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Sample records for factor eye drops

  1. Eye Drop Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  2. Eye drop neurology.

    PubMed

    Bennetto, Luke; Guly, Catherine; Ormerod, Ian; Plant, Gordon T

    2014-06-01

    Eye drops can help to diagnose and prevent complications of neurological disorders. Guttae ophthalmicae (eye drops) are generally safe because the drugs rarely achieve significant systemic concentrations, although there are rare exceptions. This article covers contemporary pharmacological pupil testing; how to dilate a pupil safely; common reasons why pupils do not respond to drops; and corneal lubrication to prevent complications of weak eye closure.

  3. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes used to treat eye diseases, such as amblyopia and inflammation. How long do dilating drops last? ... used to treat certain eye diseases, such as amblyopia and inflammation in the eye. These therapeutic dilating ...

  4. Effects of heat-treatment on plasma rich in growth factors-derived autologous eye drop.

    PubMed

    Anitua, E; Muruzabal, F; De la Fuente, M; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2014-02-01

    We have developed and characterized a new type of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) derived eye-drop therapy for patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. To determine the concentration of several growth factors, proteins, immunoglobulins and complement activity of the heat-inactivated eye-drop and to study its biological effects on cell proliferation and migration of different ocular surface cells, blood from healthy donors was collected, centrifuged and PRGF was prepared avoiding the buffy coat. The half volume of the obtained plasma supernatant from each donor was heat-inactivated at 56 °C for 1 h (heat-inactivated PRGF). The concentration of several proteins involved on corneal wound healing, immunoglubolins G, M and E and functional integrity of the complement system assayed by CH50 test were determined. The proliferative and migratory potential of inactivated and non-inactivated PRGF eye drops were assayed on corneal epithelial cells (HCE), keratocytes (HK) and conjunctival fibroblasts (HConF). Heat-inactivated PRGF preserves the content of most of the proteins and morphogens involved in its wound healing effects while reduces drastically the content of IgE and complement activity. Heat-inactivated PRGF eye drops increased proliferation and migration potential of ocular surface cells with regard to PRGF showing significant differences on proliferation and migration rate of HCE and HConF respectively. In summary, heat-inactivation of PRGF eye drops completely reduced complement activity and deceased significantly the presence of IgE, maintaining the biological activity of PRGF on ocular surface cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of self-reported early glaucoma eye drop bottle exhaustion and associated risk factors: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    Moore, Daniel B; Walton, Charlene; Moeller, Kristy L; Slabaugh, Mark A; Mudumbai, Raghu C; Chen, Philip P

    2014-06-13

    One barrier to patient adherence with chronic topical glaucoma treatment is an inadequate amount of medication available between prescription refills. We examined the self-reported prevalence of early exhaustion of glaucoma eye drops prior to a scheduled refill, and associated risk factors. This cross-sectional survey was performed at a University-based clinical practice. Glaucoma patients at the University of Washington who were experienced with eye drop application and were on a steady regimen of self-administered glaucoma drops in both eyes took a survey at the time of clinic examination. The main outcome measure was self-reported early eye drop bottle exhaustion. 236 patients were eligible and chose to participate. In general, patients included were relatively healthy (mean 2.3 comorbid medical conditions). Sixty patients (25.4%) reported any problem with early exhaustion of eye drop bottles, and this was associated with visual acuity ≤ 20/70 in the better eye (P = .049). Twelve patients (5.1%) reported that they "often" (5-7 times per year), "usually" (8-11 times per year) or "always" ran out of eye drops prior to a scheduled refill. Patients affected by this higher level (≥ 5 times yearly) of eye drop bottle exhaustion were more likely to have poor visual acuity in their worse eye ≤  20/70 (P = .015) and had significantly lower worse-eye logMAR (P = .043). Self-reported early glaucoma bottle exhaustion regularly affected 5% of patients in our population and 25% reported early exhaustion at least once; the main risk factor was poor vision in at least one eye. These results may not be generalizable to a broad patient population, or to those inexperienced with eye drop self-administration. However, this pilot study compels further evaluation and consideration of early eye drop bottle exhaustion in glaucoma patients.

  6. Aids for eye drop administration.

    PubMed

    Davies, Isaiah; Williams, Andrew M; Muir, Kelly W

    One aspect to eye drop adherence is successful instillation of the drops; however, it is well known that many patients struggle with this task. Difficulties may include aiming their drops, extending their neck, preventing excess drop leakage, avoiding contamination of the bottle tip, and generating enough force to expel a drop from the bottle. Instillation aids are devices that aim to ameliorate one or more of these barriers. We review the literature on instillation aids to describe the options available to patients and to report evaluations of their efficacy. Most instillation aids studied improved objective or subjective outcomes of eye drop instillation, including improved rates of successful administration and increased patient satisfaction compared with standard eye-drop bottles. Although further research is warranted, instillation aids may be an underutilized resource for the many patients who struggle to administer their own eye drops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of self-reported early glaucoma eye drop bottle exhaustion and associated risk factors: a patient survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One barrier to patient adherence with chronic topical glaucoma treatment is an inadequate amount of medication available between prescription refills. We examined the self-reported prevalence of early exhaustion of glaucoma eye drops prior to a scheduled refill, and associated risk factors. Methods This cross-sectional survey was performed at a University-based clinical practice. Glaucoma patients at the University of Washington who were experienced with eye drop application and were on a steady regimen of self-administered glaucoma drops in both eyes took a survey at the time of clinic examination. The main outcome measure was self-reported early eye drop bottle exhaustion. Results 236 patients were eligible and chose to participate. In general, patients included were relatively healthy (mean 2.3 comorbid medical conditions). Sixty patients (25.4%) reported any problem with early exhaustion of eye drop bottles, and this was associated with visual acuity ≤ 20/70 in the better eye (P = .049). Twelve patients (5.1%) reported that they “often” (5–7 times per year), “usually” (8–11 times per year) or “always” ran out of eye drops prior to a scheduled refill. Patients affected by this higher level (≥5 times yearly) of eye drop bottle exhaustion were more likely to have poor visual acuity in their worse eye ≤ 20/70 (P = .015) and had significantly lower worse-eye logMAR (P = .043). Conclusions Self-reported early glaucoma bottle exhaustion regularly affected 5% of patients in our population and 25% reported early exhaustion at least once; the main risk factor was poor vision in at least one eye. These results may not be generalizable to a broad patient population, or to those inexperienced with eye drop self-administration. However, this pilot study compels further evaluation and consideration of early eye drop bottle exhaustion in glaucoma patients. PMID:24927769

  8. Eye drop delivery of pigment epithelium-derived factor-34 promotes retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection and axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Esmaeili, Maryam; Deer, Louise; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Ahmed, Zubair

    2015-09-01

    Axotomised retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die rapidly by apoptosis and fail to regenerate because of the limited availability of neurotrophic factors and a lack of axogenic stimuli. However, we have recently showed that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) promotes RGC survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve crush injury. PEDF has multiple fragments of the native peptide that are neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory. Here we investigated the neuroprotective and axogenic properties of a fragment of PEDF, PEDF-34, in retinal neurons in vitro and when delivered by intravitreal injection and eye drops in vivo. We found that PEDF-34 was 43% more neuroprotective and 52% more neuritogenic than PEDF-44 in vitro. Moreover, in vivo, intravitreal delivery of 1.88nM PEDF-34 was 71% RGC neuroprotective at 21days after optic nerve crush compared to intact controls, whilst daily eye drops containing 1.88nM PEDF-34 promoted 87% RGC survival. After topical eye drop delivery, PEDF-34 was detected in the vitreous body within 30min and attained physiologically relevant concentrations in the retina by 4h peaking at 1.4±0.05nM by 14days. In eye drop- compared to intravitreal-treated PEDF-34 animals, 55% more RGC axons regenerated 250μm beyond the optic nerve lesion. We conclude that daily topical eye drop application of PEDF-34 is superior to weekly intravitreal injections in promoting RGC survival and axon regeneration through both direct effects on retinal neurons and indirect effects on other retinal cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The nerve growth factor administrated as eye drops activates mature and precursor cells in subventricular zone of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Tirassa, Paola

    2011-06-01

    The possibility to take advantage from the nerve growth factor (NGF) ability to induce recovery of damaged tissue has been largely explored in animal models and humans. Recently, the successful use of the ocular administration of NGF in ophthalmology, and the evidences that from the eyes NGF can access to the brain have stimulated new fields of research and open further perspectives to the clinical application of this neurotrophin. In our previous studies we have demonstrated the efficacy of NGF eye drop treatment to improved behavioural deficits and recover structural and biochemical alterations occurring follow brain lesion in animals. Since NGF exerts neuroreparative effects in brain by acting on mature neurons and neuronal precursors localised in germinal subventricular zone (SVZ), the present study has been aimed to evaluate the effects of NGF eye drop administration on the expression of the mitotic marker Ki67 in brain of adult rats. We found that a single ocular administration (10 μl) of 200 μg/mL NGF solution is sufficient to enhance the distribution of Ki67 positive cells also expressing p75 neurotrophin receptors in the proliferating layer of the SVZ. In addition, NGF treatment induces an increase of levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in forebrain. This data further supports the efficacy of ocular applied NGF to affect brain activities and suggests that NGF also by inducing local factors, including BDNF, can activate the machinery regulating the proliferation and maturation of neuronal precursor in brain.

  10. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops stimulates scarless regeneration compared to autologous serum in the ocular surface stromal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Anitua, E; de la Fuente, M; Muruzabal, F; Riestra, A; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2015-06-01

    Autologous serum (AS) eye drops was the first blood-derived product used for the treatment of corneal pathologies but nowadays PRGF arises as a novel interesting alternative to this type of diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological outcomes of autologous serum eye drops or Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops on corneal stromal keratocytes (HK) and conjunctival fibroblasts (HConF). To address this, blood from healthy donors was collected and processed to obtain autologous serum (AS) eye drops and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops. Blood-derivates were aliquoted and stored at -80°C until use. PDGF-AB, VEGF, EGF, FGFb and TGF-β1 were quantified. The potential of PRGF and AS in promoting wound healing was evaluated by means of proliferation and migration assays in HK and HConF. Fibroblast cells were induced to myofibroblast differentiation after treatment with 2.5ng/mL of TGF-β1. The capability of PRGF and AS to prevent and inhibit TGF-β1-induced differentiation was evaluated. Results showed significant higher levels of all growth factors analyzed in PRGF eye drops compared to AS. Moreover, PRGF eye drops enhanced significantly the biological outcomes of both HK and HConF, and reduced TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation in contrast to autologous serum eye drops (AS). In summary, these results suggest that PRGF exerts enhanced biological outcomes than AS. PRGF may improve the treatment of ocular surface wound healing minimizing the scar formation compared to AS. Results obtained herein suggest that PRGF protects and reverses the myofibroblast phenotype while promotes cell proliferation and migration.

  11. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

    2014-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that AS serve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye. Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLD MEDLINE, (January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), the meta Register of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data

  12. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Zambrano, Andrea; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Heflin, Thomas; Tang, Li; Akpek, Esen K

    2013-08-27

    =Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) have a potential advantage over traditional therapies based on the assumption that ASserve not only as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication, but also contain other biochemical components mimicking natural tears more closely. The application of AS in dry eye treatment has gained popularity as a second-line therapy in the treatment of dry eye.Published studies on the subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS compared to artificial tears for treating dry eye. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3),Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE,(January 1950 to April 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences(LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2013), themetaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov(www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (September 2013) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 April 2013. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which AS was compared to artificial tears in the treatment of dry eye in adults. Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text articles of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed the methodological quality and characteristics of the included trials.We contacted investigators for missing data. For both primary and secondary outcomes, we reported mean differences with corresponding 95

  13. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-02-28

    Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) offer a potential advantage over traditional therapies on the assumption that AS not only serve as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication but contain other biochemical components that allow them to mimic natural tears more closely. Application of AS has gained popularity as second-line therapy for patients with dry eye. Published studies on this subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. We conducted this review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS given alone or in combination with artificial tears as compared with artificial tears alone, saline, placebo, or no treatment for adults with dry eye. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2016), Embase (January 1980 to July 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (December 2016) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 July 2016. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared AS versus artificial tears for treatment of adults with dry eye. Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text reports of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias and characteristics of included trials. We contacted investigators to ask for missing data. For both primary and

  14. Formulation of indomethacin eye drops via complexation with cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Halim Mohamed, Maaly A; Mahmoud, Azza A

    2011-03-01

    Topically administered indomethacin is used in the management and prevention of ocular inflammation and cystoid macular edema related to cataract surgery and in the maintenance of mydriasis during cataract surgery. Pharmaceutically, the main obstacle in formulating indomethacin as eye drops is its low solubility and aqueous instability. Inclusion complexation of indomethacin with cyclodextrins (CDs) was our interest in this research to obtain stable and effective aqueous indomethacin eye drops. The influence of β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-CD (HP-β-CD), and sulfobutyl ether-β-CD (SBE-β-CD) on indomethacin solubility was investigated. Indomethacin-HP-β-CD complex was prepared and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry and was subjected to in vitro release and stability studies. The anti-inflammatory effect of formulated indomethacin-HP-β-CD eye drops on chemically burned albino rabbit eyes was compared to those of Indocollyre(®) and Voltaren(®) eye drops. HP-β-CD was found to have a high solubilizing effect towards indomethacin and was thus selected for its formulation. Formulated indomethacin-HP-β-CD eye drops exhibited delayed release and high drug stability compared to the drug solution. Draize rabbit eye irritation test and histological examination on albino rabbit eyes treated with indomethacin-HP-β-CD eye drops revealed that these eye drops were non-irritant. The anti-inflammatory studies indicated that formulating indomethacin eye drops via complexation with HP-β-CD significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy of the indomethacin compared to the investigated eye drops. An aqueous ocular delivery system for the poor water soluble anti-inflammatory indomethacin was prepared using HP-β-CD as a complexing agent. Besides a sufficient solubility for the drug, many factors were studied in the development of this system, such as stability and safety. In addition, indomethacin-HP-β-CD eye drops

  15. Growth suppression caused by corticosteroid eye drops.

    PubMed

    Wolthers, Ole D

    2011-01-01

    Scarce data on systemic activity of corticosteroid eye drops are available in children. Two weeks treatment with fluorometholone eye drops in a case series of five children caused growth suppression detected by knemometry. The suppression had no impact on height growth during the following year.

  16. Pharmacological profile of oxaprozin eye drops.

    PubMed

    Bucolo, Claudio; Maltese, Adriana

    2002-02-01

    The effects of eye drops containing a propionic acid derivative (oxaprozin) at 0.1% concentration on ocular inflammation produced by sodium arachidonate in the rabbit's eye were evaluated. Furthermore, the aqueous bioavailability of the drug formulation in the uninflamed and inflamed eyes was evaluated. Oxaprozin eye drops significantly reduced the signs of ocular inflammation elicited by sodium arachidonate on conjunctiva and iris. Oxaprozin treatment significantly reduced the levels of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and protein concentration in aqueous samples obtained from the eyes treated with arachidonate. Present data suggest, for the first time, that oxaprozin may be employed topically to prevent ocular reactions where the arachidonic acid cascade is activated.

  17. Stability of cefepime in aqueous eye drops.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Pawłowska, M; Rumiński, J K; Bartosińska, A; Kieliba, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine HPLC the stability of cefepime in 1% and 5% buffered eye drops of developed formulary composition, which were stored for 30 days at the temperature of 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C, protected from light. Separation was performed on RP18 Gemini octadecylsilane column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5.0 microm) at a temperature of 25 degrees C. The mobile phase consisted of 0.015 M solution of sodium salt of pentane sulphonic acid brought to pH 4.0 with glacial acetic acid and 45% KOH solution and acetonitrile 94:6 w/w, with detection of 254 nm. The method was linear in the range of 12.6-125 microg/ml (R2 = 0.9996). The limit of detection (LOD) was 3 microg/ml and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10 microg/ml. 10% degradation of cefepime in 1% and 5% buffered eye drops stored at the temperature of 4 degrees C, depending on the composition of the eye drops, occurred after 21-27 days in 1% eye drops and 18-21 days in 5% eye drops. In the eye drops, which were stored at the temperature of 20 degrees C, 10% degradation of cefepime took place on the third day of storage regardless of formulary composition of 1% and 5% drops. Cefepime stability lasting a couple of weeks in 1% and 5% solution allows extemporaneous preparation of buffered eye drops containing cefepime.

  18. Eye drop instillation technique in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Tatham, A J; Sarodia, U; Gatrad, F; Awan, A

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the technique of eye drop instillation in patients with glaucoma and assess factors associated with a good technique. A cross-sectional observational study of 85 participants using self-administered topical medication for glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Patients were asked to demonstrate how they normally instil eye drops using a 5-ml bottle of sterile artificial tear solution. The procedure was recorded and assessed by two masked graders. Whether the patient had been previously shown how to instil drops, the number of eye medications used, and self-perceived difficulty of using drops were also recorded. Univariable logistic regression was performed to relate each variable to drop technique and variables with P<0.2 were included in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. 54.1% (46/85) of patients had a poor drop technique, 11.8% (10/85) missed the eye, 15.3% (13/85) touched the tip of the bottle to the bulbar conjunctiva or cornea, and 27.1% (23/85) touched the eyelid or lashes with the bottle tip. 81.2% (69/85) could not recall being shown how to instil eye drops. In the multivariable model, previous instruction regarding drop instillation technique was significantly associated with good technique (adjusted OR=8.17, 95% CI 2.02-33.05, P=0.003) and increasing age was associated with poor technique (adjusted OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99, P=0.017). Education relating to eye drop instillation technique is significantly associated with a patient's ability to instil drops correctly. The assessment of a patient's ability to instil eye drops correctly should be a routine part of the glaucoma examination.

  19. Eye drop instillation technique in patients with glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tatham, A J; Sarodia, U; Gatrad, F; Awan, A

    2013-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the technique of eye drop instillation in patients with glaucoma and assess factors associated with a good technique. Methods A cross-sectional observational study of 85 participants using self-administered topical medication for glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Patients were asked to demonstrate how they normally instil eye drops using a 5-ml bottle of sterile artificial tear solution. The procedure was recorded and assessed by two masked graders. Whether the patient had been previously shown how to instil drops, the number of eye medications used, and self-perceived difficulty of using drops were also recorded. Univariable logistic regression was performed to relate each variable to drop technique and variables with P<0.2 were included in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results 54.1% (46/85) of patients had a poor drop technique, 11.8% (10/85) missed the eye, 15.3% (13/85) touched the tip of the bottle to the bulbar conjunctiva or cornea, and 27.1% (23/85) touched the eyelid or lashes with the bottle tip. 81.2% (69/85) could not recall being shown how to instil eye drops. In the multivariable model, previous instruction regarding drop instillation technique was significantly associated with good technique (adjusted OR=8.17, 95% CI 2.02–33.05, P=0.003) and increasing age was associated with poor technique (adjusted OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.91–0.99, P=0.017). Conclusions Education relating to eye drop instillation technique is significantly associated with a patient's ability to instil drops correctly. The assessment of a patient's ability to instil eye drops correctly should be a routine part of the glaucoma examination. PMID:23970024

  20. How to administer eye drops and eye ointment.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Mary

    2016-05-25

    Rationale and key points Eye drops and eye ointment are the mainstay of treatment of ocular conditions. Failure to prioritise administration of these medicines can prolong the condition and may present a risk to the patient's vision. ▶ Eye drops and eye ointments are used to treat acute and chronic conditions of the eye and surrounding structures. Eye drops must be instilled before applying eye ointment, since the ointment will affect the absorption of the eye drop. ▶ Nurses require knowledge of the technique, side effects and potential interactions associated with systemically or topically applied medicines to the eye to ensure patient safety and optimum outcomes. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article will change your practice. 2. How you intend to develop your knowledge and skills regarding treatment of ocular conditions. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio.

  1. [A correct understanding of preservatives in eye drops].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuguo; Huang, Caihong

    2015-09-01

    Eye drops are the most commonly used preparations in ophthalmology. Preservatives are usually added in order to protect eye drops against pathogenic organisms and increase the solubility of the drugs in multi-dose containers. Ophthalmologists have paid a lot of attention to the preservatives in eye drops because they remain one of the main reasons for ocular surface damage, and even may lead to serious visual impairment in patients with inappropriate use of eye drops. However, it should be noted that the dangers of preservatives become overstated nowadays. It is necessary to completely evaluate the effects of preservatives in ophthalmic preparations, so that ophthalmologists can guide patients to correctly select eye drops containing preservatives and avoid dangerous side effects, according to their eye disease situation, state of tear function and ocular surface changes, cultural background and financial income, cost and benefit and convenience of the use of drugs, and other factors. The direction of the future development in this field is to establish the clinical guideline for use of eye drops containing preservatives, carry out continuing education courses on preservatives and develop ideal preservatives.

  2. [Study of cytotoxic and antiviral effects of some eye drops].

    PubMed

    Dediulescu, Lucreţia; Dediulescu, Daniela Florentina

    2008-01-01

    The study of the cytotoxic and antiviral effect of six commercial mixtures, eye drops type, underlined the advantages of using eye drops with Indomethacin for Herpetic Keratitis, due to the antiviral effect and also for the lack of cytotoxicity.

  3. Protocol of Blood Serum Eye Drops.

    PubMed

    Katsakoulas, Ioannis; Lougovoi, Claudia; Paraskevopoulou, Penelope; Vougioukas, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is one of the most frequent diagnoses for seeking eye care. Accumulated evidence over the past three decades has revealed a significant contribution of several molecules contained in tears at the homeostasis of the epithelium of the ocular surface. Therefore, autologous blood serum in the form of eye drops can provide substantial help in the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Also making this a favorable treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the fact that this approach has become an insurance-covered benefit in some countries. This report demonstrates a formulation of blood serum eye drops with the purpose of providing an alternative to the marked absence of a universally established protocol. Exclusion criteria, equipment, preservation, dosage, duration, and guidelines for patients are described. Also included are details on the treatment of one representative embodiment. All (pre-/post-)analytical considerations and the total cost are addressed. Outcome measures such as Schirmer' s test, break up time, and Ocular Surface Disease Index score are recorded before treatment, at 1 and 2 months, ideally as monotherapy with 100% serum q.i.d. Blood serum isolated under aseptic conditions maintained throughout is delivered as a ready-to-use formulation to the patient. Serum eye drops should be included in the modern armamentarium against keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and, hopefully, their eventual widespread application will result in coverage by most if not all insurance funds. The implementation described contributes to the hopeful establishment of a standardized protocol and provides a potentially benefit of a low-cost, applicable treatment of the ocular epithelium without side effects.

  4. Cord blood serum-based eye drops: the impact of donor haematological and obstetric factors on the variability of epidermal growth factor levels.

    PubMed

    Versura, Piera; Buzzi, Marina; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Grillini, Marco; Terzi, Adriana; Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo; Campos, Emilio C

    2014-01-01

    Cord blood serum (CBS)-based eye drops are successfully used in corneal epithelial wound healing and are prepared to supply a known amount of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Product standardisation includes expensive EGF dosage in all cord blood (CB) units. The influence of donor obstetric and haematological characteristics on EGF content was evaluated, to exclude unsuitable CBS and pre-select those CB units able to provide the correct EGF supply for healing corneal wounds. Data were retrospectively collected from 135 donors included in the Emilia Romagna Cord Blood Bank records. Obstetric characteristics, parity and gestational age of the mother, sex, birth weight and Apgar score of the neonate, placental weight, duration of labour and mode of delivery were considered. Haematological characteristics, CD34+ cell number, and total nucleated cell, white blood cell and platelet counts were recorded. EGF content in CB units was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical evaluation was performed by Mann-Whitney unpaired and Student's t tests. Correlations between variables were evaluated by using Pearson's (r) or Spearman's (ρ) correlation coefficients. EGF content was significantly higher in CBS from donors aged <30 years and after vaginal deliveries as compared with scheduled Caesarean sections (1,386±580 vs 1,106±391 pg/mL; P=0.002). EGF content was significantly correlated with duration of labour (r=0.45; P=0.0001), number of CD34+ cells/mL (r=0.3; P=0.002) particularly in vaginal deliveries (r=0.36; P=0.003), mother's age (-0.25; P=0.005), neonate's birth weight (r=0.27; P=0.005), and total nucleated cell (r=0.25; P=0.006), white cell (r=0.29; P=0.001) and platelet (r=0.24; P=0.009) counts. No significant correlations were found between EGF content and parity, gestational age, placental weight, neonate's sex or Apgar scores. EGF levels are higher in CB units from younger mothers (<30 years), with longer labour duration (>6 hours), and higher CD34

  5. Digital eye drop instillation--a novel method.

    PubMed

    Krilis, Matthew; Coroneo, Minas

    2013-04-01

    Local drug treatment in ophthalmology by the use of eye drops has meant that potent drugs can be used, thereby minimising systemic side effects. While seemingly a simple task, insertion of eye drops can be problematic for certain patients and in particular circumstances. To describe a novel method for the administration of eye drops, which overcomes the main problems of conventional eye drop administration. Our pragmatic method of eye drop application provides a way of improving compliance and reducing ocular surface injury. Our experience to date is that the technique is at least as safe as that used for insertion of contact lenses from an infection risk perspective.

  6. Serum eye drop preparation in Australia: Current manufacturing practice.

    PubMed

    Marks, Denese C; Fisher, Jenny; Mondy, Phillip; Segatchian, Jerard; Dennington, Peta M

    2015-08-01

    Serum eye drops are used to treat diseases such as dry eye syndrome (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), a disease of the surface of the eye that results in an unstable tear film. Patients are referred to the Australian Red Cross Blood Service by ophthalmologists for autologous serum eye drops when other therapies such as artificial tears or topical immunosuppressive agents have failed. In order to manufacture autologous serum eye drops, whole blood is collected from the patients using standard blood collection procedures. The blood is then allowed to clot to produce serum and processed into 20% serum eye drops, which are then returned to the patient for their own use. The eye drops are packaged into a long length of tubing, which is then heat-sealed to produce single-use segments. The demand for serum eye drops in Australia is increasing every year, with a 30% increase in the past 12 months.

  7. Topical dobesilate eye drops for ophthalmic primary pterygium

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Pedro; Outeiriño, Luis A; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Selective inhibition of fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor signalling pathways is effective in causing regression of pterygia. Prompt regression of fibrovascular mass and conjunctival angiogenesis was documented 2 weeks after topical administration of dobesilate eye drops twice daily. At 3-month follow-up, no recurrence was seen and no ocular irritation and burning were noted. The authors believe that this is the first known successful use of topical dobesilate in primary pterygium. PMID:22605609

  8. Comparison of azelastine eye drops with levocabastine eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Giede, C; Metzenauer, P; Petzold, U; Ellers-Lenz, B

    2000-01-01

    A randomised, multicentre parallel group study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of 0.05% azelastine eye drops (101 patients) in an open manner with 0.05% levocabastine eye drops (103 patients) and in a double-blind manner with placebo (103 patients) during a 14-day treatment period involving patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. The three main eye symptoms, scored on a four-point scale, were itching, lacrimation and conjunctival redness; the primary efficacy variable was the responder rate on day 3. Responders were patients whose sum score of the three main eye symptoms decreased by at least three points from a baseline score of at least six points. In addition to these main symptoms, five other symptoms were recorded on days 0, 3, 7 and 14, and patients kept daily diaries of the three main eye symptoms and swollen eyelids. The responder rate after 3 days of treatment was 69% in patients treated with azelastine, 59% in patients treated with levocabastine and 51% in the placebo group. Only the difference in responder rates between azelastine and placebo eye drops was statistically significant (p = 0.02). The improvements in other ocular symptoms and entries in the patients' diaries closely reflected the changes reported by the investigators. No serious adverse events occurred throughout the study. Nine patients (three in the azelastine, five in the levocabastine and one in the placebo group) terminated the study prematurely due to poor tolerability. Adverse drug reactions, mainly a mild, transient irritation and a bitter or unpleasant taste, were reported in 37% of patients receiving azelastine eye drops, 31% of patients receiving levocabastine and 9% of placebo patients. Overall tolerability was assessed as very good or good in 86% of azelastine- and levocabastine-treated patients, and in 95% of the patients receiving placebo. The results of this study indicate that azelastine possesses a tolerability profile at least comparable to that

  9. Effect of formulation factors on in-vitro permeation of diclofenac from experimental and marketed aqueous eye drops through excised goat cornea.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Munish; Dhake, Avinash Shridhar; Majumdar, Dipak Kanti

    2006-12-01

    The effect of formulation factors on permeation of diclofenac from some experimental and marketed aqueous eye drops through excised goat cornea was evaluated. Raising the pH of formulation from 6.0 to 8.0 or diclofenac concentration from 0.05 to 0.15% (w/v) or adjusting tonicity with mannitol or addition of viscolizing agent decreased apparent permeability coefficient (Papp). Formulation (pH 7.4) containing sodium metabisulfite or EDTA or combination of methyl and propyl paraben showed significantly (p<0.05) higher Papp whereas benzalkonium chloride (BAC) had no effect and sorbic acid (SA) had reduced permeation. Surprisingly marketed drops containing BAC or SA, showed significantly (p<0.05) higher Papp and decreased in the order of Difen>Voveran>NSAID>Dicol>Diclolab. Lower pH (7.1-7.3) and surface tension of drops indicating presence of surfactant, could mediate increased permeation and presence of buffer could cause irritation on in vivo instillation. The marketed formulations showed corneal hydration >83% suggesting corneal damaging potential.

  10. DSCG eye drops in allergic rhino-conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Foglé-Hansson, M; Rundcrantz, H

    1979-01-01

    Thirty patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were treated with eye drops containing 2% DSCG during the pollen season of 1977. Sixteen patients were treated with active substance and 14 with placebo. The results show a statistically significant difference in favour of the DSCG drops. DSCG in eye drops seems to be a valuable complement to the drugs available today for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

  11. Creation of nano eye-drops and effective drug delivery to the interior of the eye

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Yoshikazu; Aoyagi, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Yuji; Sato, Kota; Inada, Satoshi; Koseki, Yoshitaka; Onodera, Tsunenobu; Oikawa, Hidetoshi; Kasai, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Nano eye-drops are a new type of ophthalmic treatment with increased potency and reduced side effects. Compounds in conventional eye-drops barely penetrate into the eye because the cornea, located at the surface of eye, has a strong barrier function for preventing invasion of hydrophilic or large-sized materials from the outside. In this work, we describe the utility of nano eye-drops utilising brinzolamide, a commercially available glaucoma treatment drug, as a target compound. Fabrication of the nanoparticles of brinzolamide prodrug increases the eye penetration rate and results in high drug efficacy, compared with that of commercially available brinzolamide eye-drops formulated as micro-sized structures. In addition, the resulting nano eye-drops were not toxic to the corneal epithelium after repeated administration for 1 week. The nano eye-drops may have applications as a next-generation ophthalmic treatment. PMID:28290486

  12. Creation of nano eye-drops and effective drug delivery to the interior of the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, Yoshikazu; Aoyagi, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Yuji; Sato, Kota; Inada, Satoshi; Koseki, Yoshitaka; Onodera, Tsunenobu; Oikawa, Hidetoshi; Kasai, Hitoshi

    2017-03-01

    Nano eye-drops are a new type of ophthalmic treatment with increased potency and reduced side effects. Compounds in conventional eye-drops barely penetrate into the eye because the cornea, located at the surface of eye, has a strong barrier function for preventing invasion of hydrophilic or large-sized materials from the outside. In this work, we describe the utility of nano eye-drops utilising brinzolamide, a commercially available glaucoma treatment drug, as a target compound. Fabrication of the nanoparticles of brinzolamide prodrug increases the eye penetration rate and results in high drug efficacy, compared with that of commercially available brinzolamide eye-drops formulated as micro-sized structures. In addition, the resulting nano eye-drops were not toxic to the corneal epithelium after repeated administration for 1 week. The nano eye-drops may have applications as a next-generation ophthalmic treatment.

  13. Creation of nano eye-drops and effective drug delivery to the interior of the eye.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Yoshikazu; Aoyagi, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Yuji; Sato, Kota; Inada, Satoshi; Koseki, Yoshitaka; Onodera, Tsunenobu; Oikawa, Hidetoshi; Kasai, Hitoshi

    2017-03-14

    Nano eye-drops are a new type of ophthalmic treatment with increased potency and reduced side effects. Compounds in conventional eye-drops barely penetrate into the eye because the cornea, located at the surface of eye, has a strong barrier function for preventing invasion of hydrophilic or large-sized materials from the outside. In this work, we describe the utility of nano eye-drops utilising brinzolamide, a commercially available glaucoma treatment drug, as a target compound. Fabrication of the nanoparticles of brinzolamide prodrug increases the eye penetration rate and results in high drug efficacy, compared with that of commercially available brinzolamide eye-drops formulated as micro-sized structures. In addition, the resulting nano eye-drops were not toxic to the corneal epithelium after repeated administration for 1 week. The nano eye-drops may have applications as a next-generation ophthalmic treatment.

  14. [Simultaneous isotachophoresis determination of dioxopromethazine and phenylephrine in eye drops].

    PubMed

    Kubacák, P; Valásková, I; Havránek, E

    2004-03-01

    Dioxopromethazine and phenylephrine were determined simultaneously in eye drops using the method of capillary isotachophoresis. Two electrolyte systems with different compositions and pH were examined. Prior to analysis, the eye drops are diluted with water in a ratio 1:50. Precision, correctness, linearity, robustness, and selectivity of the ITP method were evaluated for both electrolyte systems.

  15. Evaluating eye drop instillation technique in glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Raghav; Patil, Bharat; Shah, Bhavin M; Bali, Shveta Jindal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Dada, Tanuj

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the technique of eye drop instillation in glaucoma patients. Seventy patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or primary angle-closure glaucoma, self-administering topical antiglaucoma medications for at least 6 months were evaluated. All patients instilled a tear substitute in 1 eye using the same technique they used for instilling antiglaucoma medications at home. The parameters that were recorded included time taken to instill the first drop, number of eye drops instilled, drop contact location, any contact with the tip of the bottle, and closure of the eyelids or tear duct after drop instillation. The mean age of the patients was 54.1±10.0 years. The mean time taken to instill the first drop was 14.8±3.7 seconds (range, 8.7 to 23.5 s). The mean number of drops squeezed from the bottle per instillation was 1.8±1.2 drops (range, 1 to 8 drops). In 22 patients (31.43%), the eye drops fell on the eyelids or cheek. Fifty-three patients (75.7%) touched the tip of the bottle to the globe or periocular tissue. Twenty patients (28.57%) closed eyes after instilling drops and 4 patients (5.7%) occluded the punctum. Only 6 patients (8.57%) were able to correctly instill the eye drops (squeeze out 1 drop and instill it into the conjunctival sac without bottle tip contact). Nearly, 9 of 10 glaucoma patients were unable to instill eye drops correctly. This may be an important cause of unintentional noncompliance in glaucoma medical therapy.

  16. PRESERVATIVES FROM THE EYE DROPS AND THE OCULAR SURFACE.

    PubMed

    Coroi, Mihaela Cristina; Bungau, Simona; Tit, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The use of preservatives in eye drops (eyewashes) has known glory at the beginning, but the side effects that they have on the ocular surface have led to a decrease of their popularity. Lachrymal film dysfunction, ocular hyperemia, dotted keratitis or toxic keratopathy were reported and analyzed in terms of pathophysiological mechanism of the role played by preservatives in ophthalmic drops (eyewashes). This article reviews the most common preservatives and the existing alternatives for the maintenance of the eye sterile drops. Keywords: preservatives, eye drops, ocular surface

  17. [The antiallergic eye drops "polynadyme": development, experimental and clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Maĭchuk, Iu F; Pozdniakov, V I; Pozdniakova, V V; Iakushina, L N

    2006-01-01

    The antiallergic eye drops "Polynadyme", proposed by the Helmgolz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, have been prepared by the "Sintez" PJSC (Kurgan). The drops exert a combination of antihistaminic and vasoconstrictive effects and, for better tolerability, contain a low-toxic preserving complex. The drops are polymer-based, which ensures a long action and an artificial tear effect. Preclinical rabbit trials have shown the safety of the "Polynadyme" eye drops, their specific activity in preventing an allergic reaction, and their antiallergic effect on a model of allergic conjunctivitis. Comparative clinical trials covering 150 patients have yielded excellent and good results in 93% of cases. In acute allergic reactions, hyperemia, itch, and burning diminished just 5 minutes after administration. The "Polynadyme" eye drops are effective in treating pollinous conjunctivitis, spring (vernal) keratoconjunctivitis, allergic reactions when wearing contact lenses, the dry eye syndrome, drug-induced and toxicoallergic conjunctivitis, and other ocular allergic reactions.

  18. Comparison of novel lipid-based eye drops with aqueous eye drops for dry eye: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Peter A; Carlisle-Wilcox, Cindy; Vehige, Joseph G

    2015-01-01

    Background Dry eye may be caused or exacerbated by deficient lipid secretion. Recently, lipid-containing artificial tears have been developed to alleviate this deficiency. Our study compared the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of lipid-containing eye drops with that of aqueous eye drops. Methods A non-inferiority, randomized, parallel-group, investigator-masked multicenter trial was conducted. Subjects with signs and symptoms of dry eye were randomized to use one of two lipid-containing artificial tears, or one of two aqueous artificial tears. Subjects instilled assigned drops in each eye at least twice daily for 30 days. The primary efficacy analysis tested non-inferiority of a preservative-free lipid tear formulation (LT UD) to a preservative-free aqueous tear formulation (AqT UD) for change in Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score from baseline at day 30. Secondary measures included OSDI at day 7, tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal and conjunctival staining, Schirmer’s test, acceptability and usage questionnaires, and safety assessments. Results A total of 315 subjects were randomized and included in the analyses. Subjects reported instilling a median of three doses of study eye drops per day in all groups. At days 7 and 30, all groups showed statistically significant improvements from baseline in OSDI (P<0.001) and TBUT (P≤0.005). LT UD was non-inferior to AqT UD for mean change from baseline in OSDI score at day 30. No consistent or clinically relevant differences for the other efficacy variables were observed. Acceptability was generally similar across the groups and there was a low incidence of adverse events. Conclusion In this heterogeneous population of dry eye subjects, there were no clinically significant differences in safety, effectiveness, and acceptability between lipid-containing artificial tears and aqueous eye drops. The results suggest that lipid-containing artificial tears can be used to counteract lipid deficiency that is common in

  19. Improvement in the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease with dobesilate eye drops.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Pedro; Outeiriño, Luis Antonio; Azanza, Carlos; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a multifactor disease of the tear film and ocular surface that substantially affects quality of life. Dobesilate administered as eye drops was well tolerated and effective in treating both the objective signs and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease in this 2-week study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of using dobesilate in eye drops. Dobesilate may provide a novel approach to treating drying diseases of the eye.

  20. The Pain Response to Mydriatic Eye Drops in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Amy M.; Cook, Noah; Harris, Mary Catherine; Ying, Gui-shuang; Binenbaum, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate physiologic and behavioral pain responses of premature infants following instillation of mydriatic eye drops for ROP examinations. While burning and stinging occurs in older patients, the infant pain response is not well characterized. Study Design Vital sign and video monitor recorded infant responses before, during, and after mydriatic (tropicamide 1%, phenylephrine 2.5%) administration upon first ROP exam. Two masked observers graded Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores immediately prior and following eye drop administration. Scores <7 indicate no/minimal pain, 7-12 slight/moderate, >12 severe. Results Twenty infants had mean pre-mydriatic PIPP score 3.6 (SD 1.6), mean post-mydriatic score 5.7 (SD 3.4), mean change 2.1 (SD 3.4)(p=0.01). One (5%) had pre-mydriatic PIPP score ≥7, seven (35%) post scores ≥7 (p=0.07) with one >12. Conclusions Mydriatic drops cause a clinically significant pain response in one third of infants. Non-pharmacologic supportive measures are recommended for all infants until predictive factors are defined. PMID:23238569

  1. Handling test of eye drop dispenser--comparison of unit-dose pipettes with conventional eye drop bottles.

    PubMed

    Parkkari, Minna; Latvala, Terho; Ropo, Auli

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate how elderly people handle single-use eye drop dispensers (unit-dose pipettes) and to compare the performance with conventional eye drop bottles. In this open-label study, the handling of unit-dose pipettes and conventional eye drop bottles was compared in 41 elderly people who had little or no prior regular use of eye drop dispensers. The participants tested both types of dispenser once, and the following 7 variables were studied: ease/difficulty of opening the dispenser; influence of the size for handling of the dispenser; influence of the shape for handling of the dispenser; observation of the contents in the dispenser; the feeling of the dispenser in the hand; ease/difficulty of drop instillation on the eye from the dispenser; and overall performance of the eye drop dispenser. The dispensers contained isotonic saline, and a visual analog scale was used for assessment of each of the above variables. The mean age of the participants was 73 years. A statistically significant difference in favor of the unit-dose pipettes was found with respect to observation of the contents in the dispenser, ease of administration, and the overall performance. Women regarded the unit-dose pipettes generally better than the bottles, but such a difference was not seen in men. The study participants managed the unit-dose pipettes at least as well as the conventional eye drop bottles. If anything, the unit-dose pipettes appeared to be easier to use.

  2. Technology of eye drops containing aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill.--Liliaceae) and eye drops containing both aloe and neomycin sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Marcinkowski, A; Kukuła, H

    2003-01-01

    Eye drops made of aloe are a sterile, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill., containing necessary additives and neomycin sulphate. The aim of the studies was to establish the technology of eye drops containing biologically active aloe substances and those containing both chemical constituents of aloe and neomycin sulphate. Within the studies, the formulary content and the way of preparing eye drops were determined, criteria were defined and methods of qualitative assessment of drops were proposed. On the basis of the proposed analytical methods, the physicochemical and microbiological stability of the eye drops stored at a temperature of 20-25 degrees C was studied. As the criteria of qualitative assessment of the eye drops, the following analyses were considered: sterility, appearance of the eye drops (clarity), pH, osmotic pressure, density, viscosity, TLC analysis, content of aloenin and aloin, studies of anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the drops, and preservative efficiency of thiomersal in the eye drops. The studies showed that the additives such as: sodium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate and digluconate, phenylmercuric borate and Nipagins M and P could not be used to prepare the eye drops because they were involved in pharmaceutical interactions with chemical constituents of aloe in the eye drops. The eye drops containing: aqueous extract of fresh leaves of aloe, boric acid, thiomersal, sodium pyrosulphite, disodium EDTA, beta-phenylethyl alcohol and neomycin sulphate, both freshly prepared and after two years of storage, met the requirements of the Polish Pharmacopoeia (PPh V) mentioned in the monograph Guttae ophthalmicae. They were sterile, clear, their osmotic pressure approximated the osmotic pressure of lacrimal fluid and they were characterized by appropriate pH. Aloenin in the drops was much more stable than aloin. Neomycin after two years of storage retained almost 98% of its starting antimicrobial

  3. A study of the association between patterns of eye drop prescription and medication usage in glaucoma subjects.

    PubMed

    Kawai-Tsuboi, Naoko; Kawai, Motofumi; Minami, Yoshiro; Yoshida, Akitoshi

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the association between patterns of eye drop prescription and medication usage in patients with glaucoma. Sixty-seven Japanese patients with glaucoma who were prescribed topical antiglaucoma medications including a prostaglandin analogue bilaterally for >6 months at Nayoro City General Hospital, Nayoro, Japan, were included in the study. A self-administered, 5-item patient questionnaire was administered to determine how patients routinely use medications, including the method of eye drop administration, number of eye drops per instillation, accuracy of eye drop placement, weekly frequency of eye drop application, and their awareness of local side effects. The number of prostaglandin analogue bottles prescribed monthly was compared in each factor. The mean patient age was 74.4±10.0 years (range, 52 to 95 y; 39 women, 28 men). The mean duration of glaucoma treatment was 4.2±3.2 years (range, 0.7 to 10.6 y). Patients who placed the eye drops outside the eye were prescribed significantly more bottles monthly (P=0.008). The other factors had no significant effect on the number of bottles prescribed monthly. Patients with glaucoma who used eye drops incorrectly were routinely prescribed additional bottles of eye drops. Ophthalmologists should determine whether patients who request an unusual number of eye drops are using the eye drops correctly.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis due to diclofenac sodium in eye drops.

    PubMed

    Miyazato, Hitona; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Taira, Kiyohito; Asato, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yu-Ichi; Hagiwara, Keisuke; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    Eyelid dermatitis and/or periocular dermatitis (ED/PD) is commonly seen in a variety of skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, but is most often associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Here, a case of ACD in an 82-year-old man is described; he used 0.1% diclofenac sodium eye drops and exhibited pruritic erythema on the eyelids. Patch test for diclofenac sodium eye drops was positive. Further patch tests revealed a positive reaction to diclofenac sodium (monosodium 2-[2, 6-dichlorophenylamino] phenylacetate), which was the main component in the eye drop medicine. Diclofenac sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and is frequently used in everyday oral medications, topical ointments, gel agents and eye drops. Case reports on ACD caused by diclofenac sodium eye drops are extremely rare. Nevertheless, it is necessary to consider ACD due to diclofenac sodium when a patient with ED/PD has a history of use of diclofenac sodium eye drops. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. How to Use Eye Drops Properly

    MedlinePlus

    ... doses Use the exact number of drops recommended Store medications out of reach of children Copyright 2013, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced, displayed, modified, or distributed ...

  6. Tropicamide 1% mydriatic effect: comparison between spray in closed eyes and eye drops in open eyes.

    PubMed

    Portes, Arlindo José Freire; Barbosa, Annamaria Ciminelli; de Mello, Guilherme Laport; Lopes, Marcelo Antunes; Cavalcanti, Rachel Simões

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate by serial measurements, pupil mydriasis produced by topical application of tropicamide 1% using a spray in a closed eye or instillation in an open eye in adult and elderly populations. The research was done from February to April of 2011 in the Policlinica Ronaldo Gazolla, located in the Arcos da Lapa Campus of Estacio de Sá University, RJ- Brazil. It was a clinical trial, controlled and randomized, made in a series of 50 patients that were being prepared for ophthalmoscopy examination. They were submitted to eye drop administration of 1% tropicamide in an open eye and to eyelid margin vaporization in a closed eye. The eyes were chosen for the administration of drops or spray according to a pseudo-random numbers table from Excel (2007) before application. The pupil diameter was measured before instillation and after 10, 20, and 30 min in both eyes, with a millimeter ruler. Biostat 5.0 software was used for statistical calculations. Tropicamide 1% was vaporized in a group that presented the following average pupil diameters: 3 mm before the application; 4.16 mm in 10 min; 5 mm in 20 min; and 5.35 mm in 30 min. The group in which tropicamide 1% was instilled presented 2.96 mm of average pupil diameter before the application; 4.22 mm at 10 min; 5.02 mm at 20 min; and 5.44 at 30 min. The two way analysis of variance showed P<0.0001, and the Tukey test performed for comparisons among the groups showed statistical significant differences among all groups except when the measurements were done at the same time. The vaporized tropicamide 1% mydriatic effect in closed eyes was clinically equivalent to the instillation effect of eye drop in open eyes. Other mydriatic drugs sprayed in closed eyes may not have the same effect.

  7. Clinical treatment of dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops.

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Bernardo K; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Chiacchio, Brenda B; Santo, Ruth M; Shimazaki, Jun; Hida, Richard Y

    2012-08-01

    To report the clinical outcome of the treatment of dry eyes using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops (olive oil + tacrolimus 0.03%) (Ophthalmos, Sao Paulo, Brazil). Sixteen eyes of 8 patients with Sjögren syndrome dry eyes (age, 51.13 ± 9.45 years) were enrolled in this study (prospective noncontrolled interventional case series). Patients were instructed to use topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops twice a day (every 12 hours) in the lower conjunctival sac. Schirmer I test, break-up time, corneal fluorescein, and rose bengal staining score were performed in all patients 1 day before, and 14, 28, and 90 days after treatment with 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops. The average fluorescein staining and rose bengal staining scores improved statistically significantly after 14 days of treatment and improved even more after 28 and 90 days. The average Schirmer I test did not improve statistically significantly after 28 days of treatment, although we did observe a significant improvement after 90 days of treatment with 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops. The average break-up time did not improve statistically after 14 days of treatment, although we observed a significant improvement after 28 and 90 days of treatment with 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops. Topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops successfully improved tear stability and ocular surface status in patients with dry eyes.

  8. Clinical trial of diclofenac sodium (Naclof) eye drops on Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Onakoya, A O; Majekodunmi, A A; Adefule-Ositelu, A O; Alimi, H L; Akinsola, F B; Aribaba, O T

    2004-12-01

    Twenty-eight eyes of 26 age-matched patients who had planned extracapsular cataract extraction with or without intraocular lens implantation were enrolled into a double blind randomised actively controlled study of 2 groups. Each group of 14 eyes was assigned to receive 0.1% diclofenac sodium (Naclof) eye drops or 1% prednisolone acetate eye suspension. The patients received either 0.1% Diclofenac sodium eye drops or 1.0% prednisolone acetate eye suspension four times a day as their post operative anti-inflammatory medication for a period of four weeks. No significant difference was noticed in the subjective assessment of pain and conjunctival injection in the 28 days follow-up period except day 1 in the diclofenac sodium group (0.05> p >0.01). Other measured objective variables of inflammation such as anterior chamber cells and flare showed no significant difference from the 3rd-28th postoperative days (0.05< p > 0.20). The result demonstrated that 0.1% diclofenac sodium eye drops was as effective as 1% prednisolone acetate eye suspension in the control of postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery, and could serve as a viable alternative to topical steroids in Nigerians who are steroid responders.

  9. [Studies on hyaluronic acid as dendifier in Shuanghuanglian eye-drops].

    PubMed

    Ma, Man-ling; Liu, Lu; Sun, Shu-ying

    2005-08-01

    To study the possibility of hyaluronic acid as densifier of Shuanguangliao eye-drops. The factors related with hyaluronic acid s viscosity, such as pH-value and storing temperature, are tested in this experiment. At the same time, we checked the stimulation, stability of the densifier. There was not effect on viscosity of pH-value and storing temperature. No stimulation on the eye was found after densified with hyaluronic acid. The viscosity properties of hyaluronic acid are stablile. The hyaliuronic acid added to Shuanghuanglian eye-drops are stabiliable and it can be applied in eye-drops. The increased viscosity is benefit to extend the residence time of drug in eye.

  10. Handling Test of Eye Drop Dispenser—Comparison of Unit-Dose Pipettes with Conventional Eye Drop Bottles

    PubMed Central

    Latvala, Terho; Ropo, Auli

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate how elderly people handle single-use eye drop dispensers (unit-dose pipettes) and to compare the performance with conventional eye drop bottles. Methods In this open-label study, the handling of unit-dose pipettes and conventional eye drop bottles was compared in 41 elderly people who had little or no prior regular use of eye drop dispensers. The participants tested both types of dispenser once, and the following 7 variables were studied: ease/difficulty of opening the dispenser; influence of the size for handling of the dispenser; influence of the shape for handling of the dispenser; observation of the contents in the dispenser; the feeling of the dispenser in the hand; ease/difficulty of drop instillation on the eye from the dispenser; and overall performance of the eye drop dispenser. The dispensers contained isotonic saline, and a visual analog scale was used for assessment of each of the above variables. Results The mean age of the participants was 73 years. A statistically significant difference in favor of the unit-dose pipettes was found with respect to observation of the contents in the dispenser, ease of administration, and the overall performance. Women regarded the unit-dose pipettes generally better than the bottles, but such a difference was not seen in men. Conclusions The study participants managed the unit-dose pipettes at least as well as the conventional eye drop bottles. If anything, the unit-dose pipettes appeared to be easier to use. PMID:20565314

  11. Clinical utility of caspofungin eye drops in fungal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Neoh, Chin Fen; Daniell, Mark; Chen, Sharon C-A; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of fungal keratitis remains challenging. To date, only the polyenes and azoles are commonly used topically in the management of fungal keratitis. Natamycin, a polyene, is the only antifungal eye drop that is commercially available; the remainder are prepared in-house and are used in an 'off-label' manner. Failure of medical treatment for fungal keratitis is common, hence there is a need for more effective topical antifungal therapy. To increase the antifungal eye drop armamentarium, it is important to investigate the utility of other classes of antifungal agents for topical use. Caspofungin, an echinocandin antifungal agent, could potentially be used to address the existing shortcomings. However, little is known about the usefulness of topically administered caspofungin. This review will briefly explore the incidence, epidemiology and antifungal treatment of fungal keratitis. It will focus primarily on evidence related to the efficacy, safety and practicality of using caspofungin eye drops in fungal keratitis.

  12. Systemic side effects of eye drops: a pharmacokinetic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Farkouh, Andre; Frigo, Peter; Czejka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    When administering eye drops, even when completely correctly applied, several routes of absorption are possible and excess amounts can sometimes cause an unwanted systemic bioavailability of the drops when not completely absorbed into the eye. Furthermore, the concentration of active ingredients in such medicinal preparations is usually very high, so that despite the correct application of the recommended dose, considerable amounts may be absorbed in an unwanted manner through various routes. Children are subject to a much higher risk of systemic side effects because ocular dosing is not weight adjusted and physiological development (eg, liver status) differs from that of adults. There is a lack of information about pediatric dosing in the current literature. This review summarizes the most important clinically relevant systemic side effects that may occur during ophthalmic eye treatments. In this review, we discuss general pharmacokinetic considerations as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and consequences of administering drugs from some important drug groups to the eye. PMID:27994437

  13. Therapy of corneal erosions and 'dry eye' with Solcoseryl and Vitasic eye drops.

    PubMed

    Krannig, H M; Rohde-Germann, H; Straub, W

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study of Solcoseryl eye drops versus Vitasic eye drops has been carried out under controlled conditions (randomized and double-blind) on a total of 94 patients. 52 had corneal erosion, 30 had dry eye syndrome, 8 cases could not be evaluated. In addition, 2 eyes with photophthalmia were treated with Vitasic and 2 showing keratitis with Solcoseryl. There were no adverse reactions other than 2 instances of stinging with Solcoseryl and 1 case of severe irritation after Vitasic. The patients were examined on days 0, 1, 3 and 7. Results showed a consistent superiority of Solcoseryl eye drops in respect to speed of healing of corneal erosions and moistening of the cornea in the 'dry eye' syndrome which reached statistical significance in some parameters.

  14. Comparison of Eye Drop Instillation Before and After Use of Drop Application Strips in Glaucoma Patients on Chronic Topical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Reetika; Singhal, Deepali; Shashni, Adarsh; Agarwal, Esha; Wadhwani, Meenakshi; Dada, Tanuj

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of using drop application strips on eye drop instillation in glaucoma patients on chronic topical ocular hypotensive therapy. A total of 72 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with an uncorrected visual acuity of 3/60 or more, self-administering topical antiglaucoma medication for >1 year were evaluated. One eye of each patient was included in the study. Patients were instructed to instill 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose drop in 1 eye. They were then instructed to instill the same drop using the drop application strips. Mean age of the patients included in the study was 50.39 ± 12.04 years. Before assistance of drop application strips, 35 (48.61%) patients placed the drop into the eye without any contact of the dropper nozzle, and, after application of the drop application strips, 66 (91.67%) patients placed the drop in the eye without any contact (P=0.025). The number of patients putting the first drop of drug into the eye without spilling over the adenexae increased from 30 (41.67%) to 45 (62.5%) after application of the strip (P<0.001). The mean number of drops instilled to get 1 drop into the eye decreased from 2 ± 0.95 to 1.56 ± 0.78 when the drop application strip was used (P<0.001). Use of a drop application strip causes a significant decrease in contact of the eye drop bottle nozzle with the eyeball and eyelid, decreases the number of drops instilled to get 1 drop into the eye, and is associated with an overall improvement in eye drop instillation.

  15. [Contact allergy to beta blockaders in eye drops: cross allergy?].

    PubMed

    Giordano-Labadie, F; Lepoittevin, J P; Calix, I; Bazex, J

    1997-01-01

    Beta-blockers in eye-drops are widely used for the treatment of glaucoma. The potential allergic effect was only recently recognized. A 65-year-old man had been treated with eye-drops containing beta-blockers for bilateral chronic glaucoma for 14 years. During the last two years, he developed eczema localized on the upper and lower eyelids. Allergy screening confirmed the implication of timolol and befunolol which had been used successively. Later prescription of eye-drops containing carteolol led to recurrence of the eczema. This case of contact allergy with three different beta-blockers in the same patient is similar to others reported in the literature. All beta-blockers have a similar chemical structure, but it cannot act as a haptene. The proposed hypothesis is a cross-sensitivity which develops after primary metabolism to a common aldehyde. The risk of recurrence is high if another beta-blocker eye-drop compound is prescribed in a sensitized patient. The risk of side effects in such sensitized patients when taking oral beta-blockers is unknown.

  16. Prospective, randomized, controlled comparison of SYSTANE UD eye drops versus VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO eye drops for the treatment of moderate dry eye.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Christina; Kruse, Friedrich E; Cursiefen, Claus

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, clinical, single-center study was to compare the safety and efficacy of 2 ocular surface lubricant eye drops: preservative-free hydroxypropyl (HP)-Guar (SYSTANE UD(®)) eye drops versus preservative-free Tamarindus indica seed polysaccharide (TSP) 1% (VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO(®)) eye drops. Fifty-six eyes of 28 patients with moderate keratoconjunctivitis sicca (DEWS severity level 2) were enrolled in the trial. Patients were randomized for 2 treatment groups (SYSTANE UD eye drops vs. VISINE INTENSIV 1% EDO eye drops). The eye drops in both groups were applied 5 times per day for 3 months. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistica™ software (Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon test). P-Values<0.05 were considered significant. After 3 months of treatment the patients of both groups had subjective benefit in the relief of symptoms of dry eye disease evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire score. Patients treated with HP-Guar and TSP showed improvements in tear film stability measured by tear break-up time (TBUT), which are statistically significant in the HP-Guar group (P=0.02). The results of this clinical trial show improvements of symptoms and signs in patients with moderate dry eye after the consistent use of preservative-free HP-Guar and TSP lubricant eye drops. Both artificial tear formulations produce amelioration in tear film stability improving eye conditions and patient quality of life. HP-Guar seems to be slightly more effective in improving ocular surface protection by decreasing tear film evaporation.

  17. Eye drop administration in patients attending and not attending a glaucoma education center.

    PubMed

    Al-Busaidi, Aisha; Samek, Debbie Anne; Kasner, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    To assess the technique of glaucoma eye drop instillation in patients who have and have not attended glaucoma education sessions. To compare this with their subjective perception of eye drop use and identify factors associated with improved performance. An observational study of 55 participants who instill their topical glaucoma medication for more than 1 year. Twenty-five patients attended (A) glaucoma teaching sessions >1 year before the study and were compared to thirty patients who never attended (NA). Patients completed a self-reporting questionnaire. They instilled their eye drop, and the technique was video-recorded digitally and later graded by two masked investigators. The results were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and Chi-square test. Predictors were assessed using logistic regression models. There was no significant difference in overall performance scores between the two groups. Good technique was observed in 16% of (A) group versus 23% (NA) group, (P = 0.498). There was a mismatch between patient's subjective and actual performance. Female gender and higher educational level were found to be predictors of good performance of drop instillation on univariable logistic regression analysis. Glaucoma patients are challenged with eye drop instillation despite receiving education on drop administration. There is a discrepancy between patient's perceptions and observed technique of drop administration.

  18. Corneal sensitivity after topical bromfenac sodium eye-drop instillation.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Kaori; Huang, Jane; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Uchio, Eiichi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the safety of bromfenac sodium eye drops from the standpoint of corneal sensitivity and tear secretion in healthy controls following instillation for 1 month. A prospective single-blind parallel clinical study was conducted in 20 eyes of ten healthy volunteers with no history of ocular or systemic allergic disease, dry eye, contact lens wear, or ocular surgery. Participants were instructed to instill either bromfenac sodium or artificial tears in each eye twice daily for 28 days. Corneal sensitivity tested using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was evaluated before and immediately after instillation at 7, 14, and 28 days after the initiation of treatment. Tear secretion was also evaluated by Schirmer's eye test before and at 28 days. No significant difference in mean corneal sensitivity and tear-secretion rate was observed between the bromfenac and artificial-tear treatment groups at any time. These results indicate that bromfenac sodium eye drops are safe with respect to corneal sensitivity and tear secretion in subjects with a normal ocular surface condition. Further evaluation is still necessary to determine whether bromfenac is safe in pathological conditions, such as inflammatory disorders and postsurgical cases.

  19. [Morphological alterations induced by preservatives in eye drops].

    PubMed

    Huber-van der Velden, K K; Thieme, H; Eichhorn, M

    2012-11-01

    A large number of experimental and clinical investigations carried out recently have confirmed that the chronic application of eye drops induces significant cytological and histological impairment in ocular tissues. It is also generally accepted that preservatives are the components responsible for the observed changes. The most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology is benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which has a relatively high toxicity. Possible consequences of preservatives on the eye are chronic inflammation and subsequent fibrosis of the subconjunctiva and cell loss and structural changes in the conjunctival epithelium as well as in the epithelial and endothelial layers of the cornea. Frequently, dry eye symptoms occur or deteriorate during therapy. During the last few years new preservatives have been developed which seem to have fewer side effects; however, relatively little data are available with regard to these new substances. To minimize impairments of the eye, preservative-free formulations should be considered for therapy.

  20. Fluorimetric quantification of brimonidine tartrate in eye drops.

    PubMed

    Sunitha, G; Bhagirath, R; Alapati, V R; Ramakrishna, K; Subrahmanyam, C V S; Anumolu, P D

    2013-11-01

    A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the estimation of brimonidine tartrate in pure and eye drops. Linearity was obeyed in the range of 0.2-3.0 ΅g/ml in dimethyl formamide as solvent at an emission wavelength (λem) of 530 nm after excitation wavelength (λex) of 389 nm with good correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for this method were 22.0 and 72.0 ng/ml, respectively. The developed method was statistically validated as per International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. The percentage relative standard deviation values were found to be less than 2 for accuracy and precision studies. The results obtained were in good agreement with the labelled amounts of the marketed formulations. The proposed method was effectively applied to routine quality control analysis of brimonidine tartrate in their eye drops.

  1. The ROCK inhibitor eye drop accelerates corneal endothelium wound healing.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Naoki; Koizumi, Noriko; Kay, Eunduck P; Ueno, Morio; Sakamoto, Yuji; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Hamuro, Junji; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2013-04-03

    To evaluate the effect of Rho kinase (ROCK)-inhibitor eye drops on a corneal endothelial dysfunction primate model and human clinical case series of corneal endothelial dysfunction. As a corneal-endothelial partially injured model, the corneal endothelium of seven cynomolgus monkeys was damaged by transcorneal freezing; 10 mm of rock inhibitor Y-27632 was then applied topically 6 times daily. The phenotype of the reconstructed corneal endothelium was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis and noncontact specular microscopy. For clinical study, the effect of Y-27632 eye drops after transcorneal freezing was evaluated in eight corneal endothelial dysfunction patients: four central corneal edema patients and four diffuse corneal edema patients. Slit-lamp microscopy revealed that both Y-27632-treated and -nontreated corneas became hazy after transcorneal freezing, and then recovered their transparency within 4 weeks. ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 promoted recovery of corneal endothelial cell density and wound healing in terms of both morphology and function. The percentage of ZO-1 and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase positive cells in the regenerated area in the Y-27632 group was significantly higher than in the controls. Noncontact specular microscopy revealed that corneal endothelial cell density was significantly higher in the Y-27632 group compared with the controls at 4 weeks; cell density reached approximately 3000 cells/mm(2), as opposed to 1500 cells/mm(2) in the control group. In addition to the animal study findings, the clinical study findings showed that Y-27632 eye drops effectively improved corneal edema of corneal endothelial dysfunction patients with central edema. These findings show that rock inhibitor Y-27632 eye drops promote corneal endothelial wound healing in a primate animal model and suggest the possibility of Y-27632 as a novel therapeutic modality for certain forms of corneal endothelial dysfunction. (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ number, UMIN000003625.).

  2. Limbitis Secondary to Autologous Serum Eye Drops in a Patient with Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Welder, Jeffrey David; Bakhtiari, Pejman; Djalilian, Ali R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Report a case of limbitis secondary to autologous serum eye drops in a patient with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Design. Interventional case report. Methods. A 32-year-old African American female with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) presented with chronic dry eye and diffuse punctate epithelial erosions refractory to conservative treatment. She was initially managed with cyclosporine ophthalmic 0.05% in addition to preservative-free artificial tears and olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% for 6 months. She was later placed on autologous serum eye drops (ASEDs) and 4 weeks into treatment developed unilateral limbitis. The limbitis resolved shortly after stopping ASEDs in that eye; however, the drops were continued in the contralateral eye, which subsequently developed limbitis within 2 weeks. ASEDs were discontinued in both eyes, and the patient has remained quiet ever since. Results. Patient with a history of AKC and no prior history of limbitis developed limbitis shortly after starting ASEDs, which resolved promptly after discontinuation of therapy with no subsequent recurrence of inflammation. Conclusion. ASEDs are widely used in the treatment of complicated or treatment refractory dry eye. The potential side effects should be kept in mind when prescribing ASEDs for any patient, especially in those with underlying immunological diseases and circulating inflammatory factors. PMID:22606467

  3. Limbitis secondary to autologous serum eye drops in a patient with atopic keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Welder, Jeffrey David; Bakhtiari, Pejman; Djalilian, Ali R

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Report a case of limbitis secondary to autologous serum eye drops in a patient with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Design. Interventional case report. Methods. A 32-year-old African American female with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) presented with chronic dry eye and diffuse punctate epithelial erosions refractory to conservative treatment. She was initially managed with cyclosporine ophthalmic 0.05% in addition to preservative-free artificial tears and olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% for 6 months. She was later placed on autologous serum eye drops (ASEDs) and 4 weeks into treatment developed unilateral limbitis. The limbitis resolved shortly after stopping ASEDs in that eye; however, the drops were continued in the contralateral eye, which subsequently developed limbitis within 2 weeks. ASEDs were discontinued in both eyes, and the patient has remained quiet ever since. Results. Patient with a history of AKC and no prior history of limbitis developed limbitis shortly after starting ASEDs, which resolved promptly after discontinuation of therapy with no subsequent recurrence of inflammation. Conclusion. ASEDs are widely used in the treatment of complicated or treatment refractory dry eye. The potential side effects should be kept in mind when prescribing ASEDs for any patient, especially in those with underlying immunological diseases and circulating inflammatory factors.

