

    American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as “Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use”. Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on “CVS”, 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. PMID:22131717

  16. In vitro assessment of the cytotoxicity of anti-allergic eye drops using 5 cultured corneal and conjunctival cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Yaguchi, Shigeo; Koide, Ryohei

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of anti-allergic eye drops for human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) and commercially available ocular surface cells. A primary HCEC culture was derived from human eye bank specimens. SIRC (rabbit corneal epithelium), BCE C/D-1b (bovine corneal epithelial cells), RC-1 (rabbit corneal epithelium), and Chang (human conjunctival cells) were obtained commercially. The WST-1 assay was used to measure HCEC viability, and the viability of other cells was measured using the MTT assay. Cells were treated with 7 commercially available anti-allergic eye drops for 48 h and cell viability was measured and calculated as a percentage of control. The degree of toxicity for each eye-drop solution was based on the cell viability score (CVS). HCECs treated with a 1000-fold dilution of the eye-drop solution had a viability score of 67% for Rizaben and ≥80% for the other solutions with Zepelin being the least toxic. Cell viability in response to eye-drop solutions preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) was dependent on the concentration of the drug solution and exposure time. Treatment of ocular surface cells with a 20-fold dilution of the eye-drop solution resulted in the following order of cell viability as determined by their CVS: Zepelin > Ketas = Zaditen ≥ Tramelas PF = Patanol ≥ Rizaben ≥ Livostin. This order was similar to that observed for HCECs, and cell viability was found to be concentration-dependent. Based on the penetration of the drug into eye tissues, HCECs are only likely to be pharmaceutically damaging in rare cases. Epithelial cell viability depends primarily on the concentration of BAK rather than on the action of the active component in the eye-drop solution. CVS values were useful for comparison of toxicity.

  17. Ocular Pharmacokinetics of Naringenin Eye Drops Following Topical Administration to Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Junli; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Yandong; Ma, Yan; Chen, Wenpei; Zhang, Ziyang; Gui, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the ocular pharmacokinetics of 1% naringenin eye drops following topical administration to rabbits. Methods: One drop (50 μL) of 1% naringenin eye drops was instilled into both eyes of each rabbit. The animals were sacrificed at predetermined intervals after dosing, and ocular tissues and plasma were then collected. Concentrations of naringenin were analyzed using specific electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, which is proved to be sensitive, specific, precise, and suitable for determination of naringenin in ocular tissues and plasma of rabbits. Results: Ocular exposure to naringenin, based on AUC(0−t), was highest in cornea, followed by aqueous humor, retina, and vitreous body. The Cmax of naringenin in cornea, aqueous humor, vitreous body, and retina were 67945.30±4109.34 ng/g, 1325.69±239.34, 160.52±38.78 ng/mL, and 1927.08±660.77 ng/g at 0.083, 0.75, 0.083, and 0.083 h after topical administration, respectively. The half-lives for these tissues were 9.37, 0.65, 1.17, and 4.62 h, respectively. There was no significant difference between free naringenin and total naringenin in plasma based on Cmax and Tmax. Cmax of total naringenin in plasma at 0.083 h was 35.12±0.54 ng/mL. Conclusions: Measurable concentrations of naringenin were achieved in ocular tissues after topical application in rabbits. Topical instillation of naringenin may be an effective approach in the treatment of posterior section diseases. PMID:25229266

  18. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio M.; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications. PMID:27200376

  19. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Fea, Antonio M; Aragno, Vittoria; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications.

  20. Factors predicting drop-out in community mental health centres

    PubMed Central

    RENESES, BLANCA; MUÑOZ, ELENA; LÓPEZ-IBOR, JUAN JOSÉ

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify treatment, therapist and patient factors associated with dropping out of treatment in four outpatient mental health services. The experimental group comprised all 789 individuals who attended for the first time the mental health services during one year and dropped out of treatment in the same year or during the two following ones. The control group consisted of the same number of individuals, chosen at random from patients who, in the same year, attended for the first time the services and did not subsequently drop out of treatment. The overall drop-out rate was 33.2%. According to logistic regression analysis, the predictive factors of dropping out were: being treated in a particular centre, the involvement of more than one therapist in treatment, having no previous history of psychiatric disorders, being young and being male. PMID:19812755

  1. [N-acetyl-aspartylglutamic acid eye drops in allergic-type conjuctivitis. Double-blind comparative clinical study].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M; Ducournau, D; Lumbroso, P; Serpin, G

    1985-01-01

    Fifty patients with allergic conjunctivitis were included in a double-blind randomized clinical trial designed to compare the efficiency and tolerance of two antiallergic eye-drops: one containing NAAGA (22 patients), the other one containing disodium Cromoglycate (28 patients). Both treatments were used at a dosage of 1 drop 4 times per day. Ocular symptoms, conjunctivo-corneal signs and the subjective ocular condition assessed by the patients themselves with visual analogue scales, were all significantly improved by both eye-drops during the first month of treatment. Statistical analysis showed that patient ocular condition improved more rapidly with NAAGA eye-drops. In 25 patients (12 in the NAAGA group and 13 in the Cromoglycate group), the study was continued for an additional month according to a cross-over protocol. During the 2nd month of treatment, additional improvement of ocular symptoms and signs were observed with both eye-drops but more markedly in those patients who received NAAGA after Cromoglycate. Ocular tolerance was good for both eye-drops.

  2. A rapid derivative spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of naphazoline and antazoline in eye drops.

    PubMed

    Souri, Effat; Amanlou, Massoud; Farsam, Hassan; Afshari, Alma

    2006-01-01

    A zero-crossing first-derivative spectrophotometric method is applied for the simultaneous determination of naphazoline hydrochloride and antazoline phosphate in eye drops. The measurements were carried out at wavelengths of 225 and 252 nm for naphazoline hydrochloride and antazoline phosphate, respectively. The method was found to be linear (r2>0.999) in the range of 0.2-1 microg/ml for naphazoline hydrochloride in the presence of 5 microg/ml antazoline phosphate at 225 nm. The same linear correlation (r2>0.999) was obtained in the range of 1-10 microg/ml of antazoline phosphate in the presence of 0.5 microg/ml of naphazoline hydrochloride at 252 nm. The limit of determination was 0.2 microg/ml and 1 microg/ml for naphazoline hydrochloride and antazoline phosphate, respectively. The method was successfully used for simultaneous analysis of naphazoline hydrochloride and antazoline phosphate in eye drops without any interference from excipients and prior separation before analysis.

  3. Amelioration of ultraviolet-induced photokeratitis in mice treated with astaxanthin eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Lennikov, Anton; Fukase, Risa; Murata, Miyuki; Noda, Kousuke; Ando, Ryo; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ishida, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Ultraviolet (UV) acts as low-dose ionizing radiation. Acute UVB exposure causes photokeratitis and induces apoptosis in corneal cells. Astaxanthin (AST) is a carotenoid, present in seafood, that has potential clinical applications due to its high antioxidant activity. In the present study, we examined whether topical administration of AST has preventive and therapeutic effects on UV-photokeratitis in mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were administered with AST diluted in polyethylene glycol (PEG) in instillation form (15 μl) to the right eye. Left eyes were given vehicle alone as controls. Immediately after the instillation, the mice, under anesthesia, were irradiated with UVB at a dose of 400 mJ/cm2. Eyeballs were collected 24 h after irradiation and stained with H&E and TUNEL. In an in vitro study, mouse corneal epithelial (TKE2) cells were cultured with AST before UV exposure to quantify the UV-derived cytotoxicity. Results UVB exposure induced cell death and thinning of the corneal epithelium. However, the epithelium was morphologically well preserved after irradiation in AST-treated corneas. Irradiated corneal epithelium was significantly thicker in eyes treated with AST eye drops, compared to those treated with vehicles (p<0.01), in a doses dependent manner. Significantly fewer apoptotic cells were observed in AST-treated eyes than controls after irradiation (p<0.01). AST also reduced oxidative stress in irradiated corneas. The in vitro study showed less cytotoxicity of TKE2 cells in AST-treated cultures after UVB-irradiation (p<0.01). The cytoprotective effect increased with the dose of AST. Conclusions Topical AST administration may be a candidate treatment to limit the damages by UV irradiation with wide clinical applications. PMID:22393271

  4. What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... or no known risk factors. Risk factors for eye melanoma Race/ethnicity The risk of intraocular melanoma ...

  5. Efficacy and safety of ketotifen eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, M; McKenzie, S H; Steven, I; Cooper, C; Lanz, R

    2003-01-01

    Background: Ketotifen blocks histamine H1 receptors, stabilises mast cells, and prevents eosinophil accumulation. These multiple, pharmacological mechanisms provided the rationale for assessing the efficacy and safety of ketotifen 0.025% eye drops in subjects with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) in an environmental setting. Methods: This was a double masked, randomised, multicentre trial conducted in Australia. Subjects were randomly assigned to ketotifen fumarate 0.025% ophthalmic solution, placebo (as vehicle), or levocabastine hydrochloride 0.05% ophthalmic suspension, twice daily in each eye for a 4 week period. Subjects were assessed at follow up (days 5–8) and termination (days 25–31) visits. The primary efficacy variable was the responder rate, based on the subjects’ assessment of global efficacy at the follow up visit. Results: 519 subjects were randomised to treatment. At the follow up visit, the responder rate, based on subjects’ assessment of global efficacy, was significantly greater in the ketotifen group (49.5%) than in the placebo group (33.0%) for subjects with a positive diagnostic test for pollen allergy (p = 0.02). The investigators’ assessment of responder rates also showed that ketotifen was superior to placebo (p = 0.001). Ketotifen produced a significantly better outcome than levocabastine (p<0.05) for relief of signs and symptoms of SAC, at both the follow up and the termination visit. The type and frequency of adverse events were similar across treatment groups. Conclusions: In an environmental setting, ketotifen fumarate 0.025% ophthalmic solution was well tolerated and effective in reducing the signs and symptoms of SAC, and in preventing their recurrence. Ketotifen consistently showed the best efficacy in comparison with both placebo and levocabastine. These results indicate that ketotifen eye drops are a valuable treatment option for this condition. PMID:14507747

  6. Protective effects of naringenin eye drops on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced photoreceptor cell death in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun-Li; Wang, Yan-Dong; Ma, Yan; Zhong, Chun-Mei; Zhu, Mei-Rong; Chen, Wen-Pei; Lin, Bao-Qin

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of naringenin eye drops on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced photoreceptor cell death in rats. METHODS Photoreceptor cell death was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (60 mg/kg) in rats. Both eyes of all animals were instilled with one drop of vehicle, 0.5% or 1.0% naringenin eye drops three times per day from 7d before to 17d after MNU injection. Effects of naringenin on MNU-induced photoreceptor cell death were evaluated by electrophysiological and histological analysis. RESULTS Flash electroretinography (FERG) and oscillatory potentials (OPs) recordings showed that the vehicle control group had remarkable reduction of amplitudes and prolongation of latency times. FERG and OPs responses were significantly reversed in MNU-induced rats treated with 0.5% or 1.0% naringenin eye drops compared with the vehicle control. The retinal morphological results showed that naringenin dose-dependently preserved the outer nuclear layer, outer retina and total retina. CONCLUSION These results indicate that topical treatment with naringenin eye drops prevented retinal neurons from MNU-induced structural and functional damages. PMID:24967179

  7. Azelastine eye-drops in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Giede-Tuch, C; Westhoff, M; Zarth, A

    1998-09-01

    This study was carried out to assess the efficacy of 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis of > or = 1 year's duration. A total of 151 patients received 0.025% or 0.05% azelastine eye-drops or placebo b.i.d. for 14 days according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-dosing design; 129 patients completed the study as planned. The three target symptoms, scored on 4-point scales, were itching, lacrimation, and redness of the eyes; responders were patients whose symptom sum score decreased by > or = 3 from a baseline score of > or = 6 by day 3. Mean scores of these and five other symptoms were recorded also on days 7 and 14, and patients kept daily diaries of the three main symptoms and swollen eyelids. Responder rates were 73% for 0.025% (P=0.115 vs placebo) and 82% for 0.05% azelastine eye-drops (P=0.011 vs placebo) and 56% for placebo. The time courses of the mean (investigators' and patients') scores for the three main symptoms reflected the dose-dependent effect of azelastine eye-drops. One patient each from the two azelastine groups and three from the placebo group withdrew because of inefficacy. Adverse drug reactions were reported by 14 and 24 patients receiving 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops, respectively, and by eight placebo patients. These reactions were mainly slight application site reactions and taste perversion (bitter or unpleasant taste). Azelastine eye-drops are effective and well tolerated at a dose of 0.05% for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  8. Systane® lubricant eye drops in the management of ocular dryness

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of dry eye disease has advanced recently through increasing recognition that the etiology of the condition involves both tear evaporation and insufficient tear production, and that tear film instability and inflammation play roles in the various stages of the disease. Of significance, it has been recognized that lipid layer thickness correlates with tear film stability. The management of dry eye involves various strategies and therapeutic approaches that address one or more etiopathological components of the disease. The purpose of this review is to outline the characteristics and clinical utility of the Systane® ocular lubricants that contain hydroxypropyl-guar and one or both of the demulcents, ie, polyethylene glycol 400 and propylene glycol. Clinically, these products are safe and are indicated for the temporary relief of burning and irritation due to dryness of the eye. In particular, this review describes the formulations, mechanisms of action, and clinical utility of the newest additions to this topical ocular lubricant family, Systane Ultra® and Systane Balance®. Both of these ocular products are formulated with an intelligent delivery system and both provide symptomatic relief to patients with dry eye. However, Systane Balance is a novel formulation that contains both polymer and lipid components designed to protect the ocular surface and replenish tear film lipids simultaneously, a factor that is of particular relevance to patients who have dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction. PMID:21750611

  9. Chiral separation of dioxopromethazine in eye drops by CZE with charged cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Mikus, Peter; Valásková, Iva; Havránek, Emil

    2003-09-19

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with carboxyethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CE-beta-CD) dissolved in the operating buffer was used for the separation and determination of enantiomers of phenothiazine antihistaminic, dioxopromethazine, in commercial pharmaceutical preparation, eye drops. This chiral selector, negatively charged under given separating conditions (20 mmol/l epsilon -aminocaproic acid, acetic acid, pH 4.5), was effective in enantioresolution of the antihistamine even at its low concentrations (3-6 mg/ml) in the buffer solution. CZE identification and quantitation of the relevant constituents present in the preparation (dioxopromethazine enantiomers, phenylephrine) were based on the response of photometric absorbency detector, operating at a 275 nm detection wavelength. Changes in pH, type and concentration of chiral selector were studied in relation to chiral resolution. Acceptable validation criteria for sensitivity, precision, linearity and repeatability are included.

  10. In Vivo and Impression Cytology Study on the Effect of Compatible Solutes Eye Drops on the Ocular Surface Epithelial Cell Quality in Dry Eye Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lanzini, Manuela; Curcio, Claudia; Colabelli-Gisoldi, Rossella Annamaria; Mastropasqua, Alessandra; Calienno, Roberta; Agnifili, Luca; Nubile, Mario; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate in vivo and ex vivo ocular surface alterations induced by dry eye disease and modification after osmoprotective therapy. Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients suffering from dry eye have been recruited. All patients received Optive (compatible solutes) eye drops in one randomly selected eye and Hylogel (sodium hyaluronate 0,2%) in the other. Follow-up included a baseline visit and further examination 30-, 60-, and 90-day intervals (which comprises clinical evaluation, in vivo confocal microscopy—IVCM—of the ocular surface, and conjunctival impression cytology). No significant difference in Schirmer I Test, TBUT, and vital staining results was observed during the follow-up period in both groups. IVCM showed in all patients an improvement of ocular surface epithelial morphology and signs of inflammation (oedema and keratocyte activation). However, these modifications were more evident in patients treated with Optive therapy. A significant reduction of the expression of MMP9 and IL6 in Optive group was observed during the follow-up period in comparison to Hylogel treatment. Our results show that in dry eye disease therapy based on osmoprotective eye drops determines a reduction of inflammatory activation of ocular surface, with consequent improvement of the quality of corneal and conjunctival epithelium. PMID:26221061

  11. Synergistic interaction between TS-polysaccharide and hyaluronic acid: implications in the formulation of eye drops.

    PubMed

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Nazzi, Samuele; Zambito, Ylenia; Di Colo, Giacomo; Balzano, Federica; Sansò, Marco

    2010-08-16

    An interaction between tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in aqueous solution has been ascertained. Various TSP/HA mixtures have been studied as the basis for the development of a potential excipient for eye drops synergistically improved over those of the separate polymers. Information about the nature of interpolymer interactions, and their dependence on TSP/HA ratios were obtained by NMR spectroscopy in solution. Superior mucin affinity of TSP/HA mixtures with respect to the single polysaccharides was assessed by NMR proton selective relaxation rate measurements. The mucoadhesivity of the TSP/HA (3/2) mixture, evaluated in vitro by NMR or viscometry, and in vivo by its mean and maximum residence time in rabbit precorneal area, is stronger than that of the component polysaccharides or the TSP/HA mixtures of different composition. TSP/HA (3/2) is little viscous and well tolerated by rabbit eyes. It stabilizes the tear film, thereby prolonging the residence of ketotifen fumarate and diclofenac sodium in tear fluid, but is unable to permeabilize the cornea. In conclusion, mucoadhesivity is responsible for the TSP/HA (3/2) synergistic enhancement of either extra- or intra-ocular drug bioavailability.

  12. Decreased retinal blood flow in experimental colitis; improvement by eye drop administration of losartan

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Megan N.; Eshaq, Randa S.; Carter, Patsy R.; Harris, Norman R.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease suffer not only from gut inflammation, but also from extraintestinal manifestations of the disease, including ocular pathology. The mechanisms causing ocular inflammation in these patients are unknown. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the possible vascular changes occurring in the retina using a mouse model of acute colitis, that is, ingestion of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Intravital microscopy of anesthetized mice revealed that DSS caused a significant 30-40% decrease in retinal red blood cell velocities, and a 45% decrease in total retinal blood flow, but no changes in intraocular pressure. To determine whether the decreases in retinal perfusion could be inhibited by an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan was administered by eye drops in a subset of the mice prior to the intravital microscopy measurements. Topical losartan was able to largely attenuate the altered hemodynamics induced by DSS. We conclude that angiotensin II might be a possible target for reducing the vascular changes occurring distantly in the eye during colitis. PMID:23830910

  13. Cyclosporine a 0.05% eye drops for the treatment of subepithelial infiltrates after epidemic keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate the treatment with topical 0.05% cyclosporine A (CsA) in patients with subepithelial corneal infiltrates (SEI). Methods We reviewed 16 patients (22 eyes) before and after the treatment with 0.05% CsA eye drops. All patients had been treated previously with topical corticosteroids without any improvement and also they had to stop the medication secondary to intraocular pressure elevation. The objective data recorded included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), evaluation of corneal subepithelial infiltrate scores (CSIS), intraocular pressure (IOP) prior to treatment and the last follow-up visit. Results Six males (37.5%) and 10 females (62.5%), mean age of 35.2 ± 16.6 years, were included. The patients’ average topical CsA use duration was 5.1 ± 3.5 months (1 – 13 months). The average follow up time of the patients was 9.2 ± 4.7 months (4 – 22 months). One patient, although he didn’t have a 0 scale of SCIS, did not show up for follow up examinations after six months. The mean BCVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) before and after the treatment were 0.15 ± 0.15 and 0.07 ± 0.07 respectively, CSIS 1.68 ± 0.89 and 0.23 ± 0.53 respectively, IOP 18.50 ± 3.82 and 16.86 ± 2.76 mmHg respectively. There were statistically significant improvements in BCVA (p = 0.002), reduction of CSIS (p = 0.002) and reduction of IOP (p < 0.001) prior to treatment and the last follow-up visit. 18 eyes (81.9%) showed clinical improvement and 4 (18.1%) had decreased SEI which did not fully disappear during the treatment period. The eyes which reached CSIS score 0 (18 eyes) were treated with CsA for 1 – 13 months; while the eyes which had clinical improvement but had not CSIS score 0 (4 eyes) were decided to discontinue of CsA treatment in last follow-up visit. There were recurrences in 2 eyes 3 months after the treatment. Patients reported reduction in the severity of symptoms after the

  14. Comparison of the safety and protective efficacy of vaccination with glycoprotein-G-deficient infectious laryngotracheitis virus delivered via eye-drop, drinking water or aerosol.

    PubMed

    Devlin, J M; Browning, G F; Gilkerson, J R; Fenton, S P; Hartley, C A

    2008-02-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes respiratory disease in chickens and is commonly controlled by vaccination with conventionally attenuated virus strains. These vaccines have limitations due to residual pathogenicity and reversion to virulence. To avoid these problems and to better control disease, attention has recently turned towards developing a novel vaccine strain that lacks virulence gene(s). Glycoprotein G (gG) is a virulence factor in ILTV. A gG-deficient strain of ILTV has been shown to be less pathogenic than currently available vaccine strains following intratracheal inoculation of specific pathogen free chickens. Intratracheal inoculation of gG-deficient ILTV has also been shown to induce protection against disease following challenge with virulent virus. Intratracheal inoculation, however, is not suitable for large-scale vaccination of commercial poultry flocks. In this study, inoculation of gG-deficient ILTV via eye-drop, drinking water and aerosol were investigated. Aerosol inoculation resulted in undesirably low levels of safety and protective efficacy. Inoculation via eye-drop and drinking water was safe, and the levels of protective efficacy were comparable with intratracheal inoculation. Thus, gG-deficient ILTV appears to have potential for use in large-scale poultry vaccination programmes when administered via eye-drop or in drinking water.

  15. Randomized, Multicenter, Double–Blind Study of the Safety and Efficacy of 1%D-3-Hydroxybutyrate eye drops for Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Uchino, Miki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Yoshino, Kenichi; Shimazaki, Seika; Toda, Ikuko; Tanaka, Mari; Arai, Hiroyuki; Sakatani, Keiko; Hata, Seiichiro; Okano, Takashi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that topical D-beta-hydroxybutyrate ameliorates corneal epithelial erosion and superficial punctate keratopathy in a rat model of dry eye disease. In the current investigation, we performed a prospective, randomized, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety and efficacy of 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops in patients with dry eye disease. A total of 65 patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group, and the treatments were administered 6 times a day for 4 weeks. We then evaluated corneal fluorescein staining, corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining, tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer score, and subjective symptoms. At both 2 and 4 weeks, the corneal rose Bengal score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group. Among patients with an initial Schirmer score of ≤5 mm, the corneal fluorescein staining score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group at two weeks. Mild ocular symptoms occurred in both groups, and these spontaneously resolved. The present study suggested that 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops are safe and effective in treating ocular surface disorders in patients with tear-deficient dry eye disease. PMID:26865350

  16. Solvent/Detergent Virally Inactivated Serum Eye Drops Restore Healthy Ocular Epithelium in a Rabbit Model of Dry-Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Renn, Ting-Yi; Hsiao, Shun-Hung; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Application of autologous serum eye drops (SEDs) is a recognized means to treat severe dry-eye syndrome (DES). Due to the inconvenience and difficulty of preparing SEDs from some patients, producing SEDs from allogeneic blood donations is gaining popularity. A major safety concern associated with allogeneic blood is virus transmission. We therefore herein evaluated the possibility of applying a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment to inactivate viruses and studied the impacts of such treatment of SEDs to resolve DES in a rabbit model. Sera prepared from the blood of five rabbits were pooled and divided into two sub-pools. One was untreated (SEDs), while the other was virally-inactivated with 1% Tri-n-butyl phosphate/1% Triton X-45 at 31°C for 1 h (S/D-SEDs). DES was induced in rabbits using 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Rabbits were divided into five groups of two rabbits each. One group was untreated (control), three were treated twice daily for 3 weeks using PBS, SEDs, or S/D-SEDs, and the last received an additional 0.1% BAC (as the negative control). The DES condition was determined by measuring aqueous tear secretion (Schirmer’s test), corneal fluorescein staining, a corneal histologic examination, TUNEL stain apoptosis, and corneal inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-6) expressions. We first confirmed that SEDs and S/D-SEDs had similar protein profiles and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contents. Animal experiments showed that tear secretion did not significantly differ between the SED and S/D-SED groups but was significantly higher than in the PBS group. Eye fluorescein staining revealed dramatic improvements in epithelial defects in groups treated with SEDs or S/D-SEDs, and hematoxylin/eosin staining revealed microscopic epithelial layers similar to those of the untreated controls. Inflammatory markers and TUNEL studies showed that healthy epithelium had been restored in groups treated with SEDs or S

  17. Solvent/Detergent Virally Inactivated Serum Eye Drops Restore Healthy Ocular Epithelium in a Rabbit Model of Dry-Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Renn, Ting-Yi; Hsiao, Shun-Hung; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Application of autologous serum eye drops (SEDs) is a recognized means to treat severe dry-eye syndrome (DES). Due to the inconvenience and difficulty of preparing SEDs from some patients, producing SEDs from allogeneic blood donations is gaining popularity. A major safety concern associated with allogeneic blood is virus transmission. We therefore herein evaluated the possibility of applying a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment to inactivate viruses and studied the impacts of such treatment of SEDs to resolve DES in a rabbit model. Sera prepared from the blood of five rabbits were pooled and divided into two sub-pools. One was untreated (SEDs), while the other was virally-inactivated with 1% Tri-n-butyl phosphate/1% Triton X-45 at 31°C for 1 h (S/D-SEDs). DES was induced in rabbits using 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Rabbits were divided into five groups of two rabbits each. One group was untreated (control), three were treated twice daily for 3 weeks using PBS, SEDs, or S/D-SEDs, and the last received an additional 0.1% BAC (as the negative control). The DES condition was determined by measuring aqueous tear secretion (Schirmer's test), corneal fluorescein staining, a corneal histologic examination, TUNEL stain apoptosis, and corneal inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-6) expressions. We first confirmed that SEDs and S/D-SEDs had similar protein profiles and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contents. Animal experiments showed that tear secretion did not significantly differ between the SED and S/D-SED groups but was significantly higher than in the PBS group. Eye fluorescein staining revealed dramatic improvements in epithelial defects in groups treated with SEDs or S/D-SEDs, and hematoxylin/eosin staining revealed microscopic epithelial layers similar to those of the untreated controls. Inflammatory markers and TUNEL studies showed that healthy epithelium had been restored in groups treated with SEDs or S

  18. Conditioning Analysis of Incomplete Cholesky Factorizations with Orthogonal Dropping

    SciTech Connect

    Napov, Artem

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  19. Safety and efficacy of switching from dorzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops to brinzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji; Shiokawa, Minako; Ishida, Kyoko; Tomita, Goji

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of switching from dorzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed-combination (DTFC) eye drops to brinzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed-combination (BTFC) eye drops in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods A total of 35 eyes of 35 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension using DTFC eye drops were included. Participants discontinued DTFC drops and immediately began using BTFC drops. All other eye drops currently being used were continued. Intraocular pressure (IOP) 1 and 3 months after switching medications was compared with baseline IOP. One month after switching medications, participant preference and adherence were evaluated. Adverse reactions were monitored at each study visit. Results The IOP was 17.9±2.6 mmHg at baseline and 18.3±4.1 mmHg and 17.8±3.4 mmHg 1 month and 3 months after switching medications, respectively (P=0.633). The frequency of missing a dose was not different before (6.1%) and after (6.1%) switching to BTFC. Significantly fewer participants reported stinging after switching to BTFC (15.2%) than while using DTFC (51.5%, P,0.01). Blurred vision was reported with the same frequency before (39.4%) and after (42.4%) switching to BTFC. A total of 33.3% and 27.3% of patients preferred DTFC and BTFC, respectively. Several patients withdrew from the study because of discomfort (n=2, 5.7%), discharge (n=1, 2.9%), dizziness (n=1, 2.9%), or increased IOP (n=2, 5.7%). Conclusion Switching from DTFC to BTFC was well tolerated and did not result in IOP changes or a decreased patient adherence. When glaucoma patients complain of stinging with DTFC administration, switching to BTFC is an acceptable treatment option. PMID:25914520

  20. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops in comparison with azelastine containing nasal spray and eye drops or with cromoglycic Acid containing nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Werkhäuser, Nina; Bilstein, Andreas; Sonnemann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with increasing prevalence and high impact on economic burden and comorbidities. As treatment with pharmacological drugs is not always satisfactory due to side effects and incomplete efficacy, alternative treatment strategies are needed. Ectoine is an osmolyte with membrane stabilizing and inflammation reducing capacities. Nasal spray and eye drops containing ectoine are promising new treatment regimens for allergic rhinitis sufferers. Design and Methods. The current two noninterventional trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops for treating allergic rhinitis in comparison with either azelastine or cromoglycic acid containing products. Nasal and ocular symptom developments as well as judgment of tolerability and efficacy were assessed both by investigators and patients over a time period of one to two weeks. Results. Both trials confirmed that ectoine containing products reduced nasal and ocular symptoms in allergic rhinitis patients. Results clearly demonstrated good safety profiles of the ectoine products comparable to those of azelastine and even better to those of cromoglycate products. Conclusion. Ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops are interesting new treatment strategies for sufferers of allergic rhinitis, combining both good efficacy and absence of side effects.

  1. Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis with Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray and Eye Drops in Comparison with Azelastine Containing Nasal Spray and Eye Drops or with Cromoglycic Acid Containing Nasal Spray

    PubMed Central

    Werkhäuser, Nina; Sonnemann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with increasing prevalence and high impact on economic burden and comorbidities. As treatment with pharmacological drugs is not always satisfactory due to side effects and incomplete efficacy, alternative treatment strategies are needed. Ectoine is an osmolyte with membrane stabilizing and inflammation reducing capacities. Nasal spray and eye drops containing ectoine are promising new treatment regimens for allergic rhinitis sufferers. Design and Methods. The current two noninterventional trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops for treating allergic rhinitis in comparison with either azelastine or cromoglycic acid containing products. Nasal and ocular symptom developments as well as judgment of tolerability and efficacy were assessed both by investigators and patients over a time period of one to two weeks. Results. Both trials confirmed that ectoine containing products reduced nasal and ocular symptoms in allergic rhinitis patients. Results clearly demonstrated good safety profiles of the ectoine products comparable to those of azelastine and even better to those of cromoglycate products. Conclusion. Ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops are interesting new treatment strategies for sufferers of allergic rhinitis, combining both good efficacy and absence of side effects. PMID:24982680

  2. Therapeutic effects of 0.1% tacrolimus eye drops for refractory allergic ocular diseases with proliferative lesion or corneal involvement

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Atsuki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Uchio, Eiichi; Okamoto, Shigeki; Kumagai, Naoki; Shoji, Jun; Takamura, Etsuko; Nakagawa, Yayoi; Namba, Kenichi; Fujishima, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of topical 0.1% tacrolimus in treating refractory allergic conjunctivitis with proliferative lesions and/or corneal involvement. Methods This prospective observational study included 1436 patients with refractory allergic conjunctivitis whose condition had responded poorly to conventional antiallergic drugs and/or topical steroids and/or topical cyclosporine. All patients received tacrolimus eye drops twice daily during the study period. Ten clinical signs and six clinical symptoms were rated on a four-grade scale. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in total clinical signs and symptoms score at the last observation or following 6 months of treatment. Results Total signs and symptoms score significantly decreased after 1 month of treatment (p<0.001). Giant papillae and corneal lesions were also reduced by tacrolimus eye drop use (p<0.001). The drug proved effective in patients whose condition did not respond well to topical cyclosporine therapy. About 50% of all patients using topical steroids were weaned. The most common adverse reaction was a transient burning sensation (3.20%). Conclusions Tacrolimus eye drops are highly effective in treating refractory allergic conjunctivitis with proliferative lesions and/or corneal involvement, and may reduce or replace topical steroid use. Trial registration number UMIN 000008640. PMID:24695688

  3. Multi-pumping flow system for the determination of boron in eye drops, drinking water and ocean water.

    PubMed

    González, Pablo; Sixto, Alexandra; Knochen, Moisés

    2017-05-01

    A novel automated method for the determination of boron based on the use of pulsed flows was developed and applied to the determination of this element in samples of tap water, ocean water and eye drops. The method was implemented by means of a multi-pumping system consisting of three solenoid micropumps and a photometric detector and exploits the reaction of azomethine-H in the presence of boron. The system runs under control of an open-source microcontroller. The main operational parameters were optimized. Given the particular kinetics of the reaction, a stopped-flow period (1 or 5min) was included to allow for color development. The method presents linearity in the range 0.35-3.0mgL(-1), good precision (sr<3%), and detection and quantification limits of 0.10 and 0.35mgL(-1) respectively. Samples of tap water or eye drops could be successfully analyzed employing a 1-minute stop time, providing a maximum sampling frequency of 32 samples h(-1). In order to overcome matrix effect caused by the high saline concentration, ocean water samples required stop times of 5min, providing a sampling frequency of 10 samples h(-1). Recoveries of 102% (eye drops), 94% (drinking water) and 93% (ocean water) were obtained. The method was considered accurate and fit for the purpose.

  4. A New UPLC Method with Chemometric Design-Optimization Approach for the Simultaneous Quantitation of Brimonidine Tartrate and Timolol Maleate in an Eye Drop Preparation.

    PubMed

    Büker, Eda; Dinç, Erdal

    2017-02-01

    A new ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with photodiode array was proposed for the quantitation of Brimonidine Tartrate (BRI) and Timolol Maleate (TIM) in eye drop using experimental design and optimization methodology. A 3(3) full factorial design was applied to uncover the effects of the selected factors and their interactions on the chromatographic response function for the optimization of experimental conditions in the development of a new UPLC method. As a result, the optimal chromatographic conditions giving a better separation and short analysis time were found to be 49.2°C for column temperature; 0.38 mL/min for flow rate and 56.7 % (v/v) for 0.1 M CH3COOH used in mobile phase. The elution of BRI and TIM was reported as 0.508 and 0.652 min within a short runtime of 1.5 min, respectively. Calibration graphs for BRI and TIM were obtained by the regression of the concentration on the peak area, which was detected at 246 and 298 nm, respectively. The method validation was performed by the analysis of the synthetic mixtures, intra-day and inter-day samples and standard addition samples. This study shows that the optimized and validated UPLC method is very promising and available for the quantification of BRI and TIM in an eye drop formulation.

  5. The Toxicity of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Eye Drops against Human Corneal Epithelial Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Soo; Kim, Young Hi; Park, Young Min

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of commercial non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye solutions against corneal epithelial cells in vitro. The biologic effects of 1/100-, 1/50-, and 1/10-diluted bromfenac sodium, pranoprofen, diclofenac sodium, and the fluorometholone on corneal epithelial cells were evaluated after 1-, 4-, 12-, and 24-hr of exposure compared to corneal epithelial cell treated with balanced salt solution as control. Cellular metabolic activity, cellular damage, and morphology were assessed. Corneal epithelial cell migration was quantified by the scratch-wound assay. Compared to bromfenac and pranoprofen, the cellular metabolic activity of diclofenac and fluorometholone significantly decreased after 12-hr exposure, which was maintained for 24-hr compared to control. Especially, at 1/10-diluted eye solution for 24-hr exposure, the LDH titers of fluorometholone and diclofenac sodium markedly increased more than those of bromfenac and pranoprofen. In diclofenac sodium, the Na(+) concentration was lower and amount of preservatives was higher than other NSAIDs eye solutions tested. However, the K(+) and Cl(-) concentration, pH, and osmolarity were similar for all NSAIDs eye solutions. Bromfenac and pranoprofen significantly promoted cell migration, and restored wound gap after 48-hr exposure, compared with that of diclofenac or fluorometholone. At 1/50-diluted eye solution for 48-hr exposure, the corneal epithelial cellular morphology of diclofenac and fluorometholone induced more damage than that of bromfenac or pranoprofen. Overall, the corneal epithelial cells in bromfenac and pranoprofen NSAID eye solutions are less damaged compared to those in diclofenac, included fluorometholone as steroid eye solution.

  6. Anti-Apoptotic Gene Delivery with cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr) Peptide Nanotube via Eye Drop Following Corneal Epithelial Debridement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Hsing; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Liaw, Jiahorng

    2015-01-01

    Corneal keratocyte apoptosis triggered by cornel debridement is one mechanism of corneal disorders. In this study, the feasibility of cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr) peptide nanotubes (PNTs) as carriers of caspase 3 silence shRNA delivery was assessed. A model of epithelial injury by epithelial debridement was applied to investigate the feasibility of PNTs as gene delivery carriers on corneal injury. First, the PNTs were found within 2 μm in length and 300 nm in width by an atomic force microscope and confocal laser microscope system. Plasmid DNAs were observed to be associated with PNTs by atomic force microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The plasmids were associated with tyrosine of PNTs with a binding constant of 2.7 × 108 M−1. The stability of plasmid DNA with PNTs against the DNase was found at 60 min. Using thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs on the corneal eye drop delivery, the distribution of PNTs was in the epithelial and stroma regions. After corneal debridement, the rhodamine-labeled plasmid DNA and thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs were also delivered and could be observed in the stroma of cornea. PNTs complexed with anti-apoptotic plasmid caspase 3 silencing shRNA eye drop delivery decreased 41% of caspase 3 activity after the first dose by caspase 3 activity and Western blot analysis. PMID:26193308

  7. Dose-dependent protection by azelastine eye drops against pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Horak, F; Berger, U E; Menapace, R; Toth, J; Stübner, P U; Marks, B

    1998-04-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of azelastine (CAS 58581-89-8) eye drops at three different doses (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.1%) were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 24 subjects with a history of allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis, who were challenged, out of season, by airbone allergen in the "Vienna Challenge Chamber" (VCC). Subjects received a single dose of azelastine eye drops 60 min before the start of a 4 h challenge in the VCC. Additional local challenge, mimicking a gust of wind, was administered 15 min before the end of the session. Each of the 4 study days was separated by a 2 week washout period. Azelastine eye drops showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the development of itching of the eyes. The effect was most pronounced 15 min after the additional local challenge. A maximal effect was achieved at a dose of 0.05%. Similar effects were observed on lacrimation. Azelastine eye drops also dose-dependently inhibited the degree of conjunctival redness, measured by digital imaging, and tended to reduce the low incidence of chemosis observed. Ranking of the results of all symptoms for each treatment group confirmed the optimal effect at a dose of 0.05%. Azelastine eye drops had no effect on nasal and bronchial symptoms or on measurements of airways function (FEV1). No adverse effects of the treatments were reported. The data support the use of 0.05% azelastine eye drops in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis.

  8. Over the counter (OTC) artificial tear drops for dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pucker, Andrew D; Ng, Sueko M; Nichols, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the counter (OTC) artificial tears historically have been the first line of treatment for dry eye syndrome and dry eye-related conditions like contact lens discomfort, yet currently we know little regarding the overall efficacy of individual, commercially available artificial tears. This review provides a much needed meta-analytical look at all randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials that have analyzed head-to-head comparisons of OTC artificial tears. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of OTC artificial tear applications in the treatment of dry eye syndrome compared with another class of OTC artificial tears, no treatment, or placebo. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to December 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) and the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) website (www.fda.gov). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 December 2015. We searched reference lists of included trials for any additional trials not identified by the electronic searches. Selection criteria This review includes randomized controlled trials with adult participants who were diagnosed with dry eye, regardless of race and gender. We included trials in which the age of participants was not reported, and clinical trials comparing OTC artificial tears with another class of OTC artificial tears, placebo, or no treatment. This review did not

  9. Design and Evaluation of Voriconazole Eye Drops for the Treatment of Fungal Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Sakshi; Khare, Anubha; Grover, Kanchan; Singh, Inderbir; Pawar, Pravin

    2014-01-01

    Voriconazole is a novel antifungal agent with excellent broad spectrum activity commercially available for oral and intravenous administration. The purpose of this study was to prepare ophthalmic formulation of hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) based voriconazole containing benzalkonium chloride BAK and EDTA with or without viscosity modifiers and study its permeation characteristics through freshly excised goat cornea. The results were observed that viscosity and force of bioadhesion of the voriconazole HP-β-CD solutions containing xanthan gum (XG) are more as compared to polyvinyl alcohol. The results revealed that voriconazole drop containing PVA provided least viscosity and higher corneal permeation of drug, while drop formulated with XG had maximum viscosity and least permeation. The HP-β-CD based voriconazole (1.5%) ophthalmic formulation containing xanthan gum (1.5), preserved with BAK and EDTA, could provide shelf life of 2 years. The microbiological studies showed that voriconazole ophthalmic solution containing xanthan gum shows better antifungal activity as compared to voriconazole and xanthan gum alone. Thus, it can be concluded that HP-β-CD based voriconazole (1.5%, pH 7.0) ophthalmic solution containing BAK and EDTA with viscosity modifier XG provided maximum precorneal residence time as compared to other viscosity modifiers and polyvinyl alcohol provided less precorneal residence time than other viscosity modifiers. PMID:26556196

  10. Benefits of switching from latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost eye drops: a meta-analysis of two Phase IIIb clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Uusitalo, Hannu; Egorov, Evgeniy; Kaarniranta, Kai; Astakhov, Yuri; Ropo, Auli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Glaucoma patients frequently exhibit ocular surface side effects during treatment with prostaglandin eye drops. The present work investigated whether glaucoma patients suffering from signs and symptoms of ocular surface disease while using preserved latanoprost eye drops benefited from switching to preservative-free tafluprost eye drops. Patients and methods The analysis was based on 339 glaucoma patients enrolled in two Phase IIIb trials. The patients were required to have two symptoms, or one sign and one symptom of ocular surface disease at baseline, and at least 6 months preceding treatment with latanoprost eye drops preserved with benzalkonium chloride. All eligible patients were switched from latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost for a total of 12 weeks. Ocular symptoms and ocular signs were evaluated at baseline and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after commencing treatment with tafluprost. Intraocular pressure (IOP), drop discomfort, and treatment preference were evaluated to investigate the clinical efficacy and patient-related outcomes. Results After 12 weeks of treatment with preservative-free tafluprost, the incidences of irritation/burning/stinging, foreign body sensation, tearing, itching, and dry eye sensation had diminished to one-third of those reported for preserved latanoprost at baseline. The incidences of blepharitis and corneal/conjunctival fluorescein staining had in turn decreased to one-half of those reported for preserved latanoprost. Severity of conjunctival hyperemia was halved during treatment with preservative-free tafluprost, and there was significant improvement in tear break-up time and tear production. A further reduction in IOP (~1 mmHg) was seen with preservative-free tafluprost compared with preserved latanoprost. Drop discomfort was alleviated during preservative-free tafluprost treatment, and an outstanding majority of patients (72%) preferred preservative-free tafluprost over preserved latanoprost

  11. Preservative toxicity in glaucoma medication: clinical evaluation of benzalkonium chloride-free 0.5% timolol eye drops.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Lauren M; Bell, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    Timolol (generic name) is a frequently used medication for the control of glaucoma. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a commonly used preservative in ophthalmic solutions with a broad range of antimicrobial activity; however, this nonspecificity can result in toxicity. Adverse effects attributed to BAK, including conjunctival inflammation and fibrosis, tear film instability, corneal cytotoxicity, anterior chamber inflammation, trabecular meshwork cell apoptosis, cataract development, macular edema, and even systemic effects, have been well documented. These effects can lead to ocular discomfort, poor intraocular pressure control, glaucoma surgery failure, and decreased patient compliance. BAK use in topical medications has decreased recently as newer and less toxic preservatives have become available. Yet these preservatives still exert some toxic effects, especially in patients with chronic eye disease who use multiple drops over extended periods of time. Thus, attempts to reduce overall preservative loads for patients are important, whether it be decreasing the amount of preservative, decreasing the total number of drops patients use, or eliminating preservatives entirely. A preservative-free formulation of timolol, TIMOPTIC® in OCUDOSE®, is available in unit-dose vials. Preservative-free unit-dose vials minimize toxic adverse effects and are a good option for patients with ocular surface disease, on long-term multidrop therapy, or who simply do not tolerate the effects of preservatives due to discomfort.