  4. Prescription of atropine eye drops among children diagnosed with myopia in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007: a nationwide study

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Y-T; Chou, Y-J; Pu, C; Lin, P-J; Liu, T-L; Huang, N; Chou, P

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to examine the atropine eye drop prescription trend for children diagnosed with myopia, and to determine the factors associated with the prescription of atropine eye drops. Design This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Methods This study was conducted using a national representative sample from the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data. All school children between 4 and 18 years of age who had visited an ophthalmologist and were diagnosed with myopia between 2000 and 2007 were included herein. The main outcome measure was the proportion of subjects who were prescribed atropine eye drops in each year. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with atropine eye drops being prescribed. Results The prescription of atropine eye drops for children diagnosed with myopia increased significantly from the school years 2000 (36.9%) to 2007 (49.5%). There was also a shift from prescribing high concentrations (0.5 and 1%) of atropine eye drops to lower concentration ones (0.3, 0.25, and 0.1%) within this period. Atropine eye drops were more frequently prescribed to 9–12-year-old children (OR=1.26–1.42, compared with those 7–8 years old), and to children from families with a high socioeconomic status (OR=1.19–1.25); however, they were less prescribed to those living in mid to low urbanized areas (OR=0.65–0.84). Conclusions This study revealed an increasing trend of atropine eye drop prescription for children with myopia in Taiwan. Our study provides eye-care professionals worldwide a reference for the potential integration of atropine eye drops into their clinical practice toward children with myopia. PMID:23288141

  5. Prescription of atropine eye drops among children diagnosed with myopia in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y-T; Chou, Y-J; Pu, C; Lin, P-J; Liu, T-L; Huang, N; Chou, P

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine the atropine eye drop prescription trend for children diagnosed with myopia, and to determine the factors associated with the prescription of atropine eye drops. This was a population-based cross-sectional study. This study was conducted using a national representative sample from the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data. All school children between 4 and 18 years of age who had visited an ophthalmologist and were diagnosed with myopia between 2000 and 2007 were included herein. The main outcome measure was the proportion of subjects who were prescribed atropine eye drops in each year. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with atropine eye drops being prescribed. The prescription of atropine eye drops for children diagnosed with myopia increased significantly from the school years 2000 (36.9%) to 2007 (49.5%). There was also a shift from prescribing high concentrations (0.5 and 1%) of atropine eye drops to lower concentration ones (0.3, 0.25, and 0.1%) within this period. Atropine eye drops were more frequently prescribed to 9-12-year-old children (OR=1.26-1.42, compared with those 7-8 years old), and to children from families with a high socioeconomic status (OR=1.19-1.25); however, they were less prescribed to those living in mid to low urbanized areas (OR=0.65-0.84). This study revealed an increasing trend of atropine eye drop prescription for children with myopia in Taiwan. Our study provides eye-care professionals worldwide a reference for the potential integration of atropine eye drops into their clinical practice toward children with myopia.

  6. Fatal necrotising enterocolitis due to mydriatic eye drops.

    PubMed

    Ozgun, Uygur; Demet, Terek; Ozge, Koroglu A; Zafer, Dokumcu; Murat, Sezak; Mehmet, Yalaz; Nilgun, Kultursay

    2014-05-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a serious problem of preterm infants which may lead to impairment of vision and even to blindness if untreated. Routine eye examination is necessary for early diagnosis and treatment of ROP in preterm infants. Mydriatic eye drops (cyclopentolate, tropicamide and phenylephrine) are applied before the ophthalmic examination. These agents are rarely absorbed to systemic circulation and in some cases result with serious side effects like skin rash, tachycardia, feeding intolerance, discomfort, apnea, gastric dilatation and ileus, despite different treatment models and dosage reducing strategies. We report here a preterm patient who died because of severe diffuse necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) after topical application of 0.5% cyclopentolate and 1.25% phenylephrine during ROP screening to emphasise the serious side effects of these agents.

  7. The Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test (EVEIT) in evaluation of artificial tears: Purite-preserved versus unpreserved eye drops.

    PubMed

    Schrage, N; Frentz, M; Spoeler, F

    2012-09-01

    Preservatives in artificial tears cause controversy. New developments such as the Purite system have been introduced into the market, with the promise of little damage to the corneal surface. We wanted to give insight into the differences in the effect of preserved and unpreserved artifical tears on rabbit corneas cultured with the Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test (EVEIT) system. We compared the two artifical tears products Hylo Comod and Optive being dropped for 72 hours each hour one drop onto the corneal surface. Each cornea was mechanically wounded with four epithelial defects on each cornea with a size of 3 to 4.5 mm(2). With n = 4 corneas in the Hylo-Comod and n = 4 corneas in the Optive group, we exposed the corneal surfaces to repeated doses of these artificial tears for 3 days. We observed healing of corneal erosions and surface epithelial integrity with sodium-fluoresceine staining under cobalt blue light illumination. We found nearly complete healing of epithelial defects with both artificial tears. The Hylo-Comod group healed significantly faster. After 72 hours, the vast majority of epithelial defects were closed. All corneas exposed to Purite showed superficial stippling, whereas the HyloComod group did not show any stippling of the cornea; this difference was significant. Epithelial healing and recovery in the EVEIT system is observed in both groups, confirming the concept of artificial tears as a supporting factor of corneal health and healing. The superficial stippling of the corneal epithelium was observed only in the Optive group. This effect is considered as a marker of dry eye syndrome, and should be prevented by the application of artificial tears. Preservative-free eye drops such as HyloComod improve healing, and prevent symptoms of dry eye syndrome in the EVEITsystem. Compared to EVEIT results of former experiments with benzalconium chloride-preserved eye drops, Optive promoted healing of corneal erosions.

  8. Azelastine eye drops in the treatment of perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Ozod; Petzold, Ursula; Haase, Hans; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Ellers-Lenz, Barbara; Hermann, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Azelastine (CAS 58581-89-8) is a selective H1-receptor antagonist that inhibits histamine release and interferes with activation of other mediators of allergic inflammation. The present double-blind study aimed to evaluate azelastine eye drops (Allergodil) in patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis compared to placebo. A total of 116 patients with an ocular symptoms score for itching and conjunctival redness > or = 3 (0-6 scale) were randomized to twice-daily 0.05% azelastine eye drops treatment (n = 58) or placebo. Patients maintained daily logs and were clinically evaluated after 7, 21 and 42 days of treatment. Azelastine significantly improved itching and conjunctival redness versus placebo (p < 0.001). Tolerability was rated good or better by 97% of patients with only bitter taste and application site reaction notable adverse experiences. On Day 7, ocular symptoms score improved by 1.5 +/- 0.9 (versus 0.5 +/- 0.8 placebo) with score improvement > or = 2 in 55% with azelastine (versus 14% placebo). Itching and redness further improved at Day 42 (score improvement > or = 2 in 95% with azelastine versus 33% placebo) and completely resolved for 47% azelastine patients (versus 10% placebo). Daily patient logs confirmed the clinically assessed scores. Topical azelastine progressively improved itching and conjunctival redness in patients with moderate to severe perennial allergic conjunctivitis. Continued improvement with prolonged use is consistent with mechanisms other than H1-receptor blockade, such as possible down regulation of adhesion molecule receptors.

  9. Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis with olopatadine hydrochloride eye drops.

    PubMed

    Uchio, Eiichi

    2008-09-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions such as histamine H(1) receptor antagonist action, chemical mediator suppressive action, and eosinophil infiltration suppressive action. Olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution (Patanol((R))) was introduced to the market in Japan in October 2006. In a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution significantly suppressed ocular itching and hyperemia compared with levocabastine hydrochloride 0.05% ophthalmic solution, and the number of patients who complained of ocular discomfort was lower in the olopatadine group than in the levocabastine group. Conjunctival cell membrane disruption was observed in vitro in the ketotifen fumarate group, epinastine hydrochloride group, and azelastine hydrochloride group, but not in the olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution group, which may potentially explain the lower discomfort felt by patients on instillation. Many other studies in humans have revealed the superiority of olopatadine 0.1% hydrochloride eye drops to several other anti-allergic eye drops. Overseas, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% ophthalmic solution for a once-daily regimen has been marketed under the brand name of Pataday((R)). It is expected that olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions may be used in patients with a more severe spectrum of allergic conjunctival diseases, such as vernal keratoconjunctivitis or atopic keratoconjunctivitis, in the near future.

  10. Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis with olopatadine hydrochloride eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Uchio, Eiichi

    2008-01-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions such as histamine H1 receptor antagonist action, chemical mediator suppressive action, and eosinophil infiltration suppressive action. Olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution (Patanol®) was introduced to the market in Japan in October 2006. In a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution significantly suppressed ocular itching and hyperemia compared with levocabastine hydrochloride 0.05% ophthalmic solution, and the number of patients who complained of ocular discomfort was lower in the olopatadine group than in the levocabastine group. Conjunctival cell membrane disruption was observed in vitro in the ketotifen fumarate group, epinastine hydrochloride group, and azelastine hydrochloride group, but not in the olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution group, which may potentially explain the lower discomfort felt by patients on instillation. Many other studies in humans have revealed the superiority of olopatadine 0.1% hydrochloride eye drops to several other anti-allergic eye drops. Overseas, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% ophthalmic solution for a once-daily regimen has been marketed under the brand name of Pataday®. It is expected that olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions may be used in patients with a more severe spectrum of allergic conjunctival diseases, such as vernal keratoconjunctivitis or atopic keratoconjunctivitis, in the near future. PMID:19668750

  11. Effect of diquafosol tetrasodium eye drop for persistent dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yosai; Nejima, Ryohei; Masuda, Ayami; Maruyama, Yoko; Minami, Keiichiro; Miyata, Kazunori; Amano, Shiro

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of diquafosol tetrasodium (DQS) for the treatment of persistent dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Miyata Eye Hospital, Miyazaki, Japan. Noncomparative case series. This prospective study included 30 eyes of 15 patients in whom dry eye had persisted for over 12 months after LASIK, and the symptoms had not improved with artificial tears and sodium hyaluronate treatment. In addition, treatment with DQS 3% eye drops, 6 times a day, was performed for 12 weeks. Best-corrected visual acuity, tear secretion with the Schirmer test, tear break-up time, and fluorescein and lissamine green staining scores on the cornea and conjunctiva were examined before and at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after the addition. A subjective questionnaire of 14 symptoms was also assessed before and 12 weeks after treatment. The fluorescein and lissamine green staining scores significantly improved over 12 weeks; however, the best-corrected visual acuity and tear secretion did not change. The symptoms of fatigue, dryness, grittiness, discomfort, difficulty in reading, and discomfort within the area of dryness improved after the additional DQS treatment. The DQS treatment improved the subjective and objective symptoms of persistent dry eye after LASIK. Increased mucin production because of the addition of DQS probably improved the tear film stability and reduced the symptoms of dry eye in patients who had persistent dry eye after LASIK.

  12. Efficacy in patients with dry eye after treatment with a new lubricant eye drop formulation.

    PubMed

    Davitt, William F; Bloomenstein, Marc; Christensen, Mike; Martin, Anna E

    2010-08-01

    The effective management of dry eye must include a clinically meaningful reduction in ocular staining. Evaluations of corneal and conjunctival staining and other ocular symptoms of dry eye were conducted for a new formulation of polyethylene glycol 400/propylene glycol-based lubricant eye drops containing hydroxypropyl guar as a gelling agent (Test Product) in comparison to Optive Lubricant Eye Drops (Control Product) in adult patients with dry eye. One hundred thirteen patients, 18 years of age and older, with dry eye were enrolled in a prospective, double-masked, multisite, parallel-group study. After a 2-week run-in period during which patients administered aqueous saline eye drops 4 times daily (QID) in each eye, patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either Test Product or Control Product to be administered QID for 6 weeks. Efficacy and safety were evaluated by corneal and conjunctival staining scores, tear film breakup time, assessments of ocular symptoms, ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores, dry eye treatment satisfaction, visual function-14 questionnaires, and adverse events. The intent-to-treat data set included 105 patients randomized to Test Product (n = 52) or Control Product (n = 53). Patients primarily were between the ages of 18-64 years (70.5%), female (73.3%), white (93.3%), and not Hispanic (81.9%). Patients in the Test Product group exhibited significantly lower mean corneal staining scores than the Control Product group at day 14 (P = 0.0009) and day 42 (P = 0.0106), and significantly lower mean conjunctival staining scores at day 28 (P = 0.0475) and day 42 (P = 0.0009). Patients in both treatment groups reported significant reductions in the mean scores for the ocular symptoms of dryness, gritty/sandy feeling, and burning (P

  13. The Role of Atropine Eye Drops in Myopia Control.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Armesto, Alejandro; Szwajkowska, Maria; Iribarren, Guillermo; Iribarren, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    High myopia is a major cause of uncorrectable visual impairment. It imposes major challenges and costs for refractive correction, and for the treatment of associated pathological complications. In the last 60 years, there has been a marked increase in the prevalence of high myopia in younger generations in developed countries in East and Southeast Asia, and there are signs of similar, but less pronounced increases in North America and Europe. In some parts of the world, 70-90% of children completing high schools are now myopic, and as many as 20% may be highly myopic. It is now clear that myopia results from excessive axial elongation of the eye, and this greater rate of axial elongation appears to be environmentally driven. Experimental studies have examined the biochemical mechanisms involved in regulation of axial elongation; and, from these studies, some options have emerged for preventing the development of myopia or slowing myopia progression. Atropine eye drops have been quite extensively used in clinical practice in Asian countries. This long-lasting treatment could be beneficial, but has clear limitations and complications. Recent reports suggest that a low concentration of atropine, which has less severe side-effects, is also effective. But, a decision to use an invasive treatment such as atropine drops, even at low doses, requires careful consideration of the risk of myopia progression. A decision to use atropine in pre-myopic patients would require even more careful consideration of the risks. Here, we review the current literature relevant to the prevention of myopia progression with atropine drops.

  14. Stability of ceftazidime in 1% and 5% buffered eye drops determined with HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Kodym, Anna; Hapka-Zmich, Dominika; Gołab, Marta; Gwizdala, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine with HPLC method the stability of ceftazidime in buffered 1% and 5% eye drops of proposed formulary composition, which were stored for 30 days at the temperature of 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C and protected from light. The 1% and 5% eye drops were prepared under aseptic conditions by dissolving Biotum (ceftazidimum), dry injection formulation, in citrate buffer of pH 6.10-6.24. The viscosity of the eye drops was increased with polyvinyl alcohol, phenylmercuric borate combined with 2-phenylethanol was used to preserve the eye drops. The eye drops were stored for 30 days in sterile glass bottles at the temperature of 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C and protected from light. The concentration of ceftazidime and pyridine was analyzed simultaneously with HPLC method every three days; pH, osmotic pressure and viscosity were examined as well as the organoleptic analysis of the eye drops (clarity, color, odor). Storage temperature had the biggest impact on ceftazidime stability in the eye drops. The stability of the drops depended also on ceftazidime concentration in the eye drops, the presence of preservatives and polyvinyl alcohol. The time of 10% ceftazidime degradation in buffered 1% and 5% eye drops, stored at the temperature of 4 degrees C, was from 27 to 18 days in 1% eye drops and from 21 to 12 days in 5% eye drops, depending on their composition. In the eye drops which were stored at the temperature of 20 degrees C 10% ceftazidime degradation occurred on the 3rd day of storage in all 1% and 5% formulary versions.

  15. Tamoxifen-Containing Eye Drops Successfully Trigger Cre-Mediated Recombination in the Entire Eye.

    PubMed

    Schlecht, Anja; Leimbeck, Sarah V; Tamm, Ernst R; Braunger, Barbara M

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic lethality in mice with targeted gene deletion is a major issue that can be circumvented by using Cre-loxP-based animal models. Various inducible Cre systems are available, e.g. such that are activated following tamoxifen treatment, and allow deletion of a specific target gene at any desired time point during the life span of the animal. In this study, we describe the efficiency of topical tamoxifen administration by eye drops using a Cre- reporter mouse strain (R26R). We report that tamoxifen-responsive CAGGCre-ER (TM) mice show a robust Cre- mediated recombination throughout the entire eye.

  16. A nanoparticle formulation reduces the corneal toxicity of indomethacin eye drops and enhances its corneal permeability.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2014-05-07

    Indomethacin (IMC) has been shown to reduce post-operative inflammation and to decrease intraocular irritation after cataract extraction and in cystoid macular edema; however, the clinical use of its most commonly used eye drops is limited due to topical side-effects that include burning sensation, irritation and epithelial keratitis. It is known that decreasing direct cell stimulation and reducing the amount applied via increasing bioavailability are useful for improving these issues. In this study, we designed ophthalmic formulations containing 0.5% IMC nanoparticles using zirconia beads and Bead Smash 12 (IMCnano eye drops; particle size 76 ± 59 nm, mean ± S.D.), and investigated the corneal toxicity of these IMCnano eye drops. IMCnano eye drops are tolerated better by a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T) than commercially available NDSAIDs preparations (IMC, pranoprofen, diclofenac, bromfenac and nepafenac eye drops), and corneal wound healing in rat eyes with debrided corneal epithelium instilled with IMCnano eye drops is significantly better than that of eyes instilled with commercially available IMC eye drops. In addition, the accumulation of IMC in HCE-T cells treated with the IMCnano eye drops for 30 min was 19.9% that of the accumulation from commercially available IMC eye drops. On the other hand, the corneal penetration of IMC from IMCnano eye drops was significantly greater than in the case of the commercially available IMC eye drops in both in vivo and in vitro studies using rabbit corneas. Taken together, we hypothesize that a nanoparticle formulation reduces the corneal toxicity of IMC eye drops, probably because the accumulation of IMC from IMCnano eye drops in the eye is lower than that from commercially available IMC eye drops. In addition, the nanoparticle formulation may allow a decrease in the amount of IMC used due to the increase in bioavailability, resulting in reduced drug toxicity. These findings provide significant information

  17. Cyclosporine nanomicelle eye drop: a novel medication for corneal graft transplantation treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongkui; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Longlu

    2015-01-01

    Corneal transplantation has been used to treat severe eye disease for decades, but the therapeutic effect of the operation is highly compromised by immunological allograft rejection. To improve the success rate of corneal transplantation, we studied the protective effects of cyclosporine nanomicelle eye drops (CNED) on immune rejection after high-risk corneal transplantation and its underlying mechanisms. The therapeutic effects against immune rejection of both conventional cyclosporine eye drop (CCED) and CNED in different concentrations were assessed and compared using animal models of corneal transplantation. In addition, the expression of nuclear factor-κ-gene binding (NF-κB) as well as its target intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the corneal samples obtained from recipients treated with either CCED or CNED was also screened. The results showed that the CNED displayed significantly better effects at suppressing the immune response induced by corneal transplantation compared to CCED. CNED also significantly down-regulated the NF-κB and ICAM-1 expressions, indicating NF-κB might play an important role in the initiation of an immune response against the allograft. Our study demonstrates CNED may suppress the NF-κB pathway to attenuate the immune response, which highlights the possible therapeutic applications of cyclosporine nanomicelle eye drops in corneal transplantation.

  18. [Eye-drops from olden times to the XIXth century].

    PubMed

    Esteva de Sagrera, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish word "colirio" comes from the Latin collyrium, which in turn came from the Greek kollirion. Initially, the Romans use this word in a general way, but due to their use mainly in ophthalmology, the use of the term became restricted to those topical medications destined for the care and prevention of ocular diseases, from solutions and suspensions to poultices, salves and ointments. During the Middle Ages "colirio" included not only substances used to dilate ladies' pupils for aesthetic reasons but also medications for ocular hygiene and treatment. The Industrial Revolution of the XIXth century barely modified ophthalmic pharmaceutical technology. It is only since the World War II that the preparation of eye-drops has undergone a rapid development and improvement, adopting the concept of sterility as a necessary condition for all ophthalmic solutions and taking very precise rules for their elaboration and conditioning from different pharmacopeia.

  19. Prolonged Ocular Retention of Mucoadhesive Nanoparticle Eye Drop Formulation Enables Treatment of Eye Diseases Using Significantly Reduced Dosage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengyan; Dozois, Matthew D; Chang, Chu Ning; Ahmad, Aaminah; Ng, Deborah L T; Hileeto, Denise; Liang, Huiyuan; Reyad, Matthew-Mina; Boyd, Shelley; Jones, Lyndon W; Gu, Frank X

    2016-09-06

    Eye diseases, such as dry eye syndrome, are commonly treated with eye drop formulations. However, eye drop formulations require frequent dosing with high drug concentrations due to poor ocular surface retention, which leads to poor patient compliance and high risks of side effects. We developed a mucoadhesive nanoparticle eye drop delivery platform to prolong the ocular retention of topical drugs, thus enabling treatment of eye diseases using reduced dosage. Using fluorescent imaging on rabbit eyes, we showed ocular retention of the fluorescent dye delivered through these nanoparticles beyond 24 h while free dyes were mostly cleared from the ocular surface within 3 h after administration. Utilizing the prolonged retention of the nanoparticles, we demonstrated effective treatment of experimentally induced dry eye in mice by delivering cyclosporin A (CsA) bound to this delivery system. The once a week dosing of 0.005 to 0.01% CsA in NP eye drop formulation demonstrated both the elimination of the inflammation signs and the recovery of ocular surface goblet cells after a month. Thrice daily administration of RESTASIS on mice only showed elimination without recovering the ocular surface goblet cells. The mucoadhesive nanoparticle eye drop platform demonstrated prolonged ocular surface retention and effective treatment of dry eye conditions with up to 50- to 100-fold reduction in overall dosage of CsA compared to RESTASIS, which may significantly reduce side effects and, by extending the interdosing interval, improve patient compliance.

  20. [Allergodil eye drops in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Haicl, P; Cerná, H

    2002-07-01

    The authors describe a group of 20 patients with symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis where for a period of 2-6 weeks twice a day into the conjunctival sac of both eyes Allergidol gtt, ophth., ASTA Medica AG FRG was administered. As to subjective sensations the authors evaluated itching, burning, the sensation of a foreign body and lacrimation, as to objective signs oedema of the eyelids, hyperaemia of the conjunctiva and papillary hypertrophy. The authors evaluated also the rate of onset of the effect, its duration and tolerance of the preparation. Subjective symptoms disappeared in 90% patients, hyperaemia of the conjunctivae and papillary hypertrophy receded in 12 patients (60%), in 8 (40%) they disappeared. Regression of subjective complaints occurred in all patients within 20 minutes, the duration of the effect was within the range of 11-13 hours in 18 patients (90%), 6-8 hours in two patients (10%). As to undesirable effects one female patient reported after administration of the eye drops a bitter sensation in the mouth, another one a burning sensation. Evidence was provided that the local H1 antihistaminic Allergodil gtt is effective in monotherapy in mild forms of allergic conjunctivitis.

  1. [Effect of FK506 eye-drop combined with keratoplasty on recurrent Mooren's ulcer].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hanping; Chen, Jiaqi; Lin, Yuesheng; Liu, Yongmin; Ye, Chengtian

    2002-01-01

    To observe the effect of FK506 eye-drop combined with keratoplasty on recurrent Mooren's ulcer. 9 cases (15 eyes) of recurrent Mooren's ulcer were treated with topical FK506 eye-drop combined with keratoplasty. Of the 15 eyes, two of Mooren's ulcer smaller than half circle of the limbus were treated with 0.1% FK506 eye-drop. Among the other 13 eyes of the ulcer larger than half the circle of the limbus, 12 eyes were treated with excision of conjunctiva combined with lamellar keratoplasty. One eye with a central corneal perforation was treated with penetrating keratoplasty. FK506 eye-drop 0.1% was given to the 13 operated eyes after the re-epithelialization of the cornea. The effect of FK506 on recurrent Mooren's ulcer was observed. Measurements of FK506 in surgically resected cornea and conjunctiva, and aqueous humor of the operated eyes were performed using enzyme immunoassay procedure. Twelve cases of recurrent Mooren's ulcer treated with lamellar keratoplasty combined with topical 0.1% dexamethasone eye-drop were taken as control. After application of 0.1% FK506 eye-drop, concentrations of 30 - 350 ng/g of FK506 were found in the cornea and conjunctiva, and no FK506 was measured in the aqueous humor. Nine cases (15 eyes) of recurrent Mooren's ulcer were all cured and no recurrence was observed during the follow-up time of 12 - 17 months. The vision of 5 eyes was improved more than 2 lines after the treatment. Seven eyes of Mooren's ulcer in the control group recurred. 0.1% FK506 eye-drop combined with keratoplasty is an effective treatment for recurrent Mooren's ulcer.

  2. Comparison of three lubricant eye drop solutions in dry eye patients.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Mariasilva; Koverech, Aleardo; Messano, Masa; Pescosolido, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Lubricant eye drops that restore physiological osmolarity represent a promising strategy for dry eye syndrome as hyperosmolarity plays a central role in this disease. This preliminary study compared three lubricant eye drop solutions with different osmolarities and compositions in subjects with this condition. Subjects with dry eye syndrome undergoing treatment with benzalkonium chloride-containing lubricant eye drops were randomized to Carnidrop (n = 9), Optive (n = 9), or Blu Sal (n = 9). Fluorescein break-up time (FBUT) and Ocular Protection Index (OPI) were measured at baseline, 15 min, and 60 min after instillation to evaluate the stability and quality of the tear film. At 15 min, a significant increase in FBUT vs. baseline was reported with Carnidrop (from 2.0 ± 0.8 to 4.8 ± 2.0; p = 0.004) but not in patients who received Optive or Blu Sal. At 60 min, FBUT was significantly increased vs. baseline with Carnidrop (from 2.0 ± 0.8 to 6.0 ± 2.8, p = 0.001) and Optive (from 2.9 ± 2.8 to 4.3 ± 2.9, p = 0.004) but not with Blu Sal. At 15 min, OPI was significantly increased from baseline in only the Carnidrop group (from 0.4 ± 0.2 to 1.0 ± 0.4, p = 0.003). This increase was significantly greater with Carnidrop than with Blu Sal (p = 0.003). At the 60 min evaluation, OPI remained significantly increased from baseline in only the Carnidrop group (p = 0.003). Carnidrop produces a larger increase in FBUT and OPI than Optive and Blu Sal in subjects with dry eye syndrome over a 1 h period, possibly because of its hypo-osmolarity and high osmolyte (in particular L-carnitine) content. The instillation of compounds that improve the quality and stability of the tear film, which are impaired in dry eye syndrome, could be effective in the treatment of this condition.

  3. The effect of 0.5% tropicamide/0.5% phenylephrine mixed eye drop in Chinese adults with myopia and its inter-eye difference in refractive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangjia; Chen, Minjie; Dai, Jinhui; Lu, Yi

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of 0.5% tropicamide/0.5% phenylephrine mixed eye drop and make the inter-eye comparison of refractive outcomes in Chinese adults with myopia. Refractive measurements were performed without cycloplegia and repeated 30 minutes later with 0.5% tropicamide/0.5% phenylephrine mixed eye drop (Mydrin-P*) on 341 myopic adults. Vector analysis was used to analyze the data. Changes of spherical equivalent (M) and astigmatism for both J0 and J45 components between these two refractions were calculated as Error_M, Error_J0 and Error_J45. Inter-eye correlations were studied. The inter-eye difference after cycloplegics were described as Diff M, Diff J0 and Diff J45. The effect of anisometropia, age and the higher order aberrations (HOAs) on inter-eye differences toward the cycloplegic agent were analyzed. Difference was found only for the Error_J45 component between the two eyes (p=0.0040). Pearson correlation coefficients between the two eyes for Error_M, Error_J0, and Error_J45 were 0.3140 (p<0.0001), 0.1464 (p=0.0068), and 0.0099 (p=0.8558), respectively. The inter-eye differences (Diff) in response to cycloplegic agent increased with the amount of anisometropia. The oldest group had the highest Diff M values. However, HOAs were found not to be related to the inter-eye differences. Accommodation was still relaxed by tropicamide/phenylephrine eye drops in myopic adults. The changes of refraction due to cycloplegia were not well correlated between the two eyes in myopic patients. Anisometropia and ocular dominance might be an important factor for the inter-eye difference.

  4. Recurrent Central Serous Chorioretinopathy with Dexamethasone Eye Drop used Nasally for Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Gunjan; Shephali, Jain; Tirupati, Nath; Ji, Pandey D

    2013-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is characterized by serous retinal detachment at the posterior pole. Several factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis, and endogenous or exogenous corticosteroids are thought to play a major role. Here we present a case of a 35-year-old male with complaints of a dark circle in front of his right eye. Fundus examination, optical coherence tomography and fundus fluorescein angiography were performed. The patient was diagnosed with CSC. CSC resolved completely within seven weeks. Four weeks later the CSC recurred and spontaneously resolved over eight weeks. Overall, the patient had three additional recurrences of CSC in the same eye over the next year. A detailed history taking revealed the patient was using 0.1% dexamethasone eye drops nasally for recurrent rhinitis for few days prior to each episode of CSC. This indicates the strong correlation between steroids given by any route and the pathogenesis of CSC.

  5. Stability and in vitro toxicity of an infliximab eye drop formulation.

    PubMed

    Robert, Marie-Claude; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Frenette, Mathieu; Young, David; Gipson, Ilene K; Dohlman, Claes H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel 10-mg/mL infliximab eye drop, to characterize its physical and biological stability under recommended storage conditions, and to assess the formulation's toxicity to ocular surface epithelium in vitro. Infliximab (10 mg/mL) was reconstituted using equal volumes of sterile water and 1% carboxymethylcellulose artificial tears. Aliquots were stored in either a 4 degrees C refrigerator or -20 degrees C freezer for up to 45 days. Physical stability was assessed through monitoring the solution's appearance, pH, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared absorbance and scattering, as well as protein gel electrophoresis. Biological stability was assayed through binding to tumor necrosis factor-alpha using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro cytotoxicity to human corneal-limbal epithelial cells was examined following a 4-hour exposure to the study drug. Refrigerated and frozen infliximab eye drops remained clear and colorless for the duration of study. The formulation's pH (7.0) was comparable to that of the artificial tear vehicle alone. Low levels of ultraviolet-visible-near infrared light absorbance and scattering established the lack of protein precipitate after refrigeration or freezing. Protein gel electrophoresis performed under reducing conditions revealed the presence of two main protein bands of approximately 50 kDa and 25 kDa, representing immunoglobulin G heavy and light chains. The migration pattern of the proteins did not change under the different storage conditions and between day 10 and 45 after formulation. Infliximab binding to tumor necrosis factor-alpha remained stable for up to 45 days, with conservation of 101% and 102% of its initial binding activity when refrigerated or frozen, respectively. In vitro human corneal-limbal epithelial cultures showed no increase in cytotoxicity with infliximab treatment when compared to vehicle and culture media controls (P > 0.05). Infliximab can be formulated as an

  6. Optimization of hyaluronan-based eye drop formulations.

    PubMed

    Salzillo, Rosanna; Schiraldi, Chiara; Corsuto, Luisana; D'Agostino, Antonella; Filosa, Rosanna; De Rosa, Mario; La Gatta, Annalisa

    2016-11-20

    Hyaluronan (HA) is frequently incorporated in eye drops to extend the pre-corneal residence time, due to its viscosifying and mucoadhesive properties. Hydrodynamic and rheological evaluations of commercial products are first accomplished revealing molecular weights varying from about 360 to about 1200kDa and viscosity values in the range 3.7-24.2mPa s. The latter suggest that most products could be optimized towards resistance to drainage from the ocular surface. Then, a study aiming to maximize the viscosity and mucoadhesiveness of HA-based preparations is performed. The effect of polymer chain length and concentration is investigated. For the whole range of molecular weights encountered in commercial products, the concentration maximizing performance is identified. Such concentration varies from 0.3 (wt%) for a 1100kDa HA up to 1.0 (wt%) for a 250kDa HA, which is 3-fold higher than the highest concentration on the market. The viscosity and mucoadhesion profiles of optimized formulations are superior than commercial products, especially under conditions simulating in vivo blinking. Thus longer retention on the corneal epithelium can be predicted. An enhanced capacity to protect corneal porcine epithelial cells from dehydration is also demonstrated in vitro. Overall, the results predict formulations with improved efficacy. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. [Preservatives in eye drops: toward awareness of their toxicity].

    PubMed

    Vaede, D; Baudouin, C; Warnet, J-M; Brignole-Baudouin, F

    2010-09-01

    Preservatives are present in numerous multidose eyedrops and provide the sterility of the solution against bacteria and fungi. However, numerous studies have shown their toxicity for the ocular surface, particularly in long-term treatments. The most widely used preservative in eyedrops is benzalkonium chloride. This quaternary ammonium acts as a detergent, antiseptic, disinfectant, fungicide, bactericide, and spermicide. Its use on the ocular surface therefore has significant consequences. Indeed, the preservatives are pro-apoptotic, pro-inflammatory and they cause the dissolution of the lachrymal film. The prolonged administration of one or several eye drops containing preservatives induces changes in the superficial structures (conjunctiva, cornea) as well as in deeper structures (trabecula, lens). The least severe symptoms are irritation and discomfort, including sensation of a foreign body, itching, or burning sensations. However, more severe side effects have been described, such as chronic inflammation of variable intensity or the progressive development of fibrosis with higher risk of failure after glaucoma filtering surgery. Ideally, preservative-free eyedrops should be recommended, or at least a reduction of the number of instilled preserved eyedrops should be considered. All these strategies could increase patient comfort, quality of life, and compliance, with better outcome at the time of filtering surgery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Eye Drop Technique Education in Patients With Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Sayner, Robyn; Blalock, Susan J; Muir, Kelly W; Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth; Lawrence, Scott D; Giangiacomo, Annette L; Goldsmith, Jason A; Tudor, Gail E; Robin, Alan L; Sleath, Betsy L

    2016-08-01

    Education about how to administer eye drops may improve a patient's ability to instill his or her eye drops correctly. Our objectives were to (a) document the methods providers use to educate glaucoma patients about eye drop technique; (b) determine whether eye drop technique education varies by provider and patient characteristics; and (c) evaluate whether education predicts improved patient technique. We conducted an 8-month longitudinal study of 279 glaucoma patients and 15 providers in which we recorded on videotape the content of glaucoma office visits at two time points (baseline and 4- to 6-week follow-up) and videotaped patient eye drop technique at three time points (baseline, 4- to 6-week follow-up, and 8-month follow-up). Mann-Whitney rank sum tests were used to determine whether education was associated with improved patient eye drop technique over time. Ninety-four patients (34%) received technique education at either visit; 31% received verbal education and 10% received a technique demonstration. Only 24 patients (47%) who were new to eye drops received technique education at the baseline visit. Patients who were new to drops at baseline (p = .008) and patients who asked a question about drops (p < .001) were more likely to receive technique education. Education was not associated with improved technique. Eye drop technique education occurs infrequently during glaucoma office visits. Future studies should compare the effectiveness of different educational methods, such as patient demonstration versus provider verbal instruction, to determine which method is best at improving patient eye drop technique.

  9. The relationship between glaucoma medication adherence, eye drop technique, and visual field defect severity.

    PubMed

    Sleath, Betsy; Blalock, Susan; Covert, David; Stone, Jennifer L; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Muir, Kelly; Robin, Alan L

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine (1) how patient adherence and eye drop technique were associated with visual field defect severity and (2) how general glaucoma adherence self-efficacy and eye drop technique self-efficacy were related to visual field defect severity. Cross-sectional study conducted at a single private practice site. Patients using eye drops for their glaucoma. Subject adherence to glaucoma medications through Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS) devices were measured, and eye drop instillation technique was assessed by video recording. General glaucoma medication adherence self-efficacy was measured using a 10-item scale, and eye drop technique self-efficacy was measured using a 6-item scale. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Visual field defect severity. Patients who were less than 80% adherent according to the MEMS devices were significantly more likely to have worse defect severity. Patients with lower scores on the general glaucoma medication adherence self-efficacy scale also were significantly more likely to have worse defect severity. Eye drop technique and eye drop technique self-efficacy were not related significantly to visual field defect severity. Eye care providers need to assess patient adherence and to work with those patients with poor adherence to find ways to improve their ability and self-efficacy in using their glaucoma medications. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Different cellular effects of four anti-inflammatory eye drops on human corneal epithelial cells: independent in active components

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Mingli; Wang, Yao; Yang, Lingling

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate and compare the cellular effects of four commercially available anti-inflammatory eye drops and their active components on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) in vitro. Methods The cellular effects of four eye drops (Bromfenac Sodium Hydrate Eye Drops, Pranoprofen Eye Drops, Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops, and Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops) and their corresponding active components were evaluated in an HCEC line with five in vitro assays. Cell proliferation and migration were measured using 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3 5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay and transwell migration assay. Cell damage was determined with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Cell viability and median lethal time (LT50) were measured by 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) staining and flow cytometry analysis. Results Cellular effects after exposure of HCECs to the four anti-inflammatory eye drops were concentration dependent. The differences of cellular toxicity on cell proliferation became significant at lower concentrations (<0.002%). Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops showed significant increasing effects on cell damage and viability when compared with the other three solutions. Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops inhibited the migration of HCECs significantly. Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops showed the quickest effect on cell viability: the LT50 was 3.28, 9.23, 10.38, and 23.80 min for Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops, Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops, Pranoprofen Eye Drops, and Bromfenac Sodium Hydrate Eye Drops, respectively. However, the comparisons of cellular toxicity revealed significant differences between the eye drops and their active components under the same concentration. The corneal epithelial toxicity differences among the active components of the four eye drops became significant as higher concentration (>0.020%). Conclusions The four anti-inflammatory eye drops showed different cellular effects on HCECs, and the toxicity was not related with their active components, which

  11. Targeting growth factor supply in keratopathy treatment: comparison between maternal peripheral blood and cord blood as sources for the preparation of topical eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Versura, Piera; Buzzi, Marina; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Terzi, Adriana; Fresina, Michela; Velati, Claudio; Campos, Emilio C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epitheliotrophic growth factors (GF) can be supplied topically to patients with severe keratopathy through a variety of blood-derived products. We compared GF content in adult peripheral blood serum (PB-S) and cord blood serum (CB-S) as potential sources of GF. To limit inter-individual variability the assessment was performed in maternal-child pairs at the time of delivery. Material and methods The amounts of epidermal GF (EGF), insulin-like GF (IGF), transforming GF-beta (TGF-β), vascular endothelial GF (VEGF) in CB units collected from the umbilical vein and PB from mothers (each group n=30) were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Obstetric characteristics and haematological data were recorded from the archives of the Emilia Romagna Cord Blood Bank. Statistical evaluations were performed by Wilcoxon’s test and correlations between variables were determined using Spearman’s (ρ) coefficient; p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results EGF, TGF-β and VEGF levels were significantly higher in CB-S than in PB-S (median 1,254.4 vs 646.0 pg/mL, 51.3 vs 38.4 μg/mL and 686.8 vs 30 pg/mL, respectively; all p<0.0001) whereas IGF content was significantly higher in PB-S than in CB-S (159.9 vs 53.5 pg/mL, respectively; p<0.0001). In CB-S, the CD34+ cell concentration appeared to be related to EGF, IGF and TGF-β levels whereas white blood cell count appeared to be related to EGF and TGF-β levels. VEGF levels showed no relation to the haematological parameters considered. Platelet counts were not related to GF level in either CB or PB. Discussion The GF content in the two blood sources was different, with CB containing larger amounts. Each GF selectively regulates cellular processes involved in corneal healing, so the use of PB or CB should be targeted to supply specific GF on the basis of the type and severity of the keratopathy. PMID:26192781

  12. Double-blind group comparative study of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops with 2% sodium cromoglycate and placebo eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Leino, M; Ennevaara, K; Latvala, A L; Nordgren, P; Posti, A M; Suves, R; Takalo, E

    1992-10-01

    A 4 week, multicentre, double-blind, double dummy, placebo controlled group comparative study was carried out during the birch pollen season to compare the efficacy and tolerability of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops (twice daily) and 2% sodium cromoglycate eye drops (four times daily). Participants with a history of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) were randomized to receive nedocromil sodium (60), sodium cromoglycate (61) or placebo (64). Clinical assessment of SAC showed improvement with both active treatments compared to placebo but symptomatology was low and only changes in photophobia and grittiness reached significance (P < 0.05). Patient diaries showed significant control of itching by both active treatments, compared to placebo, with no differences between the active preparations. Patients' opinions indicated a marked placebo effect: 73% of this group reported full or moderate control of symptoms, compared with 75% in sodium cromoglycate and 80% in the nedocromil sodium group. Unusual symptoms were most common (27 patients) with nedocromil sodium eye drops: P < 0.05 vs. placebo (15 patients). There were no serious adverse events. Nedocromil sodium eye drops (b.d.) and sodium cromoglycate eye drops (q.i.d.) were both considered clinically more effective than placebo in controlling symptoms of SAC due to birch pollen.

  13. The effect of lubricating eye drop containing hydroxypropyl guar on perimetry results of patients with glaucoma and trachomatous dry eye.

    PubMed

    Guzey, Mustafa; Satici, Ahmet; Karaman, Suleyman Korhan; Sezer, Sezgin; Bozkurt, Omer

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of a mid-viscosity mucomimetic lubricant eye drop containing hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) as a gelling agent on computerized perimetry FASTPAC test results of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with trachomatous dry eye. Both eyes of 33 patients with bilateral POAG and trachomatous dry eye were included in the study. They were treated with the same antiglaucomatous eye drop and underwent computerized perimetry. Before and after the treatment with lubricant eye drop (Systane) for 8 weeks, tear function tests (Schirmer test with topical anesthesia, fluorescein staining and tear film break-up time) and FASTPAC test with computerized perimetry were performed. Pre- and posttreatment tear functions, visual field test global indices, reliability indices, test duration and numbers of depressed points in pattern deviation plots were compared. We found significant improvements in tear function tests results, in computerized perimetry FASTPAC test indices, test duration and the number of depressed points in pattern deviation plots in the posttreatment evaluations. This study indicates that there was a benefit of mid-viscosity lubricant eye drop containing HPG treatment on computerized perimetry FASTPAC test performance in POAG subjects with trachomatous dry eye. We assume that the positive effect of this therapy is probably due to a better tear film stability, resulting in a higher optical quality of the repaired anterior corneal surface. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. A Case-Control Study on the Oxidative Balance of 50% Autologous Serum Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Diane; Zelanis, Samira; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Locatelli, Claudete; Nicola, Felipe; Kunzler, Ana Laura; Fernandes, Tania Regina Gatelli; Carraro, Cristina Campos; Barbosa, Luciene

    2016-01-01

    Importance. Autologous serum (AS) eye drops are recommended for severe dry eye in patients with ocular surface disease. No description of the antioxidant balance of AS eye drops has been reported in the literature. Objective. This study sought to evaluate the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in samples of 50% AS eye drops and their correlations with the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of patients with ocular surface disease and healthy controls. Design. This was a case-control study with a 3-month follow-up period. Participants. 16 patients with severe dry eye disease of different etiologies and 17 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and race were included. Results. TRAP and ROS were detected at all evaluated times. There were no differences in the mean ROS (p = 0.429) or TRAP (p = 0.475) levels between cases and controls. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of ROS or TRAPs were found at 0, 15, or 30 days (p for ROS = 0.087 and p for TRAP = 0.93). Neither the demographic characteristics nor the lifestyle habits were correlated with the oxidative balance of the 50% AS eye drops. Conclusions and Relevance. Both fresh and frozen 50% AS eye drops present antioxidant capacities and ROS in an apparently stable balance. Moreover, patients with ocular surface disease and normal controls produce equivalent AS eye drops in terms of oxidative properties. PMID:27635188

  15. A comparison of the efficacy of autologous serum eye drops with amniotic membrane transplantation in neurotrophic keratitis.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Elif; Celik, Erkan; Alagoz, Gursoy

    2014-05-01

    To investigate and compare the efficacy of autologous serum eye drops with amniotic membrane transplantation in eyes with neurotrophic corneal ulcers. In this retrospective study, 42 eyes of 42 patients (30 females and 12 males) with neurotrophic corneal ulcers were included and divided into group I (n = 20) who were treated with autologous serum eye drops and group II (n = 22) who underwent amniotic membrane transplantation. The epithelial healing time and best corrected visual acuity were performed before and after treatments. In group I, the mean age was 57.1 ± 10.1 years; and at the end of 6.7 ± 2.05 months follow up, 14 (70%) of 20 eyes healed completely with a minimal scarring and vascularization. Two patients had persistent epithelial defects, four patients healed incomplete because of deep stromal ulcers in eyes with post-herpes neurotrophic ulcers. In group II, the mean age was 58.7 ± 14.7 years. Seventeen eyes (72.7%) of 22 patients healed completely and there was no recurrence in these patients at the 6.8 ± 3.9 months follow-up period. Two incomplete healed patients had persistent epithelial defects caused by HSV and the other three patients had deep stromal ulcers caused by the abuse of topical anesthetics. The mean epithelialization time was 22.1 ± 8.0 days in group I and 20.0 ± 4.64 days in group II. In group I, best corrected visual acuity improved in 18 of 20 (90%) eyes and 17 of 22 (77.2%) eyes in group II. Both autologous serum eye drops and amniotic membrane transplantation are effective for eyes with neurotrophic corneal ulcers because of many epitheliotrophic factors. Also, we observed that multilayered amniotic membrane transplantation is more effective than autologous serum in deep corneal ulcers with postherpes neurotrophic keratitis in our cases.

  16. Quality standards, safety and efficacy of blood-derived serum eye drops: A review.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F; Seghatchian, Jerard; Marks, Denese C

    2016-02-01

    Serum eye drops (SEDs) are being used increasingly to treat dry eye syndrome and persistent corneal epithelial defects, and are usually prescribed when conventional treatments fail. SEDs are commonly sourced from the patient's own blood via an autologous collection. Although SEDs are clearly beneficial, they are not available for those patients that cannot donate sufficient blood, and some centres are moving to allogeneic SEDs. Many studies have reported that both allogeneic and autologous SEDs are effective. However, few large randomised controlled trials have been conducted to date, and clinical evidence is therefore limited to smaller studies. Alternatives to serum are also being explored, such as platelet lysate and products made from platelet rich plasma, as they are a rich source of growth factors. This article reviews how some centres are approaching allogeneic collections for SEDs, and alternatives to serum that are currently being explored.

  17. Long Term Glaucoma Drug Delivery Using a Topically Retained Gel/Microsphere Eye Drop.

    PubMed

    Fedorchak, Morgan V; Conner, Ian P; Schuman, Joel S; Cugini, Anthony; Little, Steven R

    2017-08-17

    The purpose of this study was to characterize and determine the efficacy of a long-term, non-invasive gel/microsphere (GMS) eye drop for glaucoma. This novel drug delivery system is comprised of a thermoresponsive hydrogel carrier and drug-loaded polymer microspheres. In vitro release of brimonidine from the GMS drops and gel properties were quantified. A single brimonidine-loaded GMS drop was administered to 5 normotensive rabbits and intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored for 28 days. Here we report that IOP reduction in rabbits receiving a single brimonidine GMS drop was comparable to that of rabbits receiving twice daily, standard brimonidine drops. GMS drops were retained in the inferior fornix in all animals for the length of the study. Our results suggest in vivo efficacy over 28 days from a single GMS drop and a potential decrease in systemic absorption, based on a lack of substantial IOP effects on the fellow untreated eye, compared to brimonidine twice-daily eye drops. To our knowledge, this represents the first long-term, drug-releasing depot that can be administered as a traditional eye drop.

  18. Effect of textured eye drop bottles on the photostability of pranoprofen 0.1% ophthalmic solution.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuka, Kinya; Inada, Katsuhiro; Ueoka, Hiroki; Otsuka, Tadashi; Maeda, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Masazumi; Yasueda, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmic solutions are usually filled in a plastic bottle due to its durability and disposability. In Japan, photostability is one of the concerns for the quality control because an eye drop bottle must be a transparent container. The present work studied the effect of textured eye drop bottles on its light blocking to improve the photostability of ophthalmic solutions. We investigated the photostability of Pranoprofen ophthalmic solution filled in a variety of textured eye drop bottles. Pranoprofen content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and surface structure of textured eye drop bottles was evaluated by transmittance, calculated average roughness (Ra) and haze intensity. We observed that eye drop bottle which had greater than Ra value of 1.0 µm and haze intensity 62% clearly showed photostability improvement. This report is the first one which shows that photostability of ophthalmic solution is improved by using textured eye drop bottle. Moreover, this approach is a simple and effective method to improve the photostability. This method is available for not only various ophthalmic applications but also other liquid pharmaceuticals or food products.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and Antihistaminic Study of a Unani Eye Drop Formulation.

    PubMed

    Abdul, Latif; Abdul, Razique; Sukul, R R; Nazish, Siddiqui

    2010-01-01

    The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and Antihistaminic Study of a Unani Eye Drop Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Abdul, Latif; Abdul, Razique; Sukul, R.R.; Nazish, Siddiqui

    2010-01-01

    The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities. PMID:23861612

  1. Changes of Corneal Wavefront Aberrations in Dry Eye Patients after Treatment with Artificial Lubricant Drops

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ning; Lin, Fangyu; Huang, Zhu; He, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the corneal aberration changes in dry eye patients after treatment with artificial eye drops. Methods. Thirty mild to moderate dry eye patients treated with artificial eye drops and twenty comparable dry eye patients were recruited as controls. Anterior corneal aberrations over 3 mm and 5 mm analytical zones including total, 3rd to 5th high order aberrations (HOAs), spherical aberration (SA), and vertical (V-coma) and horizontal coma (H-coma) obtained from corneal topography data at baseline and 2 weeks after treatment were evaluated. Results. For 3 mm zone, trefoils, V-coma, H-coma terms, and 3rd and 5th HOAs were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the treatment group. For 5 mm zone, instillation of eye drops reduced H-coma, SA terms, 3rd to 5th orders, and total HOAs all showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05). The root mean square analysis of the Zernike terms also showed similar statistical results. For control group, all individual terms and total HOAs did not have significant changes over 3 mm and 5 mm zones (p > 0.05). Conclusions. Treatment with artificial eye drops can effectively improve the corneal optical quality of dry eye patients by ameliorating the HOAs of anterior corneal surface. PMID:27051526

  2. Changes of Corneal Wavefront Aberrations in Dry Eye Patients after Treatment with Artificial Lubricant Drops.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ning; Lin, Fangyu; Huang, Zhu; He, Qin; Han, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the corneal aberration changes in dry eye patients after treatment with artificial eye drops. Methods. Thirty mild to moderate dry eye patients treated with artificial eye drops and twenty comparable dry eye patients were recruited as controls. Anterior corneal aberrations over 3 mm and 5 mm analytical zones including total, 3rd to 5th high order aberrations (HOAs), spherical aberration (SA), and vertical (V-coma) and horizontal coma (H-coma) obtained from corneal topography data at baseline and 2 weeks after treatment were evaluated. Results. For 3 mm zone, trefoils, V-coma, H-coma terms, and 3rd and 5th HOAs were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the treatment group. For 5 mm zone, instillation of eye drops reduced H-coma, SA terms, 3rd to 5th orders, and total HOAs all showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05). The root mean square analysis of the Zernike terms also showed similar statistical results. For control group, all individual terms and total HOAs did not have significant changes over 3 mm and 5 mm zones (p > 0.05). Conclusions. Treatment with artificial eye drops can effectively improve the corneal optical quality of dry eye patients by ameliorating the HOAs of anterior corneal surface.

  3. How glaucoma patient characteristics, self-efficacy and patient-provider communication are associated with eye drop technique.

    PubMed

    Sayner, Robyn; Carpenter, Delesha M; Robin, Alan L; Blalock, Susan J; Muir, Kelly W; Vitko, Michelle; Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth; Lawrence, Scott D; Giangiacomo, Annette L; Tudor, Gail; Goldsmith, Jason A; Sleath, Betsy

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which patient characteristics, eye drop technique self-efficacy, and ophthalmologist-patient communication about eye drop administration are associated with glaucoma patients' ability to instil a single drop, have the drop land in the eye, and avoid touching the applicator tip of the medication bottle to the eye or face while self-administering eye drops. Glaucoma patients (n = 279) were recruited from six ophthalmology clinics. Medical visits were videotape-recorded. Afterwards, patients were interviewed and demonstrated administering an eye drop on a videotaped-recording. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyse the data. Ophthalmologists provided eye drop administration instruction to 40 patients. Patients with more years of education were significantly more likely to both instil a single drop (P = 0.017) and have the drop land in their eye (P = 0.017). Women were significantly more likely to touch the applicator tip to their eyes or face (P = 0.014). Patients with severe glaucoma (P = 0.016), women (P = 0.026), and patients who asked at least one eye drop administration question (P = 0.001) were significantly less likely to instil a single drop. Patients with arthritis were significantly less likely to have the drop land in their eye (P = 0.008). African American patients were significantly less likely to touch the applicator tip to their eyes or face (P = 0.008). Some glaucoma patients have a difficult time self-administering eye drops. As so few patients received eye drop administration instruction from their providers, there is an opportunity for pharmacists to complement care. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. How glaucoma patient characteristics, self-efficacy, and patient-provider communication are associated with eye drop technique

    PubMed Central

    Sayner, Robyn; Carpenter, Delesha M; Robin, Alan L; Blalock, Susan J; Muir, Kelly W; Vitko, Michelle; Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth; Lawrence, Scott D; Giangiacomo, Annette L; Tudor, Gail; Goldsmith, Jason A; Sleath, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which patient characteristics, eye drop technique self-efficacy, and ophthalmologist–patient communication about eye drop administration are associated with glaucoma patients’ ability to instil a single drop, have the drop land in the eye, and avoid touching the applicator tip of the medication bottle to the eye or face while self-administering eye drops. Methods Glaucoma patients (n = 279) were recruited from six ophthalmology clinics. Medical visits were videotape-recorded. Afterwards, patients were interviewed and demonstrated administering an eye drop on a videotaped-recording. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyse the data. Key findings Ophthalmologists provided eye drop administration instruction to 40 patients. Patients with more years of education were significantly more likely to both instil a single drop (P = 0.017) and have the drop land in their eye (P = 0.017). Women were significantly more likely to touch the applicator tip to their eyes or face (P = 0.014). Patients with severe glaucoma (P = 0.016), women (P = 0.026), and patients who asked at least one eye drop administration question (P = 0.001) were significantly less likely to instil a single drop. Patients with arthritis were significantly less likely to have the drop land in their eye (P = 0.008). African American patients were significantly less likely to touch the applicator tip to their eyes or face (P = 0.008). Conclusions Some glaucoma patients have a difficult time self-administering eye drops. As so few patients received eye drop administration instruction from their providers, there is an opportunity for pharmacists to complement care. PMID:26303667

  5. Effects of Mydrin eye-drops on central corneal thickness values in adult patients with myopia.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yuan; Gao, Jian-Hua

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Mydrin eye-drops on central corneal thickness values and investigate the duration of the effect. In this prospective randomised self-controlled study, we enrolled 60 myopic patients (120 eyes) undergoing corneal laser refractive surgery. The central corneal thickness was measured before and one and four hours after administration of Mydrin eye-drops (major components are tropicamide and phenylephrine hydrochloride) using the Orbscan II anterior segment analysis system and a SP-2000P non-contact specular microscope, respectively. Using the Orbscan II system, the baseline central corneal thickness (545 ± 27 µm) was significantly lower than that at one hour after Mydrin eye-drop application (559 ± 31 µm; p < 0.001); it was comparable to that at four hours post-Mydrin eye-drop administration (544 ± 26 µm; p < 0.74). Measured by non-contact specular microscopy, the baseline central corneal thickness (508 ± 26 µm) was significantly lower than that at one hour after Mydrin eye-drop application (521 ± 29 µm; p < 0.001); it was comparable to that at four hours after Mydrin eye-drop administration (506 ± 24 µm; p = 0.62). A significant difference was observed in the central corneal thickness at one and four hours after Mydrin eye-drop application by both methods (p < 0.001). Bland-Altman plots showed agreement between the measurements by the two methods at different times. Central corneal thickness increases one hour after topical application of Mydrin eye-drops and is normalised at four hours following the administration of the drops. For patients scheduled to undergo excimer laser corneal refractive surgery, the central corneal thickness should be measured before or four hours after administration of Mydrin eye-drops. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  6. Evaluation of eye drop administration technique in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gail F; Hollander, David A; Williams, Julia M

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate eye drop administration by patients at multiple visits in the setting of a randomized controlled trial. Patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension were randomized to 12 weeks of treatment with topical ocular hypotensive medication in a multicenter, investigator-masked trial. At baseline, patients were given a questionnaire for self-assessment of difficulty with drop administration. At baseline and 12 weeks, patients demonstrated drop instillation using a bottle of artificial tears. Patient self-assessment of difficulty with drop administration and observed patient difficulty with drop administration, defined as bottle touching eye/adnexa, drop missing the ocular surface, or administering more than 1 drop. Of 164 enrolled patients, 50% had previously been treated with ocular hypotensive medication for ≥3 years. Only 11.4% of patients reported difficulty with eye drop administration at study entry. At baseline, 18.2% of patients touched their eye/adnexa with the bottle and 10.3% missed the eye. At 12 weeks, 18.5% and 8.6% of patients, respectively, had similar difficulties. Overall, difficulty with drop instillation was observed in 42.1% of patients. Difficulty at both visits was seen in 35.3% of patients who reported difficulty at entry and in 17.2% of patients who denied difficulty. The relative risk of demonstrating difficulty at either visit was 2.0 times greater for patients who self-reported difficulty at study entry (P = 0.004). The relative risk of demonstrating difficulty at week 12 was 3.8 times greater for patients with observed difficulty at baseline (P < 0.001). Limitations of the study design included self-administration of drops to the eye of the patient's choice and observation in an office setting. Patients with experience instilling topical glaucoma medications continue to have difficulties with eye drop administration, including patients who do not self-report difficulty. The risk of difficulty with eye drop administration is

  7. Pharmacokinetics and local safety profile of propranolol eye drops in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Padrini, Letizia; Isacchi, Benedetta; Bilia, Anna Rita; Pini, Alessandro; Lanzi, Cecilia; Masini, Emanuela; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Calvani, Anna Maria; Ceccantini, Riccardo; la Marca, Giancarlo; Filippi, Luca

    2014-10-01

    Oral propranolol, a nonselective β-blocker, is able to reduce the progression of retinopathy of prematurity in newborns, but it appeared unsafe. This study aimed to find, in rabbits, a propranolol eye drop concentration able to induce lower plasma but higher retinal concentrations than those obtained after oral administration. Male New Zealand white rabbits were treated with oral propranolol (0.25 mg/kg/6 h) for 5 d, and propranolol concentrations were measured after 1, 2, 3, and 6 h in plasma, aqueous humor, vitreous humor, and retina. These concentrations were compared with those obtained after the administration of one drop of 25 μl of propranolol 0.1% prepared in saline, applied every 6 h to both eyes for 5 d. A Draize eye test and histological analyses were performed to assess eye drop tolerability. The administration of eye drops produced retinal concentrations similar to, but plasma concentrations significantly lower than, those measured after oral administration. The local tolerability profile was excellent. Propranolol eye drops are able to ensure high retinal and low plasma concentrations of propranolol, and this finding opens the perspective of possible topical treatment with propranolol in newborns with retinopathy of prematurity.

  8. Systane® ultra lubricant eye drops for treatment of contact lens-related dryness.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Marguerite; Schachet, John L; Lievens, Christopher W; Kern, Jami R

    2014-03-01

    To assess the clinical performance of Systane Ultra lubricant eye drops in daily disposable soft contact lens wearers who experience contact lens-related dryness. In this randomized, investigator-masked study, daily disposable lens wearers with symptoms of dryness were randomized to use Systane Ultra lubricant eye drops or to no treatment. The lubricant regimen was applied twice a day, 10 minutes before lens insertion and after lens removal, for the 2-week study period. Subjective comfort, wear time, and visual acuity were assessed at baseline and after 2 weeks. A total of 89 daily disposable lens wearers were randomly assigned to the Systane Ultra group (n=44) or the control group (n=45). Two weeks of Systane Ultra lubricant eye drop use resulted in a significant increase in comfortable lens wear time when compared with baseline assessment (P=0.001) and a trend toward significant improvement compared with the control group (P=0.078). End-of-the-day comfort was significantly improved in the Systane Ultra group compared with the control group (P=0.007). A significant reduction in the overall dryness (P<0.001) and end-of-day dryness (P=0.047) was observed in subjects using the Systane Ultra lubricant eye drops compared with the control group. The study demonstrates that Systane Ultra lubricant eye drops applied before and after contact lens wear is an effective artificial tear for alleviating symptoms of contact lens-related dry eye.

  9. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of dexamethasone and diclofenac sodium eye drops in phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Muhammad; Humayun, Sadia

    2009-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness of dexamethasone and diclofenac sodium eye drops in the resolution of inflammation following phacoemulsification surgery with posterior chamber intraocular lens implants. Quasi-experimental study. Ophthalmology Department, PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from June 2006 to March 2007. One hundred subjects were operated and postoperatively divided into two groups, designated as 'dexamethasone' and 'diclofenac' groups. They were assessed for visual acuity and followed for 5 weeks for the signs of inflammation, which included cells and flare in the anterior chamber and striate keratopathy. Proportions were compared by Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test. Topically applied diclofenac sodium suppressed postoperative inflammation effectively but its anti-inflammatory effects were of lesser magnitude as compared to that of topically applied dexamethasone drops (p < 0.005). Dexamethasone eye drops were found to have more potent anti-inflammatory activity in moderate to severe cases than diclofenac sodium eye drops in postoperative cases.

  10. Effect of the Rho-Associated Kinase Inhibitor Eye Drop (Ripasudil) on Corneal Endothelial Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Naoki; Okazaki, Yugo; Inoue, Ryota; Kakutani, Kazuya; Nakano, Shinichiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Koizumi, Noriko

    2016-03-01

    Ripasudil (Glanatec), a selective rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, was approved as a glaucoma and ocular hypertension treatment in Japan in 2014. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using ripasudil eye drops to treat corneal endothelial injuries. Cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) were treated with ripasudil, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation was evaluated by ELISA. A rabbit corneal endothelial damage model was also created by mechanically scraping the corneal endothelium, followed by topical ripasudil eye drop application for 2 weeks. The anterior segment was evaluated by slit-lamp microscopy, and central corneal thickness was measured by ultrasound pachymetry. Corneal specimens were evaluated by phalloidin staining and immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies against Ki67, N-cadherin, and Na+/K+-ATPase. Many more BrdU-positive cells were observed among the HCECs treated with ripasudil (0.3-30 μM) than among the control HCECs. Ripasudil-treated eyes in a rabbit model showed 91.5 ± 2.0% Ki67-positive cells after 48 hours, whereas control eyes showed 52.6 ± 1.3%. Five of six corneas became transparent in ripasudil-treated eyes, whereas zero of six corneas became transparent in the control eyes. Regenerated cell densities were higher in the eyes treated with ripasudil than in eyes treated with vehicle. Eyes treated with ripasudil expressed N-cadherin and Na+/K+-ATPase in almost all CECs, whereas this expression was decreased in control eyes. Ripasudil promoted corneal endothelial wound healing, supporting its development as eye drops for treating acute corneal endothelial damage due to eye surgeries, especially cataract surgery.

  11. Effect of nepafenac eye drops on intraocular pressure: a randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Dave, Paaraj; Shah, Kuntal; Ramchandani, Bharat; Jain, Rupa

    2014-03-01

    To report the effect of nepafenac (0.1%) eye drops on intraocular pressure in eyes with cataract. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with bilateral cataracts in an institutional setting were included. All patients had a baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) ≤ 21 mm Hg without a history of intraocular surgery in the past 3 months. One eye of each individual was randomized to the treatment group, with the other eye acting as a control. Nepafenac (0.1%) eye drops were instilled 3 times a day in the eye that received treatment. Intraocular pressure (IOP) with Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) was measured at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks. Proportion of eyes with an IOP elevation of >4 mm Hg was the main outcome measure. The mean age of the participants was 45.7 ± 4.4 years. Participants included 192 female and 135 male patients. The mean IOP at baseline in the treated and control eyes was, respectively, 13.8 ± 2.5 mm Hg and 13.4 ± 3.0 mm Hg, which reduced to 12.0 ± 2.0 mm Hg and 12.1 ± 1.5 mm Hg, respectively, at the end of 8 weeks. This reduction in IOP in both groups was significant (P < .01). The difference between the IOP in the treated and control eyes at 8 weeks was not statistically significant (P = .34). One eye in the treated group and 2 eyes in the control group had an IOP elevation of >4 mm Hg. Nepafenac eye drops do not increase the IOP. They can possibly be used as an alternative to steroid medications where steroid responsiveness is a concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Proficiency of eye drop instillation in postoperative cataract patients in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Murdoch, Amanda; Bassett, Ken; Dharamsi, Shafik

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative instruction on proficiency of eye drop instillation following cataract surgery, and to determine whether such proficiency correlates with the prevalence and/or duration of irritation and pain experienced in operated eyes. This was a prospective, nonrandomized control trial with an educational intervention conducted via a single eye clinic in Accra, Ghana. The 218 subjects who completed the study were postoperative cataract surgery patients whose surgery had been funded by the nongovernmental organization Unite for Sight. Patients were evaluated on their ability to administer eye drops correctly on their first attempt on postoperative day one. If unsuccessful, patients were given an educational session that consisted of verbal instructions and an educational video. Both groups (successful and unsuccessful) on the first postoperative day were tested again for proficiency on postoperative day 30. The baseline group was evaluated only on postoperative day 30 and consisted of 36 patients. Of the 133 patients who received the educational session on eye drop instillation, 112 (84%) exhibited proficiency on postoperative day 30 as compared with 29 of 49 patients (59%) who did not receive the intervention. Additionally, there were fewer reports of pain and irritation following cataract extraction in the patients who received the educational session. This study supports the efficacy of patient education in improving proficiency in eye drop instillation and in reducing pain and irritation following cataract extraction surgeries.

  13. [Keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated with the combination povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole].

    PubMed

    Diongue, K; Sow, A S; Nguer, M; Seck, M C; Ndiaye, M; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, J M; Ndoye, N W; Diallo, M A; Diop, A; Ndiaye, Y D; Dieye, B; Déme, A; Ndiaye, I M; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-12-01

    In developing countries where systemic antifungal are often unavailable, treatment of filamentous fungi infection as Fusarium is sometimes very difficult to treat. We report the case of a keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated by povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole. The diagnosis of abscess in the cornea was retained after ophthalmological examination for a 28-year-old man with no previous ophthalmological disease, addressed to the Ophthalmological clinic at the University Hospital Le Dantec in Dakar for a left painful red eye with decreased visual acuity lasting for 15 days. The patient did not receive any foreign body into the eye. Samples by corneal scraping were made for microbiological analysis and the patient was hospitalized and treated with a reinforced eye drops based treatment (ceftriaxone+gentamicin). The mycological diagnosis revealed the presence of a mold: F. oxysporum, which motivated the replacement of the initial treatment by eye drops containing iodized povidone solution at 1% because of the amphotericin B unavailability. Due to the threat of visual loss, oral fluconazole was added to the local treatment with eye drops povidone iodine. The outcome was favorable with a healing abscess and visual acuity amounted to 1/200th. Furthermore, we noted sequels such as pannus and pillowcase. The vulgarization of efficient topical antifungal in developing countries would be necessary to optimize fungal infection treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel plasminogen and hyaluronate sodium eye drop formulation for a patient with ligneous conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Franca Manganelli; Di Felice, Giovina; Bernaschi, Paola; Bartuli, Andrea; Bianco, Giuseppe; Simonetti, Alessandra; Buzzonetti, Luca; Valente, Paola; Corsetti, Tiziana

    2016-04-15

    The development, analysis, and first clinical use of a novel eye drop formulation of plasminogen and hyaluronate sodium for the treatment of a patient with ligneous conjunctivitis (LC) are described. LC is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the eye that can in rare cases lead to corneal involvement and subsequent blindness. Topically administered plasminogen is an effective treatment for LC; however, the lack of a specific and validated formulation of plasminogen for topical treatment can constitute a gap in the quality of care. A novel formulation of plasminogen and hyaluronate sodium for the treatment of LC was developed by combining commercially available products. Through a series of tests, including microbiological, viscosity, and pH analyses, the novel eye drop formulation was demonstrated to have constant activity (3.3 IU/mL or greater), to be microbiologically stable (i.e., sterile), and to be safe enough for daily administration. The first clinical application of the novel eye drop formulation was in the case of a nine-year-old girl with LC affecting both eyes. Initially, the girl's parents administered two drops every three hours to the left eye each day while the girl was awake. On examination after 30 days of daily use of the eye drop formulation, the patient was found to have a clear cornea and no membrane development on the conjunctiva; the formulation was subsequently administered in both eyes, with positive results. A new formulation of plasminogen plus hyaluronate sodium was developed, tested, and used successfully in a girl with LC. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tear lipid layer thickness with eye drops in meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fogt, Jennifer S; Kowalski, Matthew J; King-Smith, P Ewen; Epitropolous, Alice T; Hendershot, Andrew J; Lembach, Carrie; Maszczak, John Paul; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A; Barr, Joseph T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a lipid containing emollient eye drop, Soothe XP, which was reformulated in 2014 with a more stable preservative and buffer system, compared to a control, non-emollient, eye drop (Systane Ultra) in improving lipid layer thickness (LLT) in subjects with dry eye due to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). This prospective single-center, open-label, cross-over, examiner masked-study enrolled subjects aged 30-75 years with lipid-deficient dry eye and a clinical diagnosis of MGD as determined by a slit lamp examination, an evaluation of meibomian gland drop out with meibography, and a standard patient evaluation of eye dryness questionnaire of >5. Eligibility was then determined by a LLT of <75 nm at baseline and the inability to increase LLT ≥15 nm with three blinks, as determined by interferometric methods. Subjects were randomized to receive a single emollient or non-emollient eye drop at Visit 1 and were crossed over for the alternate treatment at Visit 2. At each visit, LLT was measured prior to and 15 minutes following the instillation of the assigned eye drop. The primary endpoint was the change in LLT from baseline. Subjects (n=40) were enrolled and 35 completed the two study arms. Mean (±SD) patient age was 55.7 years (10.9) and 69% were female. Mean (±SD) LLT at baseline was 49.5 nm (9.2). Instillation of Soothe XP resulted in an increase in LLT to 77.5 nm (29.3) 15 minutes following drop instillation, which is an increase of 28.0 nm (27.4) (P<0.001). In contrast, LLT 15 minutes after the instillation of Systane Ultra was 50.8 nm (14.1), which was not statistically significant when compared to the baseline LLT. In this study of subjects with MGD, the emollient, or lipid containing eye drop, increased the LLT of tears when measured 15 minutes after instilling a single eye drop.

  16. Tear lipid layer thickness with eye drops in meibomian gland dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Fogt, Jennifer S; Kowalski, Matthew J; King-Smith, P Ewen; Epitropolous, Alice T; Hendershot, Andrew J; Lembach, Carrie; Maszczak, John Paul; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A; Barr, Joseph T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a lipid containing emollient eye drop, Soothe XP, which was reformulated in 2014 with a more stable preservative and buffer system, compared to a control, non-emollient, eye drop (Systane Ultra) in improving lipid layer thickness (LLT) in subjects with dry eye due to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Patients and methods This prospective single-center, open-label, cross-over, examiner masked-study enrolled subjects aged 30–75 years with lipid-deficient dry eye and a clinical diagnosis of MGD as determined by a slit lamp examination, an evaluation of meibomian gland drop out with meibography, and a standard patient evaluation of eye dryness questionnaire of >5. Eligibility was then determined by a LLT of <75 nm at baseline and the inability to increase LLT ≥15 nm with three blinks, as determined by interferometric methods. Subjects were randomized to receive a single emollient or non-emollient eye drop at Visit 1 and were crossed over for the alternate treatment at Visit 2. At each visit, LLT was measured prior to and 15 minutes following the instillation of the assigned eye drop. The primary endpoint was the change in LLT from baseline. Results Subjects (n=40) were enrolled and 35 completed the two study arms. Mean (±SD) patient age was 55.7 years (10.9) and 69% were female. Mean (±SD) LLT at baseline was 49.5 nm (9.2). Instillation of Soothe XP resulted in an increase in LLT to 77.5 nm (29.3) 15 minutes following drop instillation, which is an increase of 28.0 nm (27.4) (P<0.001). In contrast, LLT 15 minutes after the instillation of Systane Ultra was 50.8 nm (14.1), which was not statistically significant when compared to the baseline LLT. Conclusion In this study of subjects with MGD, the emollient, or lipid containing eye drop, increased the LLT of tears when measured 15 minutes after instilling a single eye drop. PMID:27853352

  17. Pharmacological evaluation of anti-inflammatory pyrrole-acetic acid derivative eye drops.

    PubMed

    Bucolo, C; Spadaro, A

    1997-08-01

    The effects of mucoadhesive eye drops containing a pyrrole-acetic acid derivative (tolmetin) at 0.5% concentration on ocular inflammation produced by sodium arachidonate in the rabbit's eye were evaluated. Furthermore, the bioavailability of the mucoadhesive formulation in the aqueous humor against an aqueous-based solution was compared. Tolmetin eye drops significantly reduced the signs of ocular inflammation elicited by sodium arachidonate on conjunctiva and iris. Tolmetin treatment significantly reduced the levels of prostaglandin E2, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and protein concentration in aqueous samples obtained from the eyes treated with arachidonate. The de novo production of prostaglandin E2 by corneas obtained from rabbits sacrificed 2 hours after arachidonate instillation were significantly higher in samples taken from controls than in corneas obtained from the eyes treated with tolmetin eye drops. Furthermore, the drug treatment significantly reduced the rise in intraocular pressure arachidonate-induced. The mucoadhesive formulation showed a higher bioavailability in aqueous humor compared to the aqueous-based solution both in the uninflamed and in the inflamed rabbit eyes.

  18. Migration study of 1,3-butadiene in eye-drop solutions.

    PubMed

    Pistos, Constantinos; Karampela, Sevasti; Vardakou, Ioanna; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris

    2012-07-01

    The potential deleterious effects of extractables/leachables in pharmaceutical products led the USP, EP, and JP to require extractable and toxicity testing of container/closure systems. To that, a headspace gas chromatography flame ionization detection method was developed and validated for the determination of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD) as a potential extractable residue from a pharmaceutical container/closure system into eye-drop solutions. A migration study was further applied in eight eye-drop solutions (currently marketed products) after short- and long-term exposure of these products at various temperatures. This method allows the establishment of safety-qualification thresholds for 1,3-BD being capable of monitoring eye-drop solution products for this residue.

  19. Stability of oxytetracycline hydrochloride in eye-drops, prepared in pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Izer, K; Török, I; Pintér-Magyar, G

    1994-03-01

    In the ophthalmological practice the so-called "Oxytetracycline-eye-drop" is frequently used, prepared in pharmacies ex tempore with a short self-life (3 days). In this paper a TLC-densitometric method is described for the determination of the degradation products of oxytetracycline HCl (OTC) formed in the "Oxytetracycline-eye-drop". A chloroform-methanol-water (65 + 25 + 5 v/v) solvent system is applied on silica gel TLC plate, predeveloped with saturated disodium ethylenediamine-tetraacetate aqueous solution. UV densitometry at 254 nm is used for quantitative determination. The chemical stability of OTC in different eye-drops as well as the effects of the pH and the mode of the preparation and storage conditions on the decomposition process are discussed.

  20. Azelastine eye drops reduce conjunctival hyperresponsiveness to hyperosmolar glucose challenge in children with asymptomatic mite conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; Catrullo, A; Tosca, M; Cerqueti, P; Mondino, C; Passalacqua, G; Canonica, G W

    1999-01-01

    Mite allergy is characterized by a continuous allergen exposure. Persistent inflammation is therefore always detectable; and during symptomless periods as well. It has been reported that mite allergic patients also present a nonspecific hyperreactivity to different stimuli, including hyperosmolar solution. Since azelastine was previously demonstrated to be able to reduce allergic inflammation, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the drug on nonspecific conjunctival hyperreactivity in mite-allergic patients. Twenty children with mite allergy were studied. A hyperosmolar conjunctival challenge was performed before and after azelastine eye drops or placebo treatment for a period of 2 weeks. It was found that patients treated with azelastine eye drops showed a significant reduction in nonspecific conjunctival hyperreactivity compared to the placebo group (p = 0.018). It was concluded that azelastine eye drops are able to reduce the nonspecific hyperreactivity present in subjects with mite allergy.

  1. Tear film deficiencies pharmacology of eye drops and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kaszli, F A; Krieglstein, G K

    1996-08-01

    Our knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of multifactorially induced dry eye has increased dramatically during the past few years. Major progress has taken place in the development of objective methods of evaluating and differentiating disturbances of the ocular lubrication. Various in vivo techniques for the diagnosis of tear film and corneal pathologies, including fluorophotometric tear flow, scanning confocal microscopy, infrared thermography, and fluorogenic substrate techniques, can be used quantitatively and qualitatively in clinical research. Eyedrop side effects such as epithelial cell toxicity and, especially, changes in epithelial membrane permeability after the administration of locally applied ophthalmic preparations are now detectable under in vivo conditions.

  2. Antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome treated with preservative-free versus preserved eye drops.

    PubMed

    Jee, Donghyun; Park, Sang Hee; Kim, Man Soo; Kim, Eun Chul

    2014-07-03

    To compare the antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine activities in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome treated with preservative-free versus preserved eye drops. A total of 100 patients with moderate to severe dry eye syndrome were randomly divided into two groups. Fifty patients (group 1) were treated four times with preservative-free 0.1% sodium hyaluronate and 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops in the first month and with preservative-free 0.1% sodium hyaluronate and 0.05% cyclosporine eye drops in the second and third months. Another 50 patients (group 2) were treated with preserved eye drops on the same schedule. Ocular Surface Disease Index, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test, tear film breakup time, impression cytology, and antioxidant and inflammatory cytokine activities in tears were evaluated. Treatment with preservative-free eye drops led to significant improvements in symptoms, tear film breakup time, Schirmer I score, and impression cytologic findings compared to treatment with preserved eye drops (P < 0.05) in patients with dry eye syndrome. There was a statistically significant decrease in the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α concentrations and a statistically significant increase in the catalase, peroxiredoxin 2, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD 2), and thioredoxin mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of tears in the preservative-free group at 1, 2, and 3 months compared to initial values, respectively (P < 0.05). Treatment with preservative-free eye drops is effective against the dry eye syndrome. Preservative-free eye drops seem to be more effective than preserved eye drops in decreasing ocular inflammation and in increasing antioxidant contents in tears of patients with dry eye syndrome. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. [Phenylephrine 10% eye drop action in the eyelid position in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Nunes, Tânia Pereira; Matayoshi, Suzana

    2008-01-01

    To determine the upper and lower eyelid position with a single drop of 10% phenylephrine in normal individuals and observe positional lid changes in upper and lower lids of the opposite eye. Prospective observational study including 24 healthy subjects of both genders (age range: 20-39 yrs) submitted to instillation of a single drop of 10% phenylephrine in the upper fornix of one randomly chosen eye. A video camera recorded the images of both eyes before and after eye drop application at 3, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The images were digitally processed and edited to analyze lid measurements (upper lid height: distance between the highest upper margin lid point and a horizontal line traced from the medial to the lateral canthus; lower lid height: distance between the lowest margin lid point and the above-mentioned line). Before and after drug instillation, upper lid height was significantly different (p<0.001) at all moments with a mean elevation of 0.79 mm. The lower lid height changed too with a mean retraction of 0.37 mm. In the fellow eye upper lid drop was observed at almost all moments with the lowest value at 3 minutes (mean reduction of 0.68 mm) and elevation (0.37 mm) of lower lid. This experiment showed that a single drop of 10% phenylephrine acted not only on the upper eyelid but also on lower lid of the tested eye. Control mechanism of lid opening and closing changed upper and lower lid positioning of the opposite eye in healthy subjects.

  4. Cyclodextrin solubilization of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drugs: formulation of dorzolamide eye drop microparticle suspension.

    PubMed

    Jansook, Phatsawee; Stefánsson, Einar; Thorsteinsdóttir, Margrét; Sigurdsson, Baldur B; Kristjánsdóttir, Sigrún S; Bas, Jon Fernández; Sigurdsson, Hakon H; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2010-10-01

    Topically applied carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are commonly used to treat glaucoma. However, their short duration of action requiring multiple daily dosing can hamper patient compliance. The aim of this study was to develop novel aqueous CAI eye drop formulation containing self-assembled drug/cyclodextrin (D/CD) microparticles that enhance and prolong drug delivery to the eye. Phase-solubility of each drug tested (i.e. methazolamide, brinzolamide and dorzolamide HCl) was determined in either pure water or an aqueous eye drop medium. The pH was adjusted to maximize the fraction of unionized drug. Dorzolamide had the highest affinity for γ-cyclodextrin (γCD) and, thus, was selected for further investigation. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was the most effective polymer tested for stabilization of the dorzolamide/γCD complexes and gave the highest mucoadhesion at 0.5% w/v concentration. Thus, the dorzolamide eye drop vehicle containing γCD (18% w/v) and HPMC (0.5% w/v) was developed. The physicochemical properties of this formulation complied with the specifications of the eye drop suspension monograph of the European Pharmacopoeia. The in vivo testing of the formulation showed that the drug was delivered to the aqueous humor in rabbits for at least 24h with the maximum drug concentration at 4h. Furthermore, this formulation delivered the drug to the posterior segment of the eye after topical administration. These results indicate that this CAI eye drop formulation has the potential of being developed into a once-a-day product. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An Ilomastat-CD Eye Drop Formulation to Treat Ocular Scarring.

    PubMed

    Mohamed-Ahmed, Abeer H A; Lockwood, Alastair; Li, He; Bailly, Maryse; Khaw, Peng T; Brocchini, Steve

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a topical matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor preparation for antiscarring therapy. The broad spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor ilomastat was formulated using 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in aqueous solution. In vitro activity of ilomastat-cyclodextrin (ilomastat-CD) was examined using fibroblasts seeded in collagen. Permeation of ilomastat-CD eye drop through pig eye conjunctiva was confirmed using Franz diffusion cells. Ilomastat-CD eye drop was applied to rabbit eyes in vivo, and the distribution of ilomastat in ocular tissues and fluids was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The aqueous solubility of ilomastat-CD was ∼1000 μg/mL in water and 1400 μg/mL in PBS (pH 7.4), which is greater than ilomastat alone (140 and 160 μg/mL in water and PBS, respectively). The in vitro activity of ilomastat-CD to inhibit collagen contraction in the presence of human Tenon fibroblast cells was unchanged compared to uncomplexed ilomastat. Topically administered ilomastat-CD in vivo to rabbit eyes resulted in a therapeutic concentration of ilomastat being present in the sclera and conjunctiva and within the aqueous humor. Ilomastat-CD has the potential to be formulated as an eye drop for use as an antifibrotic, which may have implications for the prevention of scarring in many settings, for example glaucoma filtration surgery.

  6. Sodium hyaluronate eye drops of different osmolarity for the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Aragona, P; Di Stefano, G; Ferreri, F; Spinella, R; Stilo, A

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients with hypotonic or isotonic hyaluronate eye drops. Methods: 40 Sjögren's syndrome patients were divided in two groups and treated as follows: group 1 with hypotonic (150 mOsm/l) 0.4% hyaluronate eye drops; group 2 with isotonic 0.4% hyaluronate eye drops. The eye drops were instilled six times a day for 90 days. Grading of subjective symptoms, break up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining, conjunctival rose bengal staining, Schirmer's I test, and conjunctival impression cytology were carried out at 0 and 15, 30, 90 days from the beginning of the study. Patients were examined in a blind fashion. For the statistical analysis the Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ2 test were performed. Results: Symptoms were statistically significantly improved at day 15 in both groups but group 1 patients had a global score statistically significantly better group 2 (p=0.02). At day 15 group 1 patients had an improvement from baseline values of BUT (p=0.003), fluorescein, and rose bengal score (p=0.000001 and p=0.0004 respectively). Group 2 patients had, at day 15, an improvement of BUT and fluorescein score compared to baseline values (p=0.05 and p=0.0001 respectively). A comparison between the two groups showed better results for group 1 patients at day 15 for rose bengal stain (p=0.01) and for BUT (p=0.05) and fluorescein score (p=0.0003) at day 90. The conjunctival impression cytology showed that group 1 had a statistically significant better total score than group 2 starting from day 15 and lasting throughout the study (p<0.02). Also group 2 patients showed an improvement from baseline values starting from day 30 (p=0.000005). Conclusion: Hyaluronate eye drops are useful for treating severe dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients. The use of a formulation with pronounced hypotonicity showed better effects on corneoconjunctival epithelium than the isotonic solution. PMID:12140209

  7. Allogeneic Serum Eye Drops for the Treatment of Dry Eye Patients with Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Na, Kyung-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To evaluate the therapeutic effect of allogeneic serum eye drops for the treatment of dry eye in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) following bone marrow transplantation. Methods Sixteen patients with cGVHD following allogeneic hematological stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) and diagnosed with dry eye syndrome refractory to conventional treatment were prospectively enrolled in this study. Allogeneic serum eye drops were obtained from healthy related donors after serologic testing. Symptom scores, tear breakup time (tBUT), the Schirmer test without anesthesia (Schirmer I test), tear osmolarity, corneal staining score, impression cytology grade, and goblet cell densities were evaluated before and 4 weeks after administration of allogeneic serum eye drops. Results Enrolled patients included 6 females and 10 males between 20 and 61 years of age (mean age, 37.2±11.6 years). After 4 weeks of treatment, the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) symptom scores decreased significantly (32.5–8.9). Tear osmolarity showed a significant decrease from 311.1 to 285.1 milliosmol. The corneal staining scores significantly decreased from 2.5 to 1.8. Impression cytology grade and goblet cell density improved from 3.4 to 2.4 and from 90.6 to 122.6 cell/mm2, respectively. tBUT also significantly improved from 2.9 to 4.4 s, and the Schirmer I test results showed improvement, but lacked statistical significance (1.7–2.4 mm). No significant side effects were detected as a result of the allogeneic serum treatment during the follow-up period. Conclusions Allogeneic serum can be used for the treatment of severe dry eye in patients with cGVHD when autologous serum is unavailable. Care should be taken to avoid the risk of blood-borne diseases. PMID:22731244

  8. Topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop for refractory vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Kheirkhah, A; Zavareh, M K; Farzbod, F; Mahbod, M; Behrouz, M J

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop for treatment of refractory vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). This prospective study included 20 eyes of 10 patients with refractory VKC, who had active symptomatic disease despite conventional medications including topical steroids. After discontinuing all other medications, patients were treated with topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop four times a day. Changes in subjective symptoms and objective signs after treatment were evaluated, and development of possible complications was assessed. Mean age of patients was 21.3±7.4 years and mean duration of VKC was 12.1±5.8 years. After starting tacrolimus eye drop, patients were followed for a mean duration of 10.7±3.7 months (range, 6-15 months). All symptoms including itching, redness, photosensitivity, foreign body sensation, and mucus discharge improved after the treatment; itching was the first symptom to show dramatic relief. In addition, there was improvement in objective signs including conjunctival hyperaemia, conjunctival papillary hypertrophy, giant papillae, limbal hypertrophy, corneal punctate epithelial erosions, and corneal pannus; conjunctival hyperaemia was the first sign to show improvement. No patient required addition of other medications including steroids for further relief. Any attempt to discontinue tacrolimus eye drop was associated with recurrence of patients' symptoms and signs, necessitating continued use of the medication during the entire follow-up time. No ocular complication related to tacrolimus was noted. Topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop seemed to be a safe and effective treatment for steroid-resistant refractory VKC; however, long-term use was needed to control the disease.

  9. Topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop for refractory vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Kheirkhah, A; Zavareh, M K; Farzbod, F; Mahbod, M; Behrouz, M J

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop for treatment of refractory vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Methods This prospective study included 20 eyes of 10 patients with refractory VKC, who had active symptomatic disease despite conventional medications including topical steroids. After discontinuing all other medications, patients were treated with topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop four times a day. Changes in subjective symptoms and objective signs after treatment were evaluated, and development of possible complications was assessed. Results Mean age of patients was 21.3±7.4 years and mean duration of VKC was 12.1±5.8 years. After starting tacrolimus eye drop, patients were followed for a mean duration of 10.7±3.7 months (range, 6–15 months). All symptoms including itching, redness, photosensitivity, foreign body sensation, and mucus discharge improved after the treatment; itching was the first symptom to show dramatic relief. In addition, there was improvement in objective signs including conjunctival hyperaemia, conjunctival papillary hypertrophy, giant papillae, limbal hypertrophy, corneal punctate epithelial erosions, and corneal pannus; conjunctival hyperaemia was the first sign to show improvement. No patient required addition of other medications including steroids for further relief. Any attempt to discontinue tacrolimus eye drop was associated with recurrence of patients' symptoms and signs, necessitating continued use of the medication during the entire follow-up time. No ocular complication related to tacrolimus was noted. Conclusion Topical 0.005% tacrolimus eye drop seemed to be a safe and effective treatment for steroid-resistant refractory VKC; however, long-term use was needed to control the disease. PMID:21475312

  10. Azelastine eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis in young children.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, A; Marzetto, M

    1998-01-01

    In a randomised, multicentre study, the effect of azelastine eye drops (n = 51 patients) was compared in a double-blind manner with placebo eye drops (n = 30 patients) and in an open manner with levocabastine eye drops (n = 32 patients) during a 14-day treatment period involving 113 children (aged 4 to 12 years) suffering from seasonal allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis. The primary variable was the response rate defined as the number of patients showing an improvement after three days of treatment of at least three score points, from a minimum baseline score of six, in the main ocular symptoms of itching, conjunctival redness and lacrimation (each assessed on a four-point scale). Patients discontinuing due to inefficacy were regarded as non-responders. The mean response rate in the azelastine eye drops group (74%) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that in the placebo group (39%) and comparable with that in the levocabastine group. The response rates assessed by the patients in their diaries were very similar. Significant differences (p < 0.01) for azelastine compared with placebo were observed on days 3 and 14 in the mean sum scores for the three main symptoms and for a total of eight eye symptoms. The overall assessment of efficacy confirmed the superiority of both active treatments compared with placebo. Adverse drug reactions were reported in 23% of placebo-, 35% of azelastine- and 38% of levocabastine-treated patients. These were mainly local irritant effects. Overall tolerability was assessed as very good or good in 80%, 84% and 91% of placebo-, azelastine- and levocabastine-treated patients, respectively. Azelastine eye drops are effective and well-tolerated in children with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  11. Postoperative endophthalmitis due to Burkholderia cepacia complex from contaminated anaesthetic eye drops.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, Prajna; Das, Manoranjan; Purva, Patwari S; Karpagam, Rajaratinam; Geetha, Manoharan; Lakshmi Priya, Jeganathan; Naresh Babu, Kannan

    2014-11-01

    To report the clinical presentation and outcomes of cluster postcataract Burkholderia cepacia complex endophthalmitis, the source of infection and clonal relatedness of the isolates. This was a retrospective study on 13 patients who developed acute postoperative endophthalmitis, along with an infiltrate at the corneal section, after an uneventful cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Aqueous aspirates, vitreous aspirates and environmental surveillance specimens were sampled. Genotypic diversity was determined by PCR using BOX-PCR for each strain, and the clonal relationship was established between clinical and eye drops isolates. Vitreous samples showed B. cepacia in cultures in all 13 eyes. Among the samples from various surveillance specimens cultured, topical anaesthetic eye drops grew B. cepacia. The isolates from the patients and the eye drops solution revealed matching banding patterns in BOX-PCR. Isolates from the patients and eye drops were susceptible to cefotaxime and piperacillin/tazobactam only. 9 (69%) patients out of 13 had a final visual acuity of 6/60 or better. Among the remaining four patients, three had a vision of perception of light and one had final vision of 1/60. Microbiology culture and BOX-PCR results revealed contamination of local anaesthetic eye drops and the same organism was cultured from a group of patients with acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis after an uneventful cataract surgery. Outbreaks may occur in the most vigilant settings, and any sterile consumable may be a common link. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. The effect of anesthetic eye drop instillation on the distribution of corneal thickness.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gimeno, Juan A; Palanca-Sanfrancisco, José M; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Madrid-Costa, David; Cerviño, Alejandro

    2013-05-01

    To address the effect of topical instillation of oxybuprocaine on the relative distribution of corneal thickness (CT) in young healthy subjects. Prospective study involving 30 eyes of 30 emmetropic subjects (24 ± 3 years). Corneal thickness measurements were carried out before and 3 minutes after the instillation of oxybuprocaine 4% using slit-scanning corneal topography (Orbscan topography system II). No acoustic correction factor was applied. The mean of 5 consecutive Orbscan measurements was obtained at the center and 3 mm from the visual axis in the temporal, superior, nasal, and inferior hemimeridians. No significant mean differences were found at any corneal location after anesthesia (P > 0.05). The difference between the baseline values obtained of the central, superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal cornea and those obtained after anesthesia ranged from -15 to 16 μm, from -19 to 32 μm, from -14 to 24 μm, from -20 to 33 μm, and from -31 to 18 μm, respectively. The maximum paracentral CT was never found at the temporal location before anesthesia, whereas it was never found at the inferior location after anesthesia. The minimum paracentral CT was never found in the superior location after anesthesia. Topical anesthetic eye drops induce CT increases and decreases at each corneal location; however, the differences are not significant. Nevertheless, a change in the location of the minimum and maximum paracentral thickness occurs in some individuals after corneal anesthesia.

  13. Stability of cefuroxime in 1% and 5% buffered eye drops determined with HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Kodym, Anna; Wiśniewski, Andrzej; Knioła, Dawid; Olejniczak, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to develop formulary technologies of 1% and 5% eye drops containing cefuroxime with stability of at least 10-12 days. The stability was defined as the time required to reach the cutoff value of 10% degradation of cefuroxime in the drops, as determined using an HPLC assay. The drops should have such properties as optical clarity, pH in the range of 3.5 to 8.5 and osmotic pressure not lower than 280 mOsm/L. Additionally, drops of enhanced viscosity within the range 7-9 mPaxs were developed. Drops (1% and 5%) were prepared under aseptic conditions by dissolving Biofuroksym (Cefuroxime natricum) IBA Bioton--the form of the drug for dry injections--in citrate buffer of pH 6.05-6.28. Polyvinyl alcohol was used to increase the viscosity of the drops. Phenylmercuric borate at the final concentration of 0.001% was used together with beta-phenylethyl alcohol at the final concentration of 0.4% to preserve the drops. The drops were stored for 30 days in tightly closed glass bottles at the temperature of 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C, protected from light. As the course of the infection may differ in intensity, location and the area of the infection in the eye, the composition of the drops was developed at two concentrations (1% and 5%), and five formulary versions for each concentration were prepared. The concentration of cefuroxime in the drops was determined every three days using HPLC. Such properties as pH, osmotic pressure and viscosity were also examined. Additionally, organoleptic analysis (clarity, color, odor) was performed. Physical and chemical properties of all formulations of 1% and 5% drops containing cefuroxime prepared in citrate buffer of pH 6.05-6.28 met the standards set in the objective of the work. The stability of cefuroxime in buffered drops stored at the temperature of 4 degrees C, determined with HPLC as the time of 10% degradation of cefuroxime, was 15 days for 1% and 5% drops. In the drops, which were buffered and of

  14. Cyclosporine A eye drops inhibit the early-phase reaction in a type-I allergic conjunctivitis model in mice.

    PubMed

    Shii, Daisuke; Oda, Tomoko; Shinomiya, Katsuhiko; Katsuta, Osamu; Nakamura, Masatsugu

    2009-08-01

    The effects of cyclosporine A eye drops on the early-phase reaction were investigated in a type-I allergic conjunctivitis model. Mice were actively sensitized with ragweed (RW) absorbed on aluminium hydroxide gel and challenged with RW for 10 days (single challenge model) or 10-14 days (repetitive challenge model) after the first sensitization. For the evaluation of itching, ovalbumin was used as an antigen instead of RW. The effects of cyclosporine A eye drops on increased vascular permeability, mast cell degranulation, and itching were evaluated and compared with those of other anti-allergic eye drops. In the single challenge model, cyclosporine A eye drops significantly inhibited the increase in vascular permeability and histological evaluations showed suppressed degranulation of mast cells. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) eye drops showed only a slight tendency to inhibit the increase in both pathophysiological parameters. Ketotifen or betamethasone eye drops significantly inhibited the increase in vascular permeability. The order of potency in the single challenge model was ketotifen > cyclosporine A > betamethasone. In the repetitive challenge model, cyclosporine A eye drops significantly inhibited the increase in vascular permeability and DSCG eye drops showed only slight inhibition. Ketotifen or betamethasone significantly inhibited the increase in vascular permeability. The order of potency in the repetitive challenge model was cyclosporine A > betamethasone > ketotifen. The effect of cyclosporine A eye drops on the itch-scratch response was studied. Cyclosporine A and DSCG significantly reduced the itch-scratch response in the single and repetitive challenge models; the effect of cyclosporine A in the repetitive challenge model was more potent than in the single challenge model. Those results suggest that administration of cyclosporine A eye drops inhibit the early-phase reaction in type-I allergic conjunctivitis, which may be mediated by the suppression of

  15. Osmoprotectants, carboxymethylcellulose and hyaluronic acid multi-ingredient eye drop: a randomised controlled trial in moderate to severe dry eye.

    PubMed

    Labetoulle, M; Chiambaretta, F; Shirlaw, A; Leaback, R; Baudouin, C

    2017-04-28

    PurposeTo assess the safety and efficacy of an eye drop combining osmoprotectants, carboxymethylcellulose and hyaluronic acid (O/CMC/HA) in reducing symptomatic, moderate to severe dry eye, compared with HA.MethodsIn this investigator-masked, randomised study, patients instilled 1-2 drops/eye of O/CMC/HA or HA (2-6 times/day) for 3 months. Primary endpoint: mean change in Global Ocular Staining Score (GOSS) from baseline at day 35. Noninferiority of O/CMC/HA was tested in the per-protocol population; if achieved, superiority was tested in the intent-to-treat population. Secondary efficacy endpoints: mean change from baseline in GOSS, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Schirmer score, tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal/conjunctival staining, conjunctival hyperaemia, symptoms, and patient/investigator assessments.ResultsBaseline characteristics were comparable between groups (n=40 each). O/CMC/HA was noninferior (and not superior) to HA based on similar GOSS reductions from baseline at day 35 and month 3 in both groups (P=0.778, day 35, per-protocol population). Overall, O/CMC/HA and HA provided similar reductions in OSDI, Schirmer score, TBUT, corneal staining and hyperaemia from baseline at 35 days (P≥0.155). More patients reported less severe stinging/burning, sandiness/grittiness, and painful/sore eyes at month 3 with O/CMC/HA (P≤0.039), and more rated the dropper bottle easy to use (87.5%), compared with HA (46.2%; P=0.002). Other patient and investigator assessments were similar between groups. O/CMC/HA and HA were well tolerated.ConclusionsO/CMC/HA is noninferior to HA in improving objective signs of dry eye, with potential advantages for subjective symptoms and patient acceptance.Eye advance online publication, 28 April 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.73.

  16. Determination of phosphate concentration in glaucoma eye drops commercially available in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Soroa, I; de Frutos-Lezaun, M; Ostra Beldarrain, M; Egía Zurutuza, A; Irastorza Larburu, M B; Bachiller Cacho, M P

    2016-08-01

    To identify and analyze the phosphate concentration in glaucoma eye drops available in Spain. Glaucoma medications containing phosphates were identified according to the 2013 Vademecum and the website of the Spanish Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices. Phosphate concentration was determined in these eye drops using ultraviolet molecular absorption spectrophotometry, and pH was determined using scan image analysis algorithms of pH strips. A total of 37 phosphate containing glaucoma eye drops were identified. The mean phosphate concentration was 97.72±75.52mM. The group with higher concentration of active substance was timolol (204.85±42.38mM) followed by brimonidine/timolol (200.9mM). No statistically significant difference was found between brand name (95.65±71.11mM) and generic eye drops (99.14±80mM, P=.892). Although no statistically significant difference was found between products containing preservatives (99.24±76.78mM) and those without preservatives (85.17±72.86mM) (P=.730), a lower phosphate concentration was observed in the preservative-free Timolol and Latanoprost. Single dose samples showed a lower phosphate concentration than multi-dose ones (102.04±75.39 vs. 22.24±2.98mM, P<.001). The mean pH was 7.13±0.63. No statistical correlation was found between phosphate concentration and pH (r: 0.07). The phosphate concentration in glaucoma eye drops exceeded the tear film physiological level (1.45mM). No difference was observed between brand names and generic eye drops. Lower phosphate concentration was observed in preservative-free single dose eye drops. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Undiluted Serum Eye Drops for the Treatment of Persistent Corneal Epitheilal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Jongkhajornpong, Passara; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat; Chuckpaiwong, Varintorn

    2016-01-01

    Several studies found that 50–100% serum eye drops provided greater benefits without inducing detrimental effects on the corneal epithelial healing. This study assessed the efficacy of undiluted serum eye drops for the treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defects (PED). A total of 109 eyes received 100% serum eye drops for PED were recruited into this study. The data were compared with an historical control group of 79 eyes with PED who received conventional treatments from 2006–2011 at the same institution. Main outcome measures were complete healing of PED and incidence of adverse events. No significant difference in demographics between the 2 groups was noted. The success rate of the treatment and control groups were 87.16% (95% CI 0.79–0.93) and 69.62% (95% CI 0.59–0.80) (P = 0.001), respectively. The median time to complete epithelialization was 14 days (95% CI 12–21) in the treatment group and 28 days (95% CI 21–59) in the control group (P = 0.001). Serum treatment, primary diagnosis of non-limbal stem cell deficiency etiology, and prior contact lens wear significantly correlated with the corneal re-epithelialization. There were no serious side effects encountered during the study period. In conclusion, undiluted serum therapy is effective and safe for treating PED. PMID:27909310

  18. Ocular pharmacokinetics of carnosine 5% eye drops following topical application in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Tianyang, Zhou; Ling, Zhu; Liya, Wang; Junjie, Zhang

    2011-02-01

    To evaluated the ocular pharmacokinetics of carnosine (CAR, a biologically active dipeptide which occurs naturally throughout the human body) 5% eye drops following topical application. CAR 5% eye drops were topically applied repeatedly (50 μL × 4) at an interval of 5 min. Aqueous humor and lens were collected after 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min. CAR concentration was determined by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS). CAR concentration in treated eyes was significantly higher than control eyes. Peak concentration (C(max)) of carnosine in treated aqueous humor occurred 60 min following topical administration, with the administrated concentration (total-endogenous concentration) of 40.9 ± 18.9 μg/mL. The area under the concentration-time curve between 0 and 180 min (AUC(0-180)) was 3,276.8 (μg/mL) × min. CAR concentration in treated lens rises to effective level rapidly and changes slightly with time after topical administration. The administrated concentration of car in lens at the last time point (180 min, 1.92 ± 1.65 μg/mL) was not significantly different with the highest value (15 min, 2.11 ± 1.83 μg/mL). CAR 5% eye drops were likely to be absorbed into aqueous humor efficiently and accumulated in lens. More attention should be put onto enhancing the penetration of CAR into lens capsule.

  19. Optimization of liposomal encapsulation for ceftazidime for developing a potential eye drop formulation.

    PubMed

    Wijesooriya, Chamari; Budai, Marianna; Budai, Lívia; Szilasi, Magdolna E; Petrikovics, Ilona

    2013-06-01

    Ceftazidime is a broad spectrum third generation cephalosporin antibiotic which is effective mainly against Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter and Enterobacteriaceae, the pathogens which most often cause ophthalmological infections. Unlike other commonly used beta lactam antibiotics, ceftazidime is resistant to several types of beta lactamases (e.g., TEM, SHV and PSE-1). Because of these advantages, ceftazidime is used in the treatment of eye infections. However, ceftazidime undergoes rapid degradation in aqueous solutions therefore eye drops containing ceftazidime in aqueous solutions are not commercially manufactured. In the present study, liposomal encapsulations of ceftazidime with various lipid compositions, hydrating solutions and pH-values have been studied in order to optimize liposomal composition for a potential eye drop formulation.

  20. Formulation and stability study of a pediatric 2% phenylephrine hydrochloride eye drop solution.

    PubMed

    Dreno, C; Gicquel, T; Harry, M; Tribut, O; Aubin, F; Brandhonneur, N; Dollo, G

    2015-01-01

    We present formulation and stability evaluation of a 2% (w/v) phenylephrine hydrochloride biocompatible eye drop solution, routinely prepared in hospital pharmacy under aseptic conditions, for retinal examination of neonates and premature infants. Eye drop solution was formulated by dissolution of phenylephrine hydrochloride and disodium hydrogen phosphate as buffering agent in sterile water for injection and sodium chloride for injection as isotonic agent. The previous solution was sterile filtered through under aseptic conditions, in an iso class 5 air quality clean room under horizontal laminar airflow hood. Physical stability (visual inspection, osmolality measurements), chemical stability (pH measurement, phenylephrine assay by liquid chromatography coupled with an ultra-high resolution and accurate mass) and sterility evaluation of phenylephrine eye drop solution stored at ambient temperature were studied during 60 days. The formulated eye drop solution had a pH of 6.90±0.05 and an osmolality of 285±2 mOsm/kg. Throughout the 60 days study the solutions remained clear without any precipitation or color modification, sterility was maintained, pH and osmolality were not significantly modified and no significant loss of product was detected using liquid chromatography coupled with an ultra-high resolution and accurate mass instrument suggesting the lack of degradation. These results indicate that 2% phenylephrine hydrochloride eye drop solutions were physically, chemically and microbiologically stable for at least 60 days when stored in type I amber glass vials at room temperature, allowing the compounding of higher batch sizes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the preserving efficacy of lubricant eye drops with a novel preservative system.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Ruth A; Buck, Sally L; Henry, Cindy L; Schlech, Barry A

    2006-12-01

    Products provided in multidose containers must be adequately preserved in order to prevent contamination during repeated use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a lubricant eye drop formulation without traditional preservatives to control and prevent contamination under extreme microbial conditions. Bottles of a new lubricant eye drop with a novel preservative system (SYSTANE FREE Lubricant Eye Drops, Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX) were stored at elevated (40 degrees C) and room temperature (25 degrees C) for up to 1 year. The formulation was inoculated with microorganisms to contain high levels (approximately 1x10(6) colony forming units [cfu]/mL) of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. The inoculated samples were stored at 20-25 degrees C during testing. Three types of tests were conducted: (1) tests with 1 inoculation, (2) tests with 2 inoculations over 28-day test periods, and (3) tests with 6 inoculations over a 6-month test period. Additionally, a comparison of the preservative efficacy of the SYSTANE FREE formulation to marketed products, including sodium perborate, stabilized oxychloro complex, and polyhexamethylene biguanide eye drops, was performed. In all studies, the number of survivors was determined using standard microbiological dilution pour-plate techniques. The results consistently showed that the SYSTANE FREE formulation meets preservative efficacy standards equally well, or better, than, marketed eye drop products. Even with multiple inoculations, the formulation repeatedly showed no recovery of the organisms. Though the SYSTANE FREE formulation contains no traditional preservatives, its unique blend of ions and buffers was capable of preventing contamination of the contents even after exposure to extreme conditions.

  2. Safety and efficacy of autologous serum eye drop for treatment of dry eyes in graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Azari, Amir A; Karadag, Remzi; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Nehls, Sarah; Barney, Neal; Kim, Kyungmann; Longo, Walter; Hematti, Peiman; Juckett, Mark

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the treatment of autologous serum eye drops (ASED) on dry eyes in patients with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). A retrospective chart review of 35 patients with a history of ocular GVHD following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that used ASED to alleviate dry eye symptoms was performed. Patients were categorized into three different groups. If patients had available ophthalmic data before and after starting treatment was group 1 (n = 14), had available ophthalmic data after starting treatment in group 2 (n = 10) and had available ophthalmic data before treatment or did not have any data after starting treatment in group 3 (n = 11). Data were collected on patient's age, gender, primary diagnosis, visual acuity and fluorescein corneal staining were collected on individual eyes in order to evaluate the efficacy of the ASED on alleviating dry eye-related signs and symptoms. No adverse ocular effect from the ASED was found in our series (except one fungal keratitis). All patients reported either improvement (55%) or stability (45%) in their ocular symptoms upon the use of ASED. In patients with available data before and after starting treatment, the corneal staining score improved by a median of 1 (p = 0.003) and the LogMAR visual acuity had a non-significant improvement. In our study, ASED used by patients with ocular GVHD were both safe and effective. ASED should be considered in patients with GVHD who suffer from dry eyes.

  3. Objective and subjective assessing efficacy of a lubricating drop in eyes wearing silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Asharlous, Amir; Mirzajani, Ali; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; KhabazKhoob, Mehdi; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effect of a lubricating drop on optical quality, tear film stability, and subjective symptoms in individuals wearing silicone hydrogel contact lens. In this one-day, prospective single-center clinical study, Pre-lens Tear Deformation Time (PL-TDT), Root-Mean-Square (RMS) of Low Order Aberrations (LOA) and High Order Aberrations (HOA), individual twelve Zernike coefficients, and subjective symptoms were assessed in 43 volunteers (mean age 19.58 ± 1.63, 86 eyes) at 6 h after inserting the contact lens and then at 60 min after instilling a lubricating drop (Comfort drops, Avizor, Madrid-Spain). PL-TDT, LOA-RMS, and HOA-RMS values measured before drop instillation were not significantly different with those measured after drop. None of the Zernike coefficients were significantly different after instilling lubricating drop. Statistically significant decrement in both frequency and severity values in blurry vision, dryness, discomfort, burning, itching, foreign body sensation, excessive blinking, and lacrimation were seen after drop instillation (all P < 0.05). Our results showed that although the lubricating drop did not improve the tear film stability and optical quality in the silicone hydrogel contact lens wearers, subjects experienced a subjective improvement.

  4. Cyclosporine a eye drop-induced elongated eyelashes: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hsiao-Lei; Ku, Wan-Chen; Sun, Ming-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Lai, Jui-Yang; Sun, Chi-Chin

    2011-09-01

    The most common ocular adverse event following the use of cyclosporine A (CsA) 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion is ocular burning (17%). Other adverse effects that have been reported include conjunctival hyperemia (1-5%), discharge, epiphora, eye pain, foreign body sensation, pruritus, stinging and blurred vision. Here, we report a specific side effect of CsA, namely eye drop-induced eyelash elongation in a patient with refractory giant papillary conjunctivitis. Observational case report. Case report and review of the literature. A 32-year-old female with giant papillary conjunctivitis on the left eye, who had undergone papillectomy 3 years previously and was refractory to topical steroid therapy, was treated with CsA 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion (Restasis) 4 times a day, preservative-frees artificial tears and gentamicin ophthalmic solution in the left eye. After 5 months of topical CsA treatment, elongated eyelashes of her left eye were observed without other adverse effects. Although hypertrichosis and trichomegaly have been documented in the literature as side effects of systemic CsA, topical CsA 0.05% eye drop-induced elongated eyelashes have not been reported, and we believe ophthalmologists should be mindful and inform patients about this specific side effect.

  5. Pharmacological activities of an eye drop containing Matricaria chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis extracts in UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation of human corneal cells.

    PubMed

    Bigagli, Elisabetta; Cinci, Lorenzo; D'Ambrosio, Mario; Luceri, Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure is a risk factor for corneal damage resulting in oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of a commercial eye drop (Dacriovis™) containing Matricaria chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis extracts on human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC-12) against UVB radiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the underlying mechanisms. The antioxidant potential of the eye drops was evaluated by measuring the ferric reducing antioxidant power and the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. HCEC-12 cells were exposed to UVB radiation and treated with the eye drops at various concentrations. Cell viability, wound healing assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, protein and lipid oxidative damage and COX-2, IL-1β, iNOS, SOD-2, HO-1 and GSS gene expression, were assessed. Eye drops were able to protect corneal epithelial cells from UVB-induced cell death and ameliorated the wound healing; the eye drops exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, decreasing ROS levels and protein and lipid oxidative damage. Eye drops also exerted anti-inflammatory activities by decreasing COX-2, IL-1β, iNOS expression, counteracted UVB-induced GSS and SOD-2 expression and restored HO-1 expression to control levels. These findings suggest that an eye drop containing Matricaria chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis extracts exerts positive effects against UVB induced oxidative stress and inflammation and may be useful in protecting corneal epithelial cells from UVB exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synergistic effect of regenerating agent plus cord blood serum eye drops for the treatment of resistant neurotrophic keratitis: a case report and a hypothesis for pathophysiologic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Fresina, Michela; Vagge, Aldo; Versura, Piera

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a case of a 72-year-old Caucasian woman presenting with a large neurotrophic keratitis with a large persistent epithelial defect, with a longest linear diameter of 7 mm and greatest perpendicular width of 5 mm, affecting epithelium, Bowman membrane, and anterior stroma. Corneal disease was resistant to conventional treatment and classified as stage 2 according to Mackie classification. Patient was instructed to instill regenerating agent (RGTA) eye drops in the morning, as the first eye drop, once every 5 days in combination with daily cord blood serum (CBS) eye drops 6 times/day. The patient was asked to visit after 1 week (V1), 2 weeks (V2), 3 weeks (V3), and 4 weeks (V4) of study treatment. In V4 treatment, corneal sensitivity improved, and keratitis healed with resolution of stromal inflammation. Global treatment tolerance was very satisfactory. Patient continued the therapy for a further month after complete healing. Currently, the patient has been followed up for 3 months without any sign of keratitis recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this case report describes for the first time the successful combined use of RGTA and CBS eye drops for the treatment of neurotrophic keratitis resistant to conventional treatment. We hypothesize that RGTA eye drops could provide an optimal migration substrate and that growth factors supplied by CBS eye drops could strengthen the repair process by promoting cell growth over the matrix. Combined RGTA and CBS eye drop therapy could be a new potential option for the successful treatment of resistant neurotrophic keratitis, particularly when each drug alone is not effective.

  7. Testing of the Safety and the Effectiveness of Using SamjeongPharmacopuncture Solution as Eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Dong-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This experimental study was designed to investigate the safety and the effectiveness of Samjeong pharmacopuncture solution (SPS) manufactured by using a the lowtemperature extract on process. Methods: To identify the safety and the effectiveness of using SPS as eye drops, we performed applied eye irritation tests on rabbits and antibacterial tests for Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Candida albicans. The eye irritation test was performed according to the toxicity testing regulation of the Korea Food & Drug Administration (2009. 8. 24, KFDA 2009-116). After SPS had been applied on the left eye of the rabbits, eye irritation in the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th & 7th day. After SPS had been dropped on bacterial species that cause keratitis, the minimum inhibition concentration and the size of the inhibition zone were measured. The anti-bacterial potency was also measured by taking the size of inhibition zone. Results: After SPS had been administered on the left eye of the rabbits, none of nine rabbits were found to show abnormal signs or weight changes. After SPS had been administered on the left eye of the rabbits, no eye irritation in the cornea, iris and conjunctiva was observed on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th & 7th day. No specific response was detected in MIC for bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Candida albicans after SPS had been applied. Conclusions: This study suggests that SPS is a non-toxic and non-irritant medicine that does not cause any of eye irritation in rabbits, but it has no antibacterial effects on bacterial species that are well known to cause keratitis. These results suggest that more research is required on extracts from herbal medicines for treating keratitis. PMID:25780632

  8. Efficacy of standardized and quality-controlled cord blood serum eye drop therapy in the healing of severe corneal epithelial damage in dry eye.

    PubMed

    Versura, Piera; Profazio, Vincenzo; Buzzi, Marina; Stancari, Alessandra; Arpinati, Mario; Malavolta, Nazzarena; Campos, Emilio C

    2013-04-01

    We standardized quality-controlled cord blood serum (CBS)-based eye drops and evaluated the efficacy of 1-month CBS treatment in the healing of diseased corneal epithelium in severe dry eye (DE) patients. Seventeen graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and 13 Sjogren syndrome patients with severe persistent corneal defects were enrolled in the framework of a registered clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01234623). Sterile CBS eye drops were prepared to supply 0.15 ng per eye per day epithelial growth factor and administered for 1 month in a 1-day dose dispensing. The extent of epithelial defect was evaluated in square millimeters area, and subjective symptom score (Ocular Surface Disease Index score), Schirmer test I, break-up time, tear osmolarity, corneal esthesiometry (Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer), conjunctival scraping, and imprint cytology with goblet cell count were performed at baseline (V0) and after 15 (V1) and 30 (V2, endpoint) days of treatment. Satisfaction and tolerability questionnaires were evaluated at V1 and V2. A significant reduction was shown at the endpoint versus baseline in corneal epithelial damage (mean ± SD, 16.1 ± 13.7 vs. 40.9 ± 30 mm²/area, respectively), discomfort symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index score, 22.3 ± 10.3 vs. 39.3 ± 16.9), scraping cytology score (3.8 ± 1.2 vs. 6.6 ± 2.1), and tear osmolarity (312.5 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 9.1 mOsm/L), whereas a significant improvement was shown in corneal esthesiometry (48.2 ± 2.1 vs. 49.7 ± 2.1 nylon/mm/length, P < 0.05). All patients reported a high degree of satisfaction upon drop instillation. Heterologous CBS-based eye drops represent a promising therapeutic approach in the healing of severely injured corneal epithelium and in subjective symptom relief. These drops can be obtained as readily available and quality-controlled blood derivative from cord blood banks on a routine basis.

  9. [Long-term results of FK 506 eye drops following corneal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Reis, A; Mayweg, S; Birnbaum, F; Reinhard, T

    2008-01-01

    Immunological graft rejection is the main reason for graft failure following corneal transplantation despite the use of topical and systemic steroids. As steroids are associated with side effects, alternative therapeutic strategies are needed. In this clinical trial patients undergoing corneal transplantation have been prospectively randomised to receive either prednisolone acetate 1 % eye drops 5 x /day, tapering off by one drop every month (n = 20), or to receive FK 506 eye drops 3 x /day for six months (n = 20). Patients in both groups received additionally systemic steroids for three weeks (fluocortolon 1 mg/kg body weight). Primary endpoints were the number of immune reactions and the clear graft survival, the secondary endpoint was the number of side effects. Three immune reactions in the steroid group and one immune reaction in the FK 506 group were seen within the follow-up time of three years. No irreversible graft rejections occurred in either group. Eight patients in the FK 506 group concluded the study early due to local side effects. In this long-term follow-up the use of FK 506 eye drops following corneal transplantation resulted in a lower number of immune reactions when compared to topical steroids. With a change in the galenic formulation FK 506 might be a powerful therapeutic option for preventing immunological graft rejection.

  10. Evaluation of the anti-Acanthamoeba activity of two commercial eye drops commonly used to lower eye pressure.

    PubMed

    Sifaoui, Ines; Reyes-Batlle, María; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Wagner, Carolina; Chiboub, Olfa; De Agustino Rodríguez, Jacqueline; Rocha-Cabrera, Pedro; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2017-08-01

    Efficient treatments against Acanthamoeba Keratitis (AK), remains until the moment, as an issue to be solved due to the existence of a cyst stage which is highly resistant to most chemical and physical agents. In this study, two antiglaucoma eye drops were tested for their activity against Acanthamoeba. Moreover, this study was based on previous data which gave us evidence of a possible link between the absences of Acanthamoeba at the ocular surface in patients treated with beta blockers for high eye pressure both containing timolol as active principle. The amoebicidal activity of the tested eye drops was evaluated against four strains of Acanthamoeba using Alamar blue method. For the most active drug the cysticidal activity against A. castellanii Neff cysts and further experiments studying changes in chromatin condensation levels, in the permeability of the plasmatic membrane, the mitochondrial membrane potential and the ATP levels in the treated amoebic strains were done. Even though both eye drops were active against the different tested strains of Acanthamoeba, statistical analysis revealed that one of them (Timolol Sandoz) was the most effective one against all the tested strains presenting IC50s ranging from 0.529% ± 0.206 for the CLC 16 strain to 3.962% ± 0.150 for the type strain Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff. Timolol Sandoz 0.50% seems to induce amoebic cell death by damaging the amoebae at the mitochondrial level. Considering its effect, Timolol Sandoz 0.50% could be used in the case of contact lens wearers and patients with glaucoma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. [Ketotifen fumarate (Zaditen) eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Haicl, P; Cerná, H

    2004-09-01

    A group of 25 patients with signs of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis treated during the period of 2 to 6 month with ketotifen fumarate 0.05% eye drops 2-3 times daily (Zaditen eye drops, Novartis Ophthalmic, AG, Switzerland) is described here. As subjective symptoms of itching, stinging, tearing, and mucous discharge were observed and evaluated, as well as objective signs of hyperemia of the conjunctiva and hypertrophy of the tarsal papillae. Similarly the onset of action, duration time, and toleration of the drug were assessed. Subjective symptoms disappeared after 10 days of treatment duration in 60% to 80% patients, after two months of treatment were present in the range 0% to 20%. Objective signs diminished after 10 days of treatment in 60%-72% patients, and after 2 months in 72% to 96% of patients. Hypertrophy of papillae of the tarsal conjunctiva did not totally disappear even after 6 month of treatment with ketotifen fumarate eye drops. Onset of action in all patients was 20 minutes or less, the duration of action was in the range of 8-13 hours. The drug was found as a good tolerable by all patients. Sixteen per cent of patients felt some burning following the instillation. The study states that ketotifen fumarate 0.05% eye drops are effective in a monotherapy of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Due to its multiple action, the drug prevents the allergic reaction as well. Subjective symptoms are influenced faster and more effective than the objective signs. The treatment of objective signs needs prolonged use of these drops.

  12. Decrease in Corneal Damage due to Benzalkonium Chloride by the Addition of Mannitol into Timolol Maleate Eye Drops.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Yoshioka, Chiaki; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of mannitol on corneal damage caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops, using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constant (kH), as well as cell viability, were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.5% mannitol than in the case BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without mannitol. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.5% mannitol was significantly higher than that for eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without mannitol, and the addition of mannitol did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of the timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and mannitol may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term treatment with anti-glaucoma agents.

  13. Decrease in corneal damage due to benzalkonium chloride by the addition of sericin into timolol maleate eye drops.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of sericin on corneal damage due to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into the rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constants (kH) as well as cell viability were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.1% sericin than in the case of treatment with BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without sericin. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.1% sericin was significantly higher than that of eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without sericin, and the addition of sericin did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of commercially available timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and sericin may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term anti-glaucoma agents.

  14. [Pilocarpin eye drops with a novel Pilocarpin polymeric salt (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stodtmeister, R; Brenner, J; Baur, M P

    1979-02-01

    A new pilocarpin salt was obtained by chemically linking pilocarpin to a polymere substance. By galenic processing to the respective emulsion, eye drops containing this pilocarpin salt were produced, which enable a retarded pilocarpin delivery in vitro. With respect to glaucoma therapy, clinical tests showed that frequency of application can considerably be reduced. In the present investigations on a collective of 30 normal volunteers the effect of a commercial aqueous pilocarpin solution on the IOP, pupillary diameter and accommodation was compared with that of the novel pilocarpin drops.

  15. Green nail syndrome treated with the application of tobramycin eye drop.

    PubMed

    Bae, Youin; Lee, Gang Mo; Sim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sanghoon; Lee, Sung Yul; Park, Young Lip

    2014-08-01

    Green nail syndrome (chromonychia) is a nail disorder characterized by onycholysis and green-black discoloration of the nail bed. This condition is often associated with chronic paronychia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified organism in cultures from the affected area. Despite the various treatment options available, removal of the nail is still necessary in many cases. A 35-year-old man presented with dark-greenish discoloration of the nail plate and onycholysis on the left thumbnail. He had been treated with oral antifungal and antibiotic agents for several months; however, the lesion showed no improvement. The diagnosis of green nail syndrome was established after a positive bacterial culture, and on the basis of the antibiotic sensitivity test result, tobramycin eye drop (Tobrex®) was then prescribed. Three weeks later, the nail discoloration almost vanished but the onycholysis remained. Herein, we recommend the application of tobramycin eye drop as an easy and safe treatment option for green nail syndrome.

  16. [Validation of the HPLC method in the determination of dioxopromethazine and phenylephrine in eye drops].

    PubMed

    Hudecová, T; Hatrík, S; Zimová, N; Havránek, E

    2002-03-01

    The present paper introduces a rapid HPLC method for the determination of dioxopromethazine and phenylephrine in eye drops. The method uses a modified C18 stationary phase optimized for the separation of basic compounds and a methanol/1.5 mM phosphoric acid (60/40 v/v, pH 3.02) mobile phase. The flow rate is set to 2 ml/min, sample volume 20 microliters, and compounds are detected at 275 nm. Prior to analysis, the eye drops are diluted with water in a ratio of 1:50. The elaborated HPLC method and the chromatographic system were validated according to the procedure for the validation of chromatographic systems and methods.

  17. Evaluation of the in vitro ocular toxicity of the fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; González-Barcia, Miguel; Gil-Martínez, María; Santiago Varela, María; Pardo, María; Blanco-Méndez, José; Piñeiro-Ces, Antonio; Lamas Díaz, María Jesús; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    The use of parenteral antibiotic eye drop formulations with non-marketed compositions or concentrations, commonly called fortified antibiotic eye drops, is a common practice in Ophthalmology in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ocular toxicity of the main fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared in the Hospital Pharmacy Departments. We have conducted an in vitro experimental study in order to test the toxicity of gentamicin, amikacin, cefazolin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, colistimethate sodium and imipenem-cilastatin eye drops; their cytotoxicity and acute tissue irritation have been evaluated. Cell-based assays were performed on human stromal keratocytes, using a cell-based impedance biosensor system [xCELLigence Real-Time System Cell Analyzer (RTCA)], and the Hen's Egg Test for the ocular irritation tests. All the eye drops, except for vancomycin and imipenem, have shown a cytotoxic effect dependent on concentration and time; higher concentrations and longer exposure times will cause a steeper decline in the population of stromal keratocytes. Vancomycin showed a major initial cytotoxic effect, which was reverted over time; and imipenem appeared as a non-toxic compound for stromal cells. The eye drops with the highest irritating effect on the ocular surface were gentamicin and vancomycin. Those antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments included in this study were considered as compounds potentially cytotoxic for the ocular surface; this toxicity was dependent on the concentration used.

  18. Tacrolimus Eye Drops as Adjunct Therapy in Severe Corneal Endothelial Rejection Refractory to Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Reza; Ghassemi, Hamed; Zarei-Ghanavati, Mehran; Latifi, Golshan; Dehghani, Shima; Haq, Zeeshan; Djalilian, Ali R

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of tacrolimus eye drops as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of severe corneal endothelial rejection after penetrating keratoplasty refractory to corticosteroids. In this prospective interventional case series, 11 eyes of 11 patients assessed for severe corneal endothelial rejection, with an inadequate response to topical, local, and systemic corticosteroids, were treated with either 0.01% or 0.05% tacrolimus eye drops 4 times daily. Improvement in signs of rejection, visual function, and development of complications were monitored. The duration of steroid treatment before intervention was 8.1 ± 1.4 days (range = 7-11). Patients were subsequently administered topical tacrolimus 0.01% or 0.05% qid. The time to clinical improvement was 10.3 ± 3.4 days (range = 3-17). The time to rejection reversal was 27.8 ± 16.3 days (range = 7-52). After 3 months, 10 patients (90.8%) demonstrated clinical improvement, and complete restoration of graft clarity was achieved in 5 patients (45.4%). In responsive cases, steroid therapy was successfully tapered off after 60.2 ± 19.7 days (range = 36-93). The best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improved from 1.7 ± 0.9 to 0.8 ± 0.5 logMAR (P = 0.0016). Reported side effects included stinging on drop instillation and punctate epithelial keratopathy. Tacrolimus eye drops may be able to play an adjunctive therapeutic role in patients with severe corneal endothelial rejection refractory to conventional steroid treatment. Controlled studies are needed to further investigate the role of tacrolimus in this setting.

  19. Gene transfer to the retina of rat by liposome eye drops.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T; Masuda, I; Yasuda, T; Matsuo, N

    1996-02-27

    Gene delivery to the intraocular tissues of the retina is hampered by complicated surgical interventions to administer the gene. Here we showed that instillation as eye drops of an expression plasmid vector for beta-galactosidase gene carried by the specific kinds of liposomes could transfer the gene to the retinal ganglion cells of rat, without causing any inflammation. This non-surgical, convenient way for gene delivery to the retina would facilitate the development of treatment for various intraocular diseases.

  20. A Comparative Study Between an Oil-in-Water Emulsion and Nonlipid Eye Drops Used for Rewetting Contact Lenses.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Sarah E; Jones, Lyndon; Blackie, Caroline A; Korb, Donald R

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical impact of using SYSTANE BALANCE Lubricant Eye Drops (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX), an oil-in-water emulsion, as a rewetting eye drop in symptomatic contact lens wearers. Subjects who had previously experienced contact lens discomfort (CLD), with a mean lens wearing history of 18.6±12.8 years, were randomly assigned to use a Test (SYSTANE BALANCE Lubricant Eye Drops; n=76) or control (habitual nonlipid contact lens rewetting eye drop; n=30) drop over their contact lenses within 5 min of lens insertion and then subsequently at 2 hr intervals up to a maximum of 4 drops per eye daily for a 1-month period. Assessments of subjective comfort, comfortable wearing time, lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE), and corneal staining were conducted at baseline and after 1 month, after 6 hr of lens wear. Comfort, wearing time, LWE, and corneal staining all showed statistically significant improvements in the test group using SYSTANE BALANCE Lubricant Eye Drops at the 1-month visit compared with baseline data (all P<0.01) and compared with the control group at the 1-month visit (P<0.01, P=0.01, P<0.01, and P=0.03, respectively). The use of SYSTANE BALANCE Lubricant Eye Drops as a rewetting drop in a group of wearers who experienced symptoms of CLD improved subjective comfort scores, increased comfortable wearing time, and reduced signs of LWE and corneal staining, when compared with the use of non-lipid-containing contact lens rewetting eye drops.

  1. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of diclofenac and flurbiprofen eye drops after cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Koçak, I; Yalvaç, I S; Koçak, A; Nurözler, A; Unlü, N; Kasim, R; Duman, S

    1998-06-01

    A clinical double-blind study was performed in patients who had undergone extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation (ECCE+IOL) to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of diclofenac sodium 0.1% and flurbiprofen 0.03% eye drops. The diclofenac group included 21 eyes of 21 patients and the flurbiprofen group included 22 eyes of 22 patients. The parameters compared were pachymetry of the cornea, corneal surface changes, intraocular pressure (IOP) and the degree of inflammation of the anterior chamber at one, three and six weeks after cataract surgery. There was no statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups in corneal pachymetry, corneal surface changes, IOP and the anterior chamber inflammation (p>0.05). Both drugs were well tolerated and may be safely used to reduce inflammation for cataract surgery.

  2. [A Case of Corneal Injury due to Herbicide Containing Paraquat: Effectiveness of 2% Rebamipide Eye Drops].

    PubMed

    Uno, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    Herbicides containing paraquat are widely used and have occasionally been causing ocular damage. The initial ocular injury caused by paraquat tends to worsen within a few days to 1 week. The toxicity of paraquat is based on the oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. An 82-year-old woman who had been exposed to herbicide containing paraquat in her left eye presented at Koumeikan Eye Clinic 2 days after the incident. Moderate corneal erosion was diagnosed and treated with ordinary medication, but the corneal lesion worsened. After administration of topical 2% rebamipide eye drops, the corneal lesion resolved rapidly. Because of its role as a radical scavenger, rebamipide has great potential for treatment of corneal injuries caused by herbicides such as paraquat.

  3. Pharmacological Treatment of Presbyopia by Novel Binocularly Instilled Eye Drops: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Renna, Antonio; Vejarano, L Felipe; De la Cruz, Ernesto; Alió, Jorge L

    2016-06-01

    The feasibility, in terms of safety and potential efficacy, of a new drug combination for binocular use as a noninvasive pharmacological solution for treating presbyopia was examined. Fourteen emmetropic presbyopic subjects (28 eyes) were given one drop of the preparation under study in each eye. For each patient, the uncorrected distance visual acuity, uncorrected near visual acuity, near and far refraction, best corrected visual acuity, best corrected far-near visual acuity, photopic and scotopic pupil size, Schirmer's test, endothelial cell count, intraocular pressure, keratometry, pachymetry, and anterior chamber depth were all performed or assessed prior to the administration of the eye drops and then 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h, 1 week, and 1 month post-administration prospectively in each eye and binocularly. The results showed that near uncorrected visual acuity improved by about 2-3 lines from baseline in each eye and binocularly. There was no degradation in uncorrected far vision in each eye and binocularly in any patient. Refractive measurements performed in this study showed there was a maximum myopic shift of just 0.5 D that progressively reduced and disappeared at 4 h. The new topical drug treatment analyzed herein significantly improved near vision without affecting far vision. This binocular pharmacologic treatment of presbyopia has the potential to ameliorate the reading vision of presbyopes and possesses the advantages of a nonmonovision therapy. A randomized, controlled, double-masked clinical trial with a twice-a-day treatment schedule is ongoing at our institution. This study was supported in part by the Spanish Ministry of Health, Instituto Carlos III, Red Temática de Investigación Oftalmológica (OFTALRED), and Fundación Oftalmológica Vejarano (Popayán, Colombia).