  12. Preservative toxicity in glaucoma medication: clinical evaluation of benzalkonium chloride-free 0.5% timolol eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Rosin, Lauren M; Bell, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    Timolol (generic name) is a frequently used medication for the control of glaucoma. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a commonly used preservative in ophthalmic solutions with a broad range of antimicrobial activity; however, this nonspecificity can result in toxicity. Adverse effects attributed to BAK, including conjunctival inflammation and fibrosis, tear film instability, corneal cytotoxicity, anterior chamber inflammation, trabecular meshwork cell apoptosis, cataract development, macular edema, and even systemic effects, have been well documented. These effects can lead to ocular discomfort, poor intraocular pressure control, glaucoma surgery failure, and decreased patient compliance. BAK use in topical medications has decreased recently as newer and less toxic preservatives have become available. Yet these preservatives still exert some toxic effects, especially in patients with chronic eye disease who use multiple drops over extended periods of time. Thus, attempts to reduce overall preservative loads for patients are important, whether it be decreasing the amount of preservative, decreasing the total number of drops patients use, or eliminating preservatives entirely. A preservative-free formulation of timolol, TIMOPTIC® in OCUDOSE®, is available in unit-dose vials. Preservative-free unit-dose vials minimize toxic adverse effects and are a good option for patients with ocular surface disease, on long-term multidrop therapy, or who simply do not tolerate the effects of preservatives due to discomfort. PMID:24204115

  13. Nanomicellar Topical Aqueous Drop Formulation of Rapamycin for Back-of-the-Eye Delivery.

    PubMed

    Cholkar, Kishore; Gunda, Sriram; Earla, Ravinder; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a clear, aqueous rapamycin-loaded mixed nanomicellar formulations (MNFs) for the back-of-the-eye delivery. MNF of rapamycin (0.2%) was prepared with vitamin E tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) (Vit E TPGS) and octoxynol-40 (Oc-40) as polymeric matrix. MNF was characterized by various parameters such as size, charge, shape, and viscosity. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) was used to identify unentrapped rapamycin in MNF. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in human retinal pigment epithelial (D407) and rabbit primary corneal epithelial cells (rPCECs). In vivo posterior ocular rapamycin distribution studies were conducted in male New Zealand white rabbits. The optimized MNF has excellent rapamycin entrapment and loading efficiency. The average size of MNF was 10.98 ± 0.089 and 10.84 ± 0.11 nm for blank and rapamycin-loaded MNF, respectively. TEM analysis revealed that nanomicelles are spherical in shape. Absence of free rapamycin in the MNF was confirmed by (1)H NMR studies. Neither placebo nor rapamycin-loaded MNF produced cytotoxicity on D407 and rPCECs indicating formulations are tolerable. In vivo studies demonstrated a very high rapamycin concentration in retina-choroid (362.35 ± 56.17 ng/g tissue). No drug was identified in the vitreous humor indicating the sequestration of rapamycin in lipoidal retinal tissues. In summary, a clear, aqueous MNF comprising of Vit E TPGS and Oc-40 loaded with rapamycin was successfully developed. Back-of-the-eye tissue distribution studies demonstrated a very high rapamycin levels in retina-choroid (place of drug action) with a negligible drug partitioning into vitreous humor.

  14. Treatment, Material, Care, and Patient-Factors in Contact Lens-Related Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthy, Padmapriya; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Nichols, Jason J.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To examine the effect of general contact lens and material characteristics, care solutions, treatment and patient-related factors on contact lens-related dry eye. METHODS The data were derived from the Contact Lens and Dry Eye Study, designed as a cross-sectional and nested case-control study including 360 subjects. In separate statistical models, logistic regression was used to examine general contact lens characteristics, specific hydrogel lens materials, care solutions, and patient-related factors associated with dry eye status (controlled for age, gender, and current treatments). RESULTS Several factors were significantly associated with dry eye, including treatment factors such as a recent contact lens refitting (OR = 5.75, 95% CI = 2.14 to 15.46) and use of artificial tears/rewetting drops (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.16), and currently worn materials including FDA group II (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.14 to 6.19) and IV (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.08 to 3.24). Significant patient-related factors included decreased overall satisfaction (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 2.08 to 5.88,), dry eye in the absence of contact lens wear (OR = 6.54, 95% CI = 2.57 to 16.62), reduced daily lens wear duration (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.26), and reduced ability to wear lenses as long as desired (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.30 to 4.54). Care solutions were not significant. CONCLUSIONS The strong association of common treatment factors with dry eye status in contact lens wearers suggests that these treatments are not entirely effective. The use of high water content materials was strongly related to dry eye in lens wearers, while care solutions were not. Contact lens-related dry eye was also associated with several patient-related factors such as greater ocular discomfort (without lenses), dissatisfaction, and inability to wear lenses for desired durations. PMID:18677240

  15. Evaluation of pharmacological activities and assessment of intraocular penetration of an ayurvedic polyherbal eye drop (Itone™) in experimental models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The polyherbal eye drop (Itone™) is a mixture of aqueous distillates of nineteen traditionally used ingredients that sum up to impart potency to the formulation and make it a useful adjunct in various ocular pathologies. However, as there have been no controlled experimental studies accounting to the above claim, therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal formulation (PHF) for antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticataract, antioxidant and cytotoxicity in addition to the evaluation of intraocular penetration of PHF in rabbit eyes using LC-MS/MS. Materials and methods Antiangiogenic activity of the PHF was evaluated using in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in vivo cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats. Anticataract potential was evaluated using steroid induced cataract in developing chick embryos, sodium selenite induced cataract in rat pups and galactose induced cataract in rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using di-phenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro using inhibition of LTB4 formation in human WBCs and in vivo using carrageenan induced paw edema assay in rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated against HeLa cancer cell lines using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore evaluation of the intraocular penetration of the PHF was carried out in rabbit eyes via aqueous humor paracentesis and further analysis using LC-MS/MS. Results PHF significantly inhibited VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels in CAM assay and inhibited the cautery induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Additionally, PHF showed noticeable delay in the progression of cataract in the selenite and galactose induced cataract models whereby the PHF treated lenses were graded for stages II and III respectively. However, the PHF did not show any anticataract activity in the hydrocortisone

  16. A New Method to Predict the Epidemiology of Fungal Keratitis by Monitoring the Sales Distribution of Antifungal Eye Drops in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Marlon Moraes; de Angelis, Rafael; Lima, Acacio Souza; Viana de Carvalho, Glauco Dreyer; Ibrahim, Fuad Moraes; Malki, Leonardo Tannus; de Paula Bichuete, Marina; de Paula Martins, Wellington; Rocha, Eduardo Melani

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Fungi are a major cause of keratitis, although few medications are licensed for their treatment. The aim of this study is to observe the variation in commercialisation of antifungal eye drops, and to predict the seasonal distribution of fungal keratitis in Brazil. Methods Data from a retrospective study of antifungal eye drops sales from the only pharmaceutical ophthalmologic laboratory, authorized to dispense them in Brazil (Opthalmos) were gathered. These data were correlated with geographic and seasonal distribution of fungal keratitis in Brazil between July 2002 and June 2008. Results A total of 26,087 antifungal eye drop units were sold, with a mean of 2.3 per patient. There was significant variation in antifungal sales during the year (p<0.01). A linear regression model displayed a significant association between reduced relative humidity and antifungal drug sales (R2 = 0.17,p<0.01). Conclusions Antifungal eye drops sales suggest that there is a seasonal distribution of fungal keratitis. A possible interpretation is that the third quarter of the year (a period when the climate is drier), when agricultural activity is more intense in Brazil, suggests a correlation with a higher incidence of fungal keratitis. A similar model could be applied to other diseases, that are managed with unique, or few, and monitorable medications to predict epidemiological aspects. PMID:22457787

  17. Potentiation of intraocular absorption and drug metabolism of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops: drug interaction with sight threatening lipid peroxides in the treatment for age-related eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    lenses obtained from patients with senile and complicated cataracts as compared to normal donors. Utilizing the pharmacokinetic studies and the specific purity N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) ingredient as a source of pharmacological principal L-carnosine, we have created an ophthalmic time-release prodrug form combined with a muco-adhesive lubricant compound carboxymethylcellulose and other essential corneal absorption promoter excipients tailoring the increased intraocular absorption of L-carnosine in the aqueous humor and optimizing its specific effect in producing the basic antioxidant activity in vivo and reducing toxic effects of lipid peroxides to the crystalline lens. L-Carnosine that finds its way into the aqueous humor can accumulate in the lens tissue for a reasonable period of time. However, administration of pure L-carnosine (1% solution) to the rabbit eye (instillation, subconjunctival injection) does not lead to accumulation of this natural compound in the aqueous humor over 30 min in concentration exceeding that in the placebo-treated matched eyes, and its effective concentration is exhausted more rapidly. The NAC prodrug eye drops optimize the clinical effects for the treatment of ophthalmic disorders (such as prevention and reversal of cataracts in human and animal [canine] eyes). The data provided predict a particular NAC ophthalmic prodrug's clinical effect; the suitable magnitude and duration of this effect suggest dose-related bioavailability of L-camosine released from NAC in the aqueous humor of the anterior eye segment. The ophthalmic NAC drug shows promise in the treatment of a range of ophthalmic disorders which have a component of oxidative stress in their genesis (including cataract and after-cataract, glaucoma, dry eye, vitreous floaters, inflammatory disorders, corneal, retinal and systemic diseases [such as diabetes mellitus and its ophthalmic complications]). The clinical efficacy of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops in ripe cataracts and

  18. Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop or drinking-water.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines have been extensively used to control infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Most vaccines are registered/recommended for use via eye-drop although vaccination via drinking-water is commonly used in the field. Drinking-water vaccination has been associated with non-uniform protection. Bird-to-bird passage of chick-embryo-origin (CEO) ILT vaccines has been shown to result in reversion to virulence. The purpose of the present study was to examine the replication and transmission of a commercial CEO infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccine strain following drinking-water or eye-drop inoculation. Two groups of 10 specific-pathogen-free chickens were each vaccinated with Serva ILTV vaccine strain either via eye-drop or drinking-water. Groups of four or five unvaccinated birds were placed in contact with vaccinated birds at regular intervals. Tracheal swabs were collected every 4 days from vaccinated and in-contact birds to assess viral replication and transmission using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with eye-drop-vaccinated birds, drinking-water-vaccinated birds showed delayed viral replication but had detectable viral DNA for a longer period of time. Transmission to chickens exposed by contact on day 0 of the experiments was similar in both groups. Birds exposed to ILTV by contact with eye-drop vaccinated birds on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the experiment had detectable ILTV for up to 8 days post exposure. ILTV was not detected in chickens that were exposed by contact with drinking-water vaccinated birds on day 12 of the experiment or later. Results from this study provide valuable practical information for the use of ILT vaccine.

  19. Comparison of the effects of various lubricant eye drops on the in vitro rabbit corneal healing and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dutescu, R Michael; Panfil, Claudia; Schrage, Norbert

    2017-03-02

    Ingredients of lubricant eye drops are potentially harmful to the ocular surface. The products Optive, Optive Fusion, Neopt were tested regarding corneal irritability versus Vismed Multi and 0.01% benzalkonium chloride as negative and positive control, respectively. Formulas (30-40μl per hour) were applied hourly in-vitro for six days on rabbit corneas (n=5, per product) cultured in artificial anterior chambers (EVEIT system). Initially, four corneal abrasions (2.4-4.6mm(2)) were induced. All defects were monitored during drop application by fluorescein stains and photographs. To ensure corneal vitality, glucose and lactate concentrations in artificial anterior chamber fluids were determined photometrically. All products showed a complete corneal healing on day 2. Thereafter, all five Optive-treated corneas developed progressive fluorescein-positive epithelial lesions until day six (24.96μm, ±21.45μm, p<0.01). For Optive Fusion three corneas showed corneal erosions on day six (23.11μm, ±37.02μm, p>0.5) while Vismed Multi did not adversely affect the corneal integrity. Glucose/lactate concentrations remained unchanged while lubricants were applied. Histology revealed epithelial loss and severe alterations of the superficial stroma for Optive. Optive Fusion displayed a comparable pathology. Neopt did not significantly affect the corneal healing and integrity. This study suggested a cumulative corneal toxicity of Optive and, to a lesser extent, Optive Fusion most likely caused by its oxidative preservative, SOC. Clinical data are needed to clarify the application frequency at which corneal toxicity might occur. Neopt and Vismed Multi did not affect the corneal integrity.

  20. Rapamycin Eye Drops Suppress Lacrimal Gland Inflammation In a Murine Model of Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mihir; Edman, Maria C.; Reddy Janga, Srikanth; Yarber, Frances; Meng, Zhen; Klinngam, Wannita; Bushman, Jonathan; Ma, Tao; Liu, Siyu; Louie, Stan; Mehta, Arjun; Ding, Chuanqing; MacKay, J. Andrew; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of topical rapamycin in treating autoimmune dacryoadenitis in a mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome. Methods We developed rapamycin in a poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) micelle formulation to maintain solubility. Rapamycin or PEG-DSPE eye drops (vehicle) were administered in a well-established Sjögren's syndrome disease model, the male nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, twice daily for 12 weeks starting at 8 weeks of age. Mouse tear fluid was collected and tear Cathepsin S, a putative tear biomarker for Sjögren's syndrome, was measured. Lacrimal glands were retrieved for histological evaluation, and quantitative real-time PCR of genes associated with Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis. Tear secretion was measured using phenol red threads, and corneal fluorescein staining was used to assess corneal integrity. Results Lymphocytic infiltration of lacrimal glands from rapamycin-treated mice was significantly (P = 0.0001) reduced by 3.8-fold relative to vehicle-treated mice after 12 weeks of treatment. Rapamycin, but not vehicle, treatment increased tear secretion and decreased corneal fluorescein staining after 12 weeks. In rapamycin-treated mice, Cathepsin S activity was significantly reduced by 3.75-fold in tears (P < 0.0001) and 1.68-fold in lacrimal gland lysates (P = 0.003) relative to vehicle-treated mice. Rapamycin significantly altered the expression of several genes linked to Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis, including major histocompatibility complex II, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-12a, as well as Akt3, an effector of autophagy. Conclusions Our findings suggest that topical rapamycin reduces autoimmune-mediated lacrimal gland inflammation while improving ocular surface integrity and tear secretion, and thus has potential for treating Sjögren's syndrome–associated dry eye. PMID:28122086

  1. Impact of prostaglandin glaucoma drops on platelet-activating factor action: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Moschos, Marilita M; Nitoda, Eirini; Chatziralli, Irini P; Panos, Georgios D; Demopoulos, Constantinos A

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different prostaglandin analogs on platelet-activating factor (PAF) levels. Methods Three prostaglandin analogs were selected: bimatoprost 0.3 mg/mL, latanoprost 50 μg/mL, and tafluprost 15 μg/mL. Each drug sample was tested for its ability to cause platelet aggregation, which was measured as PAF-induced aggregation, before and after the addition of various concentrations of the examined sample, creating a linear curve of percentage inhibition (ranging from 0% to 100%) versus different concentrations of the sample. The concentration of the sample that inhibited 50% PAF-induced aggregation was calculated based on this curve, and this value was defined as IC50. In addition, the effect of eye drops on PAF metabolism was examined, through an in vitro analysis on PAF basic metabolic enzymes (PAF-cholinephosphotransferase, PAF-acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase, and PAF-acetylhydrolase). Results The IC50 values for Lumigan UD® (bimatoprost 0.3 mg/mL), Monoprost® (latanoprost 50 μg/mL), and Saflutan (tafluprost 15 μg/mL) were 8.7, 0.28, and 1.4 μg/mL, respectively. Discussion All three prostaglandin analogs suspended PAF, but bimatoprost induced the most potent inhibition, compared to tafluprost and to the weak effect of latanoprost. PMID:27994439

  2. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  3. Is Household Air Pollution a Risk Factor for Eye Disease?

    PubMed Central

    West, Sheila K.; Bates, Michael N.; Lee, Jennifer S.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Lee, David J.; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Chen, Dong Feng; Araj, Houmam

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the inefficient burning of coal and biomass (wood, charcoal, animal dung and crop residues) for cooking and heating has been linked to a number of negative health outcomes, mostly notably respiratory diseases and cancers. While ocular irritation has been associated with HAP, there are sparse data on adverse ocular outcomes that may result from acute and chronic exposures. We consider that there is suggestive evidence, and biological plausibility, to hypothesize that HAP is associated with some of the major blinding, and painful, eye conditions seen worldwide. Further research on this environmental risk factor for eye diseases is warranted. PMID:24284355

  4. Green synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide for sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in milk, powdered milk, honey and eye drops.

    PubMed

    Karthik, R; Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Lou, Bih-Show; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Hou, Yu-Shen; Elangovan, A

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid green synthesis using Bischofia javanica Blume leaves as reducing agent was developed for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs decorated graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) was prepared and employed for the sensitive amperometric determination of chloramphenicol. The green biosynthesis requires less than 40s to reduce gold salts to AuNPs. The formations of AuNPs and AuNPs/GO were evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, UV-Visible and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction studies, and electrochemical methods. AuNPs/GO composite film modified electrode was fabricated and shown excellent electrocatalytic ability towards chloramphenicol. Under optimal conditions, the amperometric sensing platform has delivered wide linear range of 1.5-2.95μM, low detection limit of 0.25μM and high sensitivity of 3.81μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The developed sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility, anti-interference ability and long-term storage stability. Practical feasibility of the sensor has been demonstrated in food samples (milk, powdered milk and honey) and pharmaceutical sample (eye drops). The green synthesized AuNPs/GO composite has great potential for analysis of food samples in food safety measures.

  5. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Penn, J.S.; Madan, A.; Caldwell, R.B.; Bartoli, M.; Caldwell, R.W.; Hartnett, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Collectively, angiogenic ocular conditions represent the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in developed countries. In the U.S., for example, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are the principal causes of blindness in the infant, working age and elderly populations, respectively. Evidence suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a 40 kDa dimeric glycoprotein, promotes angiogenesis in each of these conditions, making it a highly significant therapeutic target. However, VEGF is pleiotropic, affecting a broad spectrum of endothelial, neuronal and glial behaviors, and confounding the validity of anti-VEGF strategies, particularly under chronic disease conditions. In fact, among other functions VEGF can influence cell proliferation, cell migration, proteolysis, cell survival and vessel permeability in a wide variety of biological contexts. This article will describe the roles played by VEGF in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. The potential disadvantages of inhibiting VEGF will be discussed, as will the rationales for targeting other VEGF-related modulators of angiogenesis. PMID:18653375

  6. Efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% Aqueous Eye Drops in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Adefule-Ositelu, Adebukunola O.; Adegbehingbe, Bernice O.; Adefule, Adebayo K.; Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O.; Samaila, Elsie; Oladigbolu, Kehinde

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% aqueous solution eye drops in patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (POAG/OH). Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-masked, multicenter, active-controlled prospective study. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned in equal numbers to receive Timolol 0.5% eye drops as a control medication (A = Group 1 eyes) or Garcinia kola 0.5% eye drops as the study medication (B = Group 2 eyes). All drops were instilled at 6 am and 6 pm daily. Goldman applanation tonometry was performed at 9 am, 12 pm and 3 pm at baseline, week-6, week-12 and week-24 visits. Voluntary and actively elicited reports of adverse events were documented. The mean change in IOP over 24 weeks was the primary outcome measure. Both groups were compared for statistically significant differences at all visits. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 178 patients were randomly assigned to G. kola and Timolol groups. At baseline there were no differences in mean IOP between groups, based on age, sex, or diagnosis. At the end of the study period (24th week), the mean (± SD) reduction in IOP was 12.93 ± 2.3 mmHg (47.8% ± 0.8% reduction) in G. Kola group and 13.09 ± 2.8 mm Hg (48.2% ± 1.03% reduction) in the Timolol group (P > 0.05). Adverse events were mild in nature with no statistically significant differences between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Garcinia kola ophthalmic solution significantly reduces IOP as compared to baseline. The IOP lowering effect of both treatments was equivalent. PMID:20543944

  7. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of fluorometholone 0.1% combined with levofloxacin 0.5% and tobramycin/dexamethasone eye drops after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Qing; Han, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Xu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the combination of fluorometholone 0.1% and levofloxacin 0.5% to tobramycin/dexamethasone eye drops in controlling inflammation and preventing infection after phacoemulsification with an intraocular lens implantation. METHODS Sixty eyes from 60 patients undergoing cataract phacoemulsification were randomized into two groups; half of the patients were treated with fluorometholone (6 times/d) combined with levofloxacin (4 times/d), while the other half were treated with tobramycin/dexamethasone (4 times/d) eye drops for one week. Preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure, aqueous flare, corneal thickness, and signs and symptoms were recorded before the operation and 1wk following treatments. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in corneal thickness (P≥0.629), aqueous flare (P≥0.398), and signs and symptoms scores (P≥0.350) at each time point. Ocular hypertension was only observed in two eyes in the tobramycin/dexamethasone group. CONCLUSION Fluorometholone combined with levofloxacin treatment shows comparable efficacy but without the tendency to increase intraocular pressure; thus, it might be a better regimen for postoperative use. PMID:27990365

  8. Drop-out from addiction treatment: a systematic review of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Brorson, Hanne H; Ajo Arnevik, Espen; Rand-Hendriksen, Kim; Duckert, Fanny

    2013-12-01

    Completion of addiction treatment is one of the most consistent factors associated with a favorable treatment outcome. Unfortunately, it is more common for a patient to drop-out of addiction treatment than to complete the treatment. To prevent drop-out, risk factors must be identified. This box-score review focuses on studies investigating the risk factors associated with drop-out from addiction treatment published in peer-reviewed journals from 1992 to 2013. A total of 122 studies involving 199,331 participants met the inclusion criteria. Contrary to recommendations from previous reviews, 91% of the included studies focused primarily on enduring patient factors, mainly demographics. The most consistent risk factors across the different study designs, samples, and measurement methods were cognitive deficits, low treatment alliance, personality disorder, and younger age. With the exception of younger age, none of the demographic factors emerged as consistent risk factors. Further research on the relationship between simple demographic factors and drop-out risk is of limited value. However, little is known about the potential risk factors related to treatment programs and to the treatment processes. Based on the review, clinical recommendations include assessing cognitive functioning and personality disorders at baseline and continuous monitoring of treatment alliance.

  9. Latino Students in New Arrival States: Factors and Services to Prevent Youth from Dropping Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Andrew O.; Gonzalez, Laura M.; Cox, Ronald B.

    2010-01-01

    Latino youth are more likely than any other ethnic group to drop out of high school in the United States. Though some research has helped us understand the factors leading to dropout, very few studies have assessed Latino student's opinions of services and factors that would help them stay in school (e.g., family, school, peers, and policies).…

  10. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of two concentrations of azelastine eye drops in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, G; Mivsek-Music, E; Perrin-Fayolle, M; Obtulowicz, K; Secchi, A

    1997-01-01

    This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye drops twice daily administered for 14 days to patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. A total of 278 patients were recruited and 226 patients were evaluable for per protocol analysis. The target parameter was the response rate. Four eye symptoms, including the main symptom (itching) were recorded by patients in diaries and eight symptoms were assessed by physicians before and after seven and 14 days of treatment. Severity of symptoms was measured on a four-point scale. The response rates for itching (improvement of at least one score point within the first three days) according to patient assessment were 43% for placebo, 52% for 0.025% and 56% for 0.05% azelastine (NS). However, a more objective assessment of the three main eye symptoms by physicians showed a concentration-dependent improvement in response rate compared with placebo (a decrease of > or = 3 points from a baseline total score of > or = 6), which reached statistical significance for 0.05% azelastine on Day 7 (p < 0.002). In the evaluable patient population, the scores of the three main eye symptoms as well as of all eight recorded eye symptoms, as assessed by the physician, were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the 0.05% azelastine eye drops group in comparison with the placebo group at Day 7. Inefficacy was the cause of withdrawal in five and three patients on 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine, respectively, and in six patients on placebo. Adverse drug effects, mainly a mild, transient irritation and a bitter or unpleasant taste, were reported by 14% (0.025%), 20% (0.05%) and 15% (placebo) of the patients. No serious side-effects occurred. Azelastine eye drops are effective and well tolerated at a concentration of 0.05% for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  11. Factors affecting the spontaneous motion of condensate drops on superhydrophobic copper surfaces.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Qin, Zhaoqian; Yao, Shuhuai

    2012-04-10

    The coalescence-induced condensate drop motion on some superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) has attracted increasing attention because of its potential applications in sustained dropwise condensation, water collection, anti-icing, and anticorrosion. However, an investigation of the mechanism of such self-propelled motion including the factors for designing such SHSs is still limited. In this article, we fabricated a series of superhydrophobic copper surfaces with nanoribbon structures using wet chemical oxidation followed by fluorization treatment. We then systematically studied the influence of surface roughness and the chemical properties of as-prepared surfaces on the spontaneous motion of condensate drops. We quantified the "frequency" of the condensate drop motion based on microscopic sequential images and showed that the trend of this frequency varied with the nanoribbon structure and extent of fluorination. More obvious spontaneous condensate drop motion was observed on surfaces with a higher extent of fluorization and nanostructures possessing sufficiently narrow spacing and higher perpendicularity. We attribute this enhanced drop mobility to the stable Cassie state of condensate drops in the dynamic dropwise condensation process that is determined by the nanoscale morphology and local surface energy.

  12. Effect of In Vitro Transcorneal Approach of Aceclofenac Eye Drops through Excised Goat, Sheep, and Buffalo Corneas

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Vivek; Paliwal, Sarvesh; Yadav, Sachdev; Sharma, Swapnil

    2015-01-01

    The current study involves the evaluation of factors that influence the transcorneal permeation of aqueous drops of aceclofenac ophthalmic formulation through freshly excised goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas. Aceclofenac formulation with different concentrations 0.1–0.5% (w/v) and with different pH and different preservatives, was taken into account. The amount of drug permeated from different formulations was estimated using an Franz diffusion cell. A linear increase in drug permeation was observed with increase in pH (5.5 to 7.4). The apparent permeability coefficient was found to be maximum 15.01 ± 0.45 on goat cornea and maximum transport of aceclofenac was observed at physiological pH of tears (i.e., 7). The results advocate that aceclofenac 0.5% (w/v) ophthalmic solution (pH 7.0) containing BAK (0.01%) provides maximum in vitro ocular permeability through goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas. PMID:25654129

  13. Factors Influencing Migrant High School Students to Drop Out or Graduate from High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelken, Ira; Gallo, Kathleen

    Factors influencing migrant students in decisions to drop out or graduate from high school were determined in interviews with 24 dropouts and potential dropouts and 22 students who had graduated. Profiles were compiled on each group. Data were collected from twelfth grade migrant students in northern California. The main appeal of school to the…

  14. Evaluating the influence of canopy species and meteorological factors on throughfall drop size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanko, Kazuki; Hotta, Norifumi; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2006-10-01

    SummaryDrop size distributions (DSDs) were continuously and simultaneously measured by laser raindrop-sizing instruments (LD gauges) in an open site and in three forest stands consisting of Japanese cypress (CY: Chamaecyparis obtusa), Japanese cedar (CD: Cryptomeria japonica), and sawtooth oak (SO: Quercus acutissima), during three rainfall events in Tokyo, Japan. Drop data during the whole observation period were used in an hourly based data set and divided into three meteorological condition groups: calm, heavy rain, and strong wind. Evaluating the influence of canopy species and meteorological factors on the D50 and DSD difference revealed some throughfall DSD characteristics. First, throughfall had different DSDs among canopy species under conditions of little canopy vibration with low rainfall intensity and wind speed; D50 values were 2.00, 2.93, and 3.60 mm in CY, CD, and SO, respectively. Second, throughfall contained smaller drops under conditions of severe canopy vibration, with high rainfall intensity and/or high wind speed, than under calm meteorological conditions. Vibration of the canopy could reduce water coalescence and increase spattered rainwater from canopies. Third, the influence of meteorological factors was different between canopy species; SO was readily influenced but CY was not. Moreover, results from this study implied that throughfall consisted of three drop components - free throughfall, drips, and splash droplets - and suggested a process for generating throughfall DSD that could explain the variations in throughfall DSDs between canopy species and that influenced by meteorological factors.

  15. Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes of Bacterial and Fungal Scleritis at a Tertiary Eye Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Jagadesh C.; Murthy, Somasheila I.; Reddy, Ashok K.; Garg, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to analyze demographics, risk factors, pathogenic organisms, and clinical outcome in cases with microbiologically proven bacterial or fungal scleritis. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of all the medical records of patients with microbiologically proven infectious scleritis examined from March 2005 to December 2009 in the cornea services of L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India was done. Results: Forty-two eyes of 42 patients were included in this study. The mean age at presentation was 48.52 ± 14.10 years (range: 12-70). Surgery was the major risk factor seen in 24 eyes (58.5%). Scleral infection was noted after vitreoretinal surgery (with scleral buckle) in 15 eyes, cataract surgery in 3 eyes, pterygium surgery in 3 eyes, corneoscleral tear repair and scleral buckle surgery in 3 eyes. Sixteen eyes (39%) were on systemic or topical steroids at the time of presentation. History of injury was noted in 9 eyes (22%) and diabetes mellitus in 7 patients (17%). Associated keratitis was noted in 9 eyes (21.4%). The scleral abscess was unifocal in 33 eyes (78.5%), multifocal in 6 eyes (14.2%) and diffuse in 3 eyes (7.14%). The final follow-up ranged from 24 days to 37 months. The final visual acuity was better in 18 eyes (42.8%), stable in 13 (30.9%), and deteriorated in 7 eyes (16.6%). Recurrence was seen in 4 eyes (9.5%). Conclusions: Surgery is a major risk factor for infectious scleritis in our series. Fungus was the most common organism isolated. Thorough debridement and intensive use of medications have improved the outcome. PMID:25949079

  16. Efficacy and safety of preoperative IOP reduction using a preservative-free fixed combination of dorzolamide/timolol eye drops versus oral acetazolamide and dexamethasone eye drops and assessment of the clinical outcome of trabeculectomy in glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Katrin; Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna; Bell, Katharina; Renieri, Giulia; Keicher, Alexander; Ruckes, Christian; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Thieme, Hagen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction To demonstrate that preoperative treatment for 28 days with topical dorzolamide/timolol is non-inferior (Δ = 4 mm Hg) to oral acetazolamide and topical dexamethasone (standard therapy) in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction 3 and 6 months after trabeculectomy in glaucoma patients. Materials and methods Sixty-two eyes undergoing trabeculectomy with mitomycin C were included in this monocentric prospective randomized controlled study. IOP change between baseline and 3 months post-op was defined as the primary efficacy variable. Secondary efficacy variables included the number of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) injections, needlings, suture lyses, preoperative IOP change, hypertension rate and change of conjunctival redness 3 and 6 months post-op. Safety was assessed based on the documentation of adverse events. Results Preoperative treatment with topical dorzolamide/timolol was non-inferior to oral acetazolamide and topical dexamethasone in terms of IOP reduction 3 months after trabeculectomy (adjusted means -8.12 mmHg versus -8.30 mmHg; Difference: 0.18; 95% CI -1.91 to 2.26, p = 0.8662). Similar results were found 6 months after trabeculectomy (-9.13 mmHg versus -9.06 mmHg; p = 0.9401). Comparable results were also shown for both groups concerning the classification of the filtering bleb, corneal staining, and numbers of treatments with 5-FU, needlings and suture lyses. More patients reported AEs in the acetazolamide/dexamethasone group than in the dorzolamide/timolol group. Discussion Preoperative, preservative-free, fixed-dose dorzolamide/timolol seems to be equally effective as preoperative acetazolamide and dexamethasone and has a favourable safety profile. PMID:28199397

  17. Syracuse University Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Z; Zhang, J S

    2010-09-01

    check the mass balance, while the uptake factor and associated inhalation exposure can be readily assesse; The calculated cumulative uptake mass within first 10 minutes after the dropping of the can for each test was within the range of 0.002 mg to 0.035 mg. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m{sup 3}/h, the uptake factor during the first 10 minutes was calculated to be between 10{sup -9} and 2×10{sup -8} in reference to the amount loaded; or between 10{sup -8} and 6×10{sup -5} in reference to the amount spilled. The experimental results of this study will be useful for standardizing the test method and provide data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers.

  18. Factors of detection of Bacillus cereus strains in eye cream.

    PubMed

    Yossa, N; Arce, G; Huang, M-C J; Yin, L; Brown, E; Hammack, T

    2016-08-31

    Bacillus cereus has been associated with clinical infections and is also the cause of post-traumatic endophthalmitis as well as endogenous eye infections, which can result in blindness. Cosmetics, although preserved, can be contaminated during manufacture or use and thus cause serious health issues.

  19. Aetiological Factors in Dyslexia: I. Saccadic Eye Movement Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisman, Gerald; Schwartz, Joddy

    1978-01-01

    A study examined the character of saccadic eye movement (as reflected by duration/amplitude and velocity/amplitude functions) in 20 dyslexic and 20 normal children (mean age 8.2 years) and 28 normal adults (mean age 26.2 years). (Author/PHR)

  20. Genetic Analysis of Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in the Drosophila Eye

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, T.; Choi, I.; Banerjee, Utpal

    2012-01-01

    The development of eyes in Drosophila involves intricate epithelial reorganization events for accurate positioning of cells and proper formation and organization of ommatidial clusters. We demonstrate that Branchless (Bnl), the fibroblast growth factor ligand, regulates restructuring events in the eye disc primordium from as early as the emergence of clusters from a morphogenetic front to the cellular movements during pupal eye development. Breathless (Btl) functions as the fibroblast growth factor receptor to mediate Bnl signal, and together they regulate expression of DE-cadherin, Crumbs, and Actin. In addition, in the eye Bnl regulates the temporal onset and extent of retinal basal glial cell migration by activating Btl in the glia. We hypothesized that the Bnl functions in the eye are Hedgehog dependent and represent novel aspects of Bnl signaling not explored previously. PMID:22384378

  1. Factors Contributing to Dropping-out in an Online Health Community: Static and Longitudinal Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaodian; Elhadad, Noémie

    2016-01-01

    Dropping-out, which refers to when an individual abandons an intervention, is common in Internet-based studies as well as in online health communities. Community facilitators and health researchers are interested in this phenomenon because it usually indicates dissatisfaction towards the community and/or its failure to deliver expected benefits. In this study, we propose a method to identify dropout members from a large public online breast cancer community. We then study quantitatively what longitudinal factors of participation are correlated with dropping-out. Our experimental results suggest that dropout members discuss diagnosis- and treatment-related topics more than other topics. Furthermore, in the time before withdrawing from the community, dropout members tend to initiate more discussions but do not receive adequate response from the other members. We also discuss implications of our results and challenges in dropout-member identification. This study contributes to further understanding community participation and opens up a number of future research questions. PMID:28269969

  2. Dry Eye Following Phacoemulsification Surgery and its Relation to Associated Intraoperative Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, P. K.; Das, G. K.; Malik, Aman; Biakthangi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to study dry eye following phacoemulsification surgery and analyze its relation to associated intra-operative risk factors. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out on 100 eyes of 100 patients without preoperative dry eye. Schirmer's Test I, tear meniscus height, tear break-up time, and lissamine green staining of cornea and conjunctiva were performed preoperatively and at 5 days, 10 days, 1-month, and 2 months after phacoemulsification surgery, along with the assessment of subjective symptoms, using the dry eye questionnaire. The correlations between these values and the operating microscope light exposure time along with the cumulative dissipated energy (CDE) were investigated. Results: There was a significant deterioration of all dry eye test values following phacoemulsification surgery along with an increase in subjective symptoms. These values started improving after 1-month postoperatively, but preoperative levels were not achieved till 2 months after surgery. Correlations of dry eye test values were noted with the operating microscope light exposure time and CDE, but they were not significant. Conclusion: Phacoemulsification surgery is capable of inducing dry eye, and patients should be informed accordingly prior to surgery. The clinician should also be cognizant that increased CDE can induce dry eyes even in eyes that were healthy preoperatively. In addition, intraoperative exposure to the microscopic light should be minimized. PMID:26692720

  3. The antibacterial activity of levofloxacin eye drops against staphylococci using an in vitro pharmacokinetic model in the bulbar conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant staphylococcal isolates from the conjunctival sac is increasing. We compared pharmacological effects of levofloxacin (LVFX) against Staphylococcus epidermidis using an in vitro pharmacokinetic (PK) model simulating the concentration in the bulbar conjunctiva after applying eye drops of 0.5% and 1.5% LVFX. We used S. epidermidis conjunctival sac isolates [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of LVFX, 0.125 μg/mL]. LVFX-resistant strains were obtained from parental strains after culture with LVFX. The in vitro PK model simulated the concentration in the bulbar conjunctiva following three topical applications of 0.5% or 1.5% LVFX ophthalmic solution (0, 4, and 8 h) to rabbit eyes. Parental and LVFX-resistant strains were exposed to LVFX in the in vitro PK model, and changes in viable bacterial counts were evaluated for 12 h. The MICs of LVFX for the resistant isolates were 2-32 times higher than the parental strain, and those with MICs ≥2 ug/mL had mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region. The PK model simulation predicts that 1.5% LVFX exerts bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects against strains with MICs of 0.125-2 and 4 μg/mL, respectively, whereas 0.5% LVFX would only be effective against strains with MICs of 0.125-1 μg/mL. The PK model predicts that the 1.5% LVFX ophthalmic solution exhibits a stronger bactericidal effect against resistant staphylococci in the bulbar conjunctiva than the 0.5% LVFX ophthalmic solution.

  4. [Dry eye syndrome. Occupational risk factors, valuation and prevention].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Terradillos-García, M J; López González, Á A

    2014-03-01

    Dry eye syndrome in the workplace is associated with new ways of working, with increasing use of screens and electronic devices and environmental conditions encountered in modern office designs and other environments. Also affect occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals or atmospheric dust with increased ocular dryness. The study of pathophysiological aspects and laboral causality of the dry eye, must be to develop joint task in Occupational Health, Public Health in coordination with and responsible for the national health system, which would involve primary and secondary preventive measures more effective and proper diagnosis, control and monitoring of the disease, A better knowledge of occupational hazards and actions agreed and coordinated between occupational physicians, preventers, primary care physicians and specialist physicians, such as ophthalmology, will get results much more effective when earlier and optimize available resources.

  5. Paroxetine markedly increases plasma concentrations of ophthalmic timolol; CYP2D6 inhibitors may increase the risk of cardiovascular adverse effects of 0.5% timolol eye drops.

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, Jukka; Volotinen-Maja, Marjo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Neuvonen, Mikko; Niemi, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T

    2014-12-01

    Although ophthalmic timolol is generally well tolerated, a significant fraction of topically administered timolol can be systemically absorbed. We investigated the effect of the strong CYP2D6 inhibitor paroxetine on the pharmacokinetics of timolol after ophthalmic administration. In a four-phase crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers ingested either paroxetine (20 mg) or placebo daily for 3 days. In phases 1-2, timolol 0.1% gel, and in phases 3-4, timolol 0.5% drops were administered to both eyes. Paroxetine increased the plasma concentrations of timolol with both timolol formulations to a similar degree. The geometric mean ratio (95% confidence interval) of timolol peak concentration was 1.53-fold (1.23-1.91) with 0.1% timolol and 1.49-fold (0.94-2.36) with 0.5% timolol, and that of timolol area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to 12 hours was 1.61-fold (1.26- to 2.06-fold) and 1.78-fold (1.21-2.62), respectively. During paroxetine administration, six subjects on 0.5% timolol drops, but none on 0.1% timolol gel, had plasma timolol concentrations exceeding 0.7 ng/ml, which can cause systemic adverse effects in patients at risk. There was a positive correlation between the AUC from time 0 to 13 hours of paroxetine and the placebo phase AUC from time 0 to infinity of timolol after timolol 0.5% drops (P < 0.05), and a nonsignificant trend after timolol 0.1% gel, consistent with the role of CYP2D6 in the metabolism of both agents. In the orthostatic test, heart rate immediately after upright standing was significantly lower (P < 0.05) during the paroxetine phase than during the placebo phase at 1 and 3 hours after 0.5% timolol dosing. In conclusion, paroxetine and other CYP2D6 inhibitors can have a clinically important interaction with ophthalmic timolol, particularly when patients are using 0.5% timolol formulations.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for eye diseases, blindness, and low vision in Lhasa, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Qin; Bai, Zong-Xi; Shi, Jing; Luo, Sang; Chang, Hong-Fa; Sai, Xiao-Yong

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence and risk factors for eye diseases, blindness, and low vision in Tibet, and to assist the development of eye disease prevention and treatment schemes. METHODS We carried out a survey of eye diseases among a population living at high altitude. A total of 1 115 Tibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older from the towns and villages of Qushui County, Lhasa Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region, participated in this study. All participants completed a detailed questionnaire, and underwent presenting and pinhole visual acuity tests, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. RESULTS There were 187 blind eyes (8.43%), 231 eyes with low vision (10.41%). The leading cause of visual impairment was cataract of 55.0% (101/187) blindness and of 50.2% (116/231) low vision, followed by fundus lesions of 22.9% blindness and 23.8% low vision, while only a low prevalence of glaucoma of 9.6% blindness and 1.7% low vision was observed. The analysis of 2 219 eyes showed that the most common external eye disease was pterygium (27.2%) in Tibet. CONCLUSION The high prevalence of blindness and low vision in the Tibetan population at high altitude is a serious public health issue. There is a need to establish and maintain an appropriate effective eye care program in Tibet. PMID:23638429

  7. Analysis of lipid peroxidation and electron microscopic survey of maturation stages during human cataractogenesis: pharmacokinetic assay of Can-C N-acetylcarnosine prodrug lubricant eye drops for cataract prevention.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    Morphological and biophysical techniques described in this study have shown that membrane derangement occurs in human cataractous lenses. The data suggest that these disruptions were globules, vacuoles, multilamellar membranes and clusters of highly undulating membranes. Deleterious structural damage of the lens fibre cell plasma membranes serve as the primary light-scattering centres that cause the observed lens opacity. Nuclear cataract, a major cause of loss of lens transparency in the aging human, has been thought to be associated with oxidative damage, particularly at the site of the nuclear plasma membrane. Phospholipid molecules modified by oxygen accumulate in the lipid bilayer, change its geometry and impair lipid-lipid and protein-lipid interactions in lenticular fibre membranes. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is a causative and pathogenic factor in cataract. Increased concentrations of primary molecular LPO products (diene conjugates, lipid hydroperoxides, oxy-derivatives of phospholipid fatty acids) and end-fluorescent LPO products have been detected in the lipid moieties of aqueous humour samples and human lenses obtained from patients with senile and complicated cataracts as compared with normal donors. In the present study, a rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay for determination of imidazole-containing dipeptides in the aqueous humour of the eye was developed. The method was applied to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters and the time-course of N-acetylcarnosine and L-carnosine-related product in the eye, following a single dosage of topical ocular administration of peptide. Utilising data from pharmacokinetic studies and the specific purity of the N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) ingredient as a source of the pharmacological principle L-carnosine, we have created an ophthalmic time-release prodrug form including the US FDA-approved carboxymethylcellulose lubricant and other essential ingredients (Can-C, private label Nu-Eyes

  8. Influence of environmental factors on infrared eye temperature measurements in cattle.

    PubMed

    Church, J S; Hegadoren, P R; Paetkau, M J; Miller, C C; Regev-Shoshani, G; Schaefer, A L; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2014-02-01

    Environmental factors were evaluated to determine potential limitations in using cattle eye temperatures obtained through infrared thermography (IRT) for early disease detection systems or in animal welfare research studies. The effects of the following factors on IRT eye temperatures in cattle and a fabricated surrogate "eye" were evaluated: camera to object distance, wind speed, camera settings (distance, emissivity, and humidity), and solar loading. Wind speed in both live animals and using a surrogate "eye" was found to decrease the IRT temperature. In the presence of ∼ 7 km/h wind, the mean IRT eye temperature decreased by 0.43 ± 0.13 °C and; at higher wind speeds (∼ 12 km/h), the temperature decreased by 0.78 ± 0.33 °C. Direct sunlight was found to increase the IRT eye temperature by 0.56 ± 0.36 °C. It was determined that environmental factors impact IRT temperature measurements significantly and therefore must be managed to ensure reproducible and accurate readings.