  4. A comparison of 0.1% timolol eye gel and 0.5% timolol eye drop in patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Metheetrairut, Ankana; Leumsamran, Panitee; Rojananin, Supamas; Kitnarong, Naris

    2012-04-01

    Primary angle-closure glaucoma has been reported with higher prevalence in Asian populations. There is no significant data of different response of topical medication between angle- closure and open angle eyes. The present study investigates ocular hypotensive effect and systemic side effects of 0.1% timolol eye gel once daily compared with 0.5% timolol eye drop twice daily in patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma. The present study was a prospective, randomized, investigator-masked, two-period crossover study in chronic angle-closure glaucoma patients with each drug tested for a six-week period. Twenty five eyes were included. Timolol 0.1% eye gel and 0.5% timolol eye drop significantly reduced IOP at 9 am, 11 am and 3 pm compared with baseline (P < 0.001). At week 6, the mean IOP reduction from baseline of 0.5% timolol eye drop group was higher than that of 0.1% timolol eye gel group at 9 am (3.68 mmHg, 2.51 mmHg respectively) and at 11 am (4.21 mmHg, 2.51 mmHg respectively). These differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.421, p = 0.157 respectively). At 3 pm of week 6, the mean IOP change from baseline of 0.1% timolol eye gel group (3.03 mmHg) was more than that of 0.5% timolol eye drop group (2.84 mmHg). There was also statistically insignificant difference (p = 0.873). The highest IOP reduction of 0.5% timolol eye drop was 4.21 mmHg (19.82%) at 11 am of week 6 and that of 0.1% timolol eye gel was 3.03 mmHg (14.38%) at 3 pm of the same week. There was no significant ocular side effect. Systolic blood pressure after treatment with 0.1% timolol eye gel and diastolic blood pressure after treatment with 0.5% timolol eye drop were significantly decreased from baseline (P = 0.006 and P = 0.026 respectively). But there was no clinical significance. Timolol 0.5% eye drop and 0.1% timolol eye gel effectively reduced IOP in chronic angle-closure glaucoma patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the ocular hypotensive effect of

  5. Efficacy and safety of indomethacin 0.1% eye drops compared with ketorolac 0.5% eye drops in the management of ocular inflammation after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michel; Kodjikian, Laurent; Kruse, Friedrich E; Zagorski, Zbigniew; Allaire, Catherine M

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether indomethacin 0.1% eye drops are at least as effective as ketorolac 0.5% eye drops in treating ocular inflammation following cataract surgery. Prospective, multicenter, investigator-masked, parallel-group, randomized, active-controlled clinical trial. Cataract patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive indomethacin or ketorolac administered QID for 3 weeks beginning 1 day before surgery. The primary end-point was aqueous flare measured by laser flare meter at postoperative Days 1 and 7. Secondary end-points included retinal thickness, slit lamp and funduscopic examinations and postsurgical pain ratings. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. A total of 86 patients were included in the per protocol population (n = 43 per treatment group). Indomethacin was found non-inferior to ketorolac for comparison of aqueous flare at postoperative Days 1 and 7 (Day 1: 95% CI: -2.37, 5.50; non-inferiority upper margin, 15 ph/ms and Day 7: 95% CI: -7.83, -0.94; non-inferiority upper margin, 8 ph/ms) and statistically better than ketorolac at Day 7 (p = 0.013). There were no significant between-group differences in aqueous flare and change from baseline in retinal thickness at postoperative Days 30 and 90. Indomethacin showed a higher subjective tolerance rating than ketorolac at postoperative Days 7 and 30 (p ≤ 0.044). Indomethacin 0.1% was at least as effective as ketorolac 0.5% at Day 1 and more effective than ketorolac 0.5% at Day 7 in treating ocular inflammation after uncomplicated cataract surgery. Indomethacin was better tolerated than ketorolac. There were no clinically meaningful safety concerns with either treatment. © 2012 Bosch and Lomb. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  6. Steroid eye drop treatment (difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion) is effective in reducing refractory diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Sakiko; Yamamoto, Teiko; Kirii, Eriko; Abe, Sachi; Yamashita, Hidetoshi

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of treatment of refractory diabetic macular edema (DME) after vitrectomy with difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol(TM)), and to compare this treatment with sub-Tenon's injection of triamcinolone (STTA). This study enrolled patients with refractory diabetic macular edema that persisted despite pars plana vitrectomy in our clinic. In all subjects, more than 3 months had passed since prior treatment. Eleven eyes in ten subjects were treated with STTA (STTA group), and 11 eyes in seven subjects were treated with difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol(TM), Sirion Therapeutics Inc., USA) 4 times daily for the first month and then twice daily for 2 months (eye drop group). In the eye drop group, mean VA (+/- SD) was 0.67 +/- 0.35 logMAR and mean retinal thickness was 500.6 +/- 207.7 mum at baseline. After 3 months of treatment, mean VA was 0.67 +/- 0.29 and mean retinal thickness had decreased to 341.2 +/- 194.8 mum. The mean minimum value of RT during the treatment period was 300.6 +/- 123.2 mum, and significantly lower than that at baseline (Mann-Whitney U test: P = 0.003). In the STTA group, mean VA (+/- SD) was 0.67 +/- 0.35 logMAR, and mean retinal thickness was 543.3 +/- 132.6 mum at baseline. After 3 months of treatment, mean VA was 0.49 +/- 0.67, and mean retinal thickness had decreased to 378.6 +/- 135 mum. The mean minimum value of RT during the treatment period was 349.9 +/- 113.8 mum, and significantly lower than at baseline (Mann-Whitney U test: P = 0.003). The rate of effective improvement in RT did not differ between the eye drop group (73%) and STTA group (84%) (Fisher's exact test: P = 1). Comparable improvements of retinal thickness were observed in the STTA and eye drop groups. Instillation of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% is a safe and effective treatment that does not require surgical intervention and does not produce severe side-effects.

  7. Inter-Rater Agreement in the Assessment of Video Recordings of Eye Drop Instillation by Glaucoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Meghan S; Patel, Marguerite M; Sarezky, Daniel; Rojas, Carin; Choo, Clara; Choi, Michael; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred W; Tanna, Angelo P

    2016-01-01

    To create a standardized method for evaluating the video recordings of patients self-instilling eye drops and to determine the level of agreement of eye drop instillation efficacy, safety and efficiency ratings by three masked graders. Prospective cross-sectional study. 78 patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who had at least 6 months of experience with the use of eye drop medications. Participants were video recorded while self-instilling artificial tears sequentially to both eyes. Three masked observers graded these video recordings on three criteria: efficacy (the determination of whether an eye drop was instilled on the ocular surface), safety (assessment of whether the tip of the medication bottle made contact with the ocular surface or eyelids), and efficiency (the number of eye drops expressed from the bottle). After grading the video recordings based on efficacy, safety, and efficiency, kappa statistics were used to estimate inter-rater agreement. The mean kappa level of agreement for efficacy, safety, and efficiency was 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42-0.87), 0.73 (95% CI, 0.58-0.88), and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.42-0.81), respectively. We demonstrated good inter-rater reproducibility of the masked analysis of video recordings of patients self-instilling eye drops based on three criteria: efficiency, safety, and efficacy.

  8. Inter-Rater Agreement in the Assessment of Video Recordings of Eye Drop Instillation by Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Meghan S.; Patel, Marguerite M.; Sarezky, Daniel; Rojas, Carin; Choo, Clara; Choi, Michael; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Tanna, Angelo P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To create a standardized method for evaluating the video recordings of patients self-instilling eye drops and to determine the level of agreement of eye drop instillation efficacy, safety and efficiency ratings by three masked graders. Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Participants 78 patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who had at least 6 months of experience with the use of eye drop medications. Methods Participants were video recorded while self-instilling artificial tears sequentially to both eyes. Three masked observers graded these video recordings on three criteria: efficacy (the determination of whether an eye drop was instilled on the ocular surface), safety (assessment of whether the tip of the medication bottle made contact with the ocular surface or eyelids), and efficiency (the number of eye drops expressed from the bottle). Main Outcome Measures After grading the video recordings based on efficacy, safety, and efficiency, kappa statistics were used to estimate inter-rater agreement. Results The mean kappa level of agreement for efficacy, safety, and efficiency was 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42–0.87), 0.73 (95% CI, 0.58–0.88), and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.42–0.81), respectively. Conclusions We demonstrated good inter-rater reproducibility of the masked analysis of video recordings of patients self-instilling eye drops based on three criteria: efficiency, safety, and efficacy. PMID:26730605

  9. The Eye Drop Preservative Benzalkonium Chloride Potently Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Preferentially Affects LHON Mutant Cells.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sandipan; Baudouin, Christophe; Brignole-Baudouin, Francoise; Denoyer, Alexandre; Cortopassi, Gino A

    2017-04-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as "dry eye" and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. In this study, we propose a mechanistic basis for BAK's adverse effects. Mitochondrial O2 consumption rates of human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEP), osteosarcoma cybrid cells carrying healthy (control) or Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutant mtDNA [11778(G>A)], were measured before and after acute treatment with BAK. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and cell viability were also measured in the BAK-treated control: LHON mutant and human-derived trabecular meshwork cells (HTM3). Benzalkonium chloride inhibited mitochondrial ATP (IC50, 5.3 μM) and O2 consumption (IC50, 10.9 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner, by directly targeting mitochondrial complex I. At its pharmaceutical concentrations (107-667 μM), BAK inhibited mitochondrial function >90%. In addition, BAK elicited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity to cybrid cells (IC50, 22.8 μM) and induced apoptosis in HTM3 cells at similar concentrations. Furthermore, we show that BAK directly inhibits mitochondrial O2 consumption in HCEP cells (IC50, 3.8 μM) at 50-fold lower concentrations than used in eye drops, and that cells bearing mitochondrial blindness (LHON) mutations are further sensitized to BAK's mitotoxic effect. Benzalkonium chloride inhibits mitochondria of human corneal epithelial cells and cells bearing LHON mutations at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, and we suggest this is the basis of BAK's ocular toxicity. Prescribing BAK-containing eye drops should be avoided in patients with mitochondrial deficiency, including LHON patients, LHON carriers, and possibly primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

  10. Prominent Decrease of Tear Meniscus Height With Contact Lens Wear and Efficacy of Eye Drop Instillation.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Yukiko; Koh, Shizuka; Maeda, Naoyuki; Nishida, Kohji; Watanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the change in tear meniscus height (TMH) before and after wearing soft contact lenses (CLs) of different water contents (WCs) and the influence of eye drop instillation on TMH during CL wear. Tear meniscus heights were measured using anterior segment optical coherence tomography in 20 normal subjects wearing a high-WC CL (WC, 69%) in 1 eye and a low-WC CL (WC, 24%) in the other. Tear meniscus height change after eye drop instillation with 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution or saline with CL wear was evaluated at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min after instillation. A significant decrease in TMH was observed after lens insertions of both CLs. Tear meniscus height was significantly decreased with high-WC CL wear compared with that with low-WC CL wear. With high-WC CL wear, TMH increased significantly (P<0.001) at 5 min after the instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution compared with the baseline values and then returned to the pre-instillation level. No significant TMH changes were found with the instillation of either eye drop (diquafosol or saline) with low-WC CL wear. Tear meniscus height decreased with CL wear, especially with high-WC CL wear. Significant increases in TMH were observed at 5 min after the instillation of diquafosol ophthalmic solution with high-WC CL wear. The increases in TMH after diquafosol instillation tended to be greater than those after saline instillation at least for 30 min with both high-WC and low-WC CLs.

  11. Influence of local application of glaucoma medications-travoprost eye drops on patients' tear film function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengpu

    2015-03-01

    This study discussed about the influence of local application of glaucoma medications -- travoprost eye drops to patients' tear film function. We selected 24 patients, 45 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma or intraocular hypertension. All of the patients topically used the travoprost eye drops for one time every night. After and before the pharmacy, we proceeded 1, 2, 3 mo lines symptom score and Schirmer's test (St), corneal fluorescein staining (FL), breakup time of tear film (BUT). Average value of symptom score and FL of all the patients before pharmacy were 1.32 ± 1. 55, 0.42 ± 0.68, and 1, 2, 3mo after pharmacy were respectively 2.68 ± 1.59, 0.96 ± 0.81; 4.97 ± 1.62, 1.46 ± 0.62; 6.21 ± 1.33, 1.88 ± 0.44. Symptom score and FL of 1, 2, 3 mo patients after pharmacy were all prominent higher than it before pharmacy (P=0.00), and it gradually increased. The average value of patients symptom BUT and St before pharmacy were (7.71 ± 0.87s), (8.32 ± 2.63mm /5min) and 1, 2, 3 mo after pharmacy were respectively (6.93 ± 1.17s), (7.69 ± 3. 33mm /5min); (5.48 ± 1.29s), (6.79 ± 2.94mm /5min); (4.33 ± 1.83s), (5.98 ± 3.11mm/5min). BUT and St value after pharmacy were prominent all lower than the level before pharmacy (P=0.00). And it gradually reduced. Short-term use of travoprost eye drops would aggravate the corneal irritation of patients, and decrease the tear film stability and tear secretion.

  12. A patient with corneal epithelial disorder that developed after administration of a latanoprost generic, but not a brand-name drug, eye drop.

    PubMed

    Takada, Yukihisa; Okada, Yuka; Fujita, Norihito; Saika, Shizuya

    2012-01-01

    Background. We report a patient who developed corneal epithelial disorder repeatedly after changing the prescription from Xalatan eye drops (Pfizer Inc.) to Latanoprost eye drops (Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.), both containing 0.005% latanoprost. Case Report. An 88-year-old male with glaucoma had been treated with Timoptol eye drops and Xalatan eye drops for a few years. While he stayed in a health care facility for the elderly, Xalatan eye drops was changed to Latanoprost eye drops usage, and eye pain developed on the day of this change. On the next day, he visited our department, and corneal epithelial disorder was observed. The drops were discontinued, and the corneal epithelial disorder healed after 2 days. Twenty days after the first consultation, Xalatan eye drops and Latanoprost eye drops were resumed by a physician of internal medicine in the health care facility, but eye pain developed again. After discontinuation of the two drugs, Xalatan eye drops usage was resumed the next day, but no corneal epithelial disorder was observed thereafter. Conclusions. This clinical history strongly suggested the association between a generic drug, Latanoprost eye drops, and the development of corneal epithelial disorder.

  13. Efficacy of an eye drop mixture for pupillary dilatation: A randomized comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bhurayanontachai, Patama; Saengkaew, Suwapat; Apiromruck, Penjamaporn

    Pupillary dilatation with three types of eye drops is used regularly in the clinic; however, a mixture of these drops in a single bottle may be more beneficial in reducing workloads and resources. This study compared the efficacy in pupillary dilatation between two protocols of dilating drop instillation. This prospective, randomized, comparative study included 30 eligible Thai patients. The patients randomly received preoperative pupillary dilatations by either the conventional protocol (1% tropicamide (T), 10% phenylephrine (P) and 0.1% diclofenac (D) in three separate bottles) or the fixed combination (TPD) protocol which had the three types of eye drops mixed in a single bottle in a ratio of 4:3:3. The chi-square test and independent t-test were used to analyze the data. The conventional protocol group and TPD protocol group each had 15 patients. Sixty minutes after the initial instillation, all patients in the TPD protocol and 13 patients (86.7%) in conventional protocol achieved at least 6mm in the shortest diameter. The mydriatic rate between protocols showed no difference. In patients who received the TPD protocol, the systemic effects on the mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate decreased over time. The mixture of tropicamide, phenylephrine and diclofenac had a comparable efficacy for a pupillary dilatation to the conventional dilating drops in separate bottles. The systemic complications on blood pressure and arterial pulse of the TPD mixture were less than the conventional protocol. TCTR20130325001. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. In vivo challenging of polymyxins and levofloxacin eye drop against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Kazuki; Miyake, Taku; Koike, Naohito; Hattori, Takaaki; Kumakura, Shigeto; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koji; Kuroda, Masahiko; Ito, Norihiko; Goto, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish a rabbit multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) keratitis model, and test the efficacy of levofloxacin, colistin methanesulfate (CL-M), colistin sulfate (CL-S) and polymyxin B (PL-B) against MDRP infection. In a rabbit eye, making a 2-mm circular corneal excision, and MDRP strain #601 or representative P. aeruginosa strain IID1210 were instilled into the corneal concavity. IID1210 was used to confirm this model developed P. aeruginosa keratitis. After MDRP keratitis developed, we treated the eyes with levofloxacin, CL-M, CL-S or PL-B eye drops. The infected eyes were evaluated by clinical score, histopathological examination and viable bacterial count (CFU). Rabbits developed MDRP keratitis reproducibly after instilled the bacteria into the corneal lesion. MDRP produced severe keratitis similarly with IID1210, as shown by slit lamp examination and clinical score. In MDRP keratitis models, clinical scores and viable bacterial counts were significantly lower in levofloxacin- and CL-M-treated groups compared with PBS-treated group, but the magnitudes of reduction were not remarkable. However, clinical scores were dramatically lowered in CL-S- and PL-B-treated groups compared with PBS-treated group. CL-S- and PL-B-treated group were kept corneal translucency and little influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in histopathological examination. In addition, both CL-S- and PL-B-treated groups were not detected viable bacteria in infected cornea. Using our MDRP keratitis model, we showed that topical levofloxacin and CL-M are not adequately effective, while CL-S and PL-B are efficacious in controlling MDRP keratitis. Especially, PL-B, which is commercially available eye drop, might be most effective against MDRP.

  15. Development of a cyclodextrin-based aqueous cyclosporin A eye drop formulations.

    PubMed

    Jóhannsdóttir, Sunna; Jansook, Phatsawee; Stefánsson, Einar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2015-09-30

    Cyclosporin A (CyA) is a lipophilic, cyclic polypeptide drug with anti-inflammatory properties. It is used in topical treatment of dry eyes and is now commercially available in oil based surfactant containing eye drops. Surfactants can irritate the eye surface causing burning, itching and irritation of the conjunctiva, and oil-based drops can result in blurred vision. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop surfactant free aqueous 0.05% (w/v) CyA eye drops where the drug is present in an aqueous vehicle containing CyA/cyclodextrin (CyA/CD) nanoparticles. The effects of the natural α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (αCD, βCD and γCD), as well as of the water soluble hydroxypropyl derivatives of γCD and αCD (HPγCD, HPαCD) and randomly methylated βCD (RMβCD), were determined in pure water. αCD had the best solubilizing effect increasing the solubility of CyA above 0.05% upon addition of only 5% (w/v) αCD. γCD did not have as good solubilizing effect but was tested further due to its superior ability to form nanoparticles and its favorable toxicological profile. Seven eye drop formulations were prepared and tested. All contained 0.05% (w/v) CyA in addition to polyvinyl alcohol, benzalkonium chloride, disodium edetate and various amounts of CD (αCD, γCD and mixtures thereof). When the formulation contained only αCD most of the drug was dissolved but some small aggregates were formed with hydrodynamic diameter of about 6 and 155 nm. When the formulation contained only γCD negligible CyA/CD complexation occurred with most of the drug present as solid CyA particles. When the formulation contained a mixture of αCD and γCD, where αCD concentration was at least 3% (w/v), the entire drug content was dissolved in the media under formation of relatively large (100-2000 nm) CyA/CD nanoparticles. αCD solubilized the drug while γCD enhanced nanoparticle formation. The effect of polyvinyl alcohol, benzalkonium chloride and disodium edetate on the nanoparticle

  16. A clinical study on "Computer vision syndrome" and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha.

    PubMed

    Gangamma, M P; Poonam; Rajagopala, Manjusha

    2010-04-01

    American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as "Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use". Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on "CVS", 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and SaptamritaLauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively.

  17. A clinical study on “Computer vision syndrome” and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha

    PubMed Central

    Gangamma, M. P.; Poonam; Rajagopala, Manjusha

    2010-01-01

    American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as “Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use”. Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on “CVS”, 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. PMID:22131717

  18. In vitro assessment of the cytotoxicity of anti-allergic eye drops using 5 cultured corneal and conjunctival cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Yaguchi, Shigeo; Koide, Ryohei

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of anti-allergic eye drops for human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) and commercially available ocular surface cells. A primary HCEC culture was derived from human eye bank specimens. SIRC (rabbit corneal epithelium), BCE C/D-1b (bovine corneal epithelial cells), RC-1 (rabbit corneal epithelium), and Chang (human conjunctival cells) were obtained commercially. The WST-1 assay was used to measure HCEC viability, and the viability of other cells was measured using the MTT assay. Cells were treated with 7 commercially available anti-allergic eye drops for 48 h and cell viability was measured and calculated as a percentage of control. The degree of toxicity for each eye-drop solution was based on the cell viability score (CVS). HCECs treated with a 1000-fold dilution of the eye-drop solution had a viability score of 67% for Rizaben and ≥80% for the other solutions with Zepelin being the least toxic. Cell viability in response to eye-drop solutions preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) was dependent on the concentration of the drug solution and exposure time. Treatment of ocular surface cells with a 20-fold dilution of the eye-drop solution resulted in the following order of cell viability as determined by their CVS: Zepelin > Ketas = Zaditen ≥ Tramelas PF = Patanol ≥ Rizaben ≥ Livostin. This order was similar to that observed for HCECs, and cell viability was found to be concentration-dependent. Based on the penetration of the drug into eye tissues, HCECs are only likely to be pharmaceutically damaging in rare cases. Epithelial cell viability depends primarily on the concentration of BAK rather than on the action of the active component in the eye-drop solution. CVS values were useful for comparison of toxicity.

  19. Ocular Safety and Pharmacokinetics Study of FK506 Suspension Eye Drops After Corneal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jin; Zhai, Jia-jie; Huang, Xi; Zhou, Shi-you

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitization, pharmacokinetics, and absorption of FK506 after corneal transplantation. Methods New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into normal and corneal transplantation groups. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups—saline, blank matrix, high-dose, medium-dose, and low-dose, respectively. There were 10 rabbits in each subgroup. One drop (25 μL) of FK506 was administered topically to both eyes of the rabbits 4 times daily for 30 days. Thirty days later, 5 rabbits of each subgroup were sacrificed after the administration of the last dose. Both eyes were enucleated; the left eye was used for pathologic examination and the right eye for the determination of FK506 distribution. The other 5 rabbits in each subgroup were sacrificed 14 days after the former 5 rabbits were sacrificed, and their eyes were enucleated for pathologic examination and tissue distribution determination as the former 5 rabbits in each subgroup (the second batch). Results Fluorescein staining and local ocular reaction provided evidence that there were no significant differences between control and FK506-instilled eyes in the rabbit model at any of the tested doses. Histologic examination revealed no ocular abnormality in the rabbits instilled with any doses of FK506 eyedrop. The peak serum concentration (Cmax) of systemic absorption ranged from 4.31±0.79 ng/mL to 14.89±6.85 ng/mL. Conclusion Our study suggests that up to 0.1% FK506 administered 4 times a day (q.i.d.) topically is safe for the rabbit eye. However, further safety studies are required in view of systemic adverse effects. PMID:22136074

  20. Ocular safety and pharmacokinetics study of FK506 suspension eye drops after corneal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jin; Zhai, Jia-jie; Huang, Xi; Zhou, Shi-you; Chen, Jia-qi

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitization, pharmacokinetics, and absorption of FK506 after corneal transplantation. New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into normal and corneal transplantation groups. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups--saline, blank matrix, high-dose, medium-dose, and low-dose, respectively. There were 10 rabbits in each subgroup. One drop (25 μL) of FK506 was administered topically to both eyes of the rabbits 4 times daily for 30 days. Thirty days later, 5 rabbits of each subgroup were sacrificed after the administration of the last dose. Both eyes were enucleated; the left eye was used for pathologic examination and the right eye for the determination of FK506 distribution. The other 5 rabbits in each subgroup were sacrificed 14 days after the former 5 rabbits were sacrificed, and their eyes were enucleated for pathologic examination and tissue distribution determination as the former 5 rabbits in each subgroup (the second batch). Fluorescein staining and local ocular reaction provided evidence that there were no significant differences between control and FK506-instilled eyes in the rabbit model at any of the tested doses. Histologic examination revealed no ocular abnormality in the rabbits instilled with any doses of FK506 eyedrop. The peak serum concentration (C(max)) of systemic absorption ranged from 4.31±0.79 ng/mL to 14.89±6.85 ng/mL. Our study suggests that up to 0.1% FK506 administered 4 times a day (q.i.d.) topically is safe for the rabbit eye. However, further safety studies are required in view of systemic adverse effects.

  1. [Effect of various compositions of riboflavin eye drops on the intraoperative corneal thickness during UVA-cross-linking in keratoconus eyes].

    PubMed

    Vetter, J M; Tubic-Grozdanis, M; Faust, M; Lorenz, K; Gericke, A; Stoffelns, B M

    2011-06-01

    During the UVA-cross-linking treatment in keratoconus patients, the UVA rays are partially absorbed in the stroma of the riboflavin-loaded cornea. This effect protects the corneal endothelium from UVA irradiation damage. The intensity of UVA light reaching the endothelium is inversely correlated with corneal thickness. The common composition of riboflavin eye drops may lead to a marked reduction in corneal thickness increasing the risk of endothelial damage. In a retrospective analysis of 23 UVA-cross-linking procedures on 23 patients we collected data about the pre-, intra- and postoperative corneal thickness (measured with ultrasound). Among these patients and depending on the preoperative state, 8 eyes received Medio Cross (TM) eye drops (group 1), 8 eyes received Medio Cross (TM) eye drops combined with riboflavin 0.1 %/methylhydroxypropylcellulose 1,5 %/NaCl 1.1 % (group 2) and 7 eyes received riboflavin 0.2 %/methylhydroxypropylcellulose 0.5 %/NaCl 0.7 % eye drops (group 3) before and during UVA irradiation. Data are presented as means ± standard deviation. A comparison of the data was performed using (one-way) ANOVA. The mean corneal thickness at the end of the UVA cross-linking procedure was 67 ± 9 % (means ± standard deviation) of preoperative thickness in group 1, 118 ± 14 % in group 2 and 140 ± 23 % in group 3. The values in groups 2 and 3 were significantly different from those in the reference group 1. Our results show a strong variability of the postoperative corneal thickness using different standard compositions of riboflavin eye drops. Further studies are needed to find a composition of riboflavin eye drops ensuring a moderate increase in intraoperative corneal thickness to protect the corneal endothelium. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Effects of various eye drops on corneal wound healing after superficial keratectomy in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tani, Emiko; Katakami, Chikako; Negi, Akira

    2002-01-01

    The effects of various eye drops on corneal wound healing, particularly in the subepithelial haze area, were investigated histologically following superficial keratectomy in rabbits. Mechanical superficial keratectomy was performed in rabbit eyes. Tranilast, betamethasone, hyaluronic acid, and diclofenac eye drops were administered after the procedure. Physiological saline was used as a control. Corneas were excised 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after keratectomy, labeled with 3H-thymidine or 3H-proline, and subjected to autoradiography. In the control and diclofenac groups, corneal haze occurred 3 weeks after keratectomy. Histological examination revealed an accumulation of proliferating keratocytes and active synthesis of collagen in the subepithelial area. In the tranilast and betamethasone groups, formation of corneal haze was reduced compared to the controls. The proliferation of keratocytes and the production of collagen in the corneal stroma were inhibited by these drugs. In the hyaluronic acid group also, corneal haze was decreased. In this group, although the proliferation of keratocytes was activated compared to the controls, abnormal accumulation of keratocytes in the subepithelial area was not detected. Tranilast and betamethasone decrease the formation of subepithelial haze by inhibiting keratocyte proliferation and synthesis of extracellular matrix in the corneal stroma. Hyaluronic acid, on the other hand, inhibits subepithelial haze by promoting physiologic wound healing.

  3. Factors predicting drop-out in community mental health centres

    PubMed Central

    RENESES, BLANCA; MUÑOZ, ELENA; LÓPEZ-IBOR, JUAN JOSÉ

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify treatment, therapist and patient factors associated with dropping out of treatment in four outpatient mental health services. The experimental group comprised all 789 individuals who attended for the first time the mental health services during one year and dropped out of treatment in the same year or during the two following ones. The control group consisted of the same number of individuals, chosen at random from patients who, in the same year, attended for the first time the services and did not subsequently drop out of treatment. The overall drop-out rate was 33.2%. According to logistic regression analysis, the predictive factors of dropping out were: being treated in a particular centre, the involvement of more than one therapist in treatment, having no previous history of psychiatric disorders, being young and being male. PMID:19812755

  4. Eyelash length in children with vernal keratoconjunctivitis: effect of treatment with cyclosporine eye drops.

    PubMed

    Pucci, N; Massai, C; Bernardini, R; Caputo, R; Mori, F; De Libero, C; Novembre, E; De Martino, M; Vierucci, A

    2007-01-01

    The upper eyelashes in vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) patients have been reported to be longer than in healthy age- and gender-matched subjects. Eyelash length positively correlated to the severity of the disease and negatively to the employment of cyclosporine eye drops, suggesting that specific humoral factors could be involved in both ocular inflammation and elongation of the eyelashes. The aim of the present study is to evaluate a possible relationship between eyelash length and the duration of topical cyclosporine treatment. The length of the upper eyelashes of 34 VKC patients never treated with topical cyclosporine (Cyc-NT) was matched with that of 58 VKC patients treated with cyclosporine (Cyc-T). The latter group was divided into three subgroups, depending on the duration of therapy: 1-6 months (group 1; 21 subjects) , 7-12 months (group 2; 19 subjects), greater than 12 months (group 3; 19 subjects). Cyc-NT patients eyelashes were significantly longer than those of VKC patients treated for 1-6 months (group 1). No significant difference was found between Cyc-NT and Cyc-T patients in group 2 and group 3. The differences between Cyc-T patients and group 1 and 2, group 2 and 3, and group 1 and 3 were not statistically significant. The eyelash shortening observed seems directly related to the rapid improvement of ocular symptoms induced by the treatment. A receptor down-regulation by mediators of ocular inflammation may explain this data, although different cytokines, hormones or other humoral mediators could be expressed on the ocular surface at different stages of the disease, mainly in periods of rapid change of the clinical course.

  5. Ocular Pharmacokinetics of Naringenin Eye Drops Following Topical Administration to Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Junli; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Yandong; Ma, Yan; Chen, Wenpei; Zhang, Ziyang; Gui, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the ocular pharmacokinetics of 1% naringenin eye drops following topical administration to rabbits. Methods: One drop (50 μL) of 1% naringenin eye drops was instilled into both eyes of each rabbit. The animals were sacrificed at predetermined intervals after dosing, and ocular tissues and plasma were then collected. Concentrations of naringenin were analyzed using specific electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, which is proved to be sensitive, specific, precise, and suitable for determination of naringenin in ocular tissues and plasma of rabbits. Results: Ocular exposure to naringenin, based on AUC(0−t), was highest in cornea, followed by aqueous humor, retina, and vitreous body. The Cmax of naringenin in cornea, aqueous humor, vitreous body, and retina were 67945.30±4109.34 ng/g, 1325.69±239.34, 160.52±38.78 ng/mL, and 1927.08±660.77 ng/g at 0.083, 0.75, 0.083, and 0.083 h after topical administration, respectively. The half-lives for these tissues were 9.37, 0.65, 1.17, and 4.62 h, respectively. There was no significant difference between free naringenin and total naringenin in plasma based on Cmax and Tmax. Cmax of total naringenin in plasma at 0.083 h was 35.12±0.54 ng/mL. Conclusions: Measurable concentrations of naringenin were achieved in ocular tissues after topical application in rabbits. Topical instillation of naringenin may be an effective approach in the treatment of posterior section diseases. PMID:25229266

  6. Comparative clinical evaluation of tacrolimus and cyclosporine eye drops for the treatment of canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Radziejewski, Krzysztof; Balicki, Ireneusz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tacrolimus eye drops in alleviating the clinical symptoms of canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and to compare this efficacy with that of cyclosporine. The clinical study was conducted on 40 dogs diagnosed with idiopathic KCS. The dogs were divided into two groups of 20 animals each. In Group I, 0.75% cyclosporine eye drops were administered three times a day, while in Group II 0.02% tacrolimus eye drops were given twice daily. In addition, each group was subdivided into three subgroups based on the results of Schirmer tear test I (STT I). Clinical and ophthalmologic examinations were performed prior to the treatment as well as after one and two months of therapy. The application of both tacrolimus and cyclosporine resulted in a significant reduction of neovascularisation after the first and second month of treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.001); however, in moderate and advanced stages, the observed efficacy of tacrolimus was higher. Across all patients, a significant increase in STT I values was observed after both the first and second month of treatment with tacrolimus (P < 0.01), as well as after two months of treatment with cyclosporine (P < 0.05). In both groups, some patients were observed to exhibit inhibited development of pigmentation, but an analysis of particular clinical cases and statistical data revealed no statistically significant discrepancies in the course of the study. In cases of advanced canine KCS, the efficacy of tacrolimus may be higher than that of cyclosporine.

  7. Short-term Analysis of the Residual Volume of an Eye Drop Following 23-Gauge Microincision Vitrectomy Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yong Koo; Im, Jong Chan; Shin, Jae Pil; Kim, In Taek; Park, Dong Ho

    2017-06-26

    To evaluate the change of residual volume of eye drop after instillation in patients with 23-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS). Patient who were treated 23-gauge MIVS from November 2014 to July 2015 were included. The residual volume was defined as the amount of remnant eye drop in patient's eyes after instillation, calculated as the difference between instillation volume and spilled volume of eye drop. Calculation of residual volume of eye drop was performed one day before surgery, and daily from postoperative day 1 to day 5. Forty consecutive patients were included. The residual volume of eye drop decreased from 30.3 ± 1.4 μL at baseline to 13.0 ± 1.5 μL at day 1, 18.3 ± 1.6 μL at day 2, 24.7 ± 1.5 μL at day 3, and 27.9 ± 1.4 μL in day 4, postoperatively (p < 0.001, respectively). The volume at postoperative day 5 was 29.4 ± 1.3 μL, but it was not different from the volume at baseline (p = 0.105). The change of residual volume was significantly correlated with postoperative chemosis (r = 0.672, p < 0.001) and effected by the number of quadrant with postoperative chemosis (p < 0.05). This study shows that postoperative residual volume of eye drop after instillation decreased until postoperative day 4, and postoperative chemosis affects the change of residual volume. Thus, checking proper use of eye drops and teaching about instillation technique by physician is necessary for patients with 23-gauge MIVS.

  8. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Fea, Antonio M; Aragno, Vittoria; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications.

  9. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio M.; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications. PMID:27200376

  10. Preliminary study of the effect of FK506 nanospheric-suspension eye drops on rejection of penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Fei, Wen-Lei; Chen, Jia-Qi; Yuan, Jin; Quan, Da-Ping; Zhou, Shi-You

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a topical FK506 nanospheric suspension in a rat model of penetrating keratoplasty. FK506 nanospheres were prepared by using a biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) copolymer (PLGA). Its distribution in the eye and blood after a single instillation was examined in rabbits. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received corneal heterografts and were topically treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), PLGA, FK-506 0.01% (nanospheres), or dexamethasone 0.05% solutions twice a day for 28 days. Rejection index and graft-survival time were recorded and compared between the four groups. Three grafts were collected at different time points for immunohistochemical studies. In the cornea, the FK-506 concentration reached its peak within 1 h of a single eye-drop instillation and then decreased by half (1667.85 +/- 611.87 ng/g) at 8 h. FK-506 cannot be detected in rabbit blood. There were significant differences in the graft-survival time between the FK-506 nanosphere group (15.09 +/- 4.81 days) and the other three groups [PBS (7.90 +/- 1.20, t = -4.594, P < 0.001), PLGA (8.44 +/- 0.88, t = - 4.074, P = 0.001) and dexamethasone (10.44 +/- 1.42, t = -2.790, P = 0.012)]. The rejected corneas in the FK506 nanosphere group showed significantly fewer CD4, CD8, CD68, CD79, vascular endothelial growth factor, ICAM, and tumor growth factor-beta(1)-positive cells than those in the other groups. FK506 0.01% nanospheric-suspension eye drops delayed the occurrence of corneal allograft rejection and prolonged allograft survival time. The FK506 nanospheres may be valuable in suppressing corneal graft rejection.

  11. [N-acetyl-aspartylglutamic acid eye drops in allergic-type conjuctivitis. Double-blind comparative clinical study].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M; Ducournau, D; Lumbroso, P; Serpin, G

    1985-01-01

    Fifty patients with allergic conjunctivitis were included in a double-blind randomized clinical trial designed to compare the efficiency and tolerance of two antiallergic eye-drops: one containing NAAGA (22 patients), the other one containing disodium Cromoglycate (28 patients). Both treatments were used at a dosage of 1 drop 4 times per day. Ocular symptoms, conjunctivo-corneal signs and the subjective ocular condition assessed by the patients themselves with visual analogue scales, were all significantly improved by both eye-drops during the first month of treatment. Statistical analysis showed that patient ocular condition improved more rapidly with NAAGA eye-drops. In 25 patients (12 in the NAAGA group and 13 in the Cromoglycate group), the study was continued for an additional month according to a cross-over protocol. During the 2nd month of treatment, additional improvement of ocular symptoms and signs were observed with both eye-drops but more markedly in those patients who received NAAGA after Cromoglycate. Ocular tolerance was good for both eye-drops.

  12. A rapid derivative spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of naphazoline and antazoline in eye drops.

    PubMed

    Souri, Effat; Amanlou, Massoud; Farsam, Hassan; Afshari, Alma

    2006-01-01

    A zero-crossing first-derivative spectrophotometric method is applied for the simultaneous determination of naphazoline hydrochloride and antazoline phosphate in eye drops. The measurements were carried out at wavelengths of 225 and 252 nm for naphazoline hydrochloride and antazoline phosphate, respectively. The method was found to be linear (r2>0.999) in the range of 0.2-1 microg/ml for naphazoline hydrochloride in the presence of 5 microg/ml antazoline phosphate at 225 nm. The same linear correlation (r2>0.999) was obtained in the range of 1-10 microg/ml of antazoline phosphate in the presence of 0.5 microg/ml of naphazoline hydrochloride at 252 nm. The limit of determination was 0.2 microg/ml and 1 microg/ml for naphazoline hydrochloride and antazoline phosphate, respectively. The method was successfully used for simultaneous analysis of naphazoline hydrochloride and antazoline phosphate in eye drops without any interference from excipients and prior separation before analysis.

  13. Amelioration of ultraviolet-induced photokeratitis in mice treated with astaxanthin eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Lennikov, Anton; Fukase, Risa; Murata, Miyuki; Noda, Kousuke; Ando, Ryo; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ishida, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Ultraviolet (UV) acts as low-dose ionizing radiation. Acute UVB exposure causes photokeratitis and induces apoptosis in corneal cells. Astaxanthin (AST) is a carotenoid, present in seafood, that has potential clinical applications due to its high antioxidant activity. In the present study, we examined whether topical administration of AST has preventive and therapeutic effects on UV-photokeratitis in mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were administered with AST diluted in polyethylene glycol (PEG) in instillation form (15 μl) to the right eye. Left eyes were given vehicle alone as controls. Immediately after the instillation, the mice, under anesthesia, were irradiated with UVB at a dose of 400 mJ/cm2. Eyeballs were collected 24 h after irradiation and stained with H&E and TUNEL. In an in vitro study, mouse corneal epithelial (TKE2) cells were cultured with AST before UV exposure to quantify the UV-derived cytotoxicity. Results UVB exposure induced cell death and thinning of the corneal epithelium. However, the epithelium was morphologically well preserved after irradiation in AST-treated corneas. Irradiated corneal epithelium was significantly thicker in eyes treated with AST eye drops, compared to those treated with vehicles (p<0.01), in a doses dependent manner. Significantly fewer apoptotic cells were observed in AST-treated eyes than controls after irradiation (p<0.01). AST also reduced oxidative stress in irradiated corneas. The in vitro study showed less cytotoxicity of TKE2 cells in AST-treated cultures after UVB-irradiation (p<0.01). The cytoprotective effect increased with the dose of AST. Conclusions Topical AST administration may be a candidate treatment to limit the damages by UV irradiation with wide clinical applications. PMID:22393271

  14. Efficacy and safety of ketotifen eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, M; McKenzie, S H; Steven, I; Cooper, C; Lanz, R

    2003-01-01

    Background: Ketotifen blocks histamine H1 receptors, stabilises mast cells, and prevents eosinophil accumulation. These multiple, pharmacological mechanisms provided the rationale for assessing the efficacy and safety of ketotifen 0.025% eye drops in subjects with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) in an environmental setting. Methods: This was a double masked, randomised, multicentre trial conducted in Australia. Subjects were randomly assigned to ketotifen fumarate 0.025% ophthalmic solution, placebo (as vehicle), or levocabastine hydrochloride 0.05% ophthalmic suspension, twice daily in each eye for a 4 week period. Subjects were assessed at follow up (days 5–8) and termination (days 25–31) visits. The primary efficacy variable was the responder rate, based on the subjects’ assessment of global efficacy at the follow up visit. Results: 519 subjects were randomised to treatment. At the follow up visit, the responder rate, based on subjects’ assessment of global efficacy, was significantly greater in the ketotifen group (49.5%) than in the placebo group (33.0%) for subjects with a positive diagnostic test for pollen allergy (p = 0.02). The investigators’ assessment of responder rates also showed that ketotifen was superior to placebo (p = 0.001). Ketotifen produced a significantly better outcome than levocabastine (p<0.05) for relief of signs and symptoms of SAC, at both the follow up and the termination visit. The type and frequency of adverse events were similar across treatment groups. Conclusions: In an environmental setting, ketotifen fumarate 0.025% ophthalmic solution was well tolerated and effective in reducing the signs and symptoms of SAC, and in preventing their recurrence. Ketotifen consistently showed the best efficacy in comparison with both placebo and levocabastine. These results indicate that ketotifen eye drops are a valuable treatment option for this condition. PMID:14507747

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer? A risk factor is ... may have few or no known risk factors. Risk factors for eye melanoma Race/ethnicity The risk ...

  16. Protective effects of naringenin eye drops on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced photoreceptor cell death in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun-Li; Wang, Yan-Dong; Ma, Yan; Zhong, Chun-Mei; Zhu, Mei-Rong; Chen, Wen-Pei; Lin, Bao-Qin

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of naringenin eye drops on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced photoreceptor cell death in rats. METHODS Photoreceptor cell death was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (60 mg/kg) in rats. Both eyes of all animals were instilled with one drop of vehicle, 0.5% or 1.0% naringenin eye drops three times per day from 7d before to 17d after MNU injection. Effects of naringenin on MNU-induced photoreceptor cell death were evaluated by electrophysiological and histological analysis. RESULTS Flash electroretinography (FERG) and oscillatory potentials (OPs) recordings showed that the vehicle control group had remarkable reduction of amplitudes and prolongation of latency times. FERG and OPs responses were significantly reversed in MNU-induced rats treated with 0.5% or 1.0% naringenin eye drops compared with the vehicle control. The retinal morphological results showed that naringenin dose-dependently preserved the outer nuclear layer, outer retina and total retina. CONCLUSION These results indicate that topical treatment with naringenin eye drops prevented retinal neurons from MNU-induced structural and functional damages. PMID:24967179

  17. Azelastine eye-drops in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Giede-Tuch, C; Westhoff, M; Zarth, A

    1998-09-01

    This study was carried out to assess the efficacy of 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis of > or = 1 year's duration. A total of 151 patients received 0.025% or 0.05% azelastine eye-drops or placebo b.i.d. for 14 days according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-dosing design; 129 patients completed the study as planned. The three target symptoms, scored on 4-point scales, were itching, lacrimation, and redness of the eyes; responders were patients whose symptom sum score decreased by > or = 3 from a baseline score of > or = 6 by day 3. Mean scores of these and five other symptoms were recorded also on days 7 and 14, and patients kept daily diaries of the three main symptoms and swollen eyelids. Responder rates were 73% for 0.025% (P=0.115 vs placebo) and 82% for 0.05% azelastine eye-drops (P=0.011 vs placebo) and 56% for placebo. The time courses of the mean (investigators' and patients') scores for the three main symptoms reflected the dose-dependent effect of azelastine eye-drops. One patient each from the two azelastine groups and three from the placebo group withdrew because of inefficacy. Adverse drug reactions were reported by 14 and 24 patients receiving 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops, respectively, and by eight placebo patients. These reactions were mainly slight application site reactions and taste perversion (bitter or unpleasant taste). Azelastine eye-drops are effective and well tolerated at a dose of 0.05% for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  18. Corneal permeability assay of topical eye drop solutions in rabbits by MRI.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaochun; Zhang, Shaowei; Hen, Hui; Du, Longting; Li, Guigang; Li, Bin; Zhang, Hong

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the corneal permeability of topical eye drop solutions added with various corneal penetrating accelerators and gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups according to the random digits table: Gd-DTPA group, in which the rabbits received 23.45% Gd-DTPA; hyaluronic acid group, in which 23.45% Gd-DTPA plus 0.2% hyaluronic acid was administered; azone group, in which 23.45% Gd-DTPA with 0.2% azone was given. Fifty microliters of the eye drops was instilled into the conjunctive sac every 5 min, for a total of 6 applications in each group. Contrast medium signals in the cornea, anterior chamber, posterior chamber, and vitreous body were scanned successively by MRI. The morphology and cell density of the corneal endothelium were examined before and 24 h after the treatment. The results showed that the residence time of Gd-DTPA in the conjunctival sac in the hyaluronic acid and azone groups was longer than that in the Gd-DTPA group. The signals in the anterior chamber of the Gd-DTPA and hyaluronic acid groups were increased slightly, and those in the azone group strengthened sharply. The signal intensity continuously rose over 80 min before reaching plateau. The strengthening rate of signals in the anterior chamber was 19.63% in the Gd-DTPA group, 53.42% in the sodium hyaluronate group, and 226.94% in the azone group. No signal was detected in the posterior chamber or vitreous body in all the 3 groups. Corneal morphology and cell density did not show any significant changes after the treatment in all the 3 groups. It was concluded that azone can significantly improve the corneal permeability of drugs that are similar to Gd-DTPA in molecular weight and molecular size, and MRI is a noninvasive technique that can dynamically detect eye drop metabolism in real time.

  19. Treatment of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop: Prospective double-blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Bernardo Kaplan; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Sakassegawa-Naves, Fernando Eiji; Hoshino-Ruiz, Diego Ricardo; Albers, Marcos Bottene Villa; Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Hida, Richard Yudi

    2015-10-01

    To describe the clinical efficacy of the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop. Prospective double-blind randomized study. Institutional outpatient clinic. Forty-eight eyes of twenty-four patients with dry eye related to Sjögren syndrome were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized in 2 groups: tacrolimus (n=14) and vehicle (n=10) group. The tacrolimus group received a vial containing tacrolimus 0.03% (almond oil as vehicle) and the other group received the almond oil vehicle. All patients were instructed to use the eye drops every 12h in the lower conjunctival sac. Schirmer I test, break-up-time (BUT), corneal fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining scores were evaluated in all patients one day before the treatment (baseline), 7, 14, 28 and 90 days after treatment with the eye drops. The average fluorescein and Rose Bengal scores improved statistically after 7 days of treatment and even more after 90 days. The average Schirmer I and BUT values were unchanged after 7, 14 and 21 days but did show an improvement relative to baseline after 28 days of treatment. Schirmer I, BUT, fluorescein and Rose Bengal did not show any statistical significance in the vehicle group. Topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop improved tear stability and ocular surface status in cases of inflammatory or SS-related dry eye. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01850979. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chiral separation of dioxopromethazine in eye drops by CZE with charged cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Mikus, Peter; Valásková, Iva; Havránek, Emil

    2003-09-19

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with carboxyethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CE-beta-CD) dissolved in the operating buffer was used for the separation and determination of enantiomers of phenothiazine antihistaminic, dioxopromethazine, in commercial pharmaceutical preparation, eye drops. This chiral selector, negatively charged under given separating conditions (20 mmol/l epsilon -aminocaproic acid, acetic acid, pH 4.5), was effective in enantioresolution of the antihistamine even at its low concentrations (3-6 mg/ml) in the buffer solution. CZE identification and quantitation of the relevant constituents present in the preparation (dioxopromethazine enantiomers, phenylephrine) were based on the response of photometric absorbency detector, operating at a 275 nm detection wavelength. Changes in pH, type and concentration of chiral selector were studied in relation to chiral resolution. Acceptable validation criteria for sensitivity, precision, linearity and repeatability are included.

  1. Systane® lubricant eye drops in the management of ocular dryness

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of dry eye disease has advanced recently through increasing recognition that the etiology of the condition involves both tear evaporation and insufficient tear production, and that tear film instability and inflammation play roles in the various stages of the disease. Of significance, it has been recognized that lipid layer thickness correlates with tear film stability. The management of dry eye involves various strategies and therapeutic approaches that address one or more etiopathological components of the disease. The purpose of this review is to outline the characteristics and clinical utility of the Systane® ocular lubricants that contain hydroxypropyl-guar and one or both of the demulcents, ie, polyethylene glycol 400 and propylene glycol. Clinically, these products are safe and are indicated for the temporary relief of burning and irritation due to dryness of the eye. In particular, this review describes the formulations, mechanisms of action, and clinical utility of the newest additions to this topical ocular lubricant family, Systane Ultra® and Systane Balance®. Both of these ocular products are formulated with an intelligent delivery system and both provide symptomatic relief to patients with dry eye. However, Systane Balance is a novel formulation that contains both polymer and lipid components designed to protect the ocular surface and replenish tear film lipids simultaneously, a factor that is of particular relevance to patients who have dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction. PMID:21750611

  2. Cyclodextrin-poloxamer aggregates as nanocarriers in eye drop formulations: dexamethasone and amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Jansook, Phatsawee; Pichayakorn, Wiwat; Muankaew, Chutimon; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2016-09-01

    In this present study cyclodextrin (CD)-poloxamer aggregates were characterized and developed as ophthalmic drug carriers. The combined effect of γCD/2-hydroxypropyl-γCD (HPγCD) mixtures and poloxamer on solubilization and permeability of two model drugs, dexamethasone (Dex) and amphotericin B (AmB), was investigated. The CD-poloxamer interaction and complex aggregation were examined by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), their solubilizing ability by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their particle size determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Formulations containing either 1.5% w/v Dex or 0.15% w/v AmB in eye drop suspensions containing various γCD/HPγCD ratios and poloxamer 407 (P407) were prepared. The solubility of the drugs, surface tension and hemolytic effect of the eye drops and drug permeation from selected formulations were determined. The (1)H-NMR study showed that P407 formed inclusion complex with CDs by inserting its poly(propylene oxide) segment into the CD cavity. P407 and γCD interacted with each other to form nanosized aggregates, and the observed concentration of dissolved γCD and P407 progressively decreased with increasing γCD and P407 concentrations. Including a high proportion of HPγCD improved the drug solubilization and reduced the hemolytic effect. The surface tension of the formulations decreased with increasing P407 concentration. Furthermore, increasing P407 content in the formulations enhanced formation of complex aggregates with consequent slower drug release. It was concluded that the drug/γCD/HPγCD complex was stabilized by P407 through formation of multi-component aggregates. Thus, CD-poloxamer aggregates are self-assembled nanocarriers from which drug delivery characteristics can be adjusted by changing the γCD/HPγCD/P407 ratios.

  3. Physical and chemical properties and stability of sodium cefazolin in buffered eye drops determined with HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Kodym, Anna; Bilski, Piotr; Domańska, Agata; Hełminiak, Łukasz; Jabłońska, Maria; Jachymska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to analyze the stability of 1% and 5% eye drops containing sodium cefazolin, prepared in citrate buffer of pH 6.11-6.27, which were stored at the temperature of 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C with light protection. The drops were prepared under aseptic conditions by dissolving sodium cefazolin (Biofazolin, IBA Bioton), dry injection form of the drug, in citrate buffer. The viscosity of the drops was increased using polyvinyl alcohol. The drops were preserved with phenylmercuric borate of 0.001% concentration mixed with beta-phenylethyl alcohol of 0.4% concentration in the drops. The concentration of cefazolin was determined at every three days using HPLC method. Besides, the measurements of pH, osmotic pressure and viscosity were performed as well as the organoleptic analysis of the drops (clarity, color, odor). The concentration of cefazolin in 1% drops after the 30-day-storage at the temperature of 4 degrees C, depending on their composition, decreased in the range of 2.17-6.02%. In 5% drops the decrease in cefazolin concentration was similar, i.e., after 30-day-storage at the temperature of 4 degrees C it was 1.62-6.76%. In 1% and 5% drops stored at the temperature of 20 degrees C the stability of the drops determined as the 10% degradation time of cefazolin was in the range of 9-15 days.

  4. In Vivo and Impression Cytology Study on the Effect of Compatible Solutes Eye Drops on the Ocular Surface Epithelial Cell Quality in Dry Eye Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lanzini, Manuela; Curcio, Claudia; Colabelli-Gisoldi, Rossella Annamaria; Mastropasqua, Alessandra; Calienno, Roberta; Agnifili, Luca; Nubile, Mario; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate in vivo and ex vivo ocular surface alterations induced by dry eye disease and modification after osmoprotective therapy. Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients suffering from dry eye have been recruited. All patients received Optive (compatible solutes) eye drops in one randomly selected eye and Hylogel (sodium hyaluronate 0,2%) in the other. Follow-up included a baseline visit and further examination 30-, 60-, and 90-day intervals (which comprises clinical evaluation, in vivo confocal microscopy—IVCM—of the ocular surface, and conjunctival impression cytology). No significant difference in Schirmer I Test, TBUT, and vital staining results was observed during the follow-up period in both groups. IVCM showed in all patients an improvement of ocular surface epithelial morphology and signs of inflammation (oedema and keratocyte activation). However, these modifications were more evident in patients treated with Optive therapy. A significant reduction of the expression of MMP9 and IL6 in Optive group was observed during the follow-up period in comparison to Hylogel treatment. Our results show that in dry eye disease therapy based on osmoprotective eye drops determines a reduction of inflammatory activation of ocular surface, with consequent improvement of the quality of corneal and conjunctival epithelium. PMID:26221061

  5. Synergistic interaction between TS-polysaccharide and hyaluronic acid: implications in the formulation of eye drops.

    PubMed

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Nazzi, Samuele; Zambito, Ylenia; Di Colo, Giacomo; Balzano, Federica; Sansò, Marco

    2010-08-16

    An interaction between tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in aqueous solution has been ascertained. Various TSP/HA mixtures have been studied as the basis for the development of a potential excipient for eye drops synergistically improved over those of the separate polymers. Information about the nature of interpolymer interactions, and their dependence on TSP/HA ratios were obtained by NMR spectroscopy in solution. Superior mucin affinity of TSP/HA mixtures with respect to the single polysaccharides was assessed by NMR proton selective relaxation rate measurements. The mucoadhesivity of the TSP/HA (3/2) mixture, evaluated in vitro by NMR or viscometry, and in vivo by its mean and maximum residence time in rabbit precorneal area, is stronger than that of the component polysaccharides or the TSP/HA mixtures of different composition. TSP/HA (3/2) is little viscous and well tolerated by rabbit eyes. It stabilizes the tear film, thereby prolonging the residence of ketotifen fumarate and diclofenac sodium in tear fluid, but is unable to permeabilize the cornea. In conclusion, mucoadhesivity is responsible for the TSP/HA (3/2) synergistic enhancement of either extra- or intra-ocular drug bioavailability.

  6. Decreased retinal blood flow in experimental colitis; improvement by eye drop administration of losartan

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Megan N.; Eshaq, Randa S.; Carter, Patsy R.; Harris, Norman R.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease suffer not only from gut inflammation, but also from extraintestinal manifestations of the disease, including ocular pathology. The mechanisms causing ocular inflammation in these patients are unknown. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the possible vascular changes occurring in the retina using a mouse model of acute colitis, that is, ingestion of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Intravital microscopy of anesthetized mice revealed that DSS caused a significant 30-40% decrease in retinal red blood cell velocities, and a 45% decrease in total retinal blood flow, but no changes in intraocular pressure. To determine whether the decreases in retinal perfusion could be inhibited by an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan was administered by eye drops in a subset of the mice prior to the intravital microscopy measurements. Topical losartan was able to largely attenuate the altered hemodynamics induced by DSS. We conclude that angiotensin II might be a possible target for reducing the vascular changes occurring distantly in the eye during colitis. PMID:23830910

  7. Rho-Associated Kinase Inhibitor Eye Drop (Ripasudil) Transiently Alters the Morphology of Corneal Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Naoki; Okazaki, Yugo; Inoue, Ryota; Nakano, Shinichiro; Fullwood, Nigel J; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Koizumi, Noriko

    2015-11-01

    Ripasudil (Glanatec), a selective Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, was approved in Japan in September 2014 for the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ripasudil eye drops on corneal endothelial morphology, as ROCK signaling is known to modulate the actin cytoskeleton. Morphological changes in the corneal endothelium were evaluated in human subjects by specular and slit-lamp microscopy, following topical administration of ripasudil. We also used a rabbit model to evaluate the effect of ripasudil on clinical parameters of the corneal endothelium. Twenty-four hours after ripasudil application, corneal specimens were evaluated by phalloidin staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and electron microscopy. Specular microscopy revealed morphological changes in human eyes, and slit-lamp microscopy showed guttae-like findings. The rabbit model showed morphological changes similar to those seen in human eyes after ripasudil administration. Electron microscopy demonstrated that these alterations are due to the formation of protrusions along the cell-cell borders, but this formation is transient. Expression of corneal endothelial function-related markers was not disrupted; corneal thickness and corneal volume were not changed; and no cell death was observed following ripasudil administration. Ripasudil induces transient guttae-like findings in humans, most likely due to protrusion formation along intracellular borders caused by the reduction in actomyosin contractility of the corneal endothelial cells. No severe adverse effects were observed. Physicians should be aware that ROCK inhibitors can cause these guttae-like findings, to avoid misdiagnosing patients as having Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. (www.umin.ac.jp/ctr number, UMIN000018340.).

  8. Cyclosporine a 0.05% eye drops for the treatment of subepithelial infiltrates after epidemic keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate the treatment with topical 0.05% cyclosporine A (CsA) in patients with subepithelial corneal infiltrates (SEI). Methods We reviewed 16 patients (22 eyes) before and after the treatment with 0.05% CsA eye drops. All patients had been treated previously with topical corticosteroids without any improvement and also they had to stop the medication secondary to intraocular pressure elevation. The objective data recorded included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), evaluation of corneal subepithelial infiltrate scores (CSIS), intraocular pressure (IOP) prior to treatment and the last follow-up visit. Results Six males (37.5%) and 10 females (62.5%), mean age of 35.2 ± 16.6 years, were included. The patients’ average topical CsA use duration was 5.1 ± 3.5 months (1 – 13 months). The average follow up time of the patients was 9.2 ± 4.7 months (4 – 22 months). One patient, although he didn’t have a 0 scale of SCIS, did not show up for follow up examinations after six months. The mean BCVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) before and after the treatment were 0.15 ± 0.15 and 0.07 ± 0.07 respectively, CSIS 1.68 ± 0.89 and 0.23 ± 0.53 respectively, IOP 18.50 ± 3.82 and 16.86 ± 2.76 mmHg respectively. There were statistically significant improvements in BCVA (p = 0.002), reduction of CSIS (p = 0.002) and reduction of IOP (p < 0.001) prior to treatment and the last follow-up visit. 18 eyes (81.9%) showed clinical improvement and 4 (18.1%) had decreased SEI which did not fully disappear during the treatment period. The eyes which reached CSIS score 0 (18 eyes) were treated with CsA for 1 – 13 months; while the eyes which had clinical improvement but had not CSIS score 0 (4 eyes) were decided to discontinue of CsA treatment in last follow-up visit. There were recurrences in 2 eyes 3 months after the treatment. Patients reported reduction in the severity of symptoms after the

  9. A randomized phase I clinical study of cis-urocanic acid eye drops in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Jauhonen, Hanna-Mari; Kari, Eeva; Pylkkänen, Liisa; Poutanen, Jutta; Laihia, Jarmo; Kaarniranta, Kai; Leino, Lasse

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate safety, ocular tolerability and pharmacokinetics of 0.5% and 2.5% cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA) eye drops. In this phase I, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 37 healthy volunteers were randomized to three treatment arms: 0.5% cis-UCA (12 subjects), 2.5% cis-UCA (12 subjects) and placebo eye drops (13 subjects). In the first part, the subjects were dosed topically on a randomized eye with one drop three times at 7 ± 1 hr intervals during 1 day. In the second part, the subjects self-administered three daily drops at 7 ± 1 hr intervals on both eyes for 14 days. Physical examination of the eyes was performed seven times during the study. Tolerability of cis-UCA was assessed by ocular comfort rating questionnaire. Pharmacokinetic blood and urine samples were analysed under good laboratory practice (GLP). All subjects completed both parts of the study. There were no significant adverse events (AEs). The most common treatment-related ocular AE was eye irritation (62.2% of subjects). Cis-UCA concentrations in plasma remained below the limit of quantification (0.195 μg/ml) in all but two subjects. The fraction of the administered drug excreted into urine over the total collection period ranged from 3.2% to 61.6% of the last dose and from 1.1% to 20.5% of the daily dose. Topical ocular administration of cis-UCA solution is safe and apart from mild- and short-lasting eye irritation after administration well tolerated in healthy adult subjects. Topical ocular dosing leads to transient systemic exposure to cis-UCA that does not cause systemic AEs. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A New Viscous Cysteamine Eye Drops Treatment for Ophthalmic Cystinosis: An Open-Label Randomized Comparative Phase III Pivotal Study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hong; Labbé, Antoine; Le Mouhaër, Jeannie; Plisson, Céline; Baudouin, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of new viscous cysteamine hydrochloride (CH) eye drops (vCH 0.55%) compared with standard CH 0.10% drops treatment. This was an open-label, phase III, randomized, two-arm multicenter trial conducted at two centers in France. Cystinosis patients ≥2 years old were randomized 1:1 to receive eye drops, four times per day for 90 days in both eyes. We compared the superiority in reducing corneal cystine crystal density as assessed by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). We also evaluated photophobia, corneal cystine crystal scores (CCCSs), and cystine crystal depth measured by optical coherence tomography. Safety objectives were to assess adverse events (AEs), local adverse drug reactions, and ocular safety parameters. We included 15 patients with vCH 0.55% and 16 patients with CH 0.10% drops for 90 days. The mean absolute change in IVCM total score at day 90 in the vCH 0.55% drops group (-4.6 ± 3.1) was significantly greater than and superior to the mean absolute change in the CH 0.10% drops group (-0.46 ± 3.38; P < 0.0001). Photophobia, CCCS, and corneal cystine crystal depth were significantly more improved in the vCH 0.55% drops group than in the CH 0.10% group. The most frequent local adverse drug reactions in both groups were stinging, burning, redness, and blurred vision. vCH 0.55% was effective in reducing corneal cystine crystal density and superior to treatment with CH 0.10% drops, which offer advantages over hospital pharmacy formulations and is a more preferable and convenient treatment option.

  11. Ocular safety comparison of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory eye drops used in pseudophakic cystoid macular edema prevention.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; Santiago-Varela, María; Gil-Martínez, María; Parada, Tomas García-Caballero; Pardo, María; González-Barcia, Miguel; Piñeiro-Ces, Antonio; Rodríguez-Ares, María Teresa; Blanco-Mendez, José; Lamas, M J; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2015-11-30

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye drops are widely used to treat ocular inflammatory conditions related to ophthalmic surgical procedures, such as pseudophakic cystoid macular edema, and they have been used for off-label treatments. The most commonly used NSAIDs are diclofenac and ketorolac and the new molecules bromfenac and nepafenac have also been used. We used primary human keratocytes in cell culture in combination with a novel technology that evaluates dynamic real-time cytotoxicity through impedance analysis. This study also included classic cell viability tests (WST-1(®) and AlamarBlue(®)), wound healing assay, Hen's Egg Test and an ex vivo histopathological assay. NSAIDs were shown to have important cytotoxicities and to retard the healing response. Furthermore, the new eye drops containing bromfenac and nepafenac were more cytotoxic than the more classical eye drops. Nevertheless, no immuno-histochemical changes or acute irritation processes were observed after the administration of any eye drops tested. Due to cytotoxicity and the total absence of discomfort and observable injuries after the administration of these drugs, significant corneal alterations, such as corneal melts, can develop without any previous warning signs of toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of the safety and protective efficacy of vaccination with glycoprotein-G-deficient infectious laryngotracheitis virus delivered via eye-drop, drinking water or aerosol.

    PubMed

    Devlin, J M; Browning, G F; Gilkerson, J R; Fenton, S P; Hartley, C A

    2008-02-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes respiratory disease in chickens and is commonly controlled by vaccination with conventionally attenuated virus strains. These vaccines have limitations due to residual pathogenicity and reversion to virulence. To avoid these problems and to better control disease, attention has recently turned towards developing a novel vaccine strain that lacks virulence gene(s). Glycoprotein G (gG) is a virulence factor in ILTV. A gG-deficient strain of ILTV has been shown to be less pathogenic than currently available vaccine strains following intratracheal inoculation of specific pathogen free chickens. Intratracheal inoculation of gG-deficient ILTV has also been shown to induce protection against disease following challenge with virulent virus. Intratracheal inoculation, however, is not suitable for large-scale vaccination of commercial poultry flocks. In this study, inoculation of gG-deficient ILTV via eye-drop, drinking water and aerosol were investigated. Aerosol inoculation resulted in undesirably low levels of safety and protective efficacy. Inoculation via eye-drop and drinking water was safe, and the levels of protective efficacy were comparable with intratracheal inoculation. Thus, gG-deficient ILTV appears to have potential for use in large-scale poultry vaccination programmes when administered via eye-drop or in drinking water.

  13. A novel eye drop application monitor to assess patient compliance with a prescribed regimen: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Eaton, A M; Gordon, G M; Konowal, A; Allen, A; Allen, M; Sgarlata, A; Gao, G; Wafapoor, H; Avery, R L

    2015-10-01

    To assess the ability of a novel imaging device to allow physicians to personalize therapeutic regimens based on objective patient drop administration data. A novel imaging system was used to record video of the drop technique of subjects in clinic (n=25) or at home (n=17) for 1 week. Video assessment by a reading center was compared with patient reporting and their prescribed regimen with respect to how many drops were applied and how many landed in the eye. Reading center assessment of both drops dispensed and drops landing in the eye was significantly different from the prescribed regimen in the clinic (Pd=0.005, Pi<0.001, respectively) and at-home arms (Pd=0.003, Pi<0.001, respectively). This imaging system is a powerful tool to help physicians tailor patient therapy more accurately, to help researchers evaluate new drop therapies with objective rather than subjective data, and to potentially facilitate better patient training for improved drug delivery.