  9. N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: Glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population

    PubMed Central

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Burke, Leslie; Micans, Philip; Richer, Stuart P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP)’s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C™) designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) prodrug of l-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural l-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C™ eye drops. Objective and study design: In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance), and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years. Setting: Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients’ glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9 months of treatment with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops as those with the worth pretreatment vision. Patients or other participants: The authors made a reference to electronic records of the product sales to patients who have been made the repurchase of the Can-C™ eye drops since December 2001. Intervention: Based on this analysis of recorded adjustments to inventory, various parameters were analyzed during the continued

  10. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we developed. The…

  11. Stereoacuity and Related Factors: The Shandong Children Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuan-yuan; Sun, Wei; Lv, Tai-liang; Jiang, Wen-jun; Wu, Hui; Wang, Xing-rong; Bi, Hong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess stereoacuity in a population-based sample of children and to examine ocular and systemic parameters related to stereoacuity. Methods Using a random cluster sampling method, four- to 18-year-old children from kindergartens, elementary schools, junior high schools and senior high schools from a rural area and an urban area in the East Chinese province of Shandong were included in the school-based cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination including assessment of cycloplegic refraction and measurement of stereoacuity using the Titmus Stereo test. Results Out of 6364 eligible children, 5780 (90.8%) children with a mean age of 10.1 ± 3.2 years (range: 4 to 18 years) participated. Mean (± standard deviation) stereoacuity was 50.2 ± 50.6 arc seconds. Stereoacuity improved significantly (P<0.01) from the age group of 4 years to the age group of 6 to 7 years, then showed a plateau, deteriorated (P = 0.001) for both sexes from the age group of 9 years to the age group of 12 years (P<0.001), after which it improved (P = 0.001) again in the age group of 16 years or older to the pre-puberty values. In multivariate analysis, larger angle of binocular disparity (i.e., lower stereoacuity) was significantly associated with lower best corrected visual acuity (logMAR; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in refractive error (spherical equivalent) (P<0.001), higher cylindrical refractive error (P<0.001), higher refractive error (spherical value; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in best corrected visual acuity (logMAR) (P = 0.001), higher intereye difference in axial length (P = 0.001), and rural region of habitation (P = 0.006). Conclusions Stereoacuity as tested with the Titmus Stereo test improved significantly from an age of 4 years to an age of 6 and 7 years, then remained constant, temporarily deteriorated for both sexes in pre-puberty and puberty, after which it improved again to pre-puberty or better values at

  12. Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear

    PubMed Central

    Behar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Garcia, Paula Ortega; Krutmann, Jean; Peña-García, Pablo; Reme, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James S

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation potentially damages the skin, the immune system, and structures of the eye. A useful UV sun protection for the skin has been established. Since a remarkable body of evidence shows an association between UV radiation and damage to structures of the eye, eye protection is important, but a reliable and practical tool to assess and compare the UV-protective properties of lenses has been lacking. Among the general lay public, misconceptions on eye-sun protection have been identified. For example, sun protection is mainly ascribed to sunglasses, but less so to clear lenses. Skin malignancies in the periorbital region are frequent, but usual topical skin protection does not include the lids. Recent research utilized exact dosimetry and demonstrated relevant differences in UV burden to the eye and skin at a given ambient irradiation. Chronic UV effects on the cornea and lens are cumulative, so effective UV protection of the eyes is important for all age groups and should be used systematically. Protection of children’s eyes is especially important, because UV transmittance is higher at a very young age, allowing higher levels of UV radiation to reach the crystalline lens and even the retina. Sunglasses as well as clear lenses (plano and prescription) effectively reduce transmittance of UV radiation. However, an important share of the UV burden to the eye is explained by back reflection of radiation from lenses to the eye. UV radiation incident from an angle of 135°–150° behind a lens wearer is reflected from the back side of lenses. The usual antireflective coatings considerably increase reflection of UV radiation. To provide reliable labeling of the protective potential of lenses, an eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®) has been developed. It integrates UV transmission as well as UV reflectance of lenses. The E-SPF® compares well with established skin-sun protection factors and provides clear messages to eye health care providers and to

  13. Typology of Students at Risk of Dropping Out of School: Description by Personal, Family and School Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide; Joly, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the different subgroups of students at risk of dropping out of school. The typology was developed based on the three main contexts associated with school dropout risk, namely, the personal, family and school contexts. On the basis of these factors, the clustering results enabled us to categorize at-risk…

  14. The Effects of Occupational Work Adjustment on Factors Leading to High School Drop Out in Rural Northwest Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Angela

    The effect of four Occupational Work Adjustment (OWA) programs on risk factors leading to students dropping out of high school was assessed. Data were gathered from four OWA teachers in high schools in Northwest Ohio; information was provided for 27 individual students and 2 groups of 28 students each for the 1992-93 school year. The following…

  15. Estimating person view-factors from fish-eye lens photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, I. D.; Johnson, G. T.

    1988-06-01

    A simple technique is described whereby view-factors can be estimated for a person at locations where the building geometry is complex. Procedures are outlined for the construction of a polar diagram whose grid cells give equal person view-factors: the diagram is designed to overlay a fish-eye lens photograph, enabling the estimation of view-factors of distinctive surfaces in the photograph image for standing and seated people.

  16. Multiple endpoint analysis of BAC-preserved and unpreserved antiallergic eye drops on a 3D-reconstituted corneal epithelial model

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, A.; Brasnu, E.; Riancho, L.; Brignole-Baudouin, F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-preserved and unpreserved antiallergic eye drops on the human 3D-reconstituted corneal epithelial model (3D-HCE). Methods 3D-HCE were treated for 24 h followed or not by a 24 h post-incubation recovery period (24 h+24 h) with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 0.01% BAC, unpreserved formulations of ketotifen, N Acetyl-Aspartyl Glutamic Acid (NAAGA), cromoglycate, or BAC-preserved commercial formulations of ketotifen, olopatadine, epinastine, and levocabastine. The 3D-HCE viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) test at 24 h and 24 h+24 h. At 24 h, the numbers of Cluster of Differentiation 54 (CD54)- and Ki67-immunopositive cells as well as the number of apoptotic deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were evaluated on 3D-HCE frozen sections. The expression of the tight junction-associated protein occludin was also assessed using fluorescence confocal microscopy on flat-mounted 3D-HCE epithelia. Results The MTT and the TUNEL tests revealed a significant decrease of cell viability and an increased apoptosis in the superficial layers of the 3D-HCE only when treated with BAC-containing formulations and in a BAC concentration-dependent manner. The expression of CD54 and Ki67 in the basal layers was also increased in this group. A concentration-dependent disorganization of occludin distribution in the epithelium treated with BAC-containing solutions was also observed. The unpreserved formulations induced effects comparable to the control. Conclusions BAC-preserved solutions decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, they induced CD54 expression, proliferation in the basal layers, and changes in the distribution of occludin, which is consistent with a disorganization of the tight-junctions and suggests the loss of the epithelial barrier function. On the

  17. Correlation of fibrosis and transforming growth factor-beta type 2 levels in the eye.

    PubMed

    Connor, T B; Roberts, A B; Sporn, M B; Danielpour, D; Dart, L L; Michels, R G; de Bustros, S; Enger, C; Kato, H; Lansing, M

    1989-05-01

    Approximately 1 out of every 10 eyes undergoing surgery for retinal detachment develops excessive intraocular fibrosis that can lead to traction retinal detachment and ultimate blindness. This disease process has been termed proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The ability to monitor and grade this fibrotic response accurately within the eye as well as the ability to aspirate vitreous cavity fluid bathing the fibrotic tissue makes this an ideal setting in which to investigate the development of fibrosis. Although laboratory studies have recently shown that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) can enhance fibrosis, little clinical evidence is yet available correlating the level of this or other growth factors with the degree of fibrosis in a clinical setting. We have found that vitreous aspirates from eyes with intraocular fibrosis associated with PVR have more than three times the amount of TGF-beta (1,200 +/- 300 pM [SEM]) found in eyes with uncomplicated retinal detachments without intraocular fibrosis (360 +/- 91 pM [SEM]). Using an in vitro assay, 84-100% of the TGF-beta activity could be blocked with specific antibodies against TGF-beta 2, whereas only 10-21% could be blocked by specific antibodies against TGF-beta 1. TGF-beta 1 was used in an animal model of traction retinal detachment. Since beta 1 and beta 2 have essentially identical biologic effects and only human beta 1 was available in quantities required, beta 1 was chosen for these in vivo studies. The injection of TGF-beta1 plus fibronectin (FN) but not TGF-beta1 alone into the vitreous cavity of rabbits resulted in the increased formation of intraocular fibrosis and traction retinal detachments as compared to control eyes. In previous studies, intravitreal FN levels were also found to be elevated in eyes with intraocular fibrosis.

  18. Hypoxia inducible factors are dispensable for myeloid cell migration into the inflamed mouse eye

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Peter J.; Liyanage, Sidath E.; Cristante, Enrico; Sampson, Robert D.; Dick, Andrew D.; Ali, Robin R.; Bainbridge, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are ubiquitously expressed transcription factors important for cell homeostasis during dynamic oxygen levels. Myeloid specific HIFs are crucial for aspects of myeloid cell function, including their ability to migrate into inflamed tissues during autoimmune disease. This contrasts with the concept that accumulation of myeloid cells at ischemic and hypoxic sites results from a lack of chemotactic responsiveness. Here we seek to address the role of HIFs in myeloid trafficking during inflammation in a mouse model of human uveitis. We show using mice with myeloid-specific Cre-deletion of HIFs that myeloid HIFs are dispensable for leukocyte migration into the inflamed eye. Myeloid-specific deletion of Hif1a, Epas1, or both together, had no impact on the number of myeloid cells migrating into the eye. Additionally, stabilization of HIF pathways via deletion of Vhl in myeloid cells had no impact on myeloid trafficking into the inflamed eye. Finally, we chemically induce hypoxemia via hemolytic anemia resulting in HIF stabilization within circulating leukocytes to demonstrate the dispensable role of HIFs in myeloid cell migration into the inflamed eye. These data suggest, contrary to previous reports, that HIF pathways in myeloid cells during inflammation and hypoxia are dispensable for myeloid cell tissue trafficking. PMID:28112274

  19. An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J. S.; Byington, Jerry G.A.

    2013-05-16

    A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5–20 μm) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m3. Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m3/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10–9 and 1.03 × 10–7 in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10–8 and 3.55 × 10–4 in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10–5 × Spill_Mass–0.667) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10–3 assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.

  20. An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J S; Byington, Jerry G A

    2013-01-01

    A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5-20 μm) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m(3). Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m(3)/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10(-9) and 1.03 × 10(-7) in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10(-8) and 3.55 × 10(-4) in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10(-5) × Spill_Mass(-0.667)) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10(-3) assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.].

  1. Syracuse Univesity Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, Jianshun S.

    2012-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, powder from an accidently dropped container can become airborne and inhaled by people nearby such as those who are moving the containers. The inhaled fine particles can deposit on respiratory tracts and lungs, causing asthma, lung cancer, and other acute respiratory illnesses and chronic symptoms. The objective of this study was to develop a standard procedure to measure the airborne concentrations of different size particles within the vicinity of a dropped container where a significant portion of the contained powder is ejected. Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) was selected in this study to represent relatively heavy powders (7.16 g/cm3 specific gravity for WO{sub 3}). A typical can with the outer dimensions of 4.25” diameter and 4.875” tall was used as the container. The powder was dropped in two different configurations: 1) contained within a can covered by a lid that has a 0.25” diameter hole, and 2) contained within a can without a lid. The packing volume of the powder was 51.4 in3 (842.7 cm{sup 3}) and the target mass was 1936 g. The tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 852 ft3 (24.1 m3). The chamber system includes an internal recirculation loop with a rectangular air diffuser and 10 variable frequency drive fans to provide a typical room air recirculation flow pattern. Two air filters were installed in the chamber air supply duct and return duct to achieve the required low background particle concentration. The initial chamber air conditions were set at 70°F (± 5°F) and 50% (± 10%) RH. A supporting frame and releasing device were designed and built to trigger consistently the dropping of the can. The particle sampling inlet was placed 5 ft above the floor and 6 inches laterally away from the can’s falling path. Concentrations of particles between 0.5 μm and 20 μm were recorded in units of mass and number of particles per unit volume. The data acquisition

  2. Expression of transforming growth factor-β2in vitreous body and adjacent tissues during prenatal development of human eye.

    PubMed

    Sukhikh, G T; Panova, I G; Smirnova, Yu A; Milyushina, L A; Firsova, N V; Markitantova, Yu V; Poltavtseva, R A; Zinov'eva, R D

    2010-12-01

    Expression of transforming growth factor-β2 was detected by PCR in the vitreous body, lens, retina, and ciliary-iris complex of human eye at early stages of fetal development. Immunochemical assay of the corresponding protein in eye tissues revealed a correlation between the localization of transforming growth factor-β2 and the development of intraocular hyaloid vascular network, its regression, formation of the vitreous body, and development of definite retinal vessels.

  3. Metabolic syndrome risk factors and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ye-Lei; Cheng, Ya-Lan; Ren, Yu-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Ning; Shentu, Xing-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the relationship between metabolic risk factors and dry eye syndrome (DES). METHODS Retrieved studies on the association of metabolic syndrome risk factors (hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and hyperlipidemia) and DES were collected from PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library in December 2015. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the final relationship. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to diagnostic criteria of DES. RESULTS Nine cross-sectional studies and three case-control studies were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that people with hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia had a higher risk of suffering from DES (P<0.05), especially the typical DES symptoms. On the other hand, obesity did not increase the risk of DES. CONCLUSION The present Meta-analysis suggests that all metabolic risk factors except obesity were risk factors for DES. PMID:27500114

  4. Effect of trapping vascular endothelial growth factor-A in a murine model of dry eye with inflammatory neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jin Woo; Choi, Jin A; Shin, Eun Young; La, Tae Yoon; Jee, Dong Hyun; Chung, Yeon Woong; Cho, Yang Kyung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate whether trapping vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) would suppress angiogenesis and inflammation in dry eye corneas in a murine corneal suture model. METHODS We established two groups of animals, one with non-dry eyes and the other with induced dry eyes. In both groups, a corneal suture model was used to induce inflammation and neovascularization. Each of two groups was again divided into three subgroups according to the treatment; subgroup I (aflibercept), subgroup II (dexamethasone) and subgroup III (phosphate buffered saline, PBS). Corneas were harvested and immunohistochemical staining was performed to compare the extents of neovascularization and CD11b+ cell infiltration. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify the expression of inflammatory cytokines and VEGF-A in the corneas. RESULTS Trapping VEGF-A with aflibercept resulted in significantly decreased angiogenesis and inflammation compared with the dexamethasone and PBS treatments in the dry eye corneas (all P<0.05), but with no such effects in non-dry eyes. The anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of VEGF-A trapping were stronger than those of dexamethasone in both dry eye and non-dry eye corneas (all P<0.05). The levels of RNA expression of VEGF-A, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 in the aflibercept subgroup were significantly decreased compared with those in the PBS subgroup in the dry eye group. CONCLUSION Compared with non-dry eye corneas, dry eye corneas have greater amounts of inflammation and neovascularization and also have a more robust response to anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic agents after ocular surface surgery. Trapping VEGF-A is effective in decreasing both angiogenesis and inflammation in dry eye corneas after ocular surface surgery. PMID:27990354

  5. Prevalence, risk factors, and morbidity of eye lid laxity in a veteran population

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Zubair; Singh, Roshni; Alabiad, Chrisfouad; Galor, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the prevalence, risk factors, and morbidity of eyelid laxity in a veteran population Design Prospective, cross sectional study with retrospective chart review Participants 150 subjects were evaluated from either an outpatient eye or a geriatric clinic at the Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital from June through August 2013. Methods Clinical data were gathered from a questionnaire and a computerized medical record system including demographics, medical history, and ocular irritation history. Upper and lower eyelid laxity was clinically graded. Main Outcome Measures The prevalence of eyelid laxity, risk factors for its presence, and its correlation to ocular surface symptoms. Results Fifty-four percent of participants (n=81) had laxity (grade 1 or higher) in either the upper and/or lower eyelids. Risk factors for eyelid laxity in our population included older age, higher body mass index (BMI), and a diagnosis of sleep apnea. Patients with any eyelid laxity (grade 1 or more in any eyelid) had a 2.23 fold risk of severe ocular surface symptoms (score of 12 or higher on the Dry Eye Questionnaire 5) compared to those without laxity (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-4.31, p=0.017), and this was primarily driven by the presence of upper eyelid laxity. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of eyelid laxity in our population, and its presence was associated with significant ocular surface morbidity. This study reinforces the need to incorporate dynamic eyelid testing into the ophthalmic exam in patients with ocular surface discomfort. PMID:25357078

  6. Eye Health

    PubMed Central

    Connell, A. M. S.

    1988-01-01

    The status of eye care in the Caribbean is discussed. Methods of primary eye care providers at all levels from primary to tertiary in the region are presented against a background of the major causes of blindness, cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Epidemiological surveys examining prevalence, risk factors, and intervention programs are being undertaken. PMID:3404562

  7. Factors Influencing a Learner's Decision to Drop-Out or Persist in Higher Education Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies conducted on dropouts within online courses have found inconsistent factors affecting attrition. A literature review was performed, focusing on eight main studies. These studies were performed at both national and international universities. The methodology, participants, research question, and results varied by study. Overall,…

  8. Kidney and eye diseases: common risk factors, etiological mechanisms, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chee Wai; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2014-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease is an emerging health problem worldwide. The eye shares striking structural, developmental, and genetic pathways with the kidney, suggesting that kidney disease and ocular disease may be closely linked. A growing number of studies have found associations of chronic kidney disease with age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and cataract. In addition, retinal microvascular parameters have been shown to be predictive of chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease shares common vascular risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity, and pathogenetic mechanisms including inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and microvascular dysfunction, with ocular diseases supporting the 'Common Soil Hypothesis.' In this review, we present major epidemiological evidence for these associations and explore underlying pathogenic mechanisms and common risk factors for kidney and ocular disease. Understanding the link between kidney and ocular disease can lead to the development of new treatment and screening strategies for both diseases.

  9. In vivo gene delivery into ocular tissues by eye drops of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Liaw, J; Chang, S F; Hsiao, F C

    2001-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using PEO-PPO-PEO non-ionic copolymeric micelles as a carrier for eye-drop gene delivery of plasmid DNA with lacZ gene in vivo. Using pyrene fluorescence probe methods, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering test (DLS), the ability of micelle formation of these block copolymers with plasmid was studied. Gene expressions were visualized by both the quality of enzymatic color reaction using X-gal staining and by the quantification of the substrate chlorophenol red galactopyranoside (CPRG) in enucleated eyes on day 2 after gene transfer. In addition, microscopy to identify the types of cell showing uptake and expression of the transferred gene was used. We found that the block polymeric micelles were formed above 0.1% (w/v) of block copolymer with a size of 160 nm and a zeta potential of -4.4 mV. After 2 days of topically delivery three times a day, the most intense gene expression was observed on days 2 and 3. Reporter expression was detected around the iris, sclera, conjunctiva, and lateral rectus muscle of rabbit eyes and also in the intraocular tissues of nude mice upon in vivo topical application for 48 h with a DNA/polymeric micelle formulation. Furthermore, after two enhancement treatments, the transport mechanisms of the block copolymeric micelles were found through endocytosis in tissues by enhancement through the tight junction pathway. Thus, efficient and stable transfer of the functional gene could be achieved with PEO-PPO-PEO polymeric micelles through topical delivery in mice and rabbits. These in vivo experiments indicate the possible potential use of block copolymers for DNA transfer.

  10. Drop dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The drop dynamics module is a Spacelab-compatible acoustic positioning and control system for conducting drop dynamics experiments in space. It consists basically of a chamber, a drop injector system, an acoustic positioning system, and a data collection system. The principal means of collecting data is by a cinegraphic camera. The drop is positioned in the center of the chamber by forces created by standing acoustic waves generated in the nearly cubical chamber (about 12 cm on a side). The drop can be spun or oscillated up to fission by varying the phse and amplitude of the acoustic waves. The system is designed to perform its experiments unattended, except for start-up and shutdown events and other unique events that require the attention of the Spacelab payload specialist.

  11. Identification of Transcriptional Targets of the Dual Function Transcription Factor/Phosphatase Eyes Absent

    PubMed Central

    Jemc, Jennifer; Rebay, Ilaria

    2007-01-01

    Drosophila eye specification and development relies on a collection of transcription factors termed the retinal determination gene network (RDGN). Two members of this network, Eyes absent (EYA) and Sine oculis (SO), form a transcriptional complex in which EYA provides the transactivation function while SO provides the DNA binding activity. EYA also functions as a protein tyrosine phosphatase, raising the question of whether transcriptional output is dependent or independent of phosphatase activity. To explore this, we used microarrays together with binding site analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, genetics and in vivo expression analysis to identify new EYA-SO targets. In parallel, we examined the expression profiles of tissue expressing phosphatase mutant eya and found that reducing phosphatase activity did not globally impair transcriptional output. Among the targets identified by our analysis was the cell cycle regulatory gene, string (stg), suggesting that EYA and SO may influence cell proliferation through transcriptional regulation of stg. Future investigation into the regulation of stg and other EYA-SO targets identified in this study will help elucidate the transcriptional circuitries whereby output from the RDGN integrates with other signaling inputs to coordinate retinal development. PMID:17714699

  12. Open globe eye injury characteristics and prognostic factors in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Makhrash, Mashaal A.; Gosadi, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate characteristics and prognostic factors of open globe injuries (OGI) presented to King Fahad Specialist Hospital in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods This study is a retrospective review of medical records of OGI patients who underwent operative repair of their injuries in King Fahad Central Hospital, Jazan, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and December 2013. Demographic information, eye injury, preoperative, and postoperative visual acuity were collected. The initial and final visual acuity outcomes were compared to identify subjects who witnessed any improvement in their visual acuity. Logistic regression was used to assess characteristics associated with improvements in the visual acuity. Results Number of included cases was 120. Most frequently reported causes of injury were blunt trauma (20%) and shattered glass (18.3%). Approximately half of the cases were reported to have iris injuries or hyphema. Most cases suffered penetration (37.5%) of the eye globe. Only zone I injury was significantly associated with better visual acuity outcomes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.447, p=0.036). Among the variables that were associated with poorer prognostic outcomes, only aphakia (OR: 0.180), retinal damage (OR: 0.062), vitreous hemorrhage (OR: 0.266), and zone III injuries (OR: 0.092) were statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion Zone I injury appears to have a better prognostic effect on visual acuity where injuries related to Zone III were associated with worse prognostic outcomes. PMID:27874147

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor trap-eye and trap technology: Aflibercept from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Al-Halafi, Ali M

    2014-09-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) currently used to treat eye diseases have included monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments, and an aptamer. A different method of achieving VEGF blockade in retinal diseases includes the concept of a cytokine trap. Cytokine traps technology are being evaluated for the treatment of various diseases that are driven by excessive cytokine levels. Traps consist of two extracellular cytokine receptor domains fused together to form a human immunoglobulin G (IgG). Aflibercept/VEGF trap-eye (VTE) is a soluble fusion protein, which combines ligand-binding elements taken from the extracellular components of VEGF receptors 1 and 2 fused to the Fc portion of IgG. This protein contains all human amino acid sequences, which minimizes the potential for immunogenicity in human patients. This review presents the latest data on VTE in regard to the pharmacokinetics, dosage and safety, preclinical and clinical experiences. Method of the literature search: A systematic search of the literature was conducted on PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar with no limitation on language or year of publication databases. It was oriented to articles published for VTE in preclinical and clinical studies and was focused on the pharmacokinetics, dosage and safety of VTE.

  14. Pressure Drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Mike Lawson briefly discussed pressure drop for aerospace applications and presented short stories about adventures experienced while working at NASA and General Dynamics, including exposure to technologies like the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart and the SWME.

  15. Eye color as a risk factor for acquired sensorineural hearing loss: a review.

    PubMed

    Mujica-Mota, Mario A; Schermbrucker, Jonah; Daniel, Sam J

    2015-02-01

    Eye color may be an indicator of inner ear melanin content and has been associated with hearing loss. There is controversy as to whether eye color has an effect on acquired causes of sensorineural hearing loss. This review was conducted to analyze the literature evaluating the relationship between eye color and causes of sensorineural hearing loss. Six databases were searched to identify eligible studies. Included articles were independently assessed for quality by two authors. Eighteen articles were eligible for review. Eye color was not found to have an effect in the non-exposed population or in presbycusis. In noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss, light-eyed patients had more significant loss following noise exposure, although the variability reported due to eye color was modest (r(2) = 0.01-0.14). Two out of three studies reported that dark eye color is associated with cisplatin ototoxicity. In one study, green-eyed patients were found to be at higher risk of radiation-induced hearing loss. Eye color does not appear to play a role in hearing loss in non-exposed individuals or presbycusis. It is possible that dark-eyed individuals, with greater inner ear melanin content, are better protected against noise-induced hearing loss. Evidence suggests that melanin can be protective against radiation-induced sensorineural hearing loss, but may predispose individuals to cisplatin ototoxicity. Future studies are required to support these conclusions.

  16. The Ferrier Lecture, 1980: Critical Limiting Factors in the Design of the Eye and Visual Cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, H. B.

    1981-05-01

    The main factors limiting the performance of the peripheral parts of the visual system can be specified, and doing this clarifies the nature of the interpretive tasks that must be performed by the central parts of the system. It is argued that the critical factor that hinders development of better resolving power is the difficulty of confining light within the waveguide-like outer segment, and that for sensitivity this critical factor is the thermal decomposition of photosensitive pigments. Knowledge of these limits makes many surprising details of the eye intelligible. Understanding the difficulties posed by the narrow dynamic range of nerve fibres may give similar insight into the coding of the retinal image for transmission to the brain. Our level of understanding changes when we come to the visual cortex, for although we do not lack good anatomical and neurophysiological data, these do not make the principles of operation self-evident in the way that the structure of the eye immediately suggests that it is an image-forming device. The cortex converts the representation of the visual field that it receives into reliable knowledge of the world around us, and the trouble may be that we lack good models of how this can be done. A system that can respond to single quanta and resolve almost to the diffraction limit is unlikely to employ grossly inefficient methods for those higher functions upon which its whole utility depends, and so it is worth seeking out the limiting factors. The quality of human performance at certain higher perceptual tasks is high compared with the limit of reliable statistical inference; hence much of the sample of information available in a visual image must be effectively utilized. But there are strong limitations on the connectivity in the cortex, so that one is forced to consider how the relevant information can be collected together. Three stages of dealing with the visual image are proposed: the improvement of the cortical map in

  17. Ergonomic Factors Related to Drop-Off Detection With the Long Cane: Effects of Cane Tips and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Shik; Wall Emerson, Robert S.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane. Background Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user’s ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies have examined such effect. Method A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study. Participants were 17 adults who were legally blind and had no other disabilities. Participants attempted to detect the drop-offs of varied depths using different cane tips and cane techniques. Results Drop-off detection rates were similar between the marshmallow tip (77.0%) and the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) when both tips were used with the constant contact technique, p = .294. However, participants detected drop-offs at a significantly higher percentage when they used the constant contact technique with the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) than when they used the two-point touch technique with the marshmallow tip (63.2%), p < .001. Conclusion The constant contact technique used with a marshmallow roller tip (perceived as a less advantageous tip) was more effective than the two-point touch technique used with a marshmallow tip (perceived as a more advantageous tip) in detecting drop-offs. Application The findings of the study may help cane users and orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques and cane tips in accordance with the cane user’s characteristics and the nature of the travel environment. PMID:21077566

  18. A role of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in congenital sensorineural deafness and eye pigmentation in Dalmatian dogs.

    PubMed

    Stritzel, S; Wöhlke, A; Distl, O

    2009-02-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is involved in white spotting and deafness associated with lack of pigmentation in human and mice. In the present study, we employed MITF-associated markers to evaluate MITF as a candidate for canine congenital sensorineural deafness (CCSD) in Dalmatian dogs. We performed an association study using MITF flanking and intragenic markers for 88 Dalmatian dogs of different hearing and eye pigmentation status. A significant association was identified for MITF-related markers with CCSD and blue iris colour. We conclude that MITF might play a role in CCSD and blue eye colour in Dalmatian dogs.

  19. Induction of antibody response in the oral cavity of dogs following intraocular (eye drop) immunization with Porphyromonas gingivalis cell lysate incorporated in pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-modified liposomes

    PubMed Central

    SHIMIZU, Yosuke; IWASAKI, Tadashi; TAJIMA, Tomoko; YUBA, Eiji; KONO, Kenji; WATARAI, Shinobu

    2016-01-01

    Induction of mucosal immune responses against Porphyromonas gingivalis within the oral cavity of dogs was studied by immunizing with pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer (MGluPG)-modified liposome-associated cell lysate. Dogs immunized with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes by intraocular (eye drop) route displayed significant levels of P. gingivalis cell lysate-specific serum IgG and IgA as well as mucosal IgA antibodies in saliva secretion. Serum and salivary antibodies generated by intraocularly immunized with MGluPG-modified liposome-associated P. gingivalis cell lysate revealed a significant aggregation activity against P. gingivalis, whereas serum and saliva from dogs receiving MGluPG-modified liposomes unentrapping P. gingivalis cell lysate did not show the aggregation activity against P. gingivalis. Furthermore, P. gingivalis-specific antibodies in saliva of immunized dogs inhibited the adherence of P. gingivalis to cultured HeLa cells. More importantly, salivary antibodies induced by intraocular immunization with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes significantly inhibited the coaggregation of P. gingivalis with Actinomyces naeslundii and the cell damage activity of P. gingivalis against FaDu cells, an oral epithelial cell. These results suggest that intraocularly administered P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes should be an effective mucosal vaccine against P. gingivalis infection in dogs and may be an important tool for the prevention of periodontitis. PMID:27916762

  20. Gender is a major factor explaining discrepancies in eye colour prediction based on HERC2/OCA2 genotype and the IrisPlex model.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado; Peña-Chilet, Maria; Ibarrola-Villava, Maider; Ribas, Gloria

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, several studies have greatly increased our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human eye colour variation. A large percentage of the eye colour diversity present in humans can already be genetically explained, so much so that different DNA-based eye colour prediction models, such as IrisPlex, have been recently developed for forensic purposes. Though these models are already highly accurate, they are by no means perfect, with many genotype-phenotype discrepancies still remaining unresolved. In this work we have genotyped six SNPs associated with eye colour (IrisPlex) in 535 individuals from Spain, a Mediterranean population. Aside from different SNP frequencies in Spain compared to Northern Europe, the results for eye colour prediction are quite similar to other studies. However, we have found an association between gender and eye colour prediction. When comparing similar eye colour genetic profiles, females tend, as a whole, to have darker eyes than males (and, conversely, males lighter than females). These results are also corroborated by the revision and meta-analysis of data from previously published eye colour genetic studies in several Caucasian populations, which significantly support the fact that males are more likely to have blue eyes than females, while females tend to show higher frequencies of green and brown eyes than males. This significant gender difference would suggest that there is an as yet unidentified gender-related factor contributing to human eye colour variation.

  1. Ancient default activators of terminal photoreceptor differentiation in the pancrustacean compound eye: The homeodomain transcription factors Otd and Pph13

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Markus; Cook, Tiffany; Zelhof, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the Drosophila compound eye predates the ancestor of Pancrustacea, the arthropod clade that includes insects and Crustaceans. Recent studies in emerging model systems for pancrustacean development - the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and water flea Daphnia pulex - have begun to shed light on the evolutionary conservation of transcriptional mechanisms found for the Drosophila compound eye. Here, we discuss the conserved roles of the transcription factors Otd and Pph13, which complement each other in two terminal events of photoreceptor differentiation: rhabdomere morphogenesis and transcriptional default activation of opsin gene expression. The synthesis of these data allows us to frame an evolutionary developmental model of the earliest events that generated the wavelength-specific photoreceptor subtypes of pancrustacean compound eyes. PMID:27436551

  2. Eye-Specific Gene Expression following Embryonic Ethanol Exposure in Zebrafish: Roles for Heat Shock Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Bhavani; Pegorsch, Laurel; Frey, Ruth A.; Sun, Chi; Shelden, Eric A.; Stenkamp, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms through which ethanol exposure results in developmental defects remain unclear. We used the zebrafish model to elucidate eye-specific mechanisms that underlie ethanol-mediated microphthalmia (reduced eye size), through time-series microarray analysis of gene expression within eyes of embryos exposed to 1.5% ethanol. 62 genes were differentially expressed (DE) in ethanol-treated as compared to control eyes sampled during retinal neurogenesis (24-48 hours post-fertilization). The EDGE (extraction of differential gene expression) algorithm identified >3000 genes DE over developmental time in ethanol-exposed eyes as compared to controls. The DE lists included several genes indicating a mis-regulated cellular stress response due to ethanol exposure. Combined treatment with sub-threshold levels of ethanol and a morpholino targeting heat shock factor 1 mRNA resulted in microphthalmia, suggesting convergent molecular pathways. Thermal preconditioning partially prevented ethanol-mediated microphthalmia while maintaining Hsf-1 expression. These data suggest roles for reduced Hsf-1 in mediating microphthalmic effects of embryonic ethanol exposure. PMID:24355176

  3. Local acting Sticky-trap inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor dependent pathological angiogenesis in the eye

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Iacovos P; Westenskow, Peter D; Hacibekiroglu, Sabiha; Greenwald, Alissa Cohen; Ballios, Brian G; Kurihara, Toshihide; Li, Zhijie; Warren, Carmen M; Zhang, Puzheng; Aguilar, Edith; Donaldson, Laura; Marchetti, Valentina; Baba, Takeshi; Hussein, Samer M; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa; Rini, James M; van der Kooy, Derek; Friedlander, Martin; Nagy, Andras

    2014-01-01

    Current therapeutic antiangiogenic biologics used for the treatment of pathological ocular angiogenesis could have serious side effects due to their interference with normal blood vessel physiology. Here, we report the generation of novel antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) biologics, termed VEGF “Sticky-traps,” with unique properties that allow for local inhibition of angiogenesis without detectable systemic side effects. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrated that Sticky-traps could locally inhibit angiogenesis to at least the same extent as the original VEGF-trap that also gains whole-body access. Sticky-traps did not cause systemic effects, as shown by uncompromised wound healing and normal tracheal vessel density. Moreover, if injected intravitreally, recombinant Sticky-trap remained localized to various regions of the eye, such as the inner-limiting membrane and ciliary body, for prolonged time periods, without gaining access either to the photoreceptors/choriocapillaris area or the circulation. These unique pharmacological characteristics of Sticky-trap could allow for safe treatment of pathological angiogenesis in patients with diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of pre-maturity. PMID:24705878

  4. Cataract Surgery Visual Outcomes and Associated Risk Factors in Secondary Level Eye Care Centers of L V Prasad Eye Institute, India

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Sumathi; Park, Jiwon; Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Khanna, Rohit C.; Rao, Gullapalli N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate cataract surgery visual outcomes and associated risk factors in rural secondary level eye care centers of L V Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI), India. Methods The Eye Health pyramid of LVPEI has a network of rural secondary care centres (SCs) and attached vision centres (VCs) that provide high quality comprehensive eye care with permanent infrastructure to the most disadvantaged sections of society. The most common procedure performed at SCs is cataract surgery. We audited the outcome of a random sample of 2,049 cataract surgeries done from October 2009-March 2010 at eight rural SCs. All patients received a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, both before and after surgery. The World Health Organization recommended cataract surgical record was used for data entry. Visual outcomes were measured at discharge, 1–3 weeks and 4–11 weeks follow up visits. Poor outcome was defined as best corrected visual acuity <6/18. Results Mean age was 61.8 years (SD: 8.9 years) and 1,133 (55.3%) surgeries were performed on female patients. Pre-existing ocular co-morbidity was present in 165 patients (8.1%). The most common procedure was small incision cataract surgery (SICS) with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation (91.8%). Intraoperative complications were seen in 29 eyes (1.4%). At the 4–11 weeks follow-up visit, based on presenting visual acuity (PVA), 61.8% had a good outcome and based on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), 91.7% had a good outcome. Based on PVA and BCVA, those with less than 6/60 were only 2.9% and 1.6% respectively. Using multivariable analysis, poor visual outcomes were significantly higher in patients aged ≥70 (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.61, 13.30), in females (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.04, 2.41), those with preoperative comorbidities (odds ratio 4.68; 95% CI 2.90, 7.57), with intraoperative complications (OR 8.01; 95% CI 2.91, 22.04), eyes that underwent no IOL or anterior chamber-IOL (OR 12.63; 95% CI 2.65, 60.25) and those undergoing extracapsular

  5. Ocular Risk Factors for Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES)

    PubMed Central

    Fraser-Bell, Samantha; Choudhury, Farzana; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley; Varma, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess the association of ocular factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Latinos. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study of 6357 self-identified Latinos aged 40 years and older. Methods Ophthalmic examination included subjective refraction, measurement of axial length, evaluation of iris color, Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II) grading of cataracts, and stereoscopic macular photographs for AMD lesions. Generalized estimating equation analysis incorporated data from both eyes to estimate odds ratios adjusted for covariates. Results After controlling for confounders (age, gender and smoking), prior cataract surgery was associated with advanced AMD (OR: 2.8, 95% CI 1.0, 7.8), increased retinal pigment (OR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.0, 1.5) and retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (OR: 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.4). The presence of any lens opacity was associated with soft drusen (OR: 1.2; 95% CI 1.0, 1.5). Longer axial length (per mm) was associated with a decreased odds of soft drusen, increased retinal pigment, and geographic atrophy (GA) (ORs: 0.8 [95% CI 0.7, 0.9], 0.8 [95% CI 0.7, 0.9], 0.7 [95% CI 0.5, 0.9], respectively. Myopia was inversely associated with soft drusen (OR: 0.8; 95% CI 0.7, 1.0). Lighter colored irises were associated with GA (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 1.0, 25.3). Conclusions Cross-sectional associations of ocular factors such as cataract, cataract surgery, and refractive errors with early AMD lesions found in Latinos were consistent with those in whites. Additionally, prior cataract surgery was associated with advanced AMD. PMID:20138605

  6. The basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor Mitf is conserved in Drosophila and functions in eye development.

    PubMed Central

    Hallsson, Jón H; Haflidadóttir, Benedikta S; Stivers, Chad; Odenwald, Ward; Arnheiter, Heinz; Pignoni, Francesca; Steingrímsson, Eiríkur

    2004-01-01

    The MITF protein is a member of the MYC family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors and is most closely related to the TFE3, TFEC, and TFEB proteins. In the mouse, MITF is required for the development of several different cell types, including the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of the eye. In Mitf mutant mice, the presumptive RPE cells hyperproliferate, abnormally express the retinal transcriptional regulator Pax6, and form an ectopic neural retina. Here we report the structure of the Mitf gene in Drosophila and demonstrate expression during embryonic development and in the eye-antennal imaginal disc. In vitro, transcriptional regulation by Drosophila Mitf, like its mouse counterpart, is modified by the Eyeless (Drosophila Pax6) transcription factor. In vivo, targeted expression of wild-type or dominant-negative Drosophila Mitf results in developmental abnormalities reminiscent of Mitf function in mouse eye development. Our results suggest that the Mitf gene is the original member of the Mitf-Tfe subfamily of bHLH-Zip proteins and that its developmental function is at least partially conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates. These findings further support the common origin of the vertebrate and invertebrate eyes. PMID:15166150

  7. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Eye Cancer > Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Eye Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... trained to treat intraocular cancer. Parts of the eye The eye is the organ that collects light ...

  8. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  9. Specific fixation of bovine brain and retinal acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors to mouse embryonic eye basement membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanny, J.C.; Fayein, N.; Courtois, Y. ); Moenner, M.; Chevallier, B.; Barritault, D. )

    1987-07-01

    The labeling pattern of mouse embryonic eye frozen sections incubated with radioiodinated brain acidic and basic fibroblasts growth factors (aFGF and bFGF) was investigated by autoradiography. Both growth factors bind to basement membranes in a dose-dependent way, with a higher affinity for bFGF. Similar data were obtained with eye-derived growth factors (EDGF), the retinal forms of FGF. There was a heterogeneity in the affinity of the various basement membranes toward these growth factors. The specificity of the growth factor-basement membrane interaction was demonstrated by the following experiments: (i) an excess of unlabeled growth factor displaced the labeling; (ii) unrelated proteins with different isoelectric points did not modify the labeling; and (iii) iodinated EGF or PDGF did not label basement membrane. In order to get a better understanding of the nature of this binding, the authors performed the incubation of the frozen sections with iodinated FGFs preincubated with various compounds. These results demonstrate that FGFs bind specifically to basement membranes, probably on the polysaccharidic part of the proteoheparan sulfate, and suggest that this type of interaction may be a general feature of the mechanism of action of these growth factors.

  10. Frequency and risk factors associated with dry eye in patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Jaime D; Galor, Anat; Ramos-Betancourt, Nallely; Lisker-Cervantes, Andrés; Beltrán, Francisco; Ozorno-Zárate, Jorge; Sánchez-Huerta, Valeria; Torres-Vera, Marco-Antonio; Hernández-Quintela, Everardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to ascertain the frequency and risk factors of dry eye (DE) among patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. Methods Approximately 338 consecutive new patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City underwent an ocular surface examination, which included tear film break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer’s test, and evaluation of meibum quality. Symptoms of DE were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index and Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Information on demographics, exposures, past medical and ocular history, and medications was also collected. Results The frequency of severe DE symptoms was found to be 43% based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index and 30% based on Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Risk factors significantly associated with increased DE symptoms included dry mouth and gastrointestinal ulcer medications. With regard to signs, aqueous tear deficiency was a less-frequent finding (22%) in our population than evaporative deficiency (94%). Risk factors associated with aqueous tear deficiency were dry mouth and diuretic use. No risk factors were associated with evaporative deficiency. Risk factors associated with meibomian gland dysfunction included old age, male sex, arthritis, and use of an antihypertensive. The only risk factor associated with corneal staining was dry mouth. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate the frequency of symptomatic and clinical DE in a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. The frequency of DE ranged from 30% using a symptomatic definition to 94% using objective measures. Different risk factors were found for different aspects of DE, suggesting differing underlying pathophysiologies behind different DE subtypes. PMID:27499613

  11. COUP-TFs regulate eye development by controlling factors essential for optic vesicle morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ke; Xie, Xin; Park, Joo-In; Jamrich, Milan; Tsai, Sophia; Tsai, Ming-Jer

    2010-03-01

    Transcriptional networks, which are initiated by secreted proteins, cooperate with each other to orchestrate eye development. The establishment of dorsal/ventral polarity, especially dorsal specification in the optic vesicle, is poorly understood at a molecular and cellular level. Here, we show that COUP-TFI (Nr2f1) and COUP-TFII (Nr2f2) are highly expressed in the progenitor cells in the developing murine eye. Phenotype analysis of COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII single-gene conditional knockout mouse models suggests that COUP-TFs compensate for each other to maintain morphogenesis of the eye. However, in eye-specific COUP-TFI/TFII double-knockout mice, progenitor cells at the dorso-distal optic vesicle fail to differentiate appropriately, causing the retinal pigmented epithelium cells to adopt a neural retina fate and abnormal differentiation of the dorsal optic stalk; the development of proximo-ventral identities, neural retina and ventral optic stalk is also compromised. These cellular defects in turn lead to congenital ocular colobomata and microphthalmia. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization assays reveal that the expression of several regulatory genes essential for early optic vesicle development, including Pax6, Otx2, Mitf, Pax2 and Vax1/2, is altered in the corresponding compartments of the mutant eye. Using ChIP assay, siRNA treatment and transient transfection in ARPE-19 cells in vitro, we demonstrate that Pax6 and Otx2 are directly regulated by COUP-TFs. Taken together, our findings reveal novel and distinct cell-intrinsic mechanisms mediated by COUP-TF genes to direct the specification and differentiation of progenitor cells, and that COUP-TFs are crucial for dorsalization of the eye.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor-2 in alkali-burned and intact rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jianqiu; Dou, Guifang; Zheng, Long; Yang, Ting; Jia, Xuechao; Tang, Lu; Huang, Yadong; Wu, Wencan; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Xiaojie

    2015-07-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2), an effective agent in the development of epithelial tissue and regeneration during corneal wound healing, is a potential therapeutic option to treat the corneal diseases with corneal epithelial defects. However the tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of KGF-2 have not been explored yet in eye upon topical application. Using (125)I-labeled recombinant human KGF-2 ((125)I-rhKGF-2), tissue distribution of rhKGF-2 in alkali-burned and control rabbit eyes was studied. Our results revealed that (125)I-rhKGF-2 was distributed to all eye tissues examined. The highest radioactivity level was found in the cornea, followed by iris, sclera, ciliary body, lens, aqueous humor, vitreous body, and serum in a greatest to least order. The levels of (125)I-rhKGF-2 were higher in corneas of alkali-burned eyes than those in control eyes though without statistical significance. Calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of t1/2, Cmax, and Tmax of rhKGF-2 in the rabbit corneas were 3.4 h, 135.2 ng/ml, and 0.5 h, respectively. In iris, lens, aqueous humor, and tear, t1/2, Cmax, and Tmax values were 6.2, 6.5, 5.2, and 2.5 h; 23.2, 4.5, 24.1, and 29,498.9 ng/ml; and 1.0, 0.5, 0.5, and 1.0 h, respectively. Predominant and rapid accumulation of rhKGF-2 in corneas suggests that therapeutic doses of rhKGF-2 could be delivered by topical application for treatment of corneal diseases.

  13. Complex Drop Impact Morphology.

    PubMed

    Grishaev, Viktor; Iorio, Carlo Saverio; Dubois, Frank; Amirfazli, A

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this work is to understand the changes in the observed phenomena during particle-laden drop impact. The impact of millimeter-size drops was investigated onto hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (polycarbonate) substrates. The drops were dispersions of water and spherical and nearly iso-dense hydrophobic particles with diameters of 200 and 500 μm. The impact was studied by side and bottom view images in the range 150 ≤ We ≤ 750 and 7100 ≤ Re ≤ 16400. The particles suppressed the appearance of singular jetting and drop partial rebound but promoted splashing, receding breakup, and rupture. The drops with 200 μm particles spread in two phases: fast and slow, caused by inertial and capillary forces, respectively. Also, the increase in volume fraction of 200 μm particle led to a linear decrease in the maximum spreading factor caused by the inertia force on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. The explanation of this reduction was argued to be the result of energy dissipation through frictional losses between particles and the substrate.

  14. Eye color, hair color, blood type, and the rhesus factor: exploring possible genetic links to sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Lee; Ficek, Christopher; Burke, Donald; Das, Shyamal

    2008-02-01

    The present study sought to expand the limited evidence that sexual orientation is influenced by genetic factors. This was accomplished by seeking statistical differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals for four traits that are known to be genetically determined: eye color, natural hair color, blood type, and the Rhesus factor. Using a sample of over 7,000 U.S. and Canadian college students supplemented with additional homosexual subjects obtained through internet contacts, we found no significant differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals regarding eye color or hair color. In the case of blood type and the Rh factor, however, interesting patterns emerged. Heterosexual males and females exhibited statistically identical frequencies of the A blood type, while gay men exhibited a relatively low incidence and lesbians had a relatively high incidence (p < .05). In the case of the Rh factor, unusually high proportions of homosexuals of both sexes were Rh- when compared to heterosexuals (p < .06). The findings suggest that a connection may exist between sexual orientation and genes both on chromosome 9 (where blood type is determined) and on chromosome 1 (where the Rh factor is regulated).

  15. Dry eye syndrome among computer users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajta, Aurora; Turkoanje, Daniela; Malaescu, Iosif; Marin, Catalin-Nicolae; Koos, Marie-Jeanne; Jelicic, Biljana; Milutinovic, Vuk

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye syndrome is characterized by eye irritation due to changes of the tear film. Symptoms include itching, foreign body sensations, mucous discharge and transitory vision blurring. Less occurring symptoms include photophobia and eye tiredness. Aim of the work was to determine the quality of the tear film and ocular dryness potential risk in persons who spend more than 8 hours using computers and possible correlations between severity of symptoms (dry eyes symptoms anamnesis) and clinical signs assessed by: Schirmer test I, TBUT (Tears break-up time), TFT (Tear ferning test). The results show that subjects using computer have significantly shorter TBUT (less than 5 s for 56 % of subjects and less than 10 s for 37 % of subjects), TFT type II/III in 50 % of subjects and type III 31% of subjects was found when compared to computer non users (TFT type I and II was present in 85,71% of subjects). Visual display terminal use, more than 8 hours daily, has been identified as a significant risk factor for dry eye. It's been advised to all persons who spend substantial time using computers to use artificial tears drops in order to minimize the symptoms of dry eyes syndrome and prevents serious complications.

  16. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  17. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

  18. Eye Diseases and Impaired Vision as Possible Risk Factors for Recurrent Falls in the Aged: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Liisa; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recurrent falls are common among the aged. Vision is needed in maintaining balance, and impaired vision may be an intrinsic risk factor of recurrent falls. The aim was to perform a systematic review about the relationships between eye diseases or impaired vision and the risk of recurrent falls in the aged. Material and Methods. MEDLINE and CINAHL databases were searched in order to find longitudinal epidemiological studies about the associations between eye diseases or impaired vision and the risk of recurrent falls. Altogether 19 studies were found. A qualitative systematic analysis of these studies was performed. Results and Conclusions. The evidence about poor depth perception/stereoacuity and poor low-contrast visual acuity as risk factors of recurrent falls is quite convincing. Discrepant vision, a decrease in visual acuity, and loss of visual field may be risk factors, but more studies are needed. The results concerning the relationships between poor visual acuity and poor contrast sensitivity and the risk of recurrent falls are controversial. More studies about the relationships between different measures of vision and the risk of recurrent falls are needed before final conclusions about poor vision as a risk factor for recurrent falling can be done. PMID:22927843

  19. Factors Associated with Awareness, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Common Eye Diseases in the General Population in a Rural District in Bangladesh: The Bangladesh Population-based Diabetes and Eye Study (BPDES)

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Fakir M. Amirul; Chakrabarti, Rahul; Islam, Silvia Z.; Finger, Robert P.; Critchley, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess the awareness, attitudes, and practices associated with common eye diseases and eye care utilization in a rural district of Bangladesh. Methods Data were collected using a multilevel cluster random sampling technique from 3104 adults aged ≥30 years from the Banshgram union with a questionnaire assessing the awareness, attitudes and practice about diabetes and common eye diseases, educational attainment, socio-economic status, and medical history. Results Participants were aged between 30 and 89 years with a mean (SD) age of 51 (12) years and 65% were female. The majority of participants had heard of cataracts (90%), trachoma (86%) and Pterygium (84%), yet only 4% had heard of diabetic retinopathy (DR), 7% of glaucoma and 8% of Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, 58% of participants did not know vision loss could be prevented. Factors associated with lower awareness regarding common eye diseases were increasing age, lack of formal schooling, and lower socio-economic status. A lower proportion (57%) of people with no schooling compared to those who had attained at least secondary school certificate education (72%) reported that they knew that vision loss could be prevented (p<0.001). Overall 51% of people had heard of at least six (67%) out of nine items relating to awareness of common eye diseases. This included 41% of participants aged 65 years or older compared to 61% of those aged 30–35 years (p<0.001). Only 4% had an eye check at least once a year and higher education and better SES were associated with higher frequency of eye checks. Conclusions In rural Bangladesh awareness of cataract, trachoma and pterygium was good but limited in relation to the potentially blinding conditions of glaucoma, DR, and AMD. The results show a large gap between public awareness and treatment practices about common eye diseases. Public health promotion should be designed to address these knowledge gaps. PMID:26200458

  20. Risk Factors for Incident Cortical, Nuclear, Posterior Subcapsular, and Mixed Lens Opacities: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Grace M.; Choudhury, Farzana; Torres, Mina; Azen, Stanley P.; Varma, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify socio-demographic and biological risk factors associated with the 4-year incidence of nuclear, cortical, posterior sub-capsular (PSC), and mixed lens opacities. Design Population-based, longitudinal study. Participants Four thousand six hundred fifty-eight Latinos 40 years and older from 6 census tracts in Los Angeles, California. Methods Participants underwent an interview and detailed eye examination, including best-corrected visual acuity and slit-lamp assessment of lens opacities using the Lens Opacities Classification System II at baseline and again 4 years later. Each opacity type was defined in persons with a LOCS II score of 2 or more. Univariate and forward stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent baseline risk factors associated with 4-year incidence of nuclear only, cortical only, PSC only, and mixed (when more than one opacity type developed in a person) lens opacities. These comprised 4 mutually exclusive groups, and were based on person rather than eye. Main Outcome Measures Odds ratios for independent risk factors associated with 4-year incidence of nuclear-only, cortical-only, PSC-only, and mixed lens opacities. Results Of the 3471 participants with gradable lenses in the same eye at baseline and 4-year follow-up, 200 (5.8%) had incident nuclear-only opacities, 151(4.1%) had incident cortical-only opacities, 16 (0.5%) had incident PSC-only lens opacities, and 88 (2.5%) had mixed lens opacities. Independent baseline risk factors for incident nuclear-only lens opacities included older age, current smoking, and presence of diabetes. Independent risk factors for incident cortical-only lens opacities included older age and having diabetes at baseline. Female gender was an independent risk factor for incident PSC-only lens opacities. Older age, and presence of diabetes at baseline exam were independent risk factors for incident mixed lens opacities. Specifically, in diabetics, higher levels of hemoglobin

  1. Videographic Assessment of Glaucoma Drop Instillation

    PubMed Central

    Castillejos, Armando; Kahook, Malik; Jimenez-Roman, Jesus; Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the effect of patient education on videotaped topical instillation of artificial tear drops on subsequent topical instillation. Materials and methods: Forty-five patients, who had been using glaucoma drops for at least 6 months and with a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/100 or better, were studied. The patients were asked to instill an artificial tear drop using their accustomed technique while being video recorded. The patients viewed the recordings, and the errors in their drop instillation method were pointed out. This was followed by an educational session on proper drop instillation technique. After 30 minutes, patients were videotaped instilling drops to ascertain the effect of the educational session. The variables compared were: number of drops instilled, number of drops reaching the ocular surface, and the number of times the tip of the medication bottle touched the eye or ocular adnexa. Results: Before the instruction session, patients squeezed an average of 1.5 ± 0.9 drops from the bottle, and the average number of drops reaching the conjunctival fornix was 0.9 ± 0.7. The tip of the bottle touched the ocular adnexa in 29/45 (64.4%) patients. After the education session, the patients squeezed an average of 1.2 ± 0.5 drops and an average of 1.2 ± 0.4 drops reached the conjunctival fornix. The tip of the bottle touched the ocular adnexa in 13/45 (28.9%) patients. With proper instructions, the percentage of patients that instilled just one drop on the eye increased from 66 to 82%. Conclusion: A single educational session on the proper use of topical drops improves the successful instillation of eye drops. However, it was not determined whether the patients will retain the improved instillation technique for long-term or if the intervention results in only a short-term improvement. How to cite this article: Lazcano-Gomez G, Castillejos A, Kahook M, Jimenez-Roman J, Gonzalez-Salinas R. Video-graphic Assessment of Glaucoma

  2. Analysis of Factors Causing Adult Female Learners to Drop out of E-Learning Courses in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Park, Soon-Shin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence adult female learners' dropout in e-learning courses, and to suggest possible solutions to problem of high dropout rates in Korea. To identify the factors, we analyzed the literature and developed a questionnaire consisting of 9 possible factors and 16 items. Data gathered…

  3. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and cataract. Novel drug delivery therapeutic strategies targeting telomere reduction and the expression of telomerase activity in the lens epithelial cells with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops: anti-cataract which helps to prevent and treat cataracts in the eyes of dogs and other animals.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2014-01-01

    Cataracts in small animals are shown to be at least partially caused by oxidative damage to lens epithelial cells (LECs) and the internal lens; biomarkers of oxidative stress in the lens are considered as general biomarkers for life expectancy in the canine and other animals. Telomeres lengths and expressed telomerase activity in canine LECs may serve as important monitors of oxidative damage in normal LECs with documented higher levels of telomerase activity in cataractous LECs during cells' lifespan. Loss of functional telomere length below a critical threshold in LECs of canines during the effect of UV and chronic oxidative stress or metabolic failure, can activate programs leading to LEC senescence or death. Telomerase is induced in LECs of canines at critical stages of cataractogenesis initiation and exposure to oxidative stress through the involvement of catalytically active prooxidant transition metal (iron) ions. This work documents that transition metal ions (such as, ferrous ions- catalytic oxidants) might induce premature senescence in LECs of canines, telomere shortening with increased telomerase activity as adaptive response to UV light, oxidative and metabolic stresses. The therapeutic treatment with 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) prodrug delivery is beneficial for prevention and dissolution of ripe cataracts in canines. This biological activity is based on the findings of ferroxidase activity pertinent to the dipeptide carnosine released ophthalmically from NAC prodrug of L-carnosine, stabilizing properties of carnosine on biological membranes based on the ability of the imidazole-containing dipeptides to interact with lipid peroxidation products and reactive oxygen species (ROS), to prevent membrane damage and delute the associated with membrane fragements protein aggregates. The advent of therapeutic treatment of cataracts in canines with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops through targeting the prevention of loss of functional telomere length below

  4. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  5. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  6. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  7. Watery eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common causes of excess tearing is dry eyes . Drying causes the eyes to become uncomfortable, which stimulates the body to produce too many tears. One of the main tests for tearing is to check whether the eyes ...

  8. Drop in transforming growth factor-alpha and osteoprotegerin level in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Otogoto, Junichi; Mogi, Makio

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators, especially cytokine, play a central role in the pathogenesis of gingivitis. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the various growth factors, and cytokines in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with gingivitis, as compared with those of control subjects. The levels of cytokine in the samples were determined by their respective ELISAs. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha and osteoprotegerin (OPG) level were significantly lower in patients with gingivitis than in the controls (p < 0.05). Also, there was a positive correlation between TGF-alpha and OPG levels (r = 0.761). These results suggest that the decrease in growth factor TGF-alpha is associated with the pathophysiology and/or the progress of gingivitis.

  9. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Impact of Undiagnosed Visually Significant Cataract: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Jacqueline; Lim, Blanche; Fenwick, Eva K.; Gan, Alfred Tau Liang; Tan, Ava Grace; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of undiagnosed visually significant cataract in an Asian population. Methods The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases is a population-based study where 8,697 adults of Malay, Indian, and Chinese ethnicities aged > 40 years were invited for an eye examination, including lens photograph, to establish cataract diagnosis. Visually significant cataract was defined by Wisconsin Cataract Grading System and a best-corrected visual acuity <20/40 with cataract as the primary cause of vision impairment. Participants were deemed ‘undiagnosed’ if they had visually significant cataract and reported no prior physician diagnosis of cataract. Visual functioning (VF) was assessed with the VF-11 questionnaire validated using Rasch analysis. Results Among the 925 participants with visually significant cataract, 636 (68.8%) were unaware of their cataract status. Age-standardized prevalence varied according to ethnicity, with Malays having higher rates than Chinese and Indians. Factors independently associated with having undiagnosed visually significant cataract were: Malay ethnicity, lower educational attainment, in employment, and without a history of diabetes (all P<0.05). In those with undiagnosed visually significant cataract, half had bilateral visual impairment, which was significantly associated with 24.8% poorer visual functioning compared to those with unilateral visual impairment (P<0.001). Conclusions Two-thirds of Singaporean adults with visually significant cataract were previously undiagnosed. Half of these cases had bilateral visual impairment and substantially reduced quality of life. Public health strategies targeting elderly patients, such as regular screening for visual impairment and timely referral to ophthalmologists in order to prevent progression to bilateral visual impairment when visual function is compromised are warranted. PMID:28129358

  10. Nor Any Drop To Drink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Jay H.

    In Nor Any Drop To Drink author William Ashworth displays an exceptional grasp of the hydrologic cycle for one trained as a writer rather than as an earth scientist. Especially remarkable for a popular book is the no-nonsense manner in which he handles popular misconceptions about underground water. Authors of similar books generally mollify readers who hold fallacious, mysterious beliefs concerning groundwater flow. Ashworth gets their attention with the proverbial two-by-four between the eyes by declaring such fallacies to be 100% hogwash. He describes the groundwater system in an exceptionally accurate manner using precise analogies which benefit from his literary skill.

  11. Coalescence of a Drop inside another Drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugundhan, Vivek; Jian, Zhen; Yang, Fan; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2016-11-01

    Coalescence dynamics of a pendent drop sitting inside another drop, has been studied experimentally and in numerical simulations. Using an in-house fabricated composite micro-nozzle, a smaller salt-water drop is introduced inside a larger oil drop which is pendent in a tank containing the same liquid as the inner drop. On touching the surface of outer drop, the inner drop coalesces with the surrounding liquid forming a vortex ring, which grows in time to form a mushroom-like structure. The initial dynamics at the first bridge opening up is quantified using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), while matching the refractive index of the two liquids. The phenomenon is also numerically simulated using the open-source code Gerris. The problem is fully governed by two non-dimensional parameters: the Ohnesorge number and the diameter ratios of the two drops. The validated numerical model is used to better understand the dynamics of the phenomenon. In some cases a coalescence cascade is observed with liquid draining intermittently and the inner drop reducing in size.

  12. Constant perfusion for dry eyes and sockets.

    PubMed Central

    Ruben, M.; Trodd, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several techniques have been used to treat dry eye, to irrigate the eye surface, or to apply drugs in solution. The commonest method is to apply drops. But a technique is needed for giving solutions over long periods either as drops or continuously. The apparatus described here consists of a replaceable plastic tank under mechanical pressure attached to capillary tubing which is kept in contact with the inner canthus of the eye. It was found to alleviate symptoms in severe dry eye conditions not alleviated by other methods. Images PMID:646987

  13. [The effect of space flight factors on the cellular proliferative activity of different eye tissues during lens regeneration in the Spanish newt Pleurodeles waltlii].

    PubMed

    Brushlinskaia, N V

    1995-01-01

    The proliferative activity of the cells of various eye tissues was studied during lens regeneration in Pleurodeles waltlii under the influence of space-flight factors. After space-flight termination, the index of 3H-thymidine labelled nuclei increased reliably in the lens regenerate, in the ciliary zone of the iris, and in the growth zone of the retina, i.e., in the eye tissues that are not directly involved in formation of the regenerate cell population. The rate of increase in regenerate size was higher in the flight group than in the control. Enhancement of the proliferative activity of eye tissues, acceleration of lens regeneration, and the larger size of the regenerates are related to hormonal changes arising under the effect of space-flight factors. We propose that changes in calcium metabolism under the conditions of microgravity (in particular, increased prolactin production) accelerates the regeneration of both lens and limb in P. waltlii.

  14. Prevalence and Factors Associated with the Use of Eye Care Services in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong Seok; Heo, Hwan; Ye, Byeong Jin; Suh, Young-Woo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Park, Shin Hae; Lim, Key Hwan; Lee, Sung Jin; Park, Song Hee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the factors and prevalence of eye care service utilization in the South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional, population-based study included data from 22,550 Koreans aged ≥5 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. For people aged 5 to 11 years (young children), information was based on self-reports of contact with eye care service in the past year; for people aged ≥12 years (older population), the information was based on the self-reported lifetime contact with eye care service. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the complex sample survey data were performed. Results The prevalence of eye care service use in young children during the past year was 61.1% (95% confidence interval, 58.1%–64.1%), while that in the older population during their lifetime was 73.5%. Subjects aged 7 to 11 years were more likely to have had an eye examination in the past year than subjects aged 5 to 6 years (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% confidence interval, 2.37–6.19). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that higher monthly household income, being a National Health Insurance holder, and having private health insurance were related to more frequent use of eye care services in young children. For the older population and women, those living in an urban area and those with a best-corrected visual acuity less than 20 / 40 in the worse-seeing eye were more likely to have had an eye examination during their lifetime. Low education level was associated with low lifetime use of eye care services in the older population. Conclusions There are sociodemographic disparities with use of eye care services in South Korea. This population-based study provides information that is useful for determining different intervention programs based on sociodemographic disparities to promote eye care service utilization in South Korea. PMID:28243025

  15. Factors related to injury in youth and adolescent baseball pitching, with an eye toward prevention.

    PubMed

    Popchak, Adam; Burnett, Thomas; Weber, Nicholas; Boninger, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The baseball and medical communities have recognized injuries of the upper extremity associated with the overhead throwing motion and have examined manners in which to reduce risk. The authors examine special features of the adolescent pitcher as compared with skeletally mature pitchers and characteristics of pitch mechanics, type, velocity, fatigue, and overuse. A summary is presented on previously identified risk factors as they relate to pitching injuries. Development, use, and compliance with the most current pitching guidelines in youth baseball, based on the available evidence, will be presented and examined. In an increasingly competitive environment, identifying known risk factors and potential signs of pathology as well as implementing the current best evidence in a consistent manner are important steps in decreasing injury risk of youth baseball pitchers. More research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of pitching guidelines in the short and long term and to focus on manners in which to increase compliance with best practice procedures throughout youth baseball organizations.

  16. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Fraser-Bell, Samantha; Wu, Joanne; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley P.; Hooper, Claire; Foong, Athena W. P.; Varma, Rohit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To assess the association of cardiovascular risk factors, ocular perfusion pressure with early and advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Latinos. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Methods Data were collected from a population-based sample of self-identified adult Latinos using standardized protocols for assessing blood pressure and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement and stereoscopic macular photography. Hypertension was defined as either a history of hypertension or systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140mmHg +/− diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥85mmHg. Ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) was defined as the difference between mean arterial blood pressure and IOP. AMD was diagnosed from photographic grading by masked trained graders. Logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results Gradable retinal photographs were available in 5875 participants. After adjusting for age, sex, and cigarette smoking, higher DBP and uncontrolled diastolic hypertension were associated with exudative AMD (Odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1−2.8; and OR, 3.3; CI, 1.2−9.3, respectively). Higher OPP was associated with a decreased risk of GA (OR, 0.4 per 10mmHg; CI, 0.3−0.5). Low pulse pressure was associated with a lower risk of exudative AMD (OR, 0.2; CI, 0.1−0.6). Obesity was associated with increased retinal pigment (OR, 1.6; CI, 1.0−2.3). Conclusion These data suggest that in Latinos cardiovascular risk factors may play a role in advanced AMD. Given that Latinos have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, an intervention aimed at reducing these risk factors may also have a beneficial impact on the risk of having early and advanced AMD. PMID:18222193

  17. R7 Photoreceptor Specification in the Developing Drosophila Eye: The Role of the Transcription Factor Deadpan.

    PubMed

    Mavromatakis, Yannis Emmanuel; Tomlinson, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As cells proceed along their developmental pathways they make a series of sequential cell fate decisions. Each of those decisions needs to be made in a robust manner so there is no ambiguity in the state of the cell as it proceeds to the next stage. Here we examine the decision made by the Drosophila R7 precursor cell to become a photoreceptor and ask how the robustness of that decision is achieved. The transcription factor Tramtrack (Ttk) inhibits photoreceptor assignment, and previous studies found that the RTK-induced degradation of Ttk was critically required for R7 specification. Here we find that the transcription factor Deadpan (Dpn) is also required; it is needed to silence ttk transcription, and only when Ttk protein degradation and transcriptional silencing occur together is the photoreceptor fate robustly achieved. Dpn expression needs to be tightly restricted to R7 precursors, and we describe the role played by Ttk in repressing dpn transcription. Thus, Dpn and Ttk act as mutually repressive transcription factors, with Dpn acting to ensure that Ttk is effectively removed from R7, and Ttk acting to prevent Dpn expression in other cells. Furthermore, we find that N activity is required to promote dpn transcription, and only in R7 precursors does the removal of Ttk coincide with high N activity, and only in this cell does Dpn expression result.

  18. R7 Photoreceptor Specification in the Developing Drosophila Eye: The Role of the Transcription Factor Deadpan

    PubMed Central

    Mavromatakis, Yannis Emmanuel; Tomlinson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    As cells proceed along their developmental pathways they make a series of sequential cell fate decisions. Each of those decisions needs to be made in a robust manner so there is no ambiguity in the state of the cell as it proceeds to the next stage. Here we examine the decision made by the Drosophila R7 precursor cell to become a photoreceptor and ask how the robustness of that decision is achieved. The transcription factor Tramtrack (Ttk) inhibits photoreceptor assignment, and previous studies found that the RTK-induced degradation of Ttk was critically required for R7 specification. Here we find that the transcription factor Deadpan (Dpn) is also required; it is needed to silence ttk transcription, and only when Ttk protein degradation and transcriptional silencing occur together is the photoreceptor fate robustly achieved. Dpn expression needs to be tightly restricted to R7 precursors, and we describe the role played by Ttk in repressing dpn transcription. Thus, Dpn and Ttk act as mutually repressive transcription factors, with Dpn acting to ensure that Ttk is effectively removed from R7, and Ttk acting to prevent Dpn expression in other cells. Furthermore, we find that N activity is required to promote dpn transcription, and only in R7 precursors does the removal of Ttk coincide with high N activity, and only in this cell does Dpn expression result. PMID:27427987

  19. Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy after Eye Injuries: An Overexpression of Growth Factors and Cytokines Leading to a Retinal Keloid

    PubMed Central

    Morescalchi, Francesco; Duse, Sarah; Gambicorti, Elena; Romano, Mario R.; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Eye injury is a significant disabling worldwide health problem. Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a common complication that develops in up to 40–60% of patients with an open-globe injury. Our knowledge about the pathogenesis of PVR has improved in the last decades. It seems that the introduction of immune cells into the vitreous, like in penetrating ocular trauma, triggers the production of growth factors and cytokines that come in contact with intra-retinal cells, like Müller cells and RPE cells. Growth factors and cytokines drive the cellular responses leading to PVR's development. Knowledge of the pathobiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in posttraumatic PVR is increasing the possibilities of management, and it is hoped that in the future our treatment strategies will evolve, in particular adopting a multidrug approach, and become even more effective in vision recovery. This paper reviews the current literature and clinical trial data on the pathogenesis of PVR and its correlation with ocular trauma and describes the biochemical/molecular events that will be fundamental for the development of novel treatment strategies. This literature review included PubMed articles published from 1979 through 2013. Only studies written in English were included. PMID:24198445

  20. Use of medicated drops and oral tablets in glaucoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Greenwell, C; Spillman, D

    1996-04-01

    This paper addresses the many forms of treatment for glaucoma. We studied particularly the topical drops and oral medications that are most frequently prescribed by ophthalmologists, specifically examining the reasons for the side effects experienced by certain patients taking topical drops and oral medications. Some of the side effects and interactions are discussed, and the importance of proper procedure for application of topical eye drops is stressed. Finally, we emphasize that proper drug usage is critical to the well being of the patient.

  1. Targeted expression of the DNA binding domain of DRE-binding factor, a Drosophila transcription factor, attenuates DNA replication of the salivary gland and eye imaginal disc.

    PubMed

    Hirose, F; Yamaguchi, M; Matsukage, A

    1999-09-01

    The promoters of Drosophila genes encoding DNA replication-related proteins contain transcription regulatory elements consisting of an 8-bp palindromic DNA replication-related element (DRE) sequence (5'-TATCGATA). The specific DRE-binding factor (DREF), a homodimer of the polypeptide with 709 amino acid residues, is a positive trans-acting factor for transcription of DRE-containing genes. Both DRE binding and dimer formation are associated with residues 16 to 115 of the N-terminal region. We have established transgenic flies expressing the full-length DREF polypeptide or its N-terminal fragment (amino acid residues 1 to 125) under the control of the heat shock promoter, the salivary gland-specific promoter, or the eye imaginal disc-specific promoter. Heat shock induction of the N-terminal fragment during embryonic, larval, or pupal stages caused greater than 50% lethality. This lethality was overcome by coexpression of the full-length DREF. In salivary glands of the transgenic larvae expressing the N-terminal fragment, this fragment formed a homodimer and a heterodimer with the endogenous DREF. Ectopic expression of the N-terminal fragment in salivary gland cells reduced the contents of mRNAs for the 180-kDa subunit of DNA polymerase alpha and for dE2F and the extent of DNA endoreplication. Ectopic expression of the N-terminal fragment in the eye imaginal discs significantly reduced DNA replication in cells at the second mitotic wave. The lines of evidence suggest that the N-terminal fragment can impede the endogenous DREF function in a dominant negative manner and that DREF is required for normal DNA replication in both mitotic cell cycle and endo cycle.

  2. Autologous serum eyedrops for dry eyes and epithelial defects: clinical and in vitro toxicity studies

    PubMed Central

    Poon, A.; Geerling, G.; Dart, J.; Fraenkel, G.; Daniels, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Autologous serum drops have been reported to be beneficial in keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and persistent epithelial defects (PED). A clinical pilot study was carried out to examine these potential uses and in vitro toxicity testing on corneal epithelial cell cultures was performed to compare the effect of serum drops with unpreserved hypromellose (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 0.3%).
METHODS—Patients with KCS and PED, unresponsive to conventional treatment were recruited. Patients were examined before treatment, at 1 and 2 weeks after initiation, and then 2 weekly until treatment ceased. Symptoms were assessed at each visit. Clinical examination included Schirmer's test without anaesthesia, rose bengal staining, and fluorescein staining. Epithelial defects were measured with the slit beam. In the laboratory, cultured human corneal epithelial cells were exposed to serum drops and hypromellose, and their viability evaluated with fluorescent viability staining (Calcein AM ethidium homodimer) and an ATP assay.
RESULTS—Autologous serum was used in 15 eyes of 13 patients with PED and 11 eyes of nine patients with KCS. In two patients serum drops were started after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). The PKs were performed for perforations secondary to PEDs. Of the 15 eyes with PED, nine healed at a mean of 29 days and six failed. The mean duration of PED before the use of serum drops was 48.2 days. Of the 11 eyes with KCS, six had improved subjective scores and fluorescein scores, and five had improved rose bengal scores after the use of serum drops. For the two patients who used serum eyedrops post-PK, there was a stable and intact epithelium at 1 week. Cessation of serum drops during the postoperative period led to deterioration in the subjective and objective scores in both patients. One developed a PED that responded to reinstitution of serum drops. The morphology and ATP levels of cultured epithelial cells exposed to serum were

  3. A thermographic study on eyes affected by Age-related Macular Degeneration: Comparison among various forms of the pathology and analysis of risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Biagini, Ilaria; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Sodi, Andrea; Corvi, Andrea; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate (1) the ocular thermographic profiles in eyes affected by Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities that could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, (2) whether any risk factors associated with the disease could affect the development of a form of AMD rather than another. Thirty-four eyes with Age-Related Maculopathy (ARM), 41 eyes with dry AMD, 60 eyes affected by wet AMD, and 74 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included in the study. The control group consisted of 48 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, systemic diseases and a body temperature higher than 37.5 °C. A total of 210 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The Ocular Surface Temperature (OST) of five ocular areas was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test, one-way ANOVA test and multivariate analysis were used for statistical analyses. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P-value > 0.05), however, OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P-value < 0.0001). Smokers showed higher possibility (P-value = 0.012) of developing wet AMD instead of dry AMD. Infrared thermography may be a helpful, non-invasive and not time-consuming method to be used in the management of patients with this common degenerative maculopathy.

  4. Factors Associated with Disability in Rural Bangladesh: Bangladesh Population-Based Diabetes and Eye Study (BPDES)

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Fakir M. Amirul; Bhowmik, Jahar L.; Islam, Silvia Z.; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Hiller, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess factors associated with disability in a rural district of Bangladesh. Methods Using a population-based systematic sampling technique, data were collected from 3104 adults aged ≥ 30 years from the Banshgram union of Narail district. Data collected included an interviewer administered questionnaire to report physical disabilities including impairment that prevents engagement with paid work, visual, hearing, and mobility as well as mental disabilities. Socio-demographic and anthropometric factors including educational attainment and body mass index, as well as clinical factors such as blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose were also collected. Binary and multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to explore the association of various socio-demographic and clinical factors with disability. Results The mean (SD), minimum and maximum ages of the participants were 51 (12), 30 and 89 years. Of total participants, 65% were female. The prevalence of disability varied from 29.1% for visual impairment (highest) to 16.5% for hearing, 14.7% for movement difficulties and 1.6% (lowest) for any other disability that prevented engagement with paid work. Overall, the prevalence of a single disability was 28.6% and that of two or more disabilities was 14.7%. Older age, gender (female), lower socio-economic status (SES), and hypertension were associated with a higher prevalence of most of the disability components. The prevalence of hearing problems (24.5% vs. 13.3%, p<0.001) and movement difficulties (24.9% vs. 13.0%, p<0.001) was significantly higher among lower-income participants than their higher-income counterparts after controlling for age. Prevalence of visual impairment (54.6% vs. 9.2%, p<0.001), hearing (32.2% vs. 6.7%, p<0.001) and movement difficulties (29.2% vs. 5.5%, p<0.001) were significantly higher in people of aged 60 years or older than those aged 30–34 years. After multivariate adjustment, the prevalence of single disability

  5. Attracting Water Drops

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

  6. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  7. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue covering the front of the eye. Dust, sand, and other debris can easily enter the eye. ... clear itself of tiny objects, like eyelashes and sand, through blinking and tearing. If not, don't ...

  8. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fight for victory. Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  9. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  10. Mass Remaining During Evaporation of Sessile Drop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    to> \\fyj Greek Symbols P Contact angle of sessile drop . n Droplet shape factor = h/d 6 Non-dimensional time = t/i V Air kinematic viscosity...factor n, = h / d (where h = maximum height of the drop ), which can also be directly related to the contact angle (P) of the drop , that is r| = (l-cos(P...three drop size (initial mass or volume) conditions with all other conditions the same. These runs have a constant contact angle , (3 = 16.5° ± 1.5

  11. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is usually a temporary condition associated with seasonal allergies. You can get eye allergies from pet dander, ... Privacy Policy Related Is El Niño Making Your Allergies Worse? May 16, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Eye ...

  12. Transcription factor choice in the Hippo signaling pathway: homothorax and yorkie regulation of the microRNA bantam in the progenitor domain of the Drosophila eye imaginal disc

    PubMed Central

    Peng, H. Wayne; Slattery, Matthew; Mann, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    The accurate control of cell proliferation and survival is critical for animal development. The Hippo tumor suppressor pathway regulates both of these parameters by controlling the nuclear availability of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki), which regulates downstream target genes together with Scalloped (Sd), a DNA-binding protein. Here we provide evidence that Yki can also regulate target genes in conjunction with Homothorax (Hth) and Teashirt (Tsh), two DNA-binding transcription factors expressed in the uncommitted progenitor cells of the Drosophila eye imaginal disc. Clonal analyses demonstrate that Hth and Tsh promote cell proliferation and protect eye progenitor cells from apoptosis. Genetic epistasis experiments suggest that Hth and Tsh execute these functions with Yki, in part by up-regulating the microRNA bantam. A physical interaction between Hth and Yki can be detected in cell culture, and we show that Hth and Yki are bound to a DNA sequence ∼14 kb upstream of the bantam hairpin in eye imaginal disc cells, arguing that this regulation is direct. These data suggest that the Hippo pathway uses different DNA-binding transcription factors depending on the cellular context. In the eye disc, Hth and Tsh provide spatial information to this pathway, promoting cell proliferation and survival in the progenitor domain. PMID:19762509

  13. The questionably dry eye.

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, I. A.; Seal, D. V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the recognition of the dry eye when the clinical diagnosis is in doubt and other external eye diseases may be present. Papillary conjunctivitis is common to the dry eye as well as other pathological conditions and confuses the diagnosis. We have correlated the factors involved in the assessment for dryness. We have shown that particulate matter in the unstained tear film is associated with low tear lysozyme concentration. Tear flow and tear lysozyme are not necessarily interrelated, but a low lysozyme concentration (tear lysozyme ratio < 1.0) is associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The Schirmer I test can produce false positive results, and we have suggested a modification to overcome this. This modified test will detect the eye with severely depleted lysozyme secretion, but it is unreliable for detecting the eye with moderately depleted secretion. We find that its lowest normal limit should be considered as 6 mm. Images PMID:7448154

  14. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens.

  15. Health risk appraisal in older people 6: factors associated with self-reported poor vision and uptake of eye tests in older people

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although free eye testing is available in the UK from a nation-wide network of optometrists, there is evidence of unrecognised, tractable vision loss amongst older people. A recent review identified this unmet need as a priority for further investigation, highlighting the need to understand public perceptions of eye services and barriers to service access and utilisation. This paper aims to identify risk factors for (1) having poor vision and (2) not having had an eyesight check among community-dwelling older people without an established ophthalmological diagnosis. Methods Secondary analysis of self-reported data from the ProAge trial. 1792 people without a known ophthalmological diagnosis were recruited from three group practices in London. Results Almost two in ten people in this population of older individuals without known ophthalmological diagnoses had self-reported vision loss, and more than a third of them had not had an eye test in the previous twelve months. In this sample, those with limited education, depressed mood, need for help with instrumental and basic activities of daily living (IADLs and BADLs), and subjective memory complaints were at increased risk of fair or poor self-reported vision. Individuals with basic education only were at increased risk for not having had an eye test in the previous 12 months (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.17-1.98 p=0.002), as were those with no, or only one chronic condition (OR 1.850, 95% CI 1.382-2.477, p<0.001). Conclusions Self-reported poor vision in older people without ophthalmological diagnoses is associated with other functional losses, with no or only one chronic condition, and with depression. This pattern of disorders may be the basis for case finding in general practice. Low educational attainment is an independent determinant of not having had eye tests, as well as a factor associated with undiagnosed vision loss. There are other factors, not identified in this study, which determine uptake of eye

  16. Drag on Sessile Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Andrew J. B.; Fleck, Brian; Nobes, David; Sen, Debjyoti; Amirfazli, Alidad; University of Alberta Mechanical Engineering Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    We present the first ever direct measurements of the coefficient of drag on sessile drops at Reynolds numbers from the creeping flow regime up to the point of incipient motion, made using a newly developed floating element differential drag sensor. Surfaces of different wettabilities (PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic surface (SHS)), wet by water, hexadecane, and various silicone oils, are used to study the effects of drop shape, and fluid properties on drag. The relation between drag coefficient and Reynolds number (scaled by drop height) varies slightly with liquid-solid system and drop volume with results suggesting the drop experiences increased drag compared to similar shaped solid bodies due to drop oscillation influencing the otherwise laminar flow. Drops adopting more spherical shapes are seen to experience the greatest force at any given airspeed. This indicates that the relative exposed areas of drops is an important consideration in terms of force, with implications for the shedding of drops in applications such as airfoil icing and fuel cell flooding. The measurement technique used in this work can be adapted to measure drag force on other deformable, lightly adhered objects such as dust, sand, snow, vesicles, foams, and biofilms. The authours acknowledge NSERC, Alberta Innovates Technology Futures, and the Killam Trusts.

  17. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  18. Prognostic factors for open globe injuries and correlation of Ocular Trauma Score at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Wei, Ho Sue; Teoh, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors influencing final vision outcome after surgical repair of open globe injuries and to correlate the Ocular trauma score. Materials and Methods: Retrospective case analysis of patients with open globe injuries at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore was performed. Pre-operative factors affecting final vision outcome in patients with open globe injury and correlation of ocular trauma score in our study with international ocular trauma scoring system was performed. Results: Case records of 172 eyes with open globe injury were analyzed. Mean age was 36. 67 years. Mean follow up was 12.26 m. Males were pre-dominantly affected. Initial visual acuity was ≥20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- CF, HM– PL and NLP in 24 (14%), 39 (22.7%), 16 (9.3%), 66 (38.4%) and 27 (15.7%) eyes respectively. Final visual acuity was ≤20/40, 20/50 < 20/200, 20/200- 1/200, HM– PL and NLP in 76 (44.2%), 28 (16.3%), 11 (6.4%), 30 (17.4%) and 27 (15.7%) eyes respectively. Ocular trauma score in our study correlates with international ocular trauma scoring system. Conclusion: The present study showed pre-operative variables such as mode of injury, pre-operative visual acuity, traumatic cataract, hyphaema, relative afferent papillary defect, vitreous lossand vitreous hemorrhage to be adversely affecting the final vision outcome. Our study showed a good synchrony with international ocular trauma score (OTS) and based on this study we were able to validate application of OTS in Singapore population. Recognizing these factors can help the surgeon in evidence based counseling. PMID:24104709

  19. Micro coulometric titration in a liquid drop.

    PubMed

    Kanyanee, Tinakorn; Fuekhad, Pongwasin; Grudpan, Kate

    2013-10-15

    Miniaturized coulometric titration in a liquid drop has been investigated. Assays of ascorbic acid and thiosulfate with iodine titration were chosen as models. Constant volumes of falling liquid drops containing sample or reagent are manipulated via gravimetrical force to move along a slope hydrophobic path and directed to stop or to move out from an electrode. Such manipulation is useful for delivery of sample and reagents, in a way of flow without tubing. Electrochemical generation of titrant, in this case, iodine, is started at the electrode and micro coulometric titration can be performed in a drop by applying constant current. Timing in the titration can be made via naked eye with a stopwatch or via recording with a webcam camera connecting to a computer to detect the change due to the blue color complex of the excess iodine and starch.

  20. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Eye Infections in Infants & Children Page Content ​​​If the ... must be treated early to prevent serious complications. Eye infections that occur after the newborn period: These ...