  14. A novel eye drop application monitor to assess patient compliance with a prescribed regimen: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, A M; Gordon, G M; Konowal, A; Allen, A; Allen, M; Sgarlata, A; Gao, G; Wafapoor, H; Avery, R L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the ability of a novel imaging device to allow physicians to personalize therapeutic regimens based on objective patient drop administration data. Methods A novel imaging system was used to record video of the drop technique of subjects in clinic (n=25) or at home (n=17) for 1 week. Video assessment by a reading center was compared with patient reporting and their prescribed regimen with respect to how many drops were applied and how many landed in the eye. Results Reading center assessment of both drops dispensed and drops landing in the eye was significantly different from the prescribed regimen in the clinic (Pd=0.005, Pi<0.001, respectively) and at-home arms (Pd=0.003, Pi<0.001, respectively). Conclusions This imaging system is a powerful tool to help physicians tailor patient therapy more accurately, to help researchers evaluate new drop therapies with objective rather than subjective data, and to potentially facilitate better patient training for improved drug delivery. PMID:26358235

  15. Clinical evaluation of pranoprofen combined with fluorometholone eye drops on postoperative reaction of corneal cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xu; Fan, Zheng Jun; Peng, Xiu Jun; Jia, Hong Zhen; Wu, Teng Fei

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pranoprofen eye drops for reducing postoperative ocular pain and inflammation after corneal cross-linking (CXL). Twenty-seven patients (38 eyes) with keratoconus undergoing CXL were examined and randomly divided into control (12 cases; 18 eyes) and experimental groups (15 cases; 20 eyes). The patients in the control group were given fluorometholone eye drops, and those in the experimental group were administered with fluorometholone combined with pranoprofen eye drops.Corneal irritation and haze were compared between the two groups at 1 month postoperatively. At 1 to 3 days after surgery, the corneal irritation in the experimental group was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference on 5 to 7 days postoperatively (P>0.05).The average degree of haze in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group 1 month after surgery (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the best-corrected vision acuity and intraocular pressure between the two groups. There were 2 cases with P<20 mmHg intraocular pressure in the control group. The combined use of fluorometholone and pranoprofen can significantly reduce inflammatory response, alleviate corneal irritation at early stage after CXL, effectively prevent and control the average of haze, and reduce the incidence of steroid-induced ocular hypertension after surgery.

  16. Conditioning Analysis of Incomplete Cholesky Factorizations with Orthogonal Dropping

    SciTech Connect

    Napov, Artem

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  17. Results of a Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Visomitin Eye Drops in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brzheskiy, Vladimir V; Efimova, Elena L; Vorontsova, Tatiana N; Alekseev, Vladimir N; Gusarevich, Olga G; Shaidurova, Ksenia N; Ryabtseva, Alla A; Andryukhina, Olga M; Kamenskikh, Tatiana G; Sumarokova, Elena S; Miljudin, Eugeny S; Egorov, Eugeny A; Lebedev, Oleg I; Surov, Alexander V; Korol, Andrii R; Nasinnyk, Illia O; Bezditko, Pavel A; Muzhychuk, Olena P; Vygodin, Vladimir A; Yani, Elena V; Savchenko, Alla Y; Karger, Elena M; Fedorkin, Oleg N; Mironov, Alexander N; Ostapenko, Victoria; Popeko, Natalia A; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Skulachev, Maxim V

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of an international, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study of Visomitin (Mitotech LLC, Moscow, Russian Federation) eye drops in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Visomitin is the first registered (in Russia) drug with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (SkQ1) as the active ingredient. In this multicenter (10 sites) study of 240 subjects with DES, study drug (Visomitin or placebo) was self-administered three times daily (TID) for 6 weeks, followed by a 6-week follow-up period. Seven in-office study visits occurred every 2 weeks during both the treatment and follow-up periods. Efficacy measures included Schirmer's test, tear break-up time, fluorescein staining, meniscus height, and visual acuity. Safety measures included adverse events, slit lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Tolerability was also evaluated. This clinical study showed the effectiveness of Visomitin eye drops in the treatment of signs and symptoms of DES compared with placebo. The study showed that a 6-week course of TID topical instillation of Visomitin significantly improved the functional state of the cornea; Visomitin increased tear film stability and reduced corneal damage. Significant reduction of dry eye symptoms (such as dryness, burning, grittiness, and blurred vision) was also observed. Based on the results of this study, Visomitin is effective and safe for use in eye patients with DES for protection from corneal damage. Mitotech LLC.

  18. Randomized, Multicenter, Double–Blind Study of the Safety and Efficacy of 1%D-3-Hydroxybutyrate eye drops for Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Uchino, Miki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Yoshino, Kenichi; Shimazaki, Seika; Toda, Ikuko; Tanaka, Mari; Arai, Hiroyuki; Sakatani, Keiko; Hata, Seiichiro; Okano, Takashi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that topical D-beta-hydroxybutyrate ameliorates corneal epithelial erosion and superficial punctate keratopathy in a rat model of dry eye disease. In the current investigation, we performed a prospective, randomized, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety and efficacy of 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops in patients with dry eye disease. A total of 65 patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group, and the treatments were administered 6 times a day for 4 weeks. We then evaluated corneal fluorescein staining, corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining, tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer score, and subjective symptoms. At both 2 and 4 weeks, the corneal rose Bengal score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group. Among patients with an initial Schirmer score of ≤5 mm, the corneal fluorescein staining score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group at two weeks. Mild ocular symptoms occurred in both groups, and these spontaneously resolved. The present study suggested that 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops are safe and effective in treating ocular surface disorders in patients with tear-deficient dry eye disease. PMID:26865350

  19. Simple Preparation of Timolol 0.5% Gel from Eye Drop Solution for Superficial Infantile Hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Choo, Winnie

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of beta-adrenergic blocker effects on infantile hemangiomas has affected the choice of treatment in recent years. Oral propranolol is effective in treating infantile hemangiomas, but the risk of systemic side effects remains a concern. Data from literature review reported positive clinical outcomes with no major adverse effects observed in children using topical beta-blocker such as timolol maleate. Topical application of timolol eye drop has been mentioned in few studies, most of which reported that the solution cannot stay on the site of application due to its fluidity. Adding hydroxyethyl cellulose into a timolol solution increased its viscosity by forming a hydrogel and thus changed the rheology property. The compounded timolol gel exhibited thixotropy property allowing better and longer contact at sites of application. Experimental data from literature review showed desirable characteristics and measurable flux of timolol across human stratum corneum. Gel dosage form allows easy and precise application and maximizes timolol's therapeutic efficacy at the sites of application. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  20. Effect of preserved and preservative-free timolol eye drops on tear film stability in healthy Africans.

    PubMed

    Ilechie, Alex; Abokyi, Samuel; Boateng, Gifty; Koffuor, George Asumeng

    2016-01-01

    Preserved versus nonpreserved formulations for ophthalmic use have been well described in the literature although not specifically in the African population where beta blockers are frequently used as the first-line therapy due to economic and availability issues. This study sought to determine the effect of preserved and preservative-free Timolol eye drops on tear film stability in healthy black Africans. Sixty healthy nondry eye subjects aged 19-25 years were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 15) and differently treated with eye drops of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), preservative-free timolol (PFT), benzalkonium chloride (BAK) only, and BAK-preserved timolol (BPT). Noninvasive tear break-up time (NITBUT) was measured using the keratometer at baseline and 30, 60, and 90 min after drop application. No significant decline in NITBUT was observed following treatment with PFT and PBS. However, BAK treatment showed a positive time-dependent significant decline in NITBUT (P < 0.001) while a significant decline in the BPT-treated group was only found at 90 min (-3.52 s; P < 0.001). In comparison to the PFT-treated group, treatment with BAK and BPT showed significantly lower NITBUT (P < 0.001). BPT is associated with a significant decline in tear film stability in black Africans. This finding has implications in the management of glaucoma in patients with high-risk of dry eyes in this population.

  1. Solvent/Detergent Virally Inactivated Serum Eye Drops Restore Healthy Ocular Epithelium in a Rabbit Model of Dry-Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Renn, Ting-Yi; Hsiao, Shun-Hung; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Application of autologous serum eye drops (SEDs) is a recognized means to treat severe dry-eye syndrome (DES). Due to the inconvenience and difficulty of preparing SEDs from some patients, producing SEDs from allogeneic blood donations is gaining popularity. A major safety concern associated with allogeneic blood is virus transmission. We therefore herein evaluated the possibility of applying a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment to inactivate viruses and studied the impacts of such treatment of SEDs to resolve DES in a rabbit model. Sera prepared from the blood of five rabbits were pooled and divided into two sub-pools. One was untreated (SEDs), while the other was virally-inactivated with 1% Tri-n-butyl phosphate/1% Triton X-45 at 31°C for 1 h (S/D-SEDs). DES was induced in rabbits using 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Rabbits were divided into five groups of two rabbits each. One group was untreated (control), three were treated twice daily for 3 weeks using PBS, SEDs, or S/D-SEDs, and the last received an additional 0.1% BAC (as the negative control). The DES condition was determined by measuring aqueous tear secretion (Schirmer’s test), corneal fluorescein staining, a corneal histologic examination, TUNEL stain apoptosis, and corneal inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-6) expressions. We first confirmed that SEDs and S/D-SEDs had similar protein profiles and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contents. Animal experiments showed that tear secretion did not significantly differ between the SED and S/D-SED groups but was significantly higher than in the PBS group. Eye fluorescein staining revealed dramatic improvements in epithelial defects in groups treated with SEDs or S/D-SEDs, and hematoxylin/eosin staining revealed microscopic epithelial layers similar to those of the untreated controls. Inflammatory markers and TUNEL studies showed that healthy epithelium had been restored in groups treated with SEDs or S

  2. Solvent/Detergent Virally Inactivated Serum Eye Drops Restore Healthy Ocular Epithelium in a Rabbit Model of Dry-Eye Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Renn, Ting-Yi; Hsiao, Shun-Hung; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Application of autologous serum eye drops (SEDs) is a recognized means to treat severe dry-eye syndrome (DES). Due to the inconvenience and difficulty of preparing SEDs from some patients, producing SEDs from allogeneic blood donations is gaining popularity. A major safety concern associated with allogeneic blood is virus transmission. We therefore herein evaluated the possibility of applying a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment to inactivate viruses and studied the impacts of such treatment of SEDs to resolve DES in a rabbit model. Sera prepared from the blood of five rabbits were pooled and divided into two sub-pools. One was untreated (SEDs), while the other was virally-inactivated with 1% Tri-n-butyl phosphate/1% Triton X-45 at 31°C for 1 h (S/D-SEDs). DES was induced in rabbits using 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Rabbits were divided into five groups of two rabbits each. One group was untreated (control), three were treated twice daily for 3 weeks using PBS, SEDs, or S/D-SEDs, and the last received an additional 0.1% BAC (as the negative control). The DES condition was determined by measuring aqueous tear secretion (Schirmer's test), corneal fluorescein staining, a corneal histologic examination, TUNEL stain apoptosis, and corneal inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-6) expressions. We first confirmed that SEDs and S/D-SEDs had similar protein profiles and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contents. Animal experiments showed that tear secretion did not significantly differ between the SED and S/D-SED groups but was significantly higher than in the PBS group. Eye fluorescein staining revealed dramatic improvements in epithelial defects in groups treated with SEDs or S/D-SEDs, and hematoxylin/eosin staining revealed microscopic epithelial layers similar to those of the untreated controls. Inflammatory markers and TUNEL studies showed that healthy epithelium had been restored in groups treated with SEDs or S

  3. Safety and efficacy of switching from dorzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops to brinzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji; Shiokawa, Minako; Ishida, Kyoko; Tomita, Goji

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of switching from dorzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed-combination (DTFC) eye drops to brinzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed-combination (BTFC) eye drops in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods A total of 35 eyes of 35 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension using DTFC eye drops were included. Participants discontinued DTFC drops and immediately began using BTFC drops. All other eye drops currently being used were continued. Intraocular pressure (IOP) 1 and 3 months after switching medications was compared with baseline IOP. One month after switching medications, participant preference and adherence were evaluated. Adverse reactions were monitored at each study visit. Results The IOP was 17.9±2.6 mmHg at baseline and 18.3±4.1 mmHg and 17.8±3.4 mmHg 1 month and 3 months after switching medications, respectively (P=0.633). The frequency of missing a dose was not different before (6.1%) and after (6.1%) switching to BTFC. Significantly fewer participants reported stinging after switching to BTFC (15.2%) than while using DTFC (51.5%, P,0.01). Blurred vision was reported with the same frequency before (39.4%) and after (42.4%) switching to BTFC. A total of 33.3% and 27.3% of patients preferred DTFC and BTFC, respectively. Several patients withdrew from the study because of discomfort (n=2, 5.7%), discharge (n=1, 2.9%), dizziness (n=1, 2.9%), or increased IOP (n=2, 5.7%). Conclusion Switching from DTFC to BTFC was well tolerated and did not result in IOP changes or a decreased patient adherence. When glaucoma patients complain of stinging with DTFC administration, switching to BTFC is an acceptable treatment option. PMID:25914520

  4. Rho-associated kinase inhibitor eye drop treatment as a possible medical treatment for Fuchs corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Noriko; Okumura, Naoki; Ueno, Morio; Nakagawa, Hiroko; Hamuro, Junji; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2013-08-01

    To report a case of Fuchs corneal dystrophy that was successfully treated by Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor eye drops, subsequent to transcorneal freezing of damaged corneal endothelial cells. A 52-year-old Japanese man with a diagnosis of late-onset Fuchs corneal dystrophy was referred to our hospital as a candidate for keratoplasty. Best-corrected vision was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/63 in the left eye. Multiple guttae were observed in both eyes. The right cornea was clear, but the left showed severe central edema, with a central corneal thickness of 703 μm. We were unable to perform specular microscopy in the central cornea, but endothelial cells were observed in the midperiphery at a density of 757 cells per square millimeter. The patient was treated by a corneal endothelial denudation in the prepupillary region followed by the topical administration of a selective ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, as eye drops for 1 week. Follow-up of 24 months is reported. Corneal clarity recovered and vision improved to 20/20 two weeks after the treatment. At 6 months, vision had improved to 20/16 and central corneal thickness measured was 568 μm, significantly lower than its pretreatment value. Endothelial function and vision have been well maintained up to the most recent observation, 24 months after the treatment. The average corneal endothelial density in the central and peripheral cornea was 1549.3 ± 89.7 and 705.0 ± 61.1 cells per square millimeter, respectively. The case highlights the possibility of medical treatments involving the use of ROCK inhibitor eye drops as an alternative to graft surgery for certain forms of corneal endothelial disease.

  5. Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis with Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray and Eye Drops in Comparison with Azelastine Containing Nasal Spray and Eye Drops or with Cromoglycic Acid Containing Nasal Spray

    PubMed Central

    Werkhäuser, Nina; Sonnemann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with increasing prevalence and high impact on economic burden and comorbidities. As treatment with pharmacological drugs is not always satisfactory due to side effects and incomplete efficacy, alternative treatment strategies are needed. Ectoine is an osmolyte with membrane stabilizing and inflammation reducing capacities. Nasal spray and eye drops containing ectoine are promising new treatment regimens for allergic rhinitis sufferers. Design and Methods. The current two noninterventional trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops for treating allergic rhinitis in comparison with either azelastine or cromoglycic acid containing products. Nasal and ocular symptom developments as well as judgment of tolerability and efficacy were assessed both by investigators and patients over a time period of one to two weeks. Results. Both trials confirmed that ectoine containing products reduced nasal and ocular symptoms in allergic rhinitis patients. Results clearly demonstrated good safety profiles of the ectoine products comparable to those of azelastine and even better to those of cromoglycate products. Conclusion. Ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops are interesting new treatment strategies for sufferers of allergic rhinitis, combining both good efficacy and absence of side effects. PMID:24982680

  6. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops in comparison with azelastine containing nasal spray and eye drops or with cromoglycic Acid containing nasal spray.

    PubMed

    Werkhäuser, Nina; Bilstein, Andreas; Sonnemann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with increasing prevalence and high impact on economic burden and comorbidities. As treatment with pharmacological drugs is not always satisfactory due to side effects and incomplete efficacy, alternative treatment strategies are needed. Ectoine is an osmolyte with membrane stabilizing and inflammation reducing capacities. Nasal spray and eye drops containing ectoine are promising new treatment regimens for allergic rhinitis sufferers. Design and Methods. The current two noninterventional trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops for treating allergic rhinitis in comparison with either azelastine or cromoglycic acid containing products. Nasal and ocular symptom developments as well as judgment of tolerability and efficacy were assessed both by investigators and patients over a time period of one to two weeks. Results. Both trials confirmed that ectoine containing products reduced nasal and ocular symptoms in allergic rhinitis patients. Results clearly demonstrated good safety profiles of the ectoine products comparable to those of azelastine and even better to those of cromoglycate products. Conclusion. Ectoine containing nasal spray and eye drops are interesting new treatment strategies for sufferers of allergic rhinitis, combining both good efficacy and absence of side effects.

  7. The eye drop chart: a pilot study for improving administration of and compliance with topical treatments in glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    McVeigh, Katherine Anne; Vakros, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve patient education, compliance, and administration of eye drops prescribed for patients suffering with glaucoma within a UK ophthalmology department, an eye drop chart (EDC) was designed, developed, and piloted with patients attending the glaucoma clinic over 1 month. A cross-sectional prospective pilot study of 25 patients using an administration aid and a self-reported questionnaire. Chi-square tests were used to compare responses pre- and postintervention. Results demonstrated an impressive improvement in nine of eleven categories assessed regarding drop administration and compliance. Patients stating that they always wash their hands increased significantly from 64% (13 participants) to 92% (23 participants) (P=0.029), and those who always shake the bottle improved from 40% (10) to 84% (21) (P=0.001). Punctal occlusion techniques improved from 44% (11) to 72% (18) (P=0.015). Finally, patients who always discarded the bottle after 28 days of use rose from 68% to 92%, though the difference was not significant (P=0.09). Only the number of drops being administered to the eye and the length of time left between the application of drops remained relatively unchanged. Sixty-four percent reported finding EDC helpful or useful, 52% had positive responses when asked if they would continue using EDC, and 88% would recommend it to a friend. Although there are limitations to the data as they are subjective, descriptive, and limited to sample size of 25, the results of this pilot study have shown promise. The EDC appears to be a cost-effective way at improving patients' use of topical ocular medications.

  8. Therapeutic effects of 0.1% tacrolimus eye drops for refractory allergic ocular diseases with proliferative lesion or corneal involvement.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsuki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Uchio, Eiichi; Okamoto, Shigeki; Kumagai, Naoki; Shoji, Jun; Takamura, Etsuko; Nakagawa, Yayoi; Namba, Kenichi; Fujishima, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Dai

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of topical 0.1% tacrolimus in treating refractory allergic conjunctivitis with proliferative lesions and/or corneal involvement. This prospective observational study included 1436 patients with refractory allergic conjunctivitis whose condition had responded poorly to conventional antiallergic drugs and/or topical steroids and/or topical cyclosporine. All patients received tacrolimus eye drops twice daily during the study period. Ten clinical signs and six clinical symptoms were rated on a four-grade scale. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in total clinical signs and symptoms score at the last observation or following 6 months of treatment. Total signs and symptoms score significantly decreased after 1 month of treatment (p<0.001). Giant papillae and corneal lesions were also reduced by tacrolimus eye drop use (p<0.001). The drug proved effective in patients whose condition did not respond well to topical cyclosporine therapy. About 50% of all patients using topical steroids were weaned. The most common adverse reaction was a transient burning sensation (3.20%). Tacrolimus eye drops are highly effective in treating refractory allergic conjunctivitis with proliferative lesions and/or corneal involvement, and may reduce or replace topical steroid use. UMIN 000008640. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Therapeutic effects of 0.1% tacrolimus eye drops for refractory allergic ocular diseases with proliferative lesion or corneal involvement

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Atsuki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Uchio, Eiichi; Okamoto, Shigeki; Kumagai, Naoki; Shoji, Jun; Takamura, Etsuko; Nakagawa, Yayoi; Namba, Kenichi; Fujishima, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of topical 0.1% tacrolimus in treating refractory allergic conjunctivitis with proliferative lesions and/or corneal involvement. Methods This prospective observational study included 1436 patients with refractory allergic conjunctivitis whose condition had responded poorly to conventional antiallergic drugs and/or topical steroids and/or topical cyclosporine. All patients received tacrolimus eye drops twice daily during the study period. Ten clinical signs and six clinical symptoms were rated on a four-grade scale. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in total clinical signs and symptoms score at the last observation or following 6 months of treatment. Results Total signs and symptoms score significantly decreased after 1 month of treatment (p<0.001). Giant papillae and corneal lesions were also reduced by tacrolimus eye drop use (p<0.001). The drug proved effective in patients whose condition did not respond well to topical cyclosporine therapy. About 50% of all patients using topical steroids were weaned. The most common adverse reaction was a transient burning sensation (3.20%). Conclusions Tacrolimus eye drops are highly effective in treating refractory allergic conjunctivitis with proliferative lesions and/or corneal involvement, and may reduce or replace topical steroid use. Trial registration number UMIN 000008640. PMID:24695688

  10. Multi-pumping flow system for the determination of boron in eye drops, drinking water and ocean water.

    PubMed

    González, Pablo; Sixto, Alexandra; Knochen, Moisés

    2017-05-01

    A novel automated method for the determination of boron based on the use of pulsed flows was developed and applied to the determination of this element in samples of tap water, ocean water and eye drops. The method was implemented by means of a multi-pumping system consisting of three solenoid micropumps and a photometric detector and exploits the reaction of azomethine-H in the presence of boron. The system runs under control of an open-source microcontroller. The main operational parameters were optimized. Given the particular kinetics of the reaction, a stopped-flow period (1 or 5min) was included to allow for color development. The method presents linearity in the range 0.35-3.0mgL(-1), good precision (sr<3%), and detection and quantification limits of 0.10 and 0.35mgL(-1) respectively. Samples of tap water or eye drops could be successfully analyzed employing a 1-minute stop time, providing a maximum sampling frequency of 32 samples h(-1). In order to overcome matrix effect caused by the high saline concentration, ocean water samples required stop times of 5min, providing a sampling frequency of 10 samples h(-1). Recoveries of 102% (eye drops), 94% (drinking water) and 93% (ocean water) were obtained. The method was considered accurate and fit for the purpose.

  11. Safety and efficacy of a hydroxypropyl guar/polyethylene glycol/propylene glycol-based lubricant eye-drop in patients with dry eye.

    PubMed

    Labetoulle, Marc; Messmer, Elisabeth M; Pisella, Pierre-Jean; Ogundele, Abayomi; Baudouin, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    To demonstrate non-inferiority of a hydroxypropyl guar/polyethylene glycol/propylene glycol lubricating eye-drop (HPG/PEG/PG) compared with an osmoprotective carboxymethylcellulose/glycerine eye-drop (O/CMC) for ocular surface staining. This was a multicentre, randomised, observer-masked, parallel-group study. Adults with dry eye instilled HPG/PEG/PG/ or O/CMC 4 times daily for 35 days and then as needed through day 90. Total ocular surface staining (TOSS) score changes from baseline and Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life (IDEEL) treatment satisfaction module scores were assessed. Non-inferiority, based on TOSS score change from baseline, was concluded if the upper limit of the 2-sided CI was <2 units. Mean±SD patient age was 64.4±13.7 years; 94 patients were randomised to treatment (HPG/PEG/PG, n=46; O/CMC, n=48). Mean±SE TOSS score change from baseline to day 35 was -2.2±0.33 with HPG/PEG/PG and -1.7±0.47 with O/CMC (treatment difference, -0.47±0.47; p=0.38), and the non-inferiority criterion was met. IDEEL treatment satisfaction scores were similar between groups at day 35 and day 90. The most frequently reported adverse event was eye irritation (HPG/PEG/PG, n=2; O/CMC, n=3). HPG/PEG/PG and O/CMC reduced ocular surface damage, and HPG/PEG/PG was non-inferior to O/CMC. Both treatments were effective, convenient and well tolerated. NCT01863368, Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. In vitro pharmaceutical characterization and statistical optimization of a novel topically applied instantly-soluble solid eye drop matrix.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Raeesa M; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Carmichael, Trevor R; Pillay, Viness

    2014-06-20

    Abstract Ocular diseases of the anterior segment of the eye are increasing and the development of novel drug delivery systems for improved treatment is necessary. The aim of this study was therefore to design and evaluate an instantly-soluble solid eye drop (ISED) for topical ophthalmic drug delivery of the model drug timolol maleate. The porous nature of the lyophilized ISED resulted in rapid fluid ingression, immediate hydration, and dissolution of the ocular matrix. The ISED was lyophilized employing hydroxypropylcellulose and pluronic® F68 as the matrix forming polymers. Polyacrylic acid sodium enhanced the solubility of the ISED, di-glycine, an anti-collapsing agent, while maltodextrin improved the matrix resilience. A statistical design was employed for optimizing the texture, disintegration, and the mean dissolution time (MDT50%) of the ISED. Results revealed that a robust rapidly disintegrating ISED was produced with the fastest disintegration time recorded at 0.20 s and drug release between 79 and 96%. In addition, improved corneal drug permeation was observed compared to pure timolol dispersion. The maltodextrin concentration significantly affected the ISED matrix resilience (p = 0.007) and pluronic F68 had a greater impact on disintegration time (p = 0.000) and MDT (p = 0.000). The ISED formulation may be a promising alternative to the use of liquid eye drops for topical ophthalmic drug delivery.

  13. Comparison of 0.2% and 0.18% hyaluronate eye drops in patients with moderate to severe dry eye with keratitis or keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Dorothea; Childs, Marc; Piaton, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Comparison of efficacy and safety of 0.2% and 0.18% hyaluronic acid (HA) eye drops three times a day (tid) in patients with moderate to severe dry eye disease, related to keratitis or keratoconjunctivitis. Patients and methods Prospective, multicenter, randomized, single-masked, phase IIIb, noninferiority study (0.2% HA vs 0.18% HA) in two parallel groups over a period of 84 days. N=70 patients were evaluated. Primary efficacy outcome was ocular surface (OS) staining change on day 35 (D35), compared to baseline. Fluorescein and lissamine green were used for staining of cornea and conjunctiva. Secondary efficacy outcome included tear film breakup time, OS staining score on day 84 (D84), ocular comfort index, as well as patients’ and doctors’ evaluation. Results Compared to day 0 (D0), 0.2% HA achieved a 47.7% reduction in staining score (−3.00±2.81 [standard deviation] points, n=38 patients) at D35; 0.18% HA showed a 41.2% reduction (−2.59±2.20 [standard deviation] points, n=32 patients). Statistical analysis showed noninferiority in efficacy of 0.2% HA compared to 0.18% HA on D35. At D84, the reduction in staining score had further increased to 64.5% for 0.2% HA and to 56.4% for 0.18% HA. Both eye drops improved tear film breakup time and ocular comfort index values. Investigators and patients assessed both treatments with 5 of 7 points (Likert Scale, medians). The rate of adverse events (AE) was 2.3% for 0.2% HA and 7.1% for 0.18% HA with no serious AE. Conclusion 0.2% and 0.18% HA eye drops significantly improved signs and symptoms of dry eye disease and were well tolerated with few AEs. Noninferiority of 0.2% HA compared to 0.18% HA was demonstrated for reduction of OS lesions. In some parameters, there was a nonsignificant trend in favor of 0.2% HA concentration. PMID:28435213

  14. [Experimental study on preclinical quality control, urgent poison and irritation of Dendrobium aurantiacum eye drops, a class I new drug against diabetic cataract].

    PubMed

    Yi, Yan-Qun; Yang, Qiao-Hong; Su, Jun-Fang; Chen, Jian; Qi, Hui; Chen, Dan; Wei, Xiao-Yong

    2013-04-01

    To establish a quality control method of Dendrobium aurantiacum eye drops, in order to evaluate acute toxicity, irritation and irritability and lay a foundation for its development and utilization in the future. The content of gigantol and SA in D. aurantiacum eye drops were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The linear ranges of gigantol and SA were 0.040 8-1.530 0 g x L(-1) (r = 0.999 9) and 0.100 8-0.504 0 g x L(-1) (r = 0.999 9), with the average recoveries being 100.8%, 99.84%, and RSD being 1.4%, 1.8% (n = 9) respectively. The sample solution was stable at room temperature within 72 h. The acute toxicity test showed no toxic reaction of D. aurantiacum eye drops in mice. The irritating test for single-dose and multiple-dose administrations of D. aurantiacum eye drops and physiological saline in rabbit eyes and skin, as well as the allergic test in guinea pigs showed no eye irritation and skin irritation and irritability. These findings indicated that D. aurantiacum eye drops are safe and stable, with a good druggability.

  15. Bevacizumab eye drop treatment stimulates tear secretion in rats through changes in VEGF and NGF lacrimal gland levels.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Simona; Mantelli, Flavio; Lambiase, Alessandro; Aloe, Luigi

    2012-03-01

    VEGF and NGF are known to modulate corneal healing, neovascularisation and tear secretion. While a VEGF-NGF cross talk has been recently shown to modulate corneal healing in rats, it is not known whether it also plays a role in the regulation of lacrimal function. In this study we aim to investigate the effects of anti-VEGF eye drop treatment on lacrimal gland function and on the local expression of VEGF and NGF in rats. Tear function was measured in 3 months old rats by modified Schirmer test at baseline and after 3 weeks of topical anti-VEGF eye drop treatment. Whole lacrimal glands from rats were removed after treatment and analysed by ELISA for VEGF and NGF levels. To investigate if the effects of anti-VEGF were mediated by changes in the NGF-pathway, we repeated the experiments in RCS rats, a strain with NGF-pathway impairment associated with decreased tear flow. After topical treatment with anti-VEGF eye drops, an increase in tear secretion was observed in both wild-type and RCS rats. A significant decrease of VEGF levels was also observed in lacrimal glands of both RCS and SD rats, accompanied by a significant increase in NGF levels. Inhibition of VEGF at the ocular surface in rats results in changes of tear function and lacrimal gland levels of VEGF and NGF. Further studies on the VEGF/NGF cross-talk at the ocular surface may expand our knowledge on the pathogenesis of several diseases characterized by tear dysfunction.

  16. Tat PTD-endostatin: A novel anti-angiogenesis protein with ocular barrier permeability via eye-drops.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinke; Li, Yan; Cheng, Yanna; Tan, Haining; Li, Zhiwei; Qu, Yi; Mu, Guoying; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-06-01

    Endostatin, a specific inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis, has been proved to have effects on ocular neovascular diseases by intraocular injection. In order to increase its permeability to ocular barriers and make it effective on fundus oculi angiogenesis diseases via non-invasive administration (eye drops), endostatin was fused to Tat PTD via a genetic engineering method. Most of the Tat PTD- endostatin was expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli, so pure and active Tat PTD-endostatin was prepared by a series of operations, including inclusion body denaturation, refolding and chromatography. The anti-angiogenesis activity of Tat PTD-endostatin was investigated by cell proliferation experiments and chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. In addition, its translocating ability and concrete entry mechanism into cells were also investigated by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry. The penetrating ability to ocular barriers was also studied by immunohistochemistry. A mouse choroidal neovascularization model was established to investigate the pharmacodynamics of Tat PTD-endostatin. The obtained Tat PTD-endostatin had excellent anti-angiogenesis activity and was superior to Es in cellular translocating. Macropinocytosis may be the dominant route of entry of Tat PTD-endostatin into cells. Tat PTD-endostatin could cross ocular barriers and arrive at the retina after eye-drop administration. In addition, it displayed inhibitory effects on choroidal neovascularization via eye drops. Tat PTD-endostatin possessed excellent ocular penetrating ability and anti-angiogenesis effects. Tat PTD is a promising ocular delivery tool, and Tat PTD-endostatin is a potential drug for curing fundus oculi angiogenesis diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of the conceptual framework for the Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ) in glaucoma using a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Nordmann, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Philippe; Vigneux, Marc; Trudeau, Elyse; Guillemin, Isabelle; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2007-08-06

    Compliance is a major issue in glaucoma care. It is usually poor in glaucomatous patients, and may ultimately result in an acceleration of the disease progression and a risk of blindness. Reasons for this poor compliance are complex and multifactorial, amongst which patient satisfaction can be counted. The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment. A qualitative study was carried out to develop the questionnaire. An interview guide was developed based on a literature review. Structured interviews of fifteen French and English patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or intraocular hypertension were conducted by trained interviewers of the native language of the interviewees. General concepts and subconcepts were identified from the transcripts. The questionnaire was developed using the patient verbatim, and submitted to six patients (French and English) for cognitive debriefing. Following patients' comments, items were modified and restructured, and a pilot questionnaire was designed. Analysis of data from the interviews with patients and clinicians resulted in the elicitation of concepts related to patient satisfaction and compliance with glaucomatous treatment. These were further refined and used to generate a test questionnaire, which consisted of 46 items grouped into 6 domains: patient characteristics, treatment characteristics, patient-clinician relationship, patient experience with the disease and the treatment, interaction between the patient and the treatment, and patient knowledge of the disease and the treatment. The Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ) conceptual framework and items were developed simultaneously in French and in English. This questionnaire could be used to evaluate patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment and would facilitate the identification of patients at risk of being non-compliant prior to clinical trials or innovative

  18. Dexamethasone/Povidone Eye Drops versus Artificial Tears for Treatment of Presumed Viral Conjunctivitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Roberto Damian Pacheco; Lira, Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti; Abe, Ricardo Yuji; Zacchia, Rafael Santos; Felix, João Paulo Fernandes; Pereira, Andre Venancio Fernandes; Arieta, Carlos Eduardo Leite; de Castro, Rosane Silvestre; Bonon, Sandra Helena Alves

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether topical dexamethasone 0.1%/povidone-iodine 0.4% reduces the duration of presumed viral conjunctivitis better than artificial tears and whether the treatment relieves the symptoms of this disease. Randomized, masked and controlled trial. One-hundred twenty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of presumed viral conjunctivitis were randomized to either the treatment group or the control group. Physicians and patients were masked to the treatment. Swabs were taken from the conjunctival fornix for adenovirus PCR analyses. Patients in the treatment group received topical dexamethasone 0.1%/povidone-iodine 0.4% eye drops four times daily, and patients in the placebo group received artificial tears four times daily, both for seven days. Symptoms were recorded on the day of recruitment and at the time of a follow-up examination 5, 10 and 30 d later. The main outcome was duration of the disease. The others outcomes were overall discomfort, itching, foreign body sensation, tearing, redness, eyelid swelling, side effects of the eye drops, intraocular pressure and the incidence of subepithelial corneal infiltrates. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment group and the control group in terms of the patients' symptoms, intraocular pressure and incidence of subepithelial cornea infiltrates during the entire follow-up period. Patients of the treatment group reported more stinging (p < 0.001) and a shorter conjunctivitis duration (9.4 ± 4.6 d in the dexamethasone 0.1%/povidone-iodine 0.4% group versus 11.8 ± 4.9 d in the artificial tears group, p = 0.009). The use of topical dexamethasone 0.1%/povidone-iodine 0.4% eye drops four times daily appears to reduce the duration of conjunctivitis, although it causes more stinging than artificial tears.

  19. yCD/HPyCD mixtures as solubilizer: solid-state characterization and sample dexamethasone eye drop suspension.

    PubMed

    Jansook, Phatsawee; Ritthidej, Garnpimol C; Ueda, Haruhisa; Stefánsson, Einar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2010-01-01

    Study the complexation of dexamethasone in combinations of γ-cyclodextrin (γCD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HPγCD) with emphasis on solid characterization and development of aqueous dexamethasone eye drop suspension for drug delivery through sclera. Dexamethasone/cyclodextrin (dexamethasone/CD) solid complex systems were prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and by in vitro drug dissolution testing. Sample eye drop suspensions were prepared applying solubilizer/suspender consisting of γCD/HPγCD mixtures, poloxamer 407 (P407) and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The eye drop suspension was characterized by its physicochemical properties. The solid characterization techniques applied suggested that solid complexes were being formed. The results indicated that dexamethasone formed non-inclusion or micelle-like aggregates with HPγCD and the γCD/HPγCD mixture. The dissolution and dexamethasone release from the solid dexamethasone/γCD/HPγCD complexes was much faster than from the solid dexamethasone/γCD and dexamethasone/HPγCD complexes. The diameter of the solid particles in the dexamethasone eye drop suspension formulations were in all cases less than 10 μm with a mean diameter from 2.5 to 5.8 μm. The particle size decreased with increasing amount of P407. Permeation studies through semipermeable membrane and porcine sclera showed that increasing the amount HPγCD could enhance drug transport through the membrane barriers and this was related to enhanced drug solubility. The permeation rates were, however, decreased compared to formulation containing γCD alone due to larger hydrodynamic diameter of dexamethasone/γCD/HPγCD complex aggregates. All formulations were both chemically stable for at least 8 months at 25°C and 40°C. Combination of γCD and HPγCD, i.e., formation of dexamethasone/γCD/HPγCD complexes, resulted in synergistic effect

  20. Generic Eye Drops for Seniors Could Save Millions of Dollars a Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... report that eye doctors caring for seniors prescribe brand-name medications in more than three-quarters of ... health care, and policies that favor generics over brand medications or allow Medicare to negotiate drug prices ...

  1. Efficacy and safety of long-term corticosteroid eye drops after penetrating keratoplasty: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Jun; Iseda, Ayumi; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Shimazaki-Den, Seika

    2012-04-01

    Endothelial rejection remains a major cause of graft failure after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Topical corticosteroids are the gold standard for preventing rejection; however, protocols for corticosteroid treatment have been diverse. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy and safety of long-term use of corticosteroid eye drops after PKP in a randomized, clinical trial. Randomized, nonblinded, clinical trial. We enrolled 42 patients (21 males and 21 females) with a mean age of 65.3 years who underwent PKP and maintained graft clarity for >1 year with topical steroid eye drops. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: Administration of 0.1% fluorometholone 3 times a day (steroid group) or discontinuation of steroid eye drops (no steroid group). All patients were followed for 12 months. Proportion of eyes without endothelial rejection and the proportion of eyes with clear grafts and the incidence of local or systemic side effects. Of the initial 42 patients, 4 in the steroid group and 6 in the no steroid group did not complete the trial. Of the patients who completed the trial, 1 patient in the steroid group and 6 in the no steroid group developed endothelial rejection at an average of 5.2±4.5 (mean ± standard deviation) months after study enrollment. The difference in the incidence of rejection between groups was found to be significant by both chi-square (P = 0.027) and Kaplan-Meier analyses (log-rank test, P = 0.032). No difference was observed between the 2 groups in visual acuity, intraocular pressure, epithelial damage, tear-film break-up time, cataract progression, infection, or incidence of systemic side effects. Prolonged use of 0.1% fluorometholone was beneficial for the prevention of rejection after PKP. Because no adverse consequences were noted, we recommend continuing use of the low-dose corticosteroids, even in non-high-risk cases. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. A New UPLC Method with Chemometric Design-Optimization Approach for the Simultaneous Quantitation of Brimonidine Tartrate and Timolol Maleate in an Eye Drop Preparation.

    PubMed

    Büker, Eda; Dinç, Erdal

    2017-02-01

    A new ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with photodiode array was proposed for the quantitation of Brimonidine Tartrate (BRI) and Timolol Maleate (TIM) in eye drop using experimental design and optimization methodology. A 3(3) full factorial design was applied to uncover the effects of the selected factors and their interactions on the chromatographic response function for the optimization of experimental conditions in the development of a new UPLC method. As a result, the optimal chromatographic conditions giving a better separation and short analysis time were found to be 49.2°C for column temperature; 0.38 mL/min for flow rate and 56.7 % (v/v) for 0.1 M CH3COOH used in mobile phase. The elution of BRI and TIM was reported as 0.508 and 0.652 min within a short runtime of 1.5 min, respectively. Calibration graphs for BRI and TIM were obtained by the regression of the concentration on the peak area, which was detected at 246 and 298 nm, respectively. The method validation was performed by the analysis of the synthetic mixtures, intra-day and inter-day samples and standard addition samples. This study shows that the optimized and validated UPLC method is very promising and available for the quantification of BRI and TIM in an eye drop formulation. © Crown copyright 2016.

  3. The Toxicity of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Eye Drops against Human Corneal Epithelial Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of commercial non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye solutions against corneal epithelial cells in vitro. The biologic effects of 1/100-, 1/50-, and 1/10-diluted bromfenac sodium, pranoprofen, diclofenac sodium, and the fluorometholone on corneal epithelial cells were evaluated after 1-, 4-, 12-, and 24-hr of exposure compared to corneal epithelial cell treated with balanced salt solution as control. Cellular metabolic activity, cellular damage, and morphology were assessed. Corneal epithelial cell migration was quantified by the scratch-wound assay. Compared to bromfenac and pranoprofen, the cellular metabolic activity of diclofenac and fluorometholone significantly decreased after 12-hr exposure, which was maintained for 24-hr compared to control. Especially, at 1/10-diluted eye solution for 24-hr exposure, the LDH titers of fluorometholone and diclofenac sodium markedly increased more than those of bromfenac and pranoprofen. In diclofenac sodium, the Na+ concentration was lower and amount of preservatives was higher than other NSAIDs eye solutions tested. However, the K+ and Cl- concentration, pH, and osmolarity were similar for all NSAIDs eye solutions. Bromfenac and pranoprofen significantly promoted cell migration, and restored wound gap after 48-hr exposure, compared with that of diclofenac or fluorometholone. At 1/50-diluted eye solution for 48-hr exposure, the corneal epithelial cellular morphology of diclofenac and fluorometholone induced more damage than that of bromfenac or pranoprofen. Overall, the corneal epithelial cells in bromfenac and pranoprofen NSAID eye solutions are less damaged compared to those in diclofenac, included fluorometholone as steroid eye solution. PMID:26713063

  4. The Toxicity of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Eye Drops against Human Corneal Epithelial Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Soo; Kim, Young Hi; Park, Young Min

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of commercial non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye solutions against corneal epithelial cells in vitro. The biologic effects of 1/100-, 1/50-, and 1/10-diluted bromfenac sodium, pranoprofen, diclofenac sodium, and the fluorometholone on corneal epithelial cells were evaluated after 1-, 4-, 12-, and 24-hr of exposure compared to corneal epithelial cell treated with balanced salt solution as control. Cellular metabolic activity, cellular damage, and morphology were assessed. Corneal epithelial cell migration was quantified by the scratch-wound assay. Compared to bromfenac and pranoprofen, the cellular metabolic activity of diclofenac and fluorometholone significantly decreased after 12-hr exposure, which was maintained for 24-hr compared to control. Especially, at 1/10-diluted eye solution for 24-hr exposure, the LDH titers of fluorometholone and diclofenac sodium markedly increased more than those of bromfenac and pranoprofen. In diclofenac sodium, the Na(+) concentration was lower and amount of preservatives was higher than other NSAIDs eye solutions tested. However, the K(+) and Cl(-) concentration, pH, and osmolarity were similar for all NSAIDs eye solutions. Bromfenac and pranoprofen significantly promoted cell migration, and restored wound gap after 48-hr exposure, compared with that of diclofenac or fluorometholone. At 1/50-diluted eye solution for 48-hr exposure, the corneal epithelial cellular morphology of diclofenac and fluorometholone induced more damage than that of bromfenac or pranoprofen. Overall, the corneal epithelial cells in bromfenac and pranoprofen NSAID eye solutions are less damaged compared to those in diclofenac, included fluorometholone as steroid eye solution.

  5. Polymeric micelle gene delivery of bcl-xL via eye drop reduced corneal apoptosis following epithelial debridement.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yaw-Chong; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Kao, Winston W-Y; Liu, Chia-Yang; Liaw, Jiahorng

    2010-10-01

    Stromal keratocyte apoptosis triggered by epithelial injury is one mechanism of corneal disorders. A model of epithelial injury by epithelial debridement is established, and keratocyte apoptosis is evidenced by DNA fragmentation and cellular morphological changes in the anterior stroma underlying the injured epithelium. Delivery of plasmid (pCMV-bcl-x(L)-eGFP) encoding an anti-apoptotic gene, the bcl-x(L) with a nano-carrier, polymeric micelles (PM) via eye drop to cornea after epithelial debridement, the mRNA level of bcl-x(L) was significantly increased (2.2-fold, P<0.05) at 48 h and the eGFP mRNA was detected (4571.7 ± 1194.5 copies/μg total RNA). The bcl-x(L)-eGFP fusion protein was also detected in wounded cornea at 48 h after delivery, accompanying with decreased DNA fragmentation and lower caspase-3 activity (P<0.05). In conclusion, eye drop of pCMV-bcl-x(L)-eGFP/PM reduced corneal apoptosis following epithelial debridement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-Apoptotic Gene Delivery with cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr) Peptide Nanotube via Eye Drop Following Corneal Epithelial Debridement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Hsing; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Liaw, Jiahorng

    2015-07-17

    Corneal keratocyte apoptosis triggered by cornel debridement is one mechanism of corneal disorders. In this study, the feasibility of cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr) peptide nanotubes (PNTs) as carriers of caspase 3 silence shRNA delivery was assessed. A model of epithelial injury by epithelial debridement was applied to investigate the feasibility of PNTs as gene delivery carriers on corneal injury. First, the PNTs were found within 2 μm in length and 300 nm in width by an atomic force microscope and confocal laser microscope system. Plasmid DNAs were observed to be associated with PNTs by atomic force microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The plasmids were associated with tyrosine of PNTs with a binding constant of 2.7 × 108 M-1. The stability of plasmid DNA with PNTs against the DNase was found at 60 min. Using thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs on the corneal eye drop delivery, the distribution of PNTs was in the epithelial and stroma regions. After corneal debridement, the rhodamine-labeled plasmid DNA and thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs were also delivered and could be observed in the stroma of cornea. PNTs complexed with anti-apoptotic plasmid caspase 3 silencing shRNA eye drop delivery decreased 41% of caspase 3 activity after the first dose by caspase 3 activity and Western blot analysis.

  7. Anti-Apoptotic Gene Delivery with cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr) Peptide Nanotube via Eye Drop Following Corneal Epithelial Debridement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Hsing; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Liaw, Jiahorng

    2015-01-01

    Corneal keratocyte apoptosis triggered by cornel debridement is one mechanism of corneal disorders. In this study, the feasibility of cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr) peptide nanotubes (PNTs) as carriers of caspase 3 silence shRNA delivery was assessed. A model of epithelial injury by epithelial debridement was applied to investigate the feasibility of PNTs as gene delivery carriers on corneal injury. First, the PNTs were found within 2 μm in length and 300 nm in width by an atomic force microscope and confocal laser microscope system. Plasmid DNAs were observed to be associated with PNTs by atomic force microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The plasmids were associated with tyrosine of PNTs with a binding constant of 2.7 × 108 M−1. The stability of plasmid DNA with PNTs against the DNase was found at 60 min. Using thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs on the corneal eye drop delivery, the distribution of PNTs was in the epithelial and stroma regions. After corneal debridement, the rhodamine-labeled plasmid DNA and thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs were also delivered and could be observed in the stroma of cornea. PNTs complexed with anti-apoptotic plasmid caspase 3 silencing shRNA eye drop delivery decreased 41% of caspase 3 activity after the first dose by caspase 3 activity and Western blot analysis. PMID:26193308

  8. N-hydroxymethylglycinate with EDTA is an efficient eye drop preservative with very low toxicity: an in vitro comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cristaldi, Martina; Olivieri, Melania; Lupo, Gabriella; Anfuso, Carmelina D; Pezzino, Salvatore; Rusciano, Dario

    2017-07-18

    Preservatives are used in multi-dose ophthalmic topical medications in order to prevent contamination by bacteria and fungi. However, prolonged use of preserved eye drops, as it may happen in dry eye or glaucoma, may damage cells of the ocular surface. Therefore, an important goal is to find preservatives with low toxicity which are mild to host cells, still able to prevent drug contamination so to maintain their sterility and efficacy. Hence, aim of this study has been to compare the relative toxicity on a rabbit corneal cell line of a new preservative, made by the association of N-hydroxy-methyl-glycinate (NIG) with disodium-ethylene diamine tetra-acetate (EDTA), with other known and widely used eye-drops preservatives. Rabbit corneal cells (SIRC) were tested either in 96-well plates or in suspension culture. Treatments with preservatives (used at known bacteriostatic concentrations) included: benzalkonium chloride (BAK), polyquaternium-1 (PQ-1), sodium perborate (SP: NaBO3 * H2O), and NIG ± EDTA at different concentrations (0.001% and 0.002%), and different treatment times (from 30 minutes to 120 hours). At the end of treatment, cell survival was evaluated by a specific spectrophotometric method through the metabolic conversion of MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] into formazan crystals. Almost no cell toxicity was evident for NIG and SP at either concentration (0.001% or 0.002%), while a low toxicity was observed for PQ-1 (62% at the highest dose at 120 hours). BAK, as expected, showed the highest toxicity (60-80% at 30 minutes, and over 90% from eight hours onward). EDTA 0.1% alone or in combination with NIG 0.002%, showed no toxicity at 24 hours, and even resulted in cell growth promotion (46% and 38%, respectively), after 48 hours of treatment. These data show that the new preservative NIG/EDTA, at doses known to have effective antimicrobial properties, has a very low toxicity on corneal cells, and so it can

  9. Novel formulation of glycerin 1% artificial tears extends tear film break-up time compared with Systane lubricant eye drops.

    PubMed

    Gensheimer, William G; Kleinman, David M; Gonzalez, Mithra O; Sobti, Deepak; Cooper, Eugene R; Smits, Gerard; Loxley, Andrew; Mitchnick, Mark; Aquavella, James V

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of glycerin 1% formulated with the novel and proprietary ophthalmic excipient poly(l-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) (Eyeon Particle Sciences LLC) in extending tear film break-up time (TFBUT) compared with a market-leading artificial tear formulation of propylene glycol (0.3%) and polyethylene glycol (0.4%) (Systane(®) Lubricant Eye Drops; Alcon, Fort Worth, TX). This prospective single-center, single visit, randomized, double-masked exploratory trial compared the new formulation and Systane using TFBUT. Noninvasive break-up time (NIBUT) was measured in subjects with asymptomatic to mild (n=5), mild to moderate (n=5), and moderate to severe (n=6) dry eye disease using the TearscopePlus™ at pre-instillation and again at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after instillation. Fluorescein break-up time (FBUT) was measured at 120 min after instillation. At 15 min (N=16), the new formulation extended mean NIBUT by 14.67 s (P=0.05) compared with 7.40 s (P=0.34) by Systane. The new formulation had a mean FBUT of 4.92 s longer than Systane at 120 min (P=0.12). With outliers removed (N=13), the difference between the mean NIBUT change from baseline for the new formulation and Systane at 120 min was statistically significant (P=0.03). This study demonstrates that PLL-g-PEG as a polymer excipient in artificial tears is effective in improving the performance of demulcents to significantly prolong NIBUT at 15 min, and that protective activity from this artificial tear product for 2 or more hours after eye drop instillation is possible.

  10. Risk Factors for Second Eye Involvement in Eyes with Unilateral Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Yasushi; Sakurada, Yoichi; Yoneyama, Seigo; Kikushima, Wataru; Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Tanabe, Naohiko; Kubota, Takeo; Iijima, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    To investigate risk factors associated with developing polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) lesions in the unaffected fellow eye of patients with unilateral PCV. We studied 179 patients with initial unilateral PCV who were followed up for a period of 24 months or longer to monitor for second eye involvement. All patients underwent genotyping for CFH I62V (rs800292) and ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924) using TaqMan technology. During the follow-up period ranging from 5-180 months, 20 (11.2%) of 179 patients developed PCV in the initially unaffected fellow eye. The risk allele (T) of ARMS2 A69S was significantly more prevalent in patients with second eye involvement compared to those without PCV in the fellow eye (p = 0.0046). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the ARMS2 A69S genotype is a risk factor for developing PCV in the fellow eye (p = 0.027, odds ratio 2.53, confidence interval 1.11-5.73). Survival analysis revealed that the fellow eye of patients with the risk-associated homozygous genotype (TT) of ARMS2 A69S was affected significantly earlier than those with other genotypes (p = 0.0177, log rank test). Development of PCV in the unaffected fellow eye is associated with ARMS2 A69S genotype in patients with unilateral PCV.

  11. Dose-dependent protection by azelastine eye drops against pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Horak, F; Berger, U E; Menapace, R; Toth, J; Stübner, P U; Marks, B

    1998-04-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of azelastine (CAS 58581-89-8) eye drops at three different doses (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.1%) were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 24 subjects with a history of allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis, who were challenged, out of season, by airbone allergen in the "Vienna Challenge Chamber" (VCC). Subjects received a single dose of azelastine eye drops 60 min before the start of a 4 h challenge in the VCC. Additional local challenge, mimicking a gust of wind, was administered 15 min before the end of the session. Each of the 4 study days was separated by a 2 week washout period. Azelastine eye drops showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the development of itching of the eyes. The effect was most pronounced 15 min after the additional local challenge. A maximal effect was achieved at a dose of 0.05%. Similar effects were observed on lacrimation. Azelastine eye drops also dose-dependently inhibited the degree of conjunctival redness, measured by digital imaging, and tended to reduce the low incidence of chemosis observed. Ranking of the results of all symptoms for each treatment group confirmed the optimal effect at a dose of 0.05%. Azelastine eye drops had no effect on nasal and bronchial symptoms or on measurements of airways function (FEV1). No adverse effects of the treatments were reported. The data support the use of 0.05% azelastine eye drops in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis.

  12. Effect of nepafenac eye drops on pain associated with pterygium surgery.

    PubMed

    Ozcimen, Muammer; Sakarya, Yasar; Goktas, Sertan; Sakarya, Rabia; Yener, Halil I; Bukus, Abdulkadir; Demir, Lutfi S

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effects of nepafenac ophthalmic suspension 0.1% for control of pain in patients undergoing pterygium surgery. This randomized, double-masked placebo-controlled study included 62 adults undergoing pterygium surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to receive nepafenac ophthalmic suspension 0.1% or balanced salt solution placebo. They were asked to assess the level of pain using an 11-point numeric rating scale at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hr after surgery. Patients also were evaluated daily for the progression of corneal epithelial healing until complete closure was observed. Except at 72 hr after surgery, the patients reported significantly less pain in eyes receiving nepafenac than in eyes receiving placebo. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in corneal epithelial healing. Treatment with nepafenac ophthalmic suspension 0.1% significantly reduced postoperative pain compared with placebo after pterygium surgery.

  13. Risk factors, anatomical, and visual outcomes of injured eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy: eye injury vitrectomy study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kang; Hu, Yuntao; Wang, Changguan; Shen, Lijun; Pang, Xiuqin; Jiang, Yanrong; Nie, Hongping; Wang, Zhijun; Ma, Zhizhong

    2013-09-01

    To investigate potential risk factors for development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) post trauma and evaluate the effect of PVR on anatomical and visual outcomes in injured eyes. Overall, 179 eyes with PVR and 221 eyes without PVR after injury were selected from the database of the Eye Injury Vitrectomy Study, a multicenter cohort study launched in 1997. Multivariate logistic regression was used to ascertain the independent risk factors for development of PVR and to evaluate the influence of PVR on anatomical and visual outcomes. An interval of injury and vitrectomy of more than 28 days (odds ratio, 139.25; confidence interval, 50.09-387.10), severe vitreous hemorrhage (odds ratio, 2.72; confidence interval, 1.13-6.52), and total retinal detachment (odds ratio, 12.67; confidence interval, 3.96-40.52) were important independent risk factors for PVR. One hundred and fifteen eyes (52.0%) and 49 eyes (27.4%) without and with PVR, respectively, were anatomically restored with ambulant visual acuity (≥4/200). Proliferative vitreoretinopathy, poor initial visual acuity, relative afferent pupillary defect, total retinal detachment, and retinal tear or retinal defect were unfavorable prognostic indicators. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy occurs frequently in injured eyes and is associated with poor outcomes. Its onset depends on interval of injury and vitrectomy, wound location, vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal detachment. Early vitrectomy (before 2 weeks) and aggressive therapy should be considered for specific high-risk cases.

  14. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of the anti-cataract effect of eye drops containing disulfiram and low-substituted methylcellulose using ICR/f rats as a hereditary cataract model.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Takeuchi, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    We attempted to develop anti-cataract eye drops using disulfiram (DSF) and low-substituted methylcellulose (MC), and evaluated their anti-cataract effect in terms of the lens opacification vs. age-profile curves using a one-exponential equation. The eye drops were prepared using 0.5% DSF and 2% MC (DSF eye drops), and ICR/f rats, a recessive-type hereditary cataractous strain, were used as the experimental model. Gelation of DSF eye drops containing MC was first observed at about 35°C, close to body temperature. In in vivo transcorneal penetration experiments using rabbit corneas, only diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) was detected in the aqueous humor, while DSF was not detected. The DDC penetration level of DSF eye drops containing MC was approximately 1.3-fold higher than that of DSF eye drops. The opacification rate constant (k) of ICR/f rat instilled with DSF eye drops with or without MC was lower, and the initial time of opacification (τ) was longer than those of ICR/f rats instilled with saline. Furthermore, the k of ICR/f rats instilled with DSF eye drops with MC was lower than that of ICR/f rats instilled with DSF eye drops without MC. In conclusion, the analysis of kinetic parameters including k and τ using a one-exponential equation provided useful information for clarifying the anti-cataract effect of eye drops. ICR/f rats instilled with DSF eye drops using a low-substituted MC-based drug delivery system demonstrated a delay in cataract development, probably resulting from an increase in the retention of DSF eye drops on the cornea.

  15. Over the counter (OTC) artificial tear drops for dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pucker, Andrew D; Ng, Sueko M; Nichols, Jason J

    2016-02-23

    Over the counter (OTC) artificial tears historically have been the first line of treatment for dry eye syndrome and dry eye-related conditions like contact lens discomfort, yet currently we know little regarding the overall efficacy of individual, commercially available artificial tears. This review provides a much needed meta-analytical look at all randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials that have analyzed head-to-head comparisons of OTC artificial tears. To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of OTC artificial tear applications in the treatment of dry eye syndrome compared with another class of OTC artificial tears, no treatment, or placebo. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to December 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) and the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) website (www.fda.gov). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 December 2015. We searched reference lists of included trials for any additional trials not identified by the electronic searches. This review includes randomized controlled trials with adult participants who were diagnosed with dry eye, regardless of race and gender. We included trials in which the age of participants was not reported, and clinical trials comparing OTC artificial tears with another class of OTC artificial tears, placebo, or no treatment. This review did not consider head-to-head comparisons of artificial tears with

  16. Over the counter (OTC) artificial tear drops for dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pucker, Andrew D; Ng, Sueko M; Nichols, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the counter (OTC) artificial tears historically have been the first line of treatment for dry eye syndrome and dry eye-related conditions like contact lens discomfort, yet currently we know little regarding the overall efficacy of individual, commercially available artificial tears. This review provides a much needed meta-analytical look at all randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials that have analyzed head-to-head comparisons of OTC artificial tears. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of OTC artificial tear applications in the treatment of dry eye syndrome compared with another class of OTC artificial tears, no treatment, or placebo. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to December 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to December 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) and the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) website (www.fda.gov). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 December 2015. We searched reference lists of included trials for any additional trials not identified by the electronic searches. Selection criteria This review includes randomized controlled trials with adult participants who were diagnosed with dry eye, regardless of race and gender. We included trials in which the age of participants was not reported, and clinical trials comparing OTC artificial tears with another class of OTC artificial tears, placebo, or no treatment. This review did not

  17. Design and Evaluation of Voriconazole Eye Drops for the Treatment of Fungal Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Sakshi; Khare, Anubha; Grover, Kanchan; Singh, Inderbir; Pawar, Pravin

    2014-01-01

    Voriconazole is a novel antifungal agent with excellent broad spectrum activity commercially available for oral and intravenous administration. The purpose of this study was to prepare ophthalmic formulation of hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) based voriconazole containing benzalkonium chloride BAK and EDTA with or without viscosity modifiers and study its permeation characteristics through freshly excised goat cornea. The results were observed that viscosity and force of bioadhesion of the voriconazole HP-β-CD solutions containing xanthan gum (XG) are more as compared to polyvinyl alcohol. The results revealed that voriconazole drop containing PVA provided least viscosity and higher corneal permeation of drug, while drop formulated with XG had maximum viscosity and least permeation. The HP-β-CD based voriconazole (1.5%) ophthalmic formulation containing xanthan gum (1.5), preserved with BAK and EDTA, could provide shelf life of 2 years. The microbiological studies showed that voriconazole ophthalmic solution containing xanthan gum shows better antifungal activity as compared to voriconazole and xanthan gum alone. Thus, it can be concluded that HP-β-CD based voriconazole (1.5%, pH 7.0) ophthalmic solution containing BAK and EDTA with viscosity modifier XG provided maximum precorneal residence time as compared to other viscosity modifiers and polyvinyl alcohol provided less precorneal residence time than other viscosity modifiers. PMID:26556196

  18. Benefits of switching from latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost eye drops: a meta-analysis of two Phase IIIb clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Uusitalo, Hannu; Egorov, Evgeniy; Kaarniranta, Kai; Astakhov, Yuri; Ropo, Auli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Glaucoma patients frequently exhibit ocular surface side effects during treatment with prostaglandin eye drops. The present work investigated whether glaucoma patients suffering from signs and symptoms of ocular surface disease while using preserved latanoprost eye drops benefited from switching to preservative-free tafluprost eye drops. Patients and methods The analysis was based on 339 glaucoma patients enrolled in two Phase IIIb trials. The patients were required to have two symptoms, or one sign and one symptom of ocular surface disease at baseline, and at least 6 months preceding treatment with latanoprost eye drops preserved with benzalkonium chloride. All eligible patients were switched from latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost for a total of 12 weeks. Ocular symptoms and ocular signs were evaluated at baseline and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after commencing treatment with tafluprost. Intraocular pressure (IOP), drop discomfort, and treatment preference were evaluated to investigate the clinical efficacy and patient-related outcomes. Results After 12 weeks of treatment with preservative-free tafluprost, the incidences of irritation/burning/stinging, foreign body sensation, tearing, itching, and dry eye sensation had diminished to one-third of those reported for preserved latanoprost at baseline. The incidences of blepharitis and corneal/conjunctival fluorescein staining had in turn decreased to one-half of those reported for preserved latanoprost. Severity of conjunctival hyperemia was halved during treatment with preservative-free tafluprost, and there was significant improvement in tear break-up time and tear production. A further reduction in IOP (~1 mmHg) was seen with preservative-free tafluprost compared with preserved latanoprost. Drop discomfort was alleviated during preservative-free tafluprost treatment, and an outstanding majority of patients (72%) preferred preservative-free tafluprost over preserved latanoprost

  19. Preservative toxicity in glaucoma medication: clinical evaluation of benzalkonium chloride-free 0.5% timolol eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Rosin, Lauren M; Bell, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    Timolol (generic name) is a frequently used medication for the control of glaucoma. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a commonly used preservative in ophthalmic solutions with a broad range of antimicrobial activity; however, this nonspecificity can result in toxicity. Adverse effects attributed to BAK, including conjunctival inflammation and fibrosis, tear film instability, corneal cytotoxicity, anterior chamber inflammation, trabecular meshwork cell apoptosis, cataract development, macular edema, and even systemic effects, have been well documented. These effects can lead to ocular discomfort, poor intraocular pressure control, glaucoma surgery failure, and decreased patient compliance. BAK use in topical medications has decreased recently as newer and less toxic preservatives have become available. Yet these preservatives still exert some toxic effects, especially in patients with chronic eye disease who use multiple drops over extended periods of time. Thus, attempts to reduce overall preservative loads for patients are important, whether it be decreasing the amount of preservative, decreasing the total number of drops patients use, or eliminating preservatives entirely. A preservative-free formulation of timolol, TIMOPTIC® in OCUDOSE®, is available in unit-dose vials. Preservative-free unit-dose vials minimize toxic adverse effects and are a good option for patients with ocular surface disease, on long-term multidrop therapy, or who simply do not tolerate the effects of preservatives due to discomfort. PMID:24204115

  20. Preservative toxicity in glaucoma medication: clinical evaluation of benzalkonium chloride-free 0.5% timolol eye drops.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Lauren M; Bell, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    Timolol (generic name) is a frequently used medication for the control of glaucoma. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a commonly used preservative in ophthalmic solutions with a broad range of antimicrobial activity; however, this nonspecificity can result in toxicity. Adverse effects attributed to BAK, including conjunctival inflammation and fibrosis, tear film instability, corneal cytotoxicity, anterior chamber inflammation, trabecular meshwork cell apoptosis, cataract development, macular edema, and even systemic effects, have been well documented. These effects can lead to ocular discomfort, poor intraocular pressure control, glaucoma surgery failure, and decreased patient compliance. BAK use in topical medications has decreased recently as newer and less toxic preservatives have become available. Yet these preservatives still exert some toxic effects, especially in patients with chronic eye disease who use multiple drops over extended periods of time. Thus, attempts to reduce overall preservative loads for patients are important, whether it be decreasing the amount of preservative, decreasing the total number of drops patients use, or eliminating preservatives entirely. A preservative-free formulation of timolol, TIMOPTIC® in OCUDOSE®, is available in unit-dose vials. Preservative-free unit-dose vials minimize toxic adverse effects and are a good option for patients with ocular surface disease, on long-term multidrop therapy, or who simply do not tolerate the effects of preservatives due to discomfort.

  1. Nanomicellar Topical Aqueous Drop Formulation of Rapamycin for Back-of-the-Eye Delivery.

    PubMed

    Cholkar, Kishore; Gunda, Sriram; Earla, Ravinder; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a clear, aqueous rapamycin-loaded mixed nanomicellar formulations (MNFs) for the back-of-the-eye delivery. MNF of rapamycin (0.2%) was prepared with vitamin E tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) (Vit E TPGS) and octoxynol-40 (Oc-40) as polymeric matrix. MNF was characterized by various parameters such as size, charge, shape, and viscosity. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) was used to identify unentrapped rapamycin in MNF. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in human retinal pigment epithelial (D407) and rabbit primary corneal epithelial cells (rPCECs). In vivo posterior ocular rapamycin distribution studies were conducted in male New Zealand white rabbits. The optimized MNF has excellent rapamycin entrapment and loading efficiency. The average size of MNF was 10.98 ± 0.089 and 10.84 ± 0.11 nm for blank and rapamycin-loaded MNF, respectively. TEM analysis revealed that nanomicelles are spherical in shape. Absence of free rapamycin in the MNF was confirmed by (1)H NMR studies. Neither placebo nor rapamycin-loaded MNF produced cytotoxicity on D407 and rPCECs indicating formulations are tolerable. In vivo studies demonstrated a very high rapamycin concentration in retina-choroid (362.35 ± 56.17 ng/g tissue). No drug was identified in the vitreous humor indicating the sequestration of rapamycin in lipoidal retinal tissues. In summary, a clear, aqueous MNF comprising of Vit E TPGS and Oc-40 loaded with rapamycin was successfully developed. Back-of-the-eye tissue distribution studies demonstrated a very high rapamycin levels in retina-choroid (place of drug action) with a negligible drug partitioning into vitreous humor.