  1. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... sense combinations of light waves that enable our eyes to see millions of colors. Helping You See It All Rods and cones ... the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  2. Eyes - bulging

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  3. Youth Crime Drop. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A.

    This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

  4. Drop Tower Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

  5. Axisymmetric Liquid Hanging Drops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meister, Erich C.; Latychevskaia, Tatiana Yu

    2006-01-01

    The geometry of drops hanging on a circular capillary can be determined by numerically solving a dimensionless differential equation that is independent on any material properties, which enables one to follow the change of the height, surface area, and contact angle of drops hanging on a particular capillary. The results show that the application…

  6. Novel methodology to examine cognitive and experiential factors in language development: combining eye-tracking and LENA technology.

    PubMed

    Odean, Rosalie; Nazareth, Alina; Pruden, Shannon M

    2015-01-01

    Developmental systems theory posits that development cannot be segmented by influences acting in isolation, but should be studied through a scientific lens that highlights the complex interactions between these forces over time (Overton, 2013a). This poses a unique challenge for developmental psychologists studying complex processes like language development. In this paper, we advocate for the combining of highly sophisticated data collection technologies in an effort to move toward a more systemic approach to studying language development. We investigate the efficiency and appropriateness of combining eye-tracking technology and the LENA (Language Environment Analysis) system, an automated language analysis tool, in an effort to explore the relation between language processing in early development, and external dynamic influences like parent and educator language input in the home and school environments. Eye-tracking allows us to study language processing via eye movement analysis; these eye movements have been linked to both conscious and unconscious cognitive processing, and thus provide one means of evaluating cognitive processes underlying language development that does not require the use of subjective parent reports or checklists. The LENA system, on the other hand, provides automated language output that describes a child's language-rich environment. In combination, these technologies provide critical information not only about a child's language processing abilities but also about the complexity of the child's language environment. Thus, when used in conjunction these technologies allow researchers to explore the nature of interacting systems involved in language development.

  7. Novel methodology to examine cognitive and experiential factors in language development: combining eye-tracking and LENA technology

    PubMed Central

    Odean, Rosalie; Nazareth, Alina; Pruden, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental systems theory posits that development cannot be segmented by influences acting in isolation, but should be studied through a scientific lens that highlights the complex interactions between these forces over time (Overton, 2013a). This poses a unique challenge for developmental psychologists studying complex processes like language development. In this paper, we advocate for the combining of highly sophisticated data collection technologies in an effort to move toward a more systemic approach to studying language development. We investigate the efficiency and appropriateness of combining eye-tracking technology and the LENA (Language Environment Analysis) system, an automated language analysis tool, in an effort to explore the relation between language processing in early development, and external dynamic influences like parent and educator language input in the home and school environments. Eye-tracking allows us to study language processing via eye movement analysis; these eye movements have been linked to both conscious and unconscious cognitive processing, and thus provide one means of evaluating cognitive processes underlying language development that does not require the use of subjective parent reports or checklists. The LENA system, on the other hand, provides automated language output that describes a child’s language-rich environment. In combination, these technologies provide critical information not only about a child’s language processing abilities but also about the complexity of the child’s language environment. Thus, when used in conjunction these technologies allow researchers to explore the nature of interacting systems involved in language development. PMID:26379591

  8. Contribution of Social and Information-Processing Factors to Eye-Gaze Avoidance in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Schroeder, Susan; Serlin, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The influence of social and information-processing demands on eye-gaze avoidance in individuals with fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, or typical development were examined by manipulating those demands in a structured-language task. Participants with fragile X syndrome exhibited more gaze avoidance than did those in the comparison groups, but no…

  9. Conjugate Lateral Eye Movement, Cerebral Dominance, and the Figural Creativity Factors of Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, and Elaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Susan L.

    1980-01-01

    This study explored general relationships between figural creativity, as measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, and cerebral dominance, as identified by the conjugate lateral eye movement (CLEM) interview procedure. Subjects were 175 adults. Results indicated no significant differences in figural creativity due to brain dominance…

  10. Expression of two molecular forms of the complement decay-accelerating factor in the eye and lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Lass, J H; Walter, E I; Burris, T E; Grossniklaus, H E; Roat, M I; Skelnik, D L; Needham, L; Singer, M; Medof, M E

    1990-06-01

    Complement is present in ocular fluids, but the molecular mechanism(s) restricting its activation to exogenous targets and not to autologous ocular cells are currently unknown. To clarify how this control is achieved, monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based techniques were used to examine the eye, the lacrimal gland, and ocular fluids for the decay-accelerating factor (DAF), a membrane regulatory protein which protects blood cells from autologous complement activation on their surfaces. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections revealed DAF antigen on corneal and conjunctival epithelia, corneal endothelium, trabecular meshwork, and retina, as well as on lacrimal gland acinar cells and in adjacent lumens. By flow cytometry, cultures of conjunctival epithelium exhibited the highest DAF levels and levels on corneal epithelium greater than corneal endothelium greater than conjunctival fibroblasts. Biosynthetic labeling of corneal endothelium yielded de novo DAF protein with an apparent molecular weight (Mr) of 75 kD, approximating that of blood cell DAF protein, and digestions of conjunctival epithelium with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), an enzyme which cleaves glycoinositolphospholipid membrane anchors, released approximately 70% of the ocular surface DAF protein similar to leukocyte surface DAF protein. Quantitations of DAF by radioimmunometric assay employing mAbs against two DAF epitopes revealed 325 ng/ml (n = 12), 4.8 ng/ml (n = 10), and 22.0 ng/ml (n = 8) of soluble DAF antigen in tears, aqueous humor, and vitreous humor, respectively. Western blot analyses of the tear DAF antigen revealed two DAF forms, one with an apparent Mr of 72 kD resembling membrane DAF forms in other sites, and a second with an apparent Mr of 100 kD, which is previously undescribed. Since DAF activity is essential physiologically in protecting blood cells from autologous complement attack, the identification of DAF on the ocular surface, intraocularly, in the

  11. Advocacy for eye care.

    PubMed

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Ramasamy, Dhivya

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  12. Expression of Fibroblast growth factor 19 (Fgf19) during chicken embryogenesis and eye development, compared with Fgf15 expression in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kurose, Hitomi; Bito, Takaaki; Adachi, Taro; Shimizu, Miyuki; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2004-10-01

    The normal development of eyes relies on proper signaling through Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors, but the source and identity of cognate ligands have remained largely unknown. We have found that Fgf19 is expressed in the developing chicken retina. In situ hybridization discloses dynamic expression patterns for Fgf19 in the optic vesicle, lens primordia and retinal horizontal cells. Overall expression pattern of Fgf19 during chicken embryogenesis was also examined: Fgf19 is expressed in the regions associated with cranial placodes induction, boundary regions of rhombomeres, somites, specific groups of neural cells in midbrain, hindbrain, and those derived from epibranchial placodes, and the apical ectodermal ridge of limb buds. Expression pattern of the Fgf19-orthologous gene Fgf15 was further examined in the mouse developing eye. Fgf15 is expressed in the optic vesicle, a subset of progenitor cells of neural retina, and emerging ganglion and amacrine cells during retinogenesis.

  13. The Drop Tower Bremen -An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kampen, Peter; Könemann, Thorben; Rath, Hans J.

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University of Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of ZARM`s drop tower began. Since its inau-guration in September 1990, the eye-catching Drop Tower Bremen with a height of 146m and its characteristic glass roof has become twice a landmark on the campus of the University of Bremen and the emblem of the technology park Bremen. As such an outstanding symbol of space science in Bremen the drop tower provides an european unique facility for experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness with residual gravitational accelerations in the microgravity regime. The period of maximum 4.74s of each freely falling experiment at the Drop Tower Bremen is only limited by the height of the drop tower vacuum tube, which was fully manufactured of steal and enclosed by an outer concrete shell. Thus, the pure free fall height of each microgravity drop experiment is approximately 110m. By using the later in-stalled catapult system established in 2004 ZARM`s short-term microgravity laboratory is able to nearly double the time of free fall. This world-wide inimitable capsule catapult system meets scientists` demand of extending the period of weightlessness. During the catapult operation the experiment capsule performs a vertical parabolic flight within the drop tower vacuum tube. In this way the time of microgravity can be extended to slightly over 9s. Either in the drop or in the catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility are the same, generally up to 3 times per day. In comparison to orbital platforms the ground-based laboratory Drop Tower Bremen represents an economic alternative with a permanent access to weightlessness on earth. Moreover, the exceptional high quality of weightlessness in order of 1e-6 g (in the frequency range below 100

  14. Black Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  15. Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  16. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  17. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  18. Drop Tower Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Ground based microgravity facilities are an important proving ground for space experiments, ground-based research and space hardware risk mitigation. An overview of existing platforms will be discussed with an emphasis on drop tower capabilities. The potential for extension to partial gravity conditions will be discussed. Input will be solicited from attendees for their potential to use drop towers in the future and the need for enhanced capabilities (e.g. partial gravity)

  19. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  20. Variables Affecting Students' Decisions to Drop Out of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Caroline; Chambers, Dalee; Rabren, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This study examined factors predictive of dropping out of high school for students with learning disabilities (LD) and mental retardation (MR). The sample was composed of 228 students with LD or MR who dropped out of school and 228 students with LD or MR who had not dropped out. Two sets of pre- dictor variables (student demographics and interview…

  1. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  2. Intravitreal injection or topical eye-drop application of a μ-calpain C2L domain peptide protects against photoreceptor cell death in Royal College of Surgeons' rats, a model of retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Taku; Nakazawa, Mitsuru; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Sorimachi, Hiroyuki; Hata, Shoji; Tomita, Hiroshi; Isago, Hitomi; Baba, Ayaka; Ishiguro, Sei-Ichi

    2012-11-01

    Mitochondrial μ-calpain initiates apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)-dependent apoptosis in retinal photoreceptor degeneration. Mitochondrial μ-calpain inhibitors may represent therapeutic targets for the disease. Therefore, we sought to identify inhibitors of mitochondrial calpains and determine their effects in Royal College of Surgeons' (RCS) rats, an animal model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We synthesized 20-mer peptides of the C2-like (C2L) domain of μ-calpain. Two μ-calpain peptides N2 and N9 inhibited mitochondrial μ-calpain activity (IC(50); 892 and 498nM, respectively), but not other proteases. Western blotting showed that 50μM of both μ-calpain peptides caused specific degradation of mitochondrial μ-calpain. Three-dimensional structure of calpains suggested that the peptides N2 and N9 corresponded to the regions forming salt bridges between the protease core domain 2 and the C2L domain. We determined the inhibitory regions of μ-calpain peptides N2 and N9 using 10-mers, and one peptide, N2-10-2, inhibited the activity of mitochondrial μ-calpain (IC(50); 112nM). We next conjugated the peptide N2-10-2 to the C-terminal of HIV-1 tat (HIV), a cell-penetrating peptide. Using isolated rat liver mitochondria, 50μM HIV-conjugated μ-calpain N2-10-2 peptide (HIV-Nμ, IC(50); 285nM) significantly inhibited AIF truncation. The intravitreal injection of 20mM HIV-Nμ also prevented retinal photoreceptor apoptosis determined by TUNEL staining, and preserved retinal function assessed by electroretinography in RCS rats. Topical application of 40mM HIV-Nμ also prevented apoptosis of retinal photoreceptors in RCS rats. Our results demonstrate that HIV-Nμ, a peptide inhibitor of mitochondrial μ-calpain, offers a new modality for treating RP.

  3. Drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

    2010-11-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

  4. No Relationship Between Binocular Rivalry Rate and Eye-Movement Profiles in Healthy Individuals: A Bayes Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Law, Phillip C F; Paton, Bryan K; Riddiford, Jacqueline A; Gurvich, Caroline T; Ngo, Trung T; Miller, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Binocular rivalry (BR) is an intriguing phenomenon in which conflicting images are presented, one to each eye, resulting in perceptual alternations between each image. The rate of BR has been proposed as a potential endophenotype for bipolar disorder because (a) it is well established that this highly heritable psychiatric condition is associated with slower BR rate than in controls, and (b) an individual's BR rate is approximately 50% genetically determined. However, eye movements (EMs) could potentially account for the slow BR trait given EM anomalies are observed in psychiatric populations, and there has been report of an association between saccadic rate and BR rate in healthy individuals. Here, we sought to assess the relationship between BR rate and EMs in healthy individuals (N = 40, mean age = 34.4) using separate BR and EM tasks, with the latter measuring saccades during anticipatory, antisaccade, prosaccade, self-paced, free-viewing, and smooth-pursuit tasks. No correlation was found between BR rate and any EM measure for any BR task (p > .01) with substantial evidence favoring this lack of association (BF(01) > 3). This finding is in contrast to previous data and has important implications for using BR rate as an endophenotype. If replicated in clinical psychiatric populations, EM interpretations of the slow BR trait can be excluded.

  5. Markers of neurodegeneration in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Postuma, R B; Gagnon, J F; Vendette, M; Montplaisir, J Y

    2009-12-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is an important risk factor in the development of Parkinson's disease. Numerous potential predictive markers of Parkinson's disease may present before motor symptoms emerge, but testing of these markers in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been performed only in small studies. There has been no comparison of markers between patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease, and between men and women. We evaluated an array of potential Parkinson's disease predictive markers in 159 patients; including 68 with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 36 controls, 34 Parkinson's patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 Parkinson's patients without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Compared with controls, patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder demonstrated substantial olfactory loss (P < 0.001). Olfaction was more impaired in Parkinson's disease than idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and did not differ between Parkinson's patients with, or without, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Numerous measures of motor function including the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale alternate tap, Purdue Peg Board and Timed 'Up and Go' were impaired in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder compared with controls (P < 0.01). All of these motor measures were worse with Parkinson's disease than with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, regardless of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder status. Autonomic symptoms and systolic blood pressure drop were impaired in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder compared with controls (P = 0.003). Orthostatic abnormalities in Parkinson's disease were found in the group with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (P < 0.001). However, Parkinson

  6. Four Fantastic Foods to Keep Your Eyes Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mar 01, 2017 Is El Niño Making Your Allergies Worse? May 16, 2016 Did my six-month glutathione deficiency cause my cataracts? May 01, 2016 Are penicillin and clindamycin used in the antibiotic eye drops ...

  7. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone ameliorates ocular surface dysfunctions and lesions in a scopolamine-induced dry eye model via PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways.

    PubMed

    Ru, Yusha; Huang, Yue; Liu, Huijuan; Du, Juan; Meng, Zhu; Dou, Zexia; Liu, Xun; Wei, Rui Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Shaozhen

    2015-12-21

    Dry eye is a highly prevalent, chronic, and multifactorial disease that compromises quality of life and generates socioeconomic burdens. The pathogenic factors of dry eye disease (DED) include tear secretion abnormalities, tear film instability, and ocular surface inflammation. An effective intervention targeting the pathogenic factors is needed to control this disease. Here we applied α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) twice a day to the ocular surface of a scopolamine-induced dry eye rat model. The results showed that α-MSH at different doses ameliorated tear secretion, tear film stability, and corneal integrity, and corrected overexpression of proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, in ocular surface of the dry eye rats. Moreover, α-MSH, at 10(-4) μg/μl, maintained corneal morphology, inhibited apoptosis, and restored the number and size of conjunctival goblet cells in the dry eye rats. Mechanistically, α-MSH activated both PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways in the dry eye corneas and conjunctivas; pharmacological blockade of either pathway abolished α-MSH's protective effects, suggesting that both pathways are necessary for α-MSH's protection under dry eye condition. The peliotropic protective functions and explicit signaling mechanism of α-MSH warrant translation of the α-MSH-containing eye drop into a novel and effective intervention to DED.

  8. Long-Term Visual Outcomes for a Treat and Extend Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Regimen in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mrejen, Sarah; Jung, Jesse J; Chen, Christine; Patel, Samir N; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Yannuzzi, Nicolas; Xu, Luna; Marsiglia, Marcela; Boddu, Sucharita; Freund, K Bailey

    2015-07-08

    With the advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, clinicians are now focused on various treatment strategies to better control neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD), a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Herein, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with treatment-naïve NVAMD initially classified based on fluorescein angiography (FA) alone or with an anatomic classification utilizing both FA and optical coherence tomography (OCT) and correlated long-term visual outcomes of these patients treated with an anti-VEGF Treat-and-Extend Regimen (TER) with baseline characteristics including neovascular phenotype. Overall, 185 patients (210 eyes) were followed over an average of 3.5 years (range 1-6.6) with a retention rate of 62.9%, and visual acuity significantly improved with a TER that required a mean number of 8.3 (±1.6) (± standard deviation) intravitreal anti-VEGF injections/year (range 4-13). The number of injections and the anatomic classification were independent predictors of visual acuity at 6 months, 1, 2, 3 and 4 years. Patients with Type 1 neovascularization had better visual outcomes and received more injections than the other neovascular subtypes. There were no serious adverse events. A TER provided sustained long-term visual gains. Eyes with Type 1 neovascularization had better visual outcomes than those with other neovascular subtypes.

  9. Eye Complications in IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Eye Complications in IBD Go Back Eye Complications in IBD Email Print + Share Approximately 10% ... doctor’s attention sooner rather than later. TYPES OF EYE DISORDERS UVEITIS One of the most common eye ...

  10. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  11. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – or ... yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, when ...

  12. Conjunctivitis or pink eye

    MedlinePlus

    Inflammation - conjunctiva; Pink eye; Chemical conjunctivitis, Pinkeye; Pink-eye ... Tears most often protect the eyes by washing away the germs and irritants. Tears contain proteins and antibodies that kill germs. Pink eye is most often caused ...

  13. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran ...

  14. Eye Involvement in TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  15. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  16. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  17. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  18. About the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  19. Sports and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Kids > Sports and Your Eyes All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  20. The new Drop Tower catapult system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kampen, Peter; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Rath, Hans J.

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of the "Drop Tower" began. Since then, the eye-catching tower with a height of 146 m and its characteristic glass roof has become the emblem of the technology centre in Bremen. The Drop Tower Bremen provides a facility for experiments under conditions of weightlessness. Items are considered weightless, when they are in "free fall", i.e. moving without propulsion within the gravity field of the earth. The height of the tower limits the simple "free fall" experiment period to max. 4.74 s. With the inauguration of the catapult system in December 2004, the ZARM is entering a new dimension. This world novelty will meet scientists' demands of extending the experiment period up to 9.5 s. Since turning the first sod on May 3rd, 1988, the later installation of the catapult system has been taken into account by building the necessary chamber under the tower. The catapult system is located in a chamber 10 m below the base of the tower. This chamber is almost completely occupied by 12 huge pressure tanks. These tanks are placed around the elongation of the vacuum chamber of the drop tube. In its centre there is the pneumatic piston that accelerates the drop capsule by the pressure difference between the vacuum inside the drop tube and the pressure inside the tanks. The acceleration level is adjusted by means of a servo hydraulic breaking system controlling the piston velocity. After only a quarter of a second the drop capsule achieves its lift-off speed of 175 km/h. With this exact speed, the capsule will rise up to the top of the tower and afterwards fall down again into the deceleration unit which has been moved under the drop tube in the meantime. The scientific advantages of the doubled experiment time are obvious: during almost 10 s of high

  1. Dexamethasone nanowafer as an effective therapy for dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Coursey, Terry G; Henriksson, Johanna Tukler; Marcano, Daniela C; Shin, Crystal S; Isenhart, Lucas C; Ahmed, Faheem; De Paiva, Cintia S; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Acharya, Ghanashyam

    2015-09-10

    Dry eye disease is a major public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. It is presently treated with artificial tear and anti-inflammatory eye drops that are generally administered several times a day and may have limited therapeutic efficacy. To improve convenience and efficacy, a dexamethasone (Dex) loaded nanowafer (Dex-NW) has been developed that can release the drug on the ocular surface for a longer duration of time than drops, during which it slowly dissolves. The Dex-NW was fabricated using carboxymethyl cellulose polymer and contains arrays of 500 nm square drug reservoirs filled with Dex. The in vivo efficacy of the Dex-NW was evaluated using an experimental mouse dry eye model. These studies demonstrated that once a day Dex-NW treatment on alternate days during a five-day treatment period was able to restore a healthy ocular surface and corneal barrier function with comparable efficacy to twice a day topically applied dexamethasone eye drop treatment. The Dex-NW was also very effective in down regulating expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, and IFN-γ), chemokines (CXCL-10 and CCL-5), and MMP-3, that are stimulated by dry eye. Despite less frequent dosing, the Dex-NW has comparable therapeutic efficacy to topically applied Dex eye drops in experimental mouse dry eye model, and these results provide a strong rationale for translation to human clinical trials for dry eye.

  2. Prediction of kinematic and kinetic performance in a drop vertical jump with individual anthropometric factors in adolescent female athletes: implications for cadaveric investigations.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2015-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common, expensive to repair, and often debilitate athletic careers. Robotic manipulators have evaluated knee ligament biomechanics in cadaveric specimens, but face limitations such as accounting for variation in bony geometry between specimens that may influence dynamic motion pathways. This study examined individual anthropometric measures for significant linear relationships with in vivo kinematic and kinetic performance and determined their implications for robotic studies. Anthropometrics and 3D motion during a 31 cm drop vertical jump task were collected in high school female basketball players. Anthropometric measures demonstrated differential statistical significance in linear regression models relative to kinematic variables (p-range <0.01-0.95). However, none of the anthropometric relationships accounted for clinical variance or provided substantive univariate accuracy needed for clinical prediction algorithms (r(2) < 0.20). Mass and BMI demonstrated models that were significant (p < 0.05) and predictive (r(2) > 0.20) relative to peak flexion moment, peak adduction moment, flexion moment range, abduction moment range, and internal rotation moment range. The current findings indicate that anthropometric measures are less associated with kinematics than with kinetics. Relative to the robotic manipulation of cadaveric limbs, the results do not support the need to normalize kinematic rotations relative to specimen dimensions.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the planarian eye identifies ovo as a specific regulator of eye regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lapan, Sylvain W; Reddien, Peter W

    2012-08-30

    Among the millions of invertebrate species with visual systems, the genetic basis of eye development and function is well understood only in Drosophila melanogaster. We describe an eye transcriptome for the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Planarian photoreceptors expressed orthologs of genes required for phototransduction and microvillus structure in Drosophila and vertebrates, and optic pigment cells expressed solute transporters and melanin synthesis enzymes similar to those active in the vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium. Orthologs of several planarian eye genes, such as bestrophin-1 and Usher syndrome genes, cause eye defects in mammals when perturbed and were not previously described to have roles in invertebrate eyes. Five previously undescribed planarian eye transcription factors were required for normal eye formation during head regeneration. In particular, a conserved, transcription-factor-encoding ovo gene was expressed from the earliest stages of eye regeneration and was required for regeneration of all cell types of the eye.

  4. Drop tube technical tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Criteria, using fundamental thermochemical dynamics, were developed to assist a scientist using the Drop Tube Facility in designing a good experiment. The types of parameters involved in designing the experiments include the type of furnace, the type of atmosphere, and in general which materials are better behaved than others as determined by past experience in the facility. One of the major advantages of the facility lies in its ability to provide large undercoolings in the cooling curve during the drops. A beginning was to consider the effect of oxygen and other gases upon the amount of undercooling observed. The starting point of the thermochemistry was given by Ellingham and later transformed into what is known as the Richardson Chart. The effect of surface oxidations upon the nucleation phenomena can be observed in each specimen.

  5. Eye contricks

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

  6. Exploding Water Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Water has the unusual property that it expands on freezing, so that ice has a specific gravity of 0.92 compared to 1.0 for liquid water. The most familiar demonstration of this property is ice cubes floating in a glass of water. A more dramatic demonstration is the ice bomb shown in Fig. 1. Here a cast iron flask is filled with water and tightly stoppered. The flask is then cooled, either by leaving it outdoors in winter or by immersing it in a cryogenic fluid, until the water freezes. As the water freezes and expands, the pressure inside the flask increases dramatically, eventually becoming sufficient to fracture the metal walls of the enclosure. A related, but much less familiar, phenomenon is the explosive fracturing of small water drops upon freezing. That water drops can fracture in this way has been known for many years, and the phenomenon has been described in detail in the atmospheric sciences literature, where it is seen as relevant to the freezing of raindrops as they fall through cold air. Carefully controlled experiments have been done documenting how the character and frequency of fracture is affected by such variables as drop size, rate of cooling, chemistry of dissolved gases, etc. Here I describe instead a simple demonstration of fracture suitable for video analysis and appropriate for study at the introductory physics level. Readers may also be interested in other characteristics of freezing and fragmenting water drops, for example, charge separation upon fracture and the appearance of spikes and bulges on the surface.

  7. Inverse Leidenfrost Effect: Levitating Drops on Liquid Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Adda-Bedia, M; Kumar, S; Lechenault, F; Moulinet, S; Schillaci, M; Vella, D

    2016-05-03

    We explore the interaction between a liquid drop (initially at room temperature) and a bath of liquid nitrogen. In this scenario, heat transfer occurs through film-boiling: a nitrogen vapor layer develops that may cause the drop to levitate at the bath surface. We report the phenomenology of this inverse Leidenfrost effect, investigating the effect of the drop size and density by using an aqueous solution of a tungsten salt to vary the drop density. We find that (depending on its size and density) a drop either levitates or instantaneously sinks into the bulk nitrogen. We begin by measuring the duration of the levitation as a function of the radius R and density ρd of the liquid drop. We find that the levitation time increases roughly linearly with drop radius but depends weakly on the drop density. However, for sufficiently large drops, R ≥ Rc(ρd), the drop sinks instantaneously; levitation does not occur. This sinking of a (relatively) hot droplet induces film-boiling, releasing a stream of vapor bubbles for a well-defined length of time. We study the duration of this immersed-drop bubbling finding similar scalings (but with different prefactors) to the levitating drop case. With these observations, we study the physical factors limiting the levitation and immersed-film-boiling times, proposing a simple model that explains the scalings observed for the duration of these phenomena, as well as the boundary of (R,ρd) parameter space that separates them.

  8. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC): Overcoming the anatomical and physiological barriers of the eye - Part I - Barriers and determining factors in ocular delivery.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, E; Espina, M; Doktorovova, S; Souto, E B; García, M L

    2017-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery is still a challenge for researchers in the field of pharmaceutical technology due to anatomical and physiological eye characteristics. The tissue barriers (such as cornea, conjunctiva, blood aqueous barrier, and blood-retinal barrier) limit the access of drugs to their targets. Taking into account the short retention time in the precorneal area of classical ocular dosage forms (e.g. solutions, suspensions or ointments) which are rapidly eliminated by tears and eyelid movement, only less than five percent of the administered drug attains intraocular structures. With the aim to overcome ocular barriers, drug delivery systems, able to increase ocular bioavailability reducing side effects, are recognized as promising alternative. In this review, the main barriers and strategies to increase drug transport in ocular delivery are comprehensively discussed, highlighting the factors involved in ocular transport of SLN and NLC.

  9. Electrostatic drops in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Isabel J.; Schmidt, Erin; Weislogel, Mark M.; Pettit, Donald

    2016-11-01

    We present what we think are the first intentional electrostatic orbits in the near-weightless environment of a drop tower. Classical physics problems involving Coulombic forces in orbital mechanics have traditionally been confined to thought experiments due to practical terrestrial experimental limitations, namely, the preponderance of gravity. However, the use of a drop tower as an experimental platform can overcome this challenge for brief periods. We demonstrate methanol-water droplets in orbit around a variety of charged objects- some of which can be used to validate special cases of N-body systems. Footage collected via a high-speed camera is analyzed and orbital trajectories are compared with existing theoretical predictions. Droplets of diameters 0.5 to 2mm in a variety of obits are observed. Due to the repeatability of drop tower initial conditions and effective low-g environment, such experiments may be used to construct empirical analogues and confirm analyses toward the benefit of other fields including space and planetary science. NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX12A047A, Portland State LSAMP, Robert E. McNair Scholars Program.

  10. T Cell–Derived Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Contributes to Dry Eye Disease Pathogenesis by Promoting CD11b+ Myeloid Cell Maturation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Dohlman, Thomas H.; Ding, Julia; Dana, Reza; Chauhan, Sunil K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Growing evidence suggests that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) contributes to T helper 17 (Th17) cell–associated immunoinflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of T cell–derived GM-CSF on CD11b+ myeloid cell function in dry eye disease (DED). Methods In a murine model of DED, quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA were used to measure GM-CSF expression at the ocular surface, and flow cytometry was used to enumerate GM-CSF producing Th17 cells. A granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor neutralizing antibody was used topically in vivo and in an in vitro culture system to evaluate the role of GM-CSF in recruiting and maturing CD11b+ cells. Clinical disease severity was evaluated after topical administration of GM-CSF neutralizing antibody. Results In dry eye disease, GM-CSF is significantly upregulated at the ocular surface and the frequency of GM-CSF producing Th17 cells is significantly increased in the draining lymph nodes. In vitro neutralization of GM-CSF from CD4+ T cells derived from DED mice suppresses major histocompatibility complex II expression by CD11b+ cells and CD11b+ cell migration. Topical neutralization of GM-CSF in a murine model of DED suppresses CD11b+ maturation and migration, as well as Th17 cell induction, yielding a reduction in clinical signs of disease. Conclusions T helper 17 cell–derived GM-CSF contributes to DED pathogenesis by promoting CD11b+ cell activation and migration to the ocular surface. PMID:28241321

  11. Effect of the combination of basic fibroblast growth factor and cysteine on corneal epithelial healing after photorefractive keratectomy in patients affected by myopia

    PubMed Central

    Meduri, Alessandro; Scorolli, Lucia; Scalinci, Sergio Zaccaria; Grenga, Pier Luigi; Lupo, Stefano; Rechichi, Miguel; Meduri, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study sought to evaluate the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor eye drops and cysteine oral supplements on corneal healing in patients treated with photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients treated bilaterally with PRK for myopia were enrolled at one of two eye centers (Clinica Santa Lucia, Bologna, Italy and Department of Ophthalmology, University of Magna Graecia, Catanzaro, Italy) and were treated at the former center. Sixty patients included in the study group (Group 1) were treated postoperatively with topical basic fibroblast growth factor plus oral L-cysteine supplements, whereas 60 subjects included in the control group (Group 2) received basic fibroblast growth factor eye drops. We recorded the rate of corneal re-epithelialization and patients were followed-up every 30 days for 6 months. Statistical analyses were performed on the collected data. Results: The eyes in Group 1 demonstrated complete re-epithelialization at Day 5, whereas the eyes in Group 2 achieved this status on Day 6. No side-effects were reported. Conclusions: Patients treated with basic fibroblast growth factor eye drops and L-cysteine oral supplements benefit from more rapid corneal re-epithelialization. In human eyes, this combination treatment appeared to be safe and effective in accelerating corneal surfacing after surgery. Financial Disclosure: No author has any financial or proprietary interest in any material or method used in this study. Trial Registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN73824458. PMID:24145571

  12. Leidenfrost Drop on a Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

    2008-11-01

    When deposited on a hot plate, a water droplet evaporates quickly. However, a vapor film appears under the drop above a critical temperature, called Leidenfrost temperature, which insulates the drop from its substrate. Linke & al (2006) reported a spontaneous movement of such a drop, when deposited on a ratchet. We study here the case of a flat substrate decorated with a single micrometric step. The drop is deposited on the lower part of the plate and pushed towards the step at small constant velocity. If the kinetic energy of the drop is sufficient, it can climb up the step. In that case, depending on the substrate temperature, the drop can either be decelerated or accelerated by the step. We try to understand the dynamics of these drops, especially the regime where they accelerate. Taking advantage of this phenomenon, we could then build a multiple-step setup, making it possible for a Leidenfrost drop to climb stairs.

  13. How to make rapid eye movements “rapid”: the role of growth factors for muscle contractile properties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tian; Feng, Cheng-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Different muscle functions require different muscle contraction properties. Saccade-generating extraocular muscles (EOMs) are the fastest muscles in the human body, significantly faster than limb skeletal muscles. Muscle contraction speed is subjected to plasticity, i.e., contraction speed can be adjusted to serve different demands, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control contraction speed. Therefore, we examined whether myogenic growth factors modulate contractile properties, including twitch contraction time (onset of force to peak force) and half relaxation time (peak force to half relaxation). We examined effects of three muscle-derived growth factors: insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), cardiotrophin-1 (CT1), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In gain-of-function experiments, CT1 or GDNF injected into the orbit shortened contraction time, and IGF1 or CT1 shortened half relaxation time. In loss-of-function experiments with binding proteins or neutralizing antibodies, elimination of endogenous IGFs prolonged both contraction time and half relaxation time, while eliminating endogenous GDNF prolonged contraction time, with no effect on half relaxation time. Elimination of endogenous IGFs or CT1, but not GDNF, significantly reduced contractile force. Thus, IGF1, CT1, and GDNF have partially overlapping but not identical effects on muscle contractile properties. Expression of these three growth factors was measured in chicken and/or rat EOMs by real-time PCR. The “fast” EOMs express significantly more message encoding these growth factors and their receptors than skeletal muscles with slower contractile properties. Taken together, these findings indicate that EOM contractile kinetics is regulated by the amount of myogenic growth factors available to the muscle. PMID:21279379

  14. Drop foot corrective device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A light weight, economical device to alleviate a plurality of difficulties encountered in walking by a victim suffering from a drop foot condition is discussed. A legband girdles the leg below the knee and above the calf providing an anchor point for the upper end of a ligament having its lower end attached to a toe of a shoe or a toe on the foot. The ligament is of such length that the foot is supported thereby and retained in a normal position during walking.

  15. Ectopic Six3 expression in the dragon eye goldfish.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Hua-Ping; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2008-02-01

    For goldfish (Carassius auratus), there are many varieties with different eye phenotypes due to artificial selection and adaptive evolution. Dragon eye is a variant eye characterized by a large-size eyeball protruding out of the socket similar to the eye of dragon in Chinese legends. In this study, anatomical structure of the goldfish dragon eye was compared with that of the common eye, and a stretching of the retina was observed in the enlarged dragon eye. Moreover, the homeobox-containing transcription factor Six3 cDNAs were cloned from the two types of goldfish, and the expression patterns were analyzed in both normal eye and dragon eye goldfish. No amino acid sequence differences were observed between the two deduced peptides, and the expression pattern of Six3 protein in dragon eye is quite similar to common eye during embryogenesis, but from 2 days after hatching, ectopic Six3 expression began to occur in the dragon eye, especially in the outer nuclear layer cells. With eye development, more predominant Six3 distribution was detected in the outer nuclear layer cells of dragon eye than that of normal eye, and fewer cell-layers in outer nuclear layer were observed in dragon eye retina than in normal eye retina. The highlight of this study is that higher Six3 expression occurs in dragon eye goldfish than in normal eye goldfish during retinal development of larvae.

  16. A Study of the Contributing Factors Relating to Why American Indian Students Drop Out of Or Graduate from Educational Programs at the University of North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanotte, Leigh D.

    Undergraduate American Indians who enrolled at the University of North Dakota for academic years 1970-1979 were surveyed to determine factors contributing to attrition and retention. The final sample included 116 students, 71 dropouts and 45 graduates. A questionnaire and two information forms were designed to obtain information on biographical,…

  17. Dropping in on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2003-01-01

    Here I was: 26 years old, I had never worked on a flight project before, and all eyes were on me. Every time I walked by the Pathfinder project office, Tony Spear, the project manager, would throw his arm around me and announce, 'Hey everybody, the whole mission is riding on this guy right here.' Our task was to design and build airbags for Pathfinder s landing on Mars - an approach that had never been used on any mission. Airbags may seem like a simple, low-tech product, but it was eye-opening to discover just how little we knew about them. We knew that the only way to find out what we needed to learn was to build prototypes and test them. We just didn t know how ignorant we were going to be. Airbags seemed like a crazy idea to a lot of people. Nobody ever said that, mind you, but there seemed to be a widespread feeling that the airbags weren t going to work. 'We ll let you guys go off and fool around until you fall flat on your faces.' That was the unspoken message I received day after day.

  18. Eye specification in Drosophila: perspectives and implications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J P; Moses, K

    2001-12-01

    The discovery that Drosophila eyeless is homologous to vertebrate Pax6 produced enormous interest in eye specification and a reappraisal of eye evolution. While the transcription factor Eyeless/Pax6 is necessary and in some circumstances sufficient to induce eye development the simple story of eye specification has become more epic than haiku. At least seven other nuclear proteins act with Eyeless/Pax6 to induce the eye and, furthermore, extrinsic developmental signals are required. Some striking similarities between later events of retinal patterning in vertebrates and insects have led to a deeper debate on the evolutionary path to these apparently quite different organs.

  19. Risk factors for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery-our experience at a tertiary eye care centre in India

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Rohit C.; Ray, Vanita Pathak; Latha, Madhavi; Cassard, Sandra D; Mathai, Annie; Sekhar, Garudadri C

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine the risk factors for acute endophthalmitis after cataract extraction in a tertiary care centre in India. METHODS We performed a nested case control study within a retrospective cohort. The surgical records of all patients with clinically diagnosed endophthalmitis within one month after cataract surgery, performed between January 2006 and December 2009, were reviewed. These were compared with randomly selected age and gender-matched controls, from patients having routine cataract surgery within ±1wk of the endophthalmitis case. Univariable and multivariable analysis were performed to identify risk factors for endophthalmitis. RESULTS Of the total 33 856 cataract surgeries performed during this period, there were 57 cases of postoperative acute endophthalmitis that met our study criteria. Thus, the overall incidence of endophthalmitis in our cohort was 1.6 per 1000 cataract extractions performed. Mean age of cases was 55.9y (SD: 10.9y) and for controls was 55.6y (SD: 9.8y). Thirty-five cases (61.4%) and 133 controls (59.6%) were males. Median time of onset of endophthalmitis was 4d (IQR 2-9d; range: 1-30d). Thirty-nine cases (68.4%) presented within 7d and 27 cases (47.4%) were culture positive. Two hundred and twenty-three age and gender matched controls were selected. In multivariate analysis, endophthalmitis was associated with posterior capsular rupture (PCR) during surgery (OR 6.98, 95%CI: 2.22-21.98), phacoemulsification via scleral incision with a foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation (OR 3.02, 95%CI: 1.13-8.04) and ocular co-morbidity (OR 2.32, 95%CI: 1.11-4.87). CONCLUSION PCR, presence of ocular co-morbidity, and phacoemulsification via scleral incision with foldable-IOL were found to be independent risk factors for acute endophthalmitis. PMID:26682170

  20. The eye and the heart

    PubMed Central

    Flammer, Josef; Konieczka, Katarzyna; Bruno, Rosa M.; Virdis, Agostino; Flammer, Andreas J.; Taddei, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The vasculature of the eye and the heart share several common characteristics. The easily accessible vessels of the eye are therefore—to some extent—a window to the heart. There is interplay between cardiovascular functions and risk factors and the occurrence and progression of many eye diseases. In particular, arteriovenous nipping, narrowing of retinal arteries, and the dilatation of retinal veins are important signs of increased cardiovascular risk. The pressure in the dilated veins is often markedly increased due to a dysregulation of venous outflow from the eye. Besides such morphological criteria, functional alterations might be even more relevant and may play an important role in future diagnostics. Via neurovascular coupling, flickering light dilates capillaries and small arterioles, thus inducing endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated dilation of larger retinal vessels. Risk factors for arteriosclerosis, such as dyslipidaemia, diabetes, or systemic hypertension, are also risk factors for eye diseases such as retinal arterial or retinal vein occlusions, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and increases in intraocular pressure (IOP). Functional alterations of blood flow are particularly relevant to the eye. The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome (PVD), which often includes systemic hypotension, is associated with disturbed autoregulation of ocular blood flow (OBF). Fluctuation of IOP on a high level or blood pressure on a low level leads to instable OBF and oxygen supply and therefore to oxidative stress, which is particularly involved in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous neuropathy. Vascular dysregulation also leads to a barrier dysfunction and thereby to small retinal haemorrhages. PMID:23401492

  1. Confocal Microscopy Of The Eye.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1989-12-01

    A laser scanning confocal microscope was used to study the structure of human donor eyes and enucleated rabbit eyes. Reflected light confocal images were obtained with a Leitz water immersion objective (50X, NA 1.0). A drop of bicarbonate Ringer's was placed between the objective and the tissue to optically couple the tissue. The confocal microscope was used to image the following objects within the eye: superficial epithelial cells, super basal and basal epithelial cells, basement membrane, stromal nerve plexus, nerve fibers, nuclei and cell bodies of stromal keratocytes, cell processes of stromal keratocytes, Descemet's membrane, and the endothelial cells. In addition, the ocular lens and excised retina were imaged. The confocal microscope produces images of the eye with the following enhanced features: increased lateral resolution, decreased depth of field, and increased contrast of transparent ocular structures. It is concluded that confocal imaging systems are an improvement over traditional optical instruments, and they may develop into a new tool for basic visual science and clinical ophthalmology.

  2. Risk Factors for Four-Year Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    CHOUDHURY, FARZANA; VARMA, ROHIT; MCKEAN-COWDIN, ROBERTA; KLEIN, RONALD; AZEN, STANLEY P.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify risk factors for 4-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in adult Latinos. DESIGN Population-based prospective cohort study. METHODS Participants, aged 40 or older, from The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) underwent standardized comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations at baseline and at 4 years of follow-up. Age-related macular degeneration was detected by grading 30-degree stereoscopic fundus photographs using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression was used to examine the independent association of incidence and progression of AMD and baseline sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and ocular characteristics. RESULTS Multivariate analyses revealed that older age (OR per decade of age: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.29, 1.85) and higher pulse pressure (OR per 10 mm Hg: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.36, 4.76) were independently associated with the incidence of any AMD. The same factors were associated with early AMD, soft indistinct drusen, and retinal pigmentary abnormalities. Additionally, presence of clinically diagnosed diabetes mellitus was independently associated with increased retinal pigment (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.85), and male gender was associated with retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (OR 2.50; 95% CI: 1.48, 4.23). Older age (OR per decade of age: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.82, 2.67) and current smoking (OR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.66, 4.90) were independently associated with progression of AMD. CONCLUSIONS Several modifiable risk factors were associated with 4-year incidence and progression of AMD in Latinos. The results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing pulse pressure and promoting smoking cessation may reduce incidence and progression of AMD, respectively. PMID:21679916

  3. Optic disc photogrammetry: magnification factors for eye position, centration, and ametropias, refractive and axial; and their application in the diagnosis of optic nerve hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Pach, J; Pennell, D O; Romano, P E

    1989-12-01

    To determine if image magnification from ametropia or other factors required correction in the photogrammetric diagnosis of optic nerve hypoplasia, the following variables were studied using two standard 30 degrees field fundus cameras (Zeiss FF-3 and Kowa RC-2): (1) distance between the camera and the subject--variations in this distance do not change the image size; (2) decentration of the camera (i.e., decentration of the optic disc image within the field)--no effect was found using the Kowa camera, but in the Zeiss, a 2% (0.07 mm) increase in disc image size was found for each mm of optic disc decentration in the field; (3) ametropia, refractive experimental (induced in one subject with soft contact lenses, from +8.00 diopters (D) to -8.00D)--no significant change in image size was found (In addition, in 50 healthy adult eyes with various refractive errors, including ten with uncorrected aphakia, there was no significant difference found for the size of the optic nerve in different refractive ametropias. No correction factor was necessary for aphakia or for other refractive ametropias); and (4) ametropia, axial--axial myopia showed minor but significant magnification: a linear increase in the horizontal diameter of the optic disc image of 2% (0.07 mm) was found for each diopter of axial ametropia exceeding 3D. There was insufficient data for axial hyperopia. These magnification factors should be applied when measuring the optic disc on 35-mm transparencies to make a diagnosis of optic nerve hypoplasia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. National Eye Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... around the world. Learn more Video: Next-Generation Eye Imaging Tools Learn about how the NEI Audacious ... eyeGENE® International Research 3-D Retina Organoid Challenge Eye and Vision Research The latest on NEI research. ...