  2. Safety and comfort evaluation of a new formulation of Visine® lubricant eye drops containing HydroBlend™ and GentlePur™

    PubMed Central

    Torkildsen, Gail; Frisch, Sherryl; Bai, Mingqi; Gentner, Louis; Doshi, Uday; Zhang, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical safety and comfort of a new benzalkonium chloride-free Visine® lubricant eye drop formulation (Hydroblend™ and GentlePur™) in healthy and dry eye subjects. Methods This was a single-site, open-label clinical study comprised of 22 healthy and 22 dry eye subjects. Subjects were instructed to instill 1–2 drops of the test product four times a day for 2 weeks and were examined at visit 1 (day 0), visit 2 (day 7), and visit 3 (day 14). Assessments at each visit included postdosing product usage comfort scores, predosing fluorescein corneal staining score, predosing visual acuity, and pre- and postdosing ocular structure change using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Adverse events were monitored throughout the course of the study. Results Throughout the 14 days of the trial period, subjects from both healthy and dry eye groups rated the eye drops as “very comfortable”. For dry eye group, the mean product usage comfort scores for the first 3 minutes postdosing ranged from 8.5 to 8.8 at visit 1 and 9.2 to 9.6 at visit 3 on a 0–10 point scale, with 0 being very uncomfortable and 10 being very comfortable. The mean corneal staining scores over five corneal regions changed from 0.65 at visit 1 to 0.39 at visit 3 for dry eye group. The individual region corneal staining scores were also decreased from visits 1 to 3 for dry eye group. All subjects maintained pretreatment means visual acuity at visits 2 and 3. Biomicroscopic examination indicated no structural changes at all visits. There were no significant adverse events reported during the course of the study. Conclusion The study confirms that GentlePur™ is an appropriate choice as a preservative for ocular application. The new formulation was safe and comfortable when used four times a day in healthy and dry eye subjects. PMID:26929596

  3. Safety and comfort evaluation of a new formulation of Visine(®) lubricant eye drops containing HydroBlend™ and GentlePur™.

    PubMed

    Torkildsen, Gail; Frisch, Sherryl; Bai, Mingqi; Gentner, Louis; Doshi, Uday; Zhang, Jane

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical safety and comfort of a new benzalkonium chloride-free Visine(®) lubricant eye drop formulation (Hydroblend™ and GentlePur™) in healthy and dry eye subjects. This was a single-site, open-label clinical study comprised of 22 healthy and 22 dry eye subjects. Subjects were instructed to instill 1-2 drops of the test product four times a day for 2 weeks and were examined at visit 1 (day 0), visit 2 (day 7), and visit 3 (day 14). Assessments at each visit included postdosing product usage comfort scores, predosing fluorescein corneal staining score, predosing visual acuity, and pre- and postdosing ocular structure change using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Adverse events were monitored throughout the course of the study. Throughout the 14 days of the trial period, subjects from both healthy and dry eye groups rated the eye drops as "very comfortable". For dry eye group, the mean product usage comfort scores for the first 3 minutes postdosing ranged from 8.5 to 8.8 at visit 1 and 9.2 to 9.6 at visit 3 on a 0-10 point scale, with 0 being very uncomfortable and 10 being very comfortable. The mean corneal staining scores over five corneal regions changed from 0.65 at visit 1 to 0.39 at visit 3 for dry eye group. The individual region corneal staining scores were also decreased from visits 1 to 3 for dry eye group. All subjects maintained pretreatment means visual acuity at visits 2 and 3. Biomicroscopic examination indicated no structural changes at all visits. There were no significant adverse events reported during the course of the study. The study confirms that GentlePur™ is an appropriate choice as a preservative for ocular application. The new formulation was safe and comfortable when used four times a day in healthy and dry eye subjects.

  4. HIV Patients Drop Out in Indonesia: Associated Factors and Potential Productivity Loss.

    PubMed

    Siregar, Adiatma Ym; Pitriyan, Pipit; Wisaksana, Rudi

    2016-07-01

    this study reported various factors associated with a higher probability of HIV patients drop out, and potential productivity loss due to HIV patients drop out. we analyzed data of 658 HIV patients from a database in a main referral hospital in Bandung city, West Java, Indonesia from 2007 to 2013. First, we utilized probit regression analysis and included, among others, the following variables: patients' status (active or drop out), CD4 cell count, TB and opportunistic infection (OI), work status, sex, history of injecting drugs, and support from family and peers. Second, we used the drop out data from our database and CD 4 cell count decline rate from another study to estimate the productivity loss due to HIV patients drop out. lower CD4 cell count was associated with a higher probability of drop out. Support from family/peers, living with family, and diagnosed with TB were associated with lower probability of drop out. The productivity loss at national level due to treatment drop out (consequently, due to CD4 cell count decline) can reach US$365 million (using average wage). first, as lower CD 4 cell count was associated with higher probability of drop out, we recommend (to optimize) early ARV initiation at a higher CD 4 cell count, involving scaling up HIV service at the community level. Second, family/peer support should be further emphasized to further ensure treatment success. Third, dropping out from ART will result in a relatively large productivity loss.

  5. Evaluation of pharmacological activities and assessment of intraocular penetration of an ayurvedic polyherbal eye drop (Itone™) in experimental models.

    PubMed

    Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Gupta, Pankaj; Ravi, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Hanuman Prasad; Biswas, Nihar Ranjan

    2013-01-02

    The polyherbal eye drop (Itone™) is a mixture of aqueous distillates of nineteen traditionally used ingredients that sum up to impart potency to the formulation and make it a useful adjunct in various ocular pathologies. However, as there have been no controlled experimental studies accounting to the above claim, therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal formulation (PHF) for antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticataract, antioxidant and cytotoxicity in addition to the evaluation of intraocular penetration of PHF in rabbit eyes using LC-MS/MS. Antiangiogenic activity of the PHF was evaluated using in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in vivo cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats. Anticataract potential was evaluated using steroid induced cataract in developing chick embryos, sodium selenite induced cataract in rat pups and galactose induced cataract in rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using di-phenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro using inhibition of LTB4 formation in human WBCs and in vivo using carrageenan induced paw edema assay in rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated against HeLa cancer cell lines using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore evaluation of the intraocular penetration of the PHF was carried out in rabbit eyes via aqueous humor paracentesis and further analysis using LC-MS/MS. PHF significantly inhibited VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels in CAM assay and inhibited the cautery induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Additionally, PHF showed noticeable delay in the progression of cataract in the selenite and galactose induced cataract models whereby the PHF treated lenses were graded for stages II and III respectively. However, the PHF did not show any anticataract activity in the hydrocortisone induced cataract model. Moreover, PHF

  6. Evaluation of pharmacological activities and assessment of intraocular penetration of an ayurvedic polyherbal eye drop (Itone™) in experimental models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The polyherbal eye drop (Itone™) is a mixture of aqueous distillates of nineteen traditionally used ingredients that sum up to impart potency to the formulation and make it a useful adjunct in various ocular pathologies. However, as there have been no controlled experimental studies accounting to the above claim, therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal formulation (PHF) for antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticataract, antioxidant and cytotoxicity in addition to the evaluation of intraocular penetration of PHF in rabbit eyes using LC-MS/MS. Materials and methods Antiangiogenic activity of the PHF was evaluated using in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in vivo cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats. Anticataract potential was evaluated using steroid induced cataract in developing chick embryos, sodium selenite induced cataract in rat pups and galactose induced cataract in rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using di-phenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro using inhibition of LTB4 formation in human WBCs and in vivo using carrageenan induced paw edema assay in rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated against HeLa cancer cell lines using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore evaluation of the intraocular penetration of the PHF was carried out in rabbit eyes via aqueous humor paracentesis and further analysis using LC-MS/MS. Results PHF significantly inhibited VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels in CAM assay and inhibited the cautery induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Additionally, PHF showed noticeable delay in the progression of cataract in the selenite and galactose induced cataract models whereby the PHF treated lenses were graded for stages II and III respectively. However, the PHF did not show any anticataract activity in the hydrocortisone

  7. A New Method to Predict the Epidemiology of Fungal Keratitis by Monitoring the Sales Distribution of Antifungal Eye Drops in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Marlon Moraes; de Angelis, Rafael; Lima, Acacio Souza; Viana de Carvalho, Glauco Dreyer; Ibrahim, Fuad Moraes; Malki, Leonardo Tannus; de Paula Bichuete, Marina; de Paula Martins, Wellington; Rocha, Eduardo Melani

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Fungi are a major cause of keratitis, although few medications are licensed for their treatment. The aim of this study is to observe the variation in commercialisation of antifungal eye drops, and to predict the seasonal distribution of fungal keratitis in Brazil. Methods Data from a retrospective study of antifungal eye drops sales from the only pharmaceutical ophthalmologic laboratory, authorized to dispense them in Brazil (Opthalmos) were gathered. These data were correlated with geographic and seasonal distribution of fungal keratitis in Brazil between July 2002 and June 2008. Results A total of 26,087 antifungal eye drop units were sold, with a mean of 2.3 per patient. There was significant variation in antifungal sales during the year (p<0.01). A linear regression model displayed a significant association between reduced relative humidity and antifungal drug sales (R2 = 0.17,p<0.01). Conclusions Antifungal eye drops sales suggest that there is a seasonal distribution of fungal keratitis. A possible interpretation is that the third quarter of the year (a period when the climate is drier), when agricultural activity is more intense in Brazil, suggests a correlation with a higher incidence of fungal keratitis. A similar model could be applied to other diseases, that are managed with unique, or few, and monitorable medications to predict epidemiological aspects. PMID:22457787

  8. Impact of prostaglandin glaucoma drops on platelet-activating factor action: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Moschos, Marilita M; Nitoda, Eirini; Chatziralli, Irini P; Panos, Georgios D; Demopoulos, Constantinos A

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different prostaglandin analogs on platelet-activating factor (PAF) levels. Methods Three prostaglandin analogs were selected: bimatoprost 0.3 mg/mL, latanoprost 50 μg/mL, and tafluprost 15 μg/mL. Each drug sample was tested for its ability to cause platelet aggregation, which was measured as PAF-induced aggregation, before and after the addition of various concentrations of the examined sample, creating a linear curve of percentage inhibition (ranging from 0% to 100%) versus different concentrations of the sample. The concentration of the sample that inhibited 50% PAF-induced aggregation was calculated based on this curve, and this value was defined as IC50. In addition, the effect of eye drops on PAF metabolism was examined, through an in vitro analysis on PAF basic metabolic enzymes (PAF-cholinephosphotransferase, PAF-acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase, and PAF-acetylhydrolase). Results The IC50 values for Lumigan UD® (bimatoprost 0.3 mg/mL), Monoprost® (latanoprost 50 μg/mL), and Saflutan (tafluprost 15 μg/mL) were 8.7, 0.28, and 1.4 μg/mL, respectively. Discussion All three prostaglandin analogs suspended PAF, but bimatoprost induced the most potent inhibition, compared to tafluprost and to the weak effect of latanoprost. PMID:27994439

  9. Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop or drinking-water.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines have been extensively used to control infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Most vaccines are registered/recommended for use via eye-drop although vaccination via drinking-water is commonly used in the field. Drinking-water vaccination has been associated with non-uniform protection. Bird-to-bird passage of chick-embryo-origin (CEO) ILT vaccines has been shown to result in reversion to virulence. The purpose of the present study was to examine the replication and transmission of a commercial CEO infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccine strain following drinking-water or eye-drop inoculation. Two groups of 10 specific-pathogen-free chickens were each vaccinated with Serva ILTV vaccine strain either via eye-drop or drinking-water. Groups of four or five unvaccinated birds were placed in contact with vaccinated birds at regular intervals. Tracheal swabs were collected every 4 days from vaccinated and in-contact birds to assess viral replication and transmission using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with eye-drop-vaccinated birds, drinking-water-vaccinated birds showed delayed viral replication but had detectable viral DNA for a longer period of time. Transmission to chickens exposed by contact on day 0 of the experiments was similar in both groups. Birds exposed to ILTV by contact with eye-drop vaccinated birds on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the experiment had detectable ILTV for up to 8 days post exposure. ILTV was not detected in chickens that were exposed by contact with drinking-water vaccinated birds on day 12 of the experiment or later. Results from this study provide valuable practical information for the use of ILT vaccine.

  10. Respiratory effect of beta-blocker eye drops in asthma: population-based study and meta-analysis of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Morales, Daniel R; Dreischulte, Tobias; Lipworth, Brian J; Donnan, Peter T; Jackson, Cathy; Guthrie, Bruce

    2016-09-01

    To measure the prevalence of beta-blocker eye drop prescribing and respiratory effect of ocular beta-blocker administration in people with asthma. We measured the prevalence of ocular beta-blocker prescribing in people with asthma and ocular hypertension, and performed a nested case-control study (NCCS) measuring risk of moderate exacerbations (rescue steroids in primary care) and severe exacerbations (asthma hospitalization) using linked data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We then performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials evaluating changes in lung function following ocular beta-blocker administration in people with asthma. From 2000 to 2012, the prevalence of non-selective and selective beta-blocker eye drop prescribing in people with asthma and ocular hypertension fell from 23.0% to 13.4% and from 10.5% to 0.9% respectively. In the NCCS, the relative incidence (IRR) of moderate exacerbations increased significantly with acute non-selective beta-blocker eye drop exposure (IRR 4.83, 95% CI 1.56-14.94) but not with chronic exposure. In the meta-analysis, acute non-selective beta-blocker eye drop exposure caused significant mean falls in FEV1 of -10.9% (95% CI -14.9 to -6.9), and falls in FEV1 of ≥20% affecting one in three. Corresponding values for selective beta-blockers in people sensitive to ocular non-selective beta-blockers was -6.3% (95% CI -11.7 to -0.8), and a non-significant increase in falls in FEV1 of ≥20%. Non-selective beta-blocker eye drops significantly affect lung function and increase asthma morbidity but are still frequently prescribed to people with asthma and ocular hypertension despite safer agents being available. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Potentiation of intraocular absorption and drug metabolism of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops: drug interaction with sight threatening lipid peroxides in the treatment for age-related eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    lenses obtained from patients with senile and complicated cataracts as compared to normal donors. Utilizing the pharmacokinetic studies and the specific purity N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) ingredient as a source of pharmacological principal L-carnosine, we have created an ophthalmic time-release prodrug form combined with a muco-adhesive lubricant compound carboxymethylcellulose and other essential corneal absorption promoter excipients tailoring the increased intraocular absorption of L-carnosine in the aqueous humor and optimizing its specific effect in producing the basic antioxidant activity in vivo and reducing toxic effects of lipid peroxides to the crystalline lens. L-Carnosine that finds its way into the aqueous humor can accumulate in the lens tissue for a reasonable period of time. However, administration of pure L-carnosine (1% solution) to the rabbit eye (instillation, subconjunctival injection) does not lead to accumulation of this natural compound in the aqueous humor over 30 min in concentration exceeding that in the placebo-treated matched eyes, and its effective concentration is exhausted more rapidly. The NAC prodrug eye drops optimize the clinical effects for the treatment of ophthalmic disorders (such as prevention and reversal of cataracts in human and animal [canine] eyes). The data provided predict a particular NAC ophthalmic prodrug's clinical effect; the suitable magnitude and duration of this effect suggest dose-related bioavailability of L-camosine released from NAC in the aqueous humor of the anterior eye segment. The ophthalmic NAC drug shows promise in the treatment of a range of ophthalmic disorders which have a component of oxidative stress in their genesis (including cataract and after-cataract, glaucoma, dry eye, vitreous floaters, inflammatory disorders, corneal, retinal and systemic diseases [such as diabetes mellitus and its ophthalmic complications]). The clinical efficacy of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops in ripe cataracts and

  12. Protection of the retina by rapid diffusion of hydrogen: administration of hydrogen-loaded eye drops in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Oharazawa, Hideaki; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Yokota, Takashi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Machide, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohta, Shigeo; Ohsawa, Ikuroh

    2010-01-01

    Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by transient elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is known to induce neuronal damage through the generation of reactive oxygen species. Study results have indicated that molecular hydrogen (H(2)) is an efficient antioxidant gas that selectively reduces the hydroxyl radical (*OH) and suppresses oxidative stress-induced injury in several organs. This study was conducted to explore the neuroprotective effect of H(2)-loaded eye drops on retinal I/R injury. Retinal ischemia was induced in rats by raising IOP for 60 minutes. H(2)-loaded eye drops were prepared by dissolving H(2) gas into a saline to saturated level and administered to the ocular surface continuously during the ischemia and/or reperfusion periods. One day after I/R injury, apoptotic cells in the retina were quantified, and oxidative stress was evaluated by markers such as 4-hydroxynonenal and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine. Seven days after I/R injury, retinal damage was quantified by measuring the thickness of the retina. When H(2)-loaded eye drops were continuously administered, H(2) concentration in the vitreous body immediately increased and I/R-induced *OH level decreased. The drops reduced the number of retinal apoptotic and oxidative stress marker-positive cells and prevented retinal thinning with an accompanying activation of Müller glia, astrocytes, and microglia. The drops improved the recovery of retinal thickness by >70%. H(2) has no known toxic effects on the human body. Thus, the results suggest that H(2)-loaded eye drops are a highly useful neuroprotective and antioxidative therapeutic treatment for acute retinal I/R injury.

  13. Comparison of the effects of various lubricant eye drops on the in vitro rabbit corneal healing and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dutescu, R Michael; Panfil, Claudia; Schrage, Norbert

    2017-03-02

    Ingredients of lubricant eye drops are potentially harmful to the ocular surface. The products Optive, Optive Fusion, Neopt were tested regarding corneal irritability versus Vismed Multi and 0.01% benzalkonium chloride as negative and positive control, respectively. Formulas (30-40μl per hour) were applied hourly in-vitro for six days on rabbit corneas (n=5, per product) cultured in artificial anterior chambers (EVEIT system). Initially, four corneal abrasions (2.4-4.6mm(2)) were induced. All defects were monitored during drop application by fluorescein stains and photographs. To ensure corneal vitality, glucose and lactate concentrations in artificial anterior chamber fluids were determined photometrically. All products showed a complete corneal healing on day 2. Thereafter, all five Optive-treated corneas developed progressive fluorescein-positive epithelial lesions until day six (24.96μm, ±21.45μm, p<0.01). For Optive Fusion three corneas showed corneal erosions on day six (23.11μm, ±37.02μm, p>0.5) while Vismed Multi did not adversely affect the corneal integrity. Glucose/lactate concentrations remained unchanged while lubricants were applied. Histology revealed epithelial loss and severe alterations of the superficial stroma for Optive. Optive Fusion displayed a comparable pathology. Neopt did not significantly affect the corneal healing and integrity. This study suggested a cumulative corneal toxicity of Optive and, to a lesser extent, Optive Fusion most likely caused by its oxidative preservative, SOC. Clinical data are needed to clarify the application frequency at which corneal toxicity might occur. Neopt and Vismed Multi did not affect the corneal integrity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Vascular Normalization by ROCK Inhibitor: Therapeutic Potential of Ripasudil (K-115) Eye Drop in Retinal Angiogenesis and Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Muneo; Nakao, Shintaro; Arita, Ryoichi; Kaizu, Yoshihiro; Arima, Mitsuru; Zhou, Yedi; Kita, Takeshi; Yoshida, Shigeo; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Tomoyuki; Kaneko, Yoshio; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of a Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor ripasudil (K-115) eye drop on retinal neovascularization and hypoxia. In vitro, human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) were pretreated with ripasudil and then stimulated with VEGF. ROCK activity was evaluated by phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target protein (MYPT)-1. Endothelial migration and cell viability were assessed by cell migration and MTT assay, respectively. The concentration of ripasudil in the retina was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In vivo, normal saline, 0.4%, or 0.8% ripasudil were administered three times a day to mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). The areas of neovascularization and avascular retina were also quantified with retinal flat-mounts at postnatal day (P) 15, P17, or P21. The retinal hypoxic area was evaluated using hypoxia-sensitive drug pimonidazole by immunohistochemistry at P17. The vascular normalization was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry at P17. Ripasudil but not fasudil significantly reduced VEGF-induced MYPT-1 phosphorylation in HRMECs at 30 μmol/L. Ripasudil significantly inhibited VEGF-induced HRMECs migration and proliferation. The concentration of ripasudil in the retina was 3.8 to 10.4 μmol/L and 6.8 to 14.8 μmol/L after 0.4% and 0.8% ripasudil treatment, respectively. In the 0.4% and 0.8% ripasudil treated OIR mice, the areas of neovascularization as well as avascular area in the retina was significantly reduced compared with those of saline-treated mice at P17 and P21. Pimonidazole staining revealed that treatment with 0.4% and 0.8% ripasudil significantly inhibited the increase in the hypoxic area compared with saline. 0.8% ripasudil could cause intraretinal vascular sprouting and increase retinal vascular perfusion. Novel ROCK inhibitor ripasudil eye drop has therapeutic potential in the treatment of retinal

  15. Treatment, Material, Care, and Patient-Factors in Contact Lens-Related Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthy, Padmapriya; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Nichols, Jason J.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To examine the effect of general contact lens and material characteristics, care solutions, treatment and patient-related factors on contact lens-related dry eye. METHODS The data were derived from the Contact Lens and Dry Eye Study, designed as a cross-sectional and nested case-control study including 360 subjects. In separate statistical models, logistic regression was used to examine general contact lens characteristics, specific hydrogel lens materials, care solutions, and patient-related factors associated with dry eye status (controlled for age, gender, and current treatments). RESULTS Several factors were significantly associated with dry eye, including treatment factors such as a recent contact lens refitting (OR = 5.75, 95% CI = 2.14 to 15.46) and use of artificial tears/rewetting drops (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.16), and currently worn materials including FDA group II (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.14 to 6.19) and IV (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.08 to 3.24). Significant patient-related factors included decreased overall satisfaction (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 2.08 to 5.88,), dry eye in the absence of contact lens wear (OR = 6.54, 95% CI = 2.57 to 16.62), reduced daily lens wear duration (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.26), and reduced ability to wear lenses as long as desired (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.30 to 4.54). Care solutions were not significant. CONCLUSIONS The strong association of common treatment factors with dry eye status in contact lens wearers suggests that these treatments are not entirely effective. The use of high water content materials was strongly related to dry eye in lens wearers, while care solutions were not. Contact lens-related dry eye was also associated with several patient-related factors such as greater ocular discomfort (without lenses), dissatisfaction, and inability to wear lenses for desired durations. PMID:18677240

  16. Rapamycin Eye Drops Suppress Lacrimal Gland Inflammation In a Murine Model of Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mihir; Edman, Maria C.; Reddy Janga, Srikanth; Yarber, Frances; Meng, Zhen; Klinngam, Wannita; Bushman, Jonathan; Ma, Tao; Liu, Siyu; Louie, Stan; Mehta, Arjun; Ding, Chuanqing; MacKay, J. Andrew; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of topical rapamycin in treating autoimmune dacryoadenitis in a mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome. Methods We developed rapamycin in a poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) micelle formulation to maintain solubility. Rapamycin or PEG-DSPE eye drops (vehicle) were administered in a well-established Sjögren's syndrome disease model, the male nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, twice daily for 12 weeks starting at 8 weeks of age. Mouse tear fluid was collected and tear Cathepsin S, a putative tear biomarker for Sjögren's syndrome, was measured. Lacrimal glands were retrieved for histological evaluation, and quantitative real-time PCR of genes associated with Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis. Tear secretion was measured using phenol red threads, and corneal fluorescein staining was used to assess corneal integrity. Results Lymphocytic infiltration of lacrimal glands from rapamycin-treated mice was significantly (P = 0.0001) reduced by 3.8-fold relative to vehicle-treated mice after 12 weeks of treatment. Rapamycin, but not vehicle, treatment increased tear secretion and decreased corneal fluorescein staining after 12 weeks. In rapamycin-treated mice, Cathepsin S activity was significantly reduced by 3.75-fold in tears (P < 0.0001) and 1.68-fold in lacrimal gland lysates (P = 0.003) relative to vehicle-treated mice. Rapamycin significantly altered the expression of several genes linked to Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis, including major histocompatibility complex II, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-12a, as well as Akt3, an effector of autophagy. Conclusions Our findings suggest that topical rapamycin reduces autoimmune-mediated lacrimal gland inflammation while improving ocular surface integrity and tear secretion, and thus has potential for treating Sjögren's syndrome–associated dry eye. PMID:28122086

  17. Effect of leukemia inhibitory factor on corneal nerve regeneration of rabbit eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shuling; Li, Li; Xu, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jiao

    2011-07-20

    To explore the effect of leukemia inhibitory factor on corneal nerve regeneration in a rabbit model after laser in situ keratomileusis. Thirty five healthy New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups for a 6-month observation, the blank control group, the control group, and the treatment group respectively. Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia was performed on 30 rabbits (60 eyes in total) and then 1 μg/ml LIF eye drops were used four times a day on the left eyes as the treatment group, and the balanced salt solution (BSS) was used on the right eyes as the control group. Nerve regeneration was evaluated by counting the new regenerated nerves in golden chloride staining. The parameters for dry eye include Schirmer I test and tear break-up time were also examined. The number of regenerated nerve fibers in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group at all time points except the 6th month after LASIK (P<0.05). The parameters for dry eye between two groups were compared at each postoperative time point and the results showed they were significantly higher in the LIF-treated group than in the BSS-control group at 2w, 1m, and 3m respectively. Leukemia inhibitory factor can effectively accelerate the corneal nerve regeneration of rabbit eyes after LASIK surgery and decrease the occurrence of dry eye symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Long-Term Antiglaucoma Eye Drops on Conjunctival Structures: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenqing; Kong, Xiangmei; Xu, Jianjiang; Sun, Xinghuai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The study was aimed at comparing the long-term effects of different antiglaucoma eye drops on conjunctival structures using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Methods. Eighty patients diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma and twenty healthy volunteers were included in this study. The participants were divided into 5 groups according to the different medications. The lachrymal film break-up time, Schirmer's I test, and Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire were performed in all subjects. The confocal microscopy was used to observe the basal epithelial cell density (ECD), goblet cell density (GCD), dendritic cell density (DCD), and subepithelial collagen fiber diameter (SFD). Results. Statistically significant differences were found among the control group and the antiglaucoma therapy groups in the values of three clinical data (P < 0.05). The GCD, DCD, and SFD showed significant differences in all glaucoma groups when compared to the control (P < 0.001). Moreover, the prostaglandin group differed from the other antiglaucoma therapy groups in the GCD and SFD (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our study confirmed the significant differences in the conjunctival structures based on the effects of antiglaucoma medications. Less pronounced changes were found in the patients treated with prostaglandin analogue than in the other kinds of antiglaucoma therapies. PMID:26171239

  19. Effects of Long-Term Antiglaucoma Eye Drops on Conjunctival Structures: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenqing; Kong, Xiangmei; Xu, Jianjiang; Sun, Xinghuai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The study was aimed at comparing the long-term effects of different antiglaucoma eye drops on conjunctival structures using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Methods. Eighty patients diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma and twenty healthy volunteers were included in this study. The participants were divided into 5 groups according to the different medications. The lachrymal film break-up time, Schirmer's I test, and Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire were performed in all subjects. The confocal microscopy was used to observe the basal epithelial cell density (ECD), goblet cell density (GCD), dendritic cell density (DCD), and subepithelial collagen fiber diameter (SFD). Results. Statistically significant differences were found among the control group and the antiglaucoma therapy groups in the values of three clinical data (P < 0.05). The GCD, DCD, and SFD showed significant differences in all glaucoma groups when compared to the control (P < 0.001). Moreover, the prostaglandin group differed from the other antiglaucoma therapy groups in the GCD and SFD (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our study confirmed the significant differences in the conjunctival structures based on the effects of antiglaucoma medications. Less pronounced changes were found in the patients treated with prostaglandin analogue than in the other kinds of antiglaucoma therapies.

  20. Green synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide for sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in milk, powdered milk, honey and eye drops.

    PubMed

    Karthik, R; Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Lou, Bih-Show; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Hou, Yu-Shen; Elangovan, A

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid green synthesis using Bischofia javanica Blume leaves as reducing agent was developed for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs decorated graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) was prepared and employed for the sensitive amperometric determination of chloramphenicol. The green biosynthesis requires less than 40s to reduce gold salts to AuNPs. The formations of AuNPs and AuNPs/GO were evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, UV-Visible and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction studies, and electrochemical methods. AuNPs/GO composite film modified electrode was fabricated and shown excellent electrocatalytic ability towards chloramphenicol. Under optimal conditions, the amperometric sensing platform has delivered wide linear range of 1.5-2.95μM, low detection limit of 0.25μM and high sensitivity of 3.81μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The developed sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility, anti-interference ability and long-term storage stability. Practical feasibility of the sensor has been demonstrated in food samples (milk, powdered milk and honey) and pharmaceutical sample (eye drops). The green synthesized AuNPs/GO composite has great potential for analysis of food samples in food safety measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Bronchoconstrictive side effects of timolol eye drops in patients with obstructive lung disease].

    PubMed

    Vonwil, A; Landolt, M; Flammer, J; Bachofen, H

    1981-05-09

    A double-blind crossover study in seven patients with glaucoma and obstructive lung disease revealed a considerable and significant bronchoconstrictive side effect on topically administered timolol maleat. Comparative treatment of these patients with an ophthalmic solution containing 3% carbachol did not yield a statistically significant bronchial reaction. However, the observation of serious lung function impairment in three patients suggests that carbachol is not a safe alternative for the treatment of glaucoma in patients with obstructive lung disease. Whenever a deterioration of airway obstruction occurs in elderly patients, or bronchial asthma becomes manifest late in life, topically administered beta-adrenergic-receptor blocking and cholinergic agents must be considered causative factors: optimal communication between all physicians caring for glaucoma patients is an essential prerequisite.

  2. Ready-made allogeneic ABO-specific serum eye drops: production from regular male blood donors, clinical routine, safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Nielsen, Connie; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Morten Bagge; Julian, Hanne Olsen

    2014-12-01

    To overcome problems and delays of the preparation of autologous serum eye drops, a production line of ABO-specific allogeneic serum eye drops from male blood donors was set up in a blood bank. Feasibility, clinical routine, safety and efficacy were evaluated in a cohort of patients with severe ocular surface disorders. Serum was derived from 450 ml whole-blood donations from regular male blood donors, produced and tested according to good manufacturing practice and legislation regulating blood products in Denmark. Serum was diluted to 20% (v/v) with NaCl 0.9%, filtered, bottled, registered and stored at -30°C in the blood bank. Upon request, frozen ABO-identical serum drops in lots of 14 bottles could be provided immediately. Safety and efficacy were evaluated in 34 patients with severe ocular surface disease refractory to conventional medical therapy. Patients were treated six times daily for minimum 2-4 weeks. Objective findings and subjective symptoms were compared between day 0 and after 4 weeks of treatment using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinically, no side-effects were observed. In total, 59% of the patients with ocular surface changes improved objectively (slit-lamp examination). Partial or full healing of corneal changes, as well as subjective relief of symptoms, was observed in 16 of 20 patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (p < 0.001). The 14 patients with persistent epithelial defect experienced neither objective nor subjective improvements during serum treatment. Ready-made ABO-identical allogeneic serum eye drops were straightforwardly produced, quality-assured and registered as a safe standard blood product for the treatment of certain cases of severe dry eye disease. Therapeutic efficacy was comparable to previous reports on autologous serum drops. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  4. Efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% Aqueous Eye Drops in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Adefule-Ositelu, Adebukunola O.; Adegbehingbe, Bernice O.; Adefule, Adebayo K.; Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O.; Samaila, Elsie; Oladigbolu, Kehinde

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% aqueous solution eye drops in patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (POAG/OH). Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-masked, multicenter, active-controlled prospective study. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned in equal numbers to receive Timolol 0.5% eye drops as a control medication (A = Group 1 eyes) or Garcinia kola 0.5% eye drops as the study medication (B = Group 2 eyes). All drops were instilled at 6 am and 6 pm daily. Goldman applanation tonometry was performed at 9 am, 12 pm and 3 pm at baseline, week-6, week-12 and week-24 visits. Voluntary and actively elicited reports of adverse events were documented. The mean change in IOP over 24 weeks was the primary outcome measure. Both groups were compared for statistically significant differences at all visits. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 178 patients were randomly assigned to G. kola and Timolol groups. At baseline there were no differences in mean IOP between groups, based on age, sex, or diagnosis. At the end of the study period (24th week), the mean (± SD) reduction in IOP was 12.93 ± 2.3 mmHg (47.8% ± 0.8% reduction) in G. Kola group and 13.09 ± 2.8 mm Hg (48.2% ± 1.03% reduction) in the Timolol group (P > 0.05). Adverse events were mild in nature with no statistically significant differences between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Garcinia kola ophthalmic solution significantly reduces IOP as compared to baseline. The IOP lowering effect of both treatments was equivalent. PMID:20543944

  5. Study protocol: safety and efficacy of propranolol 0.2% eye drops in newborns with a precocious stage of retinopathy of prematurity (DROP-ROP-0.2%): a multicenter, open-label, single arm, phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Luca; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Berti, Elettra; Padrini, Letizia; Araimo, Gabriella; Regiroli, Giulia; Bozzetti, Valentina; De Angelis, Chiara; Tagliabue, Paolo; Tomasini, Barbara; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Agosti, Massimo; Bossi, Angela; Chirico, Gaetano; Aversa, Salvatore; Pasqualetti, Roberta; Fortunato, Pina; Osnaghi, Silvia; Cavallotti, Barbara; Vanni, Maurizio; Borsari, Giulia; Donati, Simone; Nascimbeni, Giuseppe; la Marca, Giancarlo; Forni, Giulia; Milani, Silvano; Cortinovis, Ivan; Bagnoli, Paola; Dal Monte, Massimo; Calvani, Anna Maria; Pugi, Alessandra; Villamor, Eduardo; Donzelli, Gianpaolo; Mosca, Fabio

    2017-07-14

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) still represents one of the leading causes of visual impairment in childhood. Systemic propranolol has proven to be effective in reducing ROP progression in preterm newborns, although safety was not sufficiently guaranteed. On the contrary, topical treatment with propranolol eye micro-drops at a concentration of 0.1% had an optimal safety profile in preterm newborns with ROP, but was not sufficiently effective in reducing the disease progression if administered at an advanced stage (during stage 2). The aim of the present protocol is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of propranolol 0.2% eye micro-drops in preterm newborns at a more precocious stage of ROP (stage 1). A multicenter, open-label, phase II, clinical trial, planned according to the Simon optimal two-stage design, will be performed to analyze the safety and efficacy of propranolol 0.2% eye micro-drops in preterm newborns with stage 1 ROP. Preterm newborns with a gestational age of 23-32 weeks, with a stage 1 ROP will receive propranolol 0.2% eye micro-drops treatment until retinal vascularization has been completed, but for no longer than 90 days. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters will be continuously monitored. Blood samplings checking metabolic, renal and liver functions, as well as electrocardiogram and echocardiogram, will be periodically performed to investigate treatment safety. Additionally, propranolol plasma levels will be measured at the steady state, on the 10th day of treatment. To assess the efficacy of topical treatment, the ROP progression from stage 1 ROP to stage 2 or 3 with plus will be evaluated by serial ophthalmologic examinations. Propranolol eye micro-drops could represent an ideal strategy in counteracting ROP, because it is definitely safer than oral administration, inexpensive and an easily affordable treatment. Establishing the optimal dosage and treatment schedule is to date a crucial issue. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02504944

  6. Tear Film Stability in Sjögren Syndrome Patients Treated with Hyaluronic Acid Versus Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid-Based Eye Drops.

    PubMed

    Cagini, Carlo; Torroni, Giovanni; Fiore, Tito; Cerquaglia, Alessio; Lupidi, Marco; Aragona, Pasquale; Iaccheri, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    To compare the stability of the tear film after instillation of eye drops containing hyaluronic acid (HA) or crosslinked hyaluronic acid (CLHA)-based in patients with Sjögren syndrome-related dry eye (SSDE). Forty subjects were included in this study and were divided into 2 groups: the first group (control group) consisted of 20 healthy volunteers; the second group (study group) constituted of 20 suffering from SSDE; before and 5, 30, and 60 min after instillation of eye drops the surface regularity index (SRI) and surface asymmetry index (SAI) were registered. Comparing HA and CLHA, in the control group, SAI show statistically significant difference in the time 0 and in time 5, whereas there is no a statistically significant difference after 30 and 60 min from instillation. For SRI there is no statistically significant difference at any time. In SSDE group there is no statistically significant difference in the time 0 and 5, whereas there is a statistically significant difference after 60 min for SAI, and after 30 and 60 min for SRI from instillation. Both SRI and SAI in dry eyes were significantly greater than in control eyes (P < 0.05). Our study showed a better efficacy of CLHA compared with HA in maintaining the stability of the tear film in a patient suffering from SSDE.

  7. Is Household Air Pollution a Risk Factor for Eye Disease?

    PubMed Central

    West, Sheila K.; Bates, Michael N.; Lee, Jennifer S.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Lee, David J.; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Chen, Dong Feng; Araj, Houmam

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the inefficient burning of coal and biomass (wood, charcoal, animal dung and crop residues) for cooking and heating has been linked to a number of negative health outcomes, mostly notably respiratory diseases and cancers. While ocular irritation has been associated with HAP, there are sparse data on adverse ocular outcomes that may result from acute and chronic exposures. We consider that there is suggestive evidence, and biological plausibility, to hypothesize that HAP is associated with some of the major blinding, and painful, eye conditions seen worldwide. Further research on this environmental risk factor for eye diseases is warranted. PMID:24284355

  8. Blue eyes as a risk factor for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Di Stasio, Enrico; Maggi, Daria; Berardesca, Enzo; Marulli, Georgiana Clare; Bizzarri, Carla; Lauria, Angelo; Portuesi, Rosalba; Cavallo, Maria Gisella; Costantino, Francesco; Buzzetti, Raffaella; Astorri, Elisa; Pitocco, Dario; Songini, Marco; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    A high frequency of blue eyes and fair skin are reported in northern European Caucasians with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Also there is an inverse relationship between latitude and T1D incidence. We determined whether iris colour and skin pigmentation are risk factors in a Caucasian population living in two Mediterranean regions located at the same latitude with higher ultraviolet B irradiance, but with different T1D incidence. We studied iris colour in 281 consecutive subjects with T1D and 298 controls. Skin type was evaluated by melanin quantification. In Lazio, blue eyes and fair skin type are significantly more common in T1D subjects than in controls (21 versus 9%, p = 0.002; 50 versus 35%, p < 0.001, respectively). In Sardinia, the frequency of blue eyes in T1D subjects is twice that in controls (5.8 versus 2.6% and significantly higher when compared to the expected calculated frequency in the entire population). By logistic regression analysis, only blue eyes are independent and significant predictors of T1D [odds ratio for blue eyes = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (1.1-4.4), p = 0.019]. As previously shown in a Caucasian population from northern Europe, blue eyes and a trend for fair skin increase the risk for T1D also in a Caucasian population born and residing in a Mediterranean region (Continental Italy). This finding may be relevant for explaining different T1D incidence as prevalence of blue eyes differ substantially between northern and southern European Caucasians. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A clinical evaluation of diclofenac-gentamicin combination eye drops in the control of inflammation after cataract surgery. Diclofenac-Gentamicin versus Gentamicin Study Group.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, W F; Fsadni, M G; Raj, P S

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of diclofenac-gentamicin (DR 1352/1) combination eye drops with gentamicin eye drops in the postoperative management of patients undergoing extracapsular cataract surgery and lens implantation. This was a prospective, randomised, double-masked, parallel-group, four-week, multicentre study with patient visits preoperatively, on the day of surgery, and postoperatively on days 1, 5-8, 12-16, and 26-32. Of the 196 patients (diclofenac-gentamicin 99, gentamicin 97) recruited into the study, 161 (diclofenac-gentamicin 83, gentamicin 78) were available for per-protocol analyses. The two treatment groups were clinically similar at baseline. On days 12-16 postoperatively, diclofenac-gentamicin was significantly more effective (p = 0.002) than gentamicin in reducing intraocular inflammation as assessed by the sum of grades of anterior chamber cells and flare. The level of conjunctival hyperaemia was significantly less in the diclofenac-gentamicin group compared with the gentamicin group on postoperative days 5-8 and 12-16. There was no significant difference between the two study groups in the global assessment of local tolerance. Possibly drug-related adverse events were slightly more in the diclofenac-gentamicin group (22,22%) compared with gentamicin (17,17%); however, all affected study patients normalised with appropriate therapy except one patient with endophthalmitis. In conclusion, diclofenac-gentamicin (DR1352/1) eye drops were more effective than gentamicin eye drops and appeared to be as safe in the control of post-cataract surgery inflammation.

  10. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Penn, J.S.; Madan, A.; Caldwell, R.B.; Bartoli, M.; Caldwell, R.W.; Hartnett, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Collectively, angiogenic ocular conditions represent the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in developed countries. In the U.S., for example, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are the principal causes of blindness in the infant, working age and elderly populations, respectively. Evidence suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a 40 kDa dimeric glycoprotein, promotes angiogenesis in each of these conditions, making it a highly significant therapeutic target. However, VEGF is pleiotropic, affecting a broad spectrum of endothelial, neuronal and glial behaviors, and confounding the validity of anti-VEGF strategies, particularly under chronic disease conditions. In fact, among other functions VEGF can influence cell proliferation, cell migration, proteolysis, cell survival and vessel permeability in a wide variety of biological contexts. This article will describe the roles played by VEGF in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. The potential disadvantages of inhibiting VEGF will be discussed, as will the rationales for targeting other VEGF-related modulators of angiogenesis. PMID:18653375

  11. Drop-out from addiction treatment: a systematic review of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Brorson, Hanne H; Ajo Arnevik, Espen; Rand-Hendriksen, Kim; Duckert, Fanny

    2013-12-01

    Completion of addiction treatment is one of the most consistent factors associated with a favorable treatment outcome. Unfortunately, it is more common for a patient to drop-out of addiction treatment than to complete the treatment. To prevent drop-out, risk factors must be identified. This box-score review focuses on studies investigating the risk factors associated with drop-out from addiction treatment published in peer-reviewed journals from 1992 to 2013. A total of 122 studies involving 199,331 participants met the inclusion criteria. Contrary to recommendations from previous reviews, 91% of the included studies focused primarily on enduring patient factors, mainly demographics. The most consistent risk factors across the different study designs, samples, and measurement methods were cognitive deficits, low treatment alliance, personality disorder, and younger age. With the exception of younger age, none of the demographic factors emerged as consistent risk factors. Further research on the relationship between simple demographic factors and drop-out risk is of limited value. However, little is known about the potential risk factors related to treatment programs and to the treatment processes. Based on the review, clinical recommendations include assessing cognitive functioning and personality disorders at baseline and continuous monitoring of treatment alliance.

  12. Sustained benefits of autologous serum eye drops on self-reported ocular symptoms and vision-related quality of life in Australian patients with dry eye and corneal epithelial defects.

    PubMed

    Mondy, Phillip; Brama, Tania; Fisher, Jenny; Gemelli, Carley N; Chee, Karen; Keegan, Anastazia; Waller, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This research examined the effect of autologous serum eye drops (ASED) on ocular symptoms, visual-related functioning and quality of life for patients failing other therapies. Patients (N = 77) were asked to complete a survey prior to ASED use, and 2 and 12 months post-treatment. Significant improvements in symptom frequency and severity were documented for dryness, ocular pain and grittiness at 2 and 12 months. Patients felt more in control and required less help from others at 12 months. ASED produce sustained benefits to dry eye symptoms, improve feelings of control and reduce requirements for assistance from others. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Latino Students in New Arrival States: Factors and Services to Prevent Youth from Dropping Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Andrew O.; Gonzalez, Laura M.; Cox, Ronald B.

    2010-01-01

    Latino youth are more likely than any other ethnic group to drop out of high school in the United States. Though some research has helped us understand the factors leading to dropout, very few studies have assessed Latino student's opinions of services and factors that would help them stay in school (e.g., family, school, peers, and policies).…

  14. Exploring Contributing Factors Leading to the Decision to Drop out of School by Hispanic Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Jennifer; Jones, Don; Mundy, Marie-Anne; Isaacson, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors leading Hispanic male students in a mid-sized community in South Texas to dropping out of school, and to determine which, if any, of the factors caused the participant to first consider leaving school at an early age. This quantitative study tested academic systems within Tinto's theory of…

  15. Latino Students in New Arrival States: Factors and Services to Prevent Youth from Dropping Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Andrew O.; Gonzalez, Laura M.; Cox, Ronald B.

    2010-01-01

    Latino youth are more likely than any other ethnic group to drop out of high school in the United States. Though some research has helped us understand the factors leading to dropout, very few studies have assessed Latino student's opinions of services and factors that would help them stay in school (e.g., family, school, peers, and policies).…

  16. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of fluorometholone 0.1% combined with levofloxacin 0.5% and tobramycin/dexamethasone eye drops after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Qing; Han, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Xu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    To compare the combination of fluorometholone 0.1% and levofloxacin 0.5% to tobramycin/dexamethasone eye drops in controlling inflammation and preventing infection after phacoemulsification with an intraocular lens implantation. Sixty eyes from 60 patients undergoing cataract phacoemulsification were randomized into two groups; half of the patients were treated with fluorometholone (6 times/d) combined with levofloxacin (4 times/d), while the other half were treated with tobramycin/dexamethasone (4 times/d) eye drops for one week. Preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure, aqueous flare, corneal thickness, and signs and symptoms were recorded before the operation and 1wk following treatments. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in corneal thickness (P≥0.629), aqueous flare (P≥0.398), and signs and symptoms scores (P≥0.350) at each time point. Ocular hypertension was only observed in two eyes in the tobramycin/dexamethasone group. Fluorometholone combined with levofloxacin treatment shows comparable efficacy but without the tendency to increase intraocular pressure; thus, it might be a better regimen for postoperative use.

  17. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of fluorometholone 0.1% combined with levofloxacin 0.5% and tobramycin/dexamethasone eye drops after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Qing; Han, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Xu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the combination of fluorometholone 0.1% and levofloxacin 0.5% to tobramycin/dexamethasone eye drops in controlling inflammation and preventing infection after phacoemulsification with an intraocular lens implantation. METHODS Sixty eyes from 60 patients undergoing cataract phacoemulsification were randomized into two groups; half of the patients were treated with fluorometholone (6 times/d) combined with levofloxacin (4 times/d), while the other half were treated with tobramycin/dexamethasone (4 times/d) eye drops for one week. Preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure, aqueous flare, corneal thickness, and signs and symptoms were recorded before the operation and 1wk following treatments. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in corneal thickness (P≥0.629), aqueous flare (P≥0.398), and signs and symptoms scores (P≥0.350) at each time point. Ocular hypertension was only observed in two eyes in the tobramycin/dexamethasone group. CONCLUSION Fluorometholone combined with levofloxacin treatment shows comparable efficacy but without the tendency to increase intraocular pressure; thus, it might be a better regimen for postoperative use. PMID:27990365

  18. [Combined rapamycin eye drop in nanometer vector and poly (lactic acid) wafers of cyclosporine A effectively prevents high-risk corneal allograft rejection in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Sun, Hui-Min; Li, Xiao-Rong; Yuan, Xu-Bo; Wang, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Shu-Xian; Tian, En-Jiang; Yuan, Jia-Qin

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the combined effect of topical rapamycin (RAPA) eye drop in nanometer vector and poly (lactic acid) (PLA) wafers of cyclosporine A (CsA) in the prevention of acute allograft rejection after rabbit corneal transplantation. Methods It was an experimental study. RAPA was incorporated into the nanometer particles and CsA was incorporated into PLA wafers. A was syngeneic control whose both donor and recipient are New Zealand rabbit. Gray donor corneas were implanted into the 102 recipients of New Zealand albino rabbits with corneal neovascularization who were randomly divided into B, C, D, E, F, G 6 groups to receive the different types of therapy: B was no therapy control; C was eye drop of nanometer vector but no RAPA twice a day, 28 days; D was PLA wafers in the anterior chamber of rabbit eyes but no drugs; E was 0.5% RAPA eye drop of nanometer vector twice a day, 28 days; F was PLA wafers of CsA in the anterior chamber of rabbit eyes; G was PLA wafers of CsA in the anterior chamber of rabbit eyes and 0.5% RAPA eye drop of nanometer vector eye drop twice a day for 28 days together. Postoperative evaluation included slit-lamp biomicroscopy, histopathology and immunohistology, Cytokines related with neovascularization and immunosuppression in the corneal tissue by RT-PCR. The graft survival was assessed by One-Way ANOVA and q test. Corneal allograft survival time: A (100.00 +/- 0.00), B (8.44 +/- 1.24), C (8.89 +/- 2.57), D (8.56 +/- 2.30), E (43.11 +/- 5.58), F (43.67 +/- 9.54), G (72.00 +/- 15.34) d. Group G led to a statistically significant prolongation of transplant survival and was superior than group E and F which was a statistical prolongation compared with group B, C and D (qGE = 11.42, qGF = 11.24, qEB = 13.64, qEC = 13.38, qED = 13.46, qFB = 13.82, qFC = 13.56, qFD = 13.64; P < 0.01). Immunohistopathologically, the grafts were subjected to an immune response contained a dense infiltrate of neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the group B

  19. Treatment of severe chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease using 100% autologous serum eye drops from a sealed manufacturing system: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tahmaz, Volkan; Gehlsen, Uta; Sauerbier, Laura; Holtick, Udo; Engel, Lisa; Radojska, Stela; Petrescu-Jipa, Viorica-Maria; Scheid, Christof; Hallek, Michael; Gathof, Birgit; Cursiefen, Claus; Steven, Philipp

    2016-06-06

    To analyse patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) under treatment with 100% autologous serum eye drops from a sealed manufacturing system. 17 patients with chronic ocular GvHD received 100% autologous serum eye drops from single use vials manufactured in a sealed system. Retrospective analysis included visual acuity, corneal staining, frequency of artificial tears, ocular symptoms by means of a questionnaire and information on subjective side effects and cost compensation. Data of prior to autologous serum eye drops therapy and at a 6-month follow-up were obtained. They demonstrated a significant increase in visual acuity (logMAR oculus dexter/right eye (OD) 0.5±0.32 to 0.4±0.3; oculus sinister/left eye (OS) 0.6±0.35 to 0.3±0.35; p=0.177/0.003) and significant improvement in corneal staining (Oxford grading scheme: OD from 3±1.03 to 2±1.43, OS from 4±1.0 to 2±1.09, p=0.004/0.001) and ocular symptoms (ocular surface disease index: 88±20.59 to 63±22.77; p=0.02). Frequency of artificial tears was reduced and no side effects were reported. Patient satisfaction was 100%, and cost compensation by health insurance reached 80%. 100% autologous serum eye drops using a sealed manufacturing system were efficient in improving the ocular surface, patient symptoms and visual acuity without side effects. It seems to be safe to use 100% autologous serum despite earlier suspicions regarding immune complex accumulations and exacerbation of ocular surface inflammation. The potential effects of serum levels of systemic immunosuppressives through readministration onto the ocular surface need to be elucidated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Factors affecting the spontaneous motion of condensate drops on superhydrophobic copper surfaces.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Qin, Zhaoqian; Yao, Shuhuai

    2012-04-10

    The coalescence-induced condensate drop motion on some superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) has attracted increasing attention because of its potential applications in sustained dropwise condensation, water collection, anti-icing, and anticorrosion. However, an investigation of the mechanism of such self-propelled motion including the factors for designing such SHSs is still limited. In this article, we fabricated a series of superhydrophobic copper surfaces with nanoribbon structures using wet chemical oxidation followed by fluorization treatment. We then systematically studied the influence of surface roughness and the chemical properties of as-prepared surfaces on the spontaneous motion of condensate drops. We quantified the "frequency" of the condensate drop motion based on microscopic sequential images and showed that the trend of this frequency varied with the nanoribbon structure and extent of fluorination. More obvious spontaneous condensate drop motion was observed on surfaces with a higher extent of fluorization and nanostructures possessing sufficiently narrow spacing and higher perpendicularity. We attribute this enhanced drop mobility to the stable Cassie state of condensate drops in the dynamic dropwise condensation process that is determined by the nanoscale morphology and local surface energy.

  1. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of two concentrations of azelastine eye drops in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, G; Mivsek-Music, E; Perrin-Fayolle, M; Obtulowicz, K; Secchi, A

    1997-01-01

    This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye drops twice daily administered for 14 days to patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. A total of 278 patients were recruited and 226 patients were evaluable for per protocol analysis. The target parameter was the response rate. Four eye symptoms, including the main symptom (itching) were recorded by patients in diaries and eight symptoms were assessed by physicians before and after seven and 14 days of treatment. Severity of symptoms was measured on a four-point scale. The response rates for itching (improvement of at least one score point within the first three days) according to patient assessment were 43% for placebo, 52% for 0.025% and 56% for 0.05% azelastine (NS). However, a more objective assessment of the three main eye symptoms by physicians showed a concentration-dependent improvement in response rate compared with placebo (a decrease of > or = 3 points from a baseline total score of > or = 6), which reached statistical significance for 0.05% azelastine on Day 7 (p < 0.002). In the evaluable patient population, the scores of the three main eye symptoms as well as of all eight recorded eye symptoms, as assessed by the physician, were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the 0.05% azelastine eye drops group in comparison with the placebo group at Day 7. Inefficacy was the cause of withdrawal in five and three patients on 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine, respectively, and in six patients on placebo. Adverse drug effects, mainly a mild, transient irritation and a bitter or unpleasant taste, were reported by 14% (0.025%), 20% (0.05%) and 15% (placebo) of the patients. No serious side-effects occurred. Azelastine eye drops are effective and well tolerated at a concentration of 0.05% for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  2. Efficacy and safety of short duration azithromycin eye drops versus azithromycin single oral dose for the treatment of trachoma in children: a randomised, controlled, double-masked clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cochereau, Isabelle; Goldschmidt, Pablo; Goepogui, André; Afghani, Tayyab; Delval, Laurent; Pouliquen, Pascale; Bourcier, Tristan; Robert, Pierre-Yves

    2007-05-01

    Efficacy and safety of a short-duration treatment of azithromycin 1.5% eye drops versus oral azithromycin to treat active trachoma. Randomised, controlled, double-masked, double-dummy, non-inferiority explanatory study including 670 children from Guinea Conakry and Pakistan if: 1-10 years old; active trachoma (TF+TI0 or TF+TI+ on simplified World Health Organisation (WHO) scale). Three groups received either: azithromycin 1.5% eye drops twice daily for 2 days, for 3 days or azithromycin single 20 mg/kg oral dose. Patients' contacts were treated whenever possible. Clinical evaluation was performed using a binocular loupe. Primary efficacy variable was the cure (no active trachoma (TF0)) at day 60. Non-inferiority margin for difference between cure rates was 10%. Cure rate in per protocol set was as follows: 93.0%, 96.3% and 96.6% in 2-day group 3-day group, and oral treatment group, respectively. Azithromycin 1.5% groups were non-inferior to oral azithromycin. The intend to treat (ITT) analysis supported the results. Clinical re-emergence rate was low: 4.2%. Ocular tolerance was similar for all groups. No treatment related adverse events were reported. Logistic regression analyses found prognostic factors such as: country (p<0.001) and trachoma severity (p = 0.003). In active trachoma, azithromycin eye drops twice daily for 2 or 3 days are as efficient as the WHO's reference treatment and represent an innovative alternative to oral azithromycin.

  3. Efficacy and safety of short duration azithromycin eye drops versus azithromycin single oral dose for the treatment of trachoma in children: a randomised, controlled, double‐masked clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cochereau, Isabelle; Goldschmidt, Pablo; Goepogui, André; Afghani, Tayyab; Delval, Laurent; Pouliquen, Pascale; Bourcier, Tristan; Robert, Pierre‐Yves

    2007-01-01

    Aims Efficacy and safety of a short‐duration treatment of azithromycin 1.5% eye drops versus oral azithromycin to treat active trachoma. Methods Randomised, controlled, double‐masked, double‐dummy, non‐inferiority explanatory study including 670 children from Guinea Conakry and Pakistan if: 1–10 years old; active trachoma (TF+TI0 or TF+TI+ on simplified World Health Organisation (WHO) scale). Three groups received either: azithromycin 1.5% eye drops twice daily for 2 days, for 3 days or azithromycin single 20 mg/kg oral dose. Patients' contacts were treated whenever possible. Clinical evaluation was performed using a binocular loupe. Primary efficacy variable was the cure (no active trachoma (TF0)) at day 60. Non‐inferiority margin for difference between cure rates was 10%. Results Cure rate in per protocol set was as follows: 93.0%, 96.3% and 96.6% in 2‐day group 3‐day group, and oral treatment group, respectively. Azithromycin 1.5% groups were non‐inferior to oral azithromycin. The intend to treat (ITT) analysis supported the results. Clinical re‐emergence rate was low: 4.2%. Ocular tolerance was similar for all groups. No treatment related adverse events were reported. Logistic regression analyses found prognostic factors such as: country (p<0.001) and trachoma severity (p = 0.003). Conclusions In active trachoma, azithromycin eye drops twice daily for 2 or 3 days are as efficient as the WHO's reference treatment and represent an innovative alternative to oral azithromycin. PMID:17005549

  4. Factors Influencing Migrant High School Students to Drop Out or Graduate from High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelken, Ira; Gallo, Kathleen

    Factors influencing migrant students in decisions to drop out or graduate from high school were determined in interviews with 24 dropouts and potential dropouts and 22 students who had graduated. Profiles were compiled on each group. Data were collected from twelfth grade migrant students in northern California. The main appeal of school to the…

  5. Effect of in vitro transcorneal approach of aceclofenac eye drops through excised goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas.

    PubMed

    Dave, Vivek; Paliwal, Sarvesh; Yadav, Sachdev; Sharma, Swapnil

    2015-01-01

    The current study involves the evaluation of factors that influence the transcorneal permeation of aqueous drops of aceclofenac ophthalmic formulation through freshly excised goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas. Aceclofenac formulation with different concentrations 0.1-0.5% (w/v) and with different pH and different preservatives, was taken into account. The amount of drug permeated from different formulations was estimated using an Franz diffusion cell. A linear increase in drug permeation was observed with increase in pH (5.5 to 7.4). The apparent permeability coefficient was found to be maximum 15.01 ± 0.45 on goat cornea and maximum transport of aceclofenac was observed at physiological pH of tears (i.e., 7). The results advocate that aceclofenac 0.5% (w/v) ophthalmic solution (pH 7.0) containing BAK (0.01%) provides maximum in vitro ocular permeability through goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas.

  6. Effect of In Vitro Transcorneal Approach of Aceclofenac Eye Drops through Excised Goat, Sheep, and Buffalo Corneas

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Vivek; Paliwal, Sarvesh; Yadav, Sachdev; Sharma, Swapnil

    2015-01-01

    The current study involves the evaluation of factors that influence the transcorneal permeation of aqueous drops of aceclofenac ophthalmic formulation through freshly excised goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas. Aceclofenac formulation with different concentrations 0.1–0.5% (w/v) and with different pH and different preservatives, was taken into account. The amount of drug permeated from different formulations was estimated using an Franz diffusion cell. A linear increase in drug permeation was observed with increase in pH (5.5 to 7.4). The apparent permeability coefficient was found to be maximum 15.01 ± 0.45 on goat cornea and maximum transport of aceclofenac was observed at physiological pH of tears (i.e., 7). The results advocate that aceclofenac 0.5% (w/v) ophthalmic solution (pH 7.0) containing BAK (0.01%) provides maximum in vitro ocular permeability through goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas. PMID:25654129

  7. Ophthalmic administration of a 10-fold-lower dose of conventional nanoliposome formulations caused levels of intraocular pressure similar to those induced by marketed eye drops.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, C M; Quinteros, D; Cózar-Bernal, M J; Palma, S D; Rabasco, A M; González-Rodríguez, M L

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the in vivo efficacy of several timolol (TM)-loaded liposomal formulations with current TM antiglaucoma treatment (aqueous 0.5% w/v eye drops). In this study, conventional liposomes (CL) and deformable liposomes, without (DL1) and with ethanol (DL2) were prepared and characterized. In addition, in vitro release and permeation studies, as well as in vivo lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) and biocompatibility studies were performed. It was found that the quali and quantitative lipid bilayer composition played a significant role in modifying the physical properties of vesicles. The deformability study and electronic microscopy images revealed that membrane elasticity of DL1 and DL2 was much higher than CL. However, in vitro permeation results showed that the flux and permeability coefficient were significantly higher in CL compared to DL. The IOP study revealed that TM-loaded CL showed the best pharmacological activity, in comparison to deformable vesicles. Compared to the eye drops, CL formulation could equally reduce the IOP but using a concentration 10-fold lower, whereas the effective time was significantly longer. In addition, the formulations showed no irritant effects after instillation on the ocular surface. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Numerical simulation of Flow Pressure Drop and Friction Factor of Water in 2D channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aya Baquero, H.; Camargo Casallas, L. H.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained from the numerical study of the dynamic properties of a straight channel 50 mm long and 780 μm wide on a 2D model. Numerical simulations were performed by using Navier-Stokes equation. The results showed a good agreement with experiments and other models. Pressure drop and friction factor of water in the channel in the studied ranges of Reynolds number are due to viscosity effects.

  9. Bioactivation antioxidant and transglycating properties of N-acetylcarnosine autoinduction prodrug of a dipeptide L-carnosine in mucoadhesive drug delivery eye-drop formulation: powerful eye health application technique and therapeutic platform.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    A considerable interest in N-acetylcarnosine ocular drug design for eye health is based on clinical strategies to improve ocular drug delivery through metabolic enzymatic activation. Human biology aspects of ocular N-acetylcarnosine deacetylation during its pass through the cornea to the aqueous humor and dipeptide hydrolyzing enzymes are characterized. Novel approaches to ocular drug delivery increasing intraocular bioavailability of N-acetylcarnosine biologically activated metabolite carnosine become an integral development ensuring prolonged retention of the medication in the mucoadhesive precorneal area and facilitating transcorneal penetration of the natural dipeptide with the corneal promoters. A comprehensive list of techniques for peptide drug design, synthesis, purification, and biological analyses was considered: liquid chromatography (LC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1) H and (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity of therapeutics-targeted molecules was studied in aqueous solution and in a lipid membrane environment. A deglycation therapeutic system was developed involving removal, by transglycation of sugar or aldehyde moieties from Schiff bases by histidyl-hydrazide compounds or aldehyde scavenger L-carnosine. Clinical studies included ophthalmoscopy, visual acuity (VA), halometer disability glare tests, slit-image, and retro-illumination photography. N-acetylcarnosine 1% lubricant eye drops are considered as an auto-induction prodrug and natural ocular redox state balance therapies with implications in prevention and treatment of serious eye diseases that involve pathways of continuous oxidative damage to ocular tissues(cataracts, primary open-angle glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration) and sight-threatening glycosylation processes (diabetic retinopathy and consequent visual impairment) important for public health. The results of

  10. A case-crossover study of risk factors for occupational eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Justin; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    To study transient risk factors for occupational eye injuries. A case-crossover study was conducted among patients treated for occupational eye injuries in the emergency department at an eye hospital in Alabama. A questionnaire was administered to collect information regarding risk factors at the time of and prior to eye treatment. Incidence rate ratios were used to measure the relationship between each risk factor and injury occurrence. Protective eyewear reduced the risk of occupational eye injury, while increased risk was observed for the following: being distracted, use of tools, tool malfunction, performing an unfamiliar task, being rushed, working overtime, and feeling fatigued. Although use of protective eyewear can significantly reduce the risk of an eye injury, other factors are important contributors. Identification of potentially modifiable transient risk factors can be used to prevent occupational eye injuries.

  11. The comparison of efficacies of topical corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drops on dry eye patients: a clinical and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Avunduk, Avni Murat; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Varnell, Emily D; Kaufman, Herbert E

    2003-10-01

    To investigate whether conjunctival inflammation represents a primary event in the pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca or whether it is a secondary inflammatory reaction caused by enhanced mechanical irritation as a result of surface dryness and whether anti-inflammatory drops (corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory) have therapeutic effects and are similar. Single-masked, randomized, prospective clinical trial. Thirty-two keratoconjuctivitis patients with or without Sjögren syndrome were included in the study. The patients were randomized to three groups. Group 1 patients received a topical artificial tear substitute (ATS); group 2 received ATS plus nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drops (NSAID); and group 3 received ATS plus topical corticosteroidal drops. The eye symptom severity scores, Schirmer test values, rose bengal and fluorescein staining scores were evaluated before treatment and 15 and 30 days after start of treatment. Impression cytology specimens were stained using immunohistochemical methods to detect the percentages of human leukocyte antigen II (HLA-DR) positive, Apo 2.7 positive, and periodic acid-Schiff positive cells. Statistical analyses were performed within and between groups. Group 3 patients had significantly lower symptom severity scores, fluorescein and rose bengal staining, and HLA-DR positive cells on days 15 and 30 compared with patients in other groups. They also had a significantly higher number of periodic acid-Schiff positive (goblet) cells in their impression cytology specimens on days 15 and 30 compared with the other patients. On day 30, group 3 patients had significant differences compared with their baseline measurements in terms of above-mentioned parameters. However, we did not detect a significant effect of any treatment schedule on the Shirmer test value and the numbers of Apo 2.7 cells in impression cytology specimens. Topical corticosteroids had a clearly beneficial effect both on the subjective and

  12. Drug delivery to the ocular posterior segment using lipid emulsion via eye drop administration: effect of emulsion formulations and surface modification.

    PubMed

    Ying, Lin; Tahara, Kohei; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2013-09-10

    This work explored submicron-sized lipid emulsion as potential carriers for intraocular drug delivery to the posterior segment via eye drops. The effects of physicochemical properties of lipid emulsion on drug delivery were evaluated in vivo using mice. Different formulations of submicron-sized lipid emulsions were prepared using a high pressure homogenization system. Using coumairn-6 as a model drug and fluorescent marker, fluorescence could be observed in the retina after administration of the lipid emulsion. The fluorescence intensity observed after administration of medium chain triglycerides containing the same amount of coumarin-6 was much lower than that observed after administration of lipid emulsions. The inner oil property and phospholipid emulsifier did not affect the drug delivery efficiency to the retina. However, compared with unmodified emulsions, the fluorescence intensity in the retina increased by surface modification using a positive charge inducer and the functional polymers chitosan (CS) and poloxamer 407 (P407). CS-modified lipid emulsions could be electrostatically interacted with the eye surface. By its adhesive property, poloxamer 407, a surface modifier, possibly increased the lipid emulsion retention time on the eye surface. In conclusion, we suggested that surface-modified lipid emulsions could be promising vehicles of hydrophobic drug delivery to the ocular posterior segment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes of Bacterial and Fungal Scleritis at a Tertiary Eye Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Jagadesh C.; Murthy, Somasheila I.; Reddy, Ashok K.; Garg, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to analyze demographics, risk factors, pathogenic organisms, and clinical outcome in cases with microbiologically proven bacterial or fungal scleritis. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of all the medical records of patients with microbiologically proven infectious scleritis examined from March 2005 to December 2009 in the cornea services of L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India was done. Results: Forty-two eyes of 42 patients were included in this study. The mean age at presentation was 48.52 ± 14.10 years (range: 12-70). Surgery was the major risk factor seen in 24 eyes (58.5%). Scleral infection was noted after vitreoretinal surgery (with scleral buckle) in 15 eyes, cataract surgery in 3 eyes, pterygium surgery in 3 eyes, corneoscleral tear repair and scleral buckle surgery in 3 eyes. Sixteen eyes (39%) were on systemic or topical steroids at the time of presentation. History of injury was noted in 9 eyes (22%) and diabetes mellitus in 7 patients (17%). Associated keratitis was noted in 9 eyes (21.4%). The scleral abscess was unifocal in 33 eyes (78.5%), multifocal in 6 eyes (14.2%) and diffuse in 3 eyes (7.14%). The final follow-up ranged from 24 days to 37 months. The final visual acuity was better in 18 eyes (42.8%), stable in 13 (30.9%), and deteriorated in 7 eyes (16.6%). Recurrence was seen in 4 eyes (9.5%). Conclusions: Surgery is a major risk factor for infectious scleritis in our series. Fungus was the most common organism isolated. Thorough debridement and intensive use of medications have improved the outcome. PMID:25949079

  14. Factors affecting pupil size after dilatation: the Twin Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, C.; Snieder, H.; Spector, T.; Gilbert, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Well dilated pupils make eye surgery easier. A classic twin study was established to examine the relative importance of genes and environment in the variance of pupil size after mydriasis, and to examine the effects of other factors such as age, iris colour, and refractive error.
METHODS—506 twin pairs, 226 monozygotic (MZ) and 280 dizygotic (DZ), aged 49-79 (mean age 62.2 years, SD 5.7) were examined. Dilated pupil size was measured using a standardised grid superimposed over digital retroillumination images taken 50-70 minutes after mydriasis using tropicamide 1% and phenylephrine 10%. Univariate maximum likelihood model fitting was used to estimate genetic and environmental variance components.
RESULTS—Dilated pupil size was more highly correlated in MZ compared with DZ twins (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.82 and 0.39 respectively). A model specifying additive genetic and unique environmental factors showed the best fit to the data, yielding a heritability of 78-80%. Individual environmental factors explained 18-19% of the variance in this population. Age only accounted for 2-3% of the variance and refractive error and iris colour did not significantly contribute to the variance.
CONCLUSIONS—Pupil size after mydriasis is largely genetically determined, with a heritability of up to 80%.

 PMID:11004106

  15. Factors affecting pupil size after dilatation: the Twin Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Hammond, C J; Snieder, H; Spector, T D; Gilbert, C E

    2000-10-01

    Well dilated pupils make eye surgery easier. A classic twin study was established to examine the relative importance of genes and environment in the variance of pupil size after mydriasis, and to examine the effects of other factors such as age, iris colour, and refractive error. 506 twin pairs, 226 monozygotic (MZ) and 280 dizygotic (DZ), aged 49-79 (mean age 62.2 years, SD 5.7) were examined. Dilated pupil size was measured using a standardised grid superimposed over digital retroillumination images taken 50-70 minutes after mydriasis using tropicamide 1% and phenylephrine 10%. Univariate maximum likelihood model fitting was used to estimate genetic and environmental variance components. Dilated pupil size was more highly correlated in MZ compared with DZ twins (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.82 and 0.39 respectively). A model specifying additive genetic and unique environmental factors showed the best fit to the data, yielding a heritability of 78-80%. Individual environmental factors explained 18-19% of the variance in this population. Age only accounted for 2-3% of the variance and refractive error and iris colour did not significantly contribute to the variance. Pupil size after mydriasis is largely genetically determined, with a heritability of up to 80%.

  16. Comparison of 1% cyclosporine eye drops in olive oil and in linseed oil to treat experimentally-induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Parrilha, Leticia Rodrigues; Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; Giuffrida, Rogério; Barbero, Rafael Cabral; Padovani, Leticia Dias Fabris; Pereira, Ricardo Henrique Zaquir; Silva, Danielle Alves; Silva, Mariele Catherine Alves; Diniz, Miriely Stein; Andrade, Silvia Franco

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of topical 1% cyclosporine eye drops diluted in either of the two vehicles-olive and linseed oil-and that of the oils themselves in treating experimentally-induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits. KCS was induced in 25 New Zealand rabbits using 1% atropine sulfate eye drops for 7 days before treatment and throughout the treatment period (12 weeks). The rabbits were divided into five groups: one control (C) group without KCS induction and four treatment groups in which KCS was induced and treated topically with olive oil (O), linseed oil (L), cyclosporine in olive oil (CO), and cyclosporine in linseed oil (CL). The animals were evaluated using Schirmer tear test 1 (STT), the fluorescein test (FT), tear-film break-up time (TBUT), the rose bengal test (RBT), and histopathological analysis. Values of STT and TBUT significantly decreased 1 week post-induction (p<0.05) and were similar to initial values after the 4th week of treatment, in all groups. After KCS induction, there was significantly less corneal damage in group L than in group CL, as assessed FT and RBT. Histopathology demonstrated that Groups L and CL presented less edema and corneal congestion. There was no significant difference in the goblet cell density (cells/mm2) between the groups (p=0.147). Cyclosporine diluted in olive oil or linseed oil was effective in the treatment of KCS, although it had better efficacy when diluted in linseed oil. Linseed oil presented better effectiveness, whether associated or not, than olive oil. These results may contribute to the creation of novel topical ophthalmic formulations for KCS treatment in future.

  17. Geometrical gauge factor of directional electric potential drop sensors for creep monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.

    2011-06-23

    Directional electric potential drop measurements can be exploited for in-situ monitoring of creep in metals. The sensor monitors the variation in the ratio of the resistances measured simultaneously in the axial and lateral directions using a square-electrode configuration. This technique can efficiently separate the mostly isotropic common part of the resistivity variation caused by reversible temperature variations from the mostly anisotropic differential part caused by direct geometrical and indirect material effects of creep. Initially, this ratio is roughly proportional to the axial creep strain, while at later stages, the resistance ratio increases even faster with creep strain because of the formation of directional discontinuities such as preferentially oriented grain boundary cavities and multiple-site cracks in the material. Similarly to ordinary strain gauges, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is defined as a gauge factor that can be approximated as a sum of geometrical and material parts. This work investigated the geometrical gauge factor by analytical and experimental means. We found that under uniaxial stress square-electrode sensors exhibit geometrical gauge factors of about 4 and 5 in the elastic and plastic regimes, respectively, i.e., more than twice those of conventional strain gauges. Experimental results obtained on 304 stainless steel using a square-electrode electric potential drop creep sensor agree well with our theoretical predictions.

  18. Morphological Changes of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells after Rho-Associated Kinase Inhibitor Eye Drop (Ripasudil) Administration: A Prospective Open-Label Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroko; Koizumi, Noriko; Okumura, Naoki; Suganami, Hideki; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect and safety of a selective Rho kinase inhibitor, ripasudil 0.4% eye drops, on corneal endothelial cells of healthy subjects. Prospective, interventional case series. In this study, 6 healthy subjects were administered ripasudil 0.4% in the right eye twice daily for 1 week. Morphological changes and corneal endothelial cell density were examined by noncontact and contact specular microscopy. Central corneal thickness and corneal volume of 5 mm-diameter area of center cornea were analyzed by Pentacam Scheimpflug topography. All the above measurements were conducted in both eyes before administration, 1.5 and 6 hours after the initial administration on day 0; and in the same manner after the final administration on day 7. By noncontact specular microscopy, indistinct cell borders with pseudo guttae were observed, but by contact specular microscopy, morphological changes of corneal endothelial cells were mild and pseudo guttae was not observed after single and repeated administration of ripasudil in all subjects. These changes resolved prior to the next administration, and corneal endothelial cell density, central corneal thickness and corneal volume were not changed throughout the study period. Transient morphological changes of corneal endothelial cells such as indistinct cell borders with pseudo guttae were observed by noncontact specular microscopy in healthy subjects after ripasudil administration. Corneal edema was not observed and corneal endothelial cell density did not decrease after 1 week repetitive administration. These morphological changes were reversible and corneal endothelial cell morphology returned to normal prior to the next administration. JAPIC Clinical Trials Information 142705.

  19. Efficacy and safety of preoperative IOP reduction using a preservative-free fixed combination of dorzolamide/timolol eye drops versus oral acetazolamide and dexamethasone eye drops and assessment of the clinical outcome of trabeculectomy in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Katrin; Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna; Bell, Katharina; Renieri, Giulia; Keicher, Alexander; Ruckes, Christian; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Thieme, Hagen

    2017-01-01

    To demonstrate that preoperative treatment for 28 days with topical dorzolamide/timolol is non-inferior (Δ = 4 mm Hg) to oral acetazolamide and topical dexamethasone (standard therapy) in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction 3 and 6 months after trabeculectomy in glaucoma patients. Sixty-two eyes undergoing trabeculectomy with mitomycin C were included in this monocentric prospective randomized controlled study. IOP change between baseline and 3 months post-op was defined as the primary efficacy variable. Secondary efficacy variables included the number of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) injections, needlings, suture lyses, preoperative IOP change, hypertension rate and change of conjunctival redness 3 and 6 months post-op. Safety was assessed based on the documentation of adverse events. Preoperative treatment with topical dorzolamide/timolol was non-inferior to oral acetazolamide and topical dexamethasone in terms of IOP reduction 3 months after trabeculectomy (adjusted means -8.12 mmHg versus -8.30 mmHg; Difference: 0.18; 95% CI -1.91 to 2.26, p = 0.8662). Similar results were found 6 months after trabeculectomy (-9.13 mmHg versus -9.06 mmHg; p = 0.9401). Comparable results were also shown for both groups concerning the classification of the filtering bleb, corneal staining, and numbers of treatments with 5-FU, needlings and suture lyses. More patients reported AEs in the acetazolamide/dexamethasone group than in the dorzolamide/timolol group. Preoperative, preservative-free, fixed-dose dorzolamide/timolol seems to be equally effective as preoperative acetazolamide and dexamethasone and has a favourable safety profile.

  20. Efficacy and safety of preoperative IOP reduction using a preservative-free fixed combination of dorzolamide/timolol eye drops versus oral acetazolamide and dexamethasone eye drops and assessment of the clinical outcome of trabeculectomy in glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Katrin; Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna; Bell, Katharina; Renieri, Giulia; Keicher, Alexander; Ruckes, Christian; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Thieme, Hagen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction To demonstrate that preoperative treatment for 28 days with topical dorzolamide/timolol is non-inferior (Δ = 4 mm Hg) to oral acetazolamide and topical dexamethasone (standard therapy) in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction 3 and 6 months after trabeculectomy in glaucoma patients. Materials and methods Sixty-two eyes undergoing trabeculectomy with mitomycin C were included in this monocentric prospective randomized controlled study. IOP change between baseline and 3 months post-op was defined as the primary efficacy variable. Secondary efficacy variables included the number of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) injections, needlings, suture lyses, preoperative IOP change, hypertension rate and change of conjunctival redness 3 and 6 months post-op. Safety was assessed based on the documentation of adverse events. Results Preoperative treatment with topical dorzolamide/timolol was non-inferior to oral acetazolamide and topical dexamethasone in terms of IOP reduction 3 months after trabeculectomy (adjusted means -8.12 mmHg versus -8.30 mmHg; Difference: 0.18; 95% CI -1.91 to 2.26, p = 0.8662). Similar results were found 6 months after trabeculectomy (-9.13 mmHg versus -9.06 mmHg; p = 0.9401). Comparable results were also shown for both groups concerning the classification of the filtering bleb, corneal staining, and numbers of treatments with 5-FU, needlings and suture lyses. More patients reported AEs in the acetazolamide/dexamethasone group than in the dorzolamide/timolol group. Discussion Preoperative, preservative-free, fixed-dose dorzolamide/timolol seems to be equally effective as preoperative acetazolamide and dexamethasone and has a favourable safety profile. PMID:28199397

  1. Syracuse University Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Z; Zhang, J S

    2010-09-01

    check the mass balance, while the uptake factor and associated inhalation exposure can be readily assesse; The calculated cumulative uptake mass within first 10 minutes after the dropping of the can for each test was within the range of 0.002 mg to 0.035 mg. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m{sup 3}/h, the uptake factor during the first 10 minutes was calculated to be between 10{sup -9} and 2×10{sup -8} in reference to the amount loaded; or between 10{sup -8} and 6×10{sup -5} in reference to the amount spilled. The experimental results of this study will be useful for standardizing the test method and provide data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers.

  2. Super-Cationic Carbon Quantum Dots Synthesized from Spermidine as an Eye Drop Formulation for Topical Treatment of Bacterial Keratitis.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hong-Jyuan; Wu, Ren-Siang; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Li, Yu-Jia; Lin, Han-Jia; Harroun, Scott G; Lai, Jui-Yang; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2017-07-25

    We have developed a one-step method to synthesize carbon quantum dots (CQDPAs) from biogenic polyamines (PAs) as an antibacterial agent for topical treatment of bacterial keratitis (BK). CQDs synthesized by direct pyrolysis of spermidine (Spd) powder through a simple dry heating treatment exhibit a solubility and yield much higher than those from putrescine and spermine. We demonstrate that CQDs obtained from Spds (CQDSpds) possess effective antibacterial activities against non-multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis bacteria and also against the multidrug-resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CQDSpds is ∼2500-fold lower than that of spermidine alone, demonstrating their strong antibacterial capabilities. Investigation of the possible mechanisms behind the antibacterial activities of the as-synthesized CQDSpds indicates that the super-cationic CQDSpds with small size (diameter ca. 6 nm) and highly positive charge (ζ-potential ca. +45 mV) cause severe disruption of the bacterial membrane. In vitro cytotoxicity, hemolysis, hemagglutination, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress and in vivo morphologic and physiologic cornea change evaluations show the good biocompatibility of CQDSpds. Furthermore, topical ocular administration of CQDSpds can induce the opening of the tight junction of corneal epithelial cells, thereby leading to great antibacterial treatment of S. aureus-induced BK in rabbits. Our results suggest that CQDSpds are a promising antibacterial candidate for clinical applications in treating eye-related bacterial infections and even persistent bacteria-induced infections.

  3. Factors Contributing to Dropping-out in an Online Health Community: Static and Longitudinal Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaodian; Elhadad, Noémie

    2016-01-01

    Dropping-out, which refers to when an individual abandons an intervention, is common in Internet-based studies as well as in online health communities. Community facilitators and health researchers are interested in this phenomenon because it usually indicates dissatisfaction towards the community and/or its failure to deliver expected benefits. In this study, we propose a method to identify dropout members from a large public online breast cancer community. We then study quantitatively what longitudinal factors of participation are correlated with dropping-out. Our experimental results suggest that dropout members discuss diagnosis- and treatment-related topics more than other topics. Furthermore, in the time before withdrawing from the community, dropout members tend to initiate more discussions but do not receive adequate response from the other members. We also discuss implications of our results and challenges in dropout-member identification. This study contributes to further understanding community participation and opens up a number of future research questions. PMID:28269969

  4. Coenzyme Q10 instilled as eye drops on the cornea reaches the retina and protects retinal layers from apoptosis in a mouse model of kainate-induced retinal damage.

    PubMed

    Lulli, Matteo; Witort, Ewa; Papucci, Laura; Torre, Eugenio; Schipani, Christian; Bergamini, Christian; Dal Monte, Massimo; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2012-12-17

    To evaluate if coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) can protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from apoptosis and, when instilled as eye drops on the cornea, if it can reach the retina and exert its antiapoptotic activity in this area in a mouse model of kainate (KA)-induced retinal damage. Rat primary or cultured RGCs were subjected to glutamate (50 μM) or chemical hypoxia (Antimycin A, 200 μM) or serum withdrawal (FBS, 0.5%) in the presence or absence of CoQ10 (10 μM). Cell viability was evaluated by light microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses. Apoptosis was evaluated by caspase 3/7 activity and mitochondrion depolarization tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester analysis. CoQ10 transfer to the retina following its instillation as eye drops on the cornea was quantified by HPLC. Retinal protection by CoQ10 (10 μM) eye drops instilled on the cornea was then evaluated in a mouse model of KA-induced excitotoxic retinal cell apoptosis by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistofluorescence, caspase 3/7 activity assays, and quantification of inhibition of RGC loss. CoQ10 significantly increased viable cells by preventing RGC apoptosis. Furthermore, when topically applied as eye drops to the cornea, it reached the retina, thus substantially increasing local CoQ10 concentration and protecting retinal layers from apoptosis. The ability of CoQ10 eye drops to protect retinal cells from apoptosis in the mouse model of KA-induced retinal damage suggests that topical CoQ10 may be evaluated in designing therapies for treating apoptosis-driven retinopathies.

  5. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... become red, he probably has a condition called conjunctivitis . Also known as pinkeye, this inflammation, which can be painful and itchy, ... bacteria, antibiotic eye drops are the usual treatment. Conjunctivitis caused by viruses should not be treated with ...

  6. Comparison of preservative-free ketotifen fumarate and preserved olopatadine hydrochloride eye drops in the treatment of moderate to severe seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mortemousque, B; Bourcier, T; Khairallah, M; Messaoud, R; Brignole-Baudouin, F; Renault, D; Rebika, H; Brémond-Gignac, D

    2014-01-01

    To compare preservative-free ketotifen 0.025% ophthalmic solution to olopatadine 0.1% ophthalmic solution in with the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) in clinical practice. This was a comparative, randomised, investigator-masked, pilot clinical study in adult patients with documented history of SAC and presenting with moderate to severe itching and conjunctival hyperemia. Eligible patients initiated either ketotifen or olopatadine treatment at a dose of one drop twice daily for 28days. The resolution of ocular signs and symptoms was assessed on day 7 and day 28. Itching was also assessed within 15minutes following the first instillation (day 0). Conjunctival impression cytology was performed at each visit to assess the evolution of ICAM-1 expression (day 0, 7 and 28). Seventy-five patients were randomised (ketotifen: 38 patients; olopatadine: 37 patients). At day 28, the composite score for primary criteria (itching, tearing, and conjunctival hyperemia) improved from 6.8±1.2 to 0.9±1.0 in the Ketotifen group, without statistically significant difference between treatment groups (P=0.67). There was no relevant difference between treatment groups in other efficacy parameters, except a trend for a more rapid resolution of conjunctival hyperemia in the Ketotifen group. Both drugs were well tolerated, with a trend for a better tolerability reported by patients on ketotifen compared to those on olopatadine at day 7 (P=0.054). A rapid and comparable improvement in SAC was achieved after 28days of treatment with both preservative-free ketotifen and preserved olopatadine ophthalmic solutions, with a slightly better ocular tolerance with unpreserved ketotifen 0.025% eye drops. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Time Course of Conjunctival Hyperemia Induced by a Rho-kinase Inhibitor Anti-glaucoma Eye Drop: Ripasudil 0.4.

    PubMed

    Terao, Etsuko; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Fujio, Yuki; Matsuya, Kanae; Kobayashi, Yui; Tabuchi, Hitoshi; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi; Fukushima, Atsuki; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the detailed time course of conjunctival hyperemia induced by ripasudil 0.4%, a novel Rho-kinase inhibitor anti-glaucoma eye drop, in healthy subjects. We recruited 51 healthy subjects and administered ripasudil 0.4% in their right eye. We evaluated conjunctival hyperemia using slit lamp photography and measured the intraocular pressure (IOP) using the Icare PRO Rebound Tonometer at baseline and after 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. The conjunctival hyperemia score was graded by three independent observers on a scale of 0 (none) to 3 (severe). Additionally, we analyzed the "percent coverage" of conjunctival hyperemia by using an automated hyperemia analysis software program; this program provides the pixel coverage of the conjunctival vessels in the region of interest. Dunnett and Steel multiple comparison tests were used, as appropriate, for the subsequent analyses. The conjunctival hyperemia score and percent coverage increased rapidly after the instillation of ripasudil 0.4%, peaking at 15 min (score: 1.83 ± 0.29 [mean ± SD]) and 5 min (11.6% ± 4.7%), respectively, and then gradually decreasing until 120 min (0.45 ± 0.22 and 4.7% ± 1.8%, respectively), when they reached a level that was not significantly different from the baseline values. The IOP decreased significantly compared to the baseline at 30, 60, and 90 min, based on the Dunnett test. Conjunctival hyperemia induced by ripasudil 0.4% peaks rapidly to moderate severity, but subsides relatively quickly.

  8. Comparison of the effectiveness of mydriasis by two instillation methods of combined 0.75% tropicamide and 2.5% phenylephrine eye drop in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Phamonvaechavan, Pittaya; Chutasmit, Kanya; Damrongrak, Parichat; Koukiatkul, Supanna; Wongkiatkajorn, Tassanee; Ngerncham, Sopapan

    2012-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness and safety of two instillation methods of combined 0.75% tropicamide and 2.5% phenylephrine at 0, 5 minutes (min) with the same combined regimen at 0,30 minutes in preterm infants. A prospective, cross-over, randomized controlled trial was performed to compare 0, 5-min instillation (Method A) of combined 0.75% tropicamide and 2.5% phenylephrine with 0, 30-min instillation (Method B) of the same regimen. Forty-two preterm infants scheduled for screening retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were randomly assigned to two groups. Group 1 was defined as preterms applied by Method A at first examination then by Method B 1-4 weeks apart whereas vice versa in Group 2. Pupil size, heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) were recorded before and after eye-drop instillation. Mean time to 7-mm pupil size was no statistically significant difference between the two methods (Method A 46.47 min, Method B 46.58 min; p = 0.894). Method B has mean longer time to maintain 7-mm pupil size than Method A (Method A 67.67 min, Method B 75.33 min); but not statistically significant different (p = 0.323). HR, SBP and DBP were not significant change between the two methods. Both instillation methods produced consistently sufficient mydriasis and safety for evaluation peripheral fundus. Method B has slight longer mydriatic effect than Method A; thus giving more time to evaluate infant's eye for ophthalmologists.

  9. Novel intraocular and systemic absorption drug delivery and efficacy of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops or carcinine biologics in pharmaceutical usage and therapeutic vision care.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Khoroshilova-Maslova, Inna P; Kasus-Jacobi, Anne

    2012-10-01

    The latest estimates of the World Health Organization indicate that there are 161 million visually impaired individuals worldwide, 37 million of whom are blind, with a yearly increase of 1-2 million. The scientists developed and patented the lubricant eye drops formulated as 1%N-acetylcarnosine prodrug of l-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in an ocular drug delivery system. Carcinine is suitable for the systemic administration (per oral) for ophthalmic therapeutic indications. The HPLC analysis was developed to search the pathways of ocular metabolic activities of 1%N-acetylcarnosine and the bioactivation of this drug molecule promoting transcorneal uptake of l-carnosine in the aqueous humor. A meta-analysis of phase 2 randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial data was conducted. The intraocular absorbed l-carnosine demonstrated a number of pharmacological mechanisms of prevention and reversal of cataracts. Results of systemic absorption of l-carnosine provide tuberomammillary activation that regulates neuronal functions such as hypothalamic control promoting sensory input in the primary vision perceptual pathway. The parabulbar, subconjunctival, and intravitreal injection of carcinine with most of the vehicle removed is not toxic to intraocular structures, reduces postoperative intraocular inflammation, is a potentially useful tool in the treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy as well as considered as the antiapoptotic drug for the protection of photoreceptor cells from oxidative light-induced stress. The discovery of naturally occurring carnosine derivatives introduces N-acetylcarnosine and carcinine as effective medical treatment for sight-threatening eye disorders. © 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  10. The antibacterial activity of levofloxacin eye drops against staphylococci using an in vitro pharmacokinetic model in the bulbar conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant staphylococcal isolates from the conjunctival sac is increasing. We compared pharmacological effects of levofloxacin (LVFX) against Staphylococcus epidermidis using an in vitro pharmacokinetic (PK) model simulating the concentration in the bulbar conjunctiva after applying eye drops of 0.5% and 1.5% LVFX. We used S. epidermidis conjunctival sac isolates [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of LVFX, 0.125 μg/mL]. LVFX-resistant strains were obtained from parental strains after culture with LVFX. The in vitro PK model simulated the concentration in the bulbar conjunctiva following three topical applications of 0.5% or 1.5% LVFX ophthalmic solution (0, 4, and 8 h) to rabbit eyes. Parental and LVFX-resistant strains were exposed to LVFX in the in vitro PK model, and changes in viable bacterial counts were evaluated for 12 h. The MICs of LVFX for the resistant isolates were 2-32 times higher than the parental strain, and those with MICs ≥2 ug/mL had mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region. The PK model simulation predicts that 1.5% LVFX exerts bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects against strains with MICs of 0.125-2 and 4 μg/mL, respectively, whereas 0.5% LVFX would only be effective against strains with MICs of 0.125-1 μg/mL. The PK model predicts that the 1.5% LVFX ophthalmic solution exhibits a stronger bactericidal effect against resistant staphylococci in the bulbar conjunctiva than the 0.5% LVFX ophthalmic solution.

  11. Effects of various concentrations of diethylcarbamazine citrate applied as eye drops in ocular onchocerciasis, and the possibilities of improved therapy from continuous non-pulsed delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, B R; Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H

    1978-01-01

    Diethylcarbamazine was given as eye drops in varying concentrations in a half-log dilution series from 1.0 to 0.0001% to patients with ocular onchocerciasis. Migration of microfilariae into the cornea, followed by their straightening and disintegration, was observed with delivery rates as low as 0.1 microgram/hour. Dose-related adverse inflammatory reactions, including the development of globular limbal infiltrates with itching and redness, were seen with delivery rates as low as 0.6 microgram/hour, but substantial inflammatory reactions, including severe vasculitis, were seen only with delivery rates of or above 1.0 microgram/hour. This suggests that it should be possible to achieve beneficial clearing of the microfilarial load, without adverse reactions, by continuous non-pulsed delivery of the drug. Technology exists for such delivery, either directly into the eye or systemically by a transdermal system that could give 3 to 7 days' treatment from each application. The observations reported suggest that after preliminary clearing of the microfilarial load by carefully controlled delivery of DEC it may be possible to maintain therapy by less strictly controlled delivery in DEC-medicated salt, or to use treatment with suramin, without incurring substantial adverse reactions, such as a deterioration in vision in cases in which the optic nerve is already compromised. Continuous non-pulsed DEC delivery systems could have a place in the management of onchocercal sclerosing keratitis. The unique opportunities for using the ocular model to define the requirements for beneficial non-damaging therapy with DEC should be explored in further field trials. Images PMID:678494

  12. Effects of various concentrations of diethylcarbamazine citrate applied as eye drops in ocular onchocerciasis, and the possibilities of improved therapy from continuous non-pulsed delivery.

    PubMed

    Jones, B R; Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H

    1978-07-01

    Diethylcarbamazine was given as eye drops in varying concentrations in a half-log dilution series from 1.0 to 0.0001% to patients with ocular onchocerciasis. Migration of microfilariae into the cornea, followed by their straightening and disintegration, was observed with delivery rates as low as 0.1 microgram/hour. Dose-related adverse inflammatory reactions, including the development of globular limbal infiltrates with itching and redness, were seen with delivery rates as low as 0.6 microgram/hour, but substantial inflammatory reactions, including severe vasculitis, were seen only with delivery rates of or above 1.0 microgram/hour. This suggests that it should be possible to achieve beneficial clearing of the microfilarial load, without adverse reactions, by continuous non-pulsed delivery of the drug. Technology exists for such delivery, either directly into the eye or systemically by a transdermal system that could give 3 to 7 days' treatment from each application. The observations reported suggest that after preliminary clearing of the microfilarial load by carefully controlled delivery of DEC it may be possible to maintain therapy by less strictly controlled delivery in DEC-medicated salt, or to use treatment with suramin, without incurring substantial adverse reactions, such as a deterioration in vision in cases in which the optic nerve is already compromised. Continuous non-pulsed DEC delivery systems could have a place in the management of onchocercal sclerosing keratitis. The unique opportunities for using the ocular model to define the requirements for beneficial non-damaging therapy with DEC should be explored in further field trials.

  13. Therapeutic efficacy of fibroblast growth factor 10 in a rabbit model of dry eye.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjing; Ma, Mingming; Du, Ergang; Zhang, Zhengwei; Jiang, Kelimu; Gu, Qing; Ke, Bilian

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) in the promotion of healing, survival and expression of mucin in corneal epithelial cells in a rabbit dry eye model. A total of 12 healthy female New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into three groups. The lacrimal glands were injected with saline either alone (normal control group) or with concanavalin A (Con A), with either topical phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS; PBS control group) or 25 µg/ml FGF10 (FGF10 treatment group). Lacrimal gland inflammation, tear function, corneal epithelial cell integrity, cell apoptosis and mucin expression were subsequently assessed. Lacrimal gland tissue biopsies were performed in conjunction with histology and electron microscopy observations. Tear meniscus height (TMH) and tear meniscus area (TMA) were measured using Fourier domain‑optical coherence tomography. Tear membrane break‑up time (TBUT) was also assessed and corneal fluorescein staining was performed. The percentages of apoptotic corneal and conjunctival (Cj) epithelial cells (ECs) were counted using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. The mRNA expression levels of Muc1 were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. The TMH and TMA values of the PBS and treatment groups were found to be significantly reduced, compared with those of the normal control group 3 days after Con A injection. However, the TMH and TMA of the FGF10 treatment group were higher, compared with those of the PBS group 3 and 7 days after treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the FGF10 treatment group exhibited prolonged TBUT, reduced corneal fluorescein staining and repaired epithelial cell ultrastructure7 days after treatment. The percentages of apoptotic corneal‑ and Cj‑ECs in the FGF10 treatment group were significantly reduced, compared with those in the PBS group. FGF10

  14. Paroxetine markedly increases plasma concentrations of ophthalmic timolol; CYP2D6 inhibitors may increase the risk of cardiovascular adverse effects of 0.5% timolol eye drops.

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, Jukka; Volotinen-Maja, Marjo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Neuvonen, Mikko; Niemi, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T

    2014-12-01

    Although ophthalmic timolol is generally well tolerated, a significant fraction of topically administered timolol can be systemically absorbed. We investigated the effect of the strong CYP2D6 inhibitor paroxetine on the pharmacokinetics of timolol after ophthalmic administration. In a four-phase crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers ingested either paroxetine (20 mg) or placebo daily for 3 days. In phases 1-2, timolol 0.1% gel, and in phases 3-4, timolol 0.5% drops were administered to both eyes. Paroxetine increased the plasma concentrations of timolol with both timolol formulations to a similar degree. The geometric mean ratio (95% confidence interval) of timolol peak concentration was 1.53-fold (1.23-1.91) with 0.1% timolol and 1.49-fold (0.94-2.36) with 0.5% timolol, and that of timolol area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to 12 hours was 1.61-fold (1.26- to 2.06-fold) and 1.78-fold (1.21-2.62), respectively. During paroxetine administration, six subjects on 0.5% timolol drops, but none on 0.1% timolol gel, had plasma timolol concentrations exceeding 0.7 ng/ml, which can cause systemic adverse effects in patients at risk. There was a positive correlation between the AUC from time 0 to 13 hours of paroxetine and the placebo phase AUC from time 0 to infinity of timolol after timolol 0.5% drops (P < 0.05), and a nonsignificant trend after timolol 0.1% gel, consistent with the role of CYP2D6 in the metabolism of both agents. In the orthostatic test, heart rate immediately after upright standing was significantly lower (P < 0.05) during the paroxetine phase than during the placebo phase at 1 and 3 hours after 0.5% timolol dosing. In conclusion, paroxetine and other CYP2D6 inhibitors can have a clinically important interaction with ophthalmic timolol, particularly when patients are using 0.5% timolol formulations.

  15. Chronic dry eye in photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis: Manifestations, incidence, and predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Bower, Kraig S; Sia, Rose K; Ryan, Denise S; Mines, Michael J; Dartt, Darlene A

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate dry-eye manifestations after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and determine the incidence and predictive factors of chronic dry eye using a set of dry-eye criteria. Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA. Prospective, non-randomized clinical study. Dry-eye evaluation was performed before and after surgery. Main outcome measures included dry-eye manifestations, incidence, and predictive factors of chronic dry eye. This study comprised 143 active-duty U.S. Army personnel, ages 29.9 ± 5.2 years, with myopia or myopic astigmatism (manifest spherical equivalent -3.83 ± 1.96 diopters) having PRK or LASIK. Schirmer scores, corneal sensitivity, ocular surface staining, surface regularity index, and responses to dry-eye questionnaire significantly changed over time after PRK. After LASIK, significant changes were observed in tear breakup time, corneal sensitivity, ocular surface staining, and responses to questionnaire. Twelve months postoperatively, 5.0% of PRK and 0.8% of LASIK participants developed chronic dry eye. Regression analysis showed that pre-operatively lower Schirmer score will significantly influence development of chronic dry eye after PRK, whereas preoperatively, lower Schirmer score or higher ocular surface staining score will significantly influence the occurrence of chronic dry eye after LASIK. Chronic dry eye was uncommon after PRK and LASIK. Ocular surface and tear-film characteristics during pre-operative examination might help to predict chronic dry-eye development in PRK and LASIK. The authors have no financial interest in any product, drug, instrument, or equipment discussed in this manuscript. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of autologous serum eye drops on the conjunctivalization over exposed porous polyethylene orbital implant (Medpor(®)) in the rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Hoon; Chung, Ho Kyung; Kim, Nam Ju; Lee, Min Joung; Khwarg, Sang In

    2011-03-01

    To assess the efficacy of autologous serum eye drops (AS) in enhancing conjunctivalization over a scleral patch graft on exposed porous polyethylene orbital implant (Medpor(®)). Eighteen rabbits were underwent evisceration, implantation of Medpor(®) and homologous scleral patch graft. The conjunctival edge was sutured leaving 5 mm-diameter circular defect. In group A, 20% AS were applied 8 times a day and only balanced salt solution was applied in group B. Digital anterior segment photography was obtained 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days after surgery and analyzed with Image Pro Plus(®) software. In the early postoperative period, the average conjunctival growth rate (mm(2)/day) was faster in group A, but failed to show statistical significance (3.79 vs. 3.03, p = 0.26 in 1~3days, 2.39 vs. 1.80, p = 0.59 in 4- days, 0.03 vs. -0.02, p = 0.94 in 7-10 days, Mann-Whitney test). The complete healing rate was higher (67% vs. 56%, p = 0.5, Fisher's exact test) and the mean elapsed time for complete healing (days) was shorter in group A (17.3 vs. 18.2, p  = 0.83, Mann-Whitney test), but did not show a statistically significant difference. In a rabbit model, 20% AS did not appear to facilitate the healing of small conjunctival defects of exposed porous orbital implant.

  17. Aetiological Factors in Dyslexia: I. Saccadic Eye Movement Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisman, Gerald; Schwartz, Joddy

    1978-01-01

    A study examined the character of saccadic eye movement (as reflected by duration/amplitude and velocity/amplitude functions) in 20 dyslexic and 20 normal children (mean age 8.2 years) and 28 normal adults (mean age 26.2 years). (Author/PHR)

  18. ?Drop-out? in the Danish high school (gymnasium): An investigation of psychological, sociological and pedagogical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohn, Helge

    1991-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate characteristics differentiating high-school students who had dropped out of school from those who remained. The study examined the relationship between drop-out and the following three clusters: (1) the effect of family background factors; (2) the effect of social factors in the educational milieu; and (3) the effect of motivation, achievement and ability. It was concluded that neither the effect of family background nor exposure to factors in the educational milieu were significant in the decision to finish school. One of the main conclusions of the investigation was that drop-out was associated with lack of motivation and achievement of the students.

  19. Genetic Analysis of Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in the Drosophila Eye

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, T.; Choi, I.; Banerjee, Utpal

    2012-01-01

    The development of eyes in Drosophila involves intricate epithelial reorganization events for accurate positioning of cells and proper formation and organization of ommatidial clusters. We demonstrate that Branchless (Bnl), the fibroblast growth factor ligand, regulates restructuring events in the eye disc primordium from as early as the emergence of clusters from a morphogenetic front to the cellular movements during pupal eye development. Breathless (Btl) functions as the fibroblast growth factor receptor to mediate Bnl signal, and together they regulate expression of DE-cadherin, Crumbs, and Actin. In addition, in the eye Bnl regulates the temporal onset and extent of retinal basal glial cell migration by activating Btl in the glia. We hypothesized that the Bnl functions in the eye are Hedgehog dependent and represent novel aspects of Bnl signaling not explored previously. PMID:22384378

  20. Material gauge factor of directional electric potential drop sensors for creep monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.

    2011-06-23

    Directional electric potential drop measurements can be exploited for in-situ monitoring of creep in metals. The sensor monitors the variation in the ratio of the resistances measured simultaneously in the axial and lateral directions using a square-electrode configuration. This method can efficiently separate the mostly isotropic common part of the resistivity variation caused by reversible temperature variations from the mostly anisotropic differential part caused by direct geometrical (size and shape) and indirect material (resistivity) effects of creep. Similarly to ordinary strain gauges, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is defined as a gauge factor that can be approximated as the sum of geometrical and material parts. Initially, subtle material changes produce weak electric anisotropy via reversible and irreversible piezoresistivity due to elastic and plastic strains, respectively. At high temperature, much stronger irreversible resistivity changes also occur due to preferentially aligned clusters of cavities developing along grain boundaries approximately perpendicular to the applied stress and subsequent cracks forming between these cavities. The ensuing electric anisotropy is detected by the directional sensor. Although the material effects remain smaller than the geometrical ones up to the initiation of preferentially oriented cracks, later the material gauge factor sharply increases and close to rupture can reach a value of more than 10.

  1. Dry Eye Following Phacoemulsification Surgery and its Relation to Associated Intraoperative Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, P. K.; Das, G. K.; Malik, Aman; Biakthangi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to study dry eye following phacoemulsification surgery and analyze its relation to associated intra-operative risk factors. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out on 100 eyes of 100 patients without preoperative dry eye. Schirmer's Test I, tear meniscus height, tear break-up time, and lissamine green staining of cornea and conjunctiva were performed preoperatively and at 5 days, 10 days, 1-month, and 2 months after phacoemulsification surgery, along with the assessment of subjective symptoms, using the dry eye questionnaire. The correlations between these values and the operating microscope light exposure time along with the cumulative dissipated energy (CDE) were investigated. Results: There was a significant deterioration of all dry eye test values following phacoemulsification surgery along with an increase in subjective symptoms. These values started improving after 1-month postoperatively, but preoperative levels were not achieved till 2 months after surgery. Correlations of dry eye test values were noted with the operating microscope light exposure time and CDE, but they were not significant. Conclusion: Phacoemulsification surgery is capable of inducing dry eye, and patients should be informed accordingly prior to surgery. The clinician should also be cognizant that increased CDE can induce dry eyes even in eyes that were healthy preoperatively. In addition, intraoperative exposure to the microscopic light should be minimized. PMID:26692720

  2. [Dry eye syndrome. Occupational risk factors, valuation and prevention].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Terradillos-García, M J; López González, Á A

    2014-03-01

    Dry eye syndrome in the workplace is associated with new ways of working, with increasing use of screens and electronic devices and environmental conditions encountered in modern office designs and other environments. Also affect occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals or atmospheric dust with increased ocular dryness. The study of pathophysiological aspects and laboral causality of the dry eye, must be to develop joint task in Occupational Health, Public Health in coordination with and responsible for the national health system, which would involve primary and secondary preventive measures more effective and proper diagnosis, control and monitoring of the disease, A better knowledge of occupational hazards and actions agreed and coordinated between occupational physicians, preventers, primary care physicians and specialist physicians, such as ophthalmology, will get results much more effective when earlier and optimize available resources.

  3. Analysis of lipid peroxidation and electron microscopic survey of maturation stages during human cataractogenesis: pharmacokinetic assay of Can-C N-acetylcarnosine prodrug lubricant eye drops for cataract prevention.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    Morphological and biophysical techniques described in this study have shown that membrane derangement occurs in human cataractous lenses. The data suggest that these disruptions were globules, vacuoles, multilamellar membranes and clusters of highly undulating membranes. Deleterious structural damage of the lens fibre cell plasma membranes serve as the primary light-scattering centres that cause the observed lens opacity. Nuclear cataract, a major cause of loss of lens transparency in the aging human, has been thought to be associated with oxidative damage, particularly at the site of the nuclear plasma membrane. Phospholipid molecules modified by oxygen accumulate in the lipid bilayer, change its geometry and impair lipid-lipid and protein-lipid interactions in lenticular fibre membranes. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is a causative and pathogenic factor in cataract. Increased concentrations of primary molecular LPO products (diene conjugates, lipid hydroperoxides, oxy-derivatives of phospholipid fatty acids) and end-fluorescent LPO products have been detected in the lipid moieties of aqueous humour samples and human lenses obtained from patients with senile and complicated cataracts as compared with normal donors. In the present study, a rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay for determination of imidazole-containing dipeptides in the aqueous humour of the eye was developed. The method was applied to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters and the time-course of N-acetylcarnosine and L-carnosine-related product in the eye, following a single dosage of topical ocular administration of peptide. Utilising data from pharmacokinetic studies and the specific purity of the N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) ingredient as a source of the pharmacological principle L-carnosine, we have created an ophthalmic time-release prodrug form including the US FDA-approved carboxymethylcellulose lubricant and other essential ingredients (Can-C, private label Nu-Eyes

  4. Underlying Factors Associated with Dropping Out and Factors Impacting At-Risk Students' Attitudes toward School: A Comparison Study of Low-Income, White Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Everett; And Others

    This study was conducted to compare the factors that student dropouts report as contributing to their dropping out of school with those factors that "at-risk" students report as influencing their attitudes toward school. These two sets of factors, assessed in two separate studies, include in-school and out-of-school experiences, socioeconomic…

  5. The Effects of Occupational Work Adjustment on Factors Leading to High School Drop Out in Rural Northwest Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Angela

    The effect of four Occupational Work Adjustment (OWA) programs on risk factors leading to students dropping out of high school was assessed. Data were gathered from four OWA teachers in high schools in Northwest Ohio; information was provided for 27 individual students and 2 groups of 28 students each for the 1992-93 school year. The following…

  6. Typology of Students at Risk of Dropping Out of School: Description by Personal, Family and School Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide; Joly, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the different subgroups of students at risk of dropping out of school. The typology was developed based on the three main contexts associated with school dropout risk, namely, the personal, family and school contexts. On the basis of these factors, the clustering results enabled us to categorize at-risk…

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for eye diseases, blindness, and low vision in Lhasa, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Qin; Bai, Zong-Xi; Shi, Jing; Luo, Sang; Chang, Hong-Fa; Sai, Xiao-Yong

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence and risk factors for eye diseases, blindness, and low vision in Tibet, and to assist the development of eye disease prevention and treatment schemes. METHODS We carried out a survey of eye diseases among a population living at high altitude. A total of 1 115 Tibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older from the towns and villages of Qushui County, Lhasa Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region, participated in this study. All participants completed a detailed questionnaire, and underwent presenting and pinhole visual acuity tests, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. RESULTS There were 187 blind eyes (8.43%), 231 eyes with low vision (10.41%). The leading cause of visual impairment was cataract of 55.0% (101/187) blindness and of 50.2% (116/231) low vision, followed by fundus lesions of 22.9% blindness and 23.8% low vision, while only a low prevalence of glaucoma of 9.6% blindness and 1.7% low vision was observed. The analysis of 2 219 eyes showed that the most common external eye disease was pterygium (27.2%) in Tibet. CONCLUSION The high prevalence of blindness and low vision in the Tibetan population at high altitude is a serious public health issue. There is a need to establish and maintain an appropriate effective eye care program in Tibet. PMID:23638429

  8. Randomised equivalency trial comparing 2.5% povidone‐iodine eye drops and ophthalmic chloramphenicol for preventing neonatal conjunctivitis in a trachoma endemic area in southern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez‐Ortiz, Marco A; Rodriguez‐Almaraz, Manuel; Ochoa‐DiazLopez, Héctor; Diaz‐Prieto, Paulina; Rodriguez‐Suárez, Romeo S

    2007-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of 2.5% povidone‐iodine eye drops (PIED) compared with ophthalmic chloramphenicol (OC) for preventing neonatal conjunctivitis. Methods 2004 neonates were enrolled from three rural hospitals in a trachoma endemic area. They were randomly assigned to receive either PIED (n = 1024) or OC (n = 974). Infectious conjunctivitis was confirmed by laboratory methods, including specific search for Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results During the first 48 hours after birth, PIED and OC had similar efficacy against bacterial conjunctivitis (95% confidence interval (CI), −0.031 to −0.004; p = 0.01); from day 3 to day 15, PIED was 6% less effective than OC (95% CI, −0.058 to −0.006; p = 0.01); after day 16 there was no significant difference between the groups (95% CI, −0.022 to 0.041; p = 0.57). However, the risk of C trachomatis conjunctivitis was increased in neonates receiving PIED prophylaxis (relative risk = 1.99 (95% CI, 1.07 to 3.71), log‐rank p = 0.029). Ocular side effects were rare and self limiting in both groups (p = 0.223). Conclusions PIED seems to increase the risk of acquiring chlamydial conjunctivitis in neonates. Additional measures are required to prevent mother to fetus transmission of chlamydial infection during pregnancy, delivery, and after birth. PMID:17947266

  9. N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: Glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population

    PubMed Central

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Burke, Leslie; Micans, Philip; Richer, Stuart P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP)’s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C™) designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) prodrug of l-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural l-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C™ eye drops. Objective and study design: In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance), and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years. Setting: Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients’ glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9 months of treatment with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops as those with the worth pretreatment vision. Patients or other participants: The authors made a reference to electronic records of the product sales to patients who have been made the repurchase of the Can-C™ eye drops since December 2001. Intervention: Based on this analysis of recorded adjustments to inventory, various parameters were analyzed during the continued

  10. N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Burke, Leslie; Micans, Philip; Richer, Stuart P

    2009-01-01

    Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP)'s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C) designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) prodrug of L-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural L-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C eye drops. In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance), and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years. Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients' glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9 months of treatment with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops as those with the worth pretreatment vision. The authors made a reference to electronic records of the product sales to patients who have been made the repurchase of the Can-C eye drops since December 2001. Based on this analysis of recorded adjustments to inventory, various parameters were analyzed during the continued repurchase behavior program, including testimonials from buyers. With these figures, researchers judged on the

  11. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph Antony, S.

    2015-03-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The corneal birefringent retardation measured here is comparable to that of previous studies. Using this, we derive eye stress concentration factors and the directional alignment of major principal stress on the surface of the cornea. Similar to thermometers being used for monitoring the general health in humans, this report provides a foundation to characterise the shear stress carrying capacity of the cornea, and a potential bench mark for validating theoretical modelling of stresses in the human eye in future.

  12. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Joseph Antony, S.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The corneal birefringent retardation measured here is comparable to that of previous studies. Using this, we derive eye stress concentration factors and the directional alignment of major principal stress on the surface of the cornea. Similar to thermometers being used for monitoring the general health in humans, this report provides a foundation to characterise the shear stress carrying capacity of the cornea, and a potential bench mark for validating theoretical modelling of stresses in the human eye in future. PMID:25754336

  13. Influence of environmental factors on infrared eye temperature measurements in cattle.

    PubMed

    Church, J S; Hegadoren, P R; Paetkau, M J; Miller, C C; Regev-Shoshani, G; Schaefer, A L; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2014-02-01

    Environmental factors were evaluated to determine potential limitations in using cattle eye temperatures obtained through infrared thermography (IRT) for early disease detection systems or in animal welfare research studies. The effects of the following factors on IRT eye temperatures in cattle and a fabricated surrogate "eye" were evaluated: camera to object distance, wind speed, camera settings (distance, emissivity, and humidity), and solar loading. Wind speed in both live animals and using a surrogate "eye" was found to decrease the IRT temperature. In the presence of ∼ 7 km/h wind, the mean IRT eye temperature decreased by 0.43 ± 0.13 °C and; at higher wind speeds (∼ 12 km/h), the temperature decreased by 0.78 ± 0.33 °C. Direct sunlight was found to increase the IRT eye temperature by 0.56 ± 0.36 °C. It was determined that environmental factors impact IRT temperature measurements significantly and therefore must be managed to ensure reproducible and accurate readings.

  14. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we developed. The…

  15. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we developed. The…

  16. Risk Factors for Astigmatism in Preschool Children: The Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease and Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Varma, Rohit; Cotter, Susan A.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Lin, Jesse H.; Borchert, Mark S.; Torres, Mina; Wen, Ge; Azen, Stanley P.; Tielsch, James M.; Friedman, David S.; Repka, Michael X.; Katz, Joanne; Giordano, Lydia; Ibironke, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate risk factors for astigmatism in a population-based sample of preschool children. Design Population-based cross-sectional study Participants Population-based samples of 9970 children ages 6 to 72 months from Los Angeles County, California, and Baltimore, Maryland. Methods A cross-sectional study of children participating in the Multiethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study and the Baltimore Eye Disease Study was completed. Data were obtained by clinical examination or by in-person interview. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated to evaluate potential associations between clinical, behavioral, or demographic factors and astigmatism. Main Outcome Measures Odds ratios (ORs) for various risk factors associated with astigmatism. Results Participants with myopia (≤−1.0 diopters) were 4.6 times more likely to have astigmatism (95%CI 3.56, 5.96) than those without refractive error, while participants with hyperopia (≥+2.00 diopters) were 1.6 times more likely (95%CI 1.39, 1.94). Children 6 months to <12 months of age were approximately 3 times more likely to have astigmatism than children 5 to 6 years of age (95%CI 2.28, 3.73). Both Hispanic (OR=2.38) and African-American (OR=1.47) children were more likely to have astigmatism than non-Hispanic white children. Further, children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were 1.46 times (95% CI 1.14, 1.87) more likely to have astigmatism than children whose mothers did not smoke. Conclusions In addition to infancy, Hispanic and African-American race/ethnicity and correctable/modifiable risk factors such as myopia, hyperopia, and maternal smoking during pregnancy are associated with a higher risk of having astigmatism. While the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy is typically low, this association may suggest etiologic pathways for future investigation. PMID:21856010

  17. Stereoacuity and Related Factors: The Shandong Children Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuan-yuan; Sun, Wei; Lv, Tai-liang; Jiang, Wen-jun; Wu, Hui; Wang, Xing-rong; Bi, Hong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess stereoacuity in a population-based sample of children and to examine ocular and systemic parameters related to stereoacuity. Methods Using a random cluster sampling method, four- to 18-year-old children from kindergartens, elementary schools, junior high schools and senior high schools from a rural area and an urban area in the East Chinese province of Shandong were included in the school-based cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination including assessment of cycloplegic refraction and measurement of stereoacuity using the Titmus Stereo test. Results Out of 6364 eligible children, 5780 (90.8%) children with a mean age of 10.1 ± 3.2 years (range: 4 to 18 years) participated. Mean (± standard deviation) stereoacuity was 50.2 ± 50.6 arc seconds. Stereoacuity improved significantly (P<0.01) from the age group of 4 years to the age group of 6 to 7 years, then showed a plateau, deteriorated (P = 0.001) for both sexes from the age group of 9 years to the age group of 12 years (P<0.001), after which it improved (P = 0.001) again in the age group of 16 years or older to the pre-puberty values. In multivariate analysis, larger angle of binocular disparity (i.e., lower stereoacuity) was significantly associated with lower best corrected visual acuity (logMAR; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in refractive error (spherical equivalent) (P<0.001), higher cylindrical refractive error (P<0.001), higher refractive error (spherical value; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in best corrected visual acuity (logMAR) (P = 0.001), higher intereye difference in axial length (P = 0.001), and rural region of habitation (P = 0.006). Conclusions Stereoacuity as tested with the Titmus Stereo test improved significantly from an age of 4 years to an age of 6 and 7 years, then remained constant, temporarily deteriorated for both sexes in pre-puberty and puberty, after which it improved again to pre-puberty or better values at

  18. Factors Associated With Visual Impairment and Eye Care Utilization: The International Mobility in Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Balegamire, Safari; Aubin, Marie-Josée; Curcio, Carmen-Lucia; Alvarado, Beatriz; Guerra, Ricardo O; Ylli, Alban; Deshpande, Nandini; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2017-06-01

    To examine factors associated with visual impairment (VI) and eye care in the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). IMIAS data were analyzed ( N = 1,995 with ages 65-74). Outcomes were VI defined as presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 in the better eye and eye care utilization assessed by annual visits to eye care professionals. The Hurt-Insult-Threaten-Scream (HITS) questionnaire requested information on domestic violence. Among men, VI varied from 24% in Manizales (Colombia) to 0.5% in Kingston (Canada); among women, VI ranged from 20% in Manizales to 1% in Kingston; lifetime exposure to domestic violence was associated with VI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.17, 3.00]). Eye care utilization varied from 72% in Kingston's men to 25% in Tirana's men; it was associated with domestic violence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.3; 95% CI = [1.1, 1.6]). VI is more frequent where eye care utilization is low. Domestic violence may be a risk factor for VI.

  19. Effectiveness and relevant factors of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension treatment in dry eye.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kaori; Matsumiya, Wataru; Otsuka, Keiko; Maeda, Yoshifumi; Nagai, Takayuki; Nakamura, Makoto

    2015-06-06

    Rebamipide with mucin secretagogue activity was recently approved for the treatment of dry eye. The efficacy and safety in the treatment of rebamipide were shown in two pivotal clinical trials. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effect of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension in patients with dry eye and analyze relevant factors for favorable effects of rebamipide in clinical practice. This was a retrospective cohort study of 48 eyes from 24 patients with dry eye treated with 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Dry eye-related symptom score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein ocular surface staining score (FOS) and the Schirmer test were used to collect the data from patients at baseline, and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 week visits. To determine the relevant factors, multiple regression analyses were then performed. Mean dry eye-related symptom score showed a significant improvement from the baseline (14.5 points) at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks (9.80, 7.04, 7.04 and 7.83 points, corrected P value < 0.001, respectively). Median FOS showed a significant improvement from the baseline (3.0 points) at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks (2.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 1.0 points, corrected P value < 0.001, respectively). TBUT and Schirmer test values were not significantly improved after the treatment. For ocular symptoms, three parameters (foreign body sensation, dry eye sensation and ocular discomfort) showed significant improvements at all visits. The multiple regression analyses showed that the fluorescein conjunctiva staining score was significantly correlated with the changes of dry eye-related symptom score at 12 weeks (P value = 0.017) and dry eye-related symptom score was significantly correlated with independent variables for the changes of FOS at 12 weeks (P value = 0.0097). Two percent rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was an effective therapy for dry eye patients. Moreover the fluorescein conjunctiva staining score and dry eye-related symptom score might be good relevant factors for

  20. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Second Eye Cataract Surgery and the Trend in the Time Interval Between the Two Eye Surgeries Based on the Malaysian National Eye Database.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shu Fen; Adnan, Tassha Hilda Bin; Goh, Pik Pin

    2017-01-01

    To study the prevalence of second eye cataract surgery (SECS), trend in time interval between subsequent surgeries over the years, and factors associated with SECS utilization among patients who underwent cataract surgeries in the Ministry of Health (MOH), Malaysia. Secondary cross-sectional analysis of the Malaysian National Eye Database (NED) data. The Malaysian Cataract Surgery Registry collected data on patients who had cataract surgery from 2002-2004 and 2007-2012. Data collected included demography, operative events, time interval between 2 surgeries, and postoperative visual outcomes. Descriptive analysis was performed. Total surgeries increased from 11,954 in 2002 to 30,265 in 2012 with a proportionate increase in SECS (30.7% in 2002 to 34.3% in 2012). Poor vision (<6/12) was reduced from 81.1% to 14.2% after surgery. With improved data capturing, missing data reduced from 29.22% to 1.05%. The time interval between surgeries was 10.58 months in 2002 and 14.49 months in 2012. Malays (40.2%) and those aged 61-70 years (38.1%) had the highest number of SECS. Those aged 40-50 years (10.96 months) and with poorer vision (9.97 months) had the shortest time interval between the 2 surgeries. The commonest surgical method was phacoemulsification (72.3%). Negeri Sembilan State had the highest SECS rate (35.91%) and Melaka had the shortest interval between surgeries (10.15 months). Despite an increase in the number of SECS, the time interval is still long. Poor presenting second eye vision and disparity among different states warrants the health authority's attention and intervention. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  1. Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear

    PubMed Central

    Behar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Garcia, Paula Ortega; Krutmann, Jean; Peña-García, Pablo; Reme, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James S

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation potentially damages the skin, the immune system, and structures of the eye. A useful UV sun protection for the skin has been established. Since a remarkable body of evidence shows an association between UV radiation and damage to structures of the eye, eye protection is important, but a reliable and practical tool to assess and compare the UV-protective properties of lenses has been lacking. Among the general lay public, misconceptions on eye-sun protection have been identified. For example, sun protection is mainly ascribed to sunglasses, but less so to clear lenses. Skin malignancies in the periorbital region are frequent, but usual topical skin protection does not include the lids. Recent research utilized exact dosimetry and demonstrated relevant differences in UV burden to the eye and skin at a given ambient irradiation. Chronic UV effects on the cornea and lens are cumulative, so effective UV protection of the eyes is important for all age groups and should be used systematically. Protection of children’s eyes is especially important, because UV transmittance is higher at a very young age, allowing higher levels of UV radiation to reach the crystalline lens and even the retina. Sunglasses as well as clear lenses (plano and prescription) effectively reduce transmittance of UV radiation. However, an important share of the UV burden to the eye is explained by back reflection of radiation from lenses to the eye. UV radiation incident from an angle of 135°–150° behind a lens wearer is reflected from the back side of lenses. The usual antireflective coatings considerably increase reflection of UV radiation. To provide reliable labeling of the protective potential of lenses, an eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®) has been developed. It integrates UV transmission as well as UV reflectance of lenses. The E-SPF® compares well with established skin-sun protection factors and provides clear messages to eye health care providers and to

  2. Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear.

    PubMed

    Behar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Garcia, Paula Ortega; Krutmann, Jean; Peña-García, Pablo; Reme, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James S

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation potentially damages the skin, the immune system, and structures of the eye. A useful UV sun protection for the skin has been established. Since a remarkable body of evidence shows an association between UV radiation and damage to structures of the eye, eye protection is important, but a reliable and practical tool to assess and compare the UV-protective properties of lenses has been lacking. Among the general lay public, misconceptions on eye-sun protection have been identified. For example, sun protection is mainly ascribed to sunglasses, but less so to clear lenses. Skin malignancies in the periorbital region are frequent, but usual topical skin protection does not include the lids. Recent research utilized exact dosimetry and demonstrated relevant differences in UV burden to the eye and skin at a given ambient irradiation. Chronic UV effects on the cornea and lens are cumulative, so effective UV protection of the eyes is important for all age groups and should be used systematically. Protection of children's eyes is especially important, because UV transmittance is higher at a very young age, allowing higher levels of UV radiation to reach the crystalline lens and even the retina. Sunglasses as well as clear lenses (plano and prescription) effectively reduce transmittance of UV radiation. However, an important share of the UV burden to the eye is explained by back reflection of radiation from lenses to the eye. UV radiation incident from an angle of 135°-150° behind a lens wearer is reflected from the back side of lenses. The usual antireflective coatings considerably increase reflection of UV radiation. To provide reliable labeling of the protective potential of lenses, an eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®) has been developed. It integrates UV transmission as well as UV reflectance of lenses. The E-SPF® compares well with established skin-sun protection factors and provides clear messages to eye health care providers and to lay

  3. Multiple endpoint analysis of BAC-preserved and unpreserved antiallergic eye drops on a 3D-reconstituted corneal epithelial model

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, A.; Brasnu, E.; Riancho, L.; Brignole-Baudouin, F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-preserved and unpreserved antiallergic eye drops on the human 3D-reconstituted corneal epithelial model (3D-HCE). Methods 3D-HCE were treated for 24 h followed or not by a 24 h post-incubation recovery period (24 h+24 h) with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 0.01% BAC, unpreserved formulations of ketotifen, N Acetyl-Aspartyl Glutamic Acid (NAAGA), cromoglycate, or BAC-preserved commercial formulations of ketotifen, olopatadine, epinastine, and levocabastine. The 3D-HCE viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) test at 24 h and 24 h+24 h. At 24 h, the numbers of Cluster of Differentiation 54 (CD54)- and Ki67-immunopositive cells as well as the number of apoptotic deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were evaluated on 3D-HCE frozen sections. The expression of the tight junction-associated protein occludin was also assessed using fluorescence confocal microscopy on flat-mounted 3D-HCE epithelia. Results The MTT and the TUNEL tests revealed a significant decrease of cell viability and an increased apoptosis in the superficial layers of the 3D-HCE only when treated with BAC-containing formulations and in a BAC concentration-dependent manner. The expression of CD54 and Ki67 in the basal layers was also increased in this group. A concentration-dependent disorganization of occludin distribution in the epithelium treated with BAC-containing solutions was also observed. The unpreserved formulations induced effects comparable to the control. Conclusions BAC-preserved solutions decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, they induced CD54 expression, proliferation in the basal layers, and changes in the distribution of occludin, which is consistent with a disorganization of the tight-junctions and suggests the loss of the epithelial barrier function. On the

  4. Risk Factors Associated with Childhood Strabismus: The Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease and Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Susan; Varma, Rohit; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Lin, Jesse; Wen, Ge; Wei, Jolyn; Borchert, Mark; Azen, Stan; Torres, Mina; Tielsch, James M.; Friedman, David S.; Repka, Michael X.; Ibironke, Joanne Katz Josephine; Giordano, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors associated with esotropia or exotropia in infants and young children. Design Population-based cross-sectional prevalence study. Participants Population-based samples of 9970 children ages 6 to 72 months from California and Maryland. Methods Participants were preschool African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white children participating in the Multiethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study and the Baltimore Eye Disease Study. Data were obtained by parental interview and ocular examination. Odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the association of demographic, behavioral, and clinical risk factors with esotropia and exotropia. Main Outcome Measures Odds ratios (ORs) for various risk factors associated with esotropia or exotropia diagnosis based on cover testing. Results In multivariate logistic regression analysis, esotropia was independently associated with prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, older preschool age (48–72 months), anisometropia, and hyperopia. There was a severity-dependent association of hyperopia with the prevalence of esotropia, with ORs increasing from 6.4 for 2.00 Diopters (D) to <3.00 D of hyperopia, to 122.0 for ≥ 5.00 D. Exotropia was associated with prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, family history of strabismus, female sex, astigmatism (OR 2.5 for 1.50 to <2.50 D, and 5.9 for ≥ 2.5 D of astigmatism), and aniso-astigmatism in the J0 component (OR ≥ 2 for J0 aniso-astigmatism ≥ 0.25 D). Conclusions Prematurity and maternal smoking during pregnancy are associated with a higher risk of having esotropia and exotropia. Refractive error is associated in a severity-dependent manner to the prevalence of esotropia and exotropia. Because refractive error is correctable, these risk associations should be considered when developing guidelines for the screening and management of refractive error in infants and young children children. PMID:21856012

  5. Factors affecting eye care-seeking behavior of parents for their children.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam M; Kumar, Divya Senthil; Kumaran, Sheela Evangeline; Ramani, Krishna Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Most of the causes of childhood blindness are either treatable or preventable. Eye care-seeking behavior (ESB) of parents for their children plays a pivotal role in reducing this problem. This study was done because there was a sparsity of literature in this context and with a view to help eye care professionals plan better programs and to identify factors facilitating and/or hindering ESB of parents for their school-going children in an urban area. This study adopted a qualitative snapshot narrative study design. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in areas of Chennai with parents and eye care professionals selected through stratified purposive sampling. Parents were based on those who sought care and did not seek care after a school eye screening program and on their socioeconomic status. Data were transcribed to English, familiarized, and inductive coded, and themes were formed. Redundancy was considered as end point of data collection. Two focus group discussions and 11 in-depth interviews were conducted. Squint, redness or watering of eyes, eye irritation, headache, family history of ocular diseases, severity, and repetitiveness of symptoms facilitate parents seeking eye care for their wards/children. Economic status was an important barrier reported to affect the ESB. Logistic factors like taking appointment with doctor, taking leave from work, transport, and traveling distance were noted. This study shows the facilitating factors and barriers for ESB of the Chennai urban parents for their wards. The results suggest that efforts needed to be put to overcome the barriers through planned awareness programs.

  6. Factor Xa: Simulation studies with an eye to inhibitor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daura, Xavier; Haaksma, Eric; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.

    2000-08-01

    Factor Xa is a serine protease which activates thrombin and plays a key regulatory role in the blood-coagulation cascade. Factor Xa is at the crossroads of the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of coagulation and, hence, has become an important target for the design of anti-thrombotics (inhibitors). It is not known to be involved in other processes than hemostasis and its binding site is different to that of other serine proteases, thus facilitating selective inhibition. The design of high-affinity selective inhibitors of factor Xa requires knowledge of the structural and dynamical characteristics of its active site. The three-dimensional structure of factor Xa was resolved by X-ray crystallography and refined at 2.2 Å resolution by Padmanabhan and collaborators. In this article we present results from molecular dynamics simulations of the catalytic domain of factor Xa in aqueous solution. The simulations were performed to characterise the mobility and flexibility of the residues delimiting the unoccupied binding site of the enzyme, and to determine hydrogen bonding propensities (with protein and with solvent atoms) of those residues in the active site that could interact with a substrate or a potential inhibitor. The simulation data is aimed at facilitating the design of high-affinity selective inhibitors of factor Xa.

  7. Determination of ofloxacin in tear by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method: comparison of ophthalmic drug release between a new mucoadhesive chitosan films and a conventional eye drop formulation in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Byrro, Ricardo Martins Duarte; de Oliveira Fulgêncio, Gustavo; da Silva Cunha, Armando; César, Isabela Costa; Chellini, Paula Rocha; Pianetti, Gerson Antônio

    2012-11-01

    Ofloxacin, second-generation fluoroquinolone derivative, is one of the most commonly used to treat and prevent superficial ocular infection in animals and human beings. However, poor bioavailability, rapid elimination, and non compliance by patients are several problems associated with ocular route. Ophthalmic controlled drug delivery offers the potential to enhance the efficacy of treatment for pathological conditions, while reducing the side effects and the toxicity associated with frequent applications. Specific analytical methods to determine drugs in eye are needed to analyze and compare the new controlled release ocular devices with those conventional eye drops. The topical eye administration of ophthalmic drugs induces lachrymation, and the tear promotes a drug wash out. Quantify drugs in tear is a good tool to study their kinetic comportment in the eye. A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for quantitation of ofloxacin in rabbits' tears was developed and validated. The tear was collected with tear strips, extracted by a liquid extraction procedure and then separated on an ACE C(18) column with a mobile phase composed of 0.15% aqueous formic acid and methanol (60:40, v/v). Calibration curve was constructed over the range of 10-5000 ng/mL for ofloxacin. The mean R.S.D. values for the intra-run and inter-run precision were 5.15% and 4.35%, respectively. The mean accuracy value was 100.16%. The validated method was successfully applied to determine the ofloxacin concentration in tears of rabbits treated with a mucoadhesive chitosan films and a conventional eye drop formulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimating person view-factors from fish-eye lens photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, I. D.; Johnson, G. T.

    1988-06-01

    A simple technique is described whereby view-factors can be estimated for a person at locations where the building geometry is complex. Procedures are outlined for the construction of a polar diagram whose grid cells give equal person view-factors: the diagram is designed to overlay a fish-eye lens photograph, enabling the estimation of view-factors of distinctive surfaces in the photograph image for standing and seated people.