  5. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Eye Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Eye Injuries Print A ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  6. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread of ... return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria ...

  7. Diabetes - eye care

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000078.htm Diabetes - eye care To use the sharing features on this ... prevent them from getting worse. You Need Regular eye Exams Every year, you should have an eye ...

  8. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... when they are new. FDA has an Import Alert in effect for cosmetics -- including eye cosmetics -- contaminated ... in the area of the eye. An import alert for cosmetics containing illegal colors lists several eye ...

  9. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  10. Quantitative assessment of ribosome drop-off in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Celine; Chiarugi, Davide; Valleriani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Premature ribosome drop-off is one of the major errors in translation of mRNA by ribosomes. However, repeated analyses of Ribo-seq data failed to quantify its strength in E. coli. Relying on a novel highly sensitive data analysis method we show that a significant rate of ribosome drop-off is measurable and can be quantified also when cells are cultured under non-stressing conditions. Moreover, we find that the drop-off rate is highly variable, depending on multiple factors. In particular, under environmental stress such as amino acid starvation or ethanol intoxication, the drop-off rate markedly increases. PMID:26935582

  11. Dropping out of High School and Drug Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensch, Barbara S.; Kandel, Denise B.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between dropping out of high school and substance use. Controlling for other important risk factors, the 1984 longitudinal survey data of people aged 19-27 indicated use of cigarettes, marijuana, and other illicit drugs increases the propensity to drop out and that the earlier the initiation into drugs the greater the…

  12. Eyeing Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter casts a baleful eye toward the moon Ganymede in this enhanced-contrast image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

    Jupiter's 'eye', the Great Red Spot, was captured just before disappearing around the eastern edge of the planet. The furrowed eyebrow above and to the left of the spot is a turbulent wake region caused by westward flow that has been deflected to the north and around the Red Spot. The smallest features visible are about 240 kilometers (150 miles) across.

    Within the band south of the Red Spot are a trio of white ovals, high pressure counterclockwise-rotating regions that are dynamically similar to the Red Spot. The dark filamentary features interspersed between white ovals are probably cyclonic circulations and, unlike the ovals, are rotating clockwise.

    Jupiter's equatorial zone stretching across the planet north of the Spot appears bright white, with gigantic plume clouds spreading out from the equator both to the northeast and to the southeast in a chevron pattern. This zone looks distinctly different than it did during the Voyager flyby 21 years ago. Then, its color was predominantly brown and the only white plumes conspicuous against the darker material beneath them were oriented southwest-to-northeast.

    Ganymede is Jupiter's largest moon, about 50 percent larger than our own Moon and larger than the planet Mercury. The visible details in this image are different geological terrains. Dark areas tend to be older and heavily cratered; brighter areas are younger and less cratered. Cassini images of Ganymede and Jupiter's other large moons taken near closest approach on Dec. 30 will have resolutions about four times better than that seen here.

    This image is a color composite of ones taken with different filters by Cassini's narrow-angle camera on Nov. 18, 2000, processed to enhance contrast. Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of

  13. The human homolog of insect-derived growth factor, CECR1, is a candidate gene for features of cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Riazi, M A; Brinkman-Mills, P; Nguyen, T; Pan, H; Phan, S; Ying, F; Roe, B A; Tochigi, J; Shimizu, Y; Minoshima, S; Shimizu, N; Buchwald, M; McDermid, H E

    2000-03-15

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is a developmental disorder with multiple organ involvement, associated with the duplication of a 2-Mb region of 22q11.2. Using exon trapping and genomic sequence analysis, we have isolated and characterized a gene, CECR1, that maps to this critical region. The protein encoded by CECR1 is similar to previously identified novel growth factors: IDGF from Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly) and MDGF from Aplysia californica (sea hare). The CECR1 gene is alternatively spliced and expressed in numerous tissues, with most abundant expression in human adult heart, lung, lymphoblasts, and placenta as well as fetal lung, liver, and kidney. In situ hybridization of a human embryo shows specific expression in the outflow tract and atrium of the developing heart, the VII/VIII cranial nerve ganglion, and the notochord. The location of this gene in the CES critical region and its embryonic expression suggest that the overexpression of CECR1 may be responsible for at least some features of CES, particularly the heart defects.

  14. Investigations of levitated helium drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Dwight Lawrence

    1999-11-01

    We report on the development of two systems capable of levitating drops of liquid helium. Helium drops of ˜20 mum have been levitated with the radiation pressure from two counter-propagating Nd:YAG laser beams. Drops are produced with a submerged piezoelectric transducer, and could be held for up to three minutes in our optical trap. Calculations show that Brillouin and Raman scattering of the laser light in the liquid helium produces a negligible rate of evaporation of the drop. Evaporation caused by the enhanced vapor pressure of the curved drop surfaces appears to be a significant effect limiting the drop lifetimes. Helium drops as large as 2 cm in diameter have been suspended in the earth's gravitational field with a magnetic field. A commercial superconducting solenoid provides the necessary field, field-gradient product required to levitate the drops. Drops are cooled to 0.5 K with a helium-3 refrigerator, and can be held in the trap indefinitely. We have found that when two or more drops are levitated in the same magnetic trap, the drops often remain in a state of apparent contact without coalescing. This effect is a result of the evaporation of liquid from between the two drops, and is found to occur only for normal fluid drops. We can induce shape oscillations in charged, levitated drops with an applied ac electric field. We have measured the resonance frequencies and damping rates for the l = 2 mode of oscillation as function of temperature. We have also developed a theory to describe the small amplitude shape oscillations of a He II drop surrounded by its saturated vapor. In our theory, we have considered two sets of boundary conditions---one where the drop does not evaporate and another in which the liquid and vapor are in thermodynamic equilibrium. We have found that both solutions give a frequency that agrees well with experiment, but that the data for the damping rate agree better with the solution without evaporation.

  15. Large amplitude drop shape oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Wang, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study of large amplitude drop shape oscillation was conducted in immiscible liquids systems and with levitated free liquid drops in air. In liquid-liquid systems the results indicate the existence of familiar characteristics of nonlinear phenomena. The resonance frequency of the fundamental quadrupole mode of stationary, low viscosity Silicone oil drops acoustically levitated in water falls to noticeably low values as the amplitude of oscillation is increased. A typical, experimentally determined relative frequency decrease of a 0.5 cubic centimeters drop would be about 10% when the maximum deformed shape is characterized by a major to minor axial ratio of 1.9. On the other hand, no change in the fundamental mode frequency could be detected for 1 mm drops levitated in air. The experimental data for the decay constant of the quadrupole mode of drops immersed in a liquid host indicate a slight increase for larger oscillation amplitudes. A qualitative investigation of the internal fluid flows for such drops revealed the existence of steady internal circulation within drops oscillating in the fundamental and higher modes. The flow field configuration in the outer host liquid is also significantly altered when the drop oscillation amplitude becomes large.

  16. Epidemic Population Structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Evidence for a Clone That Is Pathogenic to the Eye and That Has a Distinct Combination of Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lomholt, Jeanet A.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    The genetic structure of a population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from patients with keratitis, endophthalmitis, and contact lens-associated red eye, contact lens storage cases, urine, ear, blood, lungs, wounds, feces, and the environment was determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The presence and characteristics of virulence factors were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with DNA probes for lasA, lasB, aprA, exoS, exoT, exoU, and ctx and by zymography of staphylolysin, elastase, and alkaline protease. These analyses revealed an epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, characterized by frequent recombination in which a particular successful clone may increase, predominate for a time, and then disasappear as a result of recombination. Epidemic clones were found among isolates from patients with keratitis. They were characterized by high activity of a hitherto-unrecognized size variant of elastase, high alkaline protease activity, and possession of the exoU gene encoding the cytotoxic exoenzyme U. These virulence determinants are not exclusive traits in strains causing keratitis, as strains with other properties may cause keratitis in the presence of predisposing conditions. There were no uniform patterns of characteristics of isolates from other types of infection; however, all strains from urinary tract infections possessed the exoS gene, all strains from environment and feces and the major part of keratitis and wound isolates exhibited high elastase and alkaline protease activity, and all strains from feces showed high staphylolysin activity, indicating that these virulence factors may be important in the pathogenesis of these infectious diseases. PMID:11553572

  17. Schizophrenia and the eye

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Steven M.; Rosen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Although visual processing impairments are common in schizophrenia, it is not clear to what extent these originate in the eye vs. the brain. This review highlights potential contributions, from the retina and other structures of the eye, tovisual processing impairments in schizophrenia and high-risk states. A second goal is to evaluate the status of retinal abnormalities as biomarkers for schizophrenia. The review was motivated by known retinal changes in other disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), and their relationships to perceptual and cognitive impairments, and disease progression therein. The evidence reviewed suggests two major conclusions. One is that there are multiple structural and functional disturbances of the eye in schizophrenia, all of which could be factors in the visual disturbances of patients. These include retinal venule widening, retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, dopaminergic abnormalities, abnormal ouput of retinal cells as measured by electroretinography (ERG), maculopathies and retinopathies, cataracts, poor acuity, and strabismus. Some of these are likely to be illness-related, whereas others may be due to medication or comorbid conditions. The second conclusion is that certain retinal findings can serve as biomarkers of neural pathology, and disease progression, in schizophrenia. The strongest evidence for this to date involves findings of widened retinal venules, thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, and abnormal ERG amplitudes. These data suggest that a greater understanding of the contribution of retinal and other ocular pathology to the visual and cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia is warranted, and that retinal changes have untapped clinical utility. PMID:26345525

  18. Genetic regulation of vertebrate eye development.

    PubMed

    Zagozewski, J L; Zhang, Q; Eisenstat, D D

    2014-11-01

    Eye development is a complex and highly regulated process that consists of several overlapping stages: (i) specification then splitting of the eye field from the developing forebrain; (ii) genesis and patterning of the optic vesicle; (iii) regionalization of the optic cup into neural retina and retina pigment epithelium; and (iv) specification and differentiation of all seven retinal cell types that develop from a pool of retinal progenitor cells in a precise temporal and spatial manner: retinal ganglion cells, horizontal cells, cone photoreceptors, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, rod photoreceptors and Müller glia. Genetic regulation of the stages of eye development includes both extrinsic (such as morphogens, growth factors) and intrinsic factors (primarily transcription factors of the homeobox and basic helix-loop helix families). In the following review, we will provide an overview of the stages of eye development highlighting the role of several important transcription factors in both normal developmental processes and in inherited human eye diseases.

  19. A real-life illusion of assimilation in the human face: eye size illusion caused by eyebrows and eye shadow.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Kazunori; Matsushita, Soyogu; Tomita, Akitoshi; Yamanami, Haruna

    2015-01-01

    Does an assimilative illusion like the Delboeuf illusion occur in the human face? We investigated factors that might influence the perceived size of the eyes in a realistic face. Experiment 1 manipulated the position of the eyebrows (high or low), the presence/absence of eye shadow, and the viewing distance (0.6 m or 5 m), then measured the perceived eye size using a psychophysical method. The results showed that low eyebrows (i.e., closer to the eyes) make the eyes appear larger, suggesting that the assimilation of eyes into the eyebrows is stronger when the eye-eyebrow distance is shorter. The results also demonstrated that the application of eye shadow also makes the eyes look larger. Moreover, the effect of eye shadow is more pronounced when viewed from a distance. In order to investigate the mechanism of the eye size illusion demonstrated in Experiment 1, Experiment 2 measured the magnitude of the Delboeuf illusion at a viewing distance of 0.6 m or 5 m, with or without gray gradation simulating the eye shadow that was used in Experiment 1. The experiment demonstrated that the Delboeuf illusion is modulated by viewing distance and gradation in the same way as the eye size illusion. These results suggest that the eye size illusion induced by the eyebrows and the Delboeuf illusion involve the same mechanism, and that eye shadow causes the assimilation of the eyes into itself and enhances assimilation between the eyes and the eyebrows.

  20. Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (Inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates generally to control systems for controlling crystal growth, and more particularly to such a system which uses a beam of light refracted by the fluid in which crystals are growing to detect concentration of solutes in the liquid. In a hanging drop apparatus, a laser beam is directed onto drop which refracts the laser light into primary and secondary bows, respectively, which in turn fall upon linear diode detector arrays. As concentration of solutes in drop increases due to solvent removal, these bows move farther apart on the arrays, with the relative separation being detected by arrays and used by a computer to adjust solvent vapor transport from the drop. A forward scattering detector is used to detect crystal nucleation in drop, and a humidity detector is used, in one embodiment, to detect relative humidity in the enclosure wherein drop is suspended. The novelty of this invention lies in utilizing angular variance of light refracted from drop to infer, by a computer algorithm, concentration of solutes therein. Additional novelty is believed to lie in using a forward scattering detector to detect nucleating crystallites in drop.

  1. Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…

  2. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  3. Electroporation of Embryonic Chick Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustín; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2016-01-01

    The chick embryo has prevailed as one of the major models to study developmental biology, cell biology and regeneration. From all the anatomical features of the chick embryo, the eye is one of the most studied. In the chick embryo, the eye develops between 26 and 33 h after incubation (Stages 8–9, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). It originates from the posterior region of the forebrain, called the diencephalon. However, the vertebrate eye includes tissues from different origins including surface ectoderm (lens and cornea), anterior neural plate (retina, iris, ciliary body and retinal pigmented epithelium) and neural crest/head mesoderm (stroma of the iris and of the ciliary body as well as choroid, sclera and part of the cornea). After gastrulation, a single eye field originates from the anterior neural plate and is characterized by the expression of eye field transcriptional factors (EFTFs) that orchestrate the program for eye development. Later in development, the eye field separates in two and the optic vesicles form. After several inductive interactions with the lens placode, the optic cup forms. At Stages 14–15, the outer layer of the optic cup becomes the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) while the inner layer forms the neuroepithelium that eventually differentiates into the retina. One main advantage of the chick embryo, is the possibility to perform experiments to over-express or to down-regulate gene expression in a place and time specific manner to explore gene function and regulation. The aim of this protocol is to describe the electroporation techniques at Stages 8–12 (anterior neural fold and optic vesicle stages) and Stages 19–26 (eye cup, RPE and neuroepithelium). We provide a full description of the equipment, materials and electrode set up as well as a detailed description of the highly reproducible protocol including some representative results. This protocol has been adapted from our previous publications Luz-Madrigal et al. (2014) and Zhu

  4. Factors Influencing University Drop Out Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araque, Francisco; Roldan, Concepcion; Salguero, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops personalized models for different university degrees to obtain the risk of each student abandoning his degree and analyzes the profile for undergraduates that abandon the degree. In this study three faculties located in Granada, South of Spain, were involved. In Software Engineering three university degrees with 10,844…

  5. Instant freezing of impacting wax drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Virot, Emmanuel; Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2015-11-01

    We present the impact of hot liquid drops of wax on surfaces whose temperature is below the solidifying temperature of the drops. During the fall the drops remain mostly liquid, but upon impact, their temperature quickly decreases resulting in the solidification of the drop. Depending on the impact energy, drops size and the temperature difference between the drop and the surface this results in plethora of solid shapes: simple lenses, triangular drops, spherical caps and popped popcorn shapes.

  6. Relationship between eye preference and binocular rivalry, and between eye-hand preference and reading ability in children.

    PubMed

    Fagard, J; Monzalvo-Lopez, K; Mamassian, P

    2008-12-01

    One goal of the experiment presented here was to check, in children, the relationship between eye preference when sighting at different angles and eye dominance in binocular rivalry. In addition, since it is sometimes argued that a crossed pattern of eye-hand preference might put children at risk of difficulties in learning to read, we evaluated the relationship between this pattern and reading achievement in first and sixth graders. Results showed that a majority of children are right-eyed for monosighting, and that intrinsic preference and spatial factor influence the choice of eye. As many children were right- or left-eye dominant, and eye dominance was not related to eye preference. We found no relationship between eye-hand preference and reading proficiency, thus not confirming that a crossed pattern of eye-hand preference might put children at risk of difficulties in learning to read. Consistent handers were more advanced in reading than inconsistent handers.

  7. Pool impacts of Leidenfrost drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Maquet, Laurent; Dorbolo, Stephane; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    This work concerns the impact of a droplet made of a volatile liquid (typically HFE) on a pool of an other liquid (typically silicone oil) which temperature is above the boiling point of the drop. Depending on the properties of the two liquids and the impacting conditions, four different regimes are observed. For low impacting speeds, the droplet bounces on the surface of the bath and finally levitates above it in a Leidenfrost state. Such a regime occurs as soon as the pool temperature exceeds the boiling point of the drop. This observation means that there is no threshold in temperature for a Leidenfrost effect on a liquid surface contrary to the case of a solid substrate. For intermediate impacting velocities, the pinch-off of the surface of the pool entraps the drop in the liquid bulk. The entrapped drop is separated from the pool by a layer of its own vapour in a similar way of antibulles. For increasing impacting speeds, the vapour layer between the drop and the pool does not hold during the pinch-off event. The contact of the drop with the hot liquid provokes a sudden and intense evaporation. At very large impacting speeds, the drop rapidely contacts the pool, spreads and finally induces a hemi-spherical cavity. In the end, these four different regimes are summarized in a Froud-Weber diagram which boundaries are discussed.

  8. Liquid drops on soft solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubbers, Luuk A.; Weijs, Joost H.; Das, Siddhartha; Botto, Lorenzo; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2014-03-01

    A sessile drop can elastically deform a substrate by the action of capillary forces. The typical size of the deformation is given by the ratio of surface tension and the elastic modulus, γ / E , which can reach up to 10-100 microns for soft elastomers. In this talk we theoretically show that the contact angles of drops on such a surface exhibit two transitions when increasing γ / E : (i) the microsocopic geometry of the contact line first develops a Neumann-like cusp when γ / E is of the order of few nanometers, (ii) the macroscopic angle of the drop is altered only when γ / E reaches the size of the drop. Using the same framework we then show that two neighboring drops exhibit an effective interaction, mediated by the deformation of the elastic medium. This is in analogy to the well-known Cheerios effect, where small particles at a liquid interface attract each other due to the meniscus deformations. Here we reveal the nature of drop-drop interactions on a soft substrate by combining numerical and analytical calculations.

  9. Dependence of polar cap potential drop on interplanetary parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Spiro, R. W.; Hill, T. W.

    1981-01-01

    The convection potential drop across the polar cap is computed from data obtained on high-inclination low-altitude satellites. Potential measurements are correlated with various combinations of parameters measured simultaneously in the upstream solar wind. Most of the potential drop is successfully predicted by merging theory, although a significant background potential drop of 35 kV does not depend on IMF parameters and is attributed to a process other than merging. Results indicate that small values of the IMF are amplified by a factor of 5-10 at the dayside magnetopause, which, when taken into account, improves correlations between IMF parameters and polar cap potential drop. Potential drop is better correlated with IMF parameters than with geomagnetic indices, due to nonlinear response of the magnetosphere affecting geomagnetic activity indices.

  10. Orion Capsule Mockup is Dropped

    NASA Video Gallery

    An Orion capsule mockup is dropped from a plane 25,000 feet above the Arizona desert to test its parachute design. Orion will return to Earth at speeds faster than previous human spacecraft, and wi...

  11. Functional eye movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, D; Bronstein, A M

    2017-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) eye movement disorders are perhaps less established in the medical literature than other types of functional movement disorders. Patients may present with ocular symptoms (e.g., blurred vision or oscillopsia) or functional eye movements may be identified during the formal examination of the eyes in patients with other functional disorders. Convergence spasm is the most common functional eye movement disorder, but functional gaze limitation, functional eye oscillations (also termed "voluntary nystagmus"), and functional convergence paralysis may be underreported. This chapter reviews the different types of functional eye movement abnormalities and provides a practical framework for their diagnosis and management.

  12. PACAP suppresses dry eye signs by stimulating tear secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nakamachi, Tomoya; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Seki, Tamotsu; Yofu, Sachiko; Kagami, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Shintani, Norihito; Baba, Akemichi; Mark, Laszlo; Lanekoff, Ingela; Kiss, Peter; Farkas, Jozsef; Reglodi, Dora; Shioda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is caused by a reduction in the volume or quality of tears. Here, we show that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-null mice develop dry eye-like symptoms such as corneal keratinization and tear reduction. PACAP immunoreactivity is co-localized with a neuronal marker, and PACAP receptor (PAC1-R) immunoreactivity is observed in mouse infraorbital lacrimal gland acinar cells. PACAP eye drops stimulate tear secretion and increase cAMP and phosphorylated (p)-protein kinase A levels in the infraorbital lacrimal glands that could be inhibited by pre-treatment with a PAC1-R antagonist or an adenylate cyclase inhibitor. Moreover, these eye drops suppress corneal keratinization in PACAP-null mice. PACAP eye drops increase aquaporin 5 (AQP5) levels in the membrane and pAQP5 levels in the infraorbital lacrimal glands. AQP5 siRNA treatment of the infraorbital lacrimal gland attenuates PACAP-induced tear secretion. Based on these results, PACAP might be clinically useful to treat dry eye disorder. PMID:27345595

  13. Intraocular pressure in cats is lowered by drops of hornet venom.

    PubMed

    Kam, J; Waron, M; Barishak, Y R; Schachner, E; Ishay, J S

    1989-01-01

    1. Nine cats were given an intravenous injection of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis, Vespinae; Hymenoptera) venom sac extract (VSE) and seven cats had the same VSE administered as eye drops. 2. When injected intravenously, the hornet VSE decreased the intraocular pressure in both eyes sharply during the first 20 min and with a slower rate later on until the end of the 3 hr experiment. The intraocular pressure dropped to zero in some cases. 3. VSE eye drops decreased the intraocular pressure only in the treated eye, while in the second eye (left as a control) the intraocular pressure remained the same throughout the experiment. 4. The decrease in the intraocular pressure was sharp during the first 20 min and slowed down afterwards until the end of the experiment. 5. The intraocular pressure did not reduce to zero. 6. This study shows that the active components of the hornet venom which caused a decrease in the intraocular pressure can cross the cornea and exert a hypotensive effect in the eye.

  14. Pressure Drops Due to Silica Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.L.; Freeston, D.H.; Dimas, Z.O.; Slatter, A.

    1995-01-01

    Experience with reinjection returns in many geothermal fields has prompted a move towards injecting waste fluids at some distance from the production field. This means that often, reinjection pipelines cover very long distances. If the waste water in the pipelines is supersaturated with respect to amorphous silica, then the deposition of silica in these pipelines is almost certain. Although the deposit may be of negligible thickness, the inner surface characteristics of the pipe will be different to those of clean mild steel. During a silica scaling experiment. geothermal brine was passed through a series of pipes of different sizes and over a period of three weeks, silica scale formed on the inner surface. The pressure drop along a distance of approximately 5m was measured by a water manometer in all test pipe sections. Significant pressure drop was observed during this time and can be correlated with the increase in the friction factor of the pipe walls due to silica scaling.

  15. Perceptions of eye health in schools in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Khabir; Khan, Mohammad Aman; Khan, Mohammad Daud; Qureshi, Mohammad Babar; Chaudhry, Tanveer Anjum; Gilbert, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Background Research exploring children's and their teachers' perceptions of eye health is lacking. This paper reports for the first time on perceptions of primary schoolchildren and their teachers of healthy and diseased eyes, things that keep eyes healthy and damage them, and what actions to be taken in case of an eye injury. Methods Using draw and write technique, 160 boys and girls (9–12 years old) attending four primary schools in Abbottabad district, northern Pakistan, were invited to draw pictures in response to a set of semi-structured questions and then label them. Sixteen teachers who were currently teaching the selected students were interviewed one-on-one. Results Analysis of text accompanying 800 drawings and of the interview scripts revealed that most children and teachers perceived healthy eyes to be those which could see well, and diseased eyes to be those which have redness, watering, dirty discharge, pain, and itching; or those which have "weak eyesight" and blindness. Among things that students and teachers thought damage the eyes included sun, television, and sharp pointed objects, particularly pencils. Teachers noted that children with eye problems "have difficulty seeing the blackboard well", "screw up their eyes", and "hold their books too close". Conclusion We conclude that schoolchildren and their teachers had a good knowledge of eye health, but many of them had serious misconceptions e.g., use of kohl, medicines and eye drops keeps eyes healthy. Kohl is an important source of lead and can reduce children's intelligence even at low blood levels. Health education in schools must take into account children's existing knowledge of and misconceptions about various aspects of eye health. Such steps if taken could improve the relevance of eye health education to schoolchildren. PMID:16512897

  16. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye protectors. Some very-high-risk sports are boxing, wrestling and contact martial arts.What are the ... eye problems or if you have a family history of retinal problems. If so, you should be ...

  17. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Is stopping Restasis dangerous? Mar 06, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ...

  19. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye that can lead to blindness. Macular edema. Blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  20. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... and physical exam before the procedure Orthoptic measurements (eye movement measurements) Always tell your child's health care provider: ... D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Disorders of eye movement and alignment. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  1. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... life expectancy. Do children with Down syndrome have eye problems? Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased ... When should children with Down syndrome receive an eye exam? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that ...

  2. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  3. Eye Safety at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  4. Recommended Sports Eye Protectors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  5. Eye Safety at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  6. Bags Under Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home and lifestyle treatments may help reduce or eliminate puffy eyes. Medical and surgical treatments are available ... The following tips can help you reduce or eliminate bags under eyes: Use a cool compress. Wet ...

  7. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Allergic Conjunctivitis (Video) Overview of the Eyes (News) Stem Cells ... and covers the white of the eye. Allergic conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by an ...

  8. LASIK Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your cornea, which could lead to inaccurate measurements and a poor surgical outcome. Your doctor will ... of your eye. Theoretically, the more detailed the measurements, the more accurate your eye doctor can be ...

  9. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit HHS USAJobs Home > Diabetic Eye Disease Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? What You Should Know Protecting Against Vision Loss Staying on TRACK Diabetic Eye Disease FAQ ...

  10. Forced Oscillations of Supported Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Edward D.; Basaran, Osman A.

    1996-01-01

    Oscillations of supported liquid drops are the subject of wide scientific interest, with applications in areas as diverse as liquid-liquid extraction, synthesis of ceramic powders, growing of pure crystals in low gravity, and measurement of dynamic surface tension. In this research, axisymmetric forced oscillations of arbitrary amplitude of viscous liquid drops of fixed volume which are pendant from or sessile on a rod with a fixed or moving contact line and surrounded by an inviscid ambient gas are induced by moving the rod in the vertical direction sinusiodally in time. In this paper, a preliminary report is made on the computational analysis of the oscillations of supported drops that have 'clean' interfaces and whose contact lines remain fixed throughout their motions. The relative importance of forcing to damping can be increased by either increasing the amplitude of rod motion A or Reynolds number Re. It is shown that as the ratio of forcing to damping rises, for drops starting from an initial rest state a sharp increase in deformation can occur when they are forced to oscillate in the vicinity of their resonance frequencies, indicating the incipience of hysteresis. However, it is also shown that the existence of a second stable limit cycle and the occurrence of hysteresis can be observed if the drop is subjected to a so-called frequency sweep, where the forcing frequency is first increased and then decreased over a suitable range. Because the change in drop deformation response is abrupt in the vicinity of the forcing frequencies where hysteresis occurs, it should be possible to exploit the phenomenon to accurately measure the viscosity and surface tension of the drop liquid.

  11. Infrared Eye: Prototype 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    The Infrared (IR) Eye was developed with support from the National Search and Rescue Secretariat (NSS), in view of improving the efficiency of...airborne search-and rescue operations. The IR Eye concept is based on the human eye and uses simultaneously two fields of view to optimize area coverage and...within the wide field and slaved to the operator’s line of sight by means of an eye -tracking system. The images from both cameras are fused and shown

  12. Evolution of eyes and photoreceptor cell types.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Detlev

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of the eye is a matter of debate ever since Darwin's Origin of Species. While morphological comparisons of eye anatomy and photoreceptor cell types led to the view that animal eyes evolved multiple times independently, the molecular conservation of the pax6 eye-specifying cascade has indicated the contrary - that animal eyes evolved from a common, simple precursor, the proto-eye. Morphological and molecular comparative approaches are combined here in a novel Evo-Devo approach, the molecular comparison of cell types ("comparative molecular cell biology"). In the eye, the various types of photoreceptor cells, as well as pigment and lens cells, each require distinct combinations of specifying transcription factors that control their particular differentiation programmes, such as opsin expression in photoreceptors, specific neurotransmitter metabolism, or axonal outgrowth. Comparing the molecular combinatorial codes of cell types of animal extant eyes, their evolutionary histories can be reconstructed. This is exemplified here on the evolution of ciliary and rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells in bilaterian eyes and on the evolution of cell type diversity in the vertebrate retina. I propose that the retinal ganglion, amacrine and horizontal cells are evolutionary sister cell types that evolved from a common rhabdomeric photoreceptor cell precursor.

  13. Orientation in Eye-Hand Coordination Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Helen M.; Eichorn, Dorothy H.

    1978-01-01

    Longitudinal data on six eye-hand coordination tasks for 25 children aged five and one-half through eight and one-half years were factor analyzed in terms of functional and structural cognitive orientation. (Author)

  14. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  15. Eye Movements and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Larry L.

    Research on the use of eye movement indices (such as number of fixations, the average fixation duration, and saccadic movements) as a measure of cognitive processing is reviewed in this paper. Information is provided on the physiology of the eye, computer applications to eye movement study, the influence of stimulus materials and intelligence on…

  16. Drop spreading with random viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver E.

    2016-10-01

    We examine theoretically the spreading of a viscous liquid drop over a thin film of uniform thickness, assuming the liquid's viscosity is regulated by the concentration of a solute that is carried passively by the spreading flow. The solute is assumed to be initially heterogeneous, having a spatial distribution with prescribed statistical features. To examine how this variability influences the drop's motion, we investigate spreading in a planar geometry using lubrication theory, combining numerical simulations with asymptotic analysis. We assume diffusion is sufficient to suppress solute concentration gradients across but not along the film. The solute field beneath the bulk of the drop is stretched by the spreading flow, such that the initial solute concentration immediately behind the drop's effective contact lines has a long-lived influence on the spreading rate. Over long periods, solute swept up from the precursor film accumulates in a short region behind the contact line, allowing patches of elevated viscosity within the precursor film to hinder spreading. A low-order model provides explicit predictions of the variances in spreading rate and drop location, which are validated against simulations.

  17. Static Magnetowetting of Ferrofluid Drops.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Carlo; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Talbot, Delphine; Massart, René; Bacri, Jean-Claude; Abou-Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-02

    We report results of a comprehensive study of the wetting properties of sessile drops of ferrofluid water solutions at various concentrations deposited on flat substrates and subjected to the action of permanent magnets of different sizes and strengths. The amplitude and the gradient of the magnetic field experienced by the ferrofluid are changed by varying the magnets and their distance to the surface. Magnetic forces up to 100 times the gravitational one and magnetic gradients up to 1 T/cm are achieved. A rich phenomenology is observed, ranging from flattened drops caused by the magnetic attraction to drops extended normally to the substrate because of the normal traction of the magnetic field. We find that the former effect can be conveniently described in terms of an effective Bond number that compares the effective drop attraction with the capillary force, whereas the drop's vertical elongation is effectively expressed by a dimensionless number S, which compares the pressure jump at the ferrofluid interface because of the magnetization with the capillary pressure.

  18. Drop Spreading with Random Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    Airway mucus acts as a barrier to protect the lung. However as a biological material, its physical properties are known imperfectly and can be spatially heterogeneous. In this study we assess the impact of these uncertainties on the rate of spreading of a drop (representing an inhaled aerosol) over a mucus film. We model the film as Newtonian, having a viscosity that depends linearly on the concentration of a passive solute (a crude proxy for mucin proteins). Given an initial random solute (and hence viscosity) distribution, described as a Gaussian random field with a given correlation structure, we seek to quantify the uncertainties in outcomes as the drop spreads. Using lubrication theory, we describe the spreading of the drop in terms of a system of coupled nonlinear PDEs governing the evolution of film height and the vertically-averaged solute concentration. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to predict the variability in the drop centre location and width (1D) or area (2D). We show how simulation results are well described (at much lower computational cost) by a low-order model using a weak disorder expansion. Our results show for example how variability in the drop location is a non-monotonic function of the solute correlation length increases. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  19. Keeping an eye on SOXC proteins.

    PubMed

    Pillai-Kastoori, Lakshmi; Wen, Wen; Morris, Ann C

    2015-03-01

    The formation of a mature, functional eye requires a complex series of cell proliferation, migration, induction among different germinal layers, and cell differentiation. These processes are regulated by extracellular cues such as the Wnt/BMP/Hh/Fgf signaling pathways, as well as cell intrinsic transcription factors that specify cell fate. In this review article, we provide an overview of stages of embryonic eye morphogenesis, extrinsic and intrinsic factors that are required for each stage, and pediatric ocular diseases that are associated with defective eye development. In addition, we focus on recent findings about the roles of the SOXC proteins in regulating vertebrate ocular development and implicating SOXC mutations in human ocular malformations.

  20. Drop stability in wind: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungyon

    2015-11-01

    Water drops may remain pinned on a solid substrate against external forcing due to contact angle hysteresis. Schmucker and White investigated this phenomenon experimentally in a high Reynolds number regime, by measuring the critical wind velocity at which partially wetting water drops depin inside a wind tunnel. Due to the unsteady turbulent boundary layer, droplets are observed to undergo vortex-shedding induced oscillations. By contrast, the overall elongation of the drop prior to depinning occurs on a much slower timescale with self-similar droplet shapes at the onset. Based on these observations, a simple, quasi-static model of depinning droplet is developed by implementing the phenomenological description of the boundary layer. The resultant model successfully captures the critical onset of droplet motion and is the first of on-going studies that connect the classical boundary layer theory with droplet dynamics.

  1. Isoelectric focusing in a drop.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Noah G; Hayes, Mark A; Garcia, Antonio A; Ansari, Rafat R

    2011-01-04

    A novel approach to molecular separations is investigated using a technique termed droplet-based isoelectric focusing. Drops are manipulated discretely on a superhydrophobic surface, subjected to low voltages for isoelectric focusing, and split-resulting in a preparative separation. A universal indicator dye demonstrates the generation of stable, reversible pH gradients (3-10) in ampholyte buffers, and these gradients lead to protein focusing within the drop length. Focusing was visually characterized, spectroscopically verified, and assessed quantitatively by noninvasive light scattering measurements. It was found to correlate with a quantitative model based on 1D steady-state theory. This work illustrates that molecular separations can be deployed within a single open drop, and the differential fractions can be separated into new discrete liquid elements.

  2. Interfacial Instabilities in Evaporating Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, Ross; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar

    2007-11-01

    We study the effect of substrate thermal properties on the evaporation of sessile drops of various liquids. An infra-red imaging technique was used to record the interfacial temperature. This technique illustrates the non-uniformity in interfacial temperature distribution that characterises the evaporation process. Our results also demonstrate that the evaporation of methanol droplets is accompanied by the formation of wave-trains in the interfacial temperature field; similar patterns, however, were not observed in the case of water droplets. More complex patterns are observed for FC-72 refrigerant drops. The effect of substrate thermal conductivity on the structure of the complex pattern formation is also elucidated.

  3. Training the Eyes for Competition: Fighting Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Darrell; Bradford, Vincent

    1989-01-01

    Fencers should be taught to discipline their eyes to focus on the opponent's hand. The rationale for this strategy as well as drills to develop "hand watching" skills are presented in this article. (IAH)

  4. For Internet Knowledge, Should You Ask Ol' Blue Eyes or the Brown-Eyed Girl?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger; Kolpakova, Yulia; Klinkhamer, Sooz

    2004-01-01

    The digital divide is generally thought to arise from socio-economic disparities. However, there is more to it. Eye colour is a factor. In this study, the 16 multiple-choice item Internet Quiz was administered to 3,208 respondents in the Lower Mainland (Vancouver) of British Columbia, Canada. Blue and hazel-eyed people knew significantly more…

  5. 49 CFR 178.965 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drop test. 178.965 Section 178.965 Transportation... Packagings § 178.965 Drop test. (a) General. The drop test must be conducted for the qualification of all...) Special preparation for the drop test. Large Packagings must be filled in accordance with § 178.960....

  6. 49 CFR 178.810 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drop test. 178.810 Section 178.810 Transportation... Drop test. (a) General. The drop test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types... the drop test. (1) Metal, rigid plastic, and composite IBCs intended to contain solids must be...

  7. 49 CFR 178.1045 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drop test. 178.1045 Section 178.1045... Containers § 178.1045 Drop test. (a) General. The drop test must be conducted for the qualification of all... subpart. (b) Special preparation for the drop test. Flexible Bulk Containers must be filled to...

  8. 49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drop test. 178.603 Section 178.603 Transportation... Packagings and Packages § 178.603 Drop test. (a) General. The drop test must be conducted for the... than flat drops, the center of gravity of the test packaging must be vertically over the point...

  9. Shedding of Water Drops from a Surface under Icing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Deepak Kumar; Criscione, Antonio; Tropea, C; Amirfazli, A

    2015-09-01

    A sessile water drop exposed to an air flow will shed if the adhesion is overcome by the external aerodynamic forces on the drop. In this study, shedding of water drops were investigated under icing conditions, on surfaces with different wettabilities, from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. A wind tunnel was used for experiments in a temperature range between -8 and 24.5 °C. Results indicate that the temperature has a major influence on the incipient motion of drop shedding. The critical air velocity (U(c)) at which a drop first starts to shed generally increases under icing conditions, indicating an increase in the adhesion force. The contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and the drop base length (L(b)) are found to be the controlling factors for adhesion. A correlation was also developed to deduce the drag coefficient, C(D) for the drop. It was found that C(D) can decrease under icing conditions. In general, a lower C(D) and higher adhesion together lead to a higher critical air velocity. However, there are systems such as water on Teflon for which the critical air velocity remains practically unaffected by temperature because of similar adhesion and C(D) values, at all temperatures tested.

  10. Dispersion in Spherical Water Drops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliason, John C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a laboratory exercise simulating the paths of light rays through spherical water drops by applying principles of ray optics and geometry. Describes four parts: determining the output angles, computer simulation, explorations, model testing, and solutions. Provides a computer program and some diagrams. (YP)

  11. Getting the Drop on Sediment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindez, Peter

    1977-01-01

    In this exercise, students examine Aristotle's weight hypothesis by testing variously shaped marble chips. These chips are weighed and dropped down a water tube. Average fall times and weights are recorded and graphed. Students are asked to apply this information to rock and soil deposition by streams. (MA)

  12. Distinct Biochemical Activities of Eyes absent During Drosophila Eye Development.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-03-16

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a highly conserved transcriptional coactivator and protein phosphatase that plays vital roles in multiple developmental processes from Drosophila to humans. Eya proteins contain a PST (Proline-Serine-Threonine)-rich transactivation domain, a threonine phosphatase motif (TPM), and a tyrosine protein phosphatase domain. Using a genomic rescue system, we find that the PST domain is essential for Eya activity and Dac expression, and the TPM is required for full Eya function. We also find that the threonine phosphatase activity plays only a minor role during Drosophila eye development and the primary function of the PST and TPM domains is transactivation that can be largely substituted by the heterologous activation domain VP16. Along with our previous results that the tyrosine phosphatase activity of Eya is dispensable for normal Eya function in eye formation, we demonstrate that a primary function of Eya during Drosophila eye development is as a transcriptional coactivator. Moreover, the PST/TPM and the threonine phosphatase activity are not required for in vitro interaction between retinal determination factors. Finally, this work is the first report of an Eya-Ey physical interaction. These findings are particularly important because they highlight the need for an in vivo approach that accurately dissects protein function.

  13. Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop of High Quality Steam

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, J. M.; Coffield, R. D.

    2001-10-01

    Two-phase pressure drop across a straight test pipe was experimentally determined for high Reynolds (Re) number steam flow for a flow quality range of 0.995 to 1.0. The testing described has been performed in order to reduce uncertainties associated with the effects of two-phase flow on pressure drop. Two-phase flow develops in steam piping because a small fraction of the steam flow condenses due to heat loss to the surroundings. There has been very limited two-phase pressure drop data in open literature for the tested flow quality range. The two-phase pressure drop data obtained in this test has enabled development of a correlation between friction factor, Reynolds number, and flow quality.

  14. Impact dynamics of oxidized liquid metal drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qin; Brown, Eric; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2013-04-01

    With exposure to air, many liquid metals spontaneously generate an oxide layer on their surface. In oscillatory rheological tests, this skin is found to introduce a yield stress that typically dominates the elastic response but can be tuned by exposing the metal to hydrochloric acid solutions of different concentration. We systematically studied the normal impact of eutectic gallium-indium (eGaIn) drops under different oxidation conditions and show how this leads to two different dynamical regimes. At low impact velocity (or low Weber number), eGaIn droplets display strong recoil and rebound from the impacted surface when the oxide layer is removed. In addition, the degree of drop deformation or spreading during impact is controlled by the oxide skin. We show that the scaling law known from ordinary liquids for the maximum spreading radius as a function of impact velocity can still be applied to the case of oxidized eGaIn if an effective Weber number We is employed that uses an effective surface tension factoring in the yield stress. In contrast, no influence on spreading from different oxidations conditions is observed for high impact velocity. This suggests that the initial kinetic energy is mostly damped by bulk viscous dissipation. Results from both regimes can be collapsed in an impact phase diagram controlled by two variables, the maximum spreading factor Pm=R0/Rm, given by the ratio of initial to maximum drop radius, and the impact number K=We/Re4/5, which scales with the effective Weber number We as well as the Reynolds number Re. The data exhibit a transition from capillary to viscous behavior at a critical impact number Kc≈0.1.

  15. Vaporization response of evaporating drops with finite thermal conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosta, V. D.; Hammer, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    A numerical computing procedure was developed for calculating vaporization histories of evaporating drops in a combustor in which travelling transverse oscillations occurred. The liquid drop was assumed to have a finite thermal conductivity. The system of equations was solved by using a finite difference method programmed for solution on a high speed digital computer. Oscillations in the ratio of vaporization of an array of repetitivity injected drops in the combustor were obtained from summation of individual drop histories. A nonlinear in-phase frequency response factor for the entire vaporization process to oscillations in pressure was evaluated. A nonlinear out-of-phase response factor, in-phase and out-of-phase harmonic response factors, and a Princeton type 'n' and 'tau' were determined. The resulting data was correlated and is presented in graphical format. Qualitative agreement with the open literature is obtained in the behavior of the in-phase response factor. Quantitatively the results of the present finite conductivity spray analysis do not correlate with the results of a single drop model.