  9. Risk factors for astigmatism in preschool children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies.

    PubMed

    McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Varma, Rohit; Cotter, Susan A; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Borchert, Mark S; Lin, Jesse H; Wen, Ge; Azen, Stanley P; Torres, Mina; Tielsch, James M; Friedman, David S; Repka, Michael X; Katz, Joanne; Ibironke, Josephine; Giordano, Lydia

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate risk factors for astigmatism in a population-based sample of preschool children. Population-based cross-sectional study. Population-based samples of 9970 children ages 6 to 72 months from Los Angeles County, California, and Baltimore, Maryland. A cross-sectional study of children participating in the Multiethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study and the Baltimore Eye Disease Study was completed. Data were obtained by clinical examination or by in-person interview. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to evaluate potential associations between clinical, behavioral, or demographic factors and astigmatism. Odds ratios (ORs) for various risk factors associated with astigmatism. Participants with myopia (≤-1.0 diopters) were 4.6 times as likely to have astigmatism (95% CI, 3.56-5.96) than those without refractive error, whereas participants with hyperopia (≥+2.00 diopters) were 1.6 times as likely (95% CI, 1.39-1.94). Children 6 to <12 months of age were approximately 3 times as likely to have astigmatism than children 5 to 6 years of age (95% CI, 2.28-3.73). Both Hispanic (OR, 2.38) and African-American (OR, 1.47) children were as likely to have astigmatism than non-Hispanic white children. Furthermore, children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were 1.46 times (95% CI, 1.14-1.87) as likely to have astigmatism than children whose mothers did not smoke. In addition to infancy, Hispanic and African-American race/ethnicity and correctable/modifiable risk factors such as myopia, hyperopia, and maternal smoking during pregnancy are associated with a higher risk of having astigmatism. Although the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy is typically low, this association may suggest etiologic pathways for future investigation. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Primary Newcastle disease vaccination of broilers: comparison of the antibody seroresponse and adverse vaccinal reaction after eye-nose drop or coarse spray application, and implication of the results for a previously developed coarse dry powder vaccine.

    PubMed

    Landman, W J M; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; Huyge, K; van Eck, J H H

    2017-08-01

    To compare antibody seroresponse and adverse vaccinal reaction induced by Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination after eye-nose drop or coarse spray, groups of SPF broiler hens were vaccinated at day 4 (day of hatch is day 0) and intratracheally inoculated with Escherichia coli at day 11. Body weight gain (BWG) was assessed between day 4 and day 18; colibacillosis lesions and serum antibodies were determined at day 18. Meaningful comparison requires similar vaccine uptake. Vaccine virus loss during spray relative to eye-nose drop, which was assessed by comparing the results of endpoint titrations, was 3 log10. Colibacillosis lesions in birds spray vaccinated with 10(6.4) EID50/chicken were significantly more severe (P < 0.05), compared to those in birds eye-nose drop vaccinated with 10(3.4) EID50/chicken, while the seroresponse was slightly but significantly (P < 0.05) stronger. Colibacillosis lesion scores inversely paralleled BWG. It is concluded that: (1) There is room to improve the coarse ND vaccine spray used regarding adverse vaccinal reaction, while maintaining a sufficient immune response. This is also applicable to the coarse ND powder vaccine studied in previous research, which induced similar antibody response and adverse vaccinal reaction as the spray vaccine used here. (2) The vaccine virus dose influences the colibacillosis susceptibility at seven days post vaccination, as the dynamics of the vaccine virus infection is likely dose-dependent. (3) Low vaccine virus doses likely result in heterogeneous vaccine-take followed by vaccine virus spread from vaccine shedding birds to their non-vaccine virus infected flock mates ("rolling vaccinal reaction").

  11. An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J. S.; Byington, Jerry G.A.

    2013-05-16

    A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5–20 μm) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m3. Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m3/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10–9 and 1.03 × 10–7 in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10–8 and 3.55 × 10–4 in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10–5 × Spill_Mass–0.667) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10–3 assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.

  12. An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J S; Byington, Jerry G A

    2013-01-01

    A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5-20 μm) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m(3). Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m(3)/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10(-9) and 1.03 × 10(-7) in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10(-8) and 3.55 × 10(-4) in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10(-5) × Spill_Mass(-0.667)) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10(-3) assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.].

  13. Syracuse Univesity Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, Jianshun S.

    2012-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, powder from an accidently dropped container can become airborne and inhaled by people nearby such as those who are moving the containers. The inhaled fine particles can deposit on respiratory tracts and lungs, causing asthma, lung cancer, and other acute respiratory illnesses and chronic symptoms. The objective of this study was to develop a standard procedure to measure the airborne concentrations of different size particles within the vicinity of a dropped container where a significant portion of the contained powder is ejected. Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) was selected in this study to represent relatively heavy powders (7.16 g/cm3 specific gravity for WO{sub 3}). A typical can with the outer dimensions of 4.25” diameter and 4.875” tall was used as the container. The powder was dropped in two different configurations: 1) contained within a can covered by a lid that has a 0.25” diameter hole, and 2) contained within a can without a lid. The packing volume of the powder was 51.4 in3 (842.7 cm{sup 3}) and the target mass was 1936 g. The tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 852 ft3 (24.1 m3). The chamber system includes an internal recirculation loop with a rectangular air diffuser and 10 variable frequency drive fans to provide a typical room air recirculation flow pattern. Two air filters were installed in the chamber air supply duct and return duct to achieve the required low background particle concentration. The initial chamber air conditions were set at 70°F (± 5°F) and 50% (± 10%) RH. A supporting frame and releasing device were designed and built to trigger consistently the dropping of the can. The particle sampling inlet was placed 5 ft above the floor and 6 inches laterally away from the can’s falling path. Concentrations of particles between 0.5 μm and 20 μm were recorded in units of mass and number of particles per unit volume. The data acquisition

  14. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is Increased in Aqueous Humor of Acute Primary Angle-Closure Eyes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenbin; Gao, Xinbo; Chen, Shida; Li, Xingyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Xiulan

    2016-07-01

    To measure and compare the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the aqueous humor of patients with acute primary angle closure (APAC), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and normal cataract (controls). Aqueous humor samples were prospectively collected from 38 APAC eyes, 36 PACG eyes, and 25 nonglaucomatous cataract control eyes. The levels of aqueous humor VEGF were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The clinical characteristics of participants were also collected for correlation analysis. VEGF was detected in aqueous humor samples of 35 of 38 APAC patients (mean±SE of the mean, 935±258 pg/mL), 30 of 36 PACG patients (165±37.5 pg/mL), and 16 of 25 cataract controls (69.5±13.5 pg/mL). The mean concentration of VEGF in APAC eyes was 13.5 and 5.7 times higher than that in controls and PACG eyes, respectively, and these differences were statistically significant (both P<0.0167). In the correlation analysis that included all participants, the aqueous humor VEGF level was found to correlate negatively with axial length (ρ=-0.342, P=0.001), and positively with intraocular pressure (ρ=0.434, P<0.001). VEGF was significantly increased in aqueous humor of APAC eyes. An increase in aqueous humor VEGF may be the result of the characteristic ocular ischemia and hypoxia observed in APAC eyes as a consequence of sudden excessive increases in intraocular pressure during the acute episode.

  15. Interplay of proliferation and differentiation factors is revealed in the early human eye development.

    PubMed

    Matas, Anita; Filipovic, Natalija; Znaor, Ljubo; Mardesic, Snjezana; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Vukojevic, Katarina

    2015-12-01

    Eye development is a consequence of numerous epithelial-to-mesenchymal interactions between the prospective lens ectoderm, outpocketings of the forebrain forming optic vesicles, and surrounding mesenchyme. How different cell types forming eye structures differentiate from their precursors, and which factors coordinate complex human eye development remains largely unknown. Proper differentiation of photoreceptors is of special interest because of their involvement in the appearance of degenerative retinal diseases. Here we analyze the spatiotemporal expression of neuronal markers nestin, protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), and calcium binding protein (S100), proliferation marker (Ki-67), markers for cilia (alpha-tubulin), and cell stemness marker octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4) in histological sections of 5-12 -week human eyes using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence methods. While during the investigated developmental period nestin shows strong expression in all mesenchymal derivatives, lens, optic stalk and inner neuroblastic layer, PGP9.5 and S100 expression characterizes only neural derivatives (optic nerve and neural retina). PGP9.5 is co-localized with nestin and S100 in the differentiating cells of the inner neuroblastic layer. Initially strong proliferation in all parts of the developing eye gradually ceases, especially in the outer neuroblastic layer. Proliferating Ki-67 positive cells co-localize with nestin in the retina, lens, and choroid. Strong Oct-4 and alpha-tubulin immunoreactivity in the retina and optic nerve gradually decreases, while they co-localize in outer neuroblastic and nerve fiber layers. The described expression of investigated markers indicates their importance in eye growth and morphogenesis, while their spatially and temporally restricted pattern coincides with differentiation of initially immature cells into specific retinal cell lineages. Alterations in their spatiotemporal interplay might lead to disturbances

  16. Correlation of fibrosis and transforming growth factor-beta type 2 levels in the eye.

    PubMed

    Connor, T B; Roberts, A B; Sporn, M B; Danielpour, D; Dart, L L; Michels, R G; de Bustros, S; Enger, C; Kato, H; Lansing, M

    1989-05-01

    Approximately 1 out of every 10 eyes undergoing surgery for retinal detachment develops excessive intraocular fibrosis that can lead to traction retinal detachment and ultimate blindness. This disease process has been termed proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The ability to monitor and grade this fibrotic response accurately within the eye as well as the ability to aspirate vitreous cavity fluid bathing the fibrotic tissue makes this an ideal setting in which to investigate the development of fibrosis. Although laboratory studies have recently shown that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) can enhance fibrosis, little clinical evidence is yet available correlating the level of this or other growth factors with the degree of fibrosis in a clinical setting. We have found that vitreous aspirates from eyes with intraocular fibrosis associated with PVR have more than three times the amount of TGF-beta (1,200 +/- 300 pM [SEM]) found in eyes with uncomplicated retinal detachments without intraocular fibrosis (360 +/- 91 pM [SEM]). Using an in vitro assay, 84-100% of the TGF-beta activity could be blocked with specific antibodies against TGF-beta 2, whereas only 10-21% could be blocked by specific antibodies against TGF-beta 1. TGF-beta 1 was used in an animal model of traction retinal detachment. Since beta 1 and beta 2 have essentially identical biologic effects and only human beta 1 was available in quantities required, beta 1 was chosen for these in vivo studies. The injection of TGF-beta1 plus fibronectin (FN) but not TGF-beta1 alone into the vitreous cavity of rabbits resulted in the increased formation of intraocular fibrosis and traction retinal detachments as compared to control eyes. In previous studies, intravitreal FN levels were also found to be elevated in eyes with intraocular fibrosis.

  17. Hypoxia inducible factors are dispensable for myeloid cell migration into the inflamed mouse eye

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Peter J.; Liyanage, Sidath E.; Cristante, Enrico; Sampson, Robert D.; Dick, Andrew D.; Ali, Robin R.; Bainbridge, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are ubiquitously expressed transcription factors important for cell homeostasis during dynamic oxygen levels. Myeloid specific HIFs are crucial for aspects of myeloid cell function, including their ability to migrate into inflamed tissues during autoimmune disease. This contrasts with the concept that accumulation of myeloid cells at ischemic and hypoxic sites results from a lack of chemotactic responsiveness. Here we seek to address the role of HIFs in myeloid trafficking during inflammation in a mouse model of human uveitis. We show using mice with myeloid-specific Cre-deletion of HIFs that myeloid HIFs are dispensable for leukocyte migration into the inflamed eye. Myeloid-specific deletion of Hif1a, Epas1, or both together, had no impact on the number of myeloid cells migrating into the eye. Additionally, stabilization of HIF pathways via deletion of Vhl in myeloid cells had no impact on myeloid trafficking into the inflamed eye. Finally, we chemically induce hypoxemia via hemolytic anemia resulting in HIF stabilization within circulating leukocytes to demonstrate the dispensable role of HIFs in myeloid cell migration into the inflamed eye. These data suggest, contrary to previous reports, that HIF pathways in myeloid cells during inflammation and hypoxia are dispensable for myeloid cell tissue trafficking. PMID:28112274

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for visual impairment in preschool children the sydney paediatric eye disease study.

    PubMed

    Pai, Amy Shih-I; Wang, Jie Jin; Samarawickrama, Chameen; Burlutsky, George; Rose, Kathryn A; Varma, Rohit; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

    2011-08-01

    To assess the prevalence and associations of visual impairment (VI) in preschool children. Cross-sectional, population-based study. A total of 2461 children (73.8% participation rate), aged 6 to 72 months, were examined in the Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study during 2007-2009; of whom 1188, aged 30 to 72 months, with complete visual acuity (VA) data in both eyes, were included in this report. Measurement of VA was attempted on all children using the Electronic Visual Acuity (EVA) system or a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) chart. Visual impairment was defined as presenting VA <20/40 in children aged ≥48 months and <20/50 in those aged <48 months. Post-cycloplegic refraction was measured, and myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) ≤-0.50 diopters (D), hyperopia was defined as SE ≥2.00 D, astigmatism was defined as cylinder ≥1.00 D, and anisometropia was defined as SE difference ≥1.00 D between 2 eyes. Ethnicity, birth parameters, and sociodemographic information were collected in questionnaires completed by parents. Visual impairment prevalence and its associations with child demographic factors and birth parameters. Visual impairment was found in 6.4% of the worse eye and 2.7% of the better eye in our sample. Refractive errors (69.7%) and amblyopia (26.3%) were the principal causes of VI in the worse eye. Astigmatism (51.3%) and hyperopia (28.9%) were the main refractive errors causing VI. In regression analysis controlling for other factors, VI was independently associated with low birthweight of <2500 g (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.3), but not with age, gender, ethnicity, or measures of socioeconomic status (P > 0.05). Visual impairment in at least 1 eye was found in 6.4% of Australian preschool children, with bilateral VI found in 2.7%. Uncorrected refractive errors and amblyopia were the principal ocular conditions associated with VI. Low birthweight was a significant risk factor independent of age

  19. Risk factors for visual field damage progression in normal-tension glaucoma eyes.

    PubMed

    Daugeliene, L; Yamamoto, T; Kitazawa, Y

    1999-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate intraocular or systemic factors associated with the visual field damage progression in eyes with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Forty-seven NTG eyes with a minimum follow-up of 5 years were enrolled into the retrospective study. A stepwise regression analysis was performed to correlate the visual field damage progression, expressed as the mean deviation (MD) change per year, with several independent clinical factors including age, history of disc hemorrhage, initial MD, mean intraocular pressure (IOP), peak IOP, diurnal fluctuation of IOP, presence of a beta zone of peripapillary atrophy, and use of Ca(2+)-channel blockers. Statistical analysis revealed that non-use of Ca(2+)-channel blockers (P = 0.01), peripapillary atrophy (P = 0.03) and disc hemorrhage (P = 0.04) were associated with visual loss progression. Risk factors unrelated to IOP were suggested to be associated with progression of visual field loss. Systemic use of Ca(2+)-channel blockers has a favorable effect on visual field prognosis in NTG eyes.

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dry Eye Syndrome in a United States Veterans Affairs Population

    PubMed Central

    GALOR, ANAT; FEUER, WILLIAM; LEE, DAVID J.; FLOREZ, HERMES; CARTER, DAVID; POUYEH, BOZORGMEHR; PRUNTY, WILLIAM J.; PEREZ, VICTOR L.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the prevalence of dry eye syndrome (DES) and its associated risk factors in a US Veterans Affairs population receiving ocular care services. DESIGN Retrospective study. METHODS SETTINGS Patients were seen in the Miami and Broward Veterans Affairs eye clinics between 2005 and 2010. PATIENTS POPULATION Patients were divided into cases and controls with regard to their dry eye status (cases = ICD9 code for DES plus dry eye therapy; controls = patients without ICD9 code plus no therapy). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The prevalence of DES and its associated risk factors. RESULTS A total of 16 862 patients were identified as either a dry eye case (n = 2056) or control (n = 14 806). Overall, 12% of male and 22% of female patients had a diagnosis of DES, with female gender imparting a 2.40 increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.04–2.81) over male gender. Several medical conditions were found to increase DES risk including post-traumatic stress disorder (odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% CI 1.75–2.23), depression (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.73–2.10), thyroid disease (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.46–2.26), and sleep apnea (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.97–2.46) (all analyses adjusted for gender and age). The use of several systemic medications, including anti-depressant medications (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.79–2.17), anti-anxiety medication (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.58–1.91), and anti–benign prostatic hyperplasia medications (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.51–1.86), was likewise associated with an increased risk of DES. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of DES was found to be high in both men and women in our eye care population. This is the first study to demonstrate that in a veteran population, several diagnoses were significantly associated with DES, including post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. PMID:21684522

  1. Incidence, severity and factors related to drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy with glaucoma medications

    PubMed Central

    Fukuchi, Takeo; Wakai, Kimiko; Suda, Kieko; Nakatsue, Tomoko; Sawada, Hideko; Hara, Hiroaki; Ueda, Jun; Tanaka, Takayuki; Yamada, Akiko; Abe, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the incidence, severity, and factors related to drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy in eyes using antiglaucoma eye drops. Patients and methods In a cross-sectional study, 749 eyes from 427 patients who had used one or more antiglaucoma eye drops were examined at Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital or related facilities. The incidence and severity of superficial punctate keratitis (SPK), patient gender and age, type of glaucoma, and type of eye drops were recorded. SPK was graded according to the AD (A, area; D, density) classification. The severity score (SS) was calculated from A × D. Results SPK was observed in 382 (51.0%) of 749 eyes that had received any type of antiglaucoma eye drops. While 254 eyes (33.9%) were classified as A1D1 (SS 1), 34 eyes (4.6%) had severe SPK with SS 4 or more. The number of eye drops and the total dosing frequency per day were significantly greater in SPK-positive eyes than in eyes without SPK. The number of eye drops was proportional to the frequency and severity of SPK. Among eyes that were treated with three or more eye drops, SPK was more severe and more frequent in older patients (≥71 years). In addition, a considerable difference was detected for each type of glaucoma. Conclusion Drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy is often observed in eyes that have received recent antiglaucoma eye drops. The number of eye drops, the total dose frequency per day, patient age, and type of glaucoma may affect this condition. We have to consider not only the effects on intraocular pressure but also the incidence and severity of drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy as a frequent side effect of glaucoma medications. PMID:20463785

  2. Incidence, severity and factors related to drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy with glaucoma medications.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Takeo; Wakai, Kimiko; Suda, Kieko; Nakatsue, Tomoko; Sawada, Hideko; Hara, Hiroaki; Ueda, Jun; Tanaka, Takayuki; Yamada, Akiko; Abe, Haruki

    2010-04-26

    To evaluate the incidence, severity, and factors related to drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy in eyes using antiglaucoma eye drops. In a cross-sectional study, 749 eyes from 427 patients who had used one or more antiglaucoma eye drops were examined at Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital or related facilities. The incidence and severity of superficial punctate keratitis (SPK), patient gender and age, type of glaucoma, and type of eye drops were recorded. SPK was graded according to the AD (A, area; D, density) classification. The severity score (SS) was calculated from A x D. SPK was observed in 382 (51.0%) of 749 eyes that had received any type of antiglaucoma eye drops. While 254 eyes (33.9%) were classified as A1D1 (SS 1), 34 eyes (4.6%) had severe SPK with SS 4 or more. The number of eye drops and the total dosing frequency per day were significantly greater in SPK-positive eyes than in eyes without SPK. The number of eye drops was proportional to the frequency and severity of SPK. Among eyes that were treated with three or more eye drops, SPK was more severe and more frequent in older patients (>/=71 years). In addition, a considerable difference was detected for each type of glaucoma. Drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy is often observed in eyes that have received recent antiglaucoma eye drops. The number of eye drops, the total dose frequency per day, patient age, and type of glaucoma may affect this condition. We have to consider not only the effects on intraocular pressure but also the incidence and severity of drug-induced keratoepitheliopathy as a frequent side effect of glaucoma medications.

  3. Drop dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The drop dynamics module is a Spacelab-compatible acoustic positioning and control system for conducting drop dynamics experiments in space. It consists basically of a chamber, a drop injector system, an acoustic positioning system, and a data collection system. The principal means of collecting data is by a cinegraphic camera. The drop is positioned in the center of the chamber by forces created by standing acoustic waves generated in the nearly cubical chamber (about 12 cm on a side). The drop can be spun or oscillated up to fission by varying the phse and amplitude of the acoustic waves. The system is designed to perform its experiments unattended, except for start-up and shutdown events and other unique events that require the attention of the Spacelab payload specialist.

  4. Student Voices: Students' Perceptions of Factors Placing Them at Risk of Dropping Out of School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Patricia M.

    People worry about dropouts because they believe that leaving high school before graduation is detrimental, both to the individual and to society. This view does not include students' view of the situation, and in order to clarify students' perceptions of at-risk factors, qualitative data on high school seniors were collected. The central question…

  5. Factors Influencing a Learner's Decision to Drop-Out or Persist in Higher Education Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies conducted on dropouts within online courses have found inconsistent factors affecting attrition. A literature review was performed, focusing on eight main studies. These studies were performed at both national and international universities. The methodology, participants, research question, and results varied by study. Overall,…

  6. Factors Influencing a Learner's Decision to Drop-Out or Persist in Higher Education Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies conducted on dropouts within online courses have found inconsistent factors affecting attrition. A literature review was performed, focusing on eight main studies. These studies were performed at both national and international universities. The methodology, participants, research question, and results varied by study. Overall,…

  7. Expression of transforming growth factor-β2in vitreous body and adjacent tissues during prenatal development of human eye.

    PubMed

    Sukhikh, G T; Panova, I G; Smirnova, Yu A; Milyushina, L A; Firsova, N V; Markitantova, Yu V; Poltavtseva, R A; Zinov'eva, R D

    2010-12-01

    Expression of transforming growth factor-β2 was detected by PCR in the vitreous body, lens, retina, and ciliary-iris complex of human eye at early stages of fetal development. Immunochemical assay of the corresponding protein in eye tissues revealed a correlation between the localization of transforming growth factor-β2 and the development of intraocular hyaloid vascular network, its regression, formation of the vitreous body, and development of definite retinal vessels.

  8. Metabolic syndrome risk factors and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ye-Lei; Cheng, Ya-Lan; Ren, Yu-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Ning; Shentu, Xing-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the relationship between metabolic risk factors and dry eye syndrome (DES). METHODS Retrieved studies on the association of metabolic syndrome risk factors (hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and hyperlipidemia) and DES were collected from PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library in December 2015. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the final relationship. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to diagnostic criteria of DES. RESULTS Nine cross-sectional studies and three case-control studies were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that people with hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia had a higher risk of suffering from DES (P<0.05), especially the typical DES symptoms. On the other hand, obesity did not increase the risk of DES. CONCLUSION The present Meta-analysis suggests that all metabolic risk factors except obesity were risk factors for DES. PMID:27500114

  9. Case-control study of risk factors for no light perception after open-globe injury: eye injury vitrectomy study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kang; Shen, Lijun; Pang, Xiuqin; Jiang, Yanrong; Nie, Hongping; Wang, Zhijun; Hu, Yuntao; Ma, Zhizhong

    2011-11-01

    Investigate possible risk factors of no light perception (NLP) after open-globe injury. Explore whether these risk factors are predictors for an unfavorable visual outcome. This case-control study matched 72 eyes with NLP according to type and zone of injury to 2 controls per case with light perception or better vision. Cases were selected from the Eye Injury Vitrectomy Study database. All injured eyes in the study underwent surgical intervention. Ciliary body damage (odds ratio = 2.94), closed funnel retinal detachment (odds ratio = 2.43), and choroidal damage (odds ratio = 2.80) were independent risk factors for NLP after open-globe injury. There were 67 traumatized eyes with NLP that had ≥1 of these risk factors. In 43 of the cases (64.2%), the eyes recovered light perception or better after vitreoretinal surgery. The five traumatized NLP cases without these risk factors obtained a favorable visual outcome after vitreoretinal surgery. There was no statistical significance in visual outcome between them (P = 0.162). Ciliary body damage, closed funnel retinal detachment, and choroidal damage are independent risk factors for NLP posttrauma but not prognostic indicators for NLP visual outcome. Traumatized eyes with NLP may recover light perception or better vision if appropriate interventional measures are used for treatment of the injured ciliary body, retina, and choroid.

  10. Long-Term Results and Prognostic Factors of Fractionated Strontium-90 Eye Applicator for Pterygium

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo Stefano, Eduardo Jose; Fendi, Ligia Issa de; Carrara Fonseca, Ellen

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term safety, effectiveness, and prognostic factors of fractionated postoperative {beta}-irradiation. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2005, 623 patients with 737 pterygium lesions were treated with a strontium-90 eye applicator after surgical excision. The median follow-up period was 60 months (range, 6.7-139.5). Of the 737 lesions, 644 were primary and 93 were recurrences after surgical removal alone. Fractionated radiotherapy (RT) to a total dose of 35 Gy in five to seven fractions was used. Results: A total of 73 local pterygium recurrences (9.9%) were noted. Of the recurrent cases, 80% were noted within 3 years after treatment. The 5- and 10-year probability of local control was 90% and 88%, respectively. The multivariate analysis for all cases demonstrated that gender, age, total radiation dose, recurrent pterygia, and interval between surgery and RT affected the overall local control rate. Late toxicities that might have been associated with strontium-90 RT included scleromalacia (scleral thinning) in nine eyes, adhesion of the eyelids in eight, cataracts in six, and scleral ulcer in five eyes. Conclusion: Fractionated strontium-90 RT to a total dose of approximately 35 Gy in five to seven fractions results in a similar local control rate as higher doses in other series, with an acceptable complication rate.

  11. Guanethidine--adrenaline eye drops in glaucoma simplex production and outflow of the aqueous humour during a long-term treatment.

    PubMed

    Hoyng, P F; Dake, C L

    1980-10-15

    A comparative tonographic study was performed in 10 primary open angle glaucoma patients (15 eyes) and 7 patients with suspected glaucoma (14 eyes) during a 7-months' period. The patients were treated twice daily with guanethidine 3% and adrenaline 0.5% (GA). The fall in intraocular pressure (IOP) of 44% in primary open angle glucoma patients was mainly due to an inhibition of aqueous humour production (54%; p < 0.005) and to a lesser extent an increase in outflow facility. In the suspected glaucoma patients, the fall in IOP of 43% was due to an inhibition of the aqueous rate (46%; p < 0.005) and to an increase in outflow facility (64%; p < 0.005). The increase in outflow facility during treatment was significantly different between both groups of patients. It suggests degeneration of the receptors mediating outflow mechanism in the patients with open angle glaucoma. For both groups of patients it is shown that during treatment with GA there is not only a supersensitivity for adrenaline 0.5% of the mechanisms that mediate the inhibition of the aqueous rate, but also of the mechanisms that mediate outflow facility.

  12. [Severe open-globe eye injuries: socio-demographic aspects and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Puodziuviene, Edita; Paunksnis, Alvydas

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate sociodemographic aspects and risk factors of severe open-globe ocular injuries. We present data from prospective study of 315 patients with severe open-globe ocular injuries, meeting inclusion criteria. The patients in our series were predominantly male (92.70%). The male to female ratio was 12.7:1. Almost 27% of the patients were from the age group of 30-39 years. Home (53.65%), streets and highways (19.05%) were the most common place of injury, followed by industrial premises (11.11%), agricultural activities (8.25%), recreation and sports (5.40%); 15.56% of cases were work-related. Sharp objects (43.17%) and hammering on metal (24.44%) were the two major causes of injury. Alcohol intoxication was observed in 13.65% of cases. Severe open-globe eye injuries were classified into four categories: penetrating injuries (56.83%), perforating injuries (2.54%), globe ruptures (12.38 %), and IOFB injuries (28.25%). Males suffered significantly more often than females in the age of 20-29 (OR=1.39+/-95% CI 1.10-1.75, P<0.01) and 30-39-year (OR=1.75+/-95% PI 1.45-2.22, P<0.01). Risk factors of severe open-globe eye injuries for male gender were living in urban setting (P=0.001), alcohol use (P=0.001), occupation--unemployed (P=0.001) and retired persons (P=0.011). Risk factors for male gender to sustain severe open-globe eye injury were living in urban setting, alcohol use, and occupation (unemployed and retired persons).

  13. Intensive language learning and increases in rapid eye movement sleep: evidence of a performance factor.

    PubMed

    De Koninck, J; Lorrain, D; Christ, G; Proulx, G; Coulombe, D

    1989-09-01

    Ten anglophone students taking a 6-week French immersion course were recorded in the sleep laboratory during 4 consecutive nights before the course, during the course and after the course. There was a positive and significant (P less than 0.05) correlation between language learning efficiency and increases in the percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep from pre-course to course periods. This observation suggests that learning performance may be an important factor in the relationship between information processing and REM sleep.

  14. Effect of trapping vascular endothelial growth factor-A in a murine model of dry eye with inflammatory neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jin Woo; Choi, Jin A; Shin, Eun Young; La, Tae Yoon; Jee, Dong Hyun; Chung, Yeon Woong; Cho, Yang Kyung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate whether trapping vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) would suppress angiogenesis and inflammation in dry eye corneas in a murine corneal suture model. METHODS We established two groups of animals, one with non-dry eyes and the other with induced dry eyes. In both groups, a corneal suture model was used to induce inflammation and neovascularization. Each of two groups was again divided into three subgroups according to the treatment; subgroup I (aflibercept), subgroup II (dexamethasone) and subgroup III (phosphate buffered saline, PBS). Corneas were harvested and immunohistochemical staining was performed to compare the extents of neovascularization and CD11b+ cell infiltration. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify the expression of inflammatory cytokines and VEGF-A in the corneas. RESULTS Trapping VEGF-A with aflibercept resulted in significantly decreased angiogenesis and inflammation compared with the dexamethasone and PBS treatments in the dry eye corneas (all P<0.05), but with no such effects in non-dry eyes. The anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of VEGF-A trapping were stronger than those of dexamethasone in both dry eye and non-dry eye corneas (all P<0.05). The levels of RNA expression of VEGF-A, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 in the aflibercept subgroup were significantly decreased compared with those in the PBS subgroup in the dry eye group. CONCLUSION Compared with non-dry eye corneas, dry eye corneas have greater amounts of inflammation and neovascularization and also have a more robust response to anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic agents after ocular surface surgery. Trapping VEGF-A is effective in decreasing both angiogenesis and inflammation in dry eye corneas after ocular surface surgery. PMID:27990354

  15. Prevalence, risk factors, and morbidity of eye lid laxity in a veteran population.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Zubair; Singh, Roshni; Alabiad, Chrisfouad; Galor, Anat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study prevalence, risk factors, and morbidity of eyelid laxity in a veteran population. This prospective cross-sectional study with a retrospective chart review included 150 subjects evaluated from either an outpatient eye clinic or a geriatric clinic at the Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital from June through August 2013. Clinical data were gathered from a questionnaire and a computerized medical record system including demographics, medical history, and ocular irritation history. Upper and lower eyelid laxity was clinically graded. Main outcome measures were prevalence of eyelid laxity, risk factors for its presence, and its correlation to ocular surface symptoms. Fifty-four percent of participants (n = 81) had laxity (grade 1 or higher) in either upper and/or lower eyelids. Risk factors for eyelid laxity in our population included older age, higher body mass index, and a diagnosis of sleep apnea. Patients with any eyelid laxity (grade 1 or more in any eyelid) had a 2.23-fold risk of severe ocular surface symptoms (score of 12 or higher on the dry eye questionnaire 5) compared with those without laxity (95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.31; P = 0.017), and this was primarily driven by the presence of upper eyelid laxity. We found high prevalence of eyelid laxity in our population, and its presence was associated with significant ocular surface morbidity. This study reinforces the need to incorporate dynamic eyelid testing into ophthalmic examination in patients with ocular surface discomfort.

  16. Prevalence, risk factors, and morbidity of eye lid laxity in a veteran population

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Zubair; Singh, Roshni; Alabiad, Chrisfouad; Galor, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the prevalence, risk factors, and morbidity of eyelid laxity in a veteran population Design Prospective, cross sectional study with retrospective chart review Participants 150 subjects were evaluated from either an outpatient eye or a geriatric clinic at the Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital from June through August 2013. Methods Clinical data were gathered from a questionnaire and a computerized medical record system including demographics, medical history, and ocular irritation history. Upper and lower eyelid laxity was clinically graded. Main Outcome Measures The prevalence of eyelid laxity, risk factors for its presence, and its correlation to ocular surface symptoms. Results Fifty-four percent of participants (n=81) had laxity (grade 1 or higher) in either the upper and/or lower eyelids. Risk factors for eyelid laxity in our population included older age, higher body mass index (BMI), and a diagnosis of sleep apnea. Patients with any eyelid laxity (grade 1 or more in any eyelid) had a 2.23 fold risk of severe ocular surface symptoms (score of 12 or higher on the Dry Eye Questionnaire 5) compared to those without laxity (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-4.31, p=0.017), and this was primarily driven by the presence of upper eyelid laxity. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of eyelid laxity in our population, and its presence was associated with significant ocular surface morbidity. This study reinforces the need to incorporate dynamic eyelid testing into the ophthalmic exam in patients with ocular surface discomfort. PMID:25357078

  17. Pressure Drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Mike Lawson briefly discussed pressure drop for aerospace applications and presented short stories about adventures experienced while working at NASA and General Dynamics, including exposure to technologies like the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart and the SWME.

  18. Factors for drop-out psychiatric treatment in patients with substance-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Naoko; Toyomasu, Koji

    2010-01-01

    We studied 199 inpatients and outpatients at a public psychiatric hospital to clarify the factors related to outcome following psychiatric care for substance-related disorder (SRD), and we discuss approaches for more effective community care in the future. The percentage of patients who discontinued treatment was 33.7%, suggesting that creation of a follow-up system for continuing outpatient care is an urgent task. Women were 35% more likely higher to discontinue treatment than men. Those with solvent dependence were 12% and 7.32 times more likely, respectively, to discontinue treatment than those with alcohol dependence. Those without complications were 2.24 times more likely than those with complications to discontinue treatment. Divorced patients were 18% and 6.35 times more likely, respectively, to discontinue treatment than married patients. There is insufficient support for patients with solvent dependence, and we observed that patients tended to have little motivation to stop using drugs or alcohol until physical complications occurred. Among the many divorced patients, desire for treatment was weak following breakdown of the family. The present findings suggest the importance of comprehensive efforts to treat substance use disorder at specialist medical institutions.

  19. CoQ10-containing eye drops prevent UVB-induced cornea cell damage and increase cornea wound healing by preserving mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Mencucci, Rita; Favuzza, Eleonora; Boccalini, Carlotta; Lapucci, Andrea; Felici, Roberta; Resta, Francesco; Chiarugi, Alberto; Cavone, Leonardo

    2014-10-09

    We evaluated the potential protective effects of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on human corneal cells and rabbit eyes after ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure and a model of wound healing in rabbit eyes after corneal epithelium removal. Human corneal epithelium cells (HCE) were exposed to a source of UVB radiation (312 nM) in the presence of different CoQ10 concentrations or vehicle. The mitochondrial function and cell survival were evaluated by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT) reduction and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Furthermore, quantitation of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential were conducted. In vivo rabbit models were adopted to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 on UVB-induced conjunctival vessel hyperemia and corneal recovery after ethanol induced corneal lesion. In UVB-exposed HCE cells, CoQ10 addition led to an increased survival rate and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, oxygen consumption was maintained at control levels and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) decline was completely prevented in the CoQ10-treated cells. Interestingly, in an in vivo model, CoQ10 was able dose-dependently to reduce UVB-induced vessel hyperemia. Finally, in a model of corneal epithelium removal, 12 hours from surgery, animals treated with CoQ10 showed a reduction of damaged area in respect to vehicle controls, which lasted until 48 hours. We demonstrated that CoQ10 reduces corneal damages after UVB exposure in vivo and in vitro by preserving mitochondrial function. Also, for the first time to our knowledge we showed that the administration of CoQ10 after corneal epithelium removal promotes corneal wound healing. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  20. In vivo gene delivery into ocular tissues by eye drops of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Liaw, J; Chang, S F; Hsiao, F C

    2001-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using PEO-PPO-PEO non-ionic copolymeric micelles as a carrier for eye-drop gene delivery of plasmid DNA with lacZ gene in vivo. Using pyrene fluorescence probe methods, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering test (DLS), the ability of micelle formation of these block copolymers with plasmid was studied. Gene expressions were visualized by both the quality of enzymatic color reaction using X-gal staining and by the quantification of the substrate chlorophenol red galactopyranoside (CPRG) in enucleated eyes on day 2 after gene transfer. In addition, microscopy to identify the types of cell showing uptake and expression of the transferred gene was used. We found that the block polymeric micelles were formed above 0.1% (w/v) of block copolymer with a size of 160 nm and a zeta potential of -4.4 mV. After 2 days of topically delivery three times a day, the most intense gene expression was observed on days 2 and 3. Reporter expression was detected around the iris, sclera, conjunctiva, and lateral rectus muscle of rabbit eyes and also in the intraocular tissues of nude mice upon in vivo topical application for 48 h with a DNA/polymeric micelle formulation. Furthermore, after two enhancement treatments, the transport mechanisms of the block copolymeric micelles were found through endocytosis in tissues by enhancement through the tight junction pathway. Thus, efficient and stable transfer of the functional gene could be achieved with PEO-PPO-PEO polymeric micelles through topical delivery in mice and rabbits. These in vivo experiments indicate the possible potential use of block copolymers for DNA transfer.

  1. Factor Structure of Attention Capacities Measured With Eye-Tracking Tasks in 18-Month-Old Toddlers.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Marjanneke; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hooge, Ignace T C; van Baar, Anneloes L

    2016-03-01

    Attention capacities are critical for adaptive functioning and development. Reliable assessment measures are needed for the study of attention capacities in early childhood. In the current study, we investigated the factor structure of the Utrecht Tasks of Attention in Toddlers Using Eye-tracking (UTATE) test battery that assesses attention capacities in 18-month-old toddlers with eye-tracking techniques. The factor structure of 13 measures of attention capacities, based on four eye-tracking tasks, was investigated in a sample of 95 healthy toddlers (18 months of age) using confirmatory factor analysis. Results showed that a three-factor model best fitted the data. The latent constructs reflected an orienting, alerting, and executive attention system. This study showed support for a three-factor model of attention capacities in 18-month-old toddlers. Further study is needed to investigate whether the model can also be used with children at risk of attention problems. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Eye Health

    PubMed Central

    Connell, A. M. S.

    1988-01-01

    The status of eye care in the Caribbean is discussed. Methods of primary eye care providers at all levels from primary to tertiary in the region are presented against a background of the major causes of blindness, cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Epidemiological surveys examining prevalence, risk factors, and intervention programs are being undertaken. PMID:3404562

  3. Ketorolac eye drops reduce inflammation and delay re-epithelization in response to corneal alkali burn in rabbits, without affecting iNOS or MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Lima, Tiago Barbalho; Ribeiro, Alexandre Pinto; Conceição, Luciano Fernandes da; Bandarra, Marcio; Manrique, Wilson Gomez; Laus, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine without preservatives on the expression of iNOS and MMP-9 in alkali burn ulcers. Twelve eyes of 120-day-old male rabbits were treated (TG) every 6 h with 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine and 12 other eyes were treated with saline solution (CG), immediately after the occurrence of ulcers by 1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Re-epithelialization was monitored using fluorescein every 6 h. After 24 h, six corneas (n=6) of each group were collected (M1). The others (n=6) were collected after reepithelialization (M2). At both moments, the inflammatory infiltrate and the conditions of the newly formed epithelium were histologically analyzed. iNOS and MMP-9 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Mean epithelialization time in TG was 55 ± 0.84 h. In CG, it was 44 ± 1.06 h (p=0.001). At M1, corneas of TG had lower inflammatory exudation compared with (p <0.001). At M2, TG revealed discrete inflammatory exudation (p>0.05) and lower numbers of epithelial layers compared with CG. The mean iNOS in stromal cells did not differ in TG over both moments compared with CG (p>0.05) At M2, the central corneal region expressed more iNOS in both groups compared with the peripheral region. No significant differences were observed in iNOS scores of epithelial immunostaining between the groups and across M1 and M2 (p=0.69). Epithelial immunostaining scores for MMP-9 did not differ in TG compared with CG (p=0.69). The average immunostaining score of MMP-9 in stromal cells showed no differences between groups or moments. There was no correlation between immunostaining of iNOS and MMP-9 or between the amount of inflammatory cells and immunostaining of iNOS. Use of 0.5% keratolac tromethamine reduced inflammation and delayed reepithelialization in a cornea alkali burn model without impacting the expression of iNOS or MMP-9.

  4. Potential Eye Drop Based on a Calix[4]arene Nanoassembly for Curcumin Delivery: Enhanced Drug Solubility, Stability, and Anti-Inflammatory Effect.

    PubMed

    Granata, Giuseppe; Paterniti, Irene; Geraci, Corrada; Cunsolo, Francesca; Esposito, Emanuela; Cordaro, Marika; Blanco, Anna Rita; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Consoli, Grazia M L

    2017-05-01

    Curcumin is an Indian spice with a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities but poor aqueous solubility, rapid degradation, and low bioavailability that affect medical benefits. To overcome these limits in ophthalmic application, curcumin was entrapped in a polycationic calix[4]arene-based nanoaggregate by a simple and reproducible method. The calix[4]arene-curcumin supramolecular assembly (Calix-Cur) appeared as a clear colloidal solution consisting in micellar nanoaggregates with size, polydispersity index, surface potential, and drug loading percentage meeting the requirements for an ocular drug delivery system. The encapsulation in the calix[4]arene nanoassembly markedly enhanced the solubility, reduced the degradation, and improved the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin compared to free curcumin in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Calix-Cur did not compromise the viability of J774A.1 macrophages and suppressed pro-inflammatory marker expression in J774A.1 macrophages subjected to LPS-induced oxidative stress. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses showed that Calix-Cur reduced signs of inflammation in a rat model of LPS-induced uveitis when topically administrated in the eyes. Overall, the results supported the calix[4]arene nanoassembly as a promising nanocarrier for delivering curcumin to anterior ocular tissues.

  5. Kidney and eye diseases: common risk factors, etiological mechanisms, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chee Wai; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2014-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease is an emerging health problem worldwide. The eye shares striking structural, developmental, and genetic pathways with the kidney, suggesting that kidney disease and ocular disease may be closely linked. A growing number of studies have found associations of chronic kidney disease with age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and cataract. In addition, retinal microvascular parameters have been shown to be predictive of chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease shares common vascular risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity, and pathogenetic mechanisms including inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and microvascular dysfunction, with ocular diseases supporting the 'Common Soil Hypothesis.' In this review, we present major epidemiological evidence for these associations and explore underlying pathogenic mechanisms and common risk factors for kidney and ocular disease. Understanding the link between kidney and ocular disease can lead to the development of new treatment and screening strategies for both diseases.

  6. Canalicular lacerations: Factors predicting outcome at a tertiary eye care centre.

    PubMed

    Singh, Swati; Ganguly, Anasua; Hardas, Apurva; Tripathy, Devjyoti; Rath, Suryasnata

    2017-02-01

    To determine the factors predictive of outcome in canalicular laceration repair at a tertiary eye care centre. A retrospective review of the medical records of all primary canalicular laceration repairs managed at a tertiary eye care centre between the years 2006 and 2014 was done. Thirty-nine patients were included and majority were male (79.5%) with a mean age of 30.05 + 16.2 years (range 2-65). Most (n = 34) had monocanalicular laceration and 5 had bicanalicular laceration. All surgeries were done in the operating room setting. Overall patency by irrigation was seen in 74.4% at a median follow-up of 19.89 weeks (range 21-910). Anatomical outcome was different among the stents and best after Mini-Monoka monocanalicular stent (17/19; 89.5%) followed by bicanalicular annular stents (n = 6; 60%) and 20G Silicone rod (8/14, 57%). The factors predictive of poor outcome were related to the mode of injury [road traffic accidents; Hazard ratio (HR)19.57; p = 0.048] and the type of stent [20G silicone rod (HR 35.7; C.I 3.04 - 419.14; p = 0.004)] by multivariate analysis. Skill of the surgeon was critical as the outcome for fellows-in-training showed a trend towards failure (HR 6.66, p = 0.07). Complications included stent extrusion (n = 28.2%), punctal granuloma (n = 5.1%) and stent exposure (n = 2.5%). The mode of injury - road traffic accidents and type of stent - 20 G silicone rod were risk factors predictive of poorer outcome after canalicular laceration repair. Individual skill of operating surgeon may be a critical factor suggesting a review of training protocols.

  7. Analyses of Factors Affecting Endothelial Cell Density in an Eye Bank Corneal Donor Database.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Won; Cho, Kyong Jin; Kim, Hong Kyu; Lee, Jimmy K; Gore, Patrick K; McCartney, Mitchell D; Chuck, Roy S

    2016-09-01

    To analyze the factors affecting central corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) in an eye bank corneal donor database. The Lion's Eye Institute corneal donor database consisting of 18,665 donors (34,234 corneas) aged 20 years or older was analyzed. In particular, differences in the ECD based on age, sex, race, prior ocular surgery, a history of systemic diseases, and smoking were investigated. Furthermore, risk factors for donor cell count inadequacy (defined here as ECD less than 2000/mm) were identified. ECD decreased with age. Regarding race, the average ECD of African American donors was higher than those of white or Hispanic donors. A history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and ocular surgery were associated with a lower ECD. Donor medical history of hypertension, glaucoma, depression, dementia, Parkinson disease, hyper- or hypothyroidism, or smoking did not seem to affect the ECD. The risk factors for donor cell count inadequacy, based on binary logistic regression analyses were advanced age [65-74 years yielded an odds ratio of 17.8; confidence interval (CI), 10.6-29.8; P < 0.001; and 75-99 years yielded an odds ratio of 24.6 (CI, 14.5-41.61; P < 0.001) when compared with 20-34 years], cataract surgery (odds ratio, 4.3; CI, 4.0-4.8; P < 0.001), and DM (odds ratio, 1.2; CI, 1.1-1.3; P = 0.001). Age, race, ocular surgery (cataract and refractive), and DM seem to significantly affect donor corneal ECD. Of these variables, age, a history of cataract surgery, and DM were found to be the greatest risk factors for inadequate donor cell density (less than 2000/mm).

  8. Factors influencing the decision to drop out of health insurance enrolment among urban slum dwellers in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Atinga, Roger A; Abiiro, Gilbert Abotisem; Kuganab-Lem, Robert Bella

    2015-03-01

    To identify the factors influencing dropout from Ghana's health insurance scheme among populations living in slum communities. Cross-sectional data were collected from residents of 22 slums in the Accra Metropolitan Assembly. Cluster and systematic random sampling techniques were used to select and interview 600 individuals who had dropped out from the scheme 6 months prior to the study. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models were computed to account for sample characteristics and reasons associated with the decision to dropout. The proportion of dropouts in the sample increased from the range of 6.8% in 2008 to 34.8% in 2012. Non-affordability of premium was the predominant reason followed by rare illness episodes, limited benefits of the scheme and poor service quality. Low-income earners and those with low education were significantly more likely to report premium non-affordability. Rare illness was a common reason among younger respondents, informal sector workers and respondents with higher education. All subgroups of age, education, occupation and income reported nominal benefits of the scheme as a reason for dropout. Interventions targeted at removing bottlenecks to health insurance enrolment are salient to maximising the size of the insurance pool. Strengthening service quality and extending the premium exemption to cover low-income families in slum communities is a valuable strategy to achieve universal health coverage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor trap-eye and trap technology: Aflibercept from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Al-Halafi, Ali M

    2014-09-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) currently used to treat eye diseases have included monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments, and an aptamer. A different method of achieving VEGF blockade in retinal diseases includes the concept of a cytokine trap. Cytokine traps technology are being evaluated for the treatment of various diseases that are driven by excessive cytokine levels. Traps consist of two extracellular cytokine receptor domains fused together to form a human immunoglobulin G (IgG). Aflibercept/VEGF trap-eye (VTE) is a soluble fusion protein, which combines ligand-binding elements taken from the extracellular components of VEGF receptors 1 and 2 fused to the Fc portion of IgG. This protein contains all human amino acid sequences, which minimizes the potential for immunogenicity in human patients. This review presents the latest data on VTE in regard to the pharmacokinetics, dosage and safety, preclinical and clinical experiences. Method of the literature search: A systematic search of the literature was conducted on PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar with no limitation on language or year of publication databases. It was oriented to articles published for VTE in preclinical and clinical studies and was focused on the pharmacokinetics, dosage and safety of VTE.

  10. Open globe eye injury characteristics and prognostic factors in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Makhrash, Mashaal A.; Gosadi, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate characteristics and prognostic factors of open globe injuries (OGI) presented to King Fahad Specialist Hospital in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods This study is a retrospective review of medical records of OGI patients who underwent operative repair of their injuries in King Fahad Central Hospital, Jazan, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and December 2013. Demographic information, eye injury, preoperative, and postoperative visual acuity were collected. The initial and final visual acuity outcomes were compared to identify subjects who witnessed any improvement in their visual acuity. Logistic regression was used to assess characteristics associated with improvements in the visual acuity. Results Number of included cases was 120. Most frequently reported causes of injury were blunt trauma (20%) and shattered glass (18.3%). Approximately half of the cases were reported to have iris injuries or hyphema. Most cases suffered penetration (37.5%) of the eye globe. Only zone I injury was significantly associated with better visual acuity outcomes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.447, p=0.036). Among the variables that were associated with poorer prognostic outcomes, only aphakia (OR: 0.180), retinal damage (OR: 0.062), vitreous hemorrhage (OR: 0.266), and zone III injuries (OR: 0.092) were statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion Zone I injury appears to have a better prognostic effect on visual acuity where injuries related to Zone III were associated with worse prognostic outcomes. PMID:27874147

  11. Identification of Transcriptional Targets of the Dual Function Transcription Factor/Phosphatase Eyes Absent

    PubMed Central

    Jemc, Jennifer; Rebay, Ilaria

    2007-01-01

    Drosophila eye specification and development relies on a collection of transcription factors termed the retinal determination gene network (RDGN). Two members of this network, Eyes absent (EYA) and Sine oculis (SO), form a transcriptional complex in which EYA provides the transactivation function while SO provides the DNA binding activity. EYA also functions as a protein tyrosine phosphatase, raising the question of whether transcriptional output is dependent or independent of phosphatase activity. To explore this, we used microarrays together with binding site analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, genetics and in vivo expression analysis to identify new EYA-SO targets. In parallel, we examined the expression profiles of tissue expressing phosphatase mutant eya and found that reducing phosphatase activity did not globally impair transcriptional output. Among the targets identified by our analysis was the cell cycle regulatory gene, string (stg), suggesting that EYA and SO may influence cell proliferation through transcriptional regulation of stg. Future investigation into the regulation of stg and other EYA-SO targets identified in this study will help elucidate the transcriptional circuitries whereby output from the RDGN integrates with other signaling inputs to coordinate retinal development. PMID:17714699

  12. Open globe eye injury characteristics and prognostic factors in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Makhrash, Mashaal A; Gosadi, Ibrahim M

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate characteristics and prognostic factors of open globe injuries (OGI) presented to King Fahad Specialist Hospital in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.  Methods: This study is a retrospective review of medical records of OGI patients who underwent operative repair of their injuries in King Fahad Central Hospital, Jazan, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and December 2013. Demographic information, eye injury, preoperative, and postoperative visual acuity were collected. The initial and final visual acuity outcomes were compared to identify subjects who witnessed any improvement in their visual acuity. Logistic regression was used to assess characteristics associated with improvements in the visual acuity.  Results: Number of included cases was 120. Most frequently reported causes of injury were blunt trauma (20%) and shattered glass (18.3%). Approximately half of the cases were reported to have iris injuries or hyphema. Most cases suffered penetration (37.5%) of the eye globe. Only zone I injury was significantly associated with better visual acuity outcomes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.447, p=0.036). Among the variables that were associated with poorer prognostic outcomes, only aphakia (OR: 0.180), retinal damage (OR: 0.062), vitreous hemorrhage (OR: 0.266), and zone III injuries (OR: 0.092) were statistically significant (p less than 0.05).     Conclusion: Zone I injury appears to have a better prognostic effect on visual acuity where injuries related to Zone III were associated with worse prognostic outcomes.

  13. 3‐day treatment with azithromycin 1.5% eye drops versus 7‐day treatment with tobramycin 0.3% for purulent bacterial conjunctivitis: multicentre, randomised and controlled trial in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Cochereau, Isabelle; Meddeb‐Ouertani, Amel; Khairallah, Moncef; Amraoui, Abdelouahed; Zaghloul, Khalid; Pop, Mihai; Delval, Laurent; Pouliquen, Pascale; Tandon, Radhika; Garg, Prashant; Goldschmidt, Pablo; Bourcier, Tristan

    2007-01-01

    Aim To compare the efficacy and safety of Azyter, azithromycin 1.5% eye drops, for 3 days with tobramycin 0.3% for 7 days to treat purulent bacterial conjunctivitis. Methods This was a multicentre, randomised, investigator‐masked study including 1043 children and adults with purulent bacterial conjunctivitis. Patients received either azithromycin 1.5% twice‐daily for 3 days or tobramycin 0.3%, 1 drop every two hours for 2 days, then four times daily for 5 days. Clinical signs were evaluated and cultures obtained at D0, D3 and D9 (where D refers to “day”). Primary variable was the clinical cure at the Test‐of‐Cure (TOC)‐visit (D9±1), for patients with D0‐positive cultures. The cure was defined as: bulbar conjunctival injection and discharge scores of 0. Results Among 471 patients with D0‐positivity in the per protocol set, 87.8% of the azithromycin 1.5% group and 89.4% of the tobramycin group were clinically cured at the TOC‐visit. Azithromycin was non‐inferior to tobramycin for clinical and bacteriological cure. Clinical cure was significantly higher with azithromycin 1.5% at D3. The safety profile of azithromycin was satisfactory with a good patient and investigator's acceptability. Conclusions Azithromycin 1.5% for 3 days was as effective and as safe as tobramycin for 7 days. Furthermore, more azithromycin than tobramycin patients presented an early clinical cure at Day 3. Due to its twice daily dosing regimen for 3 days, azithromycin represents a step forward in the management of purulent bacterial conjunctivitis, especially in children. PMID:17050578

  14. Ergonomic Factors Related to Drop-Off Detection With the Long Cane: Effects of Cane Tips and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Shik; Wall Emerson, Robert S.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane. Background Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user’s ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies have examined such effect. Method A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study. Participants were 17 adults who were legally blind and had no other disabilities. Participants attempted to detect the drop-offs of varied depths using different cane tips and cane techniques. Results Drop-off detection rates were similar between the marshmallow tip (77.0%) and the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) when both tips were used with the constant contact technique, p = .294. However, participants detected drop-offs at a significantly higher percentage when they used the constant contact technique with the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) than when they used the two-point touch technique with the marshmallow tip (63.2%), p < .001. Conclusion The constant contact technique used with a marshmallow roller tip (perceived as a less advantageous tip) was more effective than the two-point touch technique used with a marshmallow tip (perceived as a more advantageous tip) in detecting drop-offs. Application The findings of the study may help cane users and orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques and cane tips in accordance with the cane user’s characteristics and the nature of the travel environment. PMID:21077566

  15. Eukaryotic initiation factor eIF6 modulates the expression of Kermit 2/XGIPC in IGF- regulated eye development.

    PubMed

    De Marco, N; Tussellino, M; Carotenuto, R; Ronca, R; Rizzolio, S; Biffo, S; Campanella, C

    2017-07-01

    The eukaryotic initiation translation factor eIF6 is a highly conserved, essential protein implicated in translation. eIF6 is regulated in vivo by extracellular signals, such as IGF signaling (for a review see Miluzio et al., 2009). In Xenopus, eif6 over-expression causes a delay in eye development (De Marco et al., 2011). In this study we showed that eif6 co-immunoprecipitates with the insulin-like growth factor receptor (igfr) and may function downstream of igf in eye formation. The relationship between eif6 and gipc2, a protein partner of a variety of molecules including membrane proteins, was investigated. gipc2 is required for maintaining igf-induced akt activation on eye development (Wu et al., 2006). Significantly eif6 and gipc2 have opposite effects in eye development. While eif6 is required for eye formation below threshold levels, gipc2 knockdown impairs eye development (De Marco et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2006). In this study, it was shown that in eif6 over-expressors, the delay in eye morphogenesis is reversed by gipc2 injection, while the injection of eif6 down-regulates gipc2 expression. Real-time-PCR indicates that eif6 regulates gipc2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, gipc2 knockdown has no significant effect on eif6 mRNA levels. These results suggest that eif6 regulation of gipc2 enables correct morphogenesis of Xenopus eye and stimulate questions on the molecular network implicated in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of dry eye disease among a hospital-based population in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyang; Zheng, Ke; Deng, Zifeng; Zheng, Jingwei; Ma, Huixiang; Sun, Li; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) and distribution of associated risk factors among a hospital-based population. In this cross-sectional study, we collected detailed information of clinically defined moderate-to-severe patients with dry eye among a consecutive hospital-based population, including age trend, gender structure, frequency of symptoms, and distribution of associated environmental/occupational risk factors. Of 6,657 consecutive outpatients aged older than 20 years, symptomatic dry eye presented in 635 subjects (9.54%). Five hundred thirty-two of these 635 subjects (7.99%) were clinically diagnosed as defined DED that combined with positive signs. Women (10.41%) were significantly higher than men (5.21%) (P<0.001). Overexposure to visual display terminal was a major risk factor for DED among young men and women (56.2%). Our study also found occupational conditions with the risk of exposure to adverse environment made up over half of all 532 patients with dry eye. The use of contact lenses was closely associated with DED in young women, and history of ocular surgeries might be another factor associated with DED in old people. One hundred sixty-three of 371 female patients with dry eye (43.9%) were associated with hormonal changes. The incidence of meibomian gland dysfunction-related DED increased gradually with age. There were only 10 patients with dry eye (1.9%) associated with Sjögren syndrome, and all of them were women. Environmental and occupational factors were strongly associated with DED and constituted the major proportion in a hospital-based population. A classification of DED based on the distribution of risk factors was recommended for clinical use.

  17. Effect of formulation factors on in vitro permeation of moxifloxacin from aqueous drops through excised goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pravin Kondiba; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2006-02-10

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of formulation factors on in vitro permeation of moxifloxacin from aqueous drop through freshly excised goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas. Aqueous isotonic ophthalmic solutions of moxifloxacin hydrochloride of different concentrations (pH 7.2) or 0.5% (wt/vol) solutions of different pH or 0.5% solutions (pH 7.2) containing different preservatives were made. Permeation characteristics of drug were evaluated by putting 1 mL formulation on freshly excised cornea (0.50 cm(2)) fixed between donor and receptor compartments of an all-glass modified Franz diffusion cell and measuring the drug permeated in the receptor (containing 10 mL bicarbonate ringer at 37 degrees C under stirring) by spectrophotometry at 291 nm, after 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test. Increase in drug concentration in the formulation resulted in an increase in the quantity permeated but a decrease in percentage permeation. Increase in pH of the solution from 5.5 to 7.2 increased drug permeation, indicating pH-dependent transport. Compared with control formulation, moxifloxacin 0.5% (wt/vol) solution (pH 7.2) containing disodium edetate (EDTA) (0.01% wt/vol) produced significantly (P < .05) higher permeation with all the corneas. Formulation with benzyl alcohol significantly (P < .05) increased permeation with buffalo cornea compared with its control. Presence of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) (0.01% wt/vol) and EDTA (0.01% wt/vol) in the formulation increased permeation to the maximum with all the corneas. The results suggest that moxifloxacin 0.5% ophthalmic solution (pH 7.2) containing BAK (0.01%) and EDTA (0.01%) provides increased in vitro ocular availability through goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas.

  18. Effect of formulation factors on in vitro permeation of moxifloxacin from aqueous drops through excised goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pravin Kondiba; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of formulation factors on in vitro permeation of moxifloxacin from aqueous drop through freshly excised goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas. Aqueous isotonic ophthalmic solutions of moxifloxacin hydrochloride of different concentrations (pH 7.2) or 0.5% (wt/vol) solutions of different pH or 0.5% solutions (pH 7.2) containing different preservatives were made. Permeation characteristics of drug were evaluated by putting 1 mL formulation on freshly excised cornea (0.50 cm(2)) fixed between donor and receptor compartments of an all-glass modified Franz diffusion cell and measuring the drug permeated in the receptor (containing 10 mL bicarbonate ringer at 37°C under stirring) by spectrophotometry at 291 nm, after 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test. Increase in drug concentration in the formulation resulted in an increase in the quantity permeated but a decrease in percentage permeation. Increase in pH of the solution from 5.5 to 7.2 increased drug permeation, indicating pH-dependent transport. Compared with control formulation, moxifloxacin 0.5% (wt/vol) solution (pH 7.2) containing disodium edetate (EDTA) (0.01% wt/vol) produced significantly (P<.05) higher permeation with all the corneas. Formulation with benzyl alcohol significantly (P<.05) increased permeation with buffalo cornea compared with its control. Presence of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) (0.01% wt/vol) and EDTA (0.01% wt/vol) in the formulation increased permeation to the maximum with all the corneas. The results suggest that moxifloxacin 0.5% ophthalmic solution (pH 7.2) containing BAK (0.01%) and EDTA (0.01%) provides increased in vitro ocular availability through goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas.

  19. Induction of antibody response in the oral cavity of dogs following intraocular (eye drop) immunization with Porphyromonas gingivalis cell lysate incorporated in pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-modified liposomes

    PubMed Central

    SHIMIZU, Yosuke; IWASAKI, Tadashi; TAJIMA, Tomoko; YUBA, Eiji; KONO, Kenji; WATARAI, Shinobu

    2016-01-01

    Induction of mucosal immune responses against Porphyromonas gingivalis within the oral cavity of dogs was studied by immunizing with pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer (MGluPG)-modified liposome-associated cell lysate. Dogs immunized with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes by intraocular (eye drop) route displayed significant levels of P. gingivalis cell lysate-specific serum IgG and IgA as well as mucosal IgA antibodies in saliva secretion. Serum and salivary antibodies generated by intraocularly immunized with MGluPG-modified liposome-associated P. gingivalis cell lysate revealed a significant aggregation activity against P. gingivalis, whereas serum and saliva from dogs receiving MGluPG-modified liposomes unentrapping P. gingivalis cell lysate did not show the aggregation activity against P. gingivalis. Furthermore, P. gingivalis-specific antibodies in saliva of immunized dogs inhibited the adherence of P. gingivalis to cultured HeLa cells. More importantly, salivary antibodies induced by intraocular immunization with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes significantly inhibited the coaggregation of P. gingivalis with Actinomyces naeslundii and the cell damage activity of P. gingivalis against FaDu cells, an oral epithelial cell. These results suggest that intraocularly administered P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes should be an effective mucosal vaccine against P. gingivalis infection in dogs and may be an important tool for the prevention of periodontitis. PMID:27916762

  20. Induction of antibody response in the oral cavity of dogs following intraocular (eye drop) immunization with Porphyromonas gingivalis cell lysate incorporated in pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-modified liposomes.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yosuke; Iwasaki, Tadashi; Tajima, Tomoko; Yuba, Eiji; Kono, Kenji; Watarai, Shinobu

    2017-02-14

    Induction of mucosal immune responses against Porphyromonas gingivalis within the oral cavity of dogs was studied by immunizing with pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer (MGluPG)-modified liposome-associated cell lysate. Dogs immunized with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes by intraocular (eye drop) route displayed significant levels of P. gingivalis cell lysate-specific serum IgG and IgA as well as mucosal IgA antibodies in saliva secretion. Serum and salivary antibodies generated by intraocularly immunized with MGluPG-modified liposome-associated P. gingivalis cell lysate revealed a significant aggregation activity against P. gingivalis, whereas serum and saliva from dogs receiving MGluPG-modified liposomes unentrapping P. gingivalis cell lysate did not show the aggregation activity against P. gingivalis. Furthermore, P. gingivalis-specific antibodies in saliva of immunized dogs inhibited the adherence of P. gingivalis to cultured HeLa cells. More importantly, salivary antibodies induced by intraocular immunization with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes significantly inhibited the coaggregation of P. gingivalis with Actinomyces naeslundii and the cell damage activity of P. gingivalis against FaDu cells, an oral epithelial cell. These results suggest that intraocularly administered P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes should be an effective mucosal vaccine against P. gingivalis infection in dogs and may be an important tool for the prevention of periodontitis.

  1. Eye color as a risk factor for acquired sensorineural hearing loss: a review.

    PubMed

    Mujica-Mota, Mario A; Schermbrucker, Jonah; Daniel, Sam J

    2015-02-01

    Eye color may be an indicator of inner ear melanin content and has been associated with hearing loss. There is controversy as to whether eye color has an effect on acquired causes of sensorineural hearing loss. This review was conducted to analyze the literature evaluating the relationship between eye color and causes of sensorineural hearing loss. Six databases were searched to identify eligible studies. Included articles were independently assessed for quality by two authors. Eighteen articles were eligible for review. Eye color was not found to have an effect in the non-exposed population or in presbycusis. In noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss, light-eyed patients had more significant loss following noise exposure, although the variability reported due to eye color was modest (r(2) = 0.01-0.14). Two out of three studies reported that dark eye color is associated with cisplatin ototoxicity. In one study, green-eyed patients were found to be at higher risk of radiation-induced hearing loss. Eye color does not appear to play a role in hearing loss in non-exposed individuals or presbycusis. It is possible that dark-eyed individuals, with greater inner ear melanin content, are better protected against noise-induced hearing loss. Evidence suggests that melanin can be protective against radiation-induced sensorineural hearing loss, but may predispose individuals to cisplatin ototoxicity. Future studies are required to support these conclusions.

  2. The regulatory role of hepatoma-derived growth factor as an angiogenic factor in the eye.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Michelle E; Wang, Weiwen; Chen, Xiuping; Ji, Yanli; Shakya, Akhalesh; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Chenming; Gonzalez, Vivianne; Brewer, Megan; Ma, Jian-Xing; Wen, Rong; Zhang, Fangliang; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a mitogen that promotes endothelial proliferation and neuronal survival. Using a unique technology of ligandomics, we recently identified HDGF as a retinal endothelial binding protein. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of HDGF in regulating ocular vasculature and the expression of HDGF in the retina. HDGF expression in the retinal was analyzed with western blot and immunohistochemistry. Angiogenic activity was investigated in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMVECs) with in vitro endothelial proliferation, migration, and permeability assays. In vivo angiogenic activity was quantified with a corneal pocket assay. The Evans blue assay and western blot using anti-mouse albumin were performed to detect the capacity of HDGF to induce retinal vascular leakage. Immunohistochemistry revealed that HDGF is expressed in the retina with a distinct pattern. HDGF was detected in retinal ganglion cells and the inner nuclear layer but not in the inner plexiform layer, suggesting that HDGF is expressed in the nucleus, but not in the cytoplasm, of retinal neurons. In contrast to family mem