  16. Sustained Subconjunctival Delivery of Infliximab Protects the Cornea and Retina Following Alkali Burn to the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chengxin; Robert, Marie-Claude; Kapoulea, Vassiliki; Lei, Fengyang; Stagner, Anna M.; Jakobiec, Frederick A.; Dohlman, Claes H.; Paschalis, Eleftherios I.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is upregulated in eyes following corneal alkali injury and contributes to corneal and also retinal damage. Prompt TNF-α inhibition by systemic infliximab ameliorates retinal damage and improves corneal wound healing. However, systemic administration of TNF-α inhibitors carries risk of significant complications, whereas topical eye-drop delivery is hindered by poor ocular bioavailability and the need for patient adherence. This study investigates the efficacy of subconjunctival delivery of TNF-α antibodies using a polymer-based drug delivery system (DDS). Methods The drug delivery system was prepared using porous polydimethylsiloxane/polyvinyl alcohol composite fabrication and loaded with 85 μg of infliximab. Six Dutch-belted pigmented rabbits received ocular alkali burn with NaOH. Immediately after the burn, subconjunctival implantation of anti-TNF-α DDS was performed in three rabbits while another three received sham DDS (without antibody). Rabbits were followed with photography for 3 months. Results After 3 months, the device was found to be well tolerated by the host and the eyes exhibited less corneal damage as compared to eyes implanted with a sham DDS without drug. The low dose treatment suppressed CD45 and TNF-α expression in the burned cornea and inhibited retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and optic nerve degeneration, as compared to the sham DDS treated eyes. Immunolocalization revealed drug penetration in the conjunctiva, cornea, iris, and choroid, with residual infliximab in the DDS 3 months after implantation. Conclusions This reduced-risk biologic DDS improves corneal wound healing and provides retinal neuroprotection, and may be applicable not only to alkali burns but also to other inflammatory surgical procedures such as penetrating keratoplasty and keratoprosthesis implantation. PMID:28114570

  17. Cost of Dry Eye Treatment in an Asian Clinic Setting

    PubMed Central

    Waduthantri, Samanthila; Yong, Siew Sian; Tan, Chien Hua; Shen, Liang; Lee, Man Xin; Nagarajan, Sangeetha; Hla, Mynt Htoon; Tong, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost and patterns of expenditure of dry eye treatment. Methodology We retrieved data on the type and cost of dry eye treatment in Singapore National Eye Centre from pharmacy and clinic inventory databases over a 2 year period (2008–2009) retrospectively. According to the type of treatment, data were sorted into 7 groups; meibomien gland disease (MGD) treatment, preservative free lubricant eye drops, preserved lubricant eye drops, lubricant ointments and gels, cyclosporine eye drops, oral supplements and non-pharmacological treatments/procedures. Each recorded entry was considered as one patient episode (PE). Comparisons in each group between two years were carried out using Pearson Chi-Square test. Significance level was set at alpha  = 0.05. Results Cost data from 54,052 patients were available for analysis. Total number of recorded PEs was 132,758. Total annual expenditure on dry eye treatment for year 2008 and 2009 were US$1,509,372.20 and US$1,520,797.80 respectively. Total expenditure per PE in year 2008 and 2009 were US$22.11 and US$23.59 respectively. From 2008 to 2009, there was a 0.8% increase in total annual expenditure and 6.69% increase in expenditure per PE. Pharmacological treatment attributes to 99.2% of the total expenditure with lubricants accounting for 79.3% of the total pharmacological treatment expenditure. Total number of units purchased in preservative free lubricants, cyclosporine eye drops and MGD therapy have increased significantly (p<0.001) whereas number of units purchased in preserved lubricants and ointments/gels have reduced significantly (p<0.001) from 2008 to 2009. Conclusion Dry Eye imposes a significant direct burden to health care expenditure even without considering indirect costs. Health care planners should be aware that these direct costs appear to increase over the time and more so for particular types of medications. Given the limitations of socio-economic data, true societal costs of Dry

  18. The role of Pax genes in eye evolution.

    PubMed

    Kozmik, Zbynek

    2008-03-18

    Anatomically widely different designs of animal eyes have long been thought to arise independently multiple times during evolution. This morphology-based view has been challenged by the identification of a highly conserved transcription factor Pax6 that plays a key role in eye development in both flies and mammals. The origin of Pax genes predates the origin of eyes and the nervous system since a PaxB-like gene, belonging to the Pax2/5/8 gene subfamily, was identified in sponge lacking nervous system. Structurally similar PaxB gene is implicated in visual system development in jellyfish, the most basal organism possessing complex eyes. The widespread use of Pax genes in the genetic program underlying eye formation throughout the animal kingdom raises a question why certain transcription factors have been frequently redeployed to build eyes. A model is proposed that provides a plausible explanation for the apparently ancient role of Pax genes in eye evolution.

  19. Improved dropping efficiency in two-dimensional photonic crystal-based channel drop filter for coarse wavelength division multiplexing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar; Radhouene, Massoudi; Robinson, Savarimuthu; Suthar, Bhuvneshwer

    2017-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) square lattice structure to design a channel drop filter. The channel drop filter (CDF) is designed using a PC ring resonator structure because of its better response. The variation in the shape of scatterer rods causes the shift in resonant wavelength and also shows an improvement in quality factor as well as dropping efficiency. The dropping efficiency is improved from 92.7% to 99.5% for a particular wavelength at 1531 nm, which is especially used in telecommunication. The designed CDF structure is useful for coarse wavelength division multiplexer. The size of the device is very small, so these devices can play an important role in optical communication networks and photonic integrated circuits.

  20. Drop impact on a fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Gil; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of drop impact on a thin fiber. Using high-speed videography, we analyze the dynamics of droplet collision with a fiber. Based on the systematic experiments, we identify three outcomes of collision: capturing, single drop falling, and splitting. The outcomes are presented in a regime map, where the regime boundaries are explained through a scale analysis of forces. We also measure the liquid retention on the fiber after the droplet impact. By considering a liquid film on the fiber, we develop a mechanical model that predicts the residual water mass. Our model reveals that the residual mass depends critically on the fiber thickness and less on the impact speed. Our study can be extended to predicting the remaining droplet, critical problems in air filtration, water collection, and fiber coating.

  1. Dropped head syndrome in mitochondriopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, J

    2004-11-01

    In a 63-year-old, 165-cm-tall woman with a history of repeated tick bites, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, progressive head ptosis with neck stiffness and cervical pain developed. The family history was positive for thyroid dysfunction and neuromuscular disorders. Neurological examination revealed prominent forward head drop, weak anteflexion and retroflexion, nuchal rigidity, weakness of the shoulder girdle, cogwheel rigidity, and tetraspasticity. The lactate stress test was abnormal. Electromyograms of various muscles were myogenic. Muscle biopsy showed non-specific myogenic abnormalities and generally weak staining for cytochrome oxydase. Mitochondriopathy with multi-organ involvement was suspected. The response to anti-Parkinson medication was poor. In conclusion, dropped head syndrome (DHS) may be due to multi-organ mitochondriopathy, manifesting as Parkinsonism, tetraspasticity, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, short stature, and myopathy. Anti-Parkinson medication is of limited effect.

  2. Reusable Material for Drop Tower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution A. Approved for public release. REUSABLE MATERIAL FOR DROP TOWER A thesis written at TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH AND...ABSTRACT This thesis represents the capstone of my five years combined academic work at Kettering University and job experience at Tank Automotive ...NUMBER OF PAGES 57 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form

  3. Learning optimal eye movements to unusual faces

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Matthew F.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2014-01-01

    Eye movements, which guide the fovea’s high resolution and computational power to relevant areas of the visual scene, are integral to efficient, successful completion of many visual tasks. How humans modify their eye movements through experience with their perceptual environments, and its functional role in learning new tasks, has not been fully investigated. Here, we used a face identification task where only the mouth discriminated exemplars to assess if, how, and when eye movement modulation may mediate learning. By interleaving trials of unconstrained eye movements with trials of forced fixation, we attempted to separate the contributions of eye movements and covert mechanisms to performance improvements. Without instruction, a majority of observers substantially increased accuracy and learned to direct their initial eye movements towards the optimal fixation point. The proximity of an observer’s default face identification eye movement behavior to the new optimal fixation point and the observer’s peripheral processing ability were predictive of performance gains and eye movement learning. After practice in a subsequent condition in which observers were directed to fixate different locations along the face, including the relevant mouth region, all observers learned to make eye movements to the optimal fixation point. In this fully learned state, augmented fixation strategy accounted for 43% of total efficiency improvements while covert mechanisms accounted for the remaining 57%. The findings suggest a critical role for eye movement planning to perceptual learning, and elucidate factors that can predict when and how well an observer can learn a new task with unusual exemplars. PMID:24291712

  4. Twisted story of eye migration in flatfish.

    PubMed

    Saele, Oystein; Smáradóttir, Heiddís; Pittman, Karin

    2006-06-01

    Early molecular markers for flatfish metamorphosis and eye migration must be linked to the ethmoid region, the earliest part of the flatfish cranium to change, as well as chondral and dermal ossification processes. Serial sections, morphological landmarks, and stereology were used to determine where and when the remodeling of tissues and asymmetry occurs in the head region of metamorphosing Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus. Not all parts of the head remodel or migrate, and those that do may be asynchronous. Normal metamorphosis limits the torsion of the Atlantic halibut head to the anterior part of the neurocranium and excludes the tip of the snout and the general jaw area. The first cranial structure displaying eye migration-related asymmetric development is the paraethmoid part of the ethmoid cartilage. In early eye migration the medial frontal process moves apace with the eyes, whereas near completion the migrating eye moves significantly closer to the frontal process. Structures of the jaw remain mostly symmetrical, with the exception of the adductor mandibulae muscle and the bone maxillare, which are larger on the abocular than on the ocular side, the muscle occupying the space vacated by the migration of the eye. Thus, normal eye migration involves a series of temperospatially linked events. In juveniles lacking eye migration (arrested metamorphosis), the dermal bone, the prefrontal, does not develop. The two abnormal paraethmoids develop symmetrically as two plate-like structures curving anteriorly, whereas normal elongate fused paraethmoids curve at their posterior. The abocular side retrorbital vesicles are largest in volume only after the completion of normal eye migration. Factors involved in completion of normal metamorphosis and eye migration in flatfish affect chondral and dermal ossification signals in the ethmoid group, as well as remodeling of the mineralized frontal, a series of linked events not involving the entire neurocranium.

  5. Drop spreading with random viscosity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examine theoretically the spreading of a viscous liquid drop over a thin film of uniform thickness, assuming the liquid’s viscosity is regulated by the concentration of a solute that is carried passively by the spreading flow. The solute is assumed to be initially heterogeneous, having a spatial distribution with prescribed statistical features. To examine how this variability influences the drop’s motion, we investigate spreading in a planar geometry using lubrication theory, combining numerical simulations with asymptotic analysis. We assume diffusion is sufficient to suppress solute concentration gradients across but not along the film. The solute field beneath the bulk of the drop is stretched by the spreading flow, such that the initial solute concentration immediately behind the drop’s effective contact lines has a long-lived influence on the spreading rate. Over long periods, solute swept up from the precursor film accumulates in a short region behind the contact line, allowing patches of elevated viscosity within the precursor film to hinder spreading. A low-order model provides explicit predictions of the variances in spreading rate and drop location, which are validated against simulations. PMID:27843398

  6. Thermocapillary motion of deformable drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj-Hariri, Hossein; Shi, Qingping; Borhan, Ali

    1994-08-01

    The thermocapillary motion of initially spherical drops/bubbles driven by a constant temperature gradient in an unbounded liquid medium is simulated numerically. Effects of convection of momentum and energy, as well as shape deformations, are addressed. The method used is based on interface tracking on a base cartesian grid, and uses a smeared color or indicator function for the determination of the surface topology. Quad-tree adaptive refinement of the cartesian grid is implemented to enhance the fidelity of the surface tracking. It is shown that convection of energy results in a slowing of the drop, as the isotherms get wrapped around the front of the drop. Shape deformation resulting from inertial effects affect the migration velocity. The physical results obtained are in agreement with the existing literature. Furthermore, remarks are made on the sensitivity of the calculated solutions to the smearing of the fluid properties. Analysis and simulations show that the migration velocity depends very strongly on the smearing of the interfacial force whereas it is rather insensitive to the smearing of other properties, hence the adaptive grid.

  7. How to freeze drop oscillations with powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Jeremy; Zhu, Ying; Vakarelski, Ivan; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2012-11-01

    We present experiments that show when a water drop impacts onto a bed of fine, hydrophobic powder, the final form of the drop can be very different from the spherical form with which it impacts. For all drop impact speeds, the drop rebounds due to the hydrophobic nature of the powder. However, we observe that above a critical impact speed, the drop undergoes a permanent deformation to a highly non-spherical shape with a complete coverage of powder, thus creating a deformed liquid marble. This powder coating acts to freeze the drop oscillations during rebound.

  8. Eye proprioception may provide real time eye position information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Yujun

    2013-03-01

    Because of the frequency of eye movements, online knowledge of eye position is crucial for the accurate spatial perception and behavioral navigation. Both the internal monitoring signal (corollary discharge) of eye movements and the eye proprioception signal are thought to contribute to the localization of the eye position in the orbit. However, the functional role of these two eye position signals in spatial cognition has been disputed for more than a century. The predominant view proposes that the online analysis of eye position is exclusively provided by the corollary discharge signal, while the eye proprioception signal only plays a role in the long-term calibration of the oculomotor system. However, increasing evidence from recent behavioral and physiological studies suggests that the eye proprioception signal may play a role in the online monitoring of eye position. The purpose of this review is to discuss the feasibility and possible function of the eye proprioceptive signal for online monitoring of eye position.

  9. Drop shedding by shear flow for hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Milne, A J B; Amirfazli, A

    2009-12-15

    A balance of surface science and aerodynamic knowledge is brought to bear to elucidate the fundamental parameters determining the incipient motion (runback) for a drop exposed to shearing airflow. It was found that wetting parameters such as contact angle are very influential in determining the minimum required air velocity for drop shedding. On the basis of experimental results for drops of water and hexadecane (0.5-100 microL) on PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic aluminum surface, an exponential function is proposed that relates the critical air velocity for shedding to the ratio of drop base length to projected area. The results for all of the water systems can be collapsed to self-similar curves by normalization. Results from other researchers also conform to the exponential self-similar functional form proposed. It was shown that the data for hexadecane drops can be matched relatively well to those for water drops by means of a corrective factor based on fluid properties and contact angles. Also, the critical air velocity for shedding from the superhydrophobic surface is seen to be more constant over a range of volumes than for the other surfaces. Finally, contact angle measurements from airflow shedding experiments are compared to measurements made by tilted plate and quasi-static advancing and receding tests. The observed differences between contact angles from different measurement methods show that the transfer of contact angle data among various applications must be done with care.

  10. Breakup of evaporating/burning slurry drops by additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, P. Roy; Gerstein, M.

    Single drops of silicon carbide-cumene slurry were suspended from a quartz fiber and ignited. An inert material such as silicon carbide was chosen so that the droplets can be burned until all the fuel is consumed and only the inert residue is left on the quartz fiber. Benzoyl peroxide was added to cumene and the time to disruption of the liquid drop was measured. In the case of benzoyl peroxide, the breaking up of the drop resulting from its thermal decomposition produced CO 2. Both the drop disruption time and the burning of the slurry to dryness were predicted theoretically. Radiation absorption was found to be an important factor in the case of the slurry. Benzoyl peroxide and carbamide peroxide were investigated as additives to a boron slurry to determine if effective drop break-up could be achieved. Both additives produced drop shattering. The carbamide peroxide was particularly effective due to the production of O 2. The green flame associated with boron burning was clearly evident.

  11. Photorefraction of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  12. Common Eye Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye,” is the most common cause of vision impairment in children. Amblyopia is the medical term used ... the most common cause of permanent one-eye vision impairment among children and young and middle-aged adults. ...

  13. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking Care of Your Skin Taking Care of Your Teeth El cuidado de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ...

  14. An Eye for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

  15. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  16. The leaves of Diospyros kaki exert beneficial effects on a benzalkonium chloride–induced murine dry eye model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-A; Hyun, Lee Chung; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the beneficial effects of the oral administration of ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) were tested on a mouse dry eye model induced by benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Methods A solution of 0.2% BAC was administered topically to mouse eyes for 14 days, twice daily, to induce dry eye. Various concentrations of EEDK were administrated daily by oral gavage for 14 days after BAC treatment. Preservative-free eye drops were instilled in the positive-control group. The tear secretion volume (Schirmer’s test), tear break-up time (BUT), and fluorescein score were measured on the ocular surface. BAC-induced corneal damage was tested with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Moreover, apoptotic cell death in the corneal epithelial layer was investigated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The protein expression level of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) was determined with western blot analysis. Furthermore, squamous metaplasia in the corneal epithelial layer was detected with immunofluorescent staining for cytokeratine-10. The cellular proliferation in the cornea was examined with immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67. Results EEDK treatment resulted in prolonged BUT, decreased fluorescein score, increased tear volume, and smoother epithelial cells compared with BAC treatment alone in the cornea. Moreover, EEDK treatment inhibited the inflammatory response and corneal epithelial cell death in a BAC-induced murine dry eye model, and changes in squamous cells were inhibited. Proliferative activity in the corneal epithelium cells was improved with EEDK. Conclusions EEDK could be a potential therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye. PMID:27110091

  17. Water-to-Air Transfer and Enrichment of Bacteria in Drops from Bursting Bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Duncan C.; Syzdek, Lawrence D.

    1982-01-01

    An electrostatic induction technique was used to determine both drop size distribution and concentration of bacteria in the film drops produced by bubbles bursting at the surface of a suspension of Serratia marcescens. Film drops are produced from the collapse of the thin film of water that just before bursting separates the air in the bubble from the atmosphere. Bubbles of 1.7-mm diameter produced from 10 to 20 film drops which ranged from <2 μm to over 30 μm in diameter. Half the drops were <10 μm. For bubbles rising a distance of less than 2 cm through the bacterial suspension, bacterial enrichment factors in the drops were between 10 and 20. Electrostatic methods can be used to determine the enrichment of bacteria in film drops as a function of bubble size and distance of rise through the bacterial suspension. PMID:16346001

  18. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Tcherneshoff, L. M.; Straits, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results for the Critical Point Wetting CPW Drop Tower Experiment are produced with immiscible systems. Much of the observed phenomena conformed to the anticipated behavior. More drops will be needed to test the CPW theory with these immiscible systems.

  19. The Effect of Diluted Penetration Enhancer in Nebulized Mist versus Liquid Drop Preparation Forms on Retrobulbar Blood Flow in Healthy Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Primus, Sally; Januleviciene, Ingrida; Siesky, Brent; Gerber, Austin; Egan, Patrick; Amireskandari, Annahita; Siaudvytyte, Lina; Barsauskaite, Ruta; Harris, Alon

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of nebulized mist and liquid drop applications on retrobulbar blood flow. A prospective, non-randomized clinical trial was used to collect data from 40 healthy human eyes. Color Doppler Imaging determined peak systolic (PSV) and end diastolic (EDV) blood flow velocities and resistance index (RI) in the ophthalmic artery after both applications. Measurements were taken at baseline and at 1 min post-treatment in both eyes with 5 min measurements in the treatment eye only. p values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mist application to treatment eye produced an increase in 1 min and 5 min PSV and EDV (0.001 < p < 0.03) and a decrease in 5 min RI (p = 0.01), with no significant changes in PSV, EDV or RI of control eye or in treatment eye 1 min RI (p > 0.05). Drop application to treatment eye produced an increase in PSV (p < 0.001) and EDV (p = 0.01) at 1 min, with an increase in control eye 1 min PSV and EDV (p = 0.03). There were no statistically significant changes in treatment eye PSV, EDV and RI after 5 min (p > 0.05). The use of nebulized mist may provide an effective alternative to liquid drop medication application. PMID:24300298

  20. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 When an eye injury does occur, ... Fireworks Eye Safety Jun 10, 2016 Protective Eyewear Mar 01, 2016 Scleritis Symptoms Mar 01, 2015 What ...

  1. Eye burning - itching and discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies or hay fever Infections, bacterial or viral ( conjunctivitis or pink eye) Chemical irritants (such as chlorine ... to help with allergies. Pink eye or viral conjunctivitis causes a red or bloodshot eye and excessive ...

  2. Dropped head syndrome. Three case-reports.

    PubMed

    Chaouat, D; Belange, G

    1999-01-01

    Dropped head syndrome is characterized by gradual forward sagging of the head due to weakness of the neck extensor muscles. We report three cases in elderly patients seen by rheumatologists at our institution. There was some evidence suggestive of a neurogenic process, whereas most reported cases of dropped head syndrome have been ascribed to myopathy. Dropped head syndrome can probably be produced by multiple causes. The close ties between dropped head syndrome and acquired camptocormia in adults are discussed.

  3. 49 CFR 572.102 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drop test. 572.102 Section 572.102 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Free Motion Headform § 572.102 Drop test. (a) When the headform is dropped from a height of 14.8 inches in accordance with paragraph (b)...

  4. 49 CFR 572.102 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drop test. 572.102 Section 572.102 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Free Motion Headform § 572.102 Drop test. (a) When the headform is dropped from a height of 14.8 inches in accordance with paragraph (b)...

  5. 49 CFR 572.102 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drop test. 572.102 Section 572.102 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Free Motion Headform § 572.102 Drop test. (a) When the headform is dropped from a height of 14.8 inches in accordance with paragraph (b)...

  6. Electrohydrodynamics of a particle-covered drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouriemi, Malika; Vlahovska, Petia

    2014-11-01

    We study the dynamics of a drop nearly-completely covered with a particle monolayer in a uniform DC electric field. The weakly conducting fluid system consists of a silicon oil drop suspended in castor oil. A broad range of particle sizes, conductivities, and shapes is explored. In weak electric fields, the presence of particles increases drop deformation compared to a particle-free drop and suppresses the electrohydrodynamic flow. Very good agreement is observed between the measured drop deformation and the small deformation theory derived for surfactant-laden drops (Nganguia et al., 2013). In stronger electric fields, where drops are expected to undergo Quincke rotation (Salipante and Vlahovska, 2010), the presence of the particles greatly decreases the threshold for rotation and the stationary tilted drop configuration observed for clean drop is replaced by a spinning drop with either a wobbling inclination or a very low inclination. These behaviors resemble the predicted response of rigid ellipsoids in uniform electric fields. At even stronger electric fields, the particles can form dynamic wings or the drop implodes. The similar behavior of particle-covered and surfactant-laden drops provides new insights into understanding stability of Pickering emulsions. Supported by NSF-CBET 1437545.

  7. Eye care services utilisation among pregnant women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, Waheed A; Ibraheem, Anifat B; Owonikoko, Musliudeen; Tijani, Aramide; Olamoyegun, Michael Adeyemi; AbdSalam, Soliu

    2016-07-01

    One hundred and sixty-five pregnant Nigerian women attending the antenatal clinic of LAUTECH teaching hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between January and April 2014 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents were obtained. Respondents were also asked: if they had had their eye examined by an eye specialist during the index pregnancy, frequencies of visit to eye care centers and indications for their visitation. A history of previous eye examination by eye care specialist/visit to eye clinic was considered as eye care utilisation. Selection of eligible subjects who consented to participate in the study was done using simple random technique. Logistic regression model was used to control sociodemographic and obstetric factors in order to determine independent covariate factor influencing the use of eye care services. Among the population studied, only 46 (32%) had eye examination during the index pregnancy. Level of education and occupational status of the respondents were found to be statistically significant factors (p = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). There is a need for a policy that will encourage regular eye care services usage during pregnancy.

  8. Drop Tower and Aircraft Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a brief introduction to existing capabilities in drop towers and low-gravity aircraft that will be presented as part of a Symposium: Microgravity Platforms Other Than the ISS, From Users to Suppliers which will be a half day program to bring together the international community of gravity-dependent scientists, program officials and technologists with the suppliers of low gravity platforms (current and future) to focus on the future requirements and use of platforms other than the International Space Station (ISS).

  9. Drag and drop display & builder

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

  10. Dry Eye Disease and Microbial Keratitis: Is There a Connection?

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Srihari; Redfern, Rachel L.; Miller, William L.; Nichols, Kelly K.; McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye is a common ocular surface disease of multifactorial etiology characterized by elevated tear osmolality and inflammation leading to a disrupted ocular surface. The latter is a risk factor for ocular surface infection, yet overt infection is not commonly seen clinically in the typical dry eye patient. This suggests that important innate mechanisms operate to protect the dry eye from invading pathogens. This article reviews the current literature on epidemiology of ocular surface infection in dry eye patients and laboratory-based studies on innate immune mechanisms operating at the ocular surface and their alterations in human dry eye and animal models. The review highlights current understanding of innate immunity in dry eye and identifies gaps in our knowledge to help direct future studies to further unravel the complexities of dry eye disease and its sequelae. PMID:23583043

  11. Cyanoacrylate Adhesives in Eye Wounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    EYE, *WOUNDS AND INJURIES), (*ADHESIVES, EYE), (*ACRYLIC RESINS, ADHESIVES), CORNEA , HEALING, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), TOLERANCES(PHYSIOLOGY), NECROSIS, SURGICAL SUPPLIES, STRENGTH(PHYSIOLOGY), SURGERY, THERAPY

  12. Eye movement tics.

    PubMed Central

    Shawkat, F; Harris, C M; Jacobs, M; Taylor, D; Brett, E M

    1992-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented with opsoclonus-like eye movement and an 18 month history of intermittent facial tics. Investigations were all normal. Electro-oculography showed the eye movements to be of variable amplitude (10-40 degrees), with no intersaccadic interval, and with a frequency of 3-4 Hz. Saccades, smooth pursuit, optokinetic, and vestibular reflexes were all normal. These abnormal eye movements eventually disappeared. It is thought that they were a form of ocular tics. PMID:1477052

  13. Personal identification by eyes.

    PubMed

    Marinović, Dunja; Njirić, Sanja; Coklo, Miran; Muzić, Vedrana

    2011-09-01

    Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems using iris recognition are among the most secure biometric systems.

  14. Patterns of Eye Care Use and Expenditures Among Children with Diagnosed Eye Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Michael; Xuan, Ziming; Hunter, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the use and expenditure patterns of children's eye care services and about possible disparities in care for those children. This report describes the use and expenditure patterns of eye and non-eye care services for children < 18 years old in the United States. Methods: Use and expenditure levels were estimated using self-reported information from the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys for 48,304 members of randomly selected households in the United States that were < 18 years old from 1996 to 2001. Means presented for children with and without diagnosed eye conditions were adjusted for child and family characteristics using generalized linear models. Results: Children with diagnosed eye conditions had higher use and expenditure levels than children without such conditions. Families of children with diagnosed eye conditions incurred higher out-of-pocket expenditures. Black children and children living below 400% of the federal poverty level had lower use and expenditure levels indicating they received fewer and less intensive services. Conclusions: Children with diagnosed eye conditions experienced higher overall use of health care. Certain groups of children appear to be underserved. To plan for future delivery of children's eye and vision care services and to assess progress toward Healthy People 2010 goals, estimates of use and expenditure patterns stratified by socioeconomic factors will be needed. PMID:17434774

  15. Small drops from large nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Said Mohamed, Ahmed; Castrejon-Pita, Jose Rafael; Herrada, Miguel Angel

    2015-11-01

    We report experimental and numerical results of the generation of drops which are significantly smaller than the nozzle from which they are generated. The system consists of a cylindrical reservoir and two endplates. One plate is a thin metal sheet with a small orifice in its centre which acts as the nozzle. The other end consists of a piston which moves by the action of an elecromechanical actuator which in turn is driven by sine-shape pull-mode pulses. The meniscus (formed at the nozzle) is thus first overturned, forming a cavity. This cavity collapses and a thin and fast jet emerges from its centre. Under appropriate conditions the tip of this jet breaks up and produces a single diminutive drop. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical results was found. Also, a series of experiments were performed in order to study the effects that the pulse amplitude and width, together with variations in the liquid properties, have over the final size of the droplet. Based on these experiments, a predictive law for the droplet size has been derived. This work was funded by the Royal Society (University Research Fellowship and Research Grant), the John Fell Fund (Oxford University Press), the Ministry of Science and Education (DPI2013-46485 Spain), and the Junta de Andalucia (P08-TEP-31704128 Spain).

  16. 14 CFR 23.725 - Limit drop tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear... than 18.7 inches. (b) If the effect of wing lift is provided for in free drop tests, the landing gear... assumed wing lift to the airplane weight, but not more than 0.667. (c) The limit inertia load factor...

  17. 14 CFR 23.725 - Limit drop tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear... than 18.7 inches. (b) If the effect of wing lift is provided for in free drop tests, the landing gear... assumed wing lift to the airplane weight, but not more than 0.667. (c) The limit inertia load factor...

  18. 14 CFR 23.725 - Limit drop tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear... than 18.7 inches. (b) If the effect of wing lift is provided for in free drop tests, the landing gear... assumed wing lift to the airplane weight, but not more than 0.667. (c) The limit inertia load factor...

  19. School drop out in Bangladesh: Insights using panel data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, R.; Hossain, A.; Lewin, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relative strength of different factors associated with school drop out using data collected between 2007 and 2009 in Bangladesh. A sample of 9046 children, aged 4-15, was selected across six districts for a household survey focusing on children's school access and experiences. Two groups of children were identified: those…

  20. Charged drop levitators and their applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, W. K.; Chung, S. K.; Hyson, M. T.; Elleman, D. D.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the charged drop levitation characteristics of two different devices: (1) a feedback-controlled electrostatic levitator able to lift a several mm-diameter drop in 1g conditions, which is applicable to drop dynamics, crystal growth, and supercooling/solidification experiments; and (2) a linear quadrupole levitator, whose advantages are demonstrated in light of the results obtained for the charged drop instability experiment. The cause of the premature drop burstings observed is suggested to be an electron avalanche in the surrounding gaseous medium rather than the Rayleigh limit.

  1. Spatial Distribution of Large Cloud Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Larsen, Michael; Wiscombe, Warren

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of aircraft measurements of individual drop sizes in clouds suggests that for sufficiently small volumes the mean number of cloud drops with a given radius is proportional to volume powered by a drop-size dependent exponent. For abundant small drops present, the exponent is 1 as assumed in conventional approach. However, for rarer large drops, the exponents fall below unity. We show striking examples of the spatial distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently used models that assume homogeneity and therefore a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models show strong drop clustering, the more so the larger the drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents. The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. This clustering has vital consequences for rain physics explaining how rain can form so fast and also helps explain why remotely sensed cloud drop size is generally biased.

  2. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Robert W.; Maroone, James P.; Tipping, Donald W.; Zanner, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  3. Footprint geometry and sessile drop resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we examine experimentally the resonance of a sessile drop with a square footprint (square drop) on a flat plate. Two families of modal behaviors are reported. One family is identified with the modes of sessile drops with circular footprints (circular drop), denoted as "spherical modes." The other family is associated with Faraday waves on a square liquid bath (square Faraday waves), denoted as "grid modes." The two families are distinguished based on their dispersion behaviors. By comparing the occurrence of the modes, we recognize spherical modes as the characteristic of sessile drops, and grid modes as the constrained response. Within a broader context, we further discuss the resonance modes of circular sessile drops and free spherical drops, and we recognize various modal behaviors as surface waves under different extents of constraint. From these, we conclude that sessile drops resonate according to how wave-number selection by footprint geometry and capillarity compete. For square drops, a dominant effect of footprint constraint leads to grid modes; otherwise, the drops exhibit spherical modes, the characteristic of sessile drops on flat plates.

  4. Large charged drop levitation against gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Chung, Sang Kun; Hyson, Michael T.; Trinh, Eugene H.; Elleman, Daniel D.

    1987-01-01

    A hybrid electrostatic-acoustic levitator that can levitate and manipulate a large liquid drop in one gravity is presented. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time such large drops (up to 4 mm in diameter in the case of water) have been levitated against 1-gravity. This makes possible, for the first time, many new experiments both in space and in ground-based laboratories, such as 1)supercooling and superheating, 2) containerless crystal growth from various salt solutions or melts, 3) drop dynamics of oscillating or rotating liquid drops, 4) drop evaporation and Rayleigh bursting, and 5) containerless material processing in space. The digital control system, liquid drop launch process, principles of electrode design, and design of a multipurpose room temperature levitation chamber are described. Preliminary results that demonstrate drop oscillation and rotation, and crystal growth from supersaturated salt solutions are presented.

  5. Rain drop size densities over land and over sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumke, Karl

    2010-05-01

    precipitation rate in mmh-1.The precipitation rate dependent factor in the exponential is similar to that given by Marshall and Palmer (1948). The intercept parameter, in the original Marshall Palmer formulation not depending on the rain rate, is also of the same order. A number of recent publications have shown that drop size densities of convective and stratiform rain show significant differences, too. Several procedures have been developed in the past to decide, whether precipitation is of stratiform or convective character. Here two of them are used, temporal variability in rain rates and additional information by weather radar data for the South Western Baltic Sea. Main result is that differences in drop size densities depend on the integration time of measurements. For integration times of 1 minute no significant differences can be detected at an error rate of 5%, while integration times of 10 minutes yield to significant differences between drop size densities of prevailing stratiform and convective rain. References: Großklaus, M., K.Uhlig, and L.Hasse, 1998: An Optical Disdrometer for Use in High Wind Speeds, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology Vol. 15(4). 1051-1059 Marshall, J.S. and W.M.K.Palmer, 1948: The distribution of rain drops with size, J. Meteor., 5, 165-166

  6. LASIK eye surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis; Laser vision correction; Nearsightedness - Lasik; Myopia - Lasik ... length of the eye. LASIK uses an excimer laser (an ultraviolet laser) to remove a thin layer ...

  7. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye. It is disc shaped with a hole in the middle (the pupil). Muscles in the ... of photoreceptors are rods and cones. Rods perceive black and white and serve night vision primarily. Cones ...

  8. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the foreign body has been flushed out. Seek Medical Care If Your Child Has: been struck ... eyelid an eye that's very sensitive to light Seek Emergency Care Immediately If Your Child Has: trouble ...

  9. What Is Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of cancers, see our documents on them. Intraocular melanoma (melanoma of the eye) Intraocular melanoma is the most ... the rest of this document focuses on intraocular melanomas and lymphomas. Written by References The American Cancer ...

  10. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... the retina that provides sharp central vision (macular edema) This surgery also treats the following eye problems: ... in time. If your treatment was for macular edema, your vision may seem worse for a few ...

  11. Multimodal eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  12. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dry eyes include: Dry environment or workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand ... NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a humidifier, especially in ...

  13. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  14. Using Eye Makeup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  15. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  16. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  17. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  18. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  19. Melanoma of the eye

    MedlinePlus

    Small melanomas may be treated with: Surgery Laser Radiation therapy (such as Gamma Knife , CyberKnife , brachytherapy) Surgery to remove the eye (enucleation) may be needed. Other treatments that may be used ...

  20. Facts About Pink Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  1. Diagram of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  2. Eye Disease Simulations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  3. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eyelid. Others, like those that happen during sports activities, can be serious and require medical attention. Signs and Symptoms redness stinging or burning watering sensitivity to light blurred vision swelling of the eyelids discoloration around the eye ...

  4. Transport-related phenomena for clusters of drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Harstad, K.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations for n-decane drops evaporating in a spherical cluster surrounded by unvitiated ambient air at atmospheric pressure were performed using two previously proposed cluster models. Both cluster models predict that turbulent transport effects are more important in the case of small clusters. This is due to the smaller volume to surface ratio and thus to the greater transport of hot unvitiated gas to the drops in order to promote evaporation. The results obtained are compared with those of two turbulent models for each one of the 'trapping factors' and similarity models.

  5. Selenium-binding lactoferrin is taken into corneal epithelial cells by a receptor and prevents corneal damage in dry eye model animals.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Akihiro; Inoue, Hiroyoshi; Kaneko, Yoshio; Oonishi, Erina; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-11-11

    The ocular surface is strongly affected by oxidative stress, which causes many ocular diseases including dry eye. Previously, we showed that selenium compounds, e.g., selenoprotein P and Se-lactoferrin, were candidates for treatment of dry eye. This paper shows the efficacy of Se-lactoferrin for the treatment of dry eye compared with Diquas as a control drug using two dry eye models and incorporation of lactoferrin into corneal epithelial cells via lactoferrin receptors. We show the efficacy of Se-lactoferrin eye drops in the tobacco smoke exposure rat dry eye model and short-term rabbit dry eye model, although Diquas eye drops were only effective in the short-term rabbit dry eye model. These results indicate that Se-lactoferrin was useful in the oxidative stress-causing dry eye model. Se-lactoferrin was taken into corneal epithelium cells via lactoferrin receptors. We identified LRP1 as the lactoferrin receptor in the corneal epithelium involved in lactoferrin uptake. Se-lactoferrin eye drops did not irritate the ocular surface of rabbits. Se-lactoferrin was an excellent candidate for treatment of dry eye, reducing oxidative stress by a novel mechanism.

  6. Selenium-binding lactoferrin is taken into corneal epithelial cells by a receptor and prevents corneal damage in dry eye model animals

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Akihiro; Inoue, Hiroyoshi; Kaneko, Yoshio; Oonishi, Erina; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The ocular surface is strongly affected by oxidative stress, which causes many ocular diseases including dry eye. Previously, we showed that selenium compounds, e.g., selenoprotein P and Se-lactoferrin, were candidates for treatment of dry eye. This paper shows the efficacy of Se-lactoferrin for the treatment of dry eye compared with Diquas as a control drug using two dry eye models and incorporation of lactoferrin into corneal epithelial cells via lactoferrin receptors. We show the efficacy of Se-lactoferrin eye drops in the tobacco smoke exposure rat dry eye model and short-term rabbit dry eye model, although Diquas eye drops were only effective in the short-term rabbit dry eye model. These results indicate that Se-lactoferrin was useful in the oxidative stress-causing dry eye model. Se-lactoferrin was taken into corneal epithelium cells via lactoferrin receptors. We identified LRP1 as the lactoferrin receptor in the corneal epithelium involved in lactoferrin uptake. Se-lactoferrin eye drops did not irritate the ocular surface of rabbits. Se-lactoferrin was an excellent candidate for treatment of dry eye, reducing oxidative stress by a novel mechanism. PMID:27833152

  7. Design of a computer game using an eye-tracking device for eye's activity rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Huan, Chia-Chin; Chan, Chao-Ning; Yeh, Mau-Shiun; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2004-07-01

    An eye mouse interface that can be used to operate a computer using the movement of the eyes is described. We developed this eye-tracking system for eye motion disability rehabilitation. When the user watches the screen of a computer, a charge-coupled device will catch images of the user's eye and transmit it to the computer. A program, based on a new cross-line tracking and stabilizing algorithm, will locate the center point of the pupil in the images. The calibration factors and energy factors are designed for coordinate mapping and blink functions. After the system transfers the coordinates of pupil center in the images to the display coordinate, it will determine the point at which the user gazed on the display, then transfer that location to the game subroutine program. We used this eye-tracking system as a joystick to play a game with an application program in a multimedia environment. The experimental results verify the feasibility and validity of this eye-game system and the rehabilitation effects for the user's visual movement.

  8. Laboratory manual for static pressure drop experiments in LMFBR wire wrapped rod bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.J.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-07-01

    Purpose of this experiment is to determine both interior and edge subchannel axial pressure drops for a range of Reynolds numbers. The subchannel static pressure drop is used to calculate subchannel and bundle average friction factors, which can be used to verify existing friction factor correlations. The correlations for subchannel friction factors are used as input to computer codes which solve the coupled energy, continuity, and momentum equations, and are also used to develop flow split correlations which are needed as input to codes which solve only the energy equation. The bundle average friction factor is used to calculate the overall bundle pressure drop, which determines the required pumping power.

  9. Modern sports eye injuries

    PubMed Central

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

  10. Extended release of hyaluronic acid from hydrogel contact lenses for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Soni, Tejal G; Shah, Dinesh O

    2015-01-01

    Current dry eye treatment includes delivering comfort enhancing agents to the eye via eye drops, but low residence time of eye drops leads to low bioavailability. Frequent administration leads to incompliance in patients, so there is a great need for medical device such as contact lenses to treat dry eye. Studies in the past have demonstrated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the treatment of dry eyes using eye drops. In this paper, we present two methods to load HA in hydrogel contact lenses, soaking method and direct entrapment. The contact lenses were characterized by studying their optical and physical properties to determine their suitability as extended wear contact lenses. HA-laden hydrogel contact lenses prepared by soaking method showed release up to 48 h with acceptable physical and optical properties. Hydrogel contact lenses prepared by direct entrapment method showed significant sustained release in comparison to soaking method. HA entrapped in hydrogels resulted in reduction in % transmittance, sodium ion permeability and surface contact angle, while increase in % swelling. The impact on each of these properties was proportional to HA loading. The batch with 200-μg HA loading showed all acceptable values (parameters) for contact lens use. Results of cytotoxicity study indicated the safety of hydrogel contact lenses. In vivo pharmacokinetics studies in rabbit tear fluid showed dramatic increase in HA mean residence time and area under the curve with lenses in comparison to eye drop treatment. The study demonstrates the promising potential of delivering HA through contact lenses for the treatment of dry eye syndrome.

  11. Nerve Growth Factor: A Focus on Neuroscience and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Aloe, Luigi; Rocco, Maria Luisa; Omar Balzamino, Bijorn; Micera, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the firstly discovered and best characterized neurotrophic factor, known to play a critical protective role in the development and survival of sympathetic, sensory and forebrain cholinergic neurons. NGF promotes neuritis outgrowth both in vivo and in vitro and nerve cell recovery after ischemic, surgical or chemical injuries. Recently, the therapeutic property of NGF has been demonstrated on human cutaneous and corneal ulcers, pressure ulcer, glaucoma, maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. NGF eye drops administration is well tolerated, with no detectable clinical evidence of systemic or local adverse effects. The aim of this review is to summarize these biological properties and the potential clinical development of NGF. PMID:26411962

  12. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.; Lenard, Roger

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  13. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

    1984-12-10

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  14. Dynamics of Aqueous Foam Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akhatov, Iskander; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Holt, R. Glynn

    2001-01-01

    We develop a model for the nonlinear oscillations of spherical drops composed of aqueous foam. Beginning with a simple mixture law, and utilizing a mass-conserving bubble-in-cell scheme, we obtain a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation for the dynamics of bubbles in a foam mixture. The dispersion relation for sound waves in a bubbly liquid is then coupled with a normal modes expansion to derive expressions for the frequencies of eigenmodal oscillations. These eigenmodal (breathing plus higher-order shape modes) frequencies are elicited as a function of the void fraction of the foam. A Mathieu-like equation is obtained for the dynamics of the higher-order shape modes and their parametric coupling to the breathing mode. The proposed model is used to explain recently obtained experimental data.

  15. Micro-explosion of compound drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive

  16. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  17. Characteristics of Unequal Size Drop Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungyong; Longmire, Ellen; Kim, Man Sik

    2009-11-01

    Pairs of water/glycerin drops were injected into silicone oil and traveled on downward trajectories before colliding. Unequal size drop collisions with drop size ratios (Ds/DL) of 0.7 and 0.5 were investigated. Simultaneous dual-field PIV measurements were obtained to characterize coalescence and rebounding behavior. The initial injection angle and tube height were adjusted to access appropriate impact parameters. In the current study, the collision angle of the large drop was, in general, shallower than that of the small drop, and a range of velocity ratios and impact parameters was examined. Coalescence occurs above We* = 11 similar to collision outcomes for equal size drops. As drop size ratio decreases, the intervening film deforms more. If the velocity ratio uL/us < 1, the interface remains deformed at coalescence, but if uL/us > 1, the interface flattens before coalescence. The rupture location varies due to the asymmetry of the drops. As collision offset increases (B > 0), the film rupture time is shortened and mixing of the fluid within the drops is enhanced after coalescence. These results will be compared with the behavior observed previously for equal size drop collisions.

  18. Leidenfrost drops on a heated liquid pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maquet, L.; Sobac, B.; Darbois-Texier, B.; Duchesne, A.; Brandenbourger, M.; Rednikov, A.; Colinet, P.; Dorbolo, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that a volatile liquid drop placed at the surface of a nonvolatile liquid pool warmer than the boiling point of the drop can be held in a Leidenfrost state even for vanishingly small superheats. Such an observation points to the importance of the substrate roughness, negligible in the case considered here, in determining the threshold Leidenfrost temperature. A theoretical model based on the one proposed by Sobac et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 053011 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.053011] is developed in order to rationalize the experimental data. The shapes of the drop and of the liquid substrate are analyzed. The model notably provides scalings for the vapor film thickness profile. For small drops, these scalings appear to be identical to the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For large drops, in contrast, they are different, and no evidence of chimney formation has been observed either experimentally or theoretically in the range of drop sizes considered in this study. Concerning the evaporation dynamics, the radius is shown to decrease linearly with time whatever the drop size, which differs from the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For high superheats, the characteristic lifetime of the drops versus the superheat follows a scaling law that is derived from the model, but, at low superheats, it deviates from this scaling by rather saturating.

  19. Temporal eye movement strategies during naturalistic viewing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helena X.; Freeman, Jeremy; Merriam, Elisha P.; Hasson, Uri; Heeger, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The deployment of eye movements to complex spatiotemporal stimuli likely involves a variety of cognitive factors. However, eye movements to movies are surprisingly reliable both within and across observers. We exploited and manipulated that reliability to characterize observers’ temporal viewing strategies. Introducing cuts and scrambling the temporal order of the resulting clips systematically changed eye movement reliability. We developed a computational model that exhibited this behavior and provided an excellent fit to the measured eye movement reliability. The model assumed that observers searched for, found, and tracked a point-of-interest, and that this process reset when there was a cut. The model did not require that eye movements depend on temporal context in any other way, and it managed to describe eye movements consistently across different observers and two movie sequences. Thus, we found no evidence for the integration of information over long time scales (greater than a second). The results are consistent with the idea that observers employ a simple tracking strategy even while viewing complex, engaging naturalistic stimuli. PMID:22262911

  20. Eye Movements in Implicit Artificial Grammar Learning.

    PubMed

    Silva, Susana; Inácio, Filomena; Folia, Vasiliki; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2017-03-13

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been probed with forced-choice behavioral tests (active tests). Recent attempts to probe the outcomes of learning (implicitly acquired knowledge) with eye-movement responses (passive tests) have shown null results. However, these latter studies have not tested for sensitivity effects, for example, increased eye movements on a printed violation. In this study, we tested for sensitivity effects in AGL tests with (Experiment 1) and without (Experiment 2) concurrent active tests (preference- and grammaticality classification) in an eye-tracking experiment. Eye movements discriminated between sequence types in passive tests and more so in active tests. The eye-movement profile did not differ between preference and grammaticality classification, and it resembled sensitivity effects commonly observed in natural syntax processing. Our findings show that the outcomes of implicit structured sequence learning can be characterized in eye tracking. More specifically, whole trial measures (dwell time, number of fixations) showed robust AGL effects, whereas first-pass measures (first-fixation duration) did not. Furthermore, our findings strengthen the link between artificial and natural syntax processing, and they shed light on the factors that determine performance differences in preference and grammaticality classification tests. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. The role of "eye platelet rich plasma" (E-PRP) for wound healing in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Alio, Jorge L; Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Rodriguez, Alejandra E

    2012-06-01

    Blood derived products have demonstrated their capacity to enhance healing and stimulate the regeneration of different tissues and this enhancing effect is attributed to the growth factors and bioactive proteins that are synthesized and present in blood. Eye platelet rich plasma (E-PRP) provides higher concentration of essential growth factors and cell adhesion molecules by concentrating platelets in a small volume of plasma as compared with autologous serum, the latter being used widely in ophthalmology for epithelial wound healing of the cornea for the last two decades. These growth factors and cell adhesion molecules have a major role in wound healing and enhance the physiological process at the site of the injury/surgery via eye drops or clot. E-PRP has been used more recently, and has achieved successful outcomes in peer-review articles in the treatment of dormant ulcers (epithelial defects of the cornea that fail to heal), moderate to severe dry eye syndrome, ocular surface syndrome post Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK), and for surface reconstruction after corneal perforation associated with amniotic membrane transplantation. Preparation of E-PRP in the two available formulations, eyedrops and clot, is inexpensive and easy although it requires following strict sterility conditions using sterile and disposable materials and operating inside a laminar flow hood. No serious adverse effects have been described with the use of these products, and it is generally well tolerated. In summary, Platelet enriched plasma in the form obtained in ophthalmology, E-PRP, is a reliable and effective therapeutic tool to enhance epithelial wound healing in ocular surface disease.

  2. Keeping an eye on SOXC proteins

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Ann C.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of a mature, functional eye requires a complex series of cell proliferation, migration, induction among different germinal layers, and cell differentiation. These processes are regulated by extracellular cues such as the Wnt/BMP/Hh/Fgf signaling pathways, as well as cell intrinsic transcription factors that specify cell fate. In this review article we provide an overview of stages of embryonic eye morphogenesis, extrinsic and intrinsic factors that are required for each stage, and pediatric ocular diseases that are associated with defective eye development. In addition, we focus on recent findings about the roles of the SOXC proteins in regulating vertebrate ocular development and implicating SOXC mutations in human ocular malformations. PMID:25476579

  3. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  4. Reasons for Change of Schedule: A Survey of Reasons Why Students Drop Classes. SAIR Conference Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, Wayne N.; And Others

    Major factors affecting a student's decision to drop a particular class were studied in 1982 at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach. A total of 793 questionnaire forms were returned indicating reasons for 1,152 course drops. The most frequently cited reason was reduction in load, while change of section and change of class were…

  5. Learning about Academic Ability and the College Drop-Out Decision. NBER Working Paper No. 14810

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinebrickner, Todd R.; Stinebrickner, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    We use unique data to examine how college students from low income families form expectations about academic ability and to examine the role that learning about ability and a variety of other factors play in the college drop-out decision. From the standpoint of satisfying a central implication from the theory of drop-out, we find that…

  6. Comparison of drop size data from ground and aerial application nozzles at three testing laboratories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray drop size is a critical factor in the performance of any agrochemical solution and is a function of spray solution, nozzle selection, and nozzle operation. Applicators generally base their selection of a particular nozzle based on the drop size reported by manufacturers and researchers. Like m...

  7. A Second Look at the Drop-Out Problem in Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ronald W.

    In this follow-up study, which was designed to expand the knowledge of the causative factors in apprenticeship drop-out and test the validity of the findings of the previous study, a random sample of 20 cancelled apprentices who had dropped from the apprenticeship program since January 1966, was matched with 20 apprentices who had completed the…

  8. A Different Cone: Bursting Drops in Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuanhe

    2013-03-01

    Drops in fluids tend to be spheres--a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nano-fibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high-energy-density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting.

  9. Footprint Geometry and Sessile Drop Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H.

    2016-11-01

    How does a sessile drop resonate if its footprint is square (square drop)? In this talk, we discuss the two distinct families of observed modes in our experiments. One family (spherical modes) is identified with the natural modes of capillary spherical caps, and the other (grid modes) with Faraday waves on a square bath (square Faraday waves). A square drop exhibits grid or spherical modes depending on its volume, and the two families of modes arise depending on how wavenumber selection of footprint geometry and capillarity compete. For square drops, a dominant effect of footprint constraint leads to grid modes which are constrained response; otherwise the drops exhibit spherical modes, the characteristic of sessile drops on flat plates. Chun-Ti Chang takes his new position at National Taiwan University on Aug. 15th, 2016. Until then, Chun-Ti Chang is affiliated with Technical University Dortmund, Germany.

  10. Trapping of drops by wetting defects

    PubMed Central

    't Mannetje, Dieter; Ghosh, Somnath; Lagraauw, Rudy; Otten, Simon; Pit, Arjen; Berendsen, Christian; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the trapping strength measured in units of the driving force and the ratio between a viscous and an inertial time scale. Complementary experiments involving superhydrophobic surfaces with wetting defects demonstrate the general applicability of the concept. Moreover, we show that electrically tunable defects can be used to guide sliding drops along actively switchable tracks—with potential applications in microfluidics. PMID:24721935

  11. An octahedron model for oscillating, bouncing drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchette, Francois

    2016-11-01

    We present a model for oscillating and bouncing liquid drops. The model uses 6 point masses distributed as the vertices of an octahedron, connected by linear springs. We derive the physically relevant choice of parameters and use this model to study drops bouncing on solid surfaces, as well as drops bouncing on a nearly inviscid liquid surfaces. The surfaces may be stationary of subject to forced oscillations.

  12. Investigation of drop coalescence using tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Duenas, Cecilia; Kim, Jungyong; Longmire, Ellen

    2008-11-01

    High-speed tomographic PIV was used to obtain evolving volumetric velocity fields of the coalescence of single drops and two side-by-side drops through liquid/liquid interfaces. Reynolds numbers (Re=ρsUσD/μs) based on surface tension velocity (Uσ=D/tσ) and surrounding ambient fluid were 8-10, and the viscosity ratio between the fluid drop and surrounding fluid was 0.14. The coalescence process investigated is driven by gravity and thus the initial drops are non-spherical and the interface is deformed by the drops. Previously, Mohamed-Kassim & Longmire (2004) showed that under these conditions, the film rupture typically occurs off-axis, and therefore the flow is three-dimensional. For a single drop, volumetric velocity vector fields are used to characterize the asymmetric film rupture occurring for 0drop into a vortex ring are relatively axisymmetric. For two side-by-side drops, the first drop to coalesce ruptures off-axis on the side closest to the second drop. The volumetric velocity and vorticity fields indicate an asymmetric collapse of the drop for 0.1drop while the capillary waves are axisymmetric.

  13. Laser eye protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Ralph G.; Labo, Jack A.; Mayo, Michael W.

    1990-07-01

    Laser applications have proliferated in recent years and as to be expected their presence is no longer confined to the laboratory or places where access to their radiation can be easily controlled. One obvious application where this is so is in military operations where various devices such as laser range finders target designators and secure communications equipment elevate the risk of exposure specifically eye exposure to unacceptable levels. Although the need for eye protection in the laboratory and other controlled areas has been appreciated since the invention of the laser the use of lasers in circumstances where safety or the risk of temporary loss of vision which can not always be ensured by administrative procedures has made adequate eye protection essential. It is the critical nature of many military operations that has driven the search for eye protection against both nuclear and laser radiation. At the same time the requirement to maintain useful vision during irradiation as well as advances in laser technology have complicated the problem enormously. Pertinent aspects of the problem such as laser characteristics- -pulse width repetition rate laser wavelength tunability or agility as well as laser power or energy have been placed in perspective. In addition possible effects on vision for various exposures have been estimated as have the characteristics required of eye protective devices. Various classes of devices are discussed and advantages and disadvantages noted. 1.

  14. Self-Reported Utilization of Eye Care among Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES)

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Leo S.; Varma, Rohit; Paz, Sylvia H.; Lai, Mei Ying; Mazhar, Kashif; Andersen, Ronald M.; Azen, Stanley P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To identify the prevalence and determinants of self-reported eye care utilization in Latinos. Design Population-based ocular epidemiological study in Latinos age 40+ living in La Puente, California. Participants 5,455 participants. Methods Univariate, multivariable and stepwise logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predisposing, enabling and need variables associated with self-reported eye care utilization. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of self-reported utilization: eye care visit, having had a dilated examination in the past 12 months, ever having had a dilated examination, and odds ratios for factors associated with self-reported utilization. Results Overall, 36% of participants reported an eye care visit and 19% reported having a dilated examination in the past year. Fifty-seven percent reported ever having had a dilated eye examination. Greater eye care utilization was associated with older age, female gender, bilingual language proficiency (English and Spanish), more education, having health insurance, having a usual place for care, having a regular provider of care, greater number of co-morbidities, visual impairment, and lower vision-specific quality of life scores. Conclusions Increasing utilization and access to eye care for Latinos should be a priority because visual impairment has significant impacts on well-being and mortality. PMID:20018380

  15. Drop motion induced by vertical vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Paolo; Quagliati, Damiano; Varagnolo, Silvia; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Magaletti, Francesco; Massimo Casciola, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    We have studied the motion of liquid drops on an inclined plate subject to vertical vibrations. The liquids comprised distilled water and different aqueous solutions of glycerol, ethanol and isopropanol spanning the range 1-39 mm2 s-1 in kinematic viscosities and 40-72 mN m-1 in surface tension. At sufficiently low oscillating amplitudes, the drops are always pinned to the surface. Vibrating the plate above a certain amplitude yields sliding of the drop. Further increasing the oscillating amplitude drives the drop upward against gravity. In the case of the most hydrophilic aqueous solutions, this motion is not observed and the drop only slides downward. Images taken with a fast camera show that the drop profile evolves in a different way during sliding and climbing. In particular, the climbing drop experiences a much bigger variation in its profile during an oscillating period. Complementary numerical simulations of 2D drops based on a diffuse interface approach confirm the experimental findings. The overall qualitative behavior is reproduced suggesting that the contact line pinning due to contact angle hysteresis is not necessary to explain the drop climbing.

  16. Dropped head presentation of mitochondrial myopathy.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Fazal; Gupta, Devanshi; Bertorini, Tulio E; Ledoux, Mark S

    2003-12-01

    Dropped head secondary to weakness of the neck extensors has been reported in a wide assortment of neuromuscular disorders. Infrequently, dropped head can be the first sign of disease. We describe two patients with dropped head as the presenting manifestation of mitochondrial myopathy. In both patients, serum lactate was elevated and muscle biopsy showed mitochondrial proliferation. Mitochondrial myopathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dropped head syndrome, particularly when other, more common causes such as myasthenia gravis, polymyositis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have been excluded by appropriate laboratory and electrophysiological studies.

  17. Motility of active fluid drops on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoromskaia, Diana; Alexander, Gareth P.

    2015-12-01

    Drops of active liquid crystal have recently shown the ability to self-propel, which was associated with topological defects in the orientation of active filaments [Sanchez et al., Nature 491, 431 (2013), 10.1038/nature11591]. Here, we study the onset and different aspects of motility of a three-dimensional drop of active fluid on a planar surface. We analyze theoretically how motility is affected by orientation profiles with defects of various types and locations, by the shape of the drop, and by surface friction at the substrate. In the scope of a thin drop approximation, we derive exact expressions for the flow in the drop that is generated by a given orientation profile. The flow has a natural decomposition into terms that depend entirely on the geometrical properties of the orientation profile, i.e., its bend and splay, and a term coupling the orientation to the shape of the drop. We find that asymmetric splay or bend generates a directed bulk flow and enables the drop to move, with maximal speeds achieved when the splay or bend is induced by a topological defect in the interior of the drop. In motile drops the direction and speed of self-propulsion is controlled by friction at the substrate.

  18. Numerical simulations of vibrating sessile drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahouadji, Lyes; Chergui, Jalel; Juric, Damir; Shin, Seungwon; Craster, Richard; Matar, Omar

    2016-11-01

    A vibrated drop constitutes a very rich physical system, blending both interfacial and volume phenomena. A remarkable experimental study was performed by M. Costalonga highlighting sessile drop motion subject to horizontal, vertical and oblique vibration. Several intriguing phenomena are observed such as drop walking and rapid droplet ejection. We perform three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of vibrating sessile drops where the phenomena described above are computed using the massively parallel multiphase code BLUE. EPSRC UK Programme Grant MEMPHIS (EP/K003976/1).

  19. Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human infant eye.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T Rowan; Teel, Danielle F W; Jacobs, Robert J

    2008-09-01

    Although the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the adult eye has been studied, there are no data collected from the human infant eye. A chromatic retinoscope was used to measure cyclopleged infant and adult refractions with four pseudomonochromatic sources (centered at 472, 538, 589, and 652 nm) and with polychromatic light. The LCA of the infant eyes between 472 and 652 nm was a factor of 1.7 greater than the LCA found in the adult group: infant mean=1.62 D, SD+/- 0.14 D; adult mean=0.96 D, SD+/- 0.17 D. The elevated level of LCA in infant eyes is consistent with the greater optical power of the immature eye and indicates similar chromatic dispersion in infant and adult eyes. The implications for visual performance, defocus detection, and measurement of refraction are discussed.

  20. Correlation for Sessile Drop Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Zion, Peter; Pursell, Christopher; Wassom, Gregory; Mandelkorn, Brenton; Nkinthorn, Chris

    2016-11-01

    To better understand how the evaporation of sessile drops and small puddles is controlled by the vapor phase transport mechanisms of mass diffusion and buoyancy-induced convection, the evaporation rates of eight liquids evaporating under a broad range of ambient conditions were correlated with physical and geometrical properties. Examination of the correlation provides valuable insight into how the roles of diffusive and convective transport change with physical and geometrical parameters. The correlation predicts measured evaporation rates to within a root-mean-square error of 7.3%. The correlation is composed of two terms, a term which provides the rate of evaporation under diffusion-only conditions, and a term which provides the influence of convection. This second term suggests the manner in which the processes of diffusion and convection are coupled. Both processes are dependent on the distribution of the vapor, through the molar concentration gradient for diffusion and through the mass density gradient for convection. The term representing the influence of convection is approximately inversely proportional to the square root of diffusivity, indicating the tendency of diffusive transport to reduce convection by making the vapor distribution more uniform. Financial support was provided by the ACS Petroleum Research Fund.

  1. New perspectives on eye development and the evolution of eyes and photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Gehring, W J

    2005-01-01

    Recent experiments on the genetic control of eye development have opened up a completely new perspective on eye evolution. The demonstration that targeted expression of one and the same master control gene, that is, Pax6 can induce the formation of ectopic eyes in both insects and vertebrates, necessitates a reconsideration of the dogma of a polyphyletic origin of the various eye types in all the animal phyla. The involvement of Pax6 and six1 and six3 genes, which encode highly conserved transcription factors, in the genetic control of eye development in organisms ranging from planarians to humans argues strongly for a monophyletic origin of the eye. Because transcription factors can control the expression of any target gene provided it contains the appropriate gene regulatory elements, the conservation of the genetic control of eye development by Pax6 among all bilaterian animals is not due to functional constraints but a consequence of its evolutionary history. The prototypic eyes postulated by Darwin to consist of two cells only, a photoreceptor and a pigment cell, were accidentally controlled by Pax6 and the subsequent evolution of the various eye types occurred by building onto this original genetic program. A hypothesis of intercalary evolution is proposed that assumes that the eye morphogenetic pathway is progressively modified by intercalation of genes between the master control genes on the top of the hierarchy and the structural genes like rhodopsin at the bottom. The recruitment of novel genes into the eye morphogenetic pathway can be due to at least two different genetic mechanisms, gene duplication and enhancer fusion.In tracing back the evolution of eyes beyond bilaterians, we find highly developed eyes in some box-jellyfish as well as in some Hydrozoans. In Hydrozoans the same orthologous six genes (six1 and six3) are required for eye regeneration as in planarians, and in the box jellyfish Tripedalia a pax B gene, which may be a precursor of Pax6

  2. Functional analysis of the role of eyes absent and sine oculis in the developing eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Akira; Kurita, Kazuki; Terasawa, Taiki; Nakamura, Taro; Bando, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Yoshiyuki; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2012-02-01

    In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect, the compound eyes begin to form in the embryo and increase 5-6 fold in size during the postembryonic development of the nymphal stage. Retinal stem cells in the anteroventral proliferation zone (AVPZ) of the nymphal eye proliferate to increase retinal progenitors, which then differentiate to form new ommatidia in the anterior region of the eye. However, mechanisms underlying this type of eye formation have not been well elucidated yet. Here, we found that the homologues of the retinal determination transcription factor genes of eyes absent (eya) and sine oculis (so) are expressed during the cricket embryonic eye formation. eya is also expressed intensely in the AVPZ of the nymphal eye. To explore their functions, we performed knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of Gb'eya resulted in loss of the embryonic eye. In the nymphal eye, RNAi against Gb'eya or Gb'so impaired retinal morphology by apparently transforming cornea structures into head cuticle. These results imply that Gb'eya and Gb'so are essential for the differentiation of the retinal progenitor cells and maintaining retinal structures during eye development.

  3. Photorefraction of the Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-02-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical principles underlying the method for eccentric photorefraction and describe how students can perform it using current digital cameras. Our purpose is not to diagnose refractive errors reliably, but to use devices popular among young people that, in combination with an important ophthalmic context, may be successful in improving students' interest for learning optical concepts.

  4. Eye pathologies in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, Nyaish; Mansoor, Tihami; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, newborn assessment incorporates a screening eye examination for any structural abnormalities, observation of neonate's visual behaviour and direct ophthalmoscopy examination looking for red reflex. Early identification and immediate management of eye related pathologies should commence soon after birth as early diagnosis and prompt intervention may have significant impact on the prognosis for many potentially blinding but treatable disorders such as congenital cataracts and retinoblastoma. If left undetected and untreated, such problems may potentially lead to irreversible damage to the vision which persists into adulthood resulting in lack of self-confidence together with difficulties in educational attainment and job opportunities. PMID:28003988

  5. [Tear osmolarity and dry eye].

    PubMed

    Pan, Shi-yin; Xiao, Xiang-hua; Wang, Yang-zheng; Liu, Xian-ning; Zhu, Xiu-ping

    2011-05-01

    Dry eye is a common eye disease, and its incidence rate has been escalating. The increased tear osmolarity is one of the main reasons for complaint, damage and inflammation of dry eye patients. With the breakthrough of testing technology for tear osmolarity, more research and application of tear osmolarity was reported, and papers on tear osmolarity of normal eye and dry eye in different regions were also published. In this article, the progress of the tear osmolarity research, the range of tear osmolarity and its application in diagnosis and therapy of dry eye was introduced, and the prospect for the clinical application of hypotonic artificial tears was also discussed.

  6. Eye evolution: two eyes can be better than one.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kenneth W

    2009-03-10

    The development of our eyes is owed in part to ancestral structures which functioned in phototaxis. With the origin of bilateral annelid larva, two eyes co-evolved with neurons to improve phototaxis performance.

  7. Mixing in colliding, ultrasonically levitated drops.

    PubMed

    Chainani, Edward T; Choi, Woo-Hyuck; Ngo, Khanh T; Scheeline, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Lab-in-a-drop, using ultrasonic levitation, has been actively investigated for the last two decades. Benefits include lack of contact between solutions and an apparatus and a lack of sample cross-contamination. Understanding and controlling mixing in the levitated drop is necessary for using an acoustically levitated drop as a microreactor, particularly for studying kinetics. A pulsed electrostatic delivery system enables addition and mixing of a desired-volume droplet with the levitated drop. Measurement of mixing kinetics is obtained by high-speed video monitoring of a titration reaction. Drop heterogeneity is visualized as 370 nl of 0.25 M KOH (pH: 13.4) was added to 3.7 μL of 0.058 M HCl (pH: 1.24). Spontaneous mixing time is about 2 s. Following droplet impact, the mixed drop orbits the levitator axis at about 5 Hz during homogenization. The video's green channel (maximum response near 540 nm) shows the color change due to phenolphthalein absorption. While mixing is at least an order of magnitude faster in the levitated drop compared with three-dimensional diffusion, modulation of the acoustic waveform near the surface acoustic wave resonance frequency of the levitated drop does not substantially reduce mixing time.

  8. Spatial Distribution of Large Cloud Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Larsen, M.; Wiscombe, W.

    2004-01-01

    By analyzing aircraft measurements of individual drop sizes in clouds, we have shown in a companion paper (Knyazikhin et al., 2004) that the probability of finding a drop of radius r at a linear scale l decreases as l(sup D(r)) where 0 less than or equal to D(r) less than or equal to 1. This paper shows striking examples of the spatial distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently used models that assume homogeneity and therefore a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models show strong drop clustering, the more so the larger the drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents D(r). The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. This clustering has vital consequences for rain physics explaining how rain can form so fast. It also helps explain why remotely sensed cloud drop size is generally biased and why clouds absorb more sunlight than conventional radiative transfer models predict.

  9. Dropped head syndrome in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kashihara, Kenichi; Ohno, Manabu; Tomita, Susumu

    2006-08-01

    We determined the frequency of dropped head syndrome in Parkinson's disease (PD) in Japan and evaluated its clinical correlates. A total of 252 consecutive patients with PD who visited our hospital were studied. Dropped head syndrome was found in 15 patients (6.0%) (3 men, 12 women; mean age at onset of PD, 62.8 +/- 11.5 years). The interval before emergence of dropped head after disease onset was 5.4 +/- 4.3 years (-0.5 to 15 years). The Hoehn-Yahr score at the on stage was 3.2 +/- 0.7; at the off stage 3.5 +/- 0.8. Of those 15 patients, 8 had major symptoms of rigidity and akinesia. In 2 patients, administration of a dopamine agonist appeared to evoke dropped head syndrome. An increase in and/or the addition of antiparkinsonian drugs alleviated head drop in 4 patients and reduced head drop in 7 patients. Any medication was not effective for 4 patients. Dropped head syndrome in PD is not rare in Japan. It is more often observed in women and is associated with patients who primarily suffer rigidity and akinesia. Dropped head syndrome in these patients appears to be produced by disproportionate tonus of the neck muscles. It is modulated by antiparkinsonian drugs and is considered to be a type of dystonia.

  10. Drops and Bubble in Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The formation of extended p-n junctions in semiconductors by drop migration, mechanisms and morphologies of migrating drops and bubbles in solids and nucleation and corrections to the Volmer-Weber equations are discussed. Bubble shrinkage in the processing of glass, the formation of glass microshells as laser-fusion targets, and radiation-induced voids in nuclear reactors were examined.

  11. Drop Ejection From an Oscillating Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, E. D.; Basaran, O. A.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a drop of a Newtonian liquid that is pendant from or sessile on a solid rod that is forced to undergo time-periodic oscillations along its axis is studied theoretically. The free boundary problem governing the time evolution of the shape of the drop and the flow field inside it is solved by a method of lines using a finite element algorithm incorporating an adaptive mesh. When the forcing amplitude is small, the drop approaches a limit cycle at large times and undergoes steady oscillations thereafter. However, drop breakup is the consequence if the forcing amplitude exceeds a critical value. Over a wide range of amplitudes above this critical value, drop ejection from the rod occurs during the second oscillation period from the commencement of rod motion. Remarkably, the shape of the interface at breakup and the volume of the primary drop formed are insensitive to changes in forcing amplitude. The interface shape at times close to and at breakup is a multi-valued function of distance measured along the rod axis and hence cannot be described by recently popularized one-dimensional approximations. The computations show that drop ejection occurs without the formation of a long neck. Therefore, this method of drop formation holds promise of preventing formation of undesirable satellite droplets.

  12. Aging, Terminal Decline, and Terminal Drop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman; Cleveland, William

    1976-01-01

    Data from a 20-year longitudinal study of persons over 60 were analyzed by step-wise multiple regression to test for declines in function with age, for terminal decline (linear relationship to time before death), and for terminal drop (curvilinear relationship to time before death). There were no substantial terminal drop effects. (Author)

  13. 49 CFR 178.810 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... design types and performed periodically as specified in § 178.801(e) of this subpart. (b) Special...). (2) Drop tests are to be performed with the solid or liquid to be transported or with a non-hazardous... substituted non-hazardous material used in the drop test for liquids must be similar to the hazardous...

  14. Water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Olin, Pontus; Lindström, Stefan B; Pettersson, Torbjörn; Wågberg, Lars

    2013-07-23

    To investigate water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces, the motion of water drops on three different superhydrophobic surfaces has been studied by allowing drops to slide down an incline and capturing their motion using high-speed video. Two surfaces were prepared using crystallization of an alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax, and the third surface was the leaf of a Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera). The acceleration of the water droplets on these superhydrophobic surfaces was measured as a function of droplet size and inclination of the surface. For small capillary numbers, we propose that the energy dissipation is dominated by intermittent pinning-depinning transitions at microscopic pinning sites along the trailing contact line of the drop, while at capillary numbers exceeding a critical value, energy dissipation is dominated by circulatory flow in the vicinity of the contacting disc between the droplet and the surface. By combining the results of the droplet acceleration with a theoretical model based on energy dissipation, we have introduced a material-specific coefficient called the superhydrophobic sliding resistance, b(sh). Once determined, this parameter is sufficient for predicting the motion of water drops on superhydrophobic surfaces of a general macroscopic topography. This theory also infers the existence of an equilibrium sliding angle, β(eq), at which the drop acceleration is zero. This angle is decreasing with the radius of the drop and is in quantitative agreement with the measured tilt angles required for a stationary drop to start sliding down an incline.

  15. The Eyeful Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debes, John L., III

    Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests show that there is a rise in IQ measurement up to age 5 1/2, yet the IQ levels off and drops at age 8 1/2. The shift from unrestricted television viewing for preschoolers to the emphasis on verbal communication in school may be the cause. Visual languages within a symbolic system could be one method of…

  16. Spectacle-related eye injuries, spectacle-impact performance and eye protection.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Annette K; Philip, Swetha; Dain, Stephen J; Mackey, David A

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to review the prevalence of spectacle-related ocular trauma and the performance of currently available spectacle materials and to identify the risk factors associated with spectacle-related ocular trauma. A literature review was conducted using Medline, Embase and Google with the keywords 'eyeglasses' OR 'spectacles' AND 'ocular injury' / 'eye injury'/ 'eye trauma' / 'ocular trauma'. Articles published prior to 1975 were excluded from this review because of advances in spectacle lens technology and Food and Drug Administration legislative changes requiring impact resistance of all prescription spectacle lenses in the United States. Six hundred and ninety-five individual ocular traumas, for which spectacles contributed to or were the main cause of injury, were identified in the literature. Eye injuries occurred when spectacles were worn in sports, in which medium- to high-impact energies were exerted from balls, racquets or bats and/or as a result of a collision with another player. Frame, lens design and product material choice were found to be associated with ocular injury, with polycarbonate lenses cited as the material of choice in the literature. International, regional and national standards for spectacle lenses had a wide range of impact requirements for prescription spectacle lenses, sports eye protection and occupational eye protection. Spectacle-related injury represents a small but preventable cause of ocular injury. With the increasing numbers of spectacle wearers and calls to spend more time outdoors to reduce myopia, spectacle wearers need to be made aware of the potential risks associated with wearing spectacles during medium- to high-risk activities. At particular risk are those prone to falls, the functionally one-eyed, those who have corneal thinning or have had previous eye surgery or injury. With increased understanding of specific risk factors, performance guidelines can be developed for prescription spectacle eye

  17. Indian Soldiers Need Eye Protection

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Combat-related eye injuries entail enormous financial, social and psychological cost. Military Combat Eye Protection (MCEP) decreases both the incidence and severity of eye injuries. Experts have recognised the need for MCEP for Indian soldiers. We aim to review the combat-related eye injuries and combat eye protection among the Indian soldiers. Global practices of MCEP are also reviewed. We also aim to offer our recommendations for Indian soldiers. We carried out Medline search for combat-related eye injuries and MCEP and separately searched for eye injuries among Indian soldiers during war and other operations. We present the findings as results. Recommendations are based on the opinions of the experts. Combat-related eye injuries increased from 3% of injured in the 1965 Indo-Pakistan War to 4.8% in 1971 war. During peace-keeping operations in Sri Lanka (1987-89) eye injuries increased to 10.5% of the injured. Statistics on eye injuries during counterinsurgency operations are not available. MCEP have shown reduction in eye injuries, and thus MCEP forms a part of personal equipment of the soldiers in developed countries. Indian soldiers do not have provision of MCEP. Combat-related eye injuries among Indian Army soldiers have been increasing. Data on eye injuries during counterinsurgency operations are not available. Indian soldiers do not have provision of MCEP. Provision of MCEP is therefore desirable. Awareness program among the commanders and the soldiers shall result in attitudinal changes and increased compliance. PMID:28384904

  18. Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA): An Outline.

    PubMed

    Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2016-12-01

    Drop shape techniques for the measurement of interfacial tension are powerful, versatile and flexible. The shape of the drop/bubble depends on the balance between surface tension and external forces, e.g. gravity. This balance is reflected mathematically in the Laplace equation of capillarity. Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) is a commonly used drop shape technique. A streamlined version of the development of ADSA over the past several decades is presented to illustrate its validity and range of utility. Several configurations of interest will be considered and presented systematically. Shape and surface tension will be linked to a shape parameter based on proper concepts of differential geometry. The resulting shape parameter will be shown to allow determination of the range of applicability of such a drop shape method.

  19. Undercooling of acoustically levitated molten drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.; Glicksman, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    It was observed that the acoustically levitated molten SCN (succinonitrile) drops can generally be undercooled to a degree where the impurities in the drop are responsible for the nucleation of the solid phase. However, it was also observed that ultrasound occasionally terminates undercooling of the levitated drops by initiating the nucleation of the solid at an undercooling level which is lower than that found for the nucleation catalyzed by the impurities in the drop. This premature nucleation can be explained by thermodynamic considerations which predict an increase in effective undercooling of the liquid upon the collapse of cavities. Pre-existing gas microbubbles which grow under the influence of ultrasound are suggested as the source of cavitation. The highly undercooled SCN drops can be utilized to measure the growth velocity of the solid in the deeply undercooled region including the hypercooled region.

  20. U. S. plastics demand drops sharply

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-28

    According to the Society of the Plastics Industry, plastics demand dropped sharply in the U.S. during second-quarter 1980. U.S. exports of themoplastics are down slightly from year-ago levels, and PVC and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) exports are increasing strongly, but strong exports can not offset a weak domestic market. The weakness in domestic PVC sales is due mostly to large drops in contruction pipe (-49%) and automotive uses, its leading markets, in the last year. LDPE sales have dropped 3% over the year, and 8% in film, LPDE's largest market. Polypropylene's two largest U.S. markets, molding and fibers, have also dropped sharply. Epoxy resin showed a May 1979 to May 1980 gain of 28% in exports, but three other thermosets, polyesters, urea-melamine, and phenolics, have dropped sharply since May 1979.

  1. Universality in freezing of an asymmetric drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Md Farhad; Waghmare, Prashant R.

    2016-12-01

    We present the evidence of universality in conical tip formation during the freezing of arbitrary-shaped sessile droplets. The focus is to demonstrate the relationship between this universality and the liquid drop shape. We observe that, in the case of asymmetric drops, this universal shape is achieved when the tip reconfigures by changing its location, which subsequently alters the frozen drop shape. The proposed "two-triangle" model quantifies the change in the tip configuration as a function of the asymmetry of the drop that shows a good agreement with the experimental evidence. Finally, based on the experimental and theoretical exercise, we propose the scaling dependence between the variations in the tip configuration and the asymmetry of the drop.

  2. Patients dropping out of treatment in Italy.

    PubMed

    Morlino, M; Martucci, G; Musella, V; Bolzan, M; de Girolamo, G

    1995-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the extent and the specific features of drop-out for patients having a first contact with an university psychiatric outpatient clinic in Italy over the course of 1 year and to determine which variables were associated with early termination of treatment. Of the 158 patients selected for this study, there was an overall 3-month drop-out rate following the first visit of 63%. Of the 59 patients who had returned once after the initial contact, 28 interrupted subsequently the treatment, although the therapist's plan included further visits. The overall drop-out rate at 3 months was thus 82%. The only 2 variables associated with drop-out rates were the patients' perception of the severity of their disorder and the psychiatric history: continuing patients were more frequently in agreement with the clinician's judgment as compared with those who dropped out and were more likely to have already been in psychiatric treatment.

  3. Particle-drop Impact in Midair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirfazli, Alidad; Strzebin, Stefan; Peise, Oliver; Chevrollier, David

    2011-11-01

    For the first time the impact of a drop and particle in the mid-air is studied, which is a fundamental physical phenomenon relevant to many applications involving a fluidized bed and a liquid jet, e.g. drug particle coating, and upgrading of heavy oil. To date it has not been clear what happens when a particle and drop collide in midair. An apparatus was build to allow deterministic impact of a particle and drop to occur in midair. Using high speed imaging the impact of three different particles with water drops is studied at different relative velocities. Possible collision outcomes are elucidated in terms of particle-drop diameter ratio, Weber number, and particle wettability. Three distinct regimes of bonding, ripping and coating, and shattering are identified and discussed in this novel study. The differences between on-axis versus off-axis impact is also briefly discussed. NSERC & Canada Research Chairs.

  4. Dynamic Stability of Equilibrium Capillary Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, William M.; Kim, Inwon C.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate a model for contact angle motion of quasi-static capillary drops resting on a horizontal plane. We prove global in time existence and long time behavior (convergence to equilibrium) in a class of star-shaped initial data for which we show that topological changes of drops can be ruled out for all times. Our result applies to any drop which is initially star-shaped with respect to a small ball inside the drop, given that the volume of the drop is sufficiently large. For the analysis, we combine geometric arguments based on the moving-plane type method with energy dissipation methods based on the formal gradient flow structure of the problem.

  5. CPAS Preflight Drop Test Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, Megan E.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Romero, Leah M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) drop test program, the CPAS Analysis Team has developed a simulation and analysis process to support drop test planning and execution. This process includes multiple phases focused on developing test simulations and communicating results to all groups involved in the drop test. CPAS Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series drop test planning begins with the development of a basic operational concept for each test. Trajectory simulation tools include the Flight Analysis and Simulation Tool (FAST) for single bodies, and the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulation for the mated vehicle. Results are communicated to the team at the Test Configuration Review (TCR) and Test Readiness Review (TRR), as well as at Analysis Integrated Product Team (IPT) meetings in earlier and intermediate phases of the pre-test planning. The ability to plan and communicate efficiently with rapidly changing objectives and tight schedule constraints is a necessity for safe and successful drop tests.

  6. Efficient emulsification of viscous oils at high drop volume fraction.

    PubMed

    Tcholakova, Slavka; Lesov, Ivan; Golemanov, Konstantin; Denkov, Nikolai D; Judat, Sonja; Engel, Robert; Danner, Thomas

    2011-12-20

    It is shown experimentally in this study that the increase of drop volume fraction can be used as an efficient tool for emulsification of viscous oils in turbulent flow. In a systematic series of experiments, the effects of drop volume fraction and viscosity of the dispersed phase on the mean, d(32), and maximum, d(V95), diameters of the drops, formed during emulsification, are quantified. The volume fraction, Φ, of the dispersed oily phase is varied between 1% and 90%, and oils with viscosity varying between 3 and 10,000 mPa.s are studied. All experiments are performed at sufficiently high surfactant concentration, as to avoid possible drop-drop coalescence during emulsification. The analysis of the experimental data shows that there is a threshold drop volume fraction, Φ(TR), at which a transition from inertial turbulent regime into viscous turbulent regime of emulsification occurs, due to the increased overall viscosity of the emulsion. At Φ < Φ(TR), d(32) and d(V95) depend weakly on Φ and are well described by known theoretical expression for emulsification in inertial turbulent regime (Davies, Chem. Eng. Sci. 1985, 40, 839), which accounts for the effects of oil viscosity and interfacial tension. At Φ > Φ(TR), both d(32) and polydispersity of the formed emulsions decrease very significantly with the increase of Φ (for the oils with η(D) > 10 mPa.s). Thus, very efficient emulsification of the viscous oils is realized. Very surprisingly, a third regime of emulsification is observed in the range of concentrated emulsions with Φ > 75%, where the mean drop size and emulsion polydispersity are found experimentally to be very similar for all oils and surfactants studied-an experimental fact that does not comply with any of the existing models of drop breakup during emulsification. Possible mechanistic explanations of this result are discussed. The experimental data for semiconcentrated and concentrated emulsions with Φ > Φ(TR) are described by a simple

  7. Fluorescein eye stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blinking spreads the dye and coats the tear film covering the surface of the cornea. The tear film contains water, oil, and mucus to protect and ... is normal, the dye remains in the tear film on the surface of the eye and does ...

  8. The eye of Vesalius.

    PubMed

    De Laey, Jean J

    2011-05-01

    In the time of Vesalius, knowledge of ocular anatomy was limited. The first description of the anatomy of the eye comes from Democrites, for whom the eye was surrounded by two 'coats', filled with a homogenous fluid. The optic nerve was hollow and the lens was considered to be a postmortem artefact. Until the 15th century AD, medicine was influenced by the writings of Galenus and the model of the eye he proposed was still considered valid, even after Vesalius. According to the Alexandrian tradition, the lens was considered as the seat of visual perception. Although Vesalius rightly deserves the title of father of modern anatomy, his description of ocular anatomy was rudimentary and often incorrect. He described a musculus retractorius bulbi, which is found only in lower mammals, not in primates. The lens, the role of which as an optical device he recognized correctly, was placed too centrally in the eye. The optic nerve was not correctly placed and, following Galenus, Vesalius described only seven cranial nerves. The Galenian concept of ocular anatomy was to endure until the development of the microscope by Anthony van Leeuwenhoek. Modern ocular anatomy, in fact, can be dated from the works of Zinn.

  9. Eyes for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

  10. Eye of the Beholder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

  11. The Eyes Have It

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA'S Ames Research Center contracted with SRI international to contract a device that would be able to anticipate, track, and monitor involuntary ocular movement horizontally, vertically, and with respect to depth-of-field. This development helped research institutions to understand the eye. The Eyetracker, manufactured and distributed by Forward Optical Technologies, Inc. is now used in the clinical/medical field.

  12. Administering Eye Medications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

  13. Eye-controlled ''teletypewriter''

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. D.; Leavitt, L. D.; Bowen, H. D.

    1974-01-01

    Oculometer provides dynamic measurement of subject's look direction, and its outputs can be used to generate visual display of his look pattern and/or to cause equipment operation associated with his lookpoint at given times. Measured eye-direction information could be used as control input at man/machine interface.

  14. Dynamic Eye Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in Southeast Asia, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Instructions (with diagrams and parts list) are provided for constructing an eye model with a pliable lens made from a plastic bottle which can vary its convexity to accommodate changing positions of an object being viewed. Also discusses concepts which the model can assist in developing. (Author/SK)

  15. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  16. The blind beautiful eye.

    PubMed

    Feinsod, M

    2000-03-01

    Master Jehan Yperman, a medieval surgeon, observed that when the optic nerve is injured, the eye becomes blind and beautiful. This is an attempt to trace the footsteps of this forgotten surgeon and to track the history of the cosmetic use of the belladonna herb, as well as the concept of amaurotic mydriasis.

  17. Through Students' Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

  18. Through Our Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narva, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

  19. Drugs affecting the eye.

    PubMed

    Taylor, F

    1985-08-01

    This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of

  20. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Dry Eye Treatment by Institutional Chinese Physicians in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wanwen; Lee, Sze Yee; Lee, Man Xin; Tong, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye is a common health problem worldwide, causing significant discomfort and inconvenience to sufferers. The conventional treatment of dry eye via topical administration of eye drops is deemed palliative and unsatisfactory to many. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown some promise in dry eye treatment; however, the extent of its use and acceptance is uncertain. We evaluated the knowledge, attitude, and practice of institutional TCM practitioners in the treatment of dry eye in Singapore. A questionnaire was generated to address the study aims and sent to TCM practitioners listed in the Singapore TCM practitioners' board database. About three quarters of respondents thought that dry eye was not severe enough to be a public health burden but most thought that TCM was effective in the treatment of dry eye. Acupuncture and herbal medicine were most commonly used TCM modalities in dry eye treatment, and a single TCM treatment session would be charged S$20–50 by the practitioner. The majority of surveyed institutional TCM practitioners in Singapore believe that TCM is relevant in dry eye treatment. Public awareness should be raised regarding the availability of TCM as alternative medicine for dry eye. PMID:23213